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1

Large Expression Differences in Genes for Iron and Zinc Homeostasis, Stress Response, and Lignin Biosynthesis Distinguish Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the Related Metal Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens1[W  

PubMed Central

The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a process called zinc homeostasis. The exceptional zinc hyperaccumulator species Thlaspi caerulescens can accumulate up to 3% of zinc, but also high amounts of nickel and cadmium, without any sign of toxicity. This should have drastic effects on the zinc homeostasis mechanism. We examined in detail the transcription profiles of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and T. caerulescens plants grown under deficient, sufficient, and excess supply of zinc. A total of 608 zinc-responsive genes with at least a 3-fold difference in expression level were detected in A. thaliana and 352 in T. caerulescens in response to changes in zinc supply. Only 14% of these genes were also zinc responsive in A. thaliana. When comparing A. thaliana with T. caerulescens at each zinc exposure, more than 2,200 genes were significantly differentially expressed (?5-fold and false discovery rate < 0.05). While a large fraction of these genes are of yet unknown function, many genes with a different expression between A. thaliana and T. caerulescens appear to function in metal homeostasis, in abiotic stress response, and in lignin biosynthesis. The high expression of lignin biosynthesis genes corresponds to the deposition of lignin in the endodermis, of which there are two layers in T. caerulescens roots and only one in A. thaliana.

van de Mortel, Judith E.; Almar Villanueva, Laia; Schat, Henk; Kwekkeboom, Jeroen; Coughlan, Sean; Moerland, Perry D.; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G.M.

2006-01-01

2

Cadmium tolerance and antioxidative defenses in hairy roots of the cadmium hyperaccumulator,Thlaspi caerulescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species capable of hyperaccumulating heavy metals are of considerable interest for phytoreme- diation and phytomining. This work aims to identify the role of antioxidative metabolism in heavy metal toler- ance in the Cd hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens. Hairy roots of T. caerulescens and the non-hyperaccumu- lator, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), were used to test the effects of high Cd environments. In

Rengasamy Boominathan; Pauline M. Doran

2003-01-01

3

Increased Glutathione Biosynthesis Plays a Role in Nickel Tolerance in Thlaspi Nickel HyperaccumulatorsW?  

PubMed Central

Worldwide more than 400 plant species are now known that hyperaccumulate various trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn), metalloids (As) and nonmetals (Se) in their shoots. Of these, almost one-quarter are Brassicaceae family members, including numerous Thlaspi species that hyperaccumulate Ni up to 3% of there shoot dry weight. We observed that concentrations of glutathione, Cys, and O-acetyl-l-serine (OAS), in shoot tissue, are strongly correlated with the ability to hyperaccumulate Ni in various Thlaspi hyperaccumulators collected from serpentine soils, including Thlaspi goesingense, T. oxyceras, and T. rosulare, and nonaccumulator relatives, including T. perfoliatum, T. arvense, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Further analysis of the Austrian Ni hyperaccumulator T. goesingense revealed that the high concentrations of OAS, Cys, and GSH observed in this hyperaccumulator coincide with constitutively high activity of both serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and glutathione reductase. SAT catalyzes the acetylation of l-Ser to produce OAS, which acts as both a key positive regulator of sulfur assimilation and forms the carbon skeleton for Cys biosynthesis. These changes in Cys and GSH metabolism also coincide with the ability of T. goesingense to both hyperaccumulate Ni and resist its damaging oxidative effects. Overproduction of T. goesingense SAT in the nonaccumulator Brassicaceae family member Arabidopsis was found to cause accumulation of OAS, Cys, and glutathione, mimicking the biochemical changes observed in the Ni hyperaccumulators. In these transgenic Arabidopsis, glutathione concentrations strongly correlate with increased resistance to both the growth inhibitory and oxidative stress induced effects of Ni. Taken together, such evidence supports our conclusion that elevated GSH concentrations, driven by constitutively elevated SAT activity, are involved in conferring tolerance to Ni-induced oxidative stress in Thlaspi Ni hyperaccumulators.

Freeman, John L.; Persans, Michael W.; Nieman, Ken; Albrecht, Carrie; Peer, Wendy; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Salt, David E.

2004-01-01

4

Decrease of labile Zn and Cd in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens with time.  

PubMed

By using a rhizobox micro-suction cup technique we studied in-situ mobilization and complexation of Zn and Cd in the rhizosphere of non-hyperaccumulating Thlaspi perfoliatum and two different Thlaspi caerulescens ecotypes, one of them hyperaccumulating Zn, the other Zn and Cd. The dynamic fraction (free metal ions and small labile complexes) of Zn and Cd decreased with time in the rhizosphere solution of the respective hyperaccumulating T. caerulescens ecotypes, and at the end of the experiment, it was significantly smaller than in the other treatments. Furthermore, the rhizosphere solutions of the T. caerulescens ecotypes exhibited a higher UV absorptivity than the solution of the T. perfoliatum rhizosphere and the plant-free soil. Based on our findings we suggest that mobile and labile metal-dissolved soil organic matter complexes play a key role in the rapid replenishment of available metal pools in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating T. caerulescens ecotypes, postulated earlier. PMID:19913965

Dessureault-Rompré, Jacynthe; Luster, Jörg; Schulin, Rainer; Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou; Nowack, Bernd

2010-05-01

5

Zinc ligands in the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens as determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the noninvasive technique of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), the authors have been able to determine the ligand environment of Zn in different tissues of the Zn-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. The majority of intracellular Zn in roots of T. caerulescens was found to be coordinated with histidine. In the xylem sap Zn was found to be transported mainly as the free

David E. Salt; Roger C. Prince; Alan J. M. Baker; Ilya Raskin; Ingrid J. Pickering

1999-01-01

6

Hyperaccumulation of cadmium by hairy roots of Thlaspi caerulescens  

SciTech Connect

Hairy roots were used to investigate cadmium uptake by Thlaspi caerulescens, a metal hyperaccumulator plant with potential applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Experiments were carried out in nutrient media under conditions supporting root growth. Accumulation of Cd in short-term (9-h) experiments varied with initial medium pH and increased after treating the roots with H{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor. The highest equilibrium Cd content measured in T. caerulescens roots was 62,800 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight, or 6.3% dry weight, at a liquid Cd concentration of 3,710 ppm. Cd levels in live T. caerulescens roots were 1.5- to 1.7-fold those in hairy roots of nonhyperaccumulator species exposed to the same Cd concentration, but similar to the Cd content of auto-claved T. caerulescens roots. The ability to grow at Cd concentrations of up to 100 ppm clearly distinguished T. caerulescens hairy roots from the nonhyperaccumulators. The specific growth rate of T. caerulescens roots was essentially unaffected by 20 to 50 ppm Cd in the culture medium; in contrast, N. tabacum roots turned dark brown at 20 ppm and growth was negligible. Up to 10,600 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight Cd was accumulated by growing T. caerulescens hairy roots. Measurement of Cd levels in while roots and in the cell wall fraction revealed significant differences in the responses of T. caerulescens and N. tabacum roots to 20 ppm Cd. Most metal was transported directly into the symplasm of N. tabacum roots within 3 days of exposure; in contrast, T. caerulescens roots stored virtually all of their Cd in the wall fraction for the first 7 to 10 days. This delay in transmembrane uptake may represent an important defensive strategy against Cd poisoning in T. caerulescens, allowing time for activation of intracellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification.

Nedelkoska, T.V.; Doran, P.M.

2000-03-05

7

Subcellular Localization and Speciation of Nickel in Hyperaccumulator and Non-Accumulator Thlaspi Species1  

PubMed Central

The ability of Thlaspi goesingense Hálácsy to hyperaccumulate Ni appears to be governed by its extraordinary degree of Ni tolerance. However, the physiological basis of this tolerance mechanism is unknown. We have investigated the role of vacuolar compartmentalization and chelation in this Ni tolerance. A direct comparison of Ni contents of vacuoles from leaves of T. goesingense and from the non-tolerant non-accumulator Thlaspi arvense L. showed that the hyperaccumulator accumulates approximately 2-fold more Ni in the vacuole than the non-accumulator under Ni exposure conditions that were non-toxic to both species. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to determine the likely identity of the compounds involved in chelating Ni within the leaf tissues of the hyperaccumulator and non-accumulator. This revealed that the majority of leaf Ni in the hyperaccumulator was associated with the cell wall, with the remaining Ni being associated with citrate and His, which we interpret as being localized primarily in the vacuolar and cytoplasm, respectively. This distribution of Ni was remarkably similar to that obtained by cell fractionation, supporting the hypothesis that in the hyperaccumulator, intracellular Ni is predominantly localized in the vacuole as a Ni-organic acid complex.

Kramer, Ute; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Prince, Roger C.; Raskin, Ilya; Salt, David E.

2000-01-01

8

Characteristics of cadmium uptake in two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake of Cd and Zn by intact seedlings of two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulatorThlaspi caerulescens was characterized using radioactive tracers. Uptake of Cd and Zn at 2 8C was assumed to represent mainly apoplastic binding in the roots, whereas the difference in uptake between 22 8C and 2 8C represented metabolically dependent influx. There was no significant difference between

Fang-Jie Zhao; Rebecca E. Hamon; Enzo Lombi; Mike J. McLaughlin; Steve P. McGrath

2002-01-01

9

Isolation of Zn-responsive genes from two accessions of the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several populations with different metal tolerance, uptake and root-to-shoot transport are known for the metal hyperaccumulator\\u000a plant Thlaspi caerulescens. In this study, genes differentially expressed under various Zn exposures were identified from the shoots of two T. caerulescens accessions (calaminous and non-calaminous) using fluorescent differential display RT-PCR. cDNA fragments from 16 Zn-responsive\\u000a genes, including those encoding metallothionein (MT) type 2

V. H. Hassinen; A. I. Tervahauta; P. Halimaa; M. Plessl; S. Peräniemi; H. Schat; M. G. M. Aarts; K. Servomaa; S. O. Kärenlampi

2007-01-01

10

Variations in plant metallothioneins: the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens as a study case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant metallothioneins (MTs) are extremely diverse and are thought to be involved in metal homeostasis or detoxification.\\u000a Thlaspi caerulescens is a model Zn\\/Cd hyperaccumulator and thus constitutes an ideal system to study the variability of these MTs. Two T. caerulescens cDNAs (accession: 665511; accession: 665515), that are highly homologous to type 1 and type 2 Arabidopsis thaliana MTs, have been

Nancy H. Roosens; Raphael Leplae; Catherine Bernard; Nathalie Verbruggen

2005-01-01

11

The molecular physiology of heavy metal transport in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.  

PubMed

An integrated molecular and physiological investigation of the fundamental mechanisms of heavy metal accumulation was conducted in Thlaspi caerulescens, a Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulating plant species. A heavy metal transporter cDNA, ZNT1, was cloned from T. caerulescens through functional complementation in yeast and was shown to mediate high-affinity Zn(2+) uptake as well as low-affinity Cd(2+) uptake. It was found that this transporter is expressed at very high levels in roots and shoots of the hyperaccumulator. A study of ZNT1 expression and high-affinity Zn(2+) uptake in roots of T. caerulescens and in a related nonaccumulator, Thlaspi arvense, showed that alteration in the regulation of ZNT1 gene expression by plant Zn status results in the overexpression of this transporter and in increased Zn influx in roots of the hyperaccumulating Thlaspi species. These findings yield insights into the molecular regulation and control of plant heavy metal and micronutrient accumulation and homeostasis, as well as provide information that will contribute to the advancement of phytoremediation by the future engineering of plants with improved heavy metal uptake and tolerance. PMID:10781104

Pence, N S; Larsen, P B; Ebbs, S D; Letham, D L; Lasat, M M; Garvin, D F; Eide, D; Kochian, L V

2000-04-25

12

Expression and functional analysis of metal transporter genes in two contrasting ecotypes of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation is a constitutive property of Thlaspi caerulescens, whereas cadmium (Cd) hyper- accumulation varies greatly among different ecotypes. The molecular basis of this variation is unknown. Ecotypic differences in the sequences and expression of four representative ZIP family transporter genes were investigated. Genome analysis indicated the presence of at least two closely related copies of the TcIRT1 gene

Sonia Plaza; Kathryn L. Tearall; Fang-Jie Zhao; Peter Buchner; Steve P. McGrath; Malcolm J. Hawkesford

2007-01-01

13

Zinc ligands in the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens as determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Using the noninvasive technique of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), the authors have been able to determine the ligand environment of Zn in different tissues of the Zn-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. The majority of intracellular Zn in roots of T. caerulescens was found to be coordinated with histidine. In the xylem sap Zn was found to be transported mainly as the free hydrated Zn{sup 2+} cation with a smaller proportion coordinated with organic acids. In the shoots, Zn coordination occurred mainly via organic acids, with a smaller proportion present as the hydrated cation and coordinated with histidine and the cell wall. Their data suggest that histidine plays an important role in Zn homeostasis in the roots, whereas organic acids are involved in xylem transport and Zn storage in shoots.

Salt, D.E. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Prince, R.C. [Exxon Research and Engineering, Annandale, NJ (United States)] [Exxon Research and Engineering, Annandale, NJ (United States); Baker, A.J.M. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Animal and Plant Sciences] [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Animal and Plant Sciences; Raskin, I. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)] [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Pickering, I.J. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States)] [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States)

1999-03-01

14

Functional characterization of NRAMP3 and NRAMP4 from the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.  

PubMed

The ability of metal hyperaccumulating plants to tolerate and accumulate heavy metals results from adaptations of metal homeostasis. NRAMP metal transporters were found to be highly expressed in some hyperaccumulating plant species. Here, we identified TcNRAMP3 and TcNRAMP4, the closest homologues to AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 in Thlaspi caerulescens and characterized them by expression analysis, confocal imaging and heterologous expression in yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana. TcNRAMP3 and TcNRAMP4 are expressed at higher levels than their A. thaliana homologues. When expressed in yeast TcNRAMP3 and TcNRAMP4 transport the same metals as their respective A. thaliana orthologues: iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd) but not zinc (Zn) for NRAMP3; Fe, Mn, Cd and Zn for NRAMP4. They also localize at the vacuolar membrane in A. thaliana protoplasts. Inactivation of AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 in A. thaliana results in strong Cd and Zn hypersensitivity, which is fully rescued by TcNRAMP3 or TcNRAMP4 expression. However, metal tolerance conferred by TcNRAMP expression in nramp3nramp4 mutant does not exceed that of wild-type A. thaliana. Our data indicate that the difference between TcNRAMP3 and TcNRAMP4 and their A. thaliana orthologues does not lie in a different protein function, but probably resides in a different expression level or expression pattern. PMID:19054339

Oomen, Ronald J F J; Wu, Jian; Lelièvre, Françoise; Blanchet, Sandrine; Richaud, Pierre; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène; Aarts, Mark G M; Thomine, Sébastien

2009-01-01

15

Bacterial Communities Associated with Flowering Plants of the Ni Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi goesingense  

PubMed Central

Thlaspi goesingense is able to hyperaccumulate extremely high concentrations of Ni when grown in ultramafic soils. Recently it has been shown that rhizosphere bacteria may increase the heavy metal concentrations in hyperaccumulator plants significantly, whereas the role of endophytes has not been investigated yet. In this study the rhizosphere and shoot-associated (endophytic) bacteria colonizing T. goesingense were characterized in detail by using both cultivation and cultivation-independent techniques. Bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis, and isolates were further characterized regarding characteristics that may be relevant for a beneficial plant-microbe interaction—Ni tolerance, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase and siderophore production. In the rhizosphere a high percentage of bacteria belonging to the Holophaga/Acidobacterium division and ?-Proteobacteria were found. In addition, high-G+C gram-positive bacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and microbes of the Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides division colonized the rhizosphere. The community structure of shoot-associated bacteria was highly different. The majority of clones affiliated with the Proteobacteria, but also bacteria belonging to the Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides division, the Holophaga/Acidobacterium division, and the low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, were frequently found. A high number of highly related Sphingomonas 16S rRNA gene sequences were detected, which were also obtained by the cultivation of endophytes. Rhizosphere isolates belonged mainly to the genera Methylobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Okibacterium, whereas the majority of endophytes showed high levels of similarity to Methylobacterium mesophilicum. Additionally, Sphingomonas spp. were abundant. Isolates were resistant to Ni concentrations between 5 and 12 mM; however, endophytes generally tolerated higher Ni levels than rhizosphere bacteria. Almost all bacteria were able to produce siderophores. Various strains, particularly endophytes, were able to grow on ACC as the sole nitrogen source.

Idris, Rughia; Trifonova, Radoslava; Puschenreiter, Markus; Wenzel, Walter W.; Sessitsch, Angela

2004-01-01

16

Large expression differences in genes for iron and zinc homeostasis, stress response, and lignin biosynthesis distinguish roots of Arabidoposis thaliana and the related metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a process called zinc homeostasis. The exceptional zinc hyperaccumulator species Thlaspi caerulescens can accumulate up to

Mortel van de J. E; Laia Almar Villanueva; Henk Schat; Jeroen Kwekkeboom; Sean Coughlan; P. D. Moerland; E. Verloren van Themaat; M. Koornneef; M. G. M. Aarts

2006-01-01

17

Investigation of heavy metal hyperaccumulation at the cellular level: development and characterization of Thlaspi caerulescens suspension cell lines.  

PubMed

The ability of Thlaspi caerulescens, a zinc (Zn)/cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, to accumulate extremely high foliar concentrations of toxic heavy metals requires coordination of uptake, transport, and sequestration to avoid damage to the photosynthetic machinery. The study of these metal hyperaccumulation processes at the cellular level in T. caerulescens has been hampered by the lack of a cellular system that mimics the whole plant, is easily transformable, and competent for longer term studies. Therefore, to better understand the contribution of the cellular physiology and molecular biology to Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in the intact plant, T. caerulescens suspension cell lines were developed. Differences in cellular metal tolerance and accumulation between the cell lines of T. caerulescens and the related nonhyperaccumulator, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), were examined. A number of Zn/Cd transport-related differences between T. caerulescens and Arabidopsis cell lines were identified that also are seen in the whole plant. T. caerulescens suspension cell lines exhibited: (1) higher growth requirements for Zn; (2) much greater Zn and Cd tolerance; (3) enhanced expression of specific metal transport-related genes; and (4) significant differences in metal fluxes compared with Arabidopsis. One interesting feature exhibited by the T. caerulescens cell lines was that they accumulated less Zn and Cd than the Arabidopsis cell lines, most likely due to a greater metal efflux. This finding suggests that the T. caerulescens suspension cells represent cells of the Zn/Cd transport pathway between the root epidermis and leaf. We also show it is possible to stably transform T. caerulescens suspension cells, which will allow us to alter the expression of candidate hyperaccumulation genes and thus dissect the molecular and physiological processes underlying metal hyperaccumulation in T. caerulescens. PMID:18550685

Klein, Melinda A; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Milner, Matthew J; Kochian, Leon V

2008-08-01

18

Cloning of three ZIP\\/Nramp transporter genes from a Ni hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi japonicum and their Ni 2+-transport abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ni homeostasis is essential for plant cell activity, but the mechanisms of Ni-transport and delivery are unknown. To elucidate the role of ZIP and NRAMP metal-transporters for Ni2+-transport and homeostasis, we cloned their homologous genes from the Ni hyperaccumulator Thlaspi japonicum, and investigated their Ni-transporting abilities by expression in yeast. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two Zip transporter

Takafumi Mizuno; Koji Usui; Kenji Horie; Shiro Nosaka; Naoharu Mizuno; Hitoshi Obata

2005-01-01

19

Cadmium-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and long-term acclimation to cadmium stress in the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.  

PubMed

Acclimation of hyperaccumulators to heavy metal-induced stress is crucial for phytoremediation and was investigated using the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens and the nonaccumulators T. fendleri and T. ochroleucum. Spatially and spectrally resolved kinetics of in vivo absorbance and fluorescence were measured with a novel fluorescence kinetic microscope. At the beginning of growth on cadmium (Cd), all species suffered from toxicity, but T. caerulescens subsequently recovered completely. During stress, a few mesophyll cells in T. caerulescens became more inhibited and accumulated more Cd than the majority; this heterogeneity disappeared during acclimation. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters related to photochemistry were more strongly affected by Cd stress than nonphotochemical parameters, and only photochemistry showed acclimation. Cd acclimation in T. caerulescens shows that part of its Cd tolerance is inducible and involves transient physiological heterogeneity as an emergency defence mechanism. Differential effects of Cd stress on photochemical vs nonphotochemical parameters indicate that Cd inhibits the photosynthetic light reactions more than the Calvin-Benson cycle. Differential spectral distribution of Cd effects on photochemical vs nonphotochemical quenching shows that Cd inhibits at least two different targets in/around photosystem II (PSII). Spectrally homogeneous maximal PSII efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) suggests that in healthy T. caerulescens all chlorophylls fluorescing at room temperature are PSII-associated. PMID:17688582

Küpper, Hendrik; Parameswaran, Aravind; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Trtílek, Martin; Setlík, Ivan

2007-01-01

20

Influence of Iron Status on Cadmium and Zinc Uptake by Different Ecotypes of the Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens1  

PubMed Central

We have previously identified an ecotype of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges), which is far superior to other ecotypes (including Prayon) in Cd uptake. In this study, we investigated the effect of Fe status on the uptake of Cd and Zn in the Ganges and Prayon ecotypes, and the kinetics of Cd and Zn influx using radioisotopes. Furthermore, the T. caerulescens ZIP (Zn-regulated transporter/Fe-regulated transporter-like protein) genes TcZNT1-G and TcIRT1-G were cloned from the Ganges ecotype and their expression under Fe-sufficient and -deficient conditions was analyzed. Both short- and long-term studies revealed that Cd uptake was significantly enhanced by Fe deficiency only in the Ganges ecotype. The concentration-dependent kinetics of Cd influx showed that the Vmax of Cd was 3 times greater in Fe-deficient Ganges plants compared with Fe-sufficient plants. In Prayon, Fe deficiency did not induce a significant increase in Vmax for Cd. Zn uptake was not influenced by the Fe status of the plants in either of the ecotypes. These results are in agreement with the gene expression study. The abundance of ZNT1-G mRNA was similar between the Fe treatments and between the two ecotypes. In contrast, abundance of the TcIRT1-G mRNA was greatly increased only in Ganges root tissue under Fe-deficient conditions. The present results indicate that the stimulatory effect of Fe deficiency on Cd uptake in Ganges may be related to an up-regulation in the expression of genes encoding for Fe2+ uptake, possibly TcIRT1-G.

Lombi, Enzo; Tearall, Kathryn L.; Howarth, Jonathan R.; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; McGrath, Steve P.

2002-01-01

21

Expression differences for genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism in response to cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread, naturally occurring element present in soil, rock, water, plants and animals. Cd is a non-essential element for plants and is toxic at higher concentrations. Transcript profiles of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Thlaspi caerulescens plants exposed to Cd and zinc (Zn) are examined, with the main aim to determine the differences in gene expression between the Cd-tolerant Zn-hyperaccumulator T. caerulescens and the Cd-sensitive non-accumulator Arabidopsis. This comparative transcriptional analysis emphasized the role of genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism. Furthermore the transcription factors MYB72 and bHLH100 were studied for their involvement in metal homeostasis, as they showed an altered expression after exposure to Cd. The Arabidopsis myb72 knockout mutant was more sensitive to excess Zn or iron (Fe) deficiency than wild type, while Arabidopsis transformants overexpressing bHLH100 showed increased tolerance to high Zn and nickel (Ni) compared to wild-type plants, confirming their role in metal homeostasis in Arabidopsis. PMID:18088336

van de Mortel, Judith E; Schat, Henk; Moerland, Perry D; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; van der Ent, Sjoerd; Blankestijn, Hetty; Ghandilyan, Artak; Tsiatsiani, Styliani; Aarts, Mark G M

2008-03-01

22

Hyperaccumulators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture's Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library has placed a new database online. More than two dozen references (including abstracts) form the recent bibliography on Hyperaccumulators -- plants "that have demonstrated the ability to absorb toxins, metals," water, and/or soil.

23

Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. II. Different Mechanisms for Copper versus Cadmium Detoxification in the Copper-Sensitive Cadmium/Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype)1[OA  

PubMed Central

The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 ?m Cu2+ remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the “sun reaction” type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here.

Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M.H.; Gotz, Birgit; Kupper, Hendrik

2009-01-01

24

Plant response to heavy metal toxicity: comparative study between the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) and nonaccumulator plants: lettuce, radish, and alfalfa.  

PubMed

Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) is one of the best-known heavy metal (HM) hyperaccumulating plant species. It exhibits the ability to extract and accumulate various HM at extremely high concentrations. In this hydroponic study, the performance of T. caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) to accumulate Cd, Zn, and Cu was compared with that of three nonaccumulator plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Plants were exposed to the separately dissolved HM salts for 7 days at a wide range of increasing concentrations: 0 (control: 1/5 Hoagland nutrient solution), 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM. The comparative study combined chemical, physiological, and ecotoxicological assessments. Excessive concentrations of HM (100 and 1000 microM) affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytoaccumulation efficiency. Root exudation for all plant species was highly and significantly correlated to HM concentration in exposure solutions and proved its importance to counter effect toxicity. T. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of Cd and Zn (at 1000 microM each), and translocated them significantly within tissues (366 and 1290 microg g(-1), respectively). At the same HM level, T. caerulescens exhibited lower performances in accumulating Cu when compared with the rest of plant species, mainly alfalfa (298 microg g(-1)). Root elongation inhibition test confirmed the selective aptitude of T. caerulescens to better cope with Cd and Zn toxicities. MetPLATE bioassay showed greater sensitivity to HM toxicity with much lower EC(50) values for beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli. Nevertheless, exaggerated HM concentrations coupled with relatively short exposure time did not allow for an efficient metal phytoextraction thus a significant reduction of ecotoxicity. PMID:18528911

Benzarti, Saoussen; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

2008-10-01

25

Cd induced redistribution of elements within leaves of the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox as revealed by micro-PIXE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed localisation of elements within leaf tissues of hydroponically grown Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox (Brassicaceae) was determined by micro-PIXE at Jožef Stefan Institute (Ljubljana, Slovenia) in order to study accumulation patterns of Cd and other elements in the case of a single metal (Cd) pollution. Plants were treated with increasing concentrations of Cd in the solution (0 (control), 1, 10 and 100 ?M). As expected, concentration of Cd in the leaves gradually increased with Cd concentration in the solution. In order to reveal the main Cd storage compartment space within the leaves a relative element distribution (pool) was calculated based on concentrations of elements in specific leaf tissues and their weight portions. Where present at detectable levels, Cd accumulated in the epidermal tissues (at 10 ?M), but the contribution of epidermal pool decreased with increasing Cd concentration in solution (at 100 ?M). The opposite was observed for the mesophyll pool. In addition, in Cd treated plants, a significant decrease in mesophyll Fe pool and an increase in the epidermal Fe pool were observed. Similar effect was seen for Mn pool at 100 ?M Cd treatment accompanied by increasing Zn epidermal pool with increasing Cd in nutrient solution. Altogether these results indicate repartitioning of essential mesophyll cation pools (e.g., Fe, Mn and possibly Zn) when increasing Cd contents, that are instead more intensively stored in the epidermal cells. These results confirmed micro-PIXE as effective and powerful technique providing essential information on metal localisation, repartitioning and major elemental stores in plants on the tissue levels that were not accessible using classical analytical techniques and thus complementing our current understanding of plant metal tolerance mechanisms as a whole.

Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Vavpeti?, Primož; Tratnik, Janja; Regvar, Marjana; Sim?i?, Jurij; Grlj, Nataša; Pelicon, Primož

2010-06-01

26

Expression differences for genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism in response to cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related Zn\\/Cd-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread, naturally occurring element present in soil, rock, water, plants and animals. Cd is a non-essential element for plants and is toxic at higher concentrations. Transcript profiles of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Thlaspi caerulescens plants exposed to Cd and zinc (Zn) are examined, with the main aim to determine the differences in gene expression

Mortel van de J. E; HENK SCHAT; PERRY D. MOERLAND; EMIEL VER LOREN VAN THEMAAT; SJOERD VAN DER ENT; M. H. C. Blankestijn-de Vries; A. Ghandylian; STYLIANI TSIATSIANI; MARK G. M. AARTS

2008-01-01

27

Distribution of cadmium in leaves of Thlaspi caerulescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the intracellular distribution of Cd in leaves is necessary in order to understand the mech- anisms of hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens. Ganges and Prayon, two ecotypes accumulating Cd to different levels, were grown in nutrient medium containing varying concentrations (0, 5, 10, 50, and 100 lM) of Cd. Several different approaches were com- bined in this study to

Claudia Cosio; Laura DeSantis; Beat Frey; Saliou Diallo; Catherine Keller

2005-01-01

28

Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.  

PubMed

Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. PMID:24467891

Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

2014-03-01

29

The potential of Thlaspi caerulescens for phytoremediation of contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake of Cd, Zn, Pb and Mn by the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens was studied by pot trials in plant growth units and in populations of wild plants growing over Pb\\/Zn base-metal mine wastes at Les Malines in the south of France. The pot trials utilised metal-contaminated soils from Auby in the Lille area. Zinc and Cd concentrations in wild plants

Brett H. Robinson; Marc Leblanc; Daniel Petit; Robert R. Brooks; John H. Kirkman; Paul E. H. Gregg

1998-01-01

30

Rhizosphere characteristics of indigenously growing nickel hyperaccumulator and excluder plants on serpentine soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of rhizosphere processes in metal hyperaccumulation is largely unexplored and a matter of debate, related field data are virtually not available. We conducted a field survey of rhizosphere characteristics beneath the Ni hyperaccumulator Thlaspi goesingense Hálácsy and the metal-excluder species Silene vulgaris L. and Rumex acetosella L. growing natively on the same serpentine site. Relative to bulk soil

W. W Wenzel; M Bunkowski; M Puschenreiter; O Horak

2003-01-01

31

Organic acid complexation, heavy metal distribution and the effect of ATPase inhibition in hairy roots of hyperaccumulator plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal uptake and distribution were investigated in hairy roots of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens, and the Ni hyperaccumulator, Alyssum bertolonii. Hairy roots of both species contained high constitutive levels of citric, malic and malonic acids. After treatment with 20 ppm Cd or 25 ppm Ni, about 13% of the total Cd in T. caerulescens roots and 28% of

Rengasamy Boominathan; Pauline M Doran

2003-01-01

32

Response of Antioxidative Enzymes and Apoplastic Bypass Transport in Thlaspi Caerulescens and Raphanus Sativus to Cadmium Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 ?M) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher

Saoussen Benzarti; Helmi Hamdi; Shino Mohri; Yoshiro Ono

2010-01-01

33

Somatic hybridization between the zinc accumulator Thlaspi caerulescens and Brassica napus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic hybrids between the zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens and Brassica napus were produced by electrofusion of protoplasts isolated from each species. Optimization of electrofusion parameters yielded\\u000a interspecies heteroplasmic fusion rates of up to 13%. Hybrids were selected by screening the growing calli for Zn tolerance.\\u000a In addition, a second novel selection technique was developed based on the observation that a

E. P. Brewer; J. A. Saunders; J. Scott Angle; R. L. Chaney; M. S. McIntosh

1999-01-01

34

Molecular dissection of the cellular mechanisms involved in nickel hyperaccumulation in plants. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'Phytoremediation, the use of plants for environmental cleanup of pollutants, including toxic metals, holds the potential to allow the economic restoration of heavy metal and radionuclide contaminated sites. A number of terrestrial plants are known to naturally accumulate high levels of metals in their shoots (1--2% dry weight), and these plants have been termed metal-hyperaccumulators. Clearly, the genetic traits that determine metal-hyperaccumulation offers the potential for the development of practical phytoremediation processes. The long-term objective is to rationally design and generate plants ideally suited for phytoremediation using this unique genetic material. Initially, the strategy will focus on isolating and characterizing the key genetic information needed for expression of the metal-hyperaccumulation phenotype. Recently, histidine has been shown to play a major role in Ni hyperaccumulation. Based on this information the authors propose to investigate, at the molecular level, the role of histidine biosynthesis in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, a Ni hyperaccumulator species.'

Salt, D.

1998-06-01

35

Colonization of pennycresses (Thlaspi spp.) of the Brassicaceae by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

Members of the Brassicaceae are generally believed to be non-mycorrhizal. Pennycress (Thlaspi) species of this family from diverse locations in Slovenia, Austria, Italy and Germany were examined for their colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Meadow species (T. praecox, T. caerulescens and T. montanum) were sparsely but distinctly colonised, as indicated by the occurrence of intraradical hyphae, vesicles, coils, and occasionally arbuscules. Species from other locations were poorly colonised, but arbuscules were not discernible. The genus Thlaspi comprises several heavy metal hyperaccumulating species (T. caerulescens, T. goesingense, T. calaminare, T. cepaeifolium). All samples collected from heavy metal soils were at best poorly colonized. Thus the chance is small to find a "hypersystem" in phytoremediation consisting of an AM fungus which prevents the uptake of the major part of the heavy metals and of a Thlaspi species which effectively deposits the residual heavy metals inevitably taken up into its vacuoles. In two different PCR approaches, fungal DNA was amplified from most of the Thlaspi roots examined, even from those with a very low incidence of AMF colonization. Sequencing of the 28S- and 18S-rDNA PCR-products revealed that different Thlaspi field samples were colonized by Glomus intraradices and thus by a common AM fungus. However, none of the sequences obtained was identical to any other found in the present study or deposited in the databanks, which might indicate that a species continuum exists in the G. intraradices clade. An effective colonization of Thlaspi by AMF could not be established in greenhouse experiments. Although the data show that Thlaspi can be colonized by AMF, it is doubtful whether an effective symbiosis with the mutual exchange of metabolites is formed by both partners. PMID:12872483

Regvar, Marjana; Vogel, Katarina; Irgel, Nina; Wraber, Tone; Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Wilde, Petra; Bothe, Hermann

2003-06-01

36

Molecular dissection of the role of histidine in nickel hyperaccumulation in Thalspi goesingense (Halacsy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the role of free histidine (His) in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, the authors investigated the regulation of His biosynthesis at both the molecular and biochemical levels. Three T. goesingense cDNAs encoding the following His biosynthetic enzymes, ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, imidazoleglycerol phosphate dehydratase, and histidinol dehydrogenase, were isolated by functional complementation of Escherichia coli His autotrophs. Northern analysis of

Michael W. Persans; Xiange Yan; Jean-Marc M. L. Patnoe; U. Kraemer; David E. Salt

1999-01-01

37

The metal tolerance profile of Thlaspi goesingense is mimicked in Arabidopsis thaliana heterologously expressing serine acetyl-transferase  

PubMed Central

Background The Ni hyperaccumulator Thlaspi goesingense is tolerant to Ni ? Zn, ? Co and slightly resistant to > Cd. We previously observed that elevated glutathione, driven by constitutive activation of serine acetyltransferase (SAT), plays a role in the Ni tolerance of T. goesingense. Results Here we show that the elevated shoot concentration of glutathione, previously shown to cause elevated Ni tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana heterologously expressing T. goesingense mitochondrial serine acetyltransferase (SATm), also causes tolerance to Co and Zn while slightly enhancing resistance to Cd. The level of tolerance afforded to each metal is ranked Ni ? Co, > Zn > Cd. The Ni ? Co, > Zn tolerances are positively correlated with both the accumulation of glutathione (GSH) and the ability to resist the oxidative damage induced by these different metals. Based on the relative concentrations of each metal used a relatively low level of resistance to Cd was observed in both T. goesingense and TgSATm expressing lines and Cd resistance was least correlated to GSH accumulation. Conclusion Such data supports the conclusion that elevated glutathione levels, driven by constitutively enhanced SAT activity in the hyperaccumulator T. goesingense, plays an important role in the Ni, Co and Zn tolerance of this and other Thlaspi species. The hyper-activation of S assimilation through SAT is an excellent strategy for engineering enhanced metal tolerance in transgenic plants potentially used for phytoremediation.

Freeman, John L; Salt, David E

2007-01-01

38

Comparative transcriptome analysis of the metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens  

PubMed Central

The metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens is an established model to study the adaptation of plants to metalliferous soils. Various comparators have been used in these studies. The choice of suitable comparators is important and depends on the hypothesis to be tested and methods to be used. In high-throughput analyses such as microarray, N. caerulescens has been compared to non-tolerant, non-accumulator plants like Arabidopsis thaliana or Thlaspi arvense rather than to the related hypertolerant or hyperaccumulator plants. An underutilized source is N. caerulescens populations with considerable variation in their capacity to accumulate and tolerate metals. Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) is revealing interesting variation in their gene expression profiles. Combining physiological characteristics of N. caerulescens accessions with their RNA-Seq has a great potential to provide detailed insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms, including entirely new gene products. In this review we will critically consider comparative transcriptome analyses carried out to explore metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance of N. caerulescens, and demonstrate the potential of RNA-Seq analysis as a tool in evolutionary genomics.

Halimaa, Pauliina; Blande, Daniel; Aarts, Mark G. M.; Tuomainen, Marjo; Tervahauta, Arja; Karenlampi, Sirpa

2014-01-01

39

Proteomics of Thlaspi caerulescens accessions and an inter-accession cross segregating for zinc accumulation  

PubMed Central

Metal hyperaccumulator plants have previously been characterized by transcriptomics, but reports on other profiling techniques are scarce. Protein profiles of Thlaspi caerulescens accessions La Calamine (LC) and Lellingen (LE) and lines derived from an LC×LE cross were examined here to determine the co-segregation of protein expression with the level of zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation. Although hydrophobic proteins such as membrane transporters are not disclosed, this approach has the potential to reveal other proteins important for the Zn hyperaccumulation trait. Plants were exposed to metals. Proteins were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis and those showing differences among accessions, lines or metal exposures were subjected to mass-spectrometric analysis for identification. Crossing decreased the number of different proteins in the lines compared with the parents, more so in the shoots than in the roots, but the frequencies of Zn-responsive proteins were about the same in the accessions and the selection lines. This supports the finding that the Zn accumulation traits are mainly determined by the root and that Zn accumulation itself is not the reason for the co-segregation. This study demonstrates that crossing accessions with contrasting Zn accumulation traits is a potent tool to investigate the mechanisms behind metal hyperaccumulation. Four tentatively identified root proteins showed co-segregation with high or low Zn accumulation: manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, S-formyl glutathione hydrolase, and translation elongation factor 5A-2. However, these proteins may not be the direct determinants of Zn accumulation. The role of these and other tentatively identified proteins in Zn accumulation and tolerance is discussed.

Tuomainen, Marjo; Tervahauta, Arja; Hassinen, Viivi; Schat, Henk; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Lehesranta, Satu; Rantalainen, Kimmo; Hayrinen, Jukka; Auriola, Seppo; Anttonen, Mikko; Karenlampi, Sirpa

2010-01-01

40

Evolutionary aspects of elemental hyperaccumulation.  

PubMed

Hyperaccumulation is the uptake of one or more metal/metalloids to concentrations greater than 50-100× those of the surrounding vegetation or 100-10,000 mg/kg dry weight depending on the element. Hyperaccumulation has been documented in at least 515 taxa of angiosperms. By mapping the occurrence of hyperaccumulators onto the angiosperm phylogeny, we show hyperaccumulation has had multiple origins across the angiosperms. Even within a given order, family or genus, there are typically multiple origins of hyperaccumulation, either for the same or different elements. We address which selective pressures may have led to the evolution of hyperaccumulation and whether there is evidence for co-evolution with ecological partners. Considerable evidence supports the elemental-defense hypothesis, which states that hyperaccumulated elements protect the plants from herbivores and pathogens. There is also evidence that hyperaccumulation can result in drought stress protection, allelopathic effects or physiological benefits. In many instances, ecological partners of hyperaccumulators have evolved resistance to the hyperaccumulated element, indicating co-evolution. Studies on the molecular evolution of hyperaccumulation have pinpointed gene duplication as a common cause of increased metal transporter abundance. Hypertolerance to the hyperaccumulated element often relies upon chelating agents, such as organic acids (e.g., malate, citrate) or peptide/protein chelators that can facilitate transport and sequestration. We conclude the review with a summary and suggested future directions for hyperaccumulator research. PMID:24463931

Cappa, Jennifer J; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

2014-02-01

41

Molecular dissection of the role of histidine in nickel hyperaccumulation in Thalspi goesingense (Halacsy)  

SciTech Connect

To understand the role of free histidine (His) in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, the authors investigated the regulation of His biosynthesis at both the molecular and biochemical levels. Three T. goesingense cDNAs encoding the following His biosynthetic enzymes, ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, imidazoleglycerol phosphate dehydratase, and histidinol dehydrogenase, were isolated by functional complementation of Escherichia coli His autotrophs. Northern analysis of THJG1, THD1, and THB1 gene expression revealed that each gene is expressed in both roots and shoots, but at the concentrations and dosage times of Ni treatment used in this study, these genes failed to show any regulation by Ni. The authors were also unable to observe any increases in the concentration of free His in root, shoot, or xylem sap of T. goesingense in response to Ni exposure. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of root and shoot tissue from T. goesingense and the non-accumulator species Thlaspi reverse revealed no major differences in the coordination of Ni by His in these tissues. They therefore conclude that the Ni hyperaccumulation phenotype in T. goesingense is not determined by the overproduction of His in response to Ni.

Persans, M.W.; Yan, X.; Patnoe, J.M.M.L.; Kraemer, U.; Salt, D.E.

1999-12-01

42

Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14,590 mg kg(-1) Zn, 5960 mg kg(-1) Cd and 3500 mg kg(-1) Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. PMID:15519454

Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Drobne, Damjana; Regvar, Marjana

2005-01-01

43

Changes in elemental uptake and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation during the life cycle of Thlaspi praecox Wulfen.  

PubMed

Elemental uptake and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonisation were studied during the life cycle of field collected Cd/Zn hyperaccumulating Thlaspi praecox (Brassicaceae). Plant biomass and tissue concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe and Ni were found to vary during development, while no variation in P, K, Ca, Mn and Cu tissue concentrations were observed. The lowest Cd bioaccumulation in rosette leaves (BAF(RL)) observed during seeding was partially attributed to lower translocation from roots to rosette leaves and partially to high translocation to stalks, indicating a high Cd mobility to reproductive tissues, in line with our previous studies. The highest intensity of AM colonisation (M%) was observed in the flowering phase and was accompanied by increased root Cd, Zn, Pb and Fe contents. In addition, a positive correlation between AM colonisation and Fe contents in rosette leaves was found. The results indicate developmental dependence of AM formation, accompanied by selective changes in nutrient acquisition in T. praecox that are related to increased plant needs, and the protective role of AM colonisation on metal polluted sites during the reproductive period. PMID:17614121

Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan; Tolrà, Roser; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Barceló, Juan; Regvar, Marjana

2007-11-01

44

Nickel, Zn and Cd localisation in seeds of metal hyperaccumulators using ?-PIXE spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal hyperaccumulators are a rare group of plant species that accumulate exceptionally high concentrations of metals in above ground tissues without showing symptoms of phytotoxicity. Quantitative localisation of the accumulated metals in seed tissues is of considerable interest to help understand the eco-physiology of these unique plant species. We investigated the spatial localisation of metals within seeds of Ni hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. adpressus, H. floribundus subsp. floribundus and Pimelea leptospermoides and dual-metal (Cd and Zn) hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens using quantitative micro-proton induced X-ray emission (?-PIXE) spectroscopy. Intact seeds were hand-sectioned, sandwiched between Formvar films and irradiated using the 3 MeV high energy heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO. Elemental maps of whole H. floribundus subsp. adpressus seeds showed an average Ni concentration of 5.1 × 10 3 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) with highest Ni concentration in cotyledonary tissues (7.6 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW), followed by the embryonic axis (4.4 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). Nickel concentration in whole H. floribundus subsp. floribundus seeds was 3.5 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW without a clear pattern of Ni localisation. The average Ni concentration in whole P. leptospermoides seeds was 2.6 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW, and Ni was preferentially localised in the embryonic axis (4.3 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW). In T. caerulescens, Cd concentrations were similar in cotyledon (4.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) and embryonic axis (3.3 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) tissues, whereas Zn was highest in cotyledonary tissues (1.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). In all species, the presence of the accumulated metal within the cotyledonary and embryonic axis tissues indicates that the accumulated metal was able to move apoplastically within the seed.

Kachenko, Anthony G.; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer; Walsh, Kerry B.; Singh, Balwant

2009-06-01

45

Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.  

PubMed

A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions. PMID:21166344

Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

2010-01-01

46

Thermoinductive regulation of gibberellin metabolism in Thlaspi arvense L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is a winter annual crucifer with a cold requirement for stem elongation and flowering. In the present study, the metabolism of exogenous (²H)-ent-kaurenoic acid (KA) and (¹⁴C)-gibberellin Aââ-aldehyde (GAââ-aldehyde) was compared in thermo- and noninduced plants. Thermoinduction greatly altered both quantitative and qualitative aspects of (²H)-KA metabolism in the shoot tips. The rate of disappearance

J. P. Hazebroek; J. D. Metzger

1990-01-01

47

BIOFUMIGANT COMPOUNDS RELEASED BY FIELD PENNYCRESS ( Thlaspi arvense ) SEEDMEAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defatted field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seedmeal was found to completely inhibit seedling germination\\/emergence when added to a sandy loam soil containing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and arugula [Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell.] seeds at levels of 1.0% w\\/w or higher. Covering the pots with Petri dishes containing the soil-seedmeal mixture decreased germination of both species at

STEVEN F. VAUGHN; TERRY A. ISBELL; DAVID WEISLEDER; MARK A. BERHOW

2005-01-01

48

Compartmentation and complexation of metals in hyperaccumulator plants.  

PubMed

Hyperaccumulators are being intensely investigated. They are not only interesting in scientific context due to their "strange" behavior in terms of dealing with high concentrations of metals, but also because of their use in phytoremediation and phytomining, for which understanding the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation is crucial. Hyperaccumulators naturally use metal accumulation as a defense against herbivores and pathogens, and therefore deal with accumulated metals in very specific ways of complexation and compartmentation, different from non-hyperaccumulator plants and also non-hyperaccumulated metals. For example, in contrast to non-hyperaccumulators, in hyperaccumulators even the classical phytochelatin-inducing metal, cadmium, is predominantly not bound by such sulfur ligands, but only by weak oxygen ligands. This applies to all hyperaccumulated metals investigated so far, as well as hyperaccumulation of the metalloid arsenic. Stronger ligands, as they have been shown to complex metals in non-hyperaccumulators, are in hyperaccumulators used for transient binding during transport to the storage sites (e.g., nicotianamine) and possibly for export of Cu in Cd/Zn hyperaccumulators [metallothioneins (MTs)]. This confirmed that enhanced active metal transport, and not metal complexation, is the key mechanism of hyperaccumulation. Hyperaccumulators tolerate the high amount of accumulated heavy metals by sequestering them into vacuoles, usually in large storage cells of the epidermis. This is mediated by strongly elevated expression of specific transport proteins in various tissues from metal uptake in the shoots up to the storage sites in the leaf epidermis. However, this mechanism seems to be very metal specific. Non-hyperaccumulated metals in hyperaccumulators seem to be dealt with like in non-hyperaccumulator plants, i.e., detoxified by binding to strong ligands such as MTs. PMID:24065978

Leitenmaier, Barbara; Küpper, Hendrik

2013-01-01

49

Compartmentation and complexation of metals in hyperaccumulator plants  

PubMed Central

Hyperaccumulators are being intensely investigated. They are not only interesting in scientific context due to their “strange” behavior in terms of dealing with high concentrations of metals, but also because of their use in phytoremediation and phytomining, for which understanding the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation is crucial. Hyperaccumulators naturally use metal accumulation as a defense against herbivores and pathogens, and therefore deal with accumulated metals in very specific ways of complexation and compartmentation, different from non-hyperaccumulator plants and also non-hyperaccumulated metals. For example, in contrast to non-hyperaccumulators, in hyperaccumulators even the classical phytochelatin-inducing metal, cadmium, is predominantly not bound by such sulfur ligands, but only by weak oxygen ligands. This applies to all hyperaccumulated metals investigated so far, as well as hyperaccumulation of the metalloid arsenic. Stronger ligands, as they have been shown to complex metals in non-hyperaccumulators, are in hyperaccumulators used for transient binding during transport to the storage sites (e.g., nicotianamine) and possibly for export of Cu in Cd/Zn hyperaccumulators [metallothioneins (MTs)]. This confirmed that enhanced active metal transport, and not metal complexation, is the key mechanism of hyperaccumulation. Hyperaccumulators tolerate the high amount of accumulated heavy metals by sequestering them into vacuoles, usually in large storage cells of the epidermis. This is mediated by strongly elevated expression of specific transport proteins in various tissues from metal uptake in the shoots up to the storage sites in the leaf epidermis. However, this mechanism seems to be very metal specific. Non-hyperaccumulated metals in hyperaccumulators seem to be dealt with like in non-hyperaccumulator plants, i.e., detoxified by binding to strong ligands such as MTs.

Leitenmaier, Barbara; Kupper, Hendrik

2013-01-01

50

Characterization of the glyoxalase 1 gene TcGLX1 in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress tolerance is currently one of the major research topics in plant biology because of the challenges posed by changing\\u000a climate and increasing demand to grow crop plants in marginal soils. Increased Zn tolerance and accumulation has been reported\\u000a in tobacco expressing the glyoxalase 1-encoding gene from Brassica juncea. Previous studies in our laboratory showed some Zn tolerance-correlated differences in

Marjo Tuomainen; Viivi Ahonen; Sirpa O. Kärenlampi; Henk Schat; Tanja Paasela; Algirdas Švanys; Saara Tuohimetsä; Sirpa Peräniemi; Arja Tervahauta

2011-01-01

51

Selenium hyperaccumulation reduces plant arthropod loads in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • The elemental defense hypothesis proposes that some plants hyperaccumulate toxic elements as a defense mechanism. In this study the effectiveness of selenium (Se) as an arthropod deterrent was investigated under field conditions.  Arthropod loads were measured over two growing seasons in Se hyperaccumulator habitats in Colorado, USA, comparing Se hyperaccumulator species (Astragalus bisulca- tus and Stanleya pinnata)

Miriam L. Galeas; Erin M. Klamper; Lindsay E. Bennett; John L. Freeman; Boris C. Kondratieff; Colin F. Quinn; Elizabeth A. H. Pilon-Smits

2008-01-01

52

A test of elemental defence against slugs by Ni in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator Streptanthus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Tissues of most plant species contain ?1 but Ni hyperaccumulators contain more than 1000 ?g Ni g?1 . Hyperaccumulated Ni can defend plants from some herbivores but the defensive role of lesser Ni concentrations is little explored. We raised five species of Streptanthus (Brassicaceae) native to ultramafic soils, one of which (S. polygaloides) is a Ni hyperaccumulator whereas the others are

Robert S. Boyd; Edward M. Jhee

2005-01-01

53

Thermoinductive regulation of gibberellin metabolism in Thlaspi arvense L  

SciTech Connect

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is a winter annual crucifer with a cold requirement for stem elongation and flowering. In the present study, the metabolism of exogenous ({sup 2}H)-ent-kaurenoic acid (KA) and ({sup 14}C)-gibberellin A{sub 12}-aldehyde (GA{sub 12}-aldehyde) was compared in thermo- and noninduced plants. Thermoinduction greatly altered both quantitative and qualitative aspects of ({sup 2}H)-KA metabolism in the shoot tips. The rate of disappearance of the parent compound was much greater in thermoinduced shoot tips. These results are consistent with the suggestion that the conversion of KA in to GAs is under thermoinductive control only in the shoot tip, the site of perception for thermoinductive temperatures in field pennycress. There were essentially no differences in the qualitative or quantitative distribution of metabolites formed following the application of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde to the shoot tips of thermo- or noninduced plants. Thus, the apparent thermoinductive regulation of the KA metabolism into GAs is probably limited to the two metabolic steps involved in converting KA to GA{sub 12}-aldehyde.

Hazebroek, J.P.; Metzger, J.D. (Department of Agriculture, Fargo, ND (USA))

1990-09-01

54

Conserving Britain's biodiversity. I:Thlaspi perfoliatum L. (Brassicaceae), Cotswold Pennycress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the decline and conservation work carried out on the rare, statutorily protected species Thlaspi perfoliatum L. (Brassicaceae), Cotswold Pennycress, in England. This plant has been recorded historically in a total of about 45 native and 37 introduced sites. Surveys between 1986 and 1997 found populations in nine native sites and three introduced sites, suggesting an 80% loss

T. C. G. Rich; C. R. Lambrick; C. Kitchen; M. A. R. Kitchen

1998-01-01

55

Composition and physical properties of cress ( Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress ( Thlaspi arvense L .) oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid profiles and tocopherol and phytosterol contents of crude oils of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) are reported, along with yields from the corresponding seeds. The physical properties of these oils were also determined, which included oxidative stability, kinematic viscosity, viscosity index, low temperature fluidity, specific gravity, acid value, lubricity, and iodine value.

Bryan R. Moser; Shailesh N. Shah; Jill K. Winkler-Moser; Steven F. Vaughn; Roque L. Evangelista

2009-01-01

56

Biofumigant compounds released by field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) seedmeal.  

PubMed

Defatted field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seedmeal was found to completely inhibit seedling germination/emergence when added to a sandy loam soil containing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and arugula [Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell.] seeds at levels of 1.0% w/w or higher. Covering the pots with Petri dishes containing the soil-seedmeal mixture decreased germination of both species at the lowest application rate (0.5% w/w), suggesting that the some of the phytotoxins were volatile. CH2Cl2, MeOH, and water extracts of the wetted seedmeal were bioassayed against wheat and sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia (L.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby) radicle elongation. Only the CH2Cl2 extract was strongly inhibitory to both species. Fractionation of the CH2Cl2 extract yielded two major phytotoxins, identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR as 2-propen-1-yl (allyl) isothiocyanate (AITC) and allyl thiocyanate (ATC), which constituted 80.9 and 18.8%, respectively, of the active fraction. When seeds of wheat, arugula and sicklepod were exposed to volatilized AITC and ATC, germination of all three species was completely inhibited by both compounds at concentrations of 5 ppm or less. In field studies, where seedmeal was applied at 0.50, 1.25, and 2.50 kg/m2 and tarped with black plastic mulch, all of the treatments significantly reduced dry weight of bioassay plants compared to the tarped control, with the highest seedmeal rate decreasing dry matter to less than 10% of the control 30 d after seedmeal application. Field pennycress seedmeal appears to offer excellent potential as a biofumigant for high-value horticultural crops for both conventional and organic growers. PMID:15839488

Vaughn, Steven F; Isbell, Terry A; Weisleder, David; Berhow, Mark A

2005-01-01

57

[Effect of the soil bulk density on the root morphology and cadmium uptake by Thlaspi caerulescens grown on Cd-contaminated soil].  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted using a soil contaminated with 2.12 mg x kg(-1) Cd to study the effect of the variety of the soil bulk density on the Zn/Cd uptake by the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens and the removal of Cd and Zn from the soil. The contaminated soil received 0, 0.1%, 2% of soil conditioner and the plants were harvested after 100 days. The results showed that soil amendment with the soil conditioner (EB. a) significantly decreased the soil bulk density. Compared to the control, the bulk density value decreased from 1.27 g x cm(-3) to 1.09 g x cm(-3) at the level of 2% soil conditioner. The increased biomass of shoot and root was observed at the treatment of EB. a amendment. The total root length, root hair length and root/shoot ratio were all significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) by the addition of EB. a. The significant positive relationships between the total root length and the removed Cd/Zn from soil were determined (p < 0.05). Compared with the control,the total root length was increased by 2.6 folds at the addition of 2% soil conditioner; the Cd concentration and removal of Cd from soil were significantly elevated by 20% and 30% respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of Cd was improved from 15% to 19%. However, the Zn concentration and removal of Zn were not significantly elevated by the addition of soil conditioner. The present results demonstrate that the decreased soil bulk density may improve the root system of T. caerulescens and enhance the phytoextraction efficiency of Cd. PMID:21360897

Yang, Yong; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Li, Hua-Fen; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Rui-Lun

2010-12-01

58

Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress ( Thlaspi arvense L.) Oil †  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arVense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 °C and an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1. Acid-catalyzed pretreatment to reduce the acid value of crude field pennycress

Bryan R. Moser; Gerhard Knothe; Steven F. Vaughn; Terry A. Isbell

2009-01-01

59

The Thlaspi caerulescens NRAMP Homologue TcNRAMP3 is Capable of Divalent Cation Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NRAMP gene family encodes integral membrane protein and mediates the transport of Fe, however, its function in transport\\u000a of toxic metal ions is not very clear in plants. TcNRAMP3 was isolated from Thlaspi caerulescens, and encoded a metal transporter member of the NRAMP family. TcNRAMP3 was predominantly expressed in roots of T. caerulescens by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of

Wei Wei; Tuanyao Chai; Yuxiu Zhang; Lu Han; Jin Xu; Ziqiu Guan

2009-01-01

60

Selenium hyperaccumulation reduces plant arthropod loads in the field.  

PubMed

The elemental defense hypothesis proposes that some plants hyperaccumulate toxic elements as a defense mechanism. In this study the effectiveness of selenium (Se) as an arthropod deterrent was investigated under field conditions. Arthropod loads were measured over two growing seasons in Se hyperaccumulator habitats in Colorado, USA, comparing Se hyperaccumulator species (Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata) with nonhyperaccumulators (Camelina microcarpa, Astragalus americanus, Descurainia pinnata, Medicago sativa, and Helianthus pumilus). The Se hyperaccumulating plant species, which contained 1000-14 000 microg Se g(-1) DW, harbored significantly fewer arthropods (c. twofold) and fewer arthropod species (c. 1.5-fold) compared with nonhyperaccumulator species that contained < 30 microg Se g(-1) DW. Arthropods collected on Se-hyperaccumulating plants contained three- to 10-fold higher Se concentrations than those found on nonhyperaccumulating species, but > 10-fold lower Se concentrations than their hyperaccumulator hosts. Several arthropod species contained > 100 microg Se g(-1) DW, indicating Se tolerance and perhaps feeding specialization. These results support the elemental defense hypothesis and suggest that invertebrate herbivory may have contributed to the evolution of Se hyperaccumulation. PMID:18028291

Galeas, Miriam L; Klamper, Erin M; Bennett, Lindsay E; Freeman, John L; Kondratieff, Boris C; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

2008-01-01

61

Hyperaccumulators, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and stress of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Use of plants, with hyperaccumulating ability or in association with soil microbes including the symbiotic fungi, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), are among the most common biological methods of treating heavy metals in soil. Both hyperaccumulating plants and AM fungi have some unique abilities, which make them suitable to treat heavy metals. Hyperaccumulator plants have some genes, being expressed at the time of heavy metal pollution, and can accordingly localize high concentration of heavy metals to their tissues, without showing the toxicity symptoms. A key solution to the issue of heavy metal pollution may be the proper integration of hyperaccumulator plants and AM fungi. The interactions between the soil microbes and the host plant can also be important for the treatment of soils polluted with heavy metals. PMID:21557996

Miransari, Mohammad

2011-01-01

62

Rhizosphere characteristics of two arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris ferns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Better understanding of the processes controlling arsenic bioavailability in the rhizosphere is important to enhance plant arsenic accumulation by hyperaccumulators. This greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical characteristics of the rhizosphere of two arsenic hyperaccumulators Pterisvittata and Pterisbiaurita. They were grown for 8 weeks in rhizopots containing arsenic-contaminated soils (153 and 266 mg kg?1 arsenic). Bulk and rhizosphere soil samples

Maria Isidória Silva Gonzaga; Lena Qying Ma; Jorge Antônio Gonzaga Santos; Maria Iraildes Silva Matias

2009-01-01

63

The role of phytochelatins in constitutive and adaptive heavy metal toleances in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator metallophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the g-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulphoximine (BSO), the role for phytochelatins (PCs) was evaluated in Cu, Cd, Zn, As, Ni, and Co tolerance in non-metallicolous and metallicolous, hypertolerant populations of Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke, Thlaspi caerulescens J.&C. Presl., Holcus lanatus L., and Agrostis castel- lana Boiss. et Reuter. Based on plant-internal PC- thiol to metal molar ratios, the metals' tendency

Henk Schat; M. Llugany; H. Vooijs; J. Hartley-Whitaker; P. M. Bleeker

2002-01-01

64

Zinc Hyperaccumulation and Uptake by Potentilla Griffithii Hook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Potentilla griffithii Hook var. velutina Cardot to hypaeraccumulate zinc (Zn) was identified through field survey and hydroponic experiments. Our results showed that P. griffithii could be classified as a new Zn hyperaccumulator. Zn concentrations in the shoots of P. griffithii averaged 6250 mg kg (3870–8530 mg kg) growing in Zn-rich soils. The highest Zn concentration was observed

Rongliang Qiu; Xiaohang Fang; Yetao Tang; Suojun Du; Xiaowen Zeng; Eric Brewer

2006-01-01

65

Herbicide Chlorsulfuron Decreases Assimilate Transport Out of Treated Leaves of Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Seedlings.  

PubMed

Treatment of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) leaves with the herbicide chlorsulfuron resulted in a decrease in the export of assimilate. Twelve hours after a spot application of 1 microgram, assimilate translocation was 70% of that in control leaves. In excised leaves treated with chlorsulfuron the total amounts of sugars and free amino acids were 150 and 170%, respectively, of the amounts in control leaves, 30 hours after herbicide treatment. The amount of sucrose was 247% of that in control leaves. The increase in the concentration of sucrose in the chlorsulfuron-treated leaves, combined with the absence of an effect of chlorsulfuron on carbon dioxide fixation, suggests that the decrease in assimilate transport is not due to an effect on the synthesis of assimilates, but rather to an effect on their movement out of the leaves. Supplying branched-chain amino acids to the field pennycress seedlings prior to the application of chlorsulfuron prevented the occurrence of the effects described. PMID:16667637

Bestman, H D; Devine, M D; Born, W H

1990-08-01

66

Nickel Hyperaccumulation in the Serpentine Flora of Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraordinary uptake (hyperaccumulation) of nickel (Ni), reaching concentrations of 0.1–5.0%, about 1000-times greater than those usually found in flowering plants, has been reported over the period 1948–1996 in about 190 species that grow on Ni-rich serpentine soils derived from ultramafic rocks in various parts of the world. A recent study of the families Buxaceae and Euphorbiaceae identified a further 80

R. D. REEVES; A. J. M. BAKER; A. BORHIDI; R. BERAZAÍN

1999-01-01

67

Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Bidens pilosa L. as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, researchers are becoming interested in using hyperaccumulators for decontamination of heavy metal polluted soils, whereas few species that hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd) has been identified in the plant kingdom. In this study, the physiological mechanisms at the seedling stage and growth responses and Cd uptake and accumulation at flowering and mature stages of Bidens pilosa L. under Cd treatments were

Yuebing Sun; Qixing Zhou; Lin Wang; Weitao Liu

2009-01-01

68

Identification of Endogenous Gibberellins in the Winter Annual Weed Thlaspi arvense L.  

PubMed

Eleven endogenous gibberellins (GAs) were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in purified extracts from shoots of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.): GA(1,9,12,15,19,20,24,29,44,51,53). Traces of GA(8) and GA(25) were tentatively indicated by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring. Comparison of the total ion current traces indicated that GA(19) and GA(44) were most abundant, while GA(12,15,20,24,29,53) occurred in lesser amounts. Only small amounts of GA(1,9,51) were present. The levels of GA(8) and GA(25) were barely detectable. Consideration of hydroxylation patterns of the ent-gibberellane ring structure indicates two families of GAs: one with a C-13 hydroxyl group (GA(1,8,19,20,29,44,53)) and another whose members are either nonhydroxylated (GA(9,12,15,24,25)) or lack a C-13 hydroxyl group (GA(51)). This suggests that in field pennycress there are two parallel pathways for GA metabolism with an early branch point from GA(12): an early C-13 hydroxylation pathway, leading ultimately to GA(1) and GA(8) and a C-13 deoxy pathway culminating in the formation of GA(9) and GA(51). PMID:16664632

Metzger, J D; Mardaus, M C

1986-02-01

69

Comparison of Biological Activities of Gibberellins and Gibberellin-Precursors Native to Thlaspi arvense L.  

PubMed

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is a winter annual weed with a cold requirement for stem elongation and flowering. The relative abilities of several native gibberellins (GAs) and GA-precursors to elicit stem growth were compared. Of the eight compounds tested, gibberellin A(1), (GA(1)), GA(9), and GA(20) caused stem growth in noninduced (no cold treatment) plants. No stem growth was observed in plants treated with ent-kaurene, ent-kaurenol, ent-kaurenoic acid, GA(53), or GA(8). Moreover, of the biologically active compounds, GA(9) was the most active followed closely by GA(1). In thermoinduced plants (4-week cold treatment at 6 degrees C) that were continuously treated with 2-chlorocholine chloride to reduce endogenous GA production, GA(9) was the most biologically active compound. However, the three kaurenoid GA precursors also promoted stem growth in thermoinduced plants, and were almost as active as GA(20). No such increase in activity was observed for either GA([unk]) or GA(53). The results are discussed in relation to thermoinductive regulation of GA metabolism and its significance to the initiation of stem growth in field pennycress. It is proposed that thermoinduction results in increased conversion of ent-kaurenoic acid to GAs through the C-13 desoxy pathway and that GA(9) is the endogenous mediator of thermoinduced stem growth in field pennycress. PMID:16667681

Metzger, J D

1990-09-01

70

The Thlaspi caerulescens NRAMP homologue TcNRAMP3 is capable of divalent cation transport.  

PubMed

The NRAMP gene family encodes integral membrane protein and mediates the transport of Fe, however, its function in transport of toxic metal ions is not very clear in plants. TcNRAMP3 was isolated from Thlaspi caerulescens, and encoded a metal transporter member of the NRAMP family. TcNRAMP3 was predominantly expressed in roots of T. caerulescens by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of TcNRAMP3 was induced by iron starvation and by the heavy metals Cd and Ni in roots. TcNRAMP3 was able to rescue growth of an iron uptake fet3fet4 mutant yeast strain, suggesting a possible role in iron transport. Expression of TcNRAMP3 in yeast increased Cd sensitivity and Cd content, while it enhanced the Ni resistance and reduced Ni accumulation, indicating that TcNRAMP3 could accumulate Cd and exclude Ni in yeast. Furthermore, overexpression of TcNRAMP3 in tobacco resulted in slight Cd sensitivity of root growth and did not influence Ni resistance. These results suggested that TcNRAMP3 played a role in metal cation homeostasis in plant. PMID:18663607

Wei, Wei; Chai, Tuanyao; Zhang, Yuxiu; Han, Lu; Xu, Jin; Guan, Ziqiu

2009-01-01

71

Molecular mechanisms of selenium tolerance and hyperaccumulation in Stanleya pinnata.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms responsible for selenium (Se) tolerance and hyperaccumulation were studied in the Se hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) by comparing it with the related secondary Se accumulator Stanleya albescens using a combination of physiological, structural, genomic, and biochemical approaches. S. pinnata accumulated 3.6-fold more Se and was tolerant to 20 microm selenate, while S. albescens suffered reduced growth, chlorosis and necrosis, impaired photosynthesis, and high levels of reactive oxygen species. Levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione, total sulfur, and nonprotein thiols were higher in S. pinnata, suggesting that Se tolerance may in part be due to increased antioxidants and up-regulated sulfur assimilation. S. pinnata had higher selenocysteine methyltransferase protein levels and, judged from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, mainly accumulated the free amino acid methylselenocysteine, while S. albescens accumulated mainly the free amino acid selenocystathionine. S. albescens leaf x-ray absorption near-edge structure scans mainly detected a carbon-Se-carbon compound (presumably selenocystathionine) in addition to some selenocysteine and selenate. Thus, S. albescens may accumulate more toxic forms of Se in its leaves than S. pinnata. The species also showed different leaf Se sequestration patterns: while S. albescens showed a diffuse pattern, S. pinnata sequestered Se in localized epidermal cell clusters along leaf margins and tips, concentrated inside of epidermal cells. Transcript analyses of S. pinnata showed a constitutively higher expression of genes involved in sulfur assimilation, antioxidant activities, defense, and response to (methyl)jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, or ethylene. The levels of some of these hormones were constitutively elevated in S. pinnata compared with S. albescens, and leaf Se accumulation was slightly enhanced in both species when these hormones were supplied. Thus, defense-related phytohormones may play an important signaling role in the Se hyperaccumulation of S. pinnata, perhaps by constitutively up-regulating sulfur/Se assimilation followed by methylation of selenocysteine and the targeted sequestration of methylselenocysteine. PMID:20498337

Freeman, John L; Tamaoki, Masanori; Stushnoff, Cecil; Quinn, Colin F; Cappa, Jennifer J; Devonshire, Jean; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; McGrath, Steve P; Van Hoewyk, Doug; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

2010-08-01

72

Role of Gibberellins in the Environmental Control of Stem Growth in Thlaspi arvense L.  

PubMed

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is a winter annual that requires a cold treatment for the induction of stem elongation. An inbred line was selected in which no stem elongation was observed in plants grown for 6 months at 21 degrees C regardless of the prevailing photoperiod. Increased exposure time of plants grown initially at 21 degrees C to cold (2 degrees C) induced a greater rate of stem elongation when the plants were returned to 21 degrees C. Moreover, longer cold treatments resulted in a greater maximum stem height and reduced the lag period for the onset of measurable internode elongation. The optimal temperature range for thermoinduced stem growth was broad: rates of stem growth in plants maintained for 4 weeks at either 2 degrees or 10 degrees C were virtually identical. However, a 4-week thermoinductive treatment at 15 degrees C resulted in a greater lag period for the initiation of stem elongation and a decreased growth rate. The rate of cold-induced stem elongation was greater in plants subjected to long days than for plants subjected to short days following the cold treatment. Thus, photoperiod does not control the induction of stem elongation, but does regulate stem elongation in progress. Exogenous gibberellin A(3) (GA(3)) was able to substitute for the cold requirement, but elicited a greater response in plants maintained under long days than short days. This indicates that photoperiod influences the plant's sensitivity to GAs. The GA biosynthesis inhibitor, 2-chloroethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, inhibited low temperature-induced stem elongation, and this inhibition was completely reversed by exogenous GA(3). These results suggest that cold-induced stem elongation in field pennycress is mediated by some change in the endogenous GA status. PMID:16664213

Metzger, J D

1985-05-01

73

Selection and Characterization of a Gibberellin-Deficient Mutant of Thlaspi arvense L.  

PubMed

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is a winter annual weed with a cold requirement for reproductive development. Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated that the bolting aspect (rapid stem growth) of reproductive development is mediated by gibberellins (GA). The present paper describes the selection and characterization of a mutant lacking the capacity for thermoinduced stem growth. Seeds of an inbred field pennycress line (CR(1)) were treated with the chemical mutagen ethyl methane sulfonate, germinated, and allowed to produce seed. Plants derived from these seeds were screened for reduced stem growth. A mutant line, EMS-141, in which the lack of stem growth can be fully overcome with exogenous GA(3), was selected for further analysis. Other phenotypic abnormalities exhibited by the mutant line include reduced petiole growth, slightly delayed floral initiation, and failure of flowers to develop fully. These are also reversed with exogenous GA(3). Evidence is presented indicating that all of the alterations in growth and development exhibited by EMS-141 are conferred by a recessive mutation of a single nuclear gene. Through quantitative analysis of endogenous GA and GA precursors and a comparison of the abilities of various compounds to restore normal growth when applied to plants of EMS-141, the physiological basis for the mutant phenotype was determined to be the result of highly reduced endogenous GA levels. Moreover, the affected site in GA biosynthesis appears to be the accumulation of ent-kaurene, probably at the level of ent-kaurene synthase. The relative abilities of exogenous GA and GA precursors to restore normal growth of petioles and stems are compared, and the results are used to make inferences on the functions of the two different pathways of GA metabolism that exist in field pennycress. PMID:16667899

Metzger, J D; Hassebrock, A T

1990-12-01

74

Determination of the Cellular Mechanisms Regulating Thermo-Induced Stem Growth in Thlaspi arvense L.  

PubMed

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is a species with a cold requirement for the initiation of reproductive development (thermoinduction). Work in this laboratory has been focused on elucidating the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the bolting or rapid stem elongation response that is an intricate part of reproductive development in this species. In the present paper the cellular basis for thermo-induced stem growth was determined. Evidence is presented indicating that bolting results from the production of new cells that elongate to their original length before thermoinduction. This increase in cell division occurs in the pith and cortex approximately 0.5 to 5.0 millimeters below the stem apex. For at least the early stages of thermo-induced stem growth, enhanced cell elongation does not appear to be a factor because average lengths of pith cells from stems of thermo-induced plants were similar or less than noninduced controls. In addition, both the amount of increase in the production of new pith cells and stem growth were positively correlated with the length of the cold treatment. Two other lines of evidence are presented corroborating previous assertions (JD Metzger [1985] Plant Physiol 78: 8-13) that gibberellins mediate thermo-induced stem growth in field pennycress. First, treatment of noninduced plants with gibberellin A(3) completely mimicked the effects of a 4-week cold treatment on mitotic activity in the pith and cortex. Second, very little increase in the production of new cells was observed in the pith and cortex of thermo-induced plants of a gibberellin-deficient dwarf mutant of field pennycress. It is also shown that the influence of photoperiod on stem growth is mediated by an effect on the final length that cells ultimately attain. PMID:16668445

Metzger, J D; Dusbabek, K

1991-10-01

75

Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) seedlings are hyperaccumulators of copper.  

PubMed

Due to health reasons, toxic metals must be removed from soils contaminated by mine tailings and smelter activities. The phytoremediation potential of Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) was examined by use of inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes of parenchymal cells of leaves in the presence of copper. Elemental analysis was used to localize copper within leaves. A 600-ppm copper sulfate exposure to seedlings for 24 days resulted in 31,000 ppm copper in roots, 17,000 ppm in stems, 11,000 in cotyledons and 20 ppm in the true leaves. For a plant to be considered a hyperaccumulator, the plant must accumulate a leaf-to-root ratio <1. Screw bean mesquite exposed to copper had a leaf-to-root ratio of 0.355 when cotyledons were included. We showed that P. pubescens grown in soil is a hyperaccumulator of copper. We recommend that this plant should be field tested. PMID:23612918

Zappala, Marian N; Ellzey, Joanne T; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

2013-08-01

76

Tissue Fractions of Cadmium in Two Hyperaccumulating Jerusalem Artichoke Genotypes  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the mechanisms in two Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) genotypes that hyperaccumulate Cd, a sand-culture experiment was carried out to characterize fractionation of Cd in tissue of Cd-hyperaccumulating genotypes NY2 and NY5. The sequential extractants were: 80%?v/v ethanol (FE), deionized water (FW), 1?M NaCl (FNaCl), 2%?v/v acetic acid (FAcet), and 0.6?M HCl (FHCl). After 20 days of treatments, NY5 had greater plant biomass and greater Cd accumulation in tissues than NY2. In both genotypes the FNaCl fraction was the highest in roots and stems, whereas the FAcet and FHCl fractions were the highest in leaves. With an increase in Cd concentration in the culture solution, the content of every Cd fraction also increased. The FW and FNaCl ratios in roots were lower in NY5 than in NY2, while the amount of other Cd forms was higher. It implied that, in high accumulator, namely, NY5, the complex of insoluble phosphate tends to be shaped more easily which was much better for Cd accumulation. Besides, translocation from plasma to vacuole after combination with protein may be one of the main mechanisms in Cd-accumulator Jerusalem artichoke genotypes.

Long, Xiaohua; Ni, Ni; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed; Jiang, Xin; Shao, Hongbo

2014-01-01

77

Tissue fractions of cadmium in two hyperaccumulating Jerusalem artichoke genotypes.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the mechanisms in two Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) genotypes that hyperaccumulate Cd, a sand-culture experiment was carried out to characterize fractionation of Cd in tissue of Cd-hyperaccumulating genotypes NY2 and NY5. The sequential extractants were: 80% v/v ethanol (FE), deionized water (FW), 1?M NaCl (FNaCl), 2% v/v acetic acid (FAcet), and 0.6 M HCl (FHCl). After 20 days of treatments, NY5 had greater plant biomass and greater Cd accumulation in tissues than NY2. In both genotypes the FNaCl fraction was the highest in roots and stems, whereas the FAcet and FHCl fractions were the highest in leaves. With an increase in Cd concentration in the culture solution, the content of every Cd fraction also increased. The FW and FNaCl ratios in roots were lower in NY5 than in NY2, while the amount of other Cd forms was higher. It implied that, in high accumulator, namely, NY5, the complex of insoluble phosphate tends to be shaped more easily which was much better for Cd accumulation. Besides, translocation from plasma to vacuole after combination with protein may be one of the main mechanisms in Cd-accumulator Jerusalem artichoke genotypes. PMID:24883399

Long, Xiaohua; Ni, Ni; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed; Jiang, Xin; Shao, Hongbo

2014-01-01

78

Microbeam methodologies as powerful tools in manganese hyperaccumulation research: present status and future directions.  

PubMed

Microbeam studies over the past decade have garnered unique insight into manganese (Mn) homeostasis in plant species that hyperaccumulate this essential mineral micronutrient. Electron- and/or proton-probe methodologies employed to examine tissue elemental distributions have proven highly effective in illuminating excess foliar Mn disposal strategies, some apparently unique to Mn hyperaccumulating plants. When applied to samples prepared with minimal artefacts, these are powerful tools for extracting true 'snapshot' data of living systems. For a range of reasons, Mn hyperaccumulation is particularly suited to in vivo interrogation by this approach. Whilst microbeam investigation of metallophytes is well documented, certain methods originally intended for non-biological samples are now widely applied in biology. This review examines current knowledge about Mn hyperaccumulators with reference to microbeam methodologies, and discusses implications for future research into metal transporters. PMID:23970891

Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan; Baker, Alan J M; Mizuno, Takafumi

2013-01-01

79

Root foraging for zinc and cadmium requirement in the Zn\\/Cd hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive root response to metals may enhance metal accumulation for greater requirement in hyperaccumulators. The effects\\u000a of spatially heterogeneous Zn\\/Cd addition on root allocation, metal accumulation, and growth of the Zn\\/Cd hyperaccumulator\\u000a Sedum alfredii were assessed in a pot experiment. Young shoots of S. alfredii were grown with or without supplied Zn\\/Cd. Two concentrations were used of each metal, and

Fengjie Liu; Yetao Tang; Ruijun Du; Haiyan Yang; Qitang Wu; Rongliang Qiu

2010-01-01

80

Time-course development of the Cd 2+ hyper-accumulating phenotype in Euglena gracilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the onset of the Cd2+-hyperaccumulating phenotype in Euglena gracilis, induced by Hg2+ pretreatment (Avilés et al. in Arch Microbiol 180:1–10, 2003), the changes in cellular growth, Cd2+ uptake, and intracellular contents of sulfide, cysteine, ?-glutamylcysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins during the progress\\u000a of the culture were analyzed. In cells exposed to 0.2 mM CdCl2, the Cd2+-hyperaccumulating phenotype was apparent only

César Avilés; M. Eugenia Torres-Márquez; David Mendoza-Cózatl; Rafael Moreno-Sánchez

2005-01-01

81

Pb hyperaccumulation and tolerance in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).  

PubMed

Common buckwheat grown in Pb-contaminated soil was found to accumulate a large amount of Pb in its leaves (8,000 mg/kg DW), stem (2,000 mg/kg DW), and roots (3,300 mg/kg DW), without significant damage. This indicates that buckwheat is a newly recognized Pb hyperaccumulator, which is defined as a plant containing over 1,000 mg/kg of Pb in its shoots on a dry-weight basis. Moreover, it was shown that application of the biodegradable chelator methylglycinediacetic acid trisodium salt at concentrations of up to 20 mmol/kg resulted in a more than five times higher concentration of Pb in the shoot without notable growth inhibitation at up to 10 mmol/kg. These results indicate that buckwheat is a potential phytoremediator of Pb-contaminated soils. PMID:16177838

Tamura, Hideo; Honda, Munechika; Sato, Takeshi; Kamachi, Hiroyuki

2005-10-01

82

Phytoalexins from Thlaspi arvense, a wild crucifer resistant to virulent Leptosphaeria maculans: structures, syntheses and antifungal activity.  

PubMed

Phytoalexins are inducible chemical defenses produced by plants in response to diverse forms of stress, including microbial attack. Our search for phytoalexins from cruciferous plants resistant to economically important fungal diseases led us to examine stinkweed or pennycress (Thlaspi arvense), a potential source of disease resistance to blackleg. We have investigated phytoalexin production in leaves of T. arvense under abiotic (copper chloride) and biotic elicitation by Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. et de Not. [asexual stage Phoma lingam (Tode ex Fr.) Desm.], and report here two phytoalexins, wasalexin A and arvelexin (4-methoxyindolyl-3-acetonitrile), their syntheses and antifungal activity against isolates of P. lingam/L. maculans, as well as the isolation of isovitexin, a constitutive glycosyl flavonoid of stinkweed, having antioxidant properties but devoid of antifungal activity. PMID:14561510

Pedras, M S C; Chumala, P B; Suchy, M

2003-11-01

83

Root allocation in metal-rich patch by Thlaspi caerulescens from normal and metalliferous soil—new insights into the rhizobox approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared root responses to spatial heterogeneity of Zn and Ni in Thlaspi caerulescens J. and C. Presl from normal (NM plants) and metalliferous soil (M plants). We investigated whether the strong metal accumulation\\u000a capacity of NM plants (compared to M plants) was related to a greater capacity of roots to grow towards metal-enriched soil\\u000a compartments. Two similar experiments were

Caroline Dechamps; Nausicaa Noret; Ronny Mozek; Xavier Draye; Pierre Meerts

2008-01-01

84

Extraction of labeled metabolites following exogenous application of ¹⁴C GAââ to the apices of the Thlaspi arvense L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowering in the winter annual field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is induced by exposure to low temperature (4°C). ¹⁴C GAââ was applied externally to the apices of two thermoinduced and two control plants. After incubation for 2 days at 21°C, the plants were harvested, and a 2-cm apical section and the remainder of each plant were analyzed separately for the

J. Hazebroek; J. Metzger

1987-01-01

85

Transient Influx of Nickel in Root Mitochondria Modulates Organic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Nickel Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale*  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are important targets of metal toxicity and are also vital for maintaining metal homeostasis. Here, we examined the potential role of mitochondria in homeostasis of nickel in the roots of nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum murale. We evaluated the biochemical basis of nickel tolerance by comparing the role of mitochondria in closely related nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale and non-accumulator Alyssum montanum. Evidence is presented for the rapid and transient influx of nickel in root mitochondria of nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale. In an early response to nickel treatment, substantial nickel influx was observed in mitochondria prior to sequestration in vacuoles in the roots of hyperaccumulator A. murale compared with non-accumulator A. montanum. In addition, the mitochondrial Krebs cycle was modulated to increase synthesis of malic acid and citric acid involvement in nickel hyperaccumulation. Furthermore, malic acid, which is reported to form a complex with nickel in hyperaccumulators, was also found to reduce the reactive oxygen species generation induced by nickel. We propose that the interaction of nickel with mitochondria is imperative in the early steps of nickel uptake in nickel hyperaccumulator plants. Initial uptake of nickel in roots results in biochemical responses in the root mitochondria indicating its vital role in homeostasis of nickel ions in hyperaccumulation.

Agrawal, Bhavana; Czymmek, Kirk J.; Sparks, Donald L.; Bais, Harsh P.

2013-01-01

86

Recent advances in the analysis of metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance in plants using proteomics  

PubMed Central

Hyperaccumulator/hypertolerant plant species have evolved strategies allowing them to grow in metal-contaminated soils, where they accumulate high concentrations of heavy metals in their shoots without signs of toxicity. The mechanisms that allow enhanced metal uptake, root-to-shoot translocation and detoxification in these species are not fully understood. Complementary approaches such as transcriptomic-based DNA microarrays and proteomics have recently been used to gain insight into the molecular pathways evolved by metal hyperaccumulator/hypertolerant species. Proteomics has the advantage of focusing on the translated portion of the genome and it allows to analyze complex networks of proteins. This review discusses the recent analysis of metal hyperaccumulator/hypertolerant plant species using proteomics. Changes in photosynthetic proteins, sulfur, and glutathione metabolism, transport, biotic and xenobiotic defenses as well as the differential regulation of proteins involved in signaling and secondary metabolism are discussed in relation to metal hyperaccumulation. We also consider the potential contribution of several proteins to the hyperaccumulation phenotype.

DalCorso, Giovanni; Fasani, Elisa; Furini, Antonella

2013-01-01

87

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by submerged macrophytes: looking for hyperaccumulators in eutrophic lakes.  

PubMed

To directly select submerged macrophytes with high accumulation capability from the field, 24 eutrophic lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were investigated in the study. These eutrophic lakes have large amounts of heavy metals in both water and sediments because of human activities. The results showed that Najas marina is a hyperaccumulator of As and Cd, Ceratophyllum demersum is a hyperaccumulator of Co, Cr, and Fe, and Vallisneria natans is a hyperaccumulator of Pb. Strong positive correlations were found between concentrations of heavy metals in tissues of submerged macrophytes, probably because of coaccumulation of heavy metals. However, for most heavy metals, no significant correlations were found between submerged macrophytes and their surrounding environments. In conclusion, N. marina, C. demersum, and V. natans are good candidate species for removing heavy metals from eutrophic lakes. PMID:23582178

Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Hao, Beibei; Huang, Wenmin; Liu, Guihua

2013-05-01

88

Accumulation and detoxification of manganese in hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana.  

PubMed

Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) has recently received much attention because of its ability to hyperaccumulate manganese (Mn). The internal mechanism of detoxification of Mn, however, is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated Mn accumulation, subcellular distribution, chemical speciation and detoxification through oxalate in pokeweed. The plant accumulated excess Mn in the leaves, mainly in the water-soluble fraction, and over 80% of Mn was in a water-soluble form, while accumulation of excess Mn in the cellular organelle and membrane fraction caused phytotoxicity. In addition, pokeweed has an intrinsically high oxalate content. In all experiments, there was sufficient oxalate to chelate Mn in leaf water extracts at all different levels of Mn application. Phase analysis of X-ray diffraction detected oxalate-Mn chelate complexes, and gel chromatography further confirmed the chelation of Mn by oxalate. In conclusion, pokeweed accumulates excess Mn in the soluble fraction of leaf cells, most likely in vacuoles, in which detoxification of Mn could be achieved by chelation with oxalate. PMID:19689773

Dou, C-M; Fu, X-P; Chen, X-C; Shi, J-Y; Chen, Y-X

2009-09-01

89

Selenium Distribution and Speciation in the Hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus and Associated Ecological Partners1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to investigate how plant selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation may affect ecological interactions and whether associated partners may affect Se hyperaccumulation. The Se hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus was collected in its natural seleniferous habitat, and x-ray fluorescence mapping and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy were used to characterize Se distribution and speciation in all organs as well as in encountered microbial symbionts and herbivores. Se was present at high levels (704–4,661 mg kg?1 dry weight) in all organs, mainly as organic C-Se-C compounds (i.e. Se bonded to two carbon atoms, e.g. methylselenocysteine). In nodule, root, and stem, up to 34% of Se was found as elemental Se, which was potentially due to microbial activity. In addition to a nitrogen-fixing symbiont, the plants harbored an endophytic fungus that produced elemental Se. Furthermore, two Se-resistant herbivorous moths were discovered on A. bisulcatus, one of which was parasitized by a wasp. Adult moths, larvae, and wasps all accumulated predominantly C-Se-C compounds. In conclusion, hyperaccumulators live in association with a variety of Se-resistant ecological partners. Among these partners, microbial endosymbionts may affect Se speciation in hyperaccumulators. Hyperaccumulators have been shown earlier to negatively affect Se-sensitive ecological partners while apparently offering a niche for Se-resistant partners. Through their positive and negative effects on different ecological partners, hyperaccumulators may influence species composition and Se cycling in seleniferous ecosystems.

Valdez Barillas, Jose R.; Quinn, Colin F.; Freeman, John L.; Lindblom, Stormy D.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Gilligan, Todd M.; Alford, Elan R.; Wangeline, Ami L.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.

2012-01-01

90

Foliar Mn accumulation in eastern Australian herbarium specimens: prospecting for 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators and potential applications in taxonomy  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The analysis of herbarium specimens has previously been used to prospect for ‘new’ hyperaccumulators, while the use of foliar manganese (Mn) concentrations as a taxonomic tool has been suggested. On the basis of their geographic and taxonomic affiliations to known Mn hyperaccumulators, six eastern Australian genera from the Queensland Herbarium collection were sampled for leaf tissue analyses. Methods ICP-OES was used to measure Mn and other elemental concentrations in 47 species within the genera Austromyrtus, Lenwebbia, Gossia (Myrtaceae), Macadamia (Proteaceae), Maytenus and Denhamia (Celastraceae). Key Results The resulting data demonstrated (a) up to seven ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, mostly tropical rainforest species; (b) that one of these ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators also had notably elevated foliar Ni concentrations; (c) evidence of an interrelationship between foliar Mn and Al uptake among the Macadamias; (d) considerable variability of Mn hyperaccumulation within Gossia; and (e) the possibility that Maytenus cunninghamii may include subspecies. Conclusions Gossia bamagensis, G. fragrantissima, G. sankowsiorum, G. gonoclada and Maytenus cunninghamii were identified as ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, while Gossia lucida and G. shepherdii are possible ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators. Of the three Myrtaceae genera examined, Mn hyperaccumulation appears restricted to Gossia, supporting its recent taxonomic revision. In the context of this present investigation and existing information, a reassesment of the general definition of Mn hyperaccumulation may be warranted. Morphological variation of Maytenus cunninghamii at two extremities was consistent with variation in Mn accumulation, indicating two possible ‘new’ subspecies. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting the data, surveying herbarium specimens by chemical analysis has provided an effective means of assessing foliar Mn accumulation. These findings should be followed up by field studies.

Fernando, Denise R.; Guymer, Gordon; Reeves, Roger D.; Woodrow, Ian E.; Baker, Alan J.; Batianoff, George N.

2009-01-01

91

Herbicide Chlorsulfuron Decreases Assimilate Transport Out of Treated Leaves of Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Treatment of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) leaves with the herbicide chlorsulfuron resulted in a decrease in the export of assimilate. Twelve hours after a spot application of 1 microgram, assimilate translocation was 70% of that in control leaves. In excised leaves treated with chlorsulfuron the total amounts of sugars and free amino acids were 150 and 170%, respectively, of the amounts in control leaves, 30 hours after herbicide treatment. The amount of sucrose was 247% of that in control leaves. The increase in the concentration of sucrose in the chlorsulfuron-treated leaves, combined with the absence of an effect of chlorsulfuron on carbon dioxide fixation, suggests that the decrease in assimilate transport is not due to an effect on the synthesis of assimilates, but rather to an effect on their movement out of the leaves. Supplying branched-chain amino acids to the field pennycress seedlings prior to the application of chlorsulfuron prevented the occurrence of the effects described. Images Figure 4 Figure 5

Bestman, Hank D.; Devine, Malcolm D.; Born, William H. Vanden

1990-01-01

92

Arsenic reduced scale-insect infestation on arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic hyperaccumulation by Pteris vittata L. (Chinese brake fern) may serve as a defense mechanism against herbivore attack. This study examined the effects of arsenic exposure (0, 5, 15 and 30mgkg?1) on scale insect (Saissetia neglecta) infestation of P. vittata. Scale insects were counted as a percentage fallen from the plant to the total number of insects after 1 week

Shiny Mathews; Lena Q. Ma; Bala Rathinasabapathi; Robert H. Stamps

2009-01-01

93

Uncoupling of reactive oxygen species accumulation and defence signalling in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.  

PubMed

The metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens is protected from disease by the accumulation of high concentrations of metals in its aerial tissues, which are toxic to many pathogens. As these metals can lead to the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal hyperaccumulator plants have developed highly effective ROS tolerance mechanisms, which might quench ROS-based signals. We therefore investigated whether metal accumulation alters defence signalling via ROS in this plant. We studied the effect of zinc (Zn) accumulation by N. caerulescens on pathogen-induced ROS production, salicylic acid accumulation and downstream defence responses, such as callose deposition and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The accumulation of Zn caused increased superoxide production in N. caerulescens, but inoculation with P. syringae did not elicit the defensive oxidative burst typical of most plants. Defences dependent on signalling through ROS (callose and PR gene expression) were also modified or absent in N. caerulescens, whereas salicylic acid production in response to infection was retained. These observations suggest that metal hyperaccumulation is incompatible with defence signalling through ROS and that, as metal hyperaccumulation became effective as a form of elemental defence, normal defence responses became progressively uncoupled from ROS signalling in N. caerulescens. PMID:23758201

Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Bennett, Mark H; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

2013-09-01

94

Chrysotile dissolution in the rhizosphere of the nickel hyperaccumulator Leptoplax emarginata.  

PubMed

Ni phytoextraction processes need further understanding of the interactions between Ni availability in soils and its absorption by plant roots. The large metal uptake and root exudation by hyperaccumulator species could accelerate the weathering process of Ni-bearing phases in the rhizosphere. The aim of this work was to quantify the weathering of a Ni-bearing mineral phase in the rhizosphere of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Leptoplax emarginata. The studied mineral was chrysotile which was characterized by a low Ni solubility. Column experiments were performed to assess the effect of the Ni-hyperaccumulator L. emarginata and the contribution of rhizobacteria on the dissolution rate of chrysotile. Mineral weathering was monitored by measuring Ni and Mg transferred to leachates or plants throughout the experiment. Results showed that L. emarginata increased chrysotile dissolution by more than 2-fold . The hyperaccumulator L. emarginata accumulated 88% on average of total mobilized Ni. Inoculation with Ni-resistant bacteria in the rhizosphere of L. emarginata had no significant effect on chrysotile dissolution or plant accumulation of Ni in this context. Finally, after 15 weeks of culture, 1.65% of total Ni in the system was mobilized in the planted treatments compared with 0.03% in the unplanted treatments. PMID:23373689

Chardot-Jacques, Vanessa; Calvaruso, Christophe; Simon, Bruno; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Echevarria, Guillaume; Morel, Jean-Louis

2013-03-19

95

Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Bidens pilosa L. as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator.  

PubMed

Recently, researchers are becoming interested in using hyperaccumulators for decontamination of heavy metal polluted soils, whereas few species that hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd) has been identified in the plant kingdom. In this study, the physiological mechanisms at the seedling stage and growth responses and Cd uptake and accumulation at flowering and mature stages of Bidens pilosa L. under Cd treatments were investigated. At the seedling stage, when soil Cd was lower than 16mgkg(-1), the plant did not show obvious symptom of phytoxicity, and the alterations of chlorophyll (CHL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and soluble protein (SP) did not have significant differences when compared with the control. At the flowering and mature stages, under low Cd treatments (hyperaccumulator. All the results elementarily indicated that B. pilosa is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulating plant. PMID:18513866

Sun, Yuebing; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Lin; Liu, Weitao

2009-01-30

96

Elevated Nicotianamine Levels in Arabidopsis halleri Roots Play a Key Role in Zinc Hyperaccumulation[W  

PubMed Central

Zn deficiency is among the leading health risk factors in developing countries. Breeding of Zn-enriched crops is expected to be facilitated by molecular dissection of plant Zn hyperaccumulation (i.e., the ability of certain plants to accumulate Zn to levels >100-fold higher than normal plants). The model hyperaccumulators Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens share elevated nicotianamine synthase (NAS) expression relative to nonaccumulators among a core of alterations in metal homeostasis. Suppression of Ah-NAS2 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in strongly reduced root nicotianamine (NA) accumulation and a concomitant decrease in root-to-shoot translocation of Zn. Speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry showed that the dominating Zn ligands in roots were NA and thiols. In NAS2-RNAi plants, a marked increase in Zn-thiol species was observed. Wild-type A. halleri plants cultivated on their native soil showed elemental profiles very similar to those found in field samples. Leaf Zn concentrations in NAS2-RNAi lines, however, did not reach the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold. Leaf Cd accumulation was also significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a role for NAS2 in Zn hyperaccumulation also under near-natural conditions. We propose that NA forms complexes with Zn(II) in root cells and facilitates symplastic passage of Zn(II) toward the xylem.

Deinlein, Ulrich; Weber, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Rensch, Stefan; Trampczynska, Aleksandra; Hansen, Thomas H.; Husted, S?ren; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Talke, Ina N.; Kramer, Ute; Clemens, Stephan

2012-01-01

97

Effects of Arsenic Concentrations and Forms on Arsenic Uptake by the Hyperaccumulator Ladder Brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

in plants, animals, and humans (Fowler, 1983). Remedi- ation of arsenic-contaminated soils has thus become a Ladder brake (Pteris vittata L.) is a newly discovered arsenic major environmental issue. hyperaccumulator. No information is available about arsenic effects on ladder brake. This study determined the effects of different arsenic Current remediation methods for arsenic-contami- concentrations (50 to 1000 mg kg

Cong Tu; Lena Q. Ma

2002-01-01

98

Enhanced root-to-shoot translocation of cadmium in the hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii  

PubMed Central

Sedum alfredii (Crasulaceae) is the only known Cd-hyperaccumulating species that are not in the Brassica family; the mechanism of Cd hyperaccumulation in this plant is, however, little understood. Here, a combination of radioactive techniques, metabolic inhibitors, and fluorescence imaging was used to contrast Cd uptake and translocation between a hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and a non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of S. alfredii. The Km of 109Cd influx into roots was similar in both ecotypes, while the Vmax was 2-fold higher in the HE. Significant inhibition of Cd uptake by low temperature or metabolic inhibitors was observed in the HE, whereas the effect was less pronounced in the NHE. 109Cd influx into roots was also significantly decreased by high Ca in both ecotypes. The rate of root-to-shoot translocation of 109Cd in the HE was >10 times higher when compared with the NHE, and shoots of the HE accumulated dramatically higher 109Cd concentrations those of the NHE. The addition of the metabolic inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) resulted in a significant reduction in Cd contents in the shoots of the HE, and in the roots of the NHE. Cd was distributed preferentially to the root cylinder of the HE but not the NHE, and there was a 3–5 times higher Cd concentration in xylem sap of the HE in contrast to the NHE. These results illustrate that a greatly enhanced rate of root-to-shoot translocation, possibly as a result of enhanced xylem loading, rather than differences in the rate of root uptake, was the pivotal process expressed in the Cd hyperaccumulator HE S. alfredii.

Lu, Ling-li; Tian, Sheng-ke; Yang, Xiao-e; Wang, Xiao-chang; Brown, Patrick; Li, Ting-qiang; He, Zhen-li

2008-01-01

99

Spatial imaging, speciation, and quantification of selenium in the hyperaccumulator plants Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata.  

PubMed

Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) up to 1% of plant dry weight. In the field, Se was mostly present in the young leaves and reproductive tissues of both hyperaccumulators. Microfocused scanning x-ray fluorescence mapping revealed that Se was hyperaccumulated in trichomes in young leaves of A. bisulcatus. None of 10 other elements tested were accumulated in trichomes. Micro x-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that Se in trichomes was present in the organic forms methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys; 53%) and gamma-glutamyl-MeSeCys (47%). In the young leaf itself, there was 30% inorganic Se (selenate and selenite) in addition to 70% MeSeCys. In young S. pinnata leaves, Se was highly concentrated near the leaf edge and surface in globular structures that were shown by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis to be mainly in epidermal cells. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed both MeSeCys (88%) and selenocystathionine (12%) inside leaf edges. In contrast, both the Se accumulator Brassica juncea and the nonaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana accumulated Se in their leaf vascular tissues and mesophyll cells. Se in hyperaccumulators appears to be mobile in both the xylem and phloem because Se-treated S. pinnata was found to be highly toxic to phloem-feeding aphids, and MeSeCys was present in the vascular tissues of a S. pinnata young leaf petiole as well as in guttation fluid. The compartmentation of organic selenocompounds in specific storage areas in the plant periphery appears to be a unique property of Se hyperaccumulators. The high concentration of Se in the plant periphery may contribute to Se tolerance and may also serve as an elemental plant defense mechanism. PMID:16920881

Freeman, John L; Zhang, Li Hong; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine; McGrath, Steve P; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

2006-09-01

100

Effects of cadmium and arsenic on growth and metal accumulation of Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites using hyperaccumulators presents a promising alternative to current environmental methodologies. In the pot-culture experiment, the effects of Cd, and Cd–As on the growth and its accumulation in the Cd-hyperaccumulator (Solanum nigrum L.) were determined. No reduction in plant height and shoot dry biomass was noted when the plants were grown at Cd concentration of

Yuebing Sun; Qixing Zhou; Chunyan Diao

2008-01-01

101

[Hyperaccumulative characteristics of 7 widely distributing weed species in composite family especially Bidens pilosa to heavy metals].  

PubMed

Hyperaccumulator is the main point of phytoremediating contaminated soils by heavy metals, and the identification of hyperaccumulator is still the difficult and key step of phytoremediation. The outdoor pot-culture experiment was used to study the hyperaccumulative characteristics of 7 widely distributing weed species in Northeast of China to heavy metals. The results in screening experiment showed that Taraxacum mongolicum and Bidens pilosa indicated strong tolerance to Cd single and Cd-Pb-Cu-Zn combined pollution, their Cd concentration in shoot were higher than that in roots, and the Cd enhancement factors (ratio of heavy metal concentration in shoot to that in soil) in shoots were greater than 1 too, which displayed that the two plants were with Cd hyperaccumulative characteristics. In concentration gradient experiment, Cd concentration in leaves of B. pilosa were all greater than 100 mg x kg(-1) the minimum of Cd-hyperaccumulator should have under the conditions of 25, 50, 100 mg x kg(-1) Cd added. Meanwhile, the shoot biomass of B. pilosa did not reduce significantly (p <0.05), Cd concentration in its shoots were higher than those in roots. But for T. mongolicum, Cd concentration in its shoots were not greater than 100 mg x kg(-1) in any treatment. Thus, only B. pilosa can be regarded as Cd-hyperaccumulator. PMID:19143394

Wei, Shu-He; Yang, Chuan-Jie; Zhou, Qi-Xing

2008-10-01

102

Rinorea niccolifera (Violaceae), a new, nickel-hyperaccumulating species from Luzon Island, Philippines  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new, nickel-hyperaccumulating species of Rinorea (Violaceae), Rinorea niccolifera Fernando, from Luzon Island, Philippines, is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to the widespread Rinorea bengalensis by its fasciculate inflorescences and smooth subglobose fruits with 3 seeds, but it differs by its glabrous ovary with shorter style (5 mm long), the summit of the staminal tube sinuate to entire and the outer surface smooth, generally smaller leaves (3–8 cm long × 2–3 cm wide), and smaller fruits (0.6–0.8 cm diameter). Rinorea niccolifera accumulates to >18,000 µg g-1 of nickel in its leaf tissues and is thus regarded as a Ni hyperaccumulator.

Fernando, Edwino S.; Quimado, Marilyn O.; Doronila, Augustine I.

2014-01-01

103

Localization of nickel in tissues of Streptanthus polygaloides Gray (Cruciferae) and endemic nickel hyperaccumulators from California.  

PubMed

The genus Streptanthus Nutt. is one of the most important indicators of ultramafic floras in western North America. This genus contains taxa that are endemic or tolerant of ultramafic soils. Streptanthus polygaloides is an annual nickel hyperaccumulator strictly confined to ultramafic soils throughout the Californian Sierra Nevada foothills. Nickel concentration in S. polygaloides populations was evaluated by elemental microanalysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Representative samples of S. polygaloides roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray probe (SEM-EDX). Results show Ni accumulation values between 0.09 and 1.18 %, and a distribution pattern similar to that observed in other Ni hyperaccumulator taxa, with the leaf epidermis accumulating the largest concentrations. PMID:24323737

Sánchez-Mata, Daniel; de la Fuente, Vicenta; Rufo, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

2014-01-01

104

Selection and combustion of Ni-hyperaccumulators for the phytomining process.  

PubMed

Ni recovery from serpentine soils by phytomining has proved feasible. Phytomining involves the crop of hyperaccumulating plants with high Ni contents and the valorization of Ni by pyro or hydrometallurgical process. In order to evaluate the Ni content of different plants, we analyzed the organs of 14 hyperaccumulators from three genera: Alyssum, Leptoplax and Bornmuellera. The highest concentration was recorded in the leaves of Leptoplax (34.3 +/- 0.7 mg g(-1)DM). Additionally, we investigated biomass combustion which is the first step of the process we designed to obtain a nickel salt. We showed that temperature and duration were important parameters to ensure a good quality of ashes. At the bench scale, the best conditions were 550 degrees C and 3 h. In this way, we obtained ashes in which Ni could reach 20 wt%. Biomass ashes can be considered as a bio-ore for recovering metal value. PMID:24933902

Zhang, Xin; Houzelot, Vivian; Bani, Aida; Morel, Jean Louis; Echevarria, Guillaume; Simonnot, Marie-Odile

2014-01-01

105

Rinorea niccolifera (Violaceae), a new, nickel-hyperaccumulating species from Luzon Island, Philippines.  

PubMed

A new, nickel-hyperaccumulating species of Rinorea (Violaceae), Rinorea niccolifera Fernando, from Luzon Island, Philippines, is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to the widespread Rinorea bengalensis by its fasciculate inflorescences and smooth subglobose fruits with 3 seeds, but it differs by its glabrous ovary with shorter style (5 mm long), the summit of the staminal tube sinuate to entire and the outer surface smooth, generally smaller leaves (3-8 cm long × 2-3 cm wide), and smaller fruits (0.6-0.8 cm diameter). Rinorea niccolifera accumulates to >18,000 µg g(-1) of nickel in its leaf tissues and is thus regarded as a Ni hyperaccumulator. PMID:24843295

Fernando, Edwino S; Quimado, Marilyn O; Doronila, Augustine I

2014-01-01

106

A Novel Arsenate Reductase from the Arsenic Hyperaccumulating Fern Pteris vittata1  

PubMed Central

Pteris vittata sporophytes hyperaccumulate arsenic to 1% to 2% of their dry weight. Like the sporophyte, the gametophyte was found to reduce arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)] and store arsenic as free As(III). Here, we report the isolation of an arsenate reductase gene (PvACR2) from gametophytes that can suppress the arsenate sensitivity and arsenic hyperaccumulation phenotypes of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lacking the arsenate reductase gene ScACR2. Recombinant PvACR2 protein has in vitro arsenate reductase activity similar to ScACR2. While PvACR2 and ScACR2 have sequence similarities to the CDC25 protein tyrosine phosphatases, they lack phosphatase activity. In contrast, Arath;CDC25, an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of PvACR2 was found to have both arsenate reductase and phosphatase activities. To our knowledge, PvACR2 is the first reported plant arsenate reductase that lacks phosphatase activity. CDC25 protein tyrosine phosphatases and arsenate reductases have a conserved HCX5R motif that defines the active site. PvACR2 is unique in that the arginine of this motif, previously shown to be essential for phosphatase and reductase activity, is replaced with a serine. Steady-state levels of PvACR2 expression in gametophytes were found to be similar in the absence and presence of arsenate, while total arsenate reductase activity in P. vittata gametophytes was found to be constitutive and unaffected by arsenate, consistent with other known metal hyperaccumulation mechanisms in plants. The unusual active site of PvACR2 and the arsenate reductase activities of cell-free extracts correlate with the ability of P. vittata to hyperaccumulate arsenite, suggesting that PvACR2 may play an important role in this process.

Ellis, Danielle R.; Gumaelius, Luke; Indriolo, Emily; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Banks, Jo Ann; Salt, David E.

2006-01-01

107

Effects of Plant Age on Arsenic Hyperaccumulation by Pteris vittata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant age affects its elemental uptake and biomass accumulation, which is important for the application of plants in phytoextraction.\\u000a In this research, we evaluated the effects of plant age on arsenic accumulation by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata after growing in an arsenic-contaminated soil for 8 weeks. The study used a completely randomized design consisting of four\\u000a plant ages (2, 4, 10

Maria I. Silva Gonzaga; Lena Q. Ma; Jorge A. G. Santos

2007-01-01

108

Responses to Nickel in the Proteome of the Hyperaccumulator Plant Alyssum lesbiacum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proteomic analysis of the Ni hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum was carried out to identify proteins that may play a role in the exceptional degree of Ni tolerance and accumulation characteristic\\u000a of this metallophyte. Of the 816 polypeptides detected in root tissue by 2D SDS-PAGE, eleven increased and one decreased in\\u000a abundance relative to total protein after 6-week-old plants were

Robert A. Ingle; J. Andrew C. Smith; Lee J. Sweetlove

2005-01-01

109

Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale relies on a different metal storage mechanism for cobalt than for nickel.  

PubMed

The nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale has been developed as a commercial crop for phytoremediation/phytomining Ni from metal-enriched soils. Here, metal co-tolerance, accumulation and localization were investigated for A. murale exposed to metal co-contaminants. A. murale was irrigated with Ni-enriched nutrient solutions containing basal or elevated concentrations of cobalt (Co) or zinc (Zn). Metal localization and elemental associations were investigated in situ with synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (SXRF) and computed-microtomography (CMT). A. murale hyperaccumulated Ni and Co (> 1000 microg g(-1) dry weight) from mixed-metal systems. Zinc was not hyperaccumulated. Elevated Co or Zn concentrations did not alter Ni accumulation or localization. SXRF images showed uniform Ni distribution in leaves and preferential localization of Co near leaf tips/margins. CMT images revealed that leaf epidermal tissue was enriched with Ni but devoid of Co, that Co was localized in the apoplasm of leaf ground tissue and that Co was sequestered on leaf surfaces near the tips/margins. Cobalt-rich mineral precipitate(s) form on leaves of Co-treated A. murale. Specialized biochemical processes linked with Ni (hyper)tolerance in A. murale do not confer (hyper)tolerance to Co. A. murale relies on a different metal storage mechanism for Co (exocellular sequestration) than for Ni (vacuolar sequestration). PMID:17688581

Tappero, R; Peltier, E; Gräfe, M; Heidel, K; Ginder-Vogel, M; Livi, K J T; Rivers, M L; Marcus, M A; Chaney, R L; Sparks, D L

2007-01-01

110

Heavy metal concentrations in plants growing on a copper mine spoil in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. [Thlaspi montanum; Phlox austromontana; Juniperus osteosperma  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of metals including manganese, nickel, copper and zinc were measured in soil from a copper mine spoil heap in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, and in three plant species growing on the spoil. The soil had high concentrations of available copper and zinc, and the herbaceous perennial Thlaspi montanum var fendleri contained amounts of Ni, Cu and Zn in direct proportion to the soil concentrations (EDTA extractable). Another herbaceous perennial, Phlox austromontana, and the woody perennial Juniperus osteosperma had considerably lower amounts of these elements. These findings are discussed in relation to other studies, and it is suggested that figures for metal accumulation by plants should always be related to plant-available soil concentrations.

Hobbs, R.J.; Streit, B.

1986-05-01

111

Extraction of labeled metabolites following exogenous application of /sup 14/C GA/sub 12/ to the apices of the Thlaspi arvense L  

SciTech Connect

Flowering in the winter annual field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is induced by exposure to low temperature (4/sup 0/C). /sup 14/C GA/sub 12/ was applied externally to the apices of two thermoinduced and two control plants. After incubation for 2 days at 21/sup 0/C, the plants were harvested, and a 2-cm apical section and the remainder of each plant were analyzed separately for the presence of radiolabeled metabolites. More radioactivity was found in the acidic ethyl acetate fraction from an extract of the apices of induced plants than that of noninduced plants. Conversely, the fraction prepared from the rest of the induced plant tissue was less radioactive than the noninduced sample. Gradient-eluted reverse phase HPLC of the samples revealed labeled compounds that co-chromatographed with several endogenous gibberellins.

Hazebroek, J.; Metzger, J.

1987-04-01

112

Synergistic effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate rock on heavy metal uptake and accumulation by an arsenic hyperaccumulator.  

PubMed

The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and phosphate rock on the phytorextraction efficiency of a hyperaccumulator (Pteris vittata) and a non-hyperaccumulator (Cynodon dactylon) plant were studied. Both seedlings were planted in As contaminated soil under different treatments [(1) control (contaminated soil only), (2) indigenous mycorrhizas (IM), (3) mixed AM inoculum [indigenous mycorrhiza + Glomus mosseae (IM/Gm)] and (4) IM/Gm + phosphate rock (P rock)] with varying intensities (40%, 70% and 100%) of water moisture content (WMC). Significant As reduction in soil (23.8% of soil As reduction), increase in plant biomass (17.8 g/pot) and As accumulation (2054 mg/kg DW) were observed for P. vittata treated with IM/Gm + PR at 100% WMC level. The overall results indicated that the synergistic effect of mycorrhiza and P rock affected As subcellular distribution of the hyperaccumulator and thereby altered its As removal efficiency under well-watered conditions. PMID:20541316

Leung, H M; Wu, F Y; Cheung, K C; Ye, Z H; Wong, M H

2010-09-15

113

Mobilization of cadmium by dissolved organic matter in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.  

PubMed

Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Cd speciation in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum alfredii and its effects on Cd mobility. After growing HE S. alfredii, the rhizosphere soil solution pH of heavily polluted soil (HPS) and slightly polluted soil (SPS) was reduced by 0.49 and 0.40 units, respectively, due to enhanced DOC derived from root exudation. The total Cd concentration in soil solution decreased significantly but the decrease accounted for less than 1% of the total Cd uptake in the shoots of HE S. alfredii. Visual MINTEQ speciation predicted that Cd-DOM complexes were the dominant Cd species in soil solutions after the growth of S. alfredii for both soils, followed by the free metal Cd(2+) species. However, Cd-DOM complexes fraction in the rhizosphere soil solution of HE S. alfredii (89.1% and 74.6% for HPS and SPS, respectively) were much greater than NHE S. alfredii (82.8% and 64.7% for HPS and SPS, respectively). Resin equilibration experiment results indicated that DOM from the rhizosphere (R-DOM) of both ecotypes of S. alfredii had the ability to form complexes with Cd, whereas the degree of complexation was significantly higher for HE-R-DOM (79-89%) than NHE-R-DOM (63-74%) in the undiluted sample. The addition of HE-R-DOM significantly (P<0.05) increased the solubility of four Cd minerals while NHE-R-DOM was not as effective at the same concentration. It was concluded that DOM in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating ecotype of S. alfredii could significantly increase Cd mobility through the formation of soluble DOM-metal complexes. PMID:23466273

Li, Tingqiang; Liang, Chengfeng; Han, Xuan; Yang, Xiaoe

2013-05-01

114

A comparative analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with hyperaccumulators growing in mine soils.  

PubMed

Interactions between endophytic bacterial communities and hyperaccumulators in heavy metal-polluted sites are not fully understood. In this study, the diversity of stem-associated endophytic bacterial communities of two hyperaccumulators (Solanum nigrum L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.) growing in mine soils was investigated using molecular-based methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the endophytic bacterial community structures were affected by both the level of heavy metal pollution and the plant species. Heavy metal in contaminated soil determined, to a large extent, the composition of the different endophytic bacterial communities in S. nigrum growing across soil series (five sampling spots, and the concentration of Cd is from 0.2 to 35.5 mg/kg). Detailed analysis of endophytic bacterial populations by cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the stems of the two plants at the same site revealed a different composition. A total of 51 taxa at the genus level that included ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria (68.8% of the two libraries clones), Bacteroidetes (9.0% of the two libraries clones), Firmicutes (2.0% of the two libraries clones), Actinobacteria (16.4% of the two libraries clones), and unclassified bacteria (3.8% of the two libraries clones) were found in the two clone libraries. The most abundant genus in S. nigrum was Sphingomonas (23.35%), while Pseudomonas prevailed in P. acinosa (21.40%). These results suggest that both heavy metal pollution and plant species contribute to the shaping of the dynamic endophytic bacterial communities associated with stems of hyperaccumulators. PMID:24595752

Chen, Liang; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Wan, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Feng

2014-06-01

115

The hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale uses complexation with nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands for Ni transport and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kotodesh genotype of the nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale was examined to determine the compartmentalization and internal speciation of Ni, and other elements, in an effort to ascertain the mechanism used by this plant to tolerate extremely high shoot (stem and leaf) Ni concentrations. Plants were grown either hydroponically or in Ni enriched soils from an area surrounding an

David H. McNear Jr; Rufus L. Chaney; Donald L. Sparks

2009-01-01

116

Zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation act as deterrents towards specialist herbivores and impede the performance of a generalist herbivore.  

PubMed

Extraordinarily high leaf metal concentrations in metal hyperaccumulator plants may serve as an elemental defence against herbivores. However, mixed results have been reported and studies using comparative approaches are missing. We investigated the deterrent and toxic potential of metals employing the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri. Effects of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) on the preferences of three Brassicaceae specialists were tested in paired-choice experiments using differently treated plant material, including transgenic plants. In performance tests, we determined the toxicity and joint effects of both metals incorporated in an artificial diet on the survival of a generalist. Feeding by all specialists was significantly reduced by metal concentrations from above 1000 ?g Zn g(-1) DW and 18 ?g Cd g(-1) DW. By contrast, metals did not affect oviposition. Generalist survival decreased with increasing concentrations of individual metals, whereby the combination of Zn and Cd had an additive toxic effect even at the lowest applied concentrations of 100 ?g Zn g(-1) and 2 ?g Cd g(-1) . Metal hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory resulting from deterrence and toxicity against a wide range of herbivores. The combination of metals exacerbates toxicity through joint effects and enhances elemental defence. Thus, metal hyperaccumulation is ecologically beneficial for plants. PMID:24383491

Kazemi-Dinan, Ardeshir; Thomaschky, Sina; Stein, Ricardo J; Krämer, Ute; Müller, Caroline

2014-04-01

117

In vitro culture of Pteris vittata ,a narsenic hyperaccumulating fern, for screening and propagating strains useful for phytoreme- diation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination of soils and groundwater is at present one of the major emergencies in the world environmental management, and phytoremediation is a promising technology to immobilize or remove contaminants from polluted areas. The first arsenic hyperaccumulating plant, the fern Pteris vittata, was discovered only recently. It is very efficient in extracting arsenic from the soil and translocating it into

Monia Mantovani; Anna Fusconi; Cristina Gallo

118

Inoculation of Astragalus racemosus and Astragalus convallarius with selenium-hyperaccumulator rhizosphere fungi affects growth and selenium accumulation.  

PubMed

Little is known about how fungi affect plant selenium (Se) accumulation. Here we investigate the effects of two fungi on Se accumulation, translocation, and chemical speciation in the hyperaccumulator Astragalus racemosus and the non-accumulator Astragalus convallarius. The fungi, Alternaria astragali (A3) and Fusarium acuminatum (F30), were previously isolated from Astragalus hyperaccumulator rhizosphere. A3-inoculation enhanced growth of A. racemosus yet inhibited growth of A. convallarius. Selenium treatment negated these effects. F30 reduced shoot-to-root Se translocation in A. racemosus. X-ray microprobe analysis showed no differences in Se speciation between inoculation groups. The Astragalus species differed in Se localization and speciation. A. racemosus root-Se was distributed throughout the taproot and lateral root and was 90 % organic in the lateral root. The related element sulfur (S) was present as a mixture of organic and inorganic forms in the hyperaccumulator. Astragalus convallarius root-Se was concentrated in the extreme periphery of the taproot. In the lateral root, Se was exclusively in the vascular core and was only 49 % organic. These findings indicate differences in Se assimilation between the two species and differences between Se and S speciation in the hyperaccumulator. The finding that fungi can affect translocation may have applications in phytoremediation and biofortification. PMID:23117393

Lindblom, Stormy Dawn; Fakra, Sirine C; Landon, Jessica; Schulz, Paige; Tracy, Benjamin; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

2013-03-01

119

Cellular Sequestration of Cadmium in the Hyperaccumulator Plant Species Sedum alfredii  

SciTech Connect

Spatial imaging of cadmium (Cd) in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in vivo by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray microfluorescence imaging. Preferential Cd accumulation in the pith and cortex was observed in stems of the Cd hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE), whereas Cd was restricted to the vascular bundles in its contrasting nonhyperaccumulating ecotype. Cd concentrations of up to 15,000 {micro}g g{sup -1} were measured in the pith cells, which was many fold higher than the concentrations in the stem epidermis and vascular bundles in the HE plants. In the leaves of the HE, Cd was mainly localized to the mesophyll and vascular cells rather than the epidermis. The distribution pattern of Cd in both stems and leaves of the HE was very similar to calcium but not zinc, irrespective of Cd exposure levels. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy analysis showed that Cd in the stems and leaves of the HE was mainly associated with oxygen ligands, and a larger proportion (about 70% in leaves and 47% in stems) of Cd was bound with malic acid, which was the major organic acid in the shoots of the plants. These results indicate that a majority of Cd in HE accumulates in the parenchyma cells, especially in stems, and is likely associated with calcium pathways and bound with organic acid (malate), which is indicative of a critical role of vacuolar sequestration of Cd in the HE S. alfredii.

Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Labavitch, John M.; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli; Hu, Hening; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Newville, Matt; Commisso, Joel; Brown, Patrick Hugh (UCD); (SLAC); (Zhejiang); (FSU); (UC)

2012-07-23

120

Cellular Sequestration of Cadmium in the Hyperaccumulator Plant Species Sedum alfredii1[C][W  

PubMed Central

Spatial imaging of cadmium (Cd) in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in vivo by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray microfluorescence imaging. Preferential Cd accumulation in the pith and cortex was observed in stems of the Cd hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE), whereas Cd was restricted to the vascular bundles in its contrasting nonhyperaccumulating ecotype. Cd concentrations of up to 15,000 ?g g?1 were measured in the pith cells, which was many fold higher than the concentrations in the stem epidermis and vascular bundles in the HE plants. In the leaves of the HE, Cd was mainly localized to the mesophyll and vascular cells rather than the epidermis. The distribution pattern of Cd in both stems and leaves of the HE was very similar to calcium but not zinc, irrespective of Cd exposure levels. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy analysis showed that Cd in the stems and leaves of the HE was mainly associated with oxygen ligands, and a larger proportion (about 70% in leaves and 47% in stems) of Cd was bound with malic acid, which was the major organic acid in the shoots of the plants. These results indicate that a majority of Cd in HE accumulates in the parenchyma cells, especially in stems, and is likely associated with calcium pathways and bound with organic acid (malate), which is indicative of a critical role of vacuolar sequestration of Cd in the HE S. alfredii.

Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Labavitch, John; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli; Hu, Hening; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Newville, Matt; Commisso, Joel; Brown, Patrick

2011-01-01

121

Spatial Imaging, Speciation, and Quantification of Selenium in theHyperaccumulator Plants Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata  

SciTech Connect

Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) up to 1% of plant dry weight. In the field, Se was mostly present in the young leaves and reproductive tissues of both hyperaccumulators. Microfocused scanning x-ray fluorescence mapping revealed that Se was hyperaccumulated in trichomes in young leaves of A. bisulcatus. None of 10 other elements tested were accumulated in trichomes. Micro x-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that Se in trichomes was present in the organic forms methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys; 53%) and {gamma}-glutamyl-MeSeCys (47%). In the young leaf itself, there was 30% inorganic Se (selenate and selenite) in addition to 70% MeSeCys. In young S. pinnata leaves, Se was highly concentrated near the leaf edge and surface in globular structures that were shown by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis to be mainly in epidermal cells. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed both MeSeCys (88%) and selenocystathionine (12%) inside leaf edges. In contrast, both the Se accumulator Brassica juncea and the nonaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana accumulated Se in their leaf vascular tissues and mesophyll cells. Se in hyperaccumulators appears to be mobile in both the xylem and phloem because Se-treated S. pinnata was found to be highly toxic to phloem-feeding aphids, and MeSeCys was present in the vascular tissues of a S. pinnata young leaf petiole as well as in guttation fluid. The compartmentation of organic selenocompounds in specific storage areas in the plant periphery appears to be a unique property of Se hyperaccumulators. The high concentration of Se in the plant periphery may contribute to Se tolerance and may also serve as an elemental plant defense mechanism.

Freeman, J.L.; Zhang, L.H.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; McGrath,S.P.; Pilon-Smits, E.A.H.

2006-09-01

122

Chelator effects on bioconcentration and translocation of cadmium by hyperaccumulators, Tagetes patula and Impatiens walleriana.  

PubMed

French marigold (Tagetes patula) and impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) can act as hyperaccumulator plants for removal of cadmium (Cd) from contaminated sites. In this study, an exponential decay model was used to predict the maximum removal of Cd from artificially spiked soils by impatiens. Application of a chelator, EDTA, was also assessed for effects on the bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation (TF) factors of the two species with four replicates. Exposure to Cd significantly decreased the biomass of two plant species. Impatiens and French marigold accumulated Cd at a rate of 200-1200 mg Cd kg(-1) in shoots, with BCFs and TFs of 8.5-15 and 1.7-2.6, respectively. PMID:22832002

Wei, Jhen-Lian; Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

2012-10-01

123

Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:22286610

Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

2012-04-01

124

A comprehensive set of transcript sequences of the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens  

PubMed Central

Noccaea caerulescens is an extremophile plant species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It has adapted to grow on soils containing high, normally toxic, concentrations of metals such as nickel, zinc, and cadmium. Next to being extremely tolerant to these metals, it is one of the few species known to hyperaccumulate these metals to extremely high concentrations in their aboveground biomass. In order to provide additional molecular resources for this model metal hyperaccumulator species to study and understand the mechanism of adaptation to heavy metal exposure, we aimed to provide a comprehensive database of transcript sequences for N. caerulescens. In this study, 23,830 transcript sequences (isotigs) with an average length of 1025 bp were determined for roots, shoots and inflorescences of N. caerulescens accession “Ganges” by Roche GS-FLEX 454 pyrosequencing. These isotigs were grouped into 20,378 isogroups, representing potential genes. This is a large expansion of the existing N. caerulescens transcriptome set consisting of 3705 unigenes. When translated and compared to a Brassicaceae proteome set, 22,232 (93.2%) of the N. caerulescens isotigs (corresponding to 19,191 isogroups) had a significant match and could be annotated accordingly. Of the remaining sequences, 98 isotigs resembled non-plant sequences and 1386 had no significant similarity to any sequence in the GenBank database. Among the annotated set there were many isotigs with similarity to metal homeostasis genes or genes for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Only for transcripts similar to Metallothionein3 (MT3), clear evidence for an additional copy was found. This comprehensive set of transcripts is expected to further contribute to the discovery of mechanisms used by N. caerulescens to adapt to heavy metal exposure.

Lin, Ya-Fen; Severing, Edouard I.; te Lintel Hekkert, Bas; Schijlen, Elio; Aarts, Mark G. M.

2014-01-01

125

Biosorption of cadmium by endophytic fungus (EF) Microsphaeropsis sp. LSE10 isolated from cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L.  

PubMed

A novel technology to obtain highly efficient biosorbent from the endophytes of a hyperaccumulator is reported. This technology is more convenient than the traditional method of obtaining biosorbents by experimentally screening many types of biomass by trial and error. Using this technology, endophytic fungus (EF) LSE10 was isolated from the cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. It was identified as Microsphaeropsis sp. When cultured in vitro, the biomass yield of this EF was more than twice that of none-endophytic fungus (NEF) Rhizopus cohnii. Subsequently, it was used as a biosorbent for biosorption of cadmium from the aqueous solution. The results showed that the maximum biosorption capacity was 247.5mg/g (2.2 mmol/g) which was much higher than those of other adsorbents, including biosorbents and activated carbon. Carboxyl, amino, sulphonate and hydroxyl groups on EF LSE10 surface were responsible for the biosorption of cadmium. PMID:19854641

Xiao, Xiao; Luo, Shenglian; Zeng, Guangming; Wei, Wanzhi; Wan, Yong; Chen, Liang; Guo, Hanjun; Cao, Zhe; Yang, Lixia; Chen, Jueliang; Xi, Qiang

2010-03-01

126

Differential generation of hydrogen peroxide upon exposure to zinc and cadmium in the hyperaccumulating plant specie (Sedum alfredii Hance)*  

PubMed Central

Sedum alfredii Hance has been identified as zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) co-hyperaccumulator. In this paper the relationships of Zn or Cd hyperaccumulation to the generation and the role of H2O2 in Sedum alfredii H. were examined. The results show that Zn and Cd contents in the shoots of Sedum alfredii H. treated with 1000 ?mol/L Zn2+ and/or 200 ?mol/L Cd2+ increased linearly within 15 d. Contents of total S, glutathione (GSH) and H2O2 in shoots also increased within 15 d, and then decreased. Total S and GSH contents in shoots were higher under Cd2+ treatment than under Zn2+ treatment. However, reverse trends of H2O2 content in shoots were obtained, in which much higher H2O2 content was observed in Zn2+-treated shoots than in Cd2+-treated shoots. Similarly, the microscopic imaging of H2O2 accumulation in leaves using H2O2 probe technique showed that much higher H2O2 accumulation was observed in the Zn2+-treated leaf than in the Cd2+-treated one. These results suggest that there are different responses in the generation of H2O2 upon exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ for the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii H. And this is the first report that the generation of H2O2 may play an important role in Zn hyperaccumulation in the leaves. Our results also imply that GSH may play an important role in the detoxification of dissociated Zn/Cd and the generation of H2O2.

Chao, Yue-en; Zhang, Min; Tian, Sheng-ke; Lu, Ling-li; Yang, Xiao-e

2008-01-01

127

Molecular cloning and characterization of phosphate (Pi) responsive genes in Gulf ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum L.): a Pi hyperaccumulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulf annual ryegrass has been identified as potential Pi hyperaccumulator, however the molecular mechanism remains largely\\u000a unknown. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) analysis was used to evaluate the phosphate (Pi) responsive genome\\u000a expression pattern changes in Gulf annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). Differential screening identified 384 putative Pi-starvation induced cDNAs. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that 116\\u000a cDNAs are nonredundant unigenes of

Perumal Venkatachalam; Ajay Jain; Shivendra Sahi; Kashchandra Raghothama

2009-01-01

128

Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.  

PubMed

Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 ?M Cu), 5-50 ?M Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 ?M induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 ?M Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola. PMID:23959253

Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

2013-10-15

129

Thermoinductive Regulation of Gibberellin Metabolism in Thlaspi arvense L. : I. Metabolism of [H]-ent-Kaurenoic Acid and [C]Gibberellin A(12)-Aldehyde.  

PubMed

Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is a winter annual crucifer with a cold requirement for stem elongation and flowering. In the present study, the metabolism of exogenous [(2)H]-ent-kaurenoic acid (KA) and [(14)C]-gibberellin A(12)-aldehyde (GA(12)-aldehyde) was compared in thermo- and noninduced plants. Thermoinduction greatly altered both quantitative and qualitative aspects of [(2)H]-KA metabolism in the shoot tips. The rate of disappearance of the parent compound was much greater in thermoinduced shoot tips. Moreover, there was 47 times more endogenous KA in noninduced than in thermoinduced shoot tips as determined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major metabolite of [(2)H]-KA in thermoinduced shoot tips was a monohydroxylated derivative of KA, while in noninduced shoot tips, the glucose ester of the hydroxy KA metabolite was the main product. Gibberellin A(9) (GA(9)) was the only GA in which the incorporation of deuterium was detected by GC-MS, and this was observed only in thermoinduced shoot tips. The amount of incorporation was small as indicated by the large dilution by endogenous GA(9). In contrast, thermo- and noninduced leaves metabolized exogenous [(2)H]-KA into GA(20) equally well, although the amount of conversion was also limited. These results are consistent with the suggestion (JD Metzger [1990] Plant Physiol 94: 000-000) that the conversion of KA in to GAs is under thermoinductive control only in the shoot tip, the site of perception for thermoinductive temperatures in field pennycress. There were essentially no differences in the qualitative or quantitative distribution of metabolites formed following the application of [(14)C]-GA(12)-aldehyde to the shoot tips of thermo- or noninduced plants. Thus, the apparent thermoinductive regulation of the KA metabolism into GAs is probably limited to the two metabolic steps involved in converting KA to GA(12)-aldehyde. PMID:16667682

Hazebroek, J P; Metzger, J D

1990-09-01

130

The metal transporter PgIREG1 from the hyperaccumulator Psychotria gabriellae is a candidate gene for nickel tolerance and accumulation.  

PubMed

Nickel is an economically important metal and phytotechnologies are being developed to limit the impact of nickel mining on the environment. More than 300 plant species are known to hyperaccumulate nickel. However, our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in nickel accumulation in plants is very limited because it has not yet been possible to study these hyperaccumulators at the genomic level. Here, we used next-generation sequencing technologies to sequence the transcriptome of the nickel hyperaccumulator Psychotria gabriellae of the Rubiaceae family, and used yeast and Arabidopsis as heterologous systems to study the activity of identified metal transporters. We characterized the activity of three metal transporters from the NRAMP and IREG/FPN families. In particular, we showed that PgIREG1 is able to confer nickel tolerance when expressed in yeast and in transgenic plants, where it localizes in the tonoplast. In addition, PgIREG1 shows higher expression in P. gabriellae than in the related non-accumulator species Psychotria semperflorens. Our results designate PgIREG1 as a candidate gene for nickel tolerance and hyperaccumulation in P. gabriellae. These results also show how next-generation sequencing technologies can be used to access the transcriptome of non-model nickel hyperaccumulators to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:24510940

Merlot, Sylvain; Hannibal, Laure; Martins, Sara; Martinelli, Laëtitia; Amir, Hamid; Lebrun, Michel; Thomine, Sébastien

2014-04-01

131

Mycorrhizal colonization affects the elemental distribution in roots of Ni-hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii Roessler.  

PubMed

The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the distribution and concentration of elements in roots of Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Berkheya coddii was studied. Micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) analysis revealed significant differences between AMF-inoculated and non-inoculated plants as well as between main and lateral roots. The accumulation of P, K, Mn and Zn in the cortical layer of lateral roots of inoculated plants confirmed the important role of AMF in uptake and accumulation of these elements. Higher concentration of P, K, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn in the vascular stele in roots of AMF-inoculated plants than in the non-inoculated ones indicates more efficient translocation of these elements to the aboveground parts of the plant. These findings indicate the necessity of including the influence of AMF in studies on the uptake of elements by plants and in industrial use of B. coddii for Ni extraction from polluted soils. PMID:23369753

Or?owska, El?bieta; Przyby?owicz, Wojciech; Orlowski, Dariusz; Mongwaketsi, Nametso P; Turnau, Katarzyna; Mesjasz-Przyby?owicz, Jolanta

2013-04-01

132

Silver release from decomposed hyperaccumulating Amanita solitaria fruit-body biomass strongly affects soil microbial community.  

PubMed

Interaction of Ag with communities of soil saprotrophic organisms was studied in two different soils using a metagenomic approach. Three levels of Ag were applied to the soil samples: 0, 0.008 and 0.505 ?g Ag/g soil. Silver was applied in mineral form as well as naturally bound in dry fruit-body biomass of the Ag-hyperaccumulating ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita solitaria. Contrasting behavior of fungi and bacteria in reaction to Ag dosages was observed. The majority of bacterial ribotypes tended to prefer the soil with low doses of Ag, the ribotypes of fungi were more abundant in untreated soils and soils treated with the highest Ag concentration. Organically bound and mineral forms of Ag did not differ substantially in their effects on microbes in samples. The results indicate that decomposing Ag-rich fungal biomass can significantly alter the soil microbiota. This can contribute to formation of spot-like non-homogeneities in soil microbial distribution. PMID:22684239

Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Soukupová, Lucie; Borovi?ka, Jan

2012-10-01

133

Characterization of arsenic-resistant endophytic bacteria from hyperaccumulators Pteris vittata and Pteris multifida.  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized As-resistant endophytic bacteria (AEB) from two arsenic hyperaccumulators. Their plant growth promoting traits and the relation between As tolerance and transformation were evaluated. A total of 41 and 33 AEB were isolated from Pteris vittata (PV) and Pteris multifida (PM) respectively. PV AEB represented 2genera while PM AEB comprised of 12 genera, with Bacillus sp. being the most dominant bacteria from both plants. All AEB had limited ability in solubilizing P and producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. All isolates tolerated 10mM arsenate (As(V)), with PV isolates being more tolerant to As(V) and PM more tolerant to arsenite (As(III)). Bacterial arsenic tolerance was related to their ability in As(III) oxidation and As(V) reduction as well as their ability to retain As in the biomass to a varying extent. Though AEB showed limited plant growth promoting traits, they were important in arsenic tolerance and speciation in plants. PMID:25065783

Zhu, Ling-Jia; Guan, Dong-Xing; Luo, Jun; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

2014-10-01

134

Genes induced in response to mercury-ion-exposure in heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sesbania drummondii.  

PubMed

Sesbania drummondii plants have been recognized as a potential mercury (Hg) hyperaccumulator. To identify genes modulated by Hg, two suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries (forward and reverse) were constructed. A total of 348 differentially expressed clones were isolated and 95 of them were identified as Hg responsive. Reverse Northern results showed that 31 clones from forward library were down-regulated and 64 clones from reverse library were up-regulated in Hg-treated plants. Sixty-seven of them showed high homology to genes with known or putative function, and 28 were uncharacterized genes. Two full-length cDNAs coding for a putative metallothionein type 2 protein (SdMT2) and an auxin responsive protein (SdARP) were isolated and characterized. The expression levels of SdMT2 and SdARP increased 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Results suggest that up-regulated expression of SdARP may contribute to the survival of Sesbania plants under mercury stress, whereas SdMT2 is likely to be involved in alleviation of Hg toxicity. The possible correlation between gene expression and heavy metal tolerance of Sesbania plants is discussed. PMID:19245025

Venkatachalam, P; Srivastava, A K; Raghothama, K G; Sahi, S V

2009-02-01

135

Accumulation and Distribution Characteristics of Zinc and Cadmium in the Hyperaccumulator Plant Sedum plumbizincicola.  

PubMed

Accumulation and distribution of Zn and Cd in the hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola were investigated in a hydroponic experiment. Mean Cd and Zn concentrations in shoots (7,010 and 18,400 mg kg(-1)) were about sevenfold and fivefold higher than those in roots (840 and 3,000 mg kg(-1)) after exposure to 100 ?M CdSO4 and 600 ?M ZnSO4, respectively. Cd and Zn concentrations in young leaves (4,330 and 9,820 mg kg(-1)) were about sixfold and twofold higher than those in mature leaves (636 and 2,620 mg kg(-1)), respectively. MicroPIXE analysis showed that Zn was predominantly localized in epidermal cells in both young and mature leaves, but large amounts of Zn occurred in mesophyll cells in young leaves. Leaf tissue fractionation showed that soluble and cell wall fractions were different at the two stages of leaf growth. Young and mature leaves of S. plumbizincicola also showed different accumulation and distribution characteristics for Zn and Cd. PMID:24789526

Cao, Dong; Zhang, Hongzheng; Wang, Yaodong; Zheng, Leina

2014-08-01

136

Selenium Hyperaccumulator Plants Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus Are Colonized by Se-Resistant, Se-Excluding Wasp and Beetle Seed Herbivores  

PubMed Central

Selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator plants can concentrate the toxic element Se up to 1% of shoot (DW) which is known to protect hyperaccumulator plants from generalist herbivores. There is evidence for Se-resistant insect herbivores capable of feeding upon hyperaccumulators. In this study, resistance to Se was investigated in seed chalcids and seed beetles found consuming seeds inside pods of Se-hyperaccumulator species Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata. Selenium accumulation, localization and speciation were determined in seeds collected from hyperaccumulators in a seleniferous habitat and in seed herbivores. Astragalus bisulcatus seeds were consumed by seed beetle larvae (Acanthoscelides fraterculus Horn, Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and seed chalcid larvae (Bruchophagus mexicanus, Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae). Stanleya pinnata seeds were consumed by an unidentified seed chalcid larva. Micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure (µXANES) and micro-X-Ray Fluorescence mapping (µXRF) demonstrated Se was mostly organic C-Se-C forms in seeds of both hyperaccumulators, and S. pinnata seeds contained ?24% elemental Se. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry of Se-compounds in S. pinnata seeds detected the C-Se-C compound seleno-cystathionine while previous studies of A. bisulcatus seeds detected the C-Se-C compounds methyl-selenocysteine and ?-glutamyl-methyl-selenocysteine. Micro-XRF and µXANES revealed Se ingested from hyperaccumulator seeds redistributed throughout seed herbivore tissues, and portions of seed C-Se-C were biotransformed into selenocysteine, selenocystine, selenodiglutathione, selenate and selenite. Astragalus bisulcatus seeds contained on average 5,750 µg Se g?1, however adult beetles and adult chalcid wasps emerging from A. bisulcatus seed pods contained 4–6 µg Se g?1. Stanleya pinnata seeds contained 1,329 µg Se g?1 on average; however chalcid wasp larvae and adults emerging from S. pinnata seed pods contained 9 and 47 µg Se g?1. The results suggest Se resistant seed herbivores exclude Se, greatly reducing tissue accumulation; this explains their ability to consume high-Se seeds without suffering toxicity, allowing them to occupy the unique niche offered by Se hyperaccumulator plants.

Freeman, John L.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Devonshire, Jean; McGrath, Steve P.; Quinn, Colin F.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

2012-01-01

137

In vivo localization of manganese in the hyperaccumulator Gossia bidwillii (Benth.) N. Snow & Guymer (Myrtaceae) by cryo-SEM/EDAX.  

PubMed

Gossia bidwillii (Myrtaceae) is a manganese (Mn)-hyperaccumulating tree native to subtropical eastern Australia. It typically contains foliar Mn levels in excess of 1% dry weight. However, in G. bidwillii and other Mn-hyperaccumulating species, the cellular and subcellular localization of Mn has not been measured. Quantitative in vivo cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was used to localize Mn and other elements in tissue collected from mature trees growing in a natural population. Cryo-SEM showed that the leaf mesophyll is differentiated as a double-layer palisade mesophyll above spongy mesophyll. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the palisade and epidermal cells are highly vacuolated. EDAX data were used to estimate in situ vacuolar Mn concentrations of all cell types in fresh cryo-fixed leaf tissues. The highest average vacuolar Mn concentration of over 500 mM was found in the upper-layer palisade mesophyll, while the lowest concentration of around 100 mM was found in the spongy mesophyll. Qualitative in vivo cryo-SEM/EDAX was employed to further investigate the spatial distribution of Mn in fresh leaf tissues and young bark tissue, which was also found to have a high Mn concentration. It is concluded that Mn distribution in G. bidwillii is quantitatively different to metal distribution in other hyperaccumulating species where the highest localized concentrations of these elements occur in non-photosynthmetic tissues such as epidermal cells and associated dermal structures including trichomes and leaf hairs. PMID:17087483

Fernando, Denise R; Batianoff, George N; Baker, Alan J; Woodrow, Ian E

2006-05-01

138

[Effects of manganese on antioxidant system of manganese-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana L.].  

PubMed

A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the growth, manganese (Mn) accumulation, lipid peroxidation, H2O2 concentration, and antioxidant system of Phytolacca americana L. exposed to different concentration Mn. With increasing Mn concentration in the medium, the plant Mn content increased significantly, and the Mn accumulation was in the sequence of leaf > stem > root. Comparing with the control, low concentration (5 mmol x L(-1)) Mn promoted the plant growth, decreased the leaf H2O2 concentration, and had less effects on the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content, while high concentration (> or = 10 mmol x L(-1)) Mn led to a remarkable increase of leaf H2O2 and MDA contents, indicating an evident oxidative damage occurred in leaves. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase and the content of reduced ascorbate increased with increasing Mn concentration, while the SOD activity was inhibited significantly at 5 mmol x L(-1) of Mn but enhanced at > or = 10 mmol x L(-1) of Mn. The activities of catalase and peroxidase and the content of reduced glutathione increased at 5-10 mmol x L(-1) of Mn but dropped markedly at 20 mmol x L(-1) of Mn. All the results suggested that the Mn-induced oxidative damage and Mn accumulation might be responsible for the growth inhibition of P. americana plants at high Mn exposure, and the increase of antioxidative enzyme activities and low molecular antioxidant contents was, at least partly, contributed to the Mn tolerance and hyperaccumulation of P. americana. However, due to their different Mn concentration-dependent change modes, these antioxidants played different roles in the Mn tolerance of P. americana. PMID:20077708

Wang, Hai-Hua; Feng, Tao; Peng, Xi-Xu; Yan, Ming-Li; Tang, Xin-Ke

2009-10-01

139

Cd-induced changes in leaf proteome of the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca americana.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic to all organisms. Soil contamination by Cd has become an increasing problem worldwide due to the intensive use of Cd-containing phosphate fertilizers and industrial zinc mining. Phytolacca americana L. is a Cd hyperaccumulator plant that can grow in Cd-polluted areas. However, the molecular basis for its remarkable Cd resistance is not known. In this study, the effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in P.americana was investigated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). 2-DE profiles of leaf proteins from both control and Cd-treated (400?M, 48h) seedlings were compared quantitatively using ImageMaster software. In total, 32 differentially expressed protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry coupled to protein database search, corresponding to 25 unique gene products. Of those 14 were enhanced/induced while 11 reduced under Cd treatment. The alteration pattern of protein expression was verified for several key proteins involved in distinct metabolic pathways by immuno-blot analysis. Major changes were found for the proteins involved in photosynthetic pathways as well as in the sulfur- and GSH-related metabolisms. One-third of the up-regulated proteins were attributed to transcription, translation and molecular chaperones including a protein belonging to the calreticulin family. Other proteins include antioxidative enzymes such as 2-cys-peroxidase and oxidoreductases. The results of this proteomic analysis provide the first and primary information regarding the molecular basis of Cd hypertolerance in P. americana. PMID:21723586

Zhao, Le; Sun, Yong-Le; Cui, Su-Xia; Chen, Mei; Yang, Hao-Meng; Liu, Hui-Min; Chai, Tuan-Yao; Huang, Fang

2011-09-01

140

Nitrate facilitates cadmium uptake, transport and accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.  

PubMed

The aims of this study are to investigate whether and how the nitrogen form (nitrate (NO3 (-)) versus ammonium (NH4 (+))) influences cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation and subsequent Cd phytoextraction by the hyperaccumulator species Sedum plumbizincicola. Plants were grown hydroponically with N supplied as either NO3 (-) or NH4 (+). Short-term (36 h) Cd uptake and translocation were determined innovatively and quantitatively using a positron-emitting (107)Cd tracer and positron-emitting tracer imaging system. The results show that the rates of Cd uptake by roots and transport to the shoots in the NO3 (-) treatment were more rapid than in the NH4 (+) treatment. After uptake for 36 h, 5.6 (0.056 ?M) and 29.0 % (0.290 ?M) of total Cd in the solution was non-absorbable in the NO3 (-) and NH4 (+) treatments, respectively. The local velocity of Cd transport was approximately 1.5-fold higher in roots (3.30 cm h(-1)) and 3.7-fold higher in shoots (10.10 cm h(-1)) of NO3 (-)- than NH4 (+)-fed plants. Autoradiographic analysis of (109)Cd reveals that NO3 (-) nutrition enhanced Cd transportation from the main stem to branches and young leaves. Moreover, NO3 (-) treatment increased Cd, Ca and K concentrations but inhibited Fe and P in the xylem sap. In a 21-day hydroponic culture, shoot biomass and Cd concentration were 1.51 and 2.63 times higher in NO3 (-)- than in NH4 (+)-fed plants. We conclude that compared with NH4 (+), NO3 (-) promoted the major steps in the transport route followed by Cd from solution to shoots in S. plumbizincicola, namely its uptake by roots, xylem loading, root-to-shoot translocation in the xylem and uploading to the leaves. S. plumbizincicola prefers NO3 (-) nutrition to NH4 (+) for Cd phytoextraction. PMID:23589260

Hu, Pengjie; Yin, Yong-Gen; Ishikawa, Satoru; Suzui, Nobuo; Kawachi, Naoki; Fujimaki, Shu; Igura, Masato; Yuan, Cheng; Huang, Jiexue; Li, Zhu; Makino, Tomoyuki; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Wu, Longhua

2013-09-01

141

Genes associated with heavy metal tolerance and accumulation in Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri: a genomic survey with cDNA microarray.  

PubMed

To survive in variable soil conditions, plants possess homeostatic mechanisms to maintain a suitable concentration of essential heavy metal ions. Certain plants, inhabiting heavy metal-enriched or -contaminated soil, thus are named hyperaccumulators. Studying hyperaccumulators has great potential to provide information for phytoremediation. To better understand the hyperaccumulating mechanism, we used an Arabidopsis cDNA microarray to compare the gene expression of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri and a nonhyperaccumulator, Arabidopsis thaliana. By analyzing the expression of metal-chelators, antioxidation-related genes, and transporters, we revealed a few novel molecular features. We found that metallothionein 2b and 3, APX and MDAR4 in the ascorbate-glutathione pathway, and certain metal transporters in P(1B)-type ATPase, ZIP, Nramp, and CDF families, are expressed at higher levels in A. halleri than in A. thaliana. We further validated that the enzymatic activity of ascorbate peroxidase and class III peroxidases are highly elevated in A. halleri. This observation positively correlates with the higher ability of A. halleri to detoxify H2O2 produced by cadmium and paraquat treatments. We thus suggest that higher peroxidase activities contribute to the heavy metal tolerance in A. halleri by alleviating the ROS damage. We have revealed genes that could be candidates for the future engineering of plants with large biomass for use in phytoremediation. PMID:17144312

Chiang, Huai-Chih; Lo, Jing-Chi; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

2006-11-01

142

Complexation with dissolved organic matter and mobility control of heavy metals in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.  

PubMed

The complexation of Zn, Cd and Pb with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and a non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum alfredii was measured using resin equilibration method. After the growth of HE S. alfredii, the rhizosphere soil pH was reduced by 0.27-0.33 units, due to enhanced DOM derived from root exudation. For both ecotypes of S. alfredii, the fraction of free metal as a percentage of soluble metal varied from 22.1 to 42.5% for Zn(2+), from 8.1 to 15.5% for Cd(2+), and from 4.5 to 10.4% for Pb(2+). Resin equilibration experiment results indicated that HE-DOM had greater ability to form complexes with Zn, Cd and Pb than NHE-DOM, Visual MINTEQ model gave excellent predictions of the complexation of Zn and Cd by DOM (R(2) > 0.97). DOM in the rhizosphere of HE S. alfredii could significantly increase metal mobility through the formation of soluble DOM-metal complexes. PMID:23938448

Li, Tingqiang; Tao, Qi; Liang, Chengfeng; Shohag, M J I; Yang, Xiaoe; Sparks, Donald L

2013-11-01

143

Improved cadmium uptake and accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii: the impact of citric acid and tartaric acid* #  

PubMed Central

The elucidation of a natural strategy for metal hyperaccumulation enables the rational design of technologies for the clean-up of metal-contaminated soils. Organic acid has been suggested to be involved in toxic metallic element tolerance, translocation, and accumulation in plants. The impact of exogenous organic acids on cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation in the zinc (Zn)/Cd co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in the present study. By the addition of organic acids, short-term (2 h) root uptake of 109Cd increased significantly, and higher 109Cd contents in roots and shoots were noted 24 h after uptake, when compared to controls. About 85% of the 109Cd taken up was distributed to the shoots in plants with citric acid (CA) treatments, as compared with 75% within controls. No such effect was observed for tartaric acid (TA). Reduced growth under Cd stress was significantly alleviated by low CA. Long-term application of the two organic acids both resulted in elevated Cd in plants, but the effects varied with exposure time and levels. The results imply that CA may be involved in the processes of Cd uptake, translocation and tolerance in S. alfredii, whereas the impact of TA is mainly on the root uptake of Cd.

Lu, Ling-li; Tian, Sheng-ke; Yang, Xiao-e; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Ting-qiang

2013-01-01

144

Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata.  

PubMed

Amending soils with Se-hyperaccumulator plant derived sources of selenium (Se) may be useful for increasing the Se content in food crops in Se-deficient regions of the world. In this study we evaluated total Se and the different chemical species of Se in broccoli and carrots grown in soils amended with ground shoots of the Se-hyperaccumulator Stanleyapinnata. With increasing application rates of S. pinnata, total plant Se concentrations increased to nutritionally ideal levels inside edible parts. Selenium compounds in aqueous extracts were analyzed by SAX-HPLC-ICPMS and identified as a variety of mainly organic-Se forms. Together with bulk Se K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis performed on broccoli florets, carrot roots and shoots, dried ground S. pinnata, and the amended soil at post-plant, we demonstrate that Se-enriched S. pinnata is valuable as a soil amendment for enriching broccoli and carrots with healthful forms of organic-Se. PMID:25053099

Bañuelos, Gary S; Arroyo, Irvin; Pickering, Ingrid J; Yang, Soo In; Freeman, John L

2015-01-01

145

Tonoplast- and plasma membrane-localized aquaporin-family transporters in blue hydrangea sepals of aluminum hyperaccumulating plant.  

PubMed

Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla) is tolerant of acidic soils in which toxicity generally arises from the presence of the soluble aluminum (Al) ion. When hydrangea is cultivated in acidic soil, its resulting blue sepal color is caused by the Al complex formation of anthocyanin. The concentration of vacuolar Al in blue sepal cells can reach levels in excess of approximately 15 mM, suggesting the existence of an Al-transport and/or storage system. However, until now, no Al transporter has been identified in Al hyperaccumulating plants, animals or microorganisms. To identify the transporter being responsible for Al hyperaccumulation, we prepared a cDNA library from blue sepals according to the sepal maturation stage, and then selected candidate genes using a microarray analysis and an in silico study. Here, we identified the vacuolar and plasma membrane-localized Al transporters genes vacuolar Al transporter (VALT) and plasma membrane Al transporter 1 (PALT1), respectively, which are both members of the aquaporin family. The localization of each protein was confirmed by the transient co-expression of the genes. Reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblotting results indicated that VALT and PALT1 are highly expressed in sepal tissue. The overexpression of VALT and PALT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana conferred Al-tolerance and Al-sensitivity, respectively. PMID:22952644

Negishi, Takashi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kanai, Masatake; Mano, Shoji; Nishimura, Mikio; Yoshida, Kumi

2012-01-01

146

Root and shoot transcriptome analysis of two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens uncovers the role of NcNramp1 in Cd hyperaccumulation.  

PubMed

The Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens, has been studied extensively for its ability to accumulate high levels of Zn and Cd in its leaves. Previous studies have indicated that the Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation trait exhibited by this species involves different transport and tolerance mechanisms. It has also been well documented that certain ecotypes of N. caerulescens are much better Cd hyperaccumulators than others. However, there does not seem to be much ecotypic variation for Zn hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens. In this study we employed a comparative transcriptomics approach to look at root and shoot gene expression in Ganges and Prayon plants in response to Cd stress to identify transporter genes that were more highly expressed in either the roots or shoots of the superior Cd accumulator, Ganges. Comparison of the transcriptomes from the two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens identified a number of genes that encoded metal transporters that were more highly expressed in the Ganges ecotype in response to Cd stress. Characterization of one of these transporters, NcNramp1, showed that it is involved in the influx of Cd across the endodermal plasma membrane and thus may play a key role in Cd flux into the stele and root-to-shoot Cd transport. NcNramp1 may be one of the main transporters involved in Cd hyperaccumulation in N. caerulescens and copy number variation appears to be the main reason for high NcNramp1 gene expression underlying the increased Cd accumulation in the Ganges ecotype. PMID:24547775

Milner, Matthew J; Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Yamaji, Naoki; Yokosho, Kengo; Craft, Eric; Fei, Zhangjun; Ebbs, Stephen; Clemencia Zambrano, M; Ma, Jian Feng; Kochian, Leon V

2014-05-01

147

Arsenic hyperaccumulation and localization in the pinnule and stipe tissues of the gold-dust fern ( Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link var. austroamericana (Domin) Farw.) using quantitative micro-PIXE spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial distribution patterns of arsenic (As) in the tissues of a lesser-known As hyperaccumulating fern Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link var. austroamericana (Domin) Farw. (Pteridaceae) have been studied. Quantitative micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectroscopy\\u000a was employed to examine As localization in pinnule and stipe cross-sections of this species. In addition, As hyperaccumulation\\u000a status of P. calomelanos var. austroamericana was compared with

Anthony G. Kachenko; Naveen P. Bhatia; Balwant Singh; Rainer Siegele

2007-01-01

148

Elevated CO2 concentration increase the mobility of Cd and Zn in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.  

PubMed

The effects of elevated CO2 on metal species and mobility in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator are not well understood. We report an experiment designed to compare the effects of elevated CO2 on Cd/Zn speciation and mobility in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and a non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum alfredii grown under ambient (350 ?l l(-1)) or elevated (800 ?l l(-1)) CO2 conditions. No difference in solution pH of NHE was observed between ambient and elevated CO2 treatments. For HE, however, elevated CO2 reduced soil solution pH by 0.22 unit, as compared to ambient CO2 conditions. Elevated CO2 increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic acid levels in soil solution of both ecotypes, but the increase in HE solution was much greater than in NHE solution. After the growth of HE, the concentrations of Cd and Zn in soil solution decreased significantly regardless of CO2 level. The visual MINTEQ speciation model predicted that Cd/Zn-DOM complexes were the dominant species in soil solutions, followed by free Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) species for both ecotypes. However, Cd/Zn-DOM complexes fraction in soil solution of HE was increased by the elevated CO2 treatment (by 8.01 % for Cd and 8.47 % for Zn, respectively). Resin equilibration experiment results indicated that DOM derived from the rhizosphere of HE under elevated CO2 (HE-DOM-E) (90 % for Cd and 73 % for Zn, respectively) showed greater ability to form complexes with Cd and Zn than those under ambient CO2 (HE-DOM-A) (82 % for Cd and 61 % for Zn, respectively) in the undiluted sample. HE-DOM-E showed greater ability to extract Cd and Zn from soil than HE-DOM-A. It was concluded that elevated CO2 could increase the mobility of Cd and Zn due to the enhanced formation of DOM-metal complexes in the rhizosphere of HE S. alfredii. PMID:24453019

Li, Tingqiang; Tao, Qi; Liang, Chengfeng; Yang, Xiaoe

2014-05-01

149

Seed germination of a newly discovered hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. affected by illumination and seed-soaking reagent.  

PubMed

Solanum nigrum is a newly found Cd-hyperaccumulator which showed very high remediation efficiency in polluted soil. Seed germination experiments with different illumination and seed-soaking reagents were conducted in constant temperature box and greenhouse with soil as burgeon base. The results showed that the germination rate with alternating light/dark photoperiod was about twice of that without lighting (p < 0.05), suggesting that illumination is one of the important conditions for seed germination of S. nigrum. All treatments with seed-soaking reagents significantly increased the seed germination rate of S. nigrum (p < 0.05). Treatment with H2O2 (0.1%) had the shortest germination time. The germination rate of seeds that were not washed in water following soaking was 2-3 times higher than that of seeds that were washed after soaking. PMID:19497664

Wei, Shuhe; Hu, Yahu; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Zhou, Qixing; Niu, Rongcheng; Li, Yunmeng; Wu, Zhijie; Sun, Tieheng

2009-10-30

150

Elucidating the selenium and arsenic metabolic pathways following exposure to the non-hyperaccumulating Chlorophytum comosum, spider plant  

PubMed Central

Although many studies have investigated the metabolism of selenium and arsenic in hyperaccumulating plants for phytoremediation purposes, few have explored non-hyperaccumulating plants as a model for general contaminant exposure to plants. In addition, the result of simultaneous supplementation with selenium and arsenic has not been investigated in plants. In this study, Chlorophytum comosum, commonly known as the spider plant, was used to investigate the metabolism of selenium and arsenic after single and simultaneous supplementation. Size exclusion and ion-pairing reversed phase liquid chromatography were coupled to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to obtain putative metabolic information of the selenium and arsenic species in C. comosum after a mild aqueous extraction. The chromatographic results depict that selenium and arsenic species were sequestered in the roots and generally conserved upon translocation to the leaves. The data suggest that selenium was directly absorbed by C. comosum roots when supplemented with SeVI, but a combination of passive and direct absorption occurred when supplemented with SeIV due to the partial oxidation of SeIV to SeVI in the rhizosphere. Higher molecular weight selenium species were more prevalent in the roots of plants supplemented with SeIV, but in the leaves of plants supplemented with SeVI due to an increased translocation rate. When supplemented as AsIII, arsenic is proposed to be passively absorbed as AsIII and partially oxidized to AsV in the plant root. Although total elemental analysis demonstrates a selenium and arsenic antagonism, a compound containing selenium and arsenic was not present in the general aqueous extract of the plant.

Afton, Scott E.; Catron, Brittany; Caruso, Joseph A.

2009-01-01

151

Hyperaccumulator of Pb in native plants growing on Peruvian mine tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailings usually provide an unfavourable substrate for plant growth because of their extreme pH, low organic matter and nutrients, high concentrations of trace elements and physical disturbance, such as bad soil structure, and low water availability. Heavy metal contamination has also been one serious problem in the vicinity of mine sites due to the discharge and dispersion of mine-waste materials into the ecosystem. Moreover, Pb is considered a target metal when undertaking soil remediation, because it is usually quite immobile and not readily accumulated in upper plant parts. The presence of vegetation reduces water and wind erosion, which may decrease the downward migration of contaminants into the groundwater and improve aesthetical aspects. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this perspective, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations, have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Efficient phytoextraction requires plant species combining both high metal tolerance and elevated capacity for metal uptake and metal translocation to easily harvestable plant organs (e.g. shoots). Soil and plant samples were taken in Peru, at a polymetallic mine (mainly Ag, Pb and Cu) in Cajamarca Province, Hualgayoc district. Top soils (0-20 cm) were analysed for physical and chemical properties by standard methods. Total Pb concentrations in top soils were determined by ICP-OES. Pb content in plants were analysed separately (aerial and root system) by ICP-MS. Ti content was used as an indicator for contamination of plant samples with soil particles. Translocation Factor (TF) and Shoot Accumulation Factor (SAF) were determined to assess the tolerance strategies developed by these species and to evaluate their potential for phytoremediation purposes. The non-polluted soils had near neutral pH (6.8±0.1), a great content of organic carbon (42 ± 4.0 g•kg?1) and a silt loamy texture. Soil and plant samples were taken at four locations (CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4) with different levels of Pb. The Pb soil content (mean ± standard deviation) in mg•kg?1 is as follows: CA1 3992 ± 301; CA2 10128 ± 2247, CA3 14197 ± 895, CA4 16060 ± 810. The non-polluted value around the mine was Pb 124 mg•kg?1. Unusual elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg?1) and TF greater than one were detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens). The location CA4 has the maximum content of Pb in the shoots of Ageratina sp. (5045±77 mg•kg?1), C. apalothica (3367±188 mg•kg?1), E. denticulatum (13599±848 mg•kg?1), T. officinalis (2533±47 mg•kg?1) and T. repens (2839±231 mg•kg?1). However, the BF (Bioaccumulation Factor) was smaller than one. Despite the low BF index, the great TFs for Pb indicate that these plant species effectively translocate this metal (i.e., 2.4 for Ageratina sp., 2.3 for C. apalothica, 1.6 for T. repens, 1.5 for A. alata, 1.3 for T. officinalis and 1.2 for E. denticulatum). It seems that the BF is not a reliable index when the metal soil concentration is extremely large. Controlled-environment studies must be performed to definitively confirm the Pb hyperaccumulation character of cited plant species.

Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Boluda, Rafael; Tume, Pedro; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sanchez, Isidoro

2014-05-01

152

Accumulation of an organic anticancer selenium compound in a transgenic Solanaceous species shows wider applicability of the selenocysteine methyltransferase transgene from selenium hyperaccumulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance to high selenium (Se) soils in Se-hyperaccumulating plant species is correlated with the ability to biosynthesise\\u000a methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), due to the activity of selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT). In mammals, inclusion of MeSeCys\\u000a in the diet reduces the incidence of certain cancers, so increasing the range of crop plants that can produce this compound\\u000a is an attractive biotechnology target. However, in

Marian J. McKenzie; Donald A. Hunter; Ranjith Pathirana; Lyn M. Watson; Nigel I. Joyce; Adam J. Matich; Daryl D. Rowan; David A. Brummell

2009-01-01

153

Characterization of Ni-resistant bacteria in the rhizosphere of the hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of 184 isolates from rhizosphere and bulk soil samples taken from the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, grown in a Ni-rich serpentine soil, was determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Restriction digestion of the 16S rRNA gene\\u000a was used to identify 44 groups. Representatives of each of these groups were placed within the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria by

R. A. I. Abou-Shanab; P. van Berkum; J. S. Angle; T. A. Delorme; R. L. Chaney; H. A. Ghozlan; K. Ghanem; H. Moawad

2010-01-01

154

Quantitative elemental localisation in leaves and stems of nickel hyperaccumulating shrub Hybanthusfloribundus subsp. floribundus using micro-PIXE spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybanthusfloribundus (Lindl.) F.Muell. subsp. floribundus is a native Australian nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulating shrub and a promising species for rehabilitation and phytoremediation of Ni tailings. Spatial localisation and quantification of Ni in leaf and stem tissues of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus was studied using micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectroscopy. Young plants, grown in a potting mix under controlled glasshouse conditions were exposed to Ni concentrations of 0 and 26 mM kg -1 for 20 weeks. Leaf and stem samples were hand-sectioned and freeze-dried prior to micro-PIXE analysis. Elemental distribution maps of leaves revealed Ni concentration of 7800 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) in whole leaf sections, which was identical to the bulk tissue analysis. Elemental maps showed that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermis (10,000 mg kg -1 DW) and reached a maximum of up to 10,000 mg kg -1 DW in the leaf margin. Freeze-dried stem sections from the same plants contained lower Ni than leaf tissues (1800 mg kg -1 versus 7800 mg kg -1 DW, respectively), however did not resolve a clear pattern of compartmentalisation across different anatomical regions. Our results suggest localisation in epidermal cells is an important physiological mechanism involved in Ni accumulation and tolerance in leaves of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus.

Kachenko, Anthony G.; Singh, Balwant; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer

2008-02-01

155

Impaired leaf CO2 diffusion mediates Cd-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata.  

PubMed

Mechanisms of cadmium (Cd)-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata were investigated using photosynthesis limitation analysis. P. divaricata seedlings were grown in nutrient solution containing 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, or 75 ?M Cd for 2 weeks. Total limitations to photosynthesis (TL) increased from 0% at 5 ?M Cd to 68.8% at 75 ?M Cd. CO2 diffusional limitation (DL) made the largest contribution to TL, accounting for 93-98% of TL in the three highest Cd treatments, compared to just 2-7% of TL attributable to biochemical limitation (BL). Microscopic imaging revealed significantly decreased stomatal density and mesophyll thickness in the three highest Cd treatments. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters related to photosynthetic biochemistry (Fv/Fm, NPQ, ?PSII, and qP) were not significantly decreased by increased Cd supply. Our results suggest that increased DL in leaves is the main cause of Cd-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in P. divaricata, possibly due to suppressed function of mesophyll and stomata. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that Cd supply had little effect on photochemistry parameters, suggesting that the PSII reaction centers are not a main target of Cd inhibition of photosynthesis in P. divaricata. PMID:24077231

Tang, Lu; Ying, Rong-Rong; Jiang, Dan; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Morel, Jean-Louis; Tang, Ye-Tao; Qiu, Rong-Liang

2013-12-01

156

The Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale uses Complexation with Nitrogen and Oxygen Donor Ligands for Ni Transport and Storage  

SciTech Connect

The Kotodesh genotype of the nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale was examined to determine the compartmentalization and internal speciation of Ni, and other elements, in an effort to ascertain the mechanism used by this plant to tolerate extremely high shoot (stem and leaf) Ni concentrations. Plants were grown either hydroponically or in Ni enriched soils from an area surrounding an historic Ni refinery in Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and synchrotron based micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) spectroscopy were used to determine the metal distribution and co-localization and synchrotron X-ray and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopies were used to determine the Ni speciation in plant parts and extracted sap. Nickel is concentrated in the dermal leaf and stem tissues of A. murale bound primarily to malate along with other low molecular weight organic ligands and possibly counter anions (e.g., sulfate). Ni is present in the plant sap and vasculature bound to histidine, malate and other low molecular weight compounds. The data presented herein supports a model in which Ni is transported from the roots to the shoots complexed with histidine and stored within the plant leaf dermal tissues complexed with malate, and other low molecular weight organic acids or counter-ions.

McNear, Jr., D.; Chanay, R; Sparks, D

2010-01-01

157

Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in Hyperaccumulating Ecotype of Sedum alfredii under Different Heavy Metals Stresses  

PubMed Central

Real-time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for accurate analysis of gene expression in several biological systems as well as under different experimental conditions. Although with high sensitivity, specificity and broad dynamic range, this method requires suitable reference genes for transcript normalization in order to guarantee reproducible and meaningful results. In the present study, we evaluated five traditional housekeeping genes and five novel reference genes in Hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii, a well known hyperaccumulator for heavy metals phytoremediation, under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses of seven different durations. The expression stability of these ten candidates were determined with three programs - geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The results showed that all the selected reference genes except for SAND could be used for RT-qPCR normalization. Among them UBC9 and TUB were ranked as the most stable candidates across all samples by three programs together. For the least stable reference genes, however, BestKeeper produced different results compared with geNorm and NormFinder. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of PCS under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses were assessed using UBC9 and TUB respectively, and similar trends were obtained from the results of the two groups. The distinct expression patterns of PCS indicated that various strategies could be taken by plants in adaption to different heavy metals stresses. This study will provide appropriate reference genes for further gene expression quantification using RT-qPCR in Hyperaccumulator S. alfredii.

Liu, Mingying; Qiao, Guirong; Jiang, Jing; Zhuo, Renying

2013-01-01

158

Mixed arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal application to improve growth and arsenic accumulation of Pteris vittata (As hyperaccumulator) grown in As-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of three types of single inoculum [indigenous mycorrhizas (IM) isolated from As mine, Glomus mosseae (GM) and Glomus intraradices (GI)] and two types of mixed inoculum (mixed with IM and either GM or GI) on the growth response of Pteris vittata (hyperaccumulator) and Cynodon dactylon (non-hyperaccumulator) at three levels of As concentrations (0, 100 and 200mgkg(-1)). Both mycorrhizal plants exhibited significantly higher biomass, and N and P accumulation in its tissue than the control. Among the mycorrhizal inoculum, the mixed inoculum IM/GM promoted substantially higher mycorrhizal colonization and arsenate reductase activity in P. vittata than C. dactylon, among all As levels. The portion of Paris arbuscular mycorrhizal structure (observed in colonized roots) together with the highest As translocation factor of 10.2 in P. vittata inoculated with IM/GM was also noted. It was deduced that IM/GM inoculum may be the best choice for field inoculation at any contaminated lands as the inoculum exhibited better adaptation to variable environmental conditions and hence benefited the host plants. PMID:23755987

Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Ye, Z H; Cheung, K C; Yung, K K L

2013-08-01

159

Phytoextraction of Zn and Cu from Sewage Sludge and Impact on Agronomic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of elevated concentrations of heavy metals limits the usage of sewage sludge as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Experiments were carried out to examine the extent to which seven plant species phytoextracted Zn and Cu from dewatered sludge. The hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Sedum alfredii showed the greatest removal of Zn, while shoots and tubers of two species

Liu Xiaomel; Wu Qttang; M. K. Banks; S. D. Ebbs

2005-01-01

160

Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, March 20, 1997--June 19, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This laboratory has been involved in a collaborative project focusing on a range of issues related to the phytoremediation of heavy metal-and radionuclide- contaminated soils. While much of the research has been fundamental in nature, involving physiological and molecular characterizations of the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation in plants, the laboratory is also investigating more practical issues related to phytoremediation. A central issue in this latter research has been the identification of amendments capable of increasing the bioavailability and subsequent phytoextraction of radionuclides. The results described here detail these efforts for uranium and Cs-137. A study was also conducted on a Cs-137 contaminated site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which allowed application of the laboratory and greenhouse results to a field setting.

Kochian, L.

1997-11-01

161

Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species, Quarterly technical progress report, December 20, 1995--March 20, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Although the period covered by this progress report began on December 20, 1994, which was the date that DOE approved the Interagency Agreement, the agreement was not approved by USDA until January 9, 1995 and the first scientists working on the project were not hired until February 1, 1995. The first goal of the research supported by the Interagency Agreement is to use hydroponic techniques to identify plant species and genotypes with potential for heavy metal hyperaccumulation for planting on a test site at Silverbow Creek and for radionuclide ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation on a test site at INEL, Idaho, later this year. The second goal of this research is to identify soil amendment procedures that will enhance the bioavailability of heavy metals and radionuclides in the soil without increasing the movement of the contaminants of concern (COC`s) into the groundwater. Our initial research covered in this report focuses on the first goal.

Kochian, L.; Brady, D.; Last, M.; Ebbs, S.

1995-12-01

162

Accumulation of an organic anticancer selenium compound in a transgenic Solanaceous species shows wider applicability of the selenocysteine methyltransferase transgene from selenium hyperaccumulators.  

PubMed

Tolerance to high selenium (Se) soils in Se-hyperaccumulating plant species is correlated with the ability to biosynthesise methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), due to the activity of selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT). In mammals, inclusion of MeSeCys in the diet reduces the incidence of certain cancers, so increasing the range of crop plants that can produce this compound is an attractive biotechnology target. However, in the non-Se accumulator Arabidopsis, overexpression of SMT does not result in biosynthesis of MeSeCys from selenate because the rate at which selenate is reduced to selenite by ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) is low. This limitation is less problematic in other species of the Brassicaceae that can produce MeSeCys naturally. We investigated the potential for biosynthesis of MeSeCys in other plant families using Nicotiana tabacum L., a member of the Solanaceae. When plants were watered with 200 microM selenate, overexpression of a SMT transgene caused a 2- to 4-fold increase in Se accumulation (resulting in increased numbers of leaf lesions and areas of necrosis), production of MeSeCys (up to 20% of total Se) and generation of volatile dimethyl diselenide derived directly from MeSeCys. Despite the greatly increased accumulation of total Se, this did not result in increased Se toxicity effects on growth. Overexpression of ATPS did not increase Se accumulation from selenate. Accordingly, lines overexpressing both ATPS and SMT did not show a further increase in total Se accumulation or in leaf toxicity symptoms relative to overexpression of SMT alone, but directed a greater proportion of Se into MeSeCys. This work demonstrates that the production of the cancer-preventing compound MeSeCys in plants outside the Brassicaceae is possible. We conclude that while the SMT gene from Se hyperaccumulators can probably be utilised universally to increase the metabolism of Se into MeSeCys, the effects of enhancing ATPS activity will vary depending on the species involved. PMID:19051051

McKenzie, Marian J; Hunter, Donald A; Pathirana, Ranjith; Watson, Lyn M; Joyce, Nigel I; Matich, Adam J; Rowan, Daryl D; Brummell, David A

2009-06-01

163

Bioremediation of Cd and carbendazim co-contaminated soil by Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii associated with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation strategy for cadmium (Cd) and carbendazim co-contaminated soil using a hyperaccumulator plant (Sedum alfredii) combined with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Paracoccus sp., Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas sp.). A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions for 180 days with S. alfredii and/or carbendazim-degrading strains grown in soil artificially polluted with two levels of contaminants (low level, 1 mg kg(-1) Cd and 21 mg kg(-1) carbendazim; high level, 6 mg kg(-1) Cd and 117 mg kg(-1) carbendazim). Cd removal efficiencies were 32.3-35.1 % and 7.8-8.2 % for the low and high contaminant level, respectively. Inoculation with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains significantly (P < 0.05) increased Cd removal efficiencies at the low level. The carbendazim removal efficiencies increased by 32.1-42.5 % by the association of S. alfredii with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains, as compared to control, regardless of contaminant level. Cultivation with S. alfredii and inoculation of carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains increased soil microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activities and microbial diversities by 46.2-121.3 %, 64.2-143.4 %, and 2.4-24.7 %, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis revealed that S. alfredii stimulated the activities of Flavobacteria and Bradyrhizobiaceae. The association of S. alfredii with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains enhanced the degradation of carbendazim by changing microbial activity and community structure in the soil. The results demonstrated that association of S. alfredii with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains is promising for remediation of Cd and carbendazim co-contaminated soil. PMID:22529002

Xiao, Wendan; Wang, Huan; Li, Tingqiang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jie; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe

2013-01-01

164

Effect of copper stress on cup lichens Cladonia humilis and C. subconistea growing on copper-hyperaccumulating moss Scopelophila cataractae at copper-polluted sites in Japan.  

PubMed

We investigated lichen species in the habitats of the copper (Cu)-hyperaccumulating moss Scopelophila cataractae and found that the cup lichens Cladonia subconistea and C. humilis grow on this moss. We performed X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass (ICP-MS) analysis of lichen samples and measured the visible absorption spectra of the pigments extracted from the samples to assess the effect of Cu stress on the cup lichens. The chlorophyll a/b ratio and degradation of chlorophyll a to pheophytin a were calculated from the spectral data. X-ray fluorescence analysis indicated that Cu concentrations in cup lichens growing on S. cataractae were much higher than those in control samples growing on non-polluted soil. Moreover, Cu microanalysis showed that Cu concentrations in parts of podetia of C. subconistea growing on S. cataractae increased as the substrate (S. cataractae) was approached, whereas those of C. humilis growing on S. cataractae decreased as the substrate was approached. This reflects the difference in the route of Cu ions from the source to the podetia. Furthermore, ICP-MS analysis confirmed that C. subconistea growing on S. cataractae was heavily contaminated with Cu, indicating that this lichen is Cu tolerant. We found a significant difference between the visible absorption spectra of pigments extracted from the Cu-contaminated and control samples. Hence, the spectra could be used to determine whether a cup lichen is contaminated with Cu. Chlorophyll analysis showed that cup lichens growing on S. cataractae were affected by Cu stress. However, it also suggested that the areas of dead moss under cup lichens were a suitable substrate for the growth of the lichen. Moreover, it suggested that cup lichens had allolepathic effects on S. cataractae; it is likely that secondary metabolites produced by cup lichens inhibited moss growth. PMID:22906716

Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Yoshitani, Azusa; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Sakurai, Haruka; Itoh, Kiminori

2012-10-01

165

Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L.  

PubMed

Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd (hyperaccumulator and As excluder. The presence of As had inhibitory effects on Cd absorption by the plant, in particular, the accumulation of Cd in stems, leaves and shoots decreased significantly, with 42.8-53.1, 49.3-66.4 and 37.6-59.5%, respectively, reduction when the level of soil As was up to 125 mg kg(-1) compared with that under no addition of As. Whereas, when Cd was added to soils, it could facilitate As accumulation in tissues of the plants and the As concentrations in shoots increased with increasing Cd spiked in soils. The interactive effects of Cd and As may be potential for phytoremediation of Cd and/or As contamination soils. PMID:19070954

Sun, Yue-bing; Zhou, Qi-xing; Liu, Wei-tao; An, Jing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Wang, Lin

2009-06-15

166

Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide accumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, June 21, 1995--September 20, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes experiments on uptake of a variety of heavy metals by plants. Titles of report sections are (1) Alleviation of heavy-metal induced micronutrient deficiency through foliar fertilization, (2) Second screen for Zn, Cu, and Cd accumulation, (3) Characterization of the root Zn hyperaccumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens, (4) Comparison of commercial Brassica accessions obtained from the Iowa seed bank, (5) Second screening experiment for the accumulation of Cs and Sr by plants, (6) Effect of Ca on Cs and Sr accumulation by selected dicot species, and (7) Preliminary investigations into the forms of uranium taken up by plants.

Kochian, L.

1995-12-31

167

Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water: Progresses and perspectives*  

PubMed Central

Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources. Phytoremediation, being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches, has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles. More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation. Among them, Thlaspi, Brassica, Sedum alfredii H., and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied. It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come. This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources.

Lone, Mohammad Iqbal; He, Zhen-li; Stoffella, Peter J.; Yang, Xiao-e

2008-01-01

168

Histidine-mediated xylem loading of zinc is a species-wide character in Noccaea caerulescens.  

PubMed

Histidine plays a crucial role in nickel (Ni) translocation in Ni-hyperaccumulating plants. Here, we investigated its role in zinc (Zn) translocation in four accessions of the Zn hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens, using the related non-hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi arvense, as a reference. We compared the effects of exogenous histidine supply on Zn xylem loading, and of Zn-histidine complex formation on Zn uptake in energized tonoplast vesicles. The Zn distribution patterns over root tissues were also compared. Exogenous histidine supply enhanced Zn xylem loading in all the N. caerulescens accessions, but decreased it in T. arvense. Zn distribution patterns over root tissues were similar, apart from the accumulation in cortical and endodermal cells, which was much lower in N. caerulescens than in T. arvense. Zn uptake in energized tonoplast vesicles was inhibited significantly in N. caerulescens, but not affected significantly in T. arvense, when Zn was supplied in combination with histidine in a 1 : 2 molar ratio. Histidine-mediated Zn xylem loading seems to be a species-wide character in N. caerulescens. It may well have evolved as a component trait of the hyperaccumulation machinery for Zn, rather than for Ni. PMID:24750120

Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Seregin, Ilya V; Erlikh, Nadezhda T; Shevyreva, Taisiya A; Andreev, Igor M; Verweij, Rudo; Schat, Henk

2014-07-01

169

Functional diversity as indicator of the recovery of soil health derived from Thlaspi caerulescens growth and metal phytoextraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous phytoextraction has lately drawn a lot of attention due to its potential for the remediation of metal polluted soils. Although when assessing the success of a phytoextraction process, up till now, emphasis has mostly been placed on metal removal, it is important to highlight that the ultimate objective of a phytoextraction process must be to restore soil health. Consequently,

Lur Epelde; José M. Becerril; Javier Hernández-Allica; Oihana Barrutia; Carlos Garbisu

2008-01-01

170

Remediation of cadmium contaminated irrigation and drinking water: a large scale approach.  

PubMed

Cadmium is one of the most troublesome toxic heavy metals. It accumulates in the water reservoirs and agricultural soil as a result of intensive use of Cd contaminated phosphate fertilizers, e.g. in agriculture in the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka. The hyper-accumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, accumulates up to 1000 ppm Cd in shoots without exhibiting toxicity symptoms. The storage rhizomes of year old Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) natural vegetation in water reservoirs in NCP accumulated 253+/-12 mg Cd/kg. Seedlings of lotus grown in 5% Hoagland's solution at 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 ppm cadmium sulphate showed a significant increase in Cd removal of 0.0334-0.121 ppm/week. However the removal rate of Cd from water failed to increase any further at higher concentrations of Cd in water. The slow growth rate and low rate of phytoextraction demands a more effective but an affordable method of remediation in order to combat the prevailing elevated cadmium levels in NCP that causes chronic renal failure (CRF). We have developed a large scale filtering device using rice husk. We have achieved successful results in sequestering Cd using raw rice husk as well as amorphous silica derived from rice husk. PMID:20466045

Bandara, J M R S; Wijewardena, H V P; Seneviratne, H M M S

2010-09-15

171

A new process for nickel ammonium disulfate production from ash of the hyperaccumulating plant Alyssum murale.  

PubMed

The extraction of nickel (Ni) from ultramafic soils by phytomining can be achieved using Alyssum murale cultures. This study presents a new process for the valorization of Ni accumulated by this plant through the production of a Ni ammonium disulfate salt (Ni(NH(4))(2)(SO(4))(2).6H(2)O). The process comprises an initial leaching of the ashes of A. murale with a sulphuric acid solution (1.9 M H(2)SO(4), T=95 °C, t=240 min, TS=150 g ash L(-1)), producing a leachate rich in Ni (10.2 g Ni L(-1); 96% Ni solubilisation), Mg, P, K, Fe, Ca and Al. The pH of the acid leachate is increased to 5.0 with NaOH (5M), followed by an evaporation step which produced a purified solution rich in Ni (21.3 g NiL(-1)) and an iron hydroxide precipitate. The cold crystallization (T=2 °C, t=6h) of this solution by the stoichiometric addition (× 1.2) of ammonium sulfate generates a Ni ammonium disulfate salt, containing 13.2% Ni, that is potentially valuable to industry. PMID:22405560

Barbaroux, R; Plasari, E; Mercier, G; Simonnot, M O; Morel, J L; Blais, J F

2012-04-15

172

Modelling phytoremediation by the hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata, of soils historically contaminated with arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pteris vittata plants were grown on twenty-one UK soils contaminated with arsenic (As) from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic concentration was measured in fern fronds, soil and soil pore water collected with Rhizon samplers. Isotopically exchangeable soil arsenate was determined by equilibration with 73AsV. Removal of As from the 21 soils by three sequential crops of

Paula A. Shelmerdine; Colin R. Black; Steve P. McGrath; Scott D. Young

2009-01-01

173

Hyper-accumulation capability of Silene vulgaris in relation to its phylogeny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this work consisted in reviewing current literature to learn the absorption modality of these ions by the plant under study, identify the genes involved in the process and locate the evolution of this trait in the phylogenetic tree of the species.

Chi-Cheng Lin (Winowna State University;); Bruno Borsari (Winowna State University;)

2007-06-17

174

Hyperaccumulation of astaxanthin in a green alga Haematococcus pluvialis at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary When a green algaHaematococcus pluvialis was cultivated at 30°C, astaxanthin production was 3-fold more increased than at 20°C. With acetate supplementation to 30°C culture, the alga synthesized over 2-fold more carotenoid than without addition. Tiron, a radical scavenger, however, severely blocked the stimulated carotenogenesis, suggesting that endogenously generated active oxygen was responsible for the highly stimulated carotenogenesis. From these

Agus Eko Tjahjono; Yachiyo Hayama; Toshihide Kakizono; Yoshio Terada; Naomichi Nishio; Shiro Nagai

1994-01-01

175

Phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils: Role of organic acids in triggering uranium hyperaccumulation in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium phytoextraction, the use of plants to extract U from contaminated soils, is an emerging technology. The authors report on the development of this technology for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils. In this research, they investigated the effects of various soil amendments on U desorption from soil to soil solution, studied the physiological characteristics of U uptake and accumulation in

Jianwei W. Huang; Michael J. Blaylock; Yoram Kapulnik; Burt D. Ensley

1998-01-01

176

MOLECULAR DISSECTION OF THE CELLULAR MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN NICKEL HYPERACCUMULATION IN PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Phytoremediation, the use of plants for environmental cleanup of pollutants, including toxic metals, holds the potential to allow the economic restoration of heavy metal and radionuclide contaminated sites. A number of terrestrial plants are known to naturally accumulate high le...

177

Comparison of sup 14 C-GA sub 12 - aldehyde metabolism in thermo- and non-induced shoot tips of Thlaspi arvense L  

SciTech Connect

The metabolism of exogenous {sup 14}C-GA{sub 12}-aldehyde by the shoot tips of induced and noninduced field pennycress plants was compared. Both the rate of metabolism and the qualitative pattern of metabolites produced six hours after application were similar in induced and noninduced plants. The 2 major metabolites were identified by GC-MS as GA{sub 12} and an isomer of GA{sub 19}. This latter compound, however, does not appear to be native to field pennycress. Small amounts of {sup 14}C-GA{sub 12}-aldehyde were also incorporated into GA{sub 19, 20} and {sub 44}. In addition, a radioactive compound with chromatographic properties similar to GA{sub 9} was observed in plants from both treatments. These results coupled with our previous studies on kaurenoic acid metabolism indicate that the limiting step(s) in GA biosynthesis in noninduced field penny cress shoot tips lies between kaurenoic acid and GA{sub 12}-aldehyde.

Hazebroek, J.P.; Metzger, J.D. (Biosciences Research Lab., Fargo, ND (USA))

1989-04-01

178

Comparison of sup 14 CGA sub 12 - aldehyde metabolism in thermo- and non-induced shoot tips of Thlaspi arvense L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of exogenous ¹⁴C-GAââ-aldehyde by the shoot tips of induced and noninduced field pennycress plants was compared. Both the rate of metabolism and the qualitative pattern of metabolites produced six hours after application were similar in induced and noninduced plants. The 2 major metabolites were identified by GC-MS as GAââ and an isomer of GAââ. This latter compound, however,

J. P. Hazebroek; J. D. Metzger

1989-01-01

179

Identifying root exudates in field contaminated soil systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon (C) compounds exuded from plant roots comprise a significant and reactive fraction of belowground C pools. These exudates substantially alter the soil directly surrounding plant roots and play a vital role in the global C cycle, soil ecology, and ecosystem mobility of both nutrients and contaminants. In soils, the solubility and bioavailability of metals such as iron, zinc, and cadmium are intricately linked to the quantity and chemical characteristics of the C compounds allocated to the soil by plants. Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, forms stronger bonds with reduced S- and N-containing compounds than with carboxylic acids, which may influence exudate composition in hyperaccumulator and tolerant plants grown in Cd contaminated soils. We hypothesize that hyperaccumulator plants will exude a larger quantity of aromatic N and chelating di- and tri-carboxylic acid molecules, while plants that exclude heavy metals from uptake will exude a larger proportion of reduced S containing molecules. This study examines how a variety of techniques can measure the low concentrations of complex organic mixtures exuded by hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils. Two congeneric plants, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype), and T. caerulescens (Prayon ecotype) were grown in 0.5 kg pots filled with Cd-contaminated field soils from Chicago, IL. Field soils were contaminated as a result of the application of contaminated biosolids in the 1960's and 1970's. Pots were fitted for rhizon soil moisture samplers, micro-lysimeters developed for in situ collection of small volumes in unsaturated soils, prior to planting. Plants were grown for 8 weeks before exudate collection. After the 8 weeks of growth, a pulse-chase isotope tracer method using the C stable isotope, 13C, was employed to differentiate plant-derived compounds from background soil and microbial-derived compounds. Plants were placed in a CO2 impermeable chamber, and the soil surface was covered by CO2 impermeable sheets to ensure that all 13C in the soil results from photoassimilated C released by roots and not soil-atmosphere gas exchange. Ambient CO2 was drawn down in the system until the CO2 concentration within the tent was less than 50 ppm, after which the labeled 13CO2 was introduced, returning the CO2 concentration to the ambient level (~375 ppm). The CO2 pulse lasted for 60 minutes to allow enough time for 13C assimilation within the plants. In order to determine the ideal sampling time, soil pore water samples were extracted every 1-2 hours following the 13C pulse application, over the course of 24 hours. Samples were analyzed for delta 13C as well as %C, and results indicate that the greatest plant-derived dissolved organic C is present at about 6 hours following the 13C pulse. A second experiment will also be conducted using a combination of NMR and mass spectrometry methods to obtain detailed information regarding chemical structures within exudate samples.

Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

2012-12-01

180

A single recessive gene controls cadmium translocation in the cadmium hyperaccumulating rice cultivar Cho-Ko-Koku  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic to humans and can enter food chains from contaminated crop fields. Understanding\\u000a the molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation in crop species will aid production of safe Cd-free food. Here, we identified\\u000a a single recessive gene that allowed higher Cd translocation in rice, and also determined the chromosomal location of the\\u000a gene. The

Kouichi Tezuka; Hidenori Miyadate; Kazunao Katou; Ikuko Kodama; Shinichi Matsumoto; Tomohiko Kawamoto; Satoshi Masaki; Hideki Satoh; Masayuki Yamaguchi; Kenji Sakurai; Hidekazu Takahashi; Namiko Satoh-Nagasawa; Akio Watanabe; Tatsuhito Fujimura; Hiromori Akagi

2010-01-01

181

Arsenic-resistant proteobacterium from the phyllosphere of arsenic-hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.) reduces arsenate to arsenite.  

PubMed

An arsenic-resistant bacterium, AsRB1, was isolated from the fronds of Pteris vittata grown in a site contaminated with copper chromium arsenate. The bacterium exhibited resistance to arsenate, arsenite, and antimony in the culture medium. AsRB1, like Pseudomonas putida, grew on MacConkey and xylose-lactose-desoxycholate agars and utilized citrate but, unlike P. putida, was positive for indole test and negative for oxidase test. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that AsRB1 is a proteobacterium of the beta subclass, related to Pseudomonas saccharophila and Variovorax paradoxus. Following an exogenous supply of arsenate, most arsenic occurred as arsenite in the medium and the cell extracts, suggesting reduction and extrusion of arsenic as the mechanism for arsenic resistance in AsRB1. PMID:16917527

Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Raman, Suresh Babu; Kertulis, Gina; Ma, Lena

2006-07-01

182

The effects of copper, manganese and zinc on plant growth and elemental accumulation in the manganese-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana.  

PubMed

Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to estimate major, minor and trace elements in Cu-, Zn- and Mn-treated Phytolacca americana. The effects of the addition of Cu, Zn and Mn on morphological parameters, such as root length, shoot height, and fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots, were also examined. In addition, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidases (GPX) and catalase (CAT) and the expression of Fe-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, metallothionein-2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) exposed to the highest amounts of Cu, Zn or Mn were detected. Our results confirmed the following: (1) Zn supplementation leads to chlorosis, disturbed elemental homeostasis and decreased concentrations of micro- and macroelements such as Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca and K. Cu competed with Fe, Mn and Zn uptake in plants supplemented with 25 ?M Cu. However, no antagonistic interactions took place between Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe uptake in plants supplemented with 100 ?M Cu. Mn supplementation at various concentrations had no negative effects on elemental deficits. Mn was co-located with high concentrations of Fe and Zn in mature leaves and the concentrations of macro elements were unchanged. (2) P. americana supplemented with increased concentrations of Zn and Cu exhibited lower biomass production and reduced plant growth. (3) When plants were supplemented with the highest Zn and Cu concentrations, symptoms of toxicity corresponded to decreased SOD or CAT activities and increased APX and GPX activities. However, Mn tolerance corresponded to increased SOD and CAT activities and decreased POD and APX activities. Our study revealed that heavy metals partially exert toxicity by disturbing the nutrient balance and modifying enzyme activities that induce damage in plants. However, P. americana has evolved hyper accumulating mechanisms to maintain elemental balance and redox homeostasis under excess Mn. PMID:22796009

Zhao, Huijun; Wu, Liangqi; Chai, Tuanyao; Zhang, Yuxiu; Tan, Jinjuan; Ma, Shengwen

2012-09-01

183

Generation of Mercury-Hyperaccumulating Plants through Transgenic Expression of the Bacterial Mercury Membrane Transport Protein MerC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merC gene from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans functions as a mercury uptake pump. MerC protein localizes in the cytoplasmic membrane of plant cells. When Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco plants were transformed with the merC gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, the resulting overexpression of merC rendered the host plants hypersensitive to Hg2+ and they accumulated approximately

Yoshito Sasaki; Takahiko Hayakawa; Chihiro Inoue; Atsushi Miyazaki; Simon Silver; Tomonobu Kusano

2006-01-01

184

Arsenic-resistant proteobacterium from the phyllosphere of arsenic-hyperaccumulating fern ( Pteris vittata L.) reduces arsenate to arsenite  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arsenic-resistant bacterium, AsRB1, was isolated from the fronds of Pteris vittata grown in a site contaminated with copper chromium arsenate. The bacterium exhibited resistance to arsenate, arsenite, and antimony in the culture medium. AsRB1, like Pseudomonas putida, grew on MacConkey and xylose-lactose-desoxycholate agars and utilized citrate but, unlike P. putida, was positive for indole test and negative for oxidase

Bala Rathinasabapathi; Suresh Babu Raman; Gina Kertulis; Lena Ma

2006-01-01

185

Relative Abundance of Nickel in the Leaf Epidermis of Eight Hyperaccumulators: Evidence that the Metal is Excluded from both Guard Cells and Trichomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis was used to localize the sites of nickel accumulation on the leaf epidermis of eight nickel accumulators grown on ultramafic soils in Greece. In all species, nickel was excluded from guard cells, and in species possessing hairy leaves (seven out of eight) nickel was excluded from the hairs. In some species the metal

G. K. Psaras; Th. Constantinidis; B. Cotsopoulos; Y. Manetas

2000-01-01

186

Zn-bis-glutathionate is the best co-substrate of the monomeric phytochelatin synthase from the photosynthetic heavy metal-hyperaccumulator Euglena gracilis.  

PubMed

The phytochelatin synthase from photosynthetic Euglena gracilis (EgPCS) was analyzed at the transcriptional, kinetic, functional, and phylogenetic levels. Recombinant EgPCS was a monomeric enzyme able to synthesize, in the presence of Zn(2+) or Cd(2+), phytochelatin2-phytochelatin4 (PC2-PC4) using GSH or S-methyl-GS (S-methyl-glutathione), but not ?-glutamylcysteine or PC2 as a substrate. Kinetic analysis of EgPCS firmly established a two-substrate reaction mechanism for PC2 synthesis with Km values of 14-22 mM for GSH and 1.6-2.5 ?M for metal-bis-glutathionate (Me-GS2). EgPCS showed the highest Vmax and catalytic efficiency with Zn-(GS)2, and was inactivated by peroxides. The EgPCS N-terminal domain showed high similarity to that of other PCSases, in which the typical catalytic core (Cys-70, His-179 and Asp-197) was identified. In contrast, the C-terminal domain showed no similarity to other PCSases. An EgPCS mutant comprising only the N-terminal 235 amino acid residues was inactive, suggesting that the C-terminal domain is essential for activity/stability. EgPCS transcription in Euglena cells was not modified by Cd(2+), whereas its heterologous expression in ycf-1 yeast cells provided resistance to Cd(2+) stress. Phylogenetic analysis of the N-terminal domain showed that EgPCS is distant from plants and other photosynthetic organisms, suggesting that it evolved independently. Although EgPCS showed typical features of PCSases (constitutive expression; conserved N-terminal domain; kinetic mechanism), it also exhibited distinct characteristics such as preference for Zn-(GS)2 over Cd-(GS)2 as a co-substrate, a monomeric structure, and ability to solely synthesize short-chain PCs, which may be involved in conferring enhanced heavy-metal resistance. PMID:24464102

García-García, Jorge D; Girard, Lourdes; Hernández, Georgina; Saavedra, Emma; Pardo, Juan P; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Encalada, Rusely; Reyes-Prieto, Adrián; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

2014-03-01

187

Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Potential for phytoremediation of an aged radiocesium-contaminated soil from Brookhaven National Laboratory was investigated in three phases: (1) hydroponic screening for plant species capable of accumulating elevated levels of cesium in shoots, (2) amending contaminated soil to enhance {sup 137}Cs bioavailability, and (3) phytoextracting radiocesium with plant roots and its removal in harvested shoots. The bioaccumulation ratio of Cs in shoots of hydroponically grown plants ranged between 38 and 165. From solution, dicot species accumulated 2- to 4-fold more cesium in shoots than grasses. The effect of several chemical compounds on {sup 137}Cs desorption from the contaminated soil was investigated. Ammonium salts were the most effective at desorbing Cs from contaminated soil, but only 25% of radiocesium could be desorbed. Although release of radiocesium from the soil was concentration-dependent, this effect appeared to level off above 0.2 M ammonium in solution. In a pot study, from the soil contaminated with 400 pCi g{sup -1} soil, the greatest amount of {sup 137}Cs, 140 pCi, was removed in shoots of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). {sup 137}Cs accumulation in shoots was significantly increased by the addition of 40 NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} kg{sup -1} soil. Increasing NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} application from 40 to 80 mmoles kg{sup -1} soil did not further increase radiocesium phytoextraction. The ability to accumulate radiocesium from soil in shoots was significantly different among species tested. This ability increased in order: reed Canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) < Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) < tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) < cabbage.

Kochian, L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1997-05-01

188

Plant regeneration of the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L . from spores and identification of its tolerance and accumulation of arsenic and copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro plant regeneration system was established from the spores of Pteris vittata and identification of its tolerance, and accumulation of gametophytes and callous, to arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) was investigated.\\u000a The highest frequency (100%) of callus formation was achieved from gametophyte explants treated with 0.5 mg l?1 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) + 0.5 mg l?1 gibberellin acid (GA). Furthermore, sporophytes were differentiated from the callus

Yongqiang Zheng; Wenzhong Xu; Zhenyan He; Mi Ma

2008-01-01

189

EFFECT OF THALLIUM FRACTIONS IN THE SOIL AND POLLUTION ORIGINS ON Tl UPTAKE BY HYPERACCUMULATOR PLANTS: A KEY FACTOR FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYTOEXTRACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation is often discussed as a means of extracting trace metals in excess in the soil, but to increase its efficiency a better understanding of the factors controlling plant uptake is required. The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of origin (anthropogenic vs. geogenic) and mobility of thallium (Tl) in the rhizosphere on Tl uptake. Two

H. Al-Najar; A. Kaschl; R. Schulz; V. Römheld

2005-01-01

190

Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, March 20, 1995--June 20, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The biological accumulation of heavy metals and cesium, strontium, and uranium in plants is discussed. The role of nutrient deficiencies and foliar treatments of manganese and iron compounds is described.

Kochian, L.

1995-12-01

191

Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: A potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd (?25mgkg?1) and As (?50mgkg?1) treatments could promote the growth of B. pilosa, resulting in 34.5–104.4% and 21.0–43.0%, respectively, increase in the dry biomass

Yue-bing Sun; Qi-xing Zhou; Wei-tao Liu; Jing An; Zhi-Qiang Xu; Lin Wang

2009-01-01

192

An Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant for galactokinase (AtGALK, At3g06580) hyperaccumulates free galactose and is insensitive to exogenous galactose.  

PubMed

Galactokinase (GALK, EC 2.7.1.6) is a cytosolic enzyme with a wide occurrence across the taxonomic kingdoms. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of ?-d-galactose (Gal) to ?-d-Gal-1-P. The cytotoxicity of free (unphosphorylated) Gal is well documented in plants and causes marked defects. An Arabidopsis GALK (AtGALK, At3g06580) was previously identified, cloned and functionally characterized in Escherichia coli and was suggested to occur as a single copy gene in Arabidopsis. We identified an AtGALK T-DNA insertion mutant (atgalk) that (i) is AtGALK transcript deficient; (ii) displays no GALK activity in vegetative tissues; and (iii) accumulates Gal up to 6.8 mg g(-1) FW in vegetative tissues, in contrast to wild-type plants. By constitutively overexpressing the AtGALK cDNA, atgalk was functionally rescued. Three independent transformed lines showed restored AtGALK transcripts and GALK activity and had low leaf Gal concentrations comparable with those observed in wild-type plants. Surprisingly, in vitro grown atgalk plants were largely insensitive to the exogenous application of up to 100 mM free Gal, while wild-type plants exhibited sensitivity to low Gal concentrations (10 mM). Furthermore, atgalk seedlings retained the capacity for uptake of exogenously supplied Gal (100 mM), accumulating up to 57 mg g(-1) FW in leaves. Leaves from soil-grown atgalk plants that exhibited no growth or morphological defects were used to demonstrate that the accumulating Gal occurred exclusively in the vacuoles of mesophyll protoplasts. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel Gal detoxification pathway that targets free Gal to the vacuole and is active in the atgalk mutant background. PMID:22437845

Egert, Aurélie; Peters, Shaun; Guyot, Christelle; Stieger, Bruno; Keller, Felix

2012-05-01

193

The current status of the elemental defense hypothesis in relation to pathogens  

PubMed Central

Metal hyperaccumulating plants are able to accumulate exceptionally high concentrations of metals, such as zinc, nickel, or cadmium, in their aerial tissues. These metals reach concentrations that would be toxic to most other plant species. This trait has evolved multiple times independently in the plant kingdom. Recent studies have provided new insight into the ecological and evolutionary significance of this trait, by showing that some metal hyperaccumulating plants can use high concentrations of accumulated metals to defend themselves against attack by pathogenic microorganisms and herbivores. Here, we review the evidence that metal hyperaccumulation acts as a defensive trait in plants, with particular emphasis on plant–pathogen interactions. We discuss the mechanisms by which defense against pathogens might have driven the evolution of metal hyperaccumulation, including the interaction of this trait with other forms of defense. In particular, we consider how physiological adaptations and fitness costs associated with metal hyperaccumulation could have resulted in trade-offs between metal hyperaccumulation and other defenses. Drawing on current understanding of the population ecology of metal hyperaccumulator plants, we consider the conditions that might have been necessary for metal hyperaccumulation to be selected as a defensive trait, and discuss the likelihood that these were fulfilled. Based on these conditions, we propose a possible scenario for the evolution of metal hyperaccumulation, in which selective pressure for resistance to pathogens or herbivores, combined with gene flow from non-metallicolous populations, increases the likelihood that the metal hyperaccumulating trait becomes established in plant populations.

Horger, Anja C.; Fones, Helen N.; Preston, Gail M.

2013-01-01

194

NSF/EPA Team Up on Grants to Treat Pollution with Plants  

NSF Publications Database

... of metal contaminated soils. A focus will be the metal transporter genes involved in metal ... Genome- Wide Hunt For Metal Hyperaccumulation Genes." Although known metal hyperaccumu- lators are ...

195

DEVELOPMENT OF BIO-BASED MOLECULAR TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMOVAL AND REAL-TIME MONITORING OF TOXIC METALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Transformation of heavy-metal related genes from a hyper-accumulator to a high-biomass species is expected to promote a zinc hyper-accumulating phenotype in the normally non-hyper-accumulating poplar. Coupling fluorescence with heavy metal proteins is anticipated to allow ...

196

Foliar Manganese Accumulation by Maytenus founieri (Celastraceae) in Its Native New Caledonian Habitats: Populational Variation and Localization by X-Ray Microanalysis [Corrected Title: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Hyperaccumulation by plants is a rare phenomenon that has potential practical benefits. The majority of manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulators discovered to date occur in New Caledonia, and little is known about their ecophysiology. This study reports on natural populations of one such species, the endemic shrub Maytenus founieri. • Mean foliar Mn concentrations of two populations growing on ultramafic substrates

D. R. Fernando; I. E. Woodrow; T. Jaffré; V. Dumontet; A. T. Marshall; A. J. M. Baker

2008-01-01

197

Influence of Common Buckwheat on Growth of Other Plant Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In year 2003 we observed the influence of buckwheat stand on weeds in field conditions, influence of exudates of germinated buckwheat achenes on some crops (oat, annual ryegrass, white mustard and lettuce) and differences among seven varieties of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) in these parameters. The buckwheat stand significant inhibited growth offield pennycress (Thlaspi arvense), gallant soldier (Galinsoga parviflora),

J. Kalinova

2004-01-01

198

Arbuscular mycorrhiza and heavy metal tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have repeatedly been demonstrated to alleviate heavy metal stress of plants. The current manuscript summarizes results obtained to date on the colonization of plants by AMF in heavy metal soils, the depositions of heavy metals in plant and fungal structures and the potential to use AMF-plant combinations in phytoremediation, with emphasis on pennycresses (Thlaspi ssp.). The

Ulrich Hildebrandt; Marjana Regvar; Hermann Bothe

2007-01-01

199

NOTAS SOBRE NEÓFITAS 3. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE ALGUNAS BRASSICACEAE DE RECIENTE INTRODUCCIÓN EN EL CENTRO DE MÉXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional information is presented on the distribution of various exotic species of Brassicaceae, introduced recently to central Mexico. Three populations of Thlaspi arvense L. and Sinapis alba L. are reported. The species Diplotaxis muralis (L.) DC., Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagrèze-Fossat and Brassica tournefortii Gouan, known previously from northern Mexico, are now naturalized at various localities in the central part of

HEIKE VIBRANS

200

Metal accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal status in metallicolous and nonmetallicolous populations of Pteris vittata L. and Sedum alfredii Hance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Pteris vittata L. and Sedum alfredii Hance have been identified as an As hyperaccumulator and a Zn\\/Cd hyperaccumulator, respectively, for a few years, variations\\u000a in metal accumulation among populations and their arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status have not been fully explored. Six populations\\u000a of P. vittata and four populations of S. alfredii from southeast China were investigated. Up to 1,373

F. Y. Wu; Z. H. Ye; S. C. Wu; M. H. Wong

2007-01-01

201

EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON GROWTH AND CADMIUM ACCUMULATION IN SEDUM ALFREDII HANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer on root morphology, photosynthetic pigments and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in a series of hydroponic experiments by using hyper-accumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii H. (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) plants. Cd accumulation in both ecotypes increased with increase of N levels until it reached the peak at 16 mM and then decreased suddenly.

E. Zhu; D. Liu; J. G. Li; T. Q. Li; X. E. Yang; Z. L. He; P. J. Stoffella

2010-01-01

202

Chelate-Enhanced Phytoremediation of Soils Polluted with Heavy Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, hyperaccumulators are low biomass, slow-growing plants. High biomass non-hyperaccumulator plants by themselves are not a valid alternative for phytoextraction as they also have many limitations, such as small root uptake and little root-to-shoot translocation. In this context, chemically-induced phytoextraction (based on the fact that the application of certain chemicals, mostly chelating agents, to the soil significantly enhances metal

I. Alkorta; J. Hernández-Allica; J. M. Becerril; I. Amezaga; I. Albizu; M. Onaindia; C. Garbisu

2004-01-01

203

The use of photoacoustic spectroscopy in assessing leaf photosynthesis under copper stress: correlation of energy storage to photosystem II fluorescence parameters and redox change of P 700  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Cu-ions on an in vivo Cu-treated leaf system of Thlaspi ochroleucum have been identified by using photoacoustic, modulated fluorescence methods and leaf absorbance. The deficiency in light harvesting capacity of PSII caused by the Cu-induced chlorophyll loss may result in the energy distribution of the two photosystems being out of balance. Copper decreased maximal fluorescence (Fm, Fm?)

Georgia Ouzounidou

1996-01-01

204

Regulation of gemma formation in the copper moss Scopelophila cataractae by environmental copper concentrations.  

PubMed

Considerable attention has recently been focused on the use of hyperaccumulator plants for the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. The moss, Scopelophila cataractae (Mitt.) Broth., is a typical hyperaccumulator that is usually observed only in copper-rich environments and which accumulates high concentrations of copper in its tissues. However, many of the physiological processes and mechanisms for metal hyperaccumulation in S. cataractae remain unknown. To address this issue, we examined the mechanisms regulating gemma formation, which is considered the main strategy by which S. cataractae relocates to new copper-rich areas. From this study we found that treatment of S. cataractae with high concentrations of copper suppressed gemma formation but promoted protonemal growth. The suppressive effect was not observed by treatment with heavy metals other than copper. These results suggest the importance of copper-sensitive asexual reproduction in the unique life strategy of the copper moss, S. cataractae. PMID:21082328

Nomura, Toshihisa; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

2011-09-01

205

Metal accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal status in metallicolous and nonmetallicolous populations of Pteris vittata L. and Sedum alfredii Hance.  

PubMed

Although Pteris vittata L. and Sedum alfredii Hance have been identified as an As hyperaccumulator and a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator, respectively, for a few years, variations in metal accumulation among populations and their arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status have not been fully explored. Six populations of P. vittata and four populations of S. alfredii from southeast China were investigated. Up to 1,373 As, 680 Pb, 376 Zn, 4.8 Cd, 169 Cu mg kg(-1) in fronds of P. vittata and 358 As, 2,290 Pb, 23,403 Zn, 708 Cd, 342 Cu mg kg(-1 )in shoots of S. alfredii were detected. Constitutive properties of As and Zn hyperaccumulation in metallicolous populations of P. vittata and S. alfredii, respectively, were confirmed. However, Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii varied among populations. The two hyperaccumulators varied in efficiency in taking up other heavy metals. Different metal tolerance strategies adopted by the two hyperaccumulators varied among plant species and metal species. Low to moderate levels of AM colonization in P. vittata (4.2-12.8%) and S. alfredii (8.5-45.8%) were observed at uncontaminated and metal-contaminated sites. The relationship between metal concentrations and AM colonization in the two hyperacumulators was also examined. The abundance of AM fungal spores ranged from 16 to 190 spores per 25 g soil. Glomus microaggregatum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus brohultii and Glomus geosporum were the most common species associated with both P. vittata and S. alfredii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AM fungal status in rhizosphere of P. vittata and S. alfredii. PMID:17624548

Wu, F Y; Ye, Z H; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

2007-11-01

206

Isolation and characterization of metal resistant-tolerant rhizosphere bacteria from the serpentine soils in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the number of studies describing metal hyper-accumulating plants and their associated bacteria in various regions\\u000a and countries, there is no information on rhizosphere microbial potential of the Turkish serpentine soils. This study aimed\\u000a to explore the rhizosphere microbial diversity of Ni-resistant, hyper-accumulating plants grown on Ni-rich soils and their\\u000a metal tolerance–resistance characteristics. One hundred ninety-one locations were visited to

O?uz Can Turgay; Arzu Görmez; Serdar Bilen

207

Pint-sized plants pack a punch in fight against heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

USDA researchers are experimenting with plants that naturally scavenge heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc from the soil. Known as hyperaccumulators, the plants can store up to 2.5% of their dry weight in heavy metals in leaves without yield reductions. They can be grown, harvested, and dried. The dried material is then burned, and the metal ore can be recovered. As well as discussing the history of hyperaccumulators, this article focuses on the plant pennycress and work on improving its metal uptake.

Boyd, V.

1996-05-01

208

Replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA of lucerne transient streak virus are supported in divergent hosts by cocksfoot mottle virus and turnip rosette virus.  

PubMed

Cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus supports replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA (sat-RNA) of lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in two monocotyledonous species, Triticum aestivum and Dactylis glomerata. Additionally, LTSV sat-RNA replicates effectively in the presence of turnip rosette sobemovirus in Brassica rapa, Raphanus raphanistrum and Sinapsis arvensis, but not in Thlaspi arvense or Nicotiana bigelovii, indicating that host species markedly influence this interaction. Previous reports of the association between LTSV sat-RNA and helper sobemoviruses were limited to dicotyledonous hosts. Our results demonstrate that the biological interaction between these two entities spans divergent dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species. PMID:7682254

Sehgal, O P; Sinha, R C; Gellatly, D L; Ivanov, I; AbouHaidar, M G

1993-04-01

209

Engineering Plant-Microbe Symbiosis for Rhizoremediation of Heavy Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plants for rehabilitation of heavy-metal-contaminated environments is an emerging area of interest because it provides an ecologically sound and safe method for restoration and remediation. Although a number of plant species are capable of hyperaccumulation of heavy metals, the technology is not applicable for remediating sites with multiple contaminants. A clever solution is to combine the advantages

Cindy H. Wu; Thomas K. Wood; Ashok Mulchandani; Wilfred Chen

2006-01-01

210

Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils: Phytoremediation as a Potentially Promising Clean-Up Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased soil pollution with heavy metals due to various human and natural activities has led to a growing need to address environmental contamination. Some remediation technologies have been developed to treat contaminated soil, but a biology-based technology, phytoremediation, is emerging. Phytoremediation includes phytovolatilization, phytostabilization, and phytoextraction using hyperaccumulator species or a chelate-enhancement strategy. To enhance phytoremediation as a viable strategy,

Ana P. G. C. Marques; António O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

2009-01-01

211

Effects of arsenic species and phosphorus on arsenic absorption, arsenate reduction and thiol formation in excised parts of Pteris vittata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the arsenic (As) detoxification mechanisms employed by the newly discovered As hyperaccumulator Chinese Brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) is important to optimize As accumulation capability. The present experiment was carried out to determine the location of As reduction and thiol formation in Chinese Brake fern and the ability of excised plants to absorb As under P influence. Live Chinese

S. Tu; L. Q. Ma; G. E. MacDonald; B. Bondada

2004-01-01

212

SYNCHROTRON X-RAY ABSORPTION-EDGE COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY IMAGING OF THALLIUM COMPARTMENTALIZATION IN IBERIS INTERMEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Thallium (TI) is an extremely toxic metal which, due to its similarities to K, is readily taken up by plants. Thallium is efficiently hyperaccumulated in Iberis intermedia as TI(I). Distribution and compartmentalization of TI in I. intermedia is highes...

213

Cadmium accumulation characteristics of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don.  

PubMed

In a preliminary study, we found that the cadmium (Cd) concentrations in shoots of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)), indicating that these two farmland weeds might be Cd-hyperaccumulators. In this study, we grew these species in soil containing various concentrations of Cd to further evaluate their Cd accumulation characteristics. The biomasses of C. hirsuta and G. affine decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in the soil, while the root/shoot ratio and the Cd concentrations in shoot tissues increased. The Cd concentrations in shoots of C. hirsuta and G. affine reached 121.96 and 143.91 mg kg(-1), respectively, at the soil Cd concentration of 50 mg kg(-1). Both of these concentrations exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)). The shoot bioconcentration factors of C. hirsuta and G. affine were greater than 1. The translocation factor of C. hirsuta was less than 1 and that of G. affine was greater than 1. These findings indicated that C. hirsuta is a Cd-accumulator and G. affine is Cd-hyperaccumulator. Both plants are distributed widely in the field, and they could be used to remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil in winter. PMID:24519638

Lin, Lijin; Shi, Jun; Liu, Qihua; Liao, Ming'an; Mei, Luoyin

2014-07-01

214

Aquatic arsenic: Phytoremediation using floating macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground\\/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively.

M. Azizur Rahman; H. Hasegawa

2011-01-01

215

Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02, a Gammaproteobacterium Isolated from Selenite-Contaminated Mining Soil  

PubMed Central

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain SeITE02 was isolated from the rhizosphere of the selenium-hyperaccumulating legume Astragalus bisculcatus. In this report, we provide the 4.56-Mb draft genome sequence of S. maltophilia SeITE02, a gammaproteobacterium that can withstand high concentrations of selenite and reduce these to elemental selenium.

Bertolini, Cristina; van Aerle, Ronny; Lampis, Silvia; Moore, Karen A.; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Butler, Clive S.

2014-01-01

216

The Engineered Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methylmercury Pollution  

SciTech Connect

Our current specific objectives are to use transgenic plants to control the chemical species, electrochemical state, and above ground binding of mercury to (a) prevent methylmercury from entering the food-chain, (b) remove mercury from polluted sites, and (c) hyperaccumulate mercury in above ground tissues for later harvest.

Richard Meagher; Sarah Marshburn; Andrew Heaton; Anne Marie Zimer; Raoufa Rahman

2003-06-24

217

Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled

Jin-Hong Qian; Adel Zayed; Yong-Liang Zhu; Mei Yu; Norman Terry

1999-01-01

218

Pint-sized plants pack a punch in fight against heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

USDA researchers are experimenting with plants that naturally scavenge heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc from the soil. Known as hyperaccumulators, the plants can store up to 2.5% of their dry weight in heavy metals in leaves without yield reductions. They can be grown, harvested, and dried. The dried material is then burned, and the metal ore can be

1996-01-01

219

Characteristics of heavy metal uptake by plant species with potential for phytoremediation and phytomining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically transformed hairy root cultures were established for a range of plant species and applied in studies of growth and accumulation of heavy metals. Experiments were conducted using liquid nutrient medium containing elevated concentrations of Ni, Cd or Cu. Hairy roots of three hyperaccumulator species were tested for Ni uptake, of these, Alyssum bertolonii accumulated the highest Ni contents in

T. V. Nedelkoska; P. M. Doran

2000-01-01

220

Chemical Mutagenesis—A Promising Technique to Increase Metal Concentration and Extraction in Sunflowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since most of the metal-hyperaccumulating wild plants only produce very low biomass and many high-yielding crops accumulate only moderate amounts of metals, the current research is mainly focused on overcoming these limitations and the optimization of metal phytoextraction. The main goal of the present study was the improvement of metal concentration and extraction properties of Helianthus annuus L by chemical

Erika Nehnevajova; Rolf Herzig; Guido Federer; Karl-Hans Erismann; Jean-Paul Schwitzguébel

2007-01-01

221

A Comparison of Sulfate and Selenium Accumulation in Relation to the Expression of Sulfate Transporter Genes in Astragalus Species1[OA  

PubMed Central

Sulfate and selenate uptake were investigated in both selenium (Se) hyperaccumulators (Astragalus racemosus and Astragalus bisulcatus) and closely related nonaccumulator species (Astragalus glycyphyllos and Astragalus drummondii). Sulfur (S) starvation increased Se accumulation, whereas increased selenate supply increased sulfate accumulation in both root and shoot tissues. cDNAs for homologs of groups 1 to 4 sulfate transporters were cloned from these Astragalus species to investigate patterns of expression and interactions with sulfate and selenate uptake. In contrast to all other previously analyzed plant species, abundant gene expression of putative sulfate transporters was observed for both Se-hyperaccumulating and nonaccumulating Astragalus, regardless of S and Se status. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of expression indicated a transcript level in Se-hyperaccumulating Astragalus comparable with other plant species under S deprivation. The high expression of sulfate transporters in certain Astragalus species may lead to enhanced Se uptake and translocation ability and therefore may contribute to the Se hyperaccumulation trait; however, it is not sufficient to explain S/Se discriminatory mechanisms.

Cabannes, Emmanuelle; Buchner, Peter; Broadley, Martin R.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.

2011-01-01

222

Effects of cultivation conditions on the uptake of arsenite and arsenic chemical species accumulated by Pteris vittata in hydroponics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological responses of the arsenic-hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata, such as arsenic uptake and chemical transformation in the fern, have been investigated. However, a few questions remain regarding arsenic treatment in hydroponics. Incubation conditions such as aeration, arsenic concentration, and incubation period might affect those responses of P. vittata in hydroponics. Arsenite uptake was low under anaerobic conditions, as previously reported.

Masayoshi Hatayama; Takahiko Sato; Kozo Shinoda; Chihiro Inoue

2011-01-01

223

Enhancement of Phosphate Absorption by Garden Plants by Genetic Engineering: A New Tool for Phytoremediation  

PubMed Central

Although phosphorus is an essential factor for proper plant growth in natural environments, an excess of phosphate in water sources causes serious pollution. In this paper we describe transgenic plants which hyperaccumulate inorganic phosphate (Pi) and which may be used to reduce environmental water pollution by phytoremediation. AtPHR1, a transcription factor for a key regulator of the Pi starvation response in Arabidopsis thaliana, was overexpressed in the ornamental garden plants Torenia, Petunia, and Verbena. The transgenic plants showed hyperaccumulation of Pi in leaves and accelerated Pi absorption rates from hydroponic solutions. Large-scale hydroponic experiments indicated that the enhanced ability to absorb Pi in transgenic torenia (AtPHR1) was comparable to water hyacinth a plant that though is used for phytoremediation causes overgrowth problems.

Togami, Junichi; Mason, John G.; Chandler, Stephen F.; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

2013-01-01

224

Enhancement of phosphate absorption by garden plants by genetic engineering: a new tool for phytoremediation.  

PubMed

Although phosphorus is an essential factor for proper plant growth in natural environments, an excess of phosphate in water sources causes serious pollution. In this paper we describe transgenic plants which hyperaccumulate inorganic phosphate (Pi) and which may be used to reduce environmental water pollution by phytoremediation. AtPHR1, a transcription factor for a key regulator of the Pi starvation response in Arabidopsis thaliana, was overexpressed in the ornamental garden plants Torenia, Petunia, and Verbena. The transgenic plants showed hyperaccumulation of Pi in leaves and accelerated Pi absorption rates from hydroponic solutions. Large-scale hydroponic experiments indicated that the enhanced ability to absorb Pi in transgenic torenia (AtPHR1) was comparable to water hyacinth a plant that though is used for phytoremediation causes overgrowth problems. PMID:23984322

Matsui, Keisuke; Togami, Junichi; Mason, John G; Chandler, Stephen F; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

2013-01-01

225

Performance of bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction applied to metal contaminated soils: a review.  

PubMed

Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction is a promising method for the cleaning-up of soils contaminated by metals. Bacteria mainly Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and fungi mainly Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) associated with hyperaccumulating or non-hyperaccumulating plants were analyzed on the basis of a bioprocess engineering approach (concentration and amount of metals extracted by plants, translocation and bioconcentration factor, and plant biomass). In average bioaugmentation increased metals accumulated by shoots by a factor of about 2 (metal concentration) and 5 (amount) without any obvious differences between bacteria and fungi. To optimize this process, new relevant microorganism-plant associations and field scale experiments are needed along with a common methodology for the comparison of all experiments on the same basis. Recommendations were suggested concerning both the microbial-plant selection and the implementation of bioaugmentation to enhance the microbial survival. The use of microbial consortia associated with plant was discussed notably for multi-contaminated soils. PMID:17981382

Lebeau, Thierry; Braud, Armelle; Jézéquel, Karine

2008-06-01

226

Bidens tripartite L.: a Cd-accumulator confirmed by pot culture and site sampling experiment.  

PubMed

Characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of cadmium (Cd) in Bidens tripartite L. were investigated to identify Cd-accumulating properties. In this study, pot culture experiment and site sampling experiments were conducted to assess whether this plant is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator or accumulator. The results indicated that the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of B. tripartite was principally >1 in pot culture and concentration gradient experiments. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p<0.05) compared to the controls. However, the Cd concentration in B. tripartite shoots was not higher than 100 mg kg(-1), the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. In the site sampling experiment, B. tripartite also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, B. tripartite could be identified as a Cd-accumulator. Thus, B. tripartite should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator. PMID:19515488

Wei, Shuhe; Niu, Rongcheng; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Zhou, Qixing; Wu, Zhijie; Sun, Tieheng; Hu, Yahu; Li, Yunmeng

2009-10-30

227

The relationship of selenium tolerance and speciation in Lecythidaceae species.  

PubMed

Comparative study of selenium (Se) speciation in hyperaccumulator plants offers an interesting challenge from the analytical point of view. In our study the application of a sophisticated sample clean-up procedure and the combination of elemental and molecular mass spectrometric methods led to the identification of several new selenocompounds. The difference between the Se speciation of the primary accumulator Lecythis minor and the secondary accumulator Bertholletia excelsa confirmed the current opinion that the speciation pattern in hyperaccumulator plants is principally related to the mechanism of accumulation and not to taxonomy. The most abundant new selenocompounds were found to be the derivatives of selenohomocysteine (SeHCy) and selenomethionine (SeMet), including fatty acid metabolism related compounds. A series of SeHCy derived species containing multiple Se atoms (>2) was also detected and their structures were validated by the synthesis of their S-Se analogues. PMID:24136350

Németh, Anikó; García Reyes, Juan Francisco; Kosáry, Judit; Dernovics, Mihály

2013-12-01

228

Phytoremediation of soil metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils offers a low-cost method for soil remediation and some extracted metals may be recycled for value. Both the phytoextraction of metals and the phytovolatilization of Se or Hg by plants offer great promise for commercial development. Natural metal hyperaccumulator phenotype is much more important than high-yield ability when using plants to remove metals from contaminated

Rufus L Chaney; Minnie Malik; Yin M Li; Sally L Brown; Eric P Brewer; J Scott Angle; Alan JM Baker

1997-01-01

229

Sexual Propagation of Pteris Vittata L. Influenced by pH, Calcium, and Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to optimize germination and growth conditions of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata L. Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of soil pH, soil calcium (Ca) concentration, and temperature on the sexual propagation of P. vittata. At 25°C, germination was both accelerated and increased by high soil pH and Ca concentration. Spores of P. vittata

Xiao-Ming Wan; Mei Lei; Ze-Chun Huang; Tong-Bin Chen; Ying-Ru Liu

2009-01-01

230

Recent Advances in Understanding of Plant Responses to Excess Metals: Exposure, Accumulation, and Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity has been the primary driver of research on excess metals; but in recent decades, the biology of metal accumulation\\/hyperaccumulation\\u000a became the main focus of research. The main aim is to develop phytoremedial techniques for diminishing the environmental impact\\u000a of metal pollution. From the toxicological point of view, only the bioavailable soil metal fractions can affect morphology\\u000a and\\/or physiology; therefore

Marjana Regvar; Katarina Vogel-Mikuš

231

Removing heavy metals from synthetic effluents using “kamikaze” Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

One key step of the bioremediation processes designed to clean up heavy metal contaminated environments is growing resistant\\u000a cells that accumulate the heavy metals to ensure better removal through a combination of biosorption and continuous metabolic\\u000a uptake after physical adsorption. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells can easily act as cation biosorbents, but isolation of mutants that are both hyperaccumulating and tolerant to

Lavinia Ruta; Codruta Paraschivescu; Mihaela Matache; Sorin Avramescu; Ileana Cornelia Farcasanu

2010-01-01

232

Mercury in Certain Mushroom Species in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many wild-grown higher fungi (mushrooms, macromycetes) often are able to pick-up from soil substrate uncontaminated anthropogenically\\u000a and bioconcentrate in their fruit bodies various metallic elements and\\/or metalloids to strikingly great concentration. This\\u000a feature is known among mycorrhizal fungi and humus decomposers. Even, some species are able to hyperaccumulate certain elements.\\u000a The examples of hyperacumulating species are: Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria)

Jerzy Falandysz

233

Uptake and translocation of arsenite and arsenate by Pteris vittata L.: Effects of silicon, boron and mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand arsenite (AsIII) uptake via aquaporin channels by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata, the effects of silicic and boric acid (AsIII analogues) and HgCl2 (aquaporin inhibitor) on plant arsenic uptake and translocation were investigated. P. vittata was grown in 0.2-strength Hoagland solution containing (1) 15?M AsIII or arsenate (AsV) for 1d with or without 0.5mM silicic acid (Si experiment)

Xin Wang; Lena Q. Ma; Bala Rathinasabapathi; Yunguo Liu; Guangming Zeng

2010-01-01

234

Analysis of Sulfur And Selenium Assimilation in 'Astragalus' Plants With Varying Capacities to Accumulate Selenium  

SciTech Connect

Several Astragalus species have the ability to hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) when growing in their native habitat. Given that the biochemical properties of Se parallel those of sulfur (S), we examined the activity of key S assimilatory enzymes ATP sulfurylase (ATPS), APS reductase (APR), and serine acetyltransferase (SAT), as well as selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT), in eight Astragalus species with varying abilities to accumulate Se. Se hyperaccumulation was found to positively correlate with shoot accumulation of S-methylcysteine (MeCys) and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), in addition to the level of SMT enzymatic activity. However, no correlation was observed between Se hyperaccumulation and ATPS, APR, and SAT activities in shoot tissue. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing both ATPS and APR had a significant enhancement of selenate reduction as a proportion of total Se, whereas SAT overexpression resulted in only a slight increase in selenate reduction to organic forms. In general, total Se accumulation in shoots was lower in the transgenic plants overexpressing ATPS, PaAPR, and SAT. Root growth was adversely affected by selenate treatment in both ATPS and SAT overexpressors and less so in the PaAPR transgenic plants. Such observations support our conclusions that ATPS and APR are major contributors of selenate reduction in planta. However, Se hyperaccumulation in Astragalus is not driven by an overall increase in the capacity of these enzymes, but rather by either an increased Se flux through the S assimilatory pathway, generated by the biosynthesis of the sink metabolites MeCys or MeSeCys, or through an as yet unidentified Se assimilation pathway.

Sors, T.G.; Ellis, D.R.; Na, G.Nam.; Lahner, B.; Lee, S.; Leustek, T.; Pickering, I.J.; Salt, D.E.; /Purdue U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Saskatchewan U.

2007-08-08

235

Effects of calcium on nickel tolerance and accumulation in Alyssum species and cabbage grown in nutrient solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel (Ni) phytoextraction using hyperaccumulator plant species to accumulate Ni from mineralized and contaminated soils\\u000a rich in Ni is undergoing commercial development. Serpentinite derived soils have a very low ratio of Ca\\/Mg among soils due\\u000a the nature of the parent rock. In crop plants, soil Ca reduces Ni uptake and phytotoxicity, so it is possible that the low\\u000a Ca of

Rufus L. Chaney; Kuang-Yu Chen; Yin-Ming Li; J. Scott Angle; Alan J. M. Baker

2008-01-01

236

Lead tolerance and accumulation in the gametophytes of the fern Athyrium yokoscense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fern Athyrium yokoscense is known to be highly tolerant to lead toxicity, and is a lead hyperaccumulator that can accumulate over 1,000 µg g-1 of lead in its dry matter. In this work, we examined whether the gametophytic generation of A. yokoscense also resists lead toxicity like the sporophytic generation. Spore germination in A. yokoscense was more tolerant to Pb2+, compared

Hiroyuki Kamachi; Ippei Komori; Hideo Tamura; Yoshimi Sawa; Ichirou Karahara; Yoshihiro Honma; Naoya Wada; Tokimasa Kawabata; Kenji Matsuda; Susumu Ikeno; Munenori Noguchi; Hiroshi Inoue

2005-01-01

237

Involvement of auxin and nitric oxide in plant Cd-stress responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity inhibited the seedling growth while inducing the occurrences of lateral roots (LR) and adventitious\\u000a roots (AR). Further study indicated that auxin and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in the processes. In this study, we chose\\u000a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum as material to examine the involvement of Cd-induced auxin redistribution in NO accumulation in

Jin Xu; Wenying Wang; Jianhang Sun; Yuan Zhang; Qing Ge; Liguo Du; Hengxia Yin; Xiaojing Liu

238

Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. I. Characterization of Copper Accumulation, Speciation, and Toxicity in Crassula helmsii as a New Copper Accumulator1(W)(OA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amphibious water plant Crassula helmsii is an invasive copper (Cu)-tolerant neophyte in Europe. It now turned out to accumulate Cu up to more than 9,000 ppm in its shoots at 10 mM (=0.6 ppm) Cu2+ in the nutrient solution, indicating that it is a Cu hyperaccumulator. We investigated uptake, binding environment, and toxicity of Cu in this plant under

Hendrik Kupper; Birgit Gotz; Ana Mijovilovich; Frithjof C. Kupper; Wolfram Meyer-Klaucke

239

Phytoextraction of Pb and Cd by the Mediterranean saltbush ( Atriplex halimus L.): metal uptake in relation to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The success of phytoextraction depends upon the identification of suitable plant species that hyperaccumulate heavy metals\\u000a and produce large amounts of biomass using established agricultural techniques. In this study, the Mediterranean saltbush\\u000a Atriplex halimus L., which is a C4 perennial native shrub of Mediterranean basin with an excellent tolerance to drought and salinity, is investigated\\u000a with the

Eleni Manousaki; Nicolas Kalogerakis

2009-01-01

240

EFFECTS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS, AND FROND-HARVESTING ON ABSORPTION, TRANSLOCATION AND ACCUMULATION OF ARSENIC BY CHINESE BRAKE FERN (PTERIS VITTATA L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This hydroponic experiment was conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels and frond-harvesting on the effectiveness of arsenic (As)-hyperaccumulator Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) to remove As from contaminated groundwater collected from south Florida. Three-month old ferns were grown in 38-L plastic tanks (two ferns per tank) containing 30-L of As-contaminated water (130 ?g·L

Seenivasan Natarajan; Robert H. Stamps; Uttam K. Saha; Lena Q. Ma

2009-01-01

241

Bioavailability assessment and accumulation by five garden flower species grown in artificially cadmium-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Many studies have been conducted on phytoextraction; however, non-native hyperaccumulator species are not suitable for the natural environment of Taiwan in many cases. Drawing upon previous results, the growth and heavy metal accumulation in artificially cadmium-contaminated soils were compared for five local garden flower species. The treatments included a control (CK), 9.73 +/- 0.05 mg kg(-1) (Cd-10), and 17.6 +/- 0.8 mg kg(-1) (Cd-20). All plants were harvested at 35 days after transplanting and analyzed for Cd content. Cd accumulation in the shoot of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) and Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana Hook. f.) grown in Cd-20 treatment were 66.3 +/- 6.5 and 100 +/- 11 mg kg(-1), which equated to a removal of 0.80 +/- 0.11 and 0.60 +/- 0.37 mg Cd plant(-1), respectively. The maximum Cd accumulation of Impatiens reached the threshold value (100 mg kg(-1)) characteristic of a Cd hyperaccumulator and its bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) were greater than one. Impatiens therefore has the potential to hyperaccumulate Cd from Cd-contaminated soils. With the exception of Garden verbena, significant relationships were found between Cd concentrations in soil extracted by 0.05 M EDTA, 0.005 M DTPA, and 0.01 M CaCl2 and the concentration of Cd in the shoots of the tested garden flowers. PMID:21166288

Lin, Chun-Chun; Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

2010-07-01

242

Chelator-buffered nutrient solution is ineffective in extracting Ni from seeds of Alyssum.  

PubMed

Hyperaccumulator species of the genera Alyssum can accumulate 100 times more Ni than normal crops and are therefore used for phytomining and phytoextraction of nickel contaminated soils. Basic studies on the physiology and metal uptake mechanisms of these plants are needed to increase efficiency and uptake capacity of Nickel (Ni) by hyperaccumulators. Recent attempts to disclose if those hyperaccumulator species require higher Ni level than normal plants failed because of the high Ni content in the seeds (7000-9000 microg g(-1)). In this study, we attempted to use chelator buffered nutrient solution to deplete Ni from the seed/seed coat and to obtain low Ni seedlings of Alyssum cultivars to be used in physiology studies. HEDTA-buffered nutrient solution did not deplete Ni from the seeds, perhaps because Ni was mainly localized within the seedling embryonic tissues with greatest Ni enrichment in the cotyledons and hypocotyls. We could not observe any positive correlation between seed fitness and germination capacity with seed Ni content. Investigation of nickel localization in Alyssum seeds using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (micro-SXRF) showed that nickel is localized in the embryonic tissues with greatest Ni enrichment observed in the cotyledons and hypocotyl. PMID:21598774

Centofanti, Tiziana; Tappero, Ryan V; Davis, Allen P; Chaney, Rufus L

2011-01-01

243

Screen of Chinese weed species for cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics.  

PubMed

The cadmium (Cd) tolerance and metal-accumulation characteristics of 29 species (18 families) of weed were studied by using outdoor pot-culture experiments. The results of this screening showed that Bidens pilosa and Kalimeris integrifolia (both Asteraceae) expressed some properties that are characteristic of Cd hyperaccumulators. In 10 mg/kg Cd-spiked soil, they accumulated a good deal of Cd in shoots (28 and 25 mg/kg DW, respectively) with high Cd enrichment factors (EFs; concentration in plant/soil). Cd accumulations in shoots were greater than those in roots (translocation factor (TF) >1, concentration in shoot/root) and the shoot biomasses did not decreased significantly compared to the unspiked control. The other weed species showed little accumulation of Cd, Pb, Cu, or Zn. In a concentration-gradient experiment, the Cd accumulation potentials of B. pilosa and K. integrifolia were examined further. Cd concentrations in leaves of B. pilosa growing in soils spiked with 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg Cd were up to 145, 160, and 192 mg/kg, respectively, and the Cd content in stems in the 100 mg/kg Cd-spiked soil was 115 mg/kg, all greater than the 100 mg/kg notional criterion for Cd hyperaccumulation. The Cd EFs and TFs were all greater than 1. The shoot biomasses did not decrease significantly compared to the controls. B. pilosa was thus shown to have some characteristics of a true Cd hyperaccumulator plant. PMID:19260234

Wei, Shuhe; Zhou, Qixing

2008-01-01

244

Utilization of a Model for Uptake of Cadmium by Plants as a Phytoremediation Assessment Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some traditional methods of environmental remediation, such as removal and disposal of contaminated soil, are loosing economic favor and public acceptance, while others, such as in situ phytoremediation, are being carefully examined because of their attractiveness as environmentally friendly, low-cost solutions to site clean-up. The success of phytoremediation strategies, however, hinges on the ability of selected plants, or plant communities, to effectively uptake, accumulate and tolerate targeted contaminants. Heavy metals, specifically cadmium (Cd), are not essential nutrients to plants. However, chemically similar zinc (Zn) is a micronutrient and is actively taken up by hyperaccumulators. For this reason, the mechanisms involved in uptake of Cd parallel those of Zn. Ideally, Cd would be allocated to the stem, leaf, and/or flower, where it becomes harvestable. Our modeling work simulates the uptake and the storage of Cd in a growing hyperaccumulator. After uptake, Cd is partitioned between adsorption to plant tissue and upward movement to leaves driven by transpiration. Uptake, adsorption and transport are also regulated by phytotoxicity. Simulations suggest that a young plant with small biomass can quickly reach phytotoxicity, which shuts down the normal operation of the plant. Conversely, mature plants on a mildly contaminated site, if harvested before the plants die due to phytotoxicity or natural cause, not only survive but may occasionally thrive. The immediate aim is to estimate the effectiveness and limitations of Cd uptake by hyperaccumulators. The eventual goal of this study is to expand the model in spatial and temporal scales, from individual plants to the community scale, and from one harvest interval to several generations. Understanding the interface between physical and biological processes, specifically the uptake and release of contaminants, provides scientists and engineers tools to assess whether phytoremediation is a reasonable strategy for a given environment.

Takahashi, M.; Furbish, D. J.; Clarke, J.

2008-12-01

245

Screening of plant species for phytoremediation of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead contaminated soils from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China.  

PubMed

The concentrations of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead in the samples of the tailings and plant species collected from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. Then, the removal capability of a plant for a target element was assessed. It was found that Phragmites australis had the greatest removal capabilities for uranium (820 ?g), thorium (103 ?g) and lead (1,870 ?g). Miscanthus floridulus had the greatest removal capabilities for barium (3,730 ?g) and nickel (667 ?g), and Parthenocissus quinquefolia had the greatest removal capability for strontium (3,920 ?g). In this study, a novel coefficient, termed as phytoremediation factor (PF), was proposed, for the first time, to assess the potential of a plant to be used in phytoremediation of a target element contaminated soil. Phragmites australis has the highest PFs for uranium (16.6), thorium (8.68), barium (10.0) and lead (10.5). Miscanthus floridulus has the highest PF for Ni (25.0). Broussonetia papyrifera and Parthenocissus quinquefolia have the relatively high PFs for strontium (28.1 and 25.4, respectively). On the basis of the definition for a hyperaccumulator, only Cyperus iria and Parthenocissus quinquefolia satisfied the criteria for hyperaccumulator of uranium (36.4 ?g/g) and strontium (190 ?g/g), and could be the candidates for phytoremediation of uranium and strontium contaminated soils. The results show that the PF has advantage over the hyperaccumulator in reflecting the removal capabilities of a plant for a target element, and is more adequate for assessing the potential of a plant to be used in phytoremediation than conventional method. PMID:21523506

Li, Guang-yue; Hu, Nan; Ding, De-xin; Zheng, Ji-fang; Liu, Yu-long; Wang, Yong-dong; Nie, Xiao-qin

2011-06-01

246

Phytotoxicities of inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid to Arabidopsis thaliana and Pteris vittata.  

PubMed

The mechanisms by which Pteris vittata (L.) hyperaccumulates arsenic (As) have not been fully elucidated. To investigate how P. vittata tolerates high concentrations of arsenite, we compared the toxicities of various As compounds to P. vittata and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.). The phytotoxicities of As species were found to be in the order of arsenite > arsenate > dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) in A. thaliana, and in the order of DMAA > arsenate > arsenite in P. vittata. P. vittata calli displayed a weaker ability to absorb arsenite than arsenate. These results demonstrate that P. vittata possesses mechanisms of As accumulation and detoxification. PMID:24084979

Dai, Wentao; Yang, Xuexi; Chen, Hui; Xu, Wenzhong; He, Zhenyan; Ma, Mi

2013-12-01

247

Organoselenides from Nicotiana tabacum genetically modified to accumulate selenium.  

PubMed

Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco) plants were transformed to overexpress a selenocysteine methyltransferase gene from the selenium hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus (Hook.) A. Gray (two-grooved milkvetch), and an ATP-sulfurylase gene from Brassica oleracea L. var. italica (broccoli). Solvent extraction of leaves harvested from plants treated with selenate revealed five selenium-containing compounds, of which four were identified by chemical synthesis as 2-(methylseleno)acetaldehyde, 2,2-bis(methylseleno)acetaldehyde, 4-(methylseleno)-(2E)-nonenal, and 4-(methylseleno)-(2E,6Z)-nonadienal. These four compounds have not previously been reported in nature. PMID:19570557

Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J; Brummell, David A; Rowan, Daryl D

2009-06-01

248

The green clean: The emerging field of phytoremediation takes root  

SciTech Connect

A few plants can biologically accumulate toxic metals from surrounding soils, a situation that could revolutionize environmental cleanup. By breeding a planting metal-munchers like alpine pennycress, scientist plan to clease waste zones of toxic levels of zinc, nickel and lead. From soil loaded with metal to radionuclide-laden water, researcher hope phytoremediation will provide a cheap way to clean man-made messes at mining, nuclear, and industrial sites. This article describes developments in the area of phytoremediation, including sections on plants called hyperaccumulators, how phytoremediators function, problems transferring phytoremediators from hydroculture to soils and problems which might prevent use of phytoremediators.

Brown, K.S.

1995-10-01

249

Candidate gene analysis of organ pigmentation loci in the Solanaceae  

PubMed Central

Ten structural genes from the Capsicum (pepper) carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been localized on a (Capsicum annuum × Capsicum chinense)F2 genetic map anchored in Lycopersicon (tomato). The positions of these genes were compared with positions of the same genes in tomato when known, and with loci from pepper, potato, and tomato that affect carotenoid levels in different tissues. C2, one of three phenotypically defined loci determining pepper fruit color, cosegregated with phytoene synthase. The capsanthin–capsorubin synthase (Ccs) locus, shown previously to cosegregate with Y, another pepper fruit color locus, mapped to pepper chromosome 6. Other structural genes in pepper corresponded to loci affecting carotenoid production as follows: Ccs in pepper and the B locus for hyperaccumulation of ?-carotene in tomato fruit mapped to homeologous regions; the position of the lycopene ?-cyclase gene in pepper may correspond to the lutescent-2 mutation in tomato; and the lycopene ?-cyclase locus in pepper corresponded to the lycopene ?-cyclase locus/Del mutation for hyperaccumulation of ?-carotene in tomato fruit. Additional associations were seen between the structural genes and previously mapped loci controlling quantitative variation in pepper and tomato fruit color. These results demonstrate that comparative analyses using candidate genes may be used to link specific metabolic phenotypes and loci that affect these phenotypes in related species.

Thorup, T. A.; Tanyolac, B.; Livingstone, K. D.; Popovsky, S.; Paran, I.; Jahn, Molly

2000-01-01

250

Effects of selenium accumulation on reproductive functions in Brassica juncea and Stanleya pinnata  

PubMed Central

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for many organisms, but is also a toxin and environmental pollutant at elevated levels. Due to its chemical similarity to sulphur, most plants readily take up and assimilate Se. Se accumulators such as Brassica juncea can accumulate Se between 0.01% and 0.1% of dry weight (DW), and Se hyperaccumulators such as Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaeae) contain between 0.1% and 1.5% DW of Se. While Se accumulation offers the plant a variety of ecological benefits, particularly protection from herbivory, its potential costs are still unexplored. This study examines the effects of plant Se levels on reproductive functions. In B. juncea, Se concentrations >0.05–0.1% caused decreases in biomass, pollen germination, individual seed and total seed weight, number of seeds produced, and seed germination. In S. pinnata there was no negative effect of increased Se concentration on pollen germination. In cross-pollination of B. juncea plants with different Se levels, both the maternal and paternal Se level affected reproduction, but the maternal Se concentration had the most pronounced effect. Interestingly, high-Se maternal plants were most efficiently pollinated by Se-treated paternal plants. These data provide novel insights into the potential reproductive costs of Se accumulation, interactive effects of Se in pollen grains and in the pistil, and the apparent evolution of physiological tolerance mechanisms in hyperaccumulators to avoid reproductive repercussions.

Prins, Christine N.; Hantzis, Laura J.; Quinn, Colin F.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

2011-01-01

251

Constitutive camalexin production and environmental stress response variation in Arabidopsis populations from the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

Optimal defense theory predicts that induction of defensive secondary metabolites in plants will be inversely correlated with constitutive expression of those compounds. Here, we asked whether camalexin, an important defense against fungal and bacterial pathogens, support this prediction in structured natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from the Iberian Peninsula. In common garden experiments, we found that genotypes from the VIE population constitutively hyper-accumulated camalexin. Camalexin concentrations were not induced significantly when plants were exposed to a temperature of 10°C for 48h. However, they were induced when plants were exposed to 48h of infection by the virulent bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Genotypes from the VIE population with the hyper-accumulation of camalexin were significantly more resistant to bacterial growth. Induction of camalexin was negatively correlated with constitutive camalexin concentrations following log transformation and two different corrections for autocorrelation, thus supporting the tradeoff predicted by optimal defense theory. Constitutive overexpression of camalexin was not explained by the only known natural genetic polymorphism at the Accelerated Cell Death 6, ACD6, locus. Collectively, the results support an important role of camalexin in defense against P. syringae as well as significant structured variation in defense levels within wild populations. PMID:25017162

Zhang, Nana; Lariviere, Andy; Tonsor, Stephen J; Traw, M Brian

2014-08-01

252

Manganese accumulation in the leaf mesophyll of four tree species: a PIXE/EDAX localization study.  

PubMed

Little is known about the spatial distribution of excess manganese (Mn) in the leaves of tolerant plants. Recently, the first such study of a Mn hyperaccumulator showed that the highest localized Mn concentrations occur in the photosynthetic tissue. This is in contrast to reports based on localization of foliar accumulation of other heavy metals. Here, four tree species, Gossia bidwillii, Virotia neurophylla, Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla, which hyperaccumulate or strongly accumulate Mn, were studied. Cross-sectional foliar Mn localization was carried out in situ using proton-induced X-ray emission/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (PIXE/EDAX). All four species contained photosynthetic tissues with multiple palisade layers. These were shown to be the primary sequestration sites for Mn. Mn was not detected in the epidermal tissues. The findings of this study demonstrate a concurrence of three traits in four tree species, that is, accumulation of excess Mn in the leaves, its primary sequestration in the photosynthetic tissues, and multiple-layer palisade mesophyll. PMID:16918546

Fernando, D R; Bakkaus, E J; Perrier, N; Baker, A J M; Woodrow, I E; Batianoff, G N; Collins, R N

2006-01-01

253

The Psychedelic Genes of Maize Redundantly Promote Carbohydrate Export From Leaves  

PubMed Central

Whole-plant carbohydrate partitioning involves the assimilation of carbon in leaves and its translocation to nonphotosynthetic tissues. This process is fundamental to plant growth and development, but its regulation is poorly understood. To identify genes controlling carbohydrate partitioning, we isolated mutants that are defective in exporting fixed carbon from leaves. Here we describe psychedelic (psc), a new mutant of maize (Zea mays) that is perturbed in carbohydrate partitioning. psc mutants exhibit stable, discrete chlorotic and green regions within their leaves. psc chlorotic tissues hyperaccumulate starch and soluble sugars, while psc green tissues appear comparable to wild-type leaves. The psc chlorotic and green tissue boundaries are usually delineated by larger veins, suggesting that translocation of a mobile compound through the veins may influence the tissue phenotype. psc mutants display altered biomass partitioning, which is consistent with reduced carbohydrate export from leaves to developing tissues. We determined that the psc mutation is unlinked to previously characterized maize leaf carbohydrate hyperaccumulation mutants. Additionally, we found that the psc mutant phenotype is inherited as a recessive, duplicate-factor trait in some inbred lines. Genetic analyses with other maize mutants with variegated leaves and impaired carbohydrate partitioning suggest that Psc defines an independent pathway. Therefore, investigations into the psc mutation have uncovered two previously unknown genes that redundantly function to regulate carbohydrate partitioning in maize.

Slewinski, Thomas L.; Braun, David M.

2010-01-01

254

Phytoremediation of wastewater containing lead (Pb) in pilot reed bed using Scirpus grossus.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation is a technology to clean the environment from heavy metals contamination. The objectives of this study are to threat Pb contaminated wastewater by using phytoremediation technology and to determine if the plant can be mention as hyperaccumulator. Fifty plants of Scirpus grossus were grown in sand medium and 600 L spiked water in various Pb concentration (10, 30 and 50 mg/L) was exposed. The experiment was conducted with single exposure method, sampling time on day-1, day-14, day-28, day-42, day-70, and day-98. The analysis of Pb concentration in water, sand medium and inside the plant tissue was conducted by ICP-OES. Water samples were filtered and Pb concentration were directly analyzed, Pb in sand samples were extracted by EDTA method before analyzed, and Pb in plant tissues were extracted by wet digestion method and analyzed. The results showed that on day-28, Pb concentration in water decreased 100%, 99.9%, 99.7%, and the highest Pb uptake by plant were 1343, 4909, 3236 mg/kg for the treatment of 10, 30, and 50 mg/L respectively. The highest BC and TF were 485,261 on day-42 and 2.5295 on day-70 of treatment 30 mg/L, it can be mentioned that Scirpus grossus is a hyperaccumulator. PMID:23819266

Tangahu, Bieby Voijant; Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh; Basri, Hassan; Idris, Mushrifah; Anuar, Nurina; Mukhlisin, Muhammad

2013-01-01

255

Chemically induced conditional rescue of the reduced epidermal fluorescence8 mutant of Arabidopsis reveals rapid restoration of growth and selective turnover of secondary metabolite pools.  

PubMed

The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse and important secondary metabolites including lignin and flavonoids. The reduced epidermal fluorescence8 (ref8) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is defective in a lignin biosynthetic enzyme p-coumaroyl shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H), exhibits severe dwarfism and sterility. To better understand the impact of perturbation of phenylpropanoid metabolism on plant growth, we generated a chemically inducible C3'H expression construct and transformed it into the ref8 mutant. Application of dexamethasone to these plants greatly alleviates the dwarfism and sterility and substantially reverses the biochemical phenotypes of ref8 plants, including the reduction of lignin content and hyperaccumulation of flavonoids and p-coumarate esters. Induction of C3'H expression at different developmental stages has distinct impacts on plant growth. Although early induction effectively restored the elongation of primary inflorescence stem, application to 7-week-old plants enabled them to produce new rosette inflorescence stems. Examination of hypocotyls of these plants revealed normal vasculature in the newly formed secondary xylem, presumably restoring water transport in the mutant. The ref8 mutant accumulates higher levels of salicylic acid than the wild type, but depletion of this compound in ref8 did not relieve the mutant's growth defects, suggesting that the hyperaccumulation of salicylic acid is unlikely to be responsible for dwarfism in this mutant. PMID:24381065

Kim, Jeong Im; Ciesielski, Peter N; Donohoe, Bryon S; Chapple, Clint; Li, Xu

2014-02-01

256

Plants absorb heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

Parry, J.

1995-02-01

257

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance both absorption and stabilization of Cd by Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in a Cd-contaminated acidic soil.  

PubMed

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the phytoextraction efficiencies of Cd by hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) and fast-growing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) from a Cd-contaminated (1.6 mg kg(-1)) acidic soil, and their responses to the inoculations of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal strains, Glomus caledonium 90036 (Gc) and Glomus mosseae M47V (Gm). Ryegrass and stonecrop were harvested after growing for 9 and 27 wk, respectively. Without AM fungal inoculation, the weekly Cd extraction by stonecrop (8.0 ?g pot(-1)) was 4.3 times higher than that by ryegrass (1.5 ?g pot(-1)). Both Gc and Gm significantly increased (P < 0.05) root mycorrhizal colonization rates, soil acid phosphatase activities, and available P concentrations, and thereby plant P absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated ryegrass), shoot biomasses, and Cd absorptions (except for Gm-inoculated stonecrop), while only Gc-inoculated stonecrop significantly accelerated (P < 0.05) the phytoextraction efficiency of Cd by 78%. In addition, both Gc and Gm significantly decreased (P < 0.05) phytoavailable Cd concentrations by 21-38% via elevating soil pH. The results suggested the potential application of hyper-accumulating Alfred stonecrop associated with AM fungi (notably Gc) for both extraction and stabilization of Cd in the in situ treatment of Cd-contaminated acidic soil. PMID:24011894

Hu, Junli; Wu, Shengchun; Wu, Fuyong; Leung, Ho Man; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

2013-10-01

258

Comparison of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids in enhancing phytoextraction of heavy metals by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.  

PubMed

Lab scale and pot experiments were conducted to compare the effects of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) on the phytoextraction of multi-contaminated soils by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance. Through lab scale experiments, the treatment dosage of 5 and 10 mM for synthetic chelators and LMWOA, respectively, and the treatment time of 10 days were selected for pot experiment. In pot experiment, the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) was found more tolerant to the metal toxicity compared with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). EDTA for Pb, EDDS for Cu, and DTPA for Cu and Cd were found more effective to enhance heavy metal accumulation in the shoots of S. alfredii Hance. Compared with synthetic chelators, the phytoextraction ability of LMWOA was lesser. Considering the strong post-harvest effects of synthetic chelators, it is suggested that higher dosage of LMWOA could be practiced during phytoextraction, and some additional measures could also be taken to lower the potential environmental risks of synthetic chelators in the future studies. PMID:17904736

Liu, Dan; Islam, Ejazul; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; Jin, Xiaofen; Mahmood, Qaisar

2008-05-01

259

Arsenic alters uptake and distribution of sulphur in Pteris vittata.  

PubMed

Low-molecular-weight thiol (LMWT) synthesis has been reported to be directly induced by arsenic (As) in Pteris vittata, an As hyperaccumulator. Sulphur (S) is a critical component of LMWTs. Here, the effect of As treatment on the uptake and distribution of S in P. vittata was investigated. In P. vittata grown under low S conditions, the presence of As in the growth medium enhanced the uptake of SO4(2-), which was used for LMWT synthesis in fronds. In contrast, As application did not affect SO4(2-) uptake in Nephrolepis exaltata, an As non-hyperaccumulator. Moreover, the isotope microscope system revealed that S absorbed with As accumulated locally in a vacuole-like organelle in epidermal cells, whereas S absorbed alone was distributed uniformly. These results suggest that S is involved in As transport and/or accumulation in P. vittata. X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis revealed that the major As species in the fronds and roots of P. vittata were inorganic As(III) and As(V), respectively, and that As-LMWT complexes occurred as a minor species. Consequently, in case of As accumulation in P. vittata, S possibly acts as a temporary ligand for As in the form of LMWTs in intercellular and/or intracellular transport (e.g. vacuolar sequestration). PMID:23611758

Watanabe, Toshihiro; Kouho, Ran; Katayose, Tomo; Kitajima, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Shinano, Takuro; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Osaki, Mitsuru

2014-01-01

260

Roles of plant metal tolerance proteins (MTP) in metal storage and potential use in biofortification strategies  

PubMed Central

Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for plants, playing catalytic or structural roles in enzymes, transcription factors, ribosomes, and membranes. In humans, Zn deficiency is the second most common mineral nutritional disorder, affecting around 30% of the world's population. People living in poverty usually have diets based on milled cereals, which contain low Zn concentrations. Biofortification of crops is an attractive cost-effective solution for low mineral dietary intake. In order to increase the amounts of bioavailable Zn in crop edible portions, it is necessary to understand how plants take up, distribute, and store Zn within their tissues, as well as to characterize potential candidate genes for biotechnological manipulation. The metal tolerance proteins (MTP) were described as metal efflux transporters from the cytoplasm, transporting mainly Zn2+ but also Mn2+, Fe2+, Cd2+, Co2+, and Ni2+. Substrate specificity appears to be conserved in phylogenetically related proteins. MTPs characterized so far in plants have a role in general Zn homeostasis and tolerance to Zn excess; in tolerance to excess Mn and also in the response to iron (Fe) deficiency. More recently, the first MTPs in crop species have been functionally characterized. In Zn hyperaccumulator plants, the MTP1 protein is related to hypertolerance to elevated Zn concentrations. Here, we review the current knowledge on this protein family, as well as biochemical functions and physiological roles of MTP transporters in Zn hyperaccumulators and non-accumulators. The potential applications of MTP transporters in biofortification efforts are discussed.

Ricachenevsky, Felipe K.; Menguer, Paloma K.; Sperotto, Raul A.; Williams, Lorraine E.; Fett, Janette P.

2013-01-01

261

Foliar manganese accumulation by Maytenus founieri (Celastraceae) in its native New Caledonian habitats: populational variation and localization by X-ray microanalysis.  

PubMed

Hyperaccumulation by plants is a rare phenomenon that has potential practical benefits. The majority of manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulators discovered to date occur in New Caledonia, and little is known about their ecophysiology. This study reports on natural populations of one such species, the endemic shrub Maytenus founieri. Mean foliar Mn concentrations of two populations growing on ultramafic substrates with varying soil pHs were obtained. Leaf anatomies were examined by light microscopy, while the spatial distributions of foliar Mn in both populations were examined by qualitative scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Plants growing on two different substrates were found to have very different mean dry weight (DW) foliar Mn concentrations. Light microscopy showed that the leaves had very distinct thick dermal structures, consisting of multiple layers of large cells in the hypodermis. In vivo X-ray microprobe analyses revealed that, in both populations, Mn sequestration occurred primarily in these dermal tissues. The finding here that foliar Mn is most highly localized in the nonphotosynthetic tissues of M. founieri contrasts with results from similar studies on other woody species that accumulate high Mn concentrations in their shoots. PMID:17986181

Fernando, D R; Woodrow, I E; Jaffré, T; Dumontet, V; Marshall, A T; Baker, A J M

2008-01-01

262

The effectiveness and risk comparison of EDTA with EGTA in enhancing Cd phytoextraction by Mirabilis jalapa L.  

PubMed

In the previous study, Mirabilis jalapa L. had revealed the basic Cd hyperaccumulator characteristics, but the accumulation ability was not as strong as that of other known Cd hyperaccumulators. In order to improve the accumulation ability of this ornamental plant, the chelants were used to activate the Cd in soil. As a substitute, ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid (EGTA) was selected to testify whether it has better effectiveness and can bring lesser metal leaching risk than EDTA. The data showed that the growth of M. jalapa was inhibited, while the Cd concentration of the plant was significantly increased under the treatments containing EDTA or EGTA. The Cd translocation ability under the EGTA treatments was higher than that under the EDTA treatments. The available Cd resulted from the application of chelant EGTA to the contaminated soils can be limited to the top 5 cm, while the application of chelant EDTA to the contaminated soils can be limited to the top 10 cm. In a word, EGTA showed better effectiveness than EDTA in enhancing Cd phytoextraction of M. jalapa. As an ornamental plant, M. jalapa has the potential to be used for phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soils and it can beautify the environment at the same time. PMID:24068285

Wang, Song; Liu, Jianv

2014-02-01

263

A Transcriptomic Network Underlies Microstructural and Physiological Responses to Cadmium in Populus x canescens1[C][W  

PubMed Central

Bark tissue of Populus × canescens can hyperaccumulate cadmium, but microstructural, transcriptomic, and physiological response mechanisms are poorly understood. Histochemical assays, transmission electron microscopic observations, energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis, and transcriptomic and physiological analyses have been performed to enhance our understanding of cadmium accumulation and detoxification in P. × canescens. Cadmium was allocated to the phloem of the bark, and subcellular cadmium compartmentalization occurred mainly in vacuoles of phloem cells. Transcripts involved in microstructural alteration, changes in nutrition and primary metabolism, and stimulation of stress responses showed significantly differential expression in the bark of P. × canescens exposed to cadmium. About 48% of the differentially regulated transcripts formed a coregulation network in which 43 hub genes played a central role both in cross talk among distinct biological processes and in coordinating the transcriptomic regulation in the bark of P. × canescens in response to cadmium. The cadmium transcriptome in the bark of P. × canescens was mirrored by physiological readouts. Cadmium accumulation led to decreased total nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium and increased sulfur in the bark. Cadmium inhibited photosynthesis, resulting in decreased carbohydrate levels. Cadmium induced oxidative stress and antioxidants, including free proline, soluble phenolics, ascorbate, and thiol compounds. These results suggest that orchestrated microstructural, transcriptomic, and physiological regulation may sustain cadmium hyperaccumulation in P. × canescens bark and provide new insights into engineering woody plants for phytoremediation.

He, Jiali; Li, Hong; Luo, Jie; Ma, Chaofeng; Li, Shaojun; Qu, Long; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea; Tyree, Melvin; Luo, Zhi-Bin

2013-01-01

264

Selenium uptake, translocation, assimilation and metabolic fate in plants.  

PubMed

The chemical and physical resemblance between selenium (Se) and sulfur (S) establishes that both these elements share common metabolic pathways in plants. The presence of isologous Se and S compounds indicates that these elements compete in biochemical processes that affect uptake, translocation and assimilation throughout plant development. Yet, minor but crucial differences in reactivity and other metabolic interactions infer that some biochemical processes involving Se may be excluded from those relating to S. This review examines the current understanding of physiological and biochemical relationships between S and Se metabolism by highlighting their similarities and differences in relation to uptake, transport and assimilation pathways as observed in Se hyperaccumulator and non-accumulator plant species. The exploitation of genetic resources used in bioengineering strategies of plants is illuminating the function of sulfate transporters and key enzymes of the S assimilatory pathway in relation to Se accumulation and final metabolic fate. These strategies are providing the basic framework by which to resolve questions relating to the essentiality of Se in plants and the mechanisms utilized by Se hyperaccumulators to circumvent toxicity. In addition, such approaches may assist in the future application of genetically engineered Se accumulating plants for environmental renewal and human health objectives. PMID:16307305

Sors, T G; Ellis, D R; Salt, D E

2005-12-01

265

Application of quantitative fluorescence and absorption-edge computed microtomography to image metal compartmentalization in Alyssum murale.  

PubMed

This paper shows that synchrotron-based fluorescence and absorption-edge computed microtomographies (CMT) are well-suited for determining the compartmentalization and concentration of metals in hyperaccumulating plant tissues. Fluorescence CMT of intact leaf, stem, and root samples revealed that Ni concentrated in stem and leaf dermal tissues and, together with Mn, in distinct regions associated with the Ca-rich trichomes on the leaf surface of the nickel hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale "Kotodesh". Metal enrichment was also observed within the vascular system of the finer roots, stem, and leaves but absent from the coarser root, which had a well-correlated metal coating. Absorption-edge CMT showed the three-dimensional distribution of the highest metal concentrations and verified that epidermal localization and Ni and Mn co-localization at the trichome base are phenomena that occurred throughout the entire leaf and may contribute significantly to metal detoxification and storage. Ni was also observed in the leaf tips, possibly resulting from release of excess Ni with guttation fluids. These results are consistent with a transport model where Ni is removed from the soil by the finer roots, carried to the leaves through the stem xylem, and distributed throughout the leaf by the veins to the dermal tissues, trichome bases, and in some cases the leaf tips. PMID:15871256

McNear, David H; Peltier, Edward; Everhart, Jeff; Chaney, Rufus L; Sutton, Steve; Newville, Matt; Rivers, Mark; Sparks, Donald L

2005-04-01

266

Phenotypic and molecular consequences of overexpression of metal-homeostasis genes  

PubMed Central

Metal hyperaccumulating plants are able to store very large amounts of metals in their shoots. There are a number of reasons why it is important to be able to introduce metal hyperaccumulation traits into non-accumulating species (e.g., phytoremediation or biofortification in minerals) and to engineer a desired level of accumulation and distribution of metals. Metal homeostasis genes have therefore been used for these purposes. Engineered accumulation levels, however, have often been far from expected, and transgenic plants frequently display phenotypic features not related to the physiological function of the introduced gene. In this review, we focus on an aspect often neglected in research on plants expressing metal homeostasis genes: the specific regulation of endogenous metal homeostasis genes of the host plant in response to the transgene-induced imbalance of the metal status. These modifications constitute one of the major mechanisms involved in the generation of the plant's phenotype, including unexpected characteristics. Interestingly, activation of so-called “metal cross-homeostasis” has emerged as a factor of primary importance.

Antosiewicz, Danuta M.; Barabasz, Anna; Siemianowski, Oskar

2014-01-01

267

Control of lead polluted leachate in a box-scale phytoremediation test using common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) grown on lead contaminated soil.  

PubMed

The remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil using plants is a technology worth developing. However, the overall effect of phytoremediation in high-density Pb polluted sites remains unknown. Especially, little information is available about the effects of using plants to control lead polluted leachate. Thus, we investigated the control of leachate in a box-scale phytoremediation test using common buckwheat, a Pb hyperaccumulator, grown on Pb contaminated soil. In the presence of buckwheat, the change in volumetric water content was smaller than that of the control with rainfall. The total amount of Pb in the leachate strongly correlated with the amount of leachate and the decrease in the density of Pb in the leachate. During the cultivation period, the total amount of Pb leached in the control was 1.28mg per container, while in the presence of buckwheat the total amount of Pb was approximately 22.7% of the control. Moreover, with buckwheat cultivation, Pb polluted leachate resulting from rainwater was prevented. The results suggested that buckwheat was a Pb hyperaccumulator and also had a high ability for phytostabilization. Control of Pb polluted leachate using buckwheat was shown to be a phytoremediation technology applicable to heavily Pb contaminated sites. PMID:17500317

Honda, M; Tamura, H; Kimura, T; Kinoshita, T; Matsufuru, H; Sato, T

2007-04-01

268

A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research. PMID:20595237

Orsini, Francesco; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Inan, Gunsu; Serra, Sara; Oh, Dong-Ha; Mickelbart, Michael V; Consiglio, Federica; Li, Xia; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bohnert, Hans J; Bressan, Ray A; Maggio, Albino

2010-08-01

269

Effects of Metal Phytoextraction Practices on the Indigenous Community of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi at a Metal-Contaminated Landfill  

PubMed Central

Phytoextraction involves use of plants to remove toxic metals from soil. We examined the effects of phytoextraction practices with three plant species (Silene vulgaris, Thlaspi caerulescens, and Zea mays) and a factorial variation of soil amendments (either an ammonium or nitrate source of nitrogen and the presence or absence of an elemental sulfur supplement) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes) at a moderately metal-contaminated landfill located in St. Paul, Minn. Specifically, we tested whether the applied treatments affected the density of glomalean spores and AM root colonization in maize. Glomalean fungi from the landfill were grouped into two morphotypes characterized by either light-colored spores (LCS) or dark-colored spores (DCS). Dominant species of the LCS morphotype were Glomus mosseae and an unidentified Glomus sp., whereas the DCS morphotype was dominated by Glomus constrictum. The density of spores of the LCS morphotype from the phytoremediated area was lower than the density of these spores in the untreated landfill soil. Within the experimental area, spore density of the LCS morphotype in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal maize was significantly higher than in rhizospheres of nonmycorrhizal S. vulgaris or T. caerulescens. Sulfur supplement increased vesicular root colonization in maize and exerted a negative effect on spore density in maize rhizosphere. We conclude that phytoextraction practices, e.g., the choice of plant species and soil amendments, may have a great impact on the quantity and species composition of glomalean propagules as well as on mycorrhiza functioning during long-term metal-remediation treatments.

Pawlowska, Teresa E.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Chin, Mel; Charvat, Iris

2000-01-01

270

Effect of salinity on zinc uptake by Brassica juncea.  

PubMed

Salinity is a major worldwide problem that affects agricultural soils and limits the reclamation of contaminated sites. Despite the large number of research papers published about salt tolerance in Brassica juncea L., there are very few accounts concerning the influence of salinity on the uptake of trace metals. In this study, B. juncea plants divided through soil sets comprising 0, 900 and 1800 mg Zn kg(-1), were treated with solutions containing 0, 60 and 120 mmol L(-1) of NaCl, with the purpose of observing the effect of salt on Zn uptake, and some physiological responses throughout the 90 days experiment. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Zn produced a decline in the ecophysiological and biochemical properties of the plants, with observable synergistic effects on parameters like shoot dry weight, leaf area, or photochemical efficiency. Nevertheless, plants treated with 60 mmol L(-1) of NaCl accumulated striking harvestable amounts of Zn per plant that largely exceed those reported for Thlaspi caerulescens. It was concluded that salinity could play an important role on the uptake of Zn by B. juncea. The potential mechanisms behind these results are discussed, as well as the implications for phytoremediation of Zn on saline and non-saline soils. PMID:24933880

Novo, Luís A B; Covelo, Emma F; González, Luís

2014-01-01

271

Isolation and expression analysis of partial sequences of heavy metal transporters from Brassica juncea by coupling high throughput cloning with a molecular fingerprinting technique.  

PubMed

Heavy metal transporters play a key role in regulating metal accumulation and transport in plants. These are important candidate genes to study in metal tolerant and accumulator plants for their potential use in environmental clean up. We coupled a degenerate primer-based RT-PCR approach with a molecular fingerprinting technique based on amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) to identify novel ESTs corresponding to heavy metal transporters from metal accumulator Brassica juncea. We utilized this technique to clone several family members of natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMP) and yellow stripe-like proteins (YSL) in a high throughput manner to distinguish between closely related isoforms and/or allelic variants from the allopolyploid B. juncea. Partial clones of 23 Brassica juncea NRAMPs and 27 YSLs were obtained with similarity to known Arabidopsis thaliana and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens NRAMP and YSL genes. The cloned transporters showed Brassica-specific changes in domains, which can have important functional consequences. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR-based expression analysis of chosen members indicated that even closely related isoforms/allelic variants of BjNRAMP and BjYSL have distinct tissue-specific and metal-dependent expressions which might be essential for adaptive fitness and heavy metal tolerance. Consistent to this, BjYSL6.1 and BjYSL5.8 were found to show elevated expressions specifically in cadmium-treated shoots and lead-treated roots of B. juncea, respectively. PMID:21394470

Das, Soumita; Sen, Monali; Saha, Chinmay; Chakraborty, Debjani; Das, Antara; Banerjee, Manidipa; Seal, Anindita

2011-07-01

272

The specificity of interaction of Zn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) ions with the histidine-rich domain of the TjZNT1 ZIP family transporter.  

PubMed

The Zrt/Irt-like protein (ZIP) family contributes to the metal homeostasis by regulating the transport of divalent metal cations such as Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+) and sometimes even Cu(2+). Most ZIP members have a long variable loop between transmembrane domains (TMDs) III and IV; this region is predicted to be located in the cytoplasm and is postulated to be the metal ion binding site. In this study, we looked at the thermodynamic behavior and coordination chemistry of Zn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) complexes with the histidine-rich domain, Ac-(185)RAHAAHHRHSH(195)-NH2 (HRD), from the yeast TjZNT1 protein, located between TMDs III and IV. The sequence is conserved also in higher species like Thlaspi japonicum. The stability of complexes increases in the series Ni(2+) < Zn(2+)? Cu(2+). The geometry of complexes is very different for each metal and in the case of Zn(2+) complexes, high specificity in binding is observed. Moreover, the stability of HRD-Cu(2+) complexes was compared with the five His residues containing peptide from Hpn protein (Helicobacter pylori). The results suggest a high ability of HRD in the binding of all three studied metals. PMID:24874820

Potocki, Slawomir; Valensin, Daniela; Kozlowski, Henryk

2014-07-14

273

[Antioxidative response of Phytolacca americana and Nicotiana tabacum to manganese stresses].  

PubMed

Plant species capable of accumulating heavy metals are of considerable interest for phytoremediation and phytomining. The mechanism of Mn tolerance/hyperaccumulate in Phytolacca americana L. is less known. To elucidate the role of antioxidative enzyme in response to Mn, the 6-week-old seedling of Mn hyperaccumulator P. americana and non-accumulator-tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were exposed to half strength Hoagland solution with 1 mmol x L(-1) or 3 mmol x L(-1) MnCl2 for 4 days. The photosynthetic rate in P. americana decreased more slowly than that in tobacco, while the MDA content and electrolyte leakage in tobacco increased more rapidly than that in P. americana. For example, after exposure to 1 mmol x L(-1) Mn for 4 days, the photosynthetic rates of P. americana and tobacco in comparison to the control reduced by 13.3% and 75.5%, respectively. The MDA content and electrolyte leakage in tobacco increased by 347.3% and 120.1%, respectively, whereas Mn had no marked effect on both of it in P. americana, indicated that the oxidative damage in tobacco was more serious than that in P. americana. The activities of SOD and POD of both species increased rapidly with elevated Mn concentration and exposure time in both species, the increase of SOD activity in P. americana was higher than that in tobacco. CAT activity in tobacco declined rapidly, while the activity of CAT in P. americana was increased. The activities of SOD, POD and CAT in P. americana upon 1 mmol x L(-1) Mn exposure increased by 161.1%, 111.3% and 17.5%, respectively. The activities of SOD and POD in tobacco increased by 55.5% and 206.0%, respectively, while CAT activity decreased by 15.6%, indicating that the antioxidative enzymes in P. americana, particularly in CAT,could fully scavenge the reactive oxygen species generated by Mn toxicity. These results collectively indicate that the enzymatic antioxidation capacity is one of the important mechanisms responsible for Mn tolerance in hyperaccumulator plant species. PMID:20187406

Zhang, Yu-xiu; Huang, Zhi-bo; Zhang, Hong-mei; Li, Lin-feng; Chai, Tuan-yao

2009-12-01

274

Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants  

DOEpatents

Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

Meagher, Richard B. (Athens, GA) [Athens, GA; Balish, Rebecca S. (Oxford, OH) [Oxford, OH; Tehryung, Kim (Athens, GA) [Athens, GA; McKinney, Elizabeth C. (Athens, GA) [Athens, GA

2009-02-17

275

Speciation of nickel by HPLC-UV/MS in pea nodules.  

PubMed

A new and sensitive methodology based on normal phase HPLC has been developed for the speciation of nickel in low-complexity plant extracts. The method combines a silica stationary phase column, a 9:1 (v/v) hexane:ethanol mixture as mobile phase, and the detection of nickel complexes by either UV or MS. The developed methodology was applied to the speciation of nickel complexes in the cytoplasm of pea root nodules. Results obtained indicate that nickel citrate and nickel malate accounts for 99% of nickel present in pea nodule cytoplasm fraction. The low detection limit of the method (<0.2 nM) enables nickel speciation in non-hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:21035647

Cacho, C; Brito, B; Palacios, J; Pérez-Conde, C; Cámara, C

2010-11-15

276

The PGM3 gene encodes the major phosphoribomutase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The phosphoglucomutases (PGM) Pgm1, Pgm2, and Pgm3 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tested for their ability to interconvert ribose-1-phosphate and ribose-5-phosphate. The purified proteins were studied in vitro with regard to their kinetic properties on glucose-1-phosphate and ribose-1-phosphate. All tested enzymes were active on both substrates with Pgm1 exhibiting only residual activity on ribose-1-phosphate. The Pgm2 and Pgm3 proteins had almost equal kinetic properties on ribose-1-phosphate, but Pgm2 had a 2000 times higher preference for glucose-1-phosphate when compared to Pgm3. The in vivo function of the PGMs was characterized by monitoring ribose-1-phosphate kinetics following a perturbation of the purine nucleotide balance. Only mutants with a deletion of PGM3 hyper-accumulated ribose-1-phosphate. We conclude that Pgm3 functions as the major phosphoribomutase in vivo. PMID:23103740

Walther, Thomas; Baylac, Audrey; Alkim, Ceren; Vax, Amélie; Cordier, Hélène; François, Jean Marie

2012-11-30

277

The Tie-dyed pathway promotes symplastic trafficking in the phloem  

PubMed Central

The tie-dyed1 (tdy1) and tdy2 mutants of maize exhibit leaf regions with starch hyperaccumulation and display unusual genetic interactions, suggesting they function in the same physiological process. Tdy2 encodes a putative callose synthase and is expressed in developing vascular tissues of immature leaves. Radiolabelling experiments and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed symplastic trafficking within the phloem was perturbed at the companion cell/sieve element interface. Here, we show that as reported for tdy2 mutants, tdy1 yellow leaf regions display an excessive oil-droplet phenotype in the companion cells. Based on the proposed function of Tdy2 as a callose synthase, our previous work characterizing Tdy1 as a novel, transmembrane-localized protein, and the present findings, we speculate how TDY1 and TDY2 might interact to promote symplastic transport of both solutes and developmentally instructive macromolecules during vascular development at the companion cell/sieve element interface.

Baker, R. Frank; Slewinski, Thomas L.; Braun, David M.

2013-01-01

278

Contaminated soils salinity, a threat for phytoextraction?  

PubMed

Phytoremediation, given the right choice of plant, may be theoretically applicable to multi-contamination. Laboratory and some field trials have proven successful, but this ideal technique is in all cases dependent on plant growth ability on (generally) low-fertility soil or media. While contaminant concentration has often been proposed as an explanation for plant growth limitation, other factors, commonly occurring in industrial soils, such as salinity, should be considered. The present work highlights the fact that besides contaminants (trace elements and PAH), soil salinity may strongly affect germination and growth of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens. Elevated concentrations of nitrate proved highly toxic for seed germination. At the growth stage the salt effect (sulfate) seemed less significant and the limited biomass production observed could be attributed mostly to organic contamination. PMID:23245576

Sirguey, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie

2013-04-01

279

Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Pb, Cd, and Cu in Pinus nigra L. and Eriobotrya japonica leaves used as biomonitors in environmental pollution.  

PubMed

The assessment of trace metal pollution in Gaziantep city-Turkey has been studied using plant leaves of Pinus nigra L. and Eriobotrya japonica as biomonitor. The concentrations up to 3,056 mg Pb kg(-1) in the needles of Pinus nigra L., and 367 ng Cd g(-1) in the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica were determined. The observed Cu concentrations were in range of 1.6-7.1 mg kg(-1). The Pb, Cd, and Cu levels in soils were determined to be in the range of 17-602, 0.142-0.656, and 12-38 mg kg(-1), respectively. It was concluded that Pinus nigra L. can be considered as both biomonitor of atmospheric Pb pollution and hyperaccumulator plant. PMID:19784536

Kaya, Gokce; Ozcan, Cemile; Yaman, Mehmet

2010-02-01

280

Silicon in Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv: content, distribution, and ultrastructure.  

PubMed

Silicon concentration, distribution, and ultrastructure of silicon deposits in the Poaceae Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv. have been studied. This grass, known for its medicinal uses and also for Fe hyperaccumulation and biomineralization capacities, showed a concentration of silicon of 13,705?±?9,607 mg/kg dry weight. Silicon was found as an important constituent of cell walls of the epidermis of the whole plant. Silica deposits were found in silica bodies, endodermis, and different cells with silicon-collapsed lumen as bulliforms, cortical, and sclerenchyma cells. Transmission electron microscope observations of these deposits revealed an amorphous material of an ultrastructure similar to that previously reported in silica bodies of other Poaceae. PMID:24337803

Rufo, Lourdes; Franco, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Vicenta

2014-07-01

281

Phytoremediation potential of paragrass--an in situ approach for chromium contaminated soil.  

PubMed

The present in situ phytoextraction approach uses paragrass (Brachiaria mutica (Forssk) Stapf) as a hyper accumulator for attenuation of chromium level in soil and mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mine area of Orissa. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) for Cr was maximum (0.334) in 100 days grown paragrass weeds. Transportation index (Ti) i.e. 6.16 and total accumulation rate (TAR) i.e. 8.2 mg kg(-1)day(-1) was maximum in 125 days old paragrass grown in Cr contaminated experimental cultivated plots. Cr bioaccumulation in roots was nearly 1000 times more than shoots. Paragrass showed luxuriant growth with massive fibrous roots when grown over Cr contaminated soils (11,170 mg/ kg dry soil). Cr bioaccumulation varies significantly with plant age, biomass and level of Cr contamination in irrigated mine waste water and soil. Paragrass could be used as hyperaccumulators as it showed rapid massive growth with a high tolerance to Cr. PMID:22908645

Mohanty, Monalisa; Patra, Hemanta Kumar

2012-09-01

282

EDTA enhanced phytoremediation of copper contaminated soils using chickpea (Cicer aeritinum L.).  

PubMed

The goal of this research was to determine whether or not chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), commonly known as Garbanzo beans, is a hyper accumulator for copper (Cu) in contaminated soils amended with EDTA. Statistical analysis (2 tailed Pearson Correlation) revealed significant correlations between: Translocation index and stem biomass (r = 0.859**; p < 0.01); Tolerance index and stem biomass (r = 0.762**; p < 0.01); and bioconcentration factor of stem/soil and soil Cu concentration (r = -0.545*; p < 0.05). Therefore, C. arietinum seems to be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly hyperaccumulator for Cu at 100 ppm Cu and 10 mM EDTA. PMID:23912229

Kambhampati, Murty S; Vu, Van Tu

2013-09-01

283

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to control the chemical speciation, electrochemical state, transport, and aboveground binding of mercury in order to manage this toxicant. To advance this mercury phytoremediation strategy, our planned research focuses on the following Specific Aims: (1) to increase the transport of mercury to aboveground tissue; (2) to identify small mercury binding peptides that enhance hyperaccumulation aboveground; (3) to test the ability of multiple genes acting together to enhance resistance and hyperaccumulation; (4) to construct a simple molecular system for creating male/female sterility, allowing engineered grass, shrub, and tree species to be released indefinitely at contaminated sites; (5) to test the ability of transgenic cottonwood and rice plants to detoxify ionic mercury and prevent methylmercury release from contaminated sediment; and (6) to initiate field testing with transgenic cottonwood and rice for the remediation of methylmercury and ionic mercury. The results of these experiments will enable the phytoremediation of methyl- and ionic mercury by a wide spectrum of deep-rooted, fast-growing plants adapted to diverse environments. We have made significant progress on all six of these specific aims as summarized below.

Meagher, Richard B.

2005-06-01

284

[Cu and Pb contents in Dichondra repens leaf and their effects on its physiological indexes].  

PubMed

This paper analyzed the contents of Cu and Pb in Dichondra repens grown on Cu and Pb contaminated soil to determine if this plant is a hyperaccumulator of two elements. The results indicated that total content of Cu (44.8 g x kg(-1)) in the plant was higher than that of Pb (25.59 g x kg(-1)), and the contents of two elements were higher in roots and stems than in leaves and increased with increasing soil contamination. The accumulation coefficient of Cu (0.784) was higher than that of Pb (0.465). With the increasing concentrations of two heavy metals, the chlorophyll a content and chlorophyll a/b ratio in leaf decreased, the SOD activity increased to the peak and decreased subsequently, while the POD activity always maintained an increasing trend. The membrane permeability of cell was not significantly varied. PMID:15825456

Li, Jun; Zhou, Shoubiao; Huang, Wenjiang; Wang, Guanglin

2004-12-01

285

A critical review of the arsenic uptake mechanisms and phytoremediation potential of Pteris vittata.  

PubMed

The discovery of the arsenic hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern), has contributed to the promotion of its application as a means of phytoremediation for arsenic removal from contaminated soils and water. Understanding the mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance and accumulation of this plant provides valuable tools to improve the phytoremediation efficiency. In this review, the current knowledge about the physiological and molecular mechanisms of arsenic tolerance and accumulation in P. vittata is summarized, and an attempt has been made to clarify some of the unresolved questions related to these mechanisms. In addition, the capacity of P. vittata for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils is evaluated under field conditions for the first time, and possible solutions to improve the remediation capacity of Pteris vittata are also discussed. PMID:24912227

Danh, Luu Thai; Truong, Paul; Mammucari, Raffaella; Foster, Neil

2014-01-01

286

Arsenic uptake by Lemna minor in hydroponic system.  

PubMed

Arsenic is hazardous and causes several ill effects on human beings. Phytoremediation is the use of aquatic plants for the removal of toxic pollutants from external media. In the present research work, the removal efficiency as well as the arsenic uptake capacity of duckweed Lemna minor has been studied. Arsenic concentration in water samples and plant biomass were determined by AAS. The relative growth factor of Lemna minor was determined. The duckweed had potential to remove as well as uptake arsenic from the aqueous medium. Maximum removal of more than 70% arsenic was achieved atinitial concentration of 0.5 mg/1 arsenic on 15th day of experimental period of 22 days. Removal percentage was found to decrease with the increase in initial concentration. From BCF value, Lemna minor was found to be a hyperaccumulator of arsenic at initial concentration of 0.5 mg/L, such that accumulation decreased with increase in initial arsenic concentration. PMID:24933913

Goswami, Chandrima; Majumder, Arunabha; Misra, Amal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

2014-01-01

287

The engineered phytoremediation of ionic and methylmercury pollution 70054yr.2000.doc  

SciTech Connect

Our long-term objective is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants (Meagher, 2000). We have focused our research on the phytoremediation of soil and water-borne ionic and organic mercury (Meagher and Rugh, 1996; Meagher et al., 2000). Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. In the near future, the experience gained through engineering plants that hyperaccumulate mercury, can be applied to extraction or accumulation of various toxic heavy metal and radionuclide contaminates at dozens of DOE sites.

Meagher, Richard B.

2000-06-01

288

The engineered phytoremediation of ionic and methylmercury pollution 70054yr.2001.doc  

SciTech Connect

Our long-term objective is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic organic and heavy metal pollutants (Meagher, 2000) applying scientific strategies and technologies from a rapidly developing field called phytoremediation. The phytoremediation of toxic elemental and organic pollutants requires the use relatively different approaches (Meagher, 2000). Our current specific objectives are to use transgenic plants to control the chemical species, electrochemical state, and aboveground binding of mercury to (a) prevent methylmercury from entering the food-chain, (b) remove mercury from polluted sites, and (c) hyperaccumulate mercury in aboveground tissues for later harvest. Various parts of this strategy are being critically tested by examining different genes in model plants and field species and comparing the results to control plants as recently reviewed (Meagher et al., 2000; Rugh et al., 2000).

Meagher, Richard B.

2001-06-01

289

Nitrates and Glucosinolates as Strong Determinants of the Nutritional Quality in Rocket Leafy Salads  

PubMed Central

Rocket is an important leafy vegetable crop and a good source of antioxidants and anticancer molecules such as glucosinolates and other sulfur compounds. Rocket is also a hyper-accumulator of nitrates which have been considered for long time the main factors that cause gastro-intestinal cancer. In this review, the content of these compounds in rocket tissues and their levels at harvest and during storage are discussed. Moreover, the effect of these compounds in preventing or inducing human diseases is also highlighted. This review provides an update to all the most recent studies carried out on rocket encouraging the consumption of this leafy vegetable to reduce the risk of contracting cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.

Cavaiuolo, Marina; Ferrante, Antonio

2014-01-01

290

Growth responses of three ornamental plants to Cd and Cd-Pb stress and their metal accumulation characteristics.  

PubMed

Up to now, there was no document on ornamental plants that had been applied to phytoremediation, which can remedy contaminated environment and beautify it at the same time. Thus, the growth responses and possible phytoremediation ability of three ornamental plants selected from the previous preliminary experiments were further examined under single Cd or combined Cd-Pb stress. The results showed that these tested plants had higher tolerance to Cd and Pb contamination and could effectively accumulate the metals, especially for Calendula officinalis and Althaea rosea. For C. officinalis, it grew normally in soils containing 100 mg kg(-1) Cd without suffering phytotoxicity, and the Cd concentration in the roots was up to 1084 mg kg(-1) while the Cd concentration in the shoots was 284 mg kg(-1). For A. rosea, the Cd accumulation in the shoots was higher than that in the roots when the Cd concentration in soils was <100 mg kg(-1), and reached 100 mg kg(-1) as the criteria of a Cd hyperaccumulator when the Cd concentration in soils was 100 mg kg(-1). Their accumulation and tolerance to Cd and Pb were further demonstrated through the hydroponic-culture method. And A. rosea had a great potential as a possible Cd hyperaccumulator under favorable or induced conditions. Furthermore, the interactive effects of Cd and Pb in the three ornamentals were complicated, not only additive, antagonistic or synergistic, but also related to many factors including concentration combinations of heavy metals, plant species and various parts of plants. Thus, it can be forecasted that this work will provide a new way for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:17869419

Liu, Jia-nv; Zhou, Qi-xing; Sun, Ting; Ma, Lena Q; Wang, Song

2008-02-28

291

Bacterially Induced Weathering of Ultramafic Rock and Its Implications for Phytoextraction  

PubMed Central

The bioavailability of metals in soil is often cited as a limiting factor of phytoextraction (or phytomining). Bacterial metabolites, such as organic acids, siderophores, or biosurfactants, have been shown to mobilize metals, and their use to improve metal extraction has been proposed. In this study, the weathering capacities of, and Ni mobilization by, bacterial strains were evaluated. Minimal medium containing ground ultramafic rock was inoculated with either of two Arthrobacter strains: LA44 (indole acetic acid [IAA] producer) or SBA82 (siderophore producer, PO4 solubilizer, and IAA producer). Trace elements and organic compounds were determined in aliquots taken at different time intervals after inoculation. Trace metal fractionation was carried out on the remaining rock at the end of the experiment. The results suggest that the strains act upon different mineral phases. LA44 is a more efficient Ni mobilizer, apparently solubilizing Ni associated with Mn oxides, and this appeared to be related to oxalate production. SBA82 also leads to release of Ni and Mn, albeit to a much lower extent. In this case, the concurrent mobilization of Fe and Si indicates preferential weathering of Fe oxides and serpentine minerals, possibly related to the siderophore production capacity of the strain. The same bacterial strains were tested in a soil-plant system: the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. malacitanum was grown in ultramafic soil in a rhizobox system and inoculated with each bacterial strain. At harvest, biomass production and shoot Ni concentrations were higher in plants from inoculated pots than from noninoculated pots. Ni yield was significantly enhanced in plants inoculated with LA44. These results suggest that Ni-mobilizing inoculants could be useful for improving Ni uptake by hyperaccumulator plants.

Kidd, Petra; Kuffner, Melanie; Prieto-Fernandez, Angeles; Hann, Stephan; Monterroso, Carmela; Sessitsch, Angela; Wenzel, Walter; Puschenreiter, Markus

2013-01-01

292

Element accumulation patterns of deciduous and evergreen tree seedlings on acid soils: implications for sensitivity to manganese toxicity.  

PubMed

Foliar nutrient imbalances, including the hyperaccumulation of manganese (Mn), are correlated with symptoms of declining health in sensitive tree species growing on acidic forest soils. The objectives of this study were to: (1) compare foliar nutrient accumulation patterns of six deciduous (sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and white ash (Fraxinus americana L.)) and three evergreen (eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.), white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss.)) tree species growing on acidic forest soils; and (2) examine how leaf phenology and other traits that distinguish evergreen and deciduous tree species influence foliar Mn accumulation rates and sensitivity to excess Mn. For the first objective, leaf samples of seedlings from five acidic, non-glaciated field sites on Pennsylvania's Allegheny Plateau were collected and analyzed for leaf element concentrations. In a second study, we examined growth and photosynthetic responses of seedlings exposed to excess Mn in sand culture. In field samples, Mn in deciduous foliage hyperaccumulated to concentrations more than twice as high as those found in evergreen needles. Among species, sugar maple was the most sensitive to excess Mn based on growth and photosynthetic measurements. Photosynthesis in red maple and red oak was also sensitive to excess Mn, whereas white oak, black cherry, white ash and the three evergreen species were tolerant of excess Mn. Among the nine species, relative rates of photosynthesis were negatively correlated with foliar Mn concentrations, suggesting that photosynthetic sensitivity to Mn is a function of its rate of accumulation in seedling foliage. PMID:15519989

St Clair, Samuel B; Lynch, Jonathan P

2005-01-01

293

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to control the chemical speciation, electrochemical state, transport, and aboveground binding of mercury in order to manage this toxicant.

Meagher, Richard B.

2005-06-01

294

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

Meagher, Richard B.

2004-12-01

295

Literature review: Phytoaccumulation of chromium, uranium, and plutonium in plant systems  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the cleanup of contaminated soils, which combines the disciplines of plant physiology, soil chemistry, and soil microbiology. Metal hyperaccumulator plants are attracting increasing attention because of their potential application in decontamination of metal-polluted soils. Traditional engineering technologies may be too expensive for the remediation of most sites. Removal of metals from these soils using accumulator plants is the goal of phytoremediation. The emphasis of this review has been placed on chromium (Cr), plutonium (Pu), and uranium (U). With the exception of Cr, these metals and their decay products exhibit two problems, specifically, radiation dose hazards and their chemical toxicity. The radiation hazard introduces the need for special precautions in reclamation beyond that associated with non-radioactive metals. The uptake of beneficial metals by plants occurs predominantly by way of channels, pores, and transporters in the root plasma membrane. Plants characteristically exhibit a remarkable capacity to absorb what they need and exclude what they don`t need. But most vascular plants absorb toxic and heavy metals through their roots to some extent, though to varying degrees, from negligible to substantial. Sometimes absorption occurs because of the chemical similarity between beneficial and toxic metals. Some plants utilize exclusion mechanisms, where there is a reduced uptake by the roots or a restricted transport of the metal from root to shoot. At the other extreme, hyperaccumulator plants absorb and concentrate metals in both roots and shoots. Some plant species endemic to metalliferous soils accumulate metals in percent concentrations in the leaf dry matter.

Hossner, L.R.; Loeppert, R.H.; Newton, R.J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Szaniszlo, P.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1998-05-01

296

Characterization of selenocysteine methyltransferases from Astragalus species with contrasting selenium accumulation capacity.  

PubMed

A group of selenium (Se)-hyperaccumulating species belonging to the genus Astragalus are known for their capacity to accumulate up to 0.6% of their foliar dry weight as Se, with most of this Se being in the form of Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys). Here, we report the isolation and molecular characterization of the gene that encodes a putative selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) enzyme from the non-accumulator Astragalus drummondii and biochemically compare it with an authentic SMT enzyme from the Se-hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus, a related species that lives within the same native habitat. The non-accumulator enzyme (AdSMT) shows a high degree of homology with the accumulator enzyme (AbSMT) but lacks the selenocysteine methyltransferase activity in vitro, explaining why little or no detectable levels of MeSeCys accumulation are observed in the non-accumulator plant. The insertion of mutations on the coding region of the non-accumulator AdSMT enzyme to better resemble enzymes that originate from Se accumulator species results in increased selenocysteine methyltransferase activity, but these mutations were not sufficient to fully gain the activity observed in the AbSMT accumulator enzyme. We demonstrate that SMT is localized predominantly within the chloroplast in Astragalus, the principal site of Se assimilation in plants. By using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, we show that an Ala to Thr amino acid mutation at the predicted active site of AbSMT results in a new enzymatic capacity to methylate homocysteine. The mutated AbSMT enzyme exhibited a sixfold higher capacity to methylate selenocysteine, thereby establishing the evolutionary relationship of SMT and homocysteine methyltransferase enzymes in plants. PMID:19309459

Sors, Thomas G; Martin, Catherine P; Salt, David E

2009-07-01

297

A chemical screen for suppressors of the avrRpm1-RPM1-dependent hypersensitive cell death response in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis thaliana RPM1 encodes an intracellular immune sensor that conditions disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae expressing the type III effector protein AvrRpm1. Conditional expression of this type III effector in a transgenic line carrying avrRpm1 under the control of a steroid-inducible promoter results in RPM1-dependent cell death that resembles the cell death response of the incompatible RPM1-avrRpm1 plant-bacterium interaction. This line was previously used in a genetic screen, which revealed two genes that likely function in the folding of pre-activation RPM1. We established a chemical screen for small molecules that suppress steroid-inducible and RPM1-avrRpm1-dependent cell death in Arabidopsis seedlings. Screening of a library comprising 6,800 compounds of natural origin identified two trichothecene-type mycotoxins, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and neosolaniol (NEO), which are synthesized by Fusarium and other fungal species. However, protein blot analysis revealed that DAS and NEO inhibit AvrRpm1 synthesis rather than suppress RPM1-mediated responses. This inhibition of translational activity likely explains the survival of the seedlings under screening conditions. Likewise, flg22-induced defense responses are also impaired at the translational, but not the transcriptional, level by DAS or NEO. Unexpectedly, both compounds not only prevented AvrRpm1 synthesis, but rather caused an apparent hyper-accumulation of RPM1 and HSP70. The hyper-accumulation phenotype is likely unrelated to the ribotoxic function of DAS and NEO and could be due to an inhibitory activity on the proteolytic machinery of Arabidopsis or elicitor-like activities of type A trichothecenes. PMID:20140739

Serrano, Mario; Hubert, David A; Dangl, Jeffery L; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Kombrink, Erich

2010-04-01

298

[Characteristics of cadmium tolerance and bioaccumulation of Bidens pilosa L. seedlings].  

PubMed

Bidens pilosa L. has been identified as a newly found Cd-hyperaccumulator. In the present study, the characteristics of its Cd tolerance (growth response and physiological and biochemical characteristics) and accumulation were examined. The results showed that low Cd treatments (< or =32 mg/kg) could enhance plant growth, the dry biomass of shoot and root increased by 32.4%-44.7% and 29.1%-57.6%, respectively, at Cd concentrations 8-32 mg/kg when compared with the control. The shoot dry biomass reached a maximum of 0.22 g/pot at a concentration 8 mg/kg of Cd. Meanwhile, under different Cd treatments, chlorophyll (Chl) and soluble protein contents in leaves slightly decreased, resulting in 23.3% and 41.5% reduction, respectively, compared with the control. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) firstly decreased and then increased with increasing Cd concentration. Peroxidase (POD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents increased with increasing Cd concentration, with 1.2-6.6 and 1.1-1.5 times increase, respectively, relative to the control. However, the definite negative effects on the plant growth and characteristics of physiology and biochemistry were observed at higher Cd concentrations (50-100 mg/kg). In gradual experiments, the values of bioaccumulation and translocation were more than 1.0, furthermore, the concentration of Cd in shoots reached 119.1 mg/kg at the soil Cd level of 100 mg/kg, showing B. pilosa has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The results above indicated that B. pilosa has strong capacity of Cd tolerance and accumulation, so it has potential and valuable application to phytoremediation of contaminated soils by Cd. PMID:19968126

Sun, Yue-bing; Zhou, Qi-xing; Wang, Lin; Liu, Wei-tao; Liu, Rui

2009-10-15

299

Bacterially induced weathering of ultramafic rock and its implications for phytoextraction.  

PubMed

The bioavailability of metals in soil is often cited as a limiting factor of phytoextraction (or phytomining). Bacterial metabolites, such as organic acids, siderophores, or biosurfactants, have been shown to mobilize metals, and their use to improve metal extraction has been proposed. In this study, the weathering capacities of, and Ni mobilization by, bacterial strains were evaluated. Minimal medium containing ground ultramafic rock was inoculated with either of two Arthrobacter strains: LA44 (indole acetic acid [IAA] producer) or SBA82 (siderophore producer, PO4 solubilizer, and IAA producer). Trace elements and organic compounds were determined in aliquots taken at different time intervals after inoculation. Trace metal fractionation was carried out on the remaining rock at the end of the experiment. The results suggest that the strains act upon different mineral phases. LA44 is a more efficient Ni mobilizer, apparently solubilizing Ni associated with Mn oxides, and this appeared to be related to oxalate production. SBA82 also leads to release of Ni and Mn, albeit to a much lower extent. In this case, the concurrent mobilization of Fe and Si indicates preferential weathering of Fe oxides and serpentine minerals, possibly related to the siderophore production capacity of the strain. The same bacterial strains were tested in a soil-plant system: the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. malacitanum was grown in ultramafic soil in a rhizobox system and inoculated with each bacterial strain. At harvest, biomass production and shoot Ni concentrations were higher in plants from inoculated pots than from noninoculated pots. Ni yield was significantly enhanced in plants inoculated with LA44. These results suggest that Ni-mobilizing inoculants could be useful for improving Ni uptake by hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:23793627

Becerra-Castro, Cristina; Kidd, Petra; Kuffner, Melanie; Prieto-Fernández, Ángeles; Hann, Stephan; Monterroso, Carmela; Sessitsch, Angela; Wenzel, Walter; Puschenreiter, Markus

2013-09-01

300

Evolution of Genome Size in Brassicaceae  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Brassicaceae, with nearly 340 genera and more than 3350 species, anchors the low range of angiosperm genome sizes. The relatively narrow range of DNA content (0·16 pg < 1C < 1·95 pg) was maintained in spite of extensive chromosomal change. The aim of this study was to erect a cytological and molecular phylogenetic framework for a selected subset of the Brassicacae, and use this as a template to examine genome size evolution in Brassicaceae. Methods DNA contents were determined by flow cytometry and chromosomes were counted for 34 species of the family Brassicaceae and for ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes. The amplified and sequenced ITS region for 23 taxa (plus six other taxa with known ITS sequences) were aligned and used to infer evolutionary relationship by parsimony analysis. Key Results DNA content in the species studied ranged over 8-fold (1C = 0·16–1·31 pg), and 4·4-fold (1C = 0·16–0·71 pg) excluding allotetraploid Brassica species. The 1C DNA contents of ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes showed little variation, ranging from 0·16 pg to 0·17 pg. Conclusions The tree roots at an ancestral genome size of approximately 1x = 0·2 pg. Arabidopsis thaliana (1C = 0·16 pg; ~157 Mbp) has the smallest genome size in Brassicaceae studied here and apparently represents an evolutionary decrease in genome size. Two other branches that represent probable evolutionary decreases in genome size terminate in Lepidium virginicum and Brassica rapa. Branches in the phylogenetic tree that represent probable evolutionary increases in genome size terminate in Arabidopsis halleri, A. lyrata, Arabis hirsuta, Capsella rubella, Caulanthus heterophyllus, Crucihimalaya, Lepidium sativum, Sisymbrium and Thlaspi arvense. Branches within one clade containing Brassica were identified that represent two ancient ploidy events (2x to 4x and 4x to 6x) that were predicted from published comparative mapping studies.

SPENCER JOHNSTON, J.; PEPPER, ALAN E.; HALL, ANNE E.; JEFFREY CHEN, Z.; HODNETT, GEORGE; DRABEK, JANICE; LOPEZ, REBECCA; JAMES PRICE, H.

2007-01-01

301

Annual plants under cyclic disturbance regime: better understanding through model aggregation.  

PubMed

In their application for conservation ecology, "classical" analytical models and individual-based simulation models (IBMs) both entail their specific strengths and weaknesses, either in providing a detailed and realistic representation of processes or in regard to a comprehensive model analysis. This well-known dilemma may be resolved by the combination of both approaches when tackling certain problems of conservation ecology. Following this idea, we present the complementary use of both an IBM and a matrix population model in a case study on grassland conservation management. First, we develop a spatially explicit IBM to simulate the long-term response of the annual plant Thlaspi perfoliatum (Brassicaceae), claspleaf pennycress, to different management schemes (annual mowing vs. infrequent rototilling) based on field experiments. In order to complement the simulation results by further analyses, we aggregate the IBM to a spatially nonexplicit deterministic matrix population model. Within the periodic environment created by management regimes, population dynamics are described by periodic products of annual transition matrices. Such periodic matrix products provide a very conclusive framework to study the responses of species to different management return intervals. Thus, using tools of matrix model analysis (e.g., loop analysis), we can both identify dormancy within the age-structured seed bank as the pivotal strategy for persistence under cyclic disturbance regimes and reveal crucial thresholds in some less certain parameters. Results of matrix model analyses are therefore successfully tested by comparing their results to the respective IBM simulations. Their implications for an enhanced scientific basis for management decisions are discussed as well as some general benefits and limitations of the use of aggregating modeling approaches in conservation. PMID:19263893

Pagel, Jörn; Fritzsch, Katrin; Biedermann, Robert; Schröder, Boris

2008-12-01

302

Arbuscular mycorrhiza and heavy metal tolerance.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have repeatedly been demonstrated to alleviate heavy metal stress of plants. The current manuscript summarizes results obtained to date on the colonization of plants by AMF in heavy metal soils, the depositions of heavy metals in plant and fungal structures and the potential to use AMF-plant combinations in phytoremediation, with emphasis on pennycresses (Thlaspi ssp.). The focus of this manuscript is to describe and discuss studies on the expression of genes in plants and fungi under heavy metal stress. The summary is followed by data on differential gene expression in extraradical mycelia (ERM) of in vitro cultured Glomus intraradices Sy167 supplemented with different heavy metals (Cd, Cu or Zn). The expression of several genes encoding proteins potentially involved in heavy metal tolerance varied in their response to different heavy metals. Such proteins included a Zn transporter, a metallothionein, a 90 kD heat shock protein and a glutathione S-transferase (all assignments of protein function are putative). Studies on the expression of the selected genes were also performed with roots of Medicago truncatula grown in either a natural, Zn-rich heavy metal "Breinigerberg" soil or in a non-polluted soil supplemented with 100 microM ZnSO(4). The transcript levels of the genes analyzed were enhanced up to eight fold in roots grown in the heavy metal-containing soils. The data obtained demonstrate the heavy metal-dependent expression of different AMF genes in the intra- and extraradical mycelium. The distinct induction of genes coding for proteins possibly involved in the alleviation of damage caused by reactive oxygen species (a 90 kD heat shock protein and a glutathione S-transferase) might indicate that heavy metal-derived oxidative stress is the primary concern of the fungal partner in the symbiosis. PMID:17078985

Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Regvar, Marjana; Bothe, Hermann

2007-01-01

303

Host Suitability of 32 Common Weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils of Southwestern Quebec  

PubMed Central

Thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern Quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. Sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (Pf/Pi = final number of M. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of M. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (Pf/Pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. Tomato cv. Rutgers was also included as a susceptible host and had the highest Pf/Pi value of 13.7. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. vulgata, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Eupatorium maculatum, Matricaria matricarioides, Polygonum scabrum, Thalictrum pubescens, Veronica agrestis, and Sium suave are new host records for M. hapla. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. wulgata, D. carota, M. matricarioides, Pasticana sativa, P. scabrum, S. suave, and Thlaspi arvense sustained moderate to high galling by M. hapla and supported high M. hapla production (12.4 ? Pf/Pi ? 2.9). Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Stellaria media, and Veronica agrestis sustained moderate galling and supported moderate M. hapla reproduction (2.8 ? Pf/Pi ? 0.5). Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, E. cheiranthoides, P. convolvulus, Portulaca oleracea, and Rorippa islandica supported low reproduction (0.25 ? Pf/Pi ? 0.02) and sustained low galling. Galling was observed on Senecio vulgaris but no eggs or juveniles; thus, S. vulgaris may be useful as a trap plant. Eupatorium maculatum, and T. pubescens harbored no distinct galling but supported low to moderate M. hapla reproduction, respectively. Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Echinochloa crusgalli, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera parviflora, Panicum capillare, Setaria glauca, S. viridis, and Solidago canadensis were nonhosts. Our results demonstrate the importance of adequate weed control in an integrated program for the management of M. hapla in organic soil.

Belair, G.; Benoit, D. L.

1996-01-01

304

A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic  

SciTech Connect

A Phytoremediation Strategy for Arsenic Progress Report May, 2005 Richard B. Meagher Principal Investigator Arsenic pollution affects the health of several hundred millions of people world wide, and an estimated 10 million Americans have unsafe levels of arsenic in their drinking water. However, few environmentally sound remedies for cleaning up arsenic contaminated soil and water have been proposed. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract and sequester environmental pollutants, is one new technology that offers an ecologically sound solution to a devastating problem. We propose that it is less disruptive to the environment to harvest and dispose of several thousand pounds per acre of contaminated aboveground plant material, than to excavate and dispose of 1 to 5 million pounds of contaminated soil per acre (assumes contamination runs 3 ft deep). Our objective is to develop a genetics-based phytoremediation strategy for arsenic removal that can be used in any plant species. This strategy requires the enhanced expression of several transgenes from diverse sources. Our working hypothesis is that organ-specific expression of several genes controlling the transport, electrochemical state, and binding of arsenic will result in the efficient extraction and hyperaccumulation of arsenic into aboveground plant tissues. This hypothesis is supported by theoretical arguments and strong preliminary data. We proposed six Specific Aims focused on testing and developing this arsenic phytoremediation strategy. During the first 18 months of the grant we made significant progress on five Specific Aims and began work on the sixth as summarized below. Specific Aim 1: Enhance plant arsenic resistance and greatly expand sinks for arsenite by expressing elevated levels of thiol-rich, arsenic-binding peptides. Hyperaccumulation of arsenic depends upon making plants that are both highly tolerant to arsenic and that have the capacity to store large amounts of arsenic aboveground. Phytochelatins bind diverse thiol-reactive elements like As(III) and are synthesized from amino acids in a three-step enzymatic pathway utilizing three enzymes: ECS = gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase; GS = GSH synthetase; and PS = phytochelatin synthase. We cloned each of the genes that encode these enzymes and used at least two different plant promoters to express them in transgenic Arabidopsis. We have shown that all three confer significant resistance to arsenic and allow rapid growth on a concentration of arsenic (300 micromolar) that kills wild-type seeds and plants.

Meagher, Richard B.

2005-06-01

305

The PDE1-encoded Low-Affinity Phosphodiesterase in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Has a Specific Function in Controlling Agonist-induced cAMP Signaling  

PubMed Central

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two genes, PDE1 and PDE2, which respectively encode a low-affinity and a high-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase. The physiological function of the low-affinity enzyme Pde1 is unclear. We show that deletion of PDE1, but not PDE2, results in a much higher cAMP accumulation upon addition of glucose or upon intracellular acidification. Overexpression of PDE1, but not PDE2, abolished the agonist-induced cAMP increases. These results indicate a specific role for Pde1 in controlling glucose and intracellular acidification-induced cAMP signaling. Elimination of a putative protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site by mutagenesis of serine252 into alanine resulted in a Pde1ala252 allele that apparently had reduced activity in vivo. Its presence in a wild-type strain partially enhanced the agonist-induced cAMP increases compared with pde1?. The difference between the Pde1ala252 allele and wild-type Pde1 was strongly dependent on PKA activity. In a RAS2val19 pde2? background, the Pde1ala252 allele caused nearly the same hyperaccumulation of cAMP as pde1?, while its expression in a PKA-attenuated strain caused the same reduction in cAMP hyperaccumulation as wild-type Pde1. These results suggest that serine252 might be the first target site for feedback inhibition of cAMP accumulation by PKA. We show that Pde1 is rapidly phosphorylated in vivo upon addition of glucose to glycerol-grown cells, and this activation is absent in the Pde1ala252 mutant. Pde1 belongs to a separate class of phosphodiesterases and is the first member shown to be phosphorylated. However, in vitro the Pde1ala252 enzyme had the same catalytic activity as wild-type Pde1, both in crude extracts and after extensive purification. This indicates that the effects of the S252A mutation are not caused by simple inactivation of the enzyme. In vitro phosphorylation of Pde1 resulted in a modest and variable increase in activity, but only in crude extracts. This was absent in Pde1ala252, and phosphate incorporation was strongly reduced. Apparently, phosphorylation of Pde1 does not change its intrinsic activity or affinity for cAMP but appears to be important in vivo for protein-protein interaction or for targeting Pde1 to a specific subcellular location. The PKA recognition site is conserved in the corresponding region of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida albicans Pde1 homologues, possibly indicating a similar control by phosphorylation.

Ma, Pingsheng; Wera, Stefaan; Van Dijck, Patrick; Thevelein, Johan M.

1999-01-01

306

Fast, sensitive, and inexpensive alternative to analytical pigment HPLC: quantification of chlorophylls and carotenoids in crude extracts by fitting with Gauss peak spectra.  

PubMed

Quantification of pigments in complex mixtures is an important task in the physiology of photosynthetic organisms, because pigment composition differs depending on the species, tissue, and physiological state. Currently available methods, however, are either limited to very few pigments (classical UV/vis spectroscopic methods), or they are time-consuming, labor intensive, or costly (e.g., HPLC). Here we describe a UV/vis spectrophotometric method that is capable of a rapid (approximately 1 min/sample) and inexpensive (<1 euro/sample) quantification of more than a dozen pigments in a crude extract, which means it is suitable for high-throughput screening applications. A detection limit of <1 pmol for each pigment allows for determining the pigment composition in only 0.5 microg of lyophilized leaves or algae. The method is based on the description of each pigment spectrum by a series of Gaussian peaks. A sample spectrum is then fitted by a linear combination of these "Gauss peak spectra" including an automatic correction of wavelength inaccuracy, baseline instability, sample turbidity, and effects of temperature/water content. Here we present the Gauss peak spectra from 350 to 750 nm for acetone solutions of all chlorophyll and carotenoid derivatives that are abundant (including conditions of Cd, Cu, or Zn stress) in leaves of higher plants, Euglena, brown algae, and various cyanobacteria like Anabaena and Trichodesmium: [Mg]-Chl a, b, c1, c2; pheophytin a, b; [Cd]-Chl a, b; [Cu]-Chl a, b; [Zn]-Chl a, b; antheraxanthin, aurochrome, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, cis- and trans-canthaxanthin, diadinochrome (=diadinoxanthin 5,6-epoxide), cis- and trans-diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin, cis- and trans-echinenone, fucoxanthin, lutein, myxoxanthophyll, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and all three stereoisomers of zeaxanthin in acetone. We present extensive tests of our new quantification method for determining optimal and limiting conditions of its performance and for comparison with previous methods. Finally, we show application examples for Thlaspi fendleri (Chlorophyta), Euglena gracilisc (Euglenophyta), Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyta), and Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 (cyanobacteria). PMID:17854156

Küpper, Hendrik; Seibert, Sven; Parameswaran, Aravind

2007-10-15

307

Phytotoxicity of wastewater containing lead (Pb) effects Scirpus grossus.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation is an environment-friendly and cost-effective method to clean the environment of heavy metal contamination. A prolonged phytotoxicity test was conducted in a single exposure. Scirpus grossus plants were grown in sand to which the diluted Pb (NO3)2 was added, with the variation of concentration were 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/L. It was found that Scirpus grossus plants can tolerate Pb at concentrations of up to 400 mg/L. The withering was observed on day-7 for Pb concentrations of 400 mg/L and above. 100% of the plants withered with a Pb concentration of 600 mg/L on day 65. The Pb concentration in water medium decreased while in plant tissues increased. Adsorption of Pb solution ranged between 2 to 6% for concentrations of 100 to 800 mg/L. The Bioaccumulation Coefficient and Translocation Factor of Scirpus grossus were found greater than 1, indicating that this species is a hyperaccumulator plant. PMID:23819277

Tangahu, B Voijant; Abdullah, S Rozaimah Sheikh; Basri, H; Idris, M; Anuar, N; Mukhlisin, M

2013-01-01

308

Cryptococcus neoformans copper detoxification machinery is critical for fungal virulence  

PubMed Central

Summary Copper (Cu) is an essential metal that is toxic at high concentrations. Thus, pathogens often rely on host Cu for growth, but host cells can hyper-accumulate Cu to exert anti-microbial effects. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans encodes various Cu-responsive genes but their role in infection is unclear. We determine that pulmonary C. neoformans infection results in Cu-specific induction of genes encoding the Cu-detoxifying metallothionein (Cmt) proteins. Mutant strains lacking CMTs or expressing Cmt variants defective in Cu-coordination exhibit severely attenuated virulence and reduced pulmonary colonization. Consistent with the up-regulation of Cmt proteins, C. neoformans pulmonary infection results in increased serum Cu concentrations and respectively increases and decreases alveolar macrophage expression of the Cu importer, Ctr1, and ATP7A, a transporter implicated in phagosomal Cu compartmentalization. These studies indicate that the host mobilizes Cu as an innate anti-fungal defense but that C. neoformans senses and neutralizes toxic Cu to promote infection.

Ding, Chen; Festa, Richard A.; Chen, Ying-Lien; Espart, Anna; Palacios, Oscar; Espin, Jordi; Capdevila, Merce; Atrian, Silvia; Heitman, Joseph; Thiele, Dennis J.

2013-01-01

309

Aquatic arsenic: phytoremediation using floating macrophytes.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation, a plant based green technology, has received increasing attention after the discovery of hyperaccumulating plants which are able to accumulate, translocate, and concentrate high amount of certain toxic elements in their above-ground/harvestable parts. Phytoremediation includes several processes namely, phytoextraction, phytodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization and phytovolatilization. Both terrestrial and aquatic plants have been tested to remediate contaminated soils and waters, respectively. A number of aquatic plant species have been investigated for the remediation of toxic contaminants such as As, Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg, etc. Arsenic, one of the deadly toxic elements, is widely distributed in the aquatic systems as a result of mineral dissolution from volcanic or sedimentary rocks as well as from the dilution of geothermal waters. In addition, the agricultural and industrial effluent discharges are also considered for arsenic contamination in natural waters. Some aquatic plants have been reported to accumulate high level of arsenic from contaminated water. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweeds (Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza), water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), water ferns (Azolla caroliniana, Azolla filiculoides, and Azolla pinnata), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) and watercress (Lepidium sativum) have been studied to investigate their arsenic uptake ability and mechanisms, and to evaluate their potential in phytoremediation technology. It has been suggested that the aquatic macrophytes would be potential for arsenic phytoremediation, and this paper reviews up to date knowledge on arsenic phytoremediation by common aquatic macrophytes. PMID:21435676

Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

2011-04-01

310

A study on cadmium phytoremediation potential of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes L.  

PubMed

Aquatic macrophytes have tremendous potential for remediation of the heavy metal cadmium. The objective of this study was to investigate Cd phytoremediation ability of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes L. The study was conducted with 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) CdCl2 in hydroponic system for 21 days and the Cd concentrations in the root and shoot tissues were estimated by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The values obtained were used to evaluate the bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF) and translocation efficiency of this plant. The plant showed high Cd tolerance of up to 20 mg L(-1) but there was a general trend of decline in the root and shoot biomass. The maximum BCF values for root and shoot tissues were 2,294 and 870 respectively, obtained for 5 mg L(-1) Cd, which indicated that the plant was a Cd hyperaccumulator. The TF maxima was found to be 0.6 and as much as 60 % root to shoot translocation efficiency was observed for 15 mg L(-1) Cd which points towards the suitability of water lettuce for removing Cd from surface waters. PMID:24220931

Das, Suchismita; Goswami, Sunayana; Talukdar, Anupam Das

2014-02-01

311

The Overlapping Roles of Manganese and Cu/Zn SOD in Oxidative Stress Protection  

PubMed Central

In various organisms, high intracellular manganese provides protection against oxidative damage through unknown pathways. Herein we use a genetic approach in S. cerevisiae to analyze factors that promote manganese as an anti-oxidant in cells lacking Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (sod1?). Unlike certain bacterial systems [1], oxygen resistance in yeast correlates with high intracellular manganese without a lowering of iron. This manganese for anti-oxidant protection is provided by the Nramp transporters Smf1p and Smf2p, with Smf1p playing a major role. In fact, loss of manganese transport by Smf1p together with loss of the Pmr1p manganese pump is lethal to sod1? cells in spite of normal manganese SOD2 activity. Manganese-phosphate complexes are excellent superoxide dimustase mimics in vitro [2], yet through genetic disruption of phosphate transport and storage, we observed no requirement for phosphate in manganese suppression of oxidative damage. If anything, elevated phosphate correlated with profound oxidative stress in sod1? mutants. The efficacy of manganese as an anti-oxidant was drastically reduced in cells that hyper-accumulate phosphate without effects on MnSOD activity. Non-SOD manganese can provide a critical backup for Cu/Zn SOD1, but only under appropriate physiologic conditions.

Reddi, Amit R.; Jensen, Laran T.; Naranuntarat, Amornrat; Rosenfeld, Leah; Leung, Edison; Shah, Rishita; Culotta, Valeria C.

2009-01-01

312

The Growth Reduction Associated with Repressed Lignin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Is Independent of Flavonoids[C  

PubMed Central

Defects in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis arising from deficiency in hydroxycinnamoyl CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) or p-coumaroyl shikimate 3?-hydroxylase (C3?H) lead to reduced lignin, hyperaccumulation of flavonoids, and growth inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was previously reported that flavonoid-mediated inhibition of auxin transport is responsible for growth reduction in HCT-RNA interference (RNAi) plants. This conclusion was based on the observation that simultaneous RNAi silencing of HCT and chalcone synthase (CHS), an enzyme essential for flavonoid biosynthesis, resulted in less severe dwarfing than silencing of HCT alone. In an attempt to extend these results using a C3?H mutant (ref8) and a CHS null mutant (tt4-2), we found that the growth phenotype of the ref8 tt4-2 double mutant, which lacks flavonoids, is indistinguishable from that of ref8. Moreover, using RNAi, we found that the relationship between HCT silencing and growth inhibition is identical in both the wild type and tt4-2. We conclude from these results that the growth inhibition observed in HCT-RNAi plants and the ref8 mutant is independent of flavonoids. Finally, we show that expression of a newly characterized gene bypassing HCT and C3?H partially restores both lignin biosynthesis and growth in HCT-RNAi plants, demonstrating that a biochemical pathway downstream of coniferaldehyde, probably lignification, is essential for normal plant growth.

Li, Xu; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Weng, Jing-Ke; Chapple, Clint

2010-01-01

313

Zinc and/or cadmium accumulation in Gynura pseudochina (L.) DC. studied in vitro and the effect on crude protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gynura pseudochina (L.) DC. is a zinc (Zn)/cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulative plant. The aim of this study was to examine the tolerance of G. pseudochina (L.) DC. for Zn and/or Cd accumulation and protein expression. An in vitro tissue culture system was used to control the environment and effects of the microorganisms. Treatments with higher Zn and Cd concentrations increased chlorosis and the accumulation of metals in the root and shoot. Cd treatment at low levels induced the growth of the plant, and the translocation factor was high. A dual treatment with Cd and Zn decreased the metals' toxicity and demonstrated the plant's proclivity to accumulate Cd. The SDS-PAGE and FT-IR analyses showed the effect of the metals' toxicity on protein expression and secondary structure. Moreover, using XAFS techniques, it was demonstrated that treatment with a high Zn concentration (100 mg l-1) resulted in tetrahedral coordination with mixed S/O ligation in the protein extract as compared with Znsbnd O coordination in the protein extract from the control plant cultured in the presence of trace levels of Zn (0.04 mg l-1). This research suggested that G. pseudochina (L.) DC. had properties to tolerate a high Zn and Cd concentration, related to the sulphur proteins.

Panitlertumpai, Natthawoot; Nakbanpote, Woranan; Sangdee, Aphidech; Thumanu, Kanjana; Nakai, Izumi; Hokura, Akiko

2013-03-01

314

Response of the lichen Cladonia rei Schaer. to strong heavy metal contamination of the substrate.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of mass occurrence of the lichen Cladonia rei in extremely contaminated post-smelting slag dumps was studied in relation to metal accumulation capacity of this lichen. The research was aimed to evaluate the relationships between element contents in the thalli and in the corresponding substrate. The study was conducted in terms of a wide spectrum of Zn, Cd, Pb and As contents. The concentrations of these elements in the lichen thalli and substrate samples were measured. Various regression models were considered to find the best fitted one that greatly reflects the dependencies. Various Cladonia species and the hyperaccumulator Diploschistes muscorum were also included in the study for comparison purposes. Specific non-linear regression models described by a power function reflected relationships between Zn and Cd contents in C. rei thalli and in the host substrate in the most reliable way. The relationship for As was also noted, but none significant model was found. Contrarily, Pb concentrations in the thalli varied independently of the metal levels in the substrate. Nevertheless, the concentrations of all measured heavy metals in C. rei thalli are relatively low considering the frequently enormous substrate contamination. Different Cladonia species demonstrated a generally similar accumulation capacity and could be considered as weak accumulators. The restrained accumulation pattern may be one of the important attributes of C. rei which facilitates its colonisation of extremely contaminated dumps. This finding highlights ecological importance of this species as stable and resistant pioneer in such affected sites. PMID:23589242

Osyczka, Piotr; Rola, Kaja

2013-07-01

315

Deviation of carbohydrate metabolism by the SIT4 phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

A prominent phenotype of the yeast sit4 mutant, which lacks the Ser-Thr phosphatase Sit4, is hyper-accumulation of glycogen and the failure to grow on respiratory substrates. We investigated whether these two phenotypes are linked by studying the metabolic response to SIT4 deletion. Although the sit4 mutant failed to grow on respiratory substrates, in the exponential growth, phase respiration was de-repressed; active respiration was confirmed by measuring oxygen consumption and NADH generation. However, the fermentation rate and the internal glucose 6-phosphate and pyruvate levels were reduced, while glycogen content was high. Respiro-fermentative and respiratory substrates such as galactose, glycerol and ethanol were directed toward glycogen synthesis, which indicates that sit4 mutant deviates metabolism to glycogenesis by activating a glycogen futile cycle and depleting cells of Krebs cycle intermediates. An important feature of the sit4 mutant was the lack of growth under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that respiration is necessary to meet the energy requirements of the cell. Addition of aspartic acid, which can restore Krebs cycle intermediates, partially restored growth on ethanol. Our findings suggest that inhibition of Sit4 activity may be essential for redirecting carbohydrate flux to gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage. PMID:16764994

Jablonka, Willy; Guzmán, Simón; Ramírez, Jorge; Montero-Lomelí, Mónica

2006-08-01

316

Reverse Genetic Characterization of Cytosolic Acetyl-CoA Generation by ATP-Citrate Lyase in ArabidopsisW?  

PubMed Central

Acetyl-CoA provides organisms with the chemical flexibility to biosynthesize a plethora of natural products that constitute much of the structural and functional diversity in nature. Recent studies have characterized a novel ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) in the cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we report the use of antisense RNA technology to generate a series of Arabidopsis lines with a range of ACL activity. Plants with even moderately reduced ACL activity have a complex, bonsai phenotype, with miniaturized organs, smaller cells, aberrant plastid morphology, reduced cuticular wax deposition, and hyperaccumulation of starch, anthocyanin, and stress-related mRNAs in vegetative tissue. The degree of this phenotype correlates with the level of reduction in ACL activity. These data indicate that ACL is required for normal growth and development and that no other source of acetyl-CoA can compensate for ACL-derived acetyl-CoA. Exogenous malonate, which feeds into the carboxylation pathway of acetyl-CoA metabolism, chemically complements the morphological and chemical alterations associated with reduced ACL expression, indicating that the observed metabolic alterations are related to the carboxylation pathway of cytosolic acetyl-CoA metabolism. The observations that limiting the expression of the cytosolic enzyme ACL reduces the accumulation of cytosolic acetyl-CoA–derived metabolites and that these deficiencies can be alleviated by exogenous malonate indicate that ACL is a nonredundant source of cytosolic acetyl-CoA.

Fatland, Beth L.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

2005-01-01

317

Tryptophan-Derived Metabolites Are Required for Antifungal Defense in the Arabidopsis mlo2 Mutant1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O2 (MLO2), MLO6, and MLO12 exhibit unequal genetic redundancy with respect to the modulation of defense responses against powdery mildew fungi and the control of developmental phenotypes such as premature leaf decay. We show that early chlorosis and necrosis of rosette leaves in mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 mutants reflects an authentic but untimely leaf senescence program. Comparative transcriptional profiling revealed that transcripts of several genes encoding tryptophan biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes hyperaccumulate during vegetative development in the mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 mutant. Elevated expression levels of these genes correlate with altered steady-state levels of several indolic metabolites, including the phytoalexin camalexin and indolic glucosinolates, during development in the mlo2 single mutant and the mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 triple mutant. Results of genetic epistasis analysis suggest a decisive role for indolic metabolites in mlo2-conditioned antifungal defense against both biotrophic powdery mildews and a camalexin-sensitive strain of the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. The wound- and pathogen-responsive callose synthase POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANCE4/GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE5 was found to be responsible for the spontaneous callose deposits in mlo2 mutant plants but dispensable for mlo2-conditioned penetration resistance. Our data strengthen the notion that powdery mildew resistance of mlo2 genotypes is based on the same defense execution machinery as innate antifungal immune responses that restrict the invasion of nonadapted fungal pathogens.

Consonni, Chiara; Bednarek, Pawel; Humphry, Matt; Francocci, Fedra; Ferrari, Simone; Harzen, Anne; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Panstruga, Ralph

2010-01-01

318

Application of a combined system of polycapillary x-ray lens and toroidal mirror in micro-x-ray-absorption fine-structure facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A micro-x-ray-absorption fine-structure facility based on a monolithic half focusing polycapillary x-ray lens (MHFPXRL), a toroidal mirror, and synchrotron radiation is proposed. The synchrotron radiation is focused by using a combined system of a MHFPXRL and a toroidal mirror. At 8.0 keV, the synchrotron radiation beam with a 2.3×26-mm2 area is first focused into a beam spot with a 0.9×0.3-mm2 area by a toroidal mirror. This focused beam is then focused into a focal spot with a 21.4-?m diameter by using a MHFPXRL. The gain of power flux density in the focal spot of the combined system is 47 473. The focal distance of the MHFPXRL is 13.3 mm. The transmitting extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectrum of Ni foil and the fluorescent EXAFS spectrum of zinc in the zinc hyperaccumulator are measured.

Sun, Tianxi; Xie, Yaning; Liu, Zhiguo; Liu, Tao; Hu, Tiandou; Ding, Xunliang

2006-05-01

319

Micro-PIXE analyses of frozen-hydrated semi-thick biological sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryo-micro-PIXE system and methodology of microanalysis of frozen-hydrated semi-thick biological sections is described. A commercially available cryotransfer system used in electron microscopy has been adapted for this purpose. The analyzed material was frozen by metal-mirror method and sections of 20-50 micron thickness were prepared. Micro-PIXE and simultaneous proton backscattering was performed using 3 MeV proton beam. Monitoring of water vapour composition during the proton bombardment showed good stability of the analyzed material. The results of repetitive analyses of standards prepared from gelatin-glycerol solution with added known concentrations of K, Ni, Cu, Zn were in good agreement with expected, calculated values. Mass losses and changes of elemental composition were monitored. Elemental maps obtained for frozen-hydrated semi-thick section of Ni hyperaccumulator Senecio coronatus showed excellent preservation of leaf morphology and the distribution of elements. Quantitative elemental mapping of frozen-hydrated specimens compared with subsequent analysis of the same areas after freeze-drying revealed similar distribution pattern in both cases. It is clear, however, that freeze-drying induces some distortion of cell morphology and specimen shrinkage.

Wang, Y. D.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Tylko, G.; Barnabas, A. D.; Przybylowicz, W. J.

2013-07-01

320

Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Levels Alter Photosynthesis and Oxidative State but Not Growth in Transgenic Populus[C][W  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained.

Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O.; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C.; Frost, Christopher J.; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2013-01-01

321

Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

2013-07-01

322

Effect of arsenic absorption on the water-refilling speed of Pteris cretica.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are largely responsible for soil and water pollution. Recently, phytoremediation is receiving a large attention as a plant-based technology for removing metals from contaminated soil and water in an environment-friendly and cost-effective way. In such context, some species of ferns such as Pteris cretica were found to be a hyper-accumulator of arsenic (As). In this study, we first explored the validity of measuring the water-refilling process in xylem vessels of Pteris cretica using the synchrotron X-ray microimaging technique. Then we investigated the effects of arsenic concentration on the water-refilling speed inside the xylem vessel. The methodology to measure the water-refilling speed was consistent within five repetitions and 3 hours after the stem sample was cut from the plant. The water-refilling speed in the xylem vessels of the Pteris grown in arsenic solution was faster than that in normal water. Arsenic concentration of 0-1,000 ?M was tested and the maximum speed was obtained at 500 ?M. Conclusively, the experimental methodology developed in this study allowed to obtain some interesting results for understanding how arsenic affect the xylem sap flow transport and the mechanism by which growth is enhanced in the presence of heavy metal. PMID:20936675

Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Jin Pyung

2011-06-01

323

Microtomography at GeoSoilEnviroCARS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facility for x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) is operating as a national user facility for earth and environmental sciences research on the bending magnet beamline at the GeoSoilEnviroCARS sector at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The APS bending magnet has a critical energy of 20 keV, and thus provides high flux at photon energies up to 100 keV, making it well suited to imaging a wide range of earth materials up to several cm in size. The beamline is equipped with a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator covering the energy range from 5 to 70 keV with beam sizes up to 50mm wide and 6mm high. The transmitted x-rays are imaged with a single crystal YAG scintillator, a microscope objective and a 1300x1030 pixel 12-bit 5MHz CCD detector. The maximum spatial resolution is under 2 microns in both the transmission radiographs and the reconstructed slices. Data collection times for full 3-D datasets range from 5-60 minutes. This facility has been used for a wide range of studies, including multiphase fluids in porous media, high-pressure studies, meteorites, and hyper-accumulating plants.

Rivers, Mark L.; Wang, Yanbin; Uchida, Takeyuki

2004-10-01

324

Recent developments in microtomography at GeoSoilEnviroCARS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facility for x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) is operating as a national user facility for earth and environmental sciences research on the bending magnet beamline at the GeoSoilEnviroCARS sector at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The APS bending magnet has a critical energy of 20 keV, and thus provides high flux at photon energies up to 100 keV, making it well suited to imaging a wide range of earth materials up to several cm in size. The beamline is equipped with a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator covering the energy range from 5 to 70 keV with beam sizes up to 50mm wide and 6mm high. The transmitted x-rays are imaged with a single crystal YAG or CdWO4 scintillator, a microscope objective and a 1300x1030 pixel 12-bit 5MHz CCD detector. The maximum spatial resolution is under 1.5 ?m in both the transmission radiographs and the reconstructed slices. Data collection times for full 3-D datasets range from 5-60 minutes. This facility has been used for a wide range of studies, including multiphase fluids in porous media, high-pressure studies, meteorites, and hyper-accumulating plants. We present recent technical improvements in the system, which include improved optics for samples larger than 5mm, significant reduction of ring artifacts, and correction of mechanical errors in the rotation stage.

Rivers, Mark L.; Wang, Yanbin

2006-08-01

325

Evaluation of plant growth regulators to increase nickel phytoextraction by Alyssum species.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that application of phytohormones to shoots of Alyssum murale increased biomass production but did not increase Ni shoot concentration. Increased biomass and Ni phytoextraction efficiency is useful to achieve economically viable phytomining. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two types of phytohormones on the Ni phytoextraction capacity of four Alyssum species. Two different commercially available phytohormones (Cytokin and Promalin) based on cytokinins and/or gibberellins were applied on shoot biomass of four Ni hyperaccumulating Alyssum species (A. corsicum, A. malacitanum, A. murale, and A. pintodasilvae). Cytokin was applied in two concentrations and promalin in one concentration. The application of phytohormones had no clear positive effect on biomass production, Ni accumulation and Ni phytoextraction efficiency in the studied Alyssum species. A. malacitanum was the only species in which a significantly negative effect of these treatments was observed (in Ni uptake). A slightly positive response to promalin treatment was observed in the biomass production and Ni phytoextraction efficiency of A. corsicum. Although this effect was not significant it does indicate a potential application of these approaches to improve phytoextraction ability. Further studies will be needed to identify the most adequate phytohormone treatment as well as the appropriate concentrations and application times. PMID:23488002

Cabello-Conejo, M I; Centofanti, T; Kidd, P S; Prieto-Fernández, A; Chaney, R L

2013-01-01

326

Effect of endophytic fungi on cadmium tolerance and bioaccumulation by Festuca arundinacea and Festuca pratensis.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi are a group of fungi that live asymptomatically inside plant tissue. These fungi may increase host plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The effect of Neotyphodium endophytes in two grass species (Festuca arundinacea and Festuca pratensis) on cadmium (Cd) tolerance, accumulation and translocation has been our main objective. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system under different Cd concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1)) for 6 weeks. They were also grown in soil spiked with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 20, and 40 mg kg(-1)) for 2 months. The results from all Cd treatments showed higher biomass production (12-24%) and higher potential to accumulate Cd in roots (6-16%) and shoots (6-20%) of endophyte-infected plants than endophyte-free plants. Cadmium accumulation by plants indicated that the grasses were capable of Cd hyperaccumulation, a property that was augmented after endophyte infection. Maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) revealed that Cd stress was significantly reduced in endophyte-infected plants compared to non-infected ones. PMID:21166279

Soleimani, Mohsen; Hajabbasi, Mohammad A; Afyuni, Majid; Mirlohi, Aghafakhr; Borggaard, Ole K; Holm, Peter E

2010-08-01

327

Screening the phytoremediation potential of desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) growing on mine tailings in Arizona, USA  

PubMed Central

The metal concentrations in a copper mine tailings and Desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) plants were investigated. The metal concentrations in plants, soil cover, and tailings were determined using ICP-OES. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in tailings was 526.4, 207.4, 89.1, 84.5, 51.7, 49.6, 39.7, and 35.6 mg kg?1, respectively. The concentration of all elements in soil cover was 10~15% higher than that of the tailings, except for molybdenum. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in roots was 818.3, 151.9, 73.9, 57.1, 40.1, 44.6, 96.8, and 26.7 mg kg?1 and 1214.1, 107.3, 105.8, 105.5, 55.2, 36.9, 30.9, and 10.9 mg kg?1 for shoots, respectively. Considering the translocation factor, enrichment coefficient, and the accumulation factor, desert broom could be a potential hyperaccumulator of Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Ni.

Haque, Nazmul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Jones, Gary L.; Gill, Thomas E.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

2008-01-01

328

Arsenic uptake and translocation by plants in pot and field experiments.  

PubMed

A work undertaken by pot and field experiments to assess the suitability of poplars and ferns for the in-situ, phytoextraction, of a dumping site with residues from the roasting process of arseno-pyrite is reported. The main characteristic of this site is the high content of both the As metalloid and heavy metals (e.g., Al, Fe, Cu, Co, Cr, Pb). Two poplar clones (Populus deltoides 'Dvina' and Populus x canadensis 'Orion') and Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) were planted in the contaminated soil both ex situ in pots and in situ. Plant survival, As accumulation in plant tissues, leaf content of pigments, soluble proteins, activity of catalase and SH-groups in both roots and leaves were evaluated during a 24-month study period. Both poplar and fern plants exhibited an increase in the activity of catalase and SH group contents when grown in the presence of pyrite ashes. The results showed that the co-planting system (arsenic-hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata and Populus clones) was suitable for phytoextraction of multi-contaminated dumping sites. Agronomic measures such as irrigation, soil tillage and amendments also seem to be necessary for the successful establishment of poplar trees and ferns in contaminated soils in order to enhance plant growth through the improvement of soil conditions. PMID:24933886

Ciurli, A; Lenzi, L; Alpi, A; Pardossi, A

2014-01-01

329

Arabidopsis and the Genetic Potential for the Phytoremediation of Toxic Elemental and Organic Pollutants  

PubMed Central

In a process called phytoremediation, plants can be used to extract, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic pollutants from soil, water, and air. Phytoremediation may become an essential tool in cleaning the environment and reducing human and animal exposure to potential carcinogens and other toxins. Arabidopsis has provided useful information about the genetic, physiological, and biochemical mechanisms behind phytoremediation, and it is an excellent model genetic organism to test foreign gene expression. This review focuses on Arabidopsis studies concerning: 1) the remediation of elemental pollutants; 2) the remediation of organic pollutants; and 3) the phytoremediation genome. Elemental pollutants include heavy metals and metalloids (e.g., mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic) that are immutable. The general goal of phytoremediation is to extract, detoxify, and hyperaccumulate elemental pollutants in above-ground plant tissues for later harvest. A few dozen Arabidopsis genes and proteins that play direct roles in the remediation of elemental pollutants are discussed. Organic pollutants include toxic chemicals such as benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene, trinitrotoluene, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Phytoremediation of organic pollutants is focused on their complete mineralization to harmless products, however, less is known about the potential of plants to act on complex organic chemicals. A preliminary survey of the Arabidopsis genome suggests that as many as 700 genes encode proteins that have the capacity to act directly on environmental pollutants or could be modified to do so. The potential of the phytoremediation proteome to be used to reduce human exposure to toxic pollutants appears to be enormous and untapped.

Cobbett, Christopher S.; Meagher, Richard B.

2002-01-01

330

Comparative performance of trace element bioaccumulation and biomonitoring in the plant species Typha domingensis, Phragmites australis and Arundo donax.  

PubMed

Toxic levels of trace elements in the environment have been reported worldwide over the last few decades, and their increasing concentrations are of the utmost concern because of the adverse effects on human life and ecosystems. Several plant species are able to accumulate trace elements, and may be used for monitoring and remediation of polluted sites. This study compared the capacity of trace element bioaccumulation in three wetland plants distributed worldwide: Typha domingensis, Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. The aims were to identify which species show better potential for removal and monitoring of these elements: Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn. Results showed that all species may be used as biomonitors of trace element contamination in sediment, but only P. australis and A. donax showed also a correlation with water. Overall, T. domingensis and P. australis showed a greater capacity of bioaccumulation as well as a greater efficiency of element removal than A. donax. In particular, T. domingensis and P. australis may be used for Hg phytostabilization, the former acted also as a hyperaccumulator for Hg phytoextraction and as a promising species for As phytostabilization. In contaminated wetlands, the presence of T. domingensis and P. australis may increase the general retention of trace elements, thus, their introduction is recommended for possible actions of phytoremediation and biomonitoring. PMID:23932595

Bonanno, Giuseppe

2013-11-01

331

Cd-induced phytochelatin synthesis in Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter is determined by the dilution of the culture medium.  

PubMed

In this paper, we examined Cd accumulation and PC synthesis in two clones of Dittrichia viscosa, one with a metallicolous (DV-A) and the other with a non-metallicolous origin (DV-W). The clones were cultured in vitro with 0 and 10 mg Cd L(-1) in both short-term treatments (up to 72 h) and over 10 days. We also examined the influence of the culture medium dilution and the PC-synthesis inhibitor, L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), on these parameters. Similar Cd accumulation values were found in the two clones. No synthesis of new thiolic compounds was observed in Cd-treated plants cultured in vitro in Murashige and Skoog medium up to 72 h when compared to controls. Dilution of the culture medium affected PC production, increasing it in 1/2 MS and especially in 1/4 MS. Cd uptake did not increase in the same way, but still hyperaccumulation levels were exceeded in all Cd treatments. BSO addition increased the sensitivity of D. viscosa to Cd and diminished Cd accumulation. Nevertheless, a poor correlation between PCs and Cd accumulation capacity was observed since the highest Cd content did not correspond to the highest PC levels. All these results obtained suggest that PCs are important in Cd accumulation and detoxification in D. viscosa and also that other mechanisms might be involved in these traits. PMID:23881590

Fernández, R; Fernández-Fuego, D; Rodríguez-González, P; Alonso, J I García; Bertrand, A; González, A

2014-01-01

332

Responses of Noccaea caerulescens and Lupinus albus in trace elements-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Plants exposed to trace elements can suffer from oxidative stress, which is characterised by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, alteration in the cellular antioxidant defence system and ultimately lipid peroxidation. We assessed the most-appropriate stress indexes to describe the response of two plant species, with different strategies for coping with trace elements (TEs), to particular contaminants. Noccaea caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator, and Lupinus albus, an excluder, were grown in three soils of differing pH: an acidic soil, a neutral soil (both contaminated mainly by Cu, Zn and As) and a control soil. Then, plant stress indicators were measured. As expected, N. caerulescens accumulated higher levels of Zn and Cd in shoots than L. albus, this effect being stronger in the acid soil, reflecting greater TE solubility in this soil. However, the shoot concentrations of Mn were higher in L. albus than in N. caerulescens, while the As concentration was similar in the two species. In L. albus, the phenolic content and lipid peroxidation were related with the Cu concentration, whereas the Zn and Cd concentrations in N. caerulescens were more closely related to glutathione content and lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, phytochelatins were only found in L. albus grown in polluted soils. Hence, the two species differed with respect to the TEs which provoked stress and the biochemical indicators of the stress, there being a close relationship between the accumulation of TEs and their associated stress indicators in the different plant organs. PMID:23466747

Martínez-Alcalá, Isabel; Hernández, Luis E; Esteban, Elvira; Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar

2013-05-01

333

Stable Transformation of Ferns Using Spores as Targets: Pteris vittata and Ceratopteris thalictroides1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Ferns (Pteridophyta) are very important members of the plant kingdom that lag behind other taxa with regards to our understanding of their genetics, genomics, and molecular biology. We report here, to our knowledge, the first instance of stable transformation of fern with recovery of transgenic sporophytes. Spores of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata and tetraploid ‘C-fern Express’ (Ceratopteris thalictroides) were stably transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with constructs containing the P. vittata actin promoter driving a GUSPlus reporter gene. Reporter gene expression assays were performed on multiple tissues and growth stages of gametophytes and sporophytes. Southern-blot analysis confirmed stable transgene integration in recovered sporophytes and also confirmed that no plasmid from A. tumefaciens was present in the sporophyte tissues. We recovered seven independent transformants of P. vittata and four independent C. thalictroides transgenics. Inheritance analyses using ?-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical staining revealed that the GUS transgene was stably expressed in second generation C. thalictroides sporophytic tissues. In an independent experiment, the gusA gene that was driven by the 2× Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was bombarded into P. vittata spores using biolistics, in which putatively stable transgenic gametophytes were recovered. Transformation procedures required no tissue culture or selectable marker genes. However, we did attempt to use hygromycin selection, which was ineffective for recovering transgenic ferns. This simple stable transformation method should help facilitate functional genomics studies in ferns.

Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Joyce, Blake L.; Elless, Mark P.; Stewart, C. Neal

2013-01-01

334

Accumulation of arsenic, lead, copper, and zinc, and synthesis of phytochelatins by indigenous plants of a mining impacted area.  

PubMed

Several native plants, able to grow in an unconfined mining impacted area that is now in close vicinity with urban areas, were evaluated for their ability to accumulate heavy metals. The main soil contaminants were As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Sampling of the rhizospheric metal polluted soil showed that Euphorbia prostrata Aiton, Parthenium incanum Kunth, and Zinnia acerosa (DC.) A. Gray were able to grow in the presence of high amounts of mixtures of these elements. The plants accumulated the metals in the above ground parts and increased the synthesis of thiol molecules. E. prostrata showed the highest capacity for accumulation of the mixture of elements (588 ?g g DW(-1)). Analysis of the thiol-molecules profile showed that these plants synthesized high amounts of long-chain phytochelatins, accompanied by low amounts of monothiol molecules, which may be related to their higher resistance to As and heavy metals. The three plants showed translocation factors from roots to leaves >1 for As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Thus, by periodically removing aerial parts, these plants could be useful for the phytoremediation of semi-arid and arid mining impacted areas, in which metal hyper-accumulator plants are not able to grow. PMID:23649544

Machado-Estrada, Blenda; Calderón, Jaqueline; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S

2013-06-01

335

Heavy metal tolerance and accumulation of Triarrhena sacchariflora, a large amphibious ornamental grass.  

PubMed

In this study, we report the tolerance and accumulation of Triarrhena sacchariflora to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd). The results show that T. sacchariflora had strong tolerance to Cu and Cd stress. The tolerance indexes (TI) were greater than 0.5 for all treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) to Cu and Cd were both above 1.0. The accumulation ability of roots was stronger than that of shoots, and ranges of BCF to Cu and Cd in roots were 37.89-79.08 and 83.96-300.57, respectively. However, the translocation ability to Cu and Cd was weak, with more than 86% of Cu or Cd accumulated in roots, suggesting an exclusion strategy for heavy metal tolerance. The uptake efficiency (UE) and translocation efficiency (TE) to Cu and Cd increased linearly as the Cu and Cd concentration in the substrate increased. UE was higher than TE, with a maximum of 2,118.90 ?g g(-1) root dry weight (DW) (50 mg L(-1) Cu) and 1,847.51 ?g g(-1) root DW (20 mg L(-1)Cd), respectively. The results indicate that T. sacchariflora is a Cu- and Cd-tolerant non-hyperaccumulator plant, suggesting that T. sacchariflora could play an important role in phytoremediation in areas contaminated with Cu and Cd. PMID:24185062

Tian, R N; Yu, S; Wang, S G; Zhang, Y; Tang, J Y; Liu, Y L; Nie, Y H

2013-01-01

336

Recent developments in microtomography at GeoSoilEnviroCARS  

SciTech Connect

A facility for x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) is operating as a national user facility for earth and environmental sciences research on the bending magnet beamline at the GeoSoilEnviroCARS sector at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The APS bending magnet has a critical energy of 20 keV, and thus provides high flux at photon energies up to 100 keV, making it well suited to imaging a wide range of earth materials up to several cm in size. The beamline is equipped with a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator covering the energy range from 5 to 70 keV with beam sizes up to 50mm wide and 6mm high. The transmitted x-rays are imaged with a single crystal YAG or CdWO{sub 4} scintillator, a microscope objective and a 1300 x 1030 pixel 12-bit 5MHz CCD detector. The maximum spatial resolution is under 1.5 {micro}m in both the transmission radiographs and the reconstructed slices. Data collection times for full 3-D datasets range from 5-60 minutes. This facility has been used for a wide range of studies, including multiphase fluids in porous media, high-pressure studies, meteorites, and hyper-accumulating plants. We present recent technical improvements in the system, which include improved optics for samples larger than 5mm, significant reduction of ring artifacts, and correction of mechanical errors in the rotation stage.

Rivers, M.L.; Wang, Y. (UC); (UC)

2008-08-04

337

Sexual propagation of Pteris vittata L. influenced by pH, calcium, and temperature.  

PubMed

We aimed to optimize germination and growth conditions of the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata L. Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of soil pH, soil calcium (Ca) concentration, and temperature on the sexual propagation of P. vittata. At 25 degrees C, germination was both accelerated and increased by high soil pH and Ca concentration. Spores of P. vittata did not germinate on medium with a pH of 4.6. Amending strongly acid soils with 27.5 or 40 micromol/g Ca(OH)2 significantly improved the growth rate during both the germination phase and the gametophyte phase. Amending strongly acid soils with NaOH (55 micromol/g) promoted germination, but did not affect subsequent growth. Among the different temperature, germination and growth rates were higher at 25 degrees C than at 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C. The distribution of P. vittata in China might be influenced by its requirement for high pH and high Ca concentration in the soil and appropriate growth temperature to complete sexual propagation. These results provided important information for improving breeding conditions of P. vitatta and will be helpful for extending the range of areas in which P. vittata can be used for phytoremediation. PMID:20734630

Wan, Xiao-Ming; Lei, Mei; Huang, Ze-Chun; Chen, Tong-Bin; Liu, Ying-Ru

2010-01-01

338

[Research advances in uptake, translocation, accumulation and detoxification of Pb in plants].  

PubMed

Contamination of soils by lead (Pb) is of widespread occurrence because of the industrialization, urbanization, mining, and many other anthropogenic activities. It is urgent and necessary for scientists to uncover the mechanisms of uptake, translocation, accumulation and detoxification of Pb in plants for the following two reasons. First, it helps target and regulate the key process of Pb uptake by crops and vegetables and minimize the threat of Pb introduction to the food chain. Second, it helps cultivate Pb hyperaccumulating plants that can absorb and sequester excessive amounts from contaminated soils in their biomass without incurring damage to basic metabolic functions. The purpose of this review was to summarize the research advances in uptake, translocation and accumulation of Pb in plants and address the mechanisms by which plants or plant systems detoxify Pb. The further researches on the foliar uptake, the interactions between soil components and plant cell wall, as well as the integrated technologies for phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated soils were prospected. PMID:24765873

Duan, De-Chao; Yu, Ming-Ge; Shi, Ji-Yan

2014-01-01

339

Cryptic adaptive radiation in tropical forest trees in New Caledonia.  

PubMed

The causes of the species richness of tropical trees are poorly understood, in particular the roles of ecological factors such as soil composition. The nickel(Ni)-hyperaccumulating tree genus Geissois (Cunoniaceae) from the South-west Pacific was chosen as a model of diversification on different substrates. Here, we investigated the leaf element compositions, spatial distributions and phylogeny of all species of Geissois occurring on New Caledonia. We found that New Caledonian Geissois descended from a single colonist and diversified relatively quickly into 13 species. Species on ultramafic and nonultramafic substrates showed contrasting patterns of leaf element composition and range overlap. Those on nonultramafic substrates were largely sympatric but had distinct leaf element compositions. By contrast, species on ultramafic substrates showed similar leaf element composition, but occurred in many cases exclusively in allopatry. Further, earlier work showed that at least three out of these seven species use different molecules to bind Ni. Geissois qualifies as a cryptic adaptive radiation, and may be the first such example in a lineage of tropical forest trees. Variation in biochemical strategies for coping with both typical and adverse soil conditions may help to explain the diversification and coexistence of tropical forest trees on similar soil types. PMID:24443886

Pillon, Yohan; Hopkins, Helen C F; Rigault, Frédéric; Jaffré, Tanguy; Stacy, Elizabeth A

2014-04-01

340

Application of a combined system of polycapillary x-ray lens and toroidal mirror in micro-x-ray-absorption fine-structure facility  

SciTech Connect

A micro-x-ray-absorption fine-structure facility based on a monolithic half focusing polycapillary x-ray lens (MHFPXRL), a toroidal mirror, and synchrotron radiation is proposed. The synchrotron radiation is focused by using a combined system of a MHFPXRL and a toroidal mirror. At 8.0 keV, the synchrotron radiation beam with a 2.3x26-mm{sup 2} area is first focused into a beam spot with a 0.9x0.3-mm{sup 2} area by a toroidal mirror. This focused beam is then focused into a focal spot with a 21.4-{mu}m diameter by using a MHFPXRL. The gain of power flux density in the focal spot of the combined system is 47 473. The focal distance of the MHFPXRL is 13.3 mm. The transmitting extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectrum of Ni foil and the fluorescent EXAFS spectrum of zinc in the zinc hyperaccumulator are measured.

Sun Tianxi; Xie Yaning; Liu Zhiguo; Liu Tao; Hu Tiandou; Ding Xunliang [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100039 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100039 (China); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

2006-05-01

341

Screening the phytoremediation potential of desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) growing on mine tailings in Arizona, USA.  

PubMed

The metal concentrations in a copper mine tailings and desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) plants were investigated. The metal concentrations in plants, soil cover, and tailings were determined using ICP-OES. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in tailings was 526.4, 207.4, 89.1, 84.5, 51.7, 49.6, 39.7, and 35.6mgkg(-1), respectively. The concentration of all elements in soil cover was 10-15% higher than that of the tailings, except for molybdenum. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in roots was 818.3, 151.9, 73.9, 57.1, 40.1, 44.6, 96.8, and 26.7mgkg(-1) and 1214.1, 107.3, 105.8, 105.5, 55.2, 36.9, 30.9, and 10.9mgkg(-1) for shoots, respectively. Considering the translocation factor, enrichment coefficient, and the accumulation factor, desert broom could be a potential hyperaccumulator of Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Ni. PMID:17964035

Haque, Nazmul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Jones, Gary L; Gill, Thomas E; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

2008-05-01

342

Spectroscopic determination of the toxicity, absorption, reduction, and translocation of Cr(VI) in two Magnoliopsida species.  

PubMed

Hexavalent chromium is a contaminant highly mobile in the environment that is toxic for plants at low concentrations. In this work, the physiological response of Convolvulus arvensis and Medicago truncatula plants to Cr(VI) treatments was compared. C. arvensis is a potential Cr hyperaccumulator well adapted to semiarid conditions that biotransform Cr(VI) to the less toxic Cr(III). M. truncatula is a model plant well adapted to semiarid conditions with a well studied genetic response to heavy metal stress. The results demonstrated that C. arvensis is more tolerant to Cr toxicity and has a higher Cr translocation to the leaves. The inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy results showed that C. arvensis plants treated with 10 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) accumulated 1512, 210, and 131 mg Cr kg(-1) in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. While M. truncatula plants treated with the same Cr(VI) concentration accumulated 1081, 331, and 44 (mg Cr kg(-1)) in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. Enzymatic assays demonstrated that Cr(VI) decreased ascorbate peroxidase activity and increased catalase activity in M. truncatula, while an opposite response was found in C. arvensis. The x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that both plant species reduced Cr(VI) to the less toxic Cr(III). PMID:23487994

Montes, Milka O; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Parsons, Jason G; Corral Diaz, Baltazar; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

2013-01-01

343

Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of mature flax, cv. Hermes: contribution of the basal stem compared to the root.  

PubMed

The potential of mature flax plants (cv. Hermes) to tolerate and accumulate cadmium (Cd) was studied to determine which part of the plant would be the key organ for phytoremediation purposes. After 4 month-growth on sand substrate containing 0.1mM Cd in a greenhouse, the roots and stems were separated and the stems were divided into three parts. The effects of Cd were studied on growth parameters, histology and mineral nutrition. No visible toxic symptoms were observed. Tolerance-index values calculated from growth parameters and nutrients remained relatively high, allowing the development of the plant until maturity and formation of seeds. The roots and bottom stem accumulated the highest quantity of Cd (750 and 360 mg/kg dry matter), values which largely exceeded the threshold defined for hyperaccumulators. On the other hand, basal stem had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF=32) and translocation factor TF' (2.5) but a low TF (0.5), indicating that this basal part would play a major role in phytoremediation (phytostabilization rather than phytorextraction). Therefore, the high tolerance to Cd and accumulation capacity make possible to grow Hermes flax on Cd-polluted soils. PMID:22858130

Douchiche, Olfa; Chaïbi, Wided; Morvan, Claudine

2012-10-15

344

Poplar maintains zinc homeostasis with heavy metal genes HMA4 and PCS1  

PubMed Central

Perennial woody species, such as poplar (Populus spp.) must acquire necessary heavy metals like zinc (Zn) while avoiding potential toxicity. Poplar contains genes with sequence homology to genes HMA4 and PCS1 from other species which are involved in heavy metal regulation. While basic genomic conservation exists, poplar does not have a hyperaccumulating phenotype. Poplar has a common indicator phenotype in which heavy metal accumulation is proportional to environmental concentrations but excesses are prevented. Phenotype is partly affected by regulation of HMA4 and PCS1 transcriptional abundance. Wild-type poplar down-regulates several transcripts in its Zn-interacting pathway at high Zn levels. Also, overexpressed PtHMA4 and PtPCS1 genes result in varying Zn phenotypes in poplar; specifically, there is a doubling of Zn accumulation in leaf tissues in an overexpressed PtPCS1 line. The genomic complement and regulation of poplar highlighted in this study supports a role of HMA4 and PCS1 in Zn regulation dictating its phenotype. These genes can be altered in poplar to change its interaction with Zn. However, other poplar genes in the surrounding pathway may maintain the phenotype by inhibiting drastic changes in heavy metal accumulation with a single gene transformation.

Adams, Joshua P.; Adeli, Ardeshir; Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Harkess, Richard L.; Page, Grier P.; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Schultz, Emily B.; Yuceer, Cetin

2011-01-01

345

Managing the manganese: molecular mechanisms of manganese transport and homeostasis.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal nutrient for plants. Recently, some of the genes responsible for transition metal transport in plants have been identified; however, only relatively recently have Mn2+ transport pathways begun to be identified at the molecular level. These include transporters responsible for Mn accumulation into the cell and release from various organelles, and for active sequestration into endomembrane compartments, particularly the vacuole and the endoplasmic reticulum. Several transporter gene families have been implicated in Mn2+ transport, including cation/H+ antiporters, natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) transporters, zinc-regulated transporter/iron-regulated transporter (ZRT/IRT1)-related protein (ZIP) transporters, the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) transporter family, and P-type ATPases. The identification of mutants with altered Mn phenotypes can allow the identification of novel components in Mn homeostasis. In addition, the characterization of Mn hyperaccumulator plants can increase our understanding of how plants can adapt to excess Mn, and ultimately allow the identification of genes that confer this stress tolerance. The identification of genes responsible for Mn2+ transport has substantially improved our understanding of plant Mn homeostasis. PMID:16101910

Pittman, Jon K

2005-09-01

346

The overlapping roles of manganese and Cu/Zn SOD in oxidative stress protection.  

PubMed

In various organisms, high intracellular manganese provides protection against oxidative damage through unknown pathways. Herein we use a genetic approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to analyze factors that promote manganese as an antioxidant in cells lacking Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (sod1 Delta). Unlike certain bacterial systems, oxygen resistance in yeast correlates with high intracellular manganese without a lowering of iron. This manganese for antioxidant protection is provided by the Nramp transporters Smf1p and Smf2p, with Smf1p playing a major role. In fact, loss of manganese transport by Smf1p together with loss of the Pmr1p manganese pump is lethal to sod1 Delta cells despite normal manganese SOD2 activity. Manganese-phosphate complexes are excellent superoxide dismutase mimics in vitro, yet through genetic disruption of phosphate transport and storage, we observed no requirement for phosphate in manganese suppression of oxidative damage. If anything, elevated phosphate correlated with profound oxidative stress in sod1 Delta mutants. The efficacy of manganese as an antioxidant was drastically reduced in cells that hyperaccumulate phosphate without effects on Mn SOD activity. Non-SOD manganese can provide a critical backup for Cu/Zn SOD1, but only under appropriate physiologic conditions. PMID:18973803

Reddi, Amit R; Jensen, Laran T; Naranuntarat, Amornrat; Rosenfeld, Leah; Leung, Edison; Shah, Rishita; Culotta, Valeria C

2009-01-15

347

A novel selenocystine-accumulating plant in selenium-mine drainage area in enshi, china.  

PubMed

Plant samples of Cardamine hupingshanesis (Brassicaceae), Ligulariafischeri (Ledeb.) turcz (Steraceae) and their underlying top sediments were collected from selenium (Se) mine drainage areas in Enshi, China. Concentrations of total Se were measured using Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS) and Se speciation were determined using liquid chromatography/UV irradiation-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (LC-UV-HG-AFS). The results showed that C. hupingshanesis could accumulate Se to 239±201 mg/kg DW in roots, 316±184 mg/kg DW in stems, and 380±323 mg/kg DW in leaves, which identifies it as Se secondary accumulator. Particularly, it could accumulate Se up to 1965±271 mg/kg DW in leaves, 1787±167 mg/kg DW in stem and 4414±3446 mg/kg DW in roots, living near Se mine tailing. Moreover, over 70% of the total Se accumulated in C. hupingshanesis were in the form of selenocystine (SeCys2), increasing with increased total Se concentration in plant, in contrast to selenomethionine (SeMet) in non-accumulators (eg. Arabidopsis) and secondary accumulators (eg. Brassica juncea), and selenomethylcysteine (SeMeCys) in hyperaccumulators (eg. Stanleya pinnata). There is no convincing explanation on SeCys2 accumulation in C. hupingshanesis based on current Se metabolism theory in higher plants, and further study will be needed. PMID:23750270

Yuan, Linxi; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Banuelos, Gary; Li, Wei; Yin, Xuebin

2013-01-01

348

Metallothionein 2 (SaMT2) from Sedum alfredii Hance Confers Increased Cd Tolerance and Accumulation in Yeast and Tobacco  

PubMed Central

Metallothioneins are cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins. In the present study, SaMT2, a type 2 metallothionein gene, was isolated from Cd/Zn co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. SaMT2 encodes a putative peptide of 79 amino acid residues including two cysteine-rich domains. The transcript level of SaMT2 was higher in shoots than in roots of S. alfredii, and was significantly induced by Cd and Zn treatments. Yeast expression assay showed SaMT2 significantly enhanced Cd tolerance and accumulation in yeast. Ectopic expression of SaMT2 in tobacco enhanced Cd and Zn tolerance and accumulation in both shoots and roots of the transgenic plants. The transgenic plants had higher antioxidant enzyme activities and accumulated less H2O2 than wild-type plants under Cd and Zn treatment. Thus, SaMT2 could significantly enhance Cd and Zn tolerance and accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants by chelating metals and improving antioxidant system.

Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Min; Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Shohag, M. J. I.; Yang, Xiaoe

2014-01-01

349

PCNA and Msh2-Msh6 Activate an Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease Pathway Required for Exo1-Independent Mismatch Repair.  

PubMed

Genetic evidence has implicated multiple pathways in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) downstream of mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment, including Exonuclease 1 (Exo1)-dependent and -independent pathways. We identified 14 mutations in POL30, which encodes PCNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, specific to Exo1-independent MMR. The mutations identified affected amino acids at three distinct sites on the PCNA structure. Multiple mutant PCNA proteins had defects either in trimerization and Msh2-Msh6 binding or in activation of the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease that initiates excision during MMR. The latter class of mutations led to hyperaccumulation of repair intermediate Mlh1-Pms1 foci and were enhanced by an msh6 mutation that disrupted the Msh2-Msh6 interaction with PCNA. These results reveal a central role for PCNA in the Exo1-independent MMR pathway and suggest that Msh2-Msh6 localizes PCNA to repair sites after mispair recognition to activate the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease for initiating Exo1-dependent repair or for driving progressive excision in Exo1-independent repair. PMID:24981171

Goellner, Eva M; Smith, Catherine E; Campbell, Christopher S; Hombauer, Hans; Desai, Arshad; Putnam, Christopher D; Kolodner, Richard D

2014-07-17

350

Zinc finger protein Loz1 is required for zinc-responsive regulation of gene expression in fission yeast  

PubMed Central

In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) is an abundant zinc-requiring enzyme that catalyses the conversion of acetaldehyde to ethanol during fermentation. In a zinc-replete cell, adh1 is highly expressed. However, in zinc-limited cells, adh1 gene expression is repressed, and cells induce the expression of an alternative alcohol dehydrogenase encoded by the adh4 gene. In our studies examining this zinc-dependent switch in alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression, we isolated an adh1? strain containing a partial loss of function mutation that resulted in higher levels of adh4 transcripts in zinc-replete cells. This mutation also led to the aberrant expression of other genes that are typically regulated by zinc. Using linkage analysis, we have mapped the position of this mutation to a single gene called Loss Of Zinc sensing 1 (loz1). Loz1 is a 55-kDa protein that contains a double C2H2-type zinc finger domain. The mapped mutation that disrupts Loz1 function leads to an arginine to glycine substitution in the second zinc finger domain, suggesting that the double zinc finger domain is important for Loz1 function. We show that loz1? cells hyperaccumulate zinc and that Loz1 is required for gene repression in zinc-replete cells. We also have found that Loz1 negatively autoregulates its own expression. We propose that Loz1 is a unique metalloregulatory factor that plays a central role in zinc homeostasis in S. pombe.

Corkins, Mark E.; May, Margot; Ehrensberger, Kate M.; Hu, Ya-Mei; Liu, Yi-Hsuan; Bloor, Sean D.; Jenkins, Blair; Runge, Kurt W.; Bird, Amanda J.

2013-01-01

351

The Nup107-160 Nucleoporin Complex Is Required for Correct Bipolar Spindle Assembly  

PubMed Central

The Nup107-160 complex is a critical subunit of the nuclear pore. This complex localizes to kinetochores in mitotic mammalian cells, where its function is unknown. To examine Nup107-160 complex recruitment to kinetochores, we stained human cells with antisera to four complex components. Each antibody stained not only kinetochores but also prometaphase spindle poles and proximal spindle fibers, mirroring the dual prometaphase localization of the spindle checkpoint proteins Mad1, Mad2, Bub3, and Cdc20. Indeed, expanded crescents of the Nup107-160 complex encircled unattached kinetochores, similar to the hyperaccumulation observed of dynamic outer kinetochore checkpoint proteins and motors at unattached kinetochores. In mitotic Xenopus egg extracts, the Nup107-160 complex localized throughout reconstituted spindles. When the Nup107-160 complex was depleted from extracts, the spindle checkpoint remained intact, but spindle assembly was rendered strikingly defective. Microtubule nucleation around sperm centrosomes seemed normal, but the microtubules quickly disassembled, leaving largely unattached sperm chromatin. Notably, Ran-GTP caused normal assembly of microtubule asters in depleted extracts, indicating that this defect was upstream of Ran or independent of it. We conclude that the Nup107-160 complex is dynamic in mitosis and that it promotes spindle assembly in a manner that is distinct from its functions at interphase nuclear pores.

Orjalo, Arturo V.; Arnaoutov, Alexei; Shen, Zhouxin; Boyarchuk, Yekaterina; Zeitlin, Samantha G.; Fontoura, Beatriz; Briggs, Steven; Dasso, Mary

2006-01-01

352

Phytoremediation efficiency of Portulaca tuberosa rox and Portulaca oleracea L. naturally growing in an industrial effluent irrigated area in Vadodra, Gujrat, India.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation is a novel, solar-driven and cost-effective technology for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated environments through exploitation of plants ability to accumulate heavy metals in their harvestable shoot parts. In the present investigation, we collected plants of two species of Portulaca i.e. P. tuberosa and P. oleracea from field sites in Vadodra, Gujrat, India. At one site, field was being irrigated with industrial effluent while at other with tube well water. Analysis of heavy metals was performed in industrial effluent, tube well water, soils irrigated with them, and in different parts viz., roots, stem, leaves and flowers of the plant samples. Industrial effluent and soil irrigated with it had very high level of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr and As) as compared to the tube well water and soil irrigated with that. Plants of both the species growing in effluent irrigated soils showed high accumulation of metals in all plant parts with the maximum being in roots and the least in flowers. Interestingly, both species of Portulaca hyperaccumulated more than one heavy metal viz., Cd, Cr and As. The total shoot concentrations (microg g(-1) dw) of Cd, Cr and As in P. tuberosa were 1,571, 7,957 and 3,118, respectively while in P. oleracea, these were 1,128, 7,552 and 2,476, respectively. Portulaca plants have good biomass and high regeneration potential; hence appear to be suitable for the remediation of effluent (metal) contaminated areas. PMID:18193484

Tiwari, K K; Dwivedi, S; Mishra, S; Srivastava, S; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Chakraborty, S

2008-12-01

353

Removing heavy metals from synthetic effluents using "kamikaze" Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.  

PubMed

One key step of the bioremediation processes designed to clean up heavy metal contaminated environments is growing resistant cells that accumulate the heavy metals to ensure better removal through a combination of biosorption and continuous metabolic uptake after physical adsorption. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells can easily act as cation biosorbents, but isolation of mutants that are both hyperaccumulating and tolerant to heavy metals proved extremely difficult. Instead, mutants that are hypersensitive to heavy metals due to increased and continuous uptake from the environment were considered, aiming to use such mutants to reduce the heavy metal content of contaminated waters. In this study, the heavy metal hypersensitive yeast strain pmr1Delta was investigated for the ability to remove Mn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, or Cd2+ from synthetic effluents. Due to increased metal accumulation, the mutant strain was more efficient than the wild-type in removing Mn2+, Cu2+, or Co2+ from synthetic effluents containing 1-2 mM cations, with a selectivity and also in removing Mn2+ and Cd2+ from synthetic effluents containing 20-50 microM cations, with a selectivity Mn2+ > Cd2+. PMID:19795117

Ruta, Lavinia; Paraschivescu, Codruta; Matache, Mihaela; Avramescu, Sorin; Farcasanu, Ileana Cornelia

2010-01-01

354

Lead tolerance and accumulation in the gametophytes of the fern Athyrium yokoscense.  

PubMed

The fern Athyrium yokoscense is known to be highly tolerant to lead toxicity, and is a lead hyperaccumulator that can accumulate over 1,000 microg g(-1) of lead in its dry matter. In this work, we examined whether the gametophytic generation of A. yokoscense also resists lead toxicity like the sporophytic generation. Spore germination in A. yokoscense was more tolerant to Pb2+, compared to that in other fern species, such as Pteridium aquilinum, Lygodium japonicum and Pteris vittata. In addition, the early gametophyte development of A. yokoscense was not much affected by 10 microM Pb2+, as evaluated from the prothallial growth and rhizoid development. We also showed that Athyrium gametophytes could accumulate more than 10,000 microg g(-1) of lead, and that the lead was localized in the cytosol and vacuole of rhizoidal cells, as determined by a transmission electron micrograph. These results indicate that Athyrium gametophytes have the ability to accumulate lead in the rhizoids. Furthermore, the gametophytes were found to include a large amount of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins). Because proanthocyanidins have a latent ability to complex with lead ions, the possible roles of proanthocyanidins in the lead tolerance and accumulation of Athyrium gametophytes are discussed. PMID:15843865

Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Komori, Ippei; Tamura, Hideo; Sawa, Yoshimi; Karahara, Ichirou; Honma, Yoshihiro; Wada, Naoya; Kawabata, Tokimasa; Matsuda, Kenji; Ikeno, Susumu; Noguchi, Munenori; Inoue, Hiroshi

2005-04-01

355

A study on the effects of lead, cadmium and phosphorus on the lead and cadmium uptake efficacy of Viola baoshanensis inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

The effect of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) uptake by the hyperaccumulator plant Viola baoshanensis was studied in greenhouse pot experiments. Seedlings of V. baoshanensis inoculated without or with indigenous AM fungi were grown in paddy soil with the addition of Pb at 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg kg(-1), or of Cd at 0, 50,100, 200 mg kg(-1), or in mine soil with the addition of phosphorus at 0, 50, 250, 500 mg kg(-1). AM colonization increased shoot biomass at low phosphorus levels, and this beneficial effect was diminished or reversed by high phosphorus availability. AM colonization decreased shoot Cd concentrations regardless of the availability of Cd and phosphorus, but the mechanisms involved varied with Cd availability. At low Cd bioavailability, reduced Cd uptake was due to decreased Cd translocation from the roots to the shoots, whereas that was attributed to reduced root uptake at high Cd bioavailability. In contrast, the effect of AM colonization on shoot Pb varied with the availability of phosphorous and Pb. Our results show that the interactions between V. baoshanensis and indigenous AM fungi were modified by the availability of Pb, Cd and phosphorus. PMID:22864990

Zhong, Wei-liang; Li, Jin-tian; Chen, Ya-ting; Shu, Wen-sheng; Liao, Bin

2012-09-01

356

Characterization of root mucilage from Melastoma malabathricum, with emphasis on its roles in aluminum accumulation.  

PubMed

Plant roots exude viscous polysaccharides, called mucilage. One of the suggested roles of mucilage is immobilization of toxic metal cations, including aluminum (Al), in the rhizosphere. Mucilage exuded from roots of Melastoma malabathricum (Al accumulator) was characterized in comparison with that of Zea mays (maize; Al nonaccumulator). Removal of mucilage significantly reduced Al accumulation in M. malabathricum. The cation adsorption affinity of M. malabathricum mucilage was higher for Al and lanthanum (La) than for barium (Ba), whereas that of maize mucilage was in the order Ba > La > Al. A (27)Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the Al-adsorbed mucilage and bioassay with alfalfa seedlings indicated that the concentrated Al in the mucilage of M. malabathricum, unlike that of maize, bound very weakly to cation exchange sites of mucilage. The higher charge density in M. malabathricum mucilage, derived from unmethylated uronic acid, is inferred to be related to preferential adsorption of trivalent cation. Not only a higher degree of methylation in the uronic acid (glucuronic acid) but also H(+) release from roots to the mucilage appears to be responsible for the loose binding of Al in M. malabathricum mucilage. These characteristics of mucilage may help Al hyperaccumulation in M. malabathricum. PMID:18373518

Watanabe, Toshihiro; Misawa, Seiji; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Osaki, Mitsuru

2008-01-01

357

Plasma membrane-localized Al-transporter from blue hydrangea sepals is a member of the anion permease family.  

PubMed

In hydrangea sepals, an aluminum complex of delphinidin-3-O-glucoside is responsible for the development of the blue color, and co-existing copigments mediate the solubilization and stabilization of the blue Al-anthocyanin complex which is localized in the sepal vacuole. In addition, hydrangeas are Al-hyperaccumulators and exhibit tolerance to acidic soils, in which the toxicity is due to soluble Al ion. Therefore, an Al-absorbing transport and storage system must exist in hydrangea. Recently, we cloned vacuolar and plasma membrane-localized Al-transporters, HmVALT, and HmPALT1, which are both members of the aquaporin family. However, HmPALT1 was only expressed in the sepals, indicating that a different Al-transporter should exist for absorption and long-distance transportation in the hydrangea plant. Using genetic information and microarray analysis, we identified an additional aluminum transporter gene, HmPALT2, which belongs to a member of the anion permease. The transcript was expressed in all tissues of hydrangea plants, and a transient expression study indicated that the gene product is localized to the plasma membrane. The results of an aluminum tolerance assay using yeast cells showed that the HmPALT2 is also involved in the transport of other metal(loid)s. The over-expression of HmPALT2 in Arabidopsis resulted in aluminum-hypersensitivity, suggesting that HmPALT2 should work as an aluminum transporter into cells in planta. PMID:23433438

Negishi, Takashi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Yoshida, Kumi

2013-05-01

358

The use of vetiver for remediation of heavy metal soil contamination.  

PubMed

The use of Vetiveria zizanioides (vetiver) was studied to evaluate its efficiency for the remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. Vetiver plants were tested for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Phytoextraction and bioremediation experiments were carried out by irrigating the vetiver plants and the dry plants with solutions containing suitable amounts of Cr, Cu, Pd and Zn. The concentrations of the heavy metals were determined in both experiments in shoot and root parts of vetiver plants using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy after a mineralization step. Phytoextraction experiments showed a poor efficiency of vetiver for Cr and Cu uptake (both less than 0.1% in shoots and roots after 30 days), but a quite high capability of Pb and Zn uptake (0.4% in shoots and 1% in roots for Pb and 1% both in shoots and in roots for Zn, after 30 days). For these reasons the vetiver plant can be considered a quite good "hyperaccumulator" only for Pb and Zn. As for bioremediation experiments, the vetiver plant showed heavy metal uptake values significantly lower than those obtained with other biological substrates. PMID:17468861

Antiochia, Riccarda; Campanella, Luigi; Ghezzi, Paola; Movassaghi, K

2007-06-01

359

The checkpoint transcriptional response  

PubMed Central

The replication checkpoint signaling network monitors the presence of replication-induced lesions to DNA and coordinates an elaborate cellular response that includes ample transcriptional reprogramming. Recent work has established two major groups of replication stress-induced genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the DNA damage response (DDR) genes and G1/S cell cycle (CC) genes. In both cases, transcriptional activation is mediated via checkpoint-dependent inhibition of a transcriptional repressor (Crt1 for DDR and Nrm1 for CC) that participates in negative feedback regulation. This repressor-mediated regulation enables transcription to be rapidly repressed once cells have dealt with the replication stress. The recent finding of a new class of CC genes, named “switch genes,” further uncovers a mode of transcription regulation that prevents overexpression of replication stress induced genes during G1. Collectively, these findings highlight the need for mechanisms that tightly control replication stress-induced transcription, allowing rapid transcriptional activation during replication stress but also avoiding long-term hyperaccumulation of the induced protein product that may be detrimental to cell proliferation.

Smolka, Marcus B.; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco M.; Harris, Michael R.; de Bruin, Robertus A.M.

2012-01-01

360

A Novel Selenocystine-Accumulating Plant in Selenium-Mine Drainage Area in Enshi, China  

PubMed Central

Plant samples of Cardamine hupingshanesis (Brassicaceae), Ligulariafischeri (Ledeb.) turcz (Steraceae) and their underlying top sediments were collected from selenium (Se) mine drainage areas in Enshi, China. Concentrations of total Se were measured using Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS) and Se speciation were determined using liquid chromatography/UV irradiation-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (LC-UV-HG-AFS). The results showed that C. hupingshanesis could accumulate Se to 239±201 mg/kg DW in roots, 316±184 mg/kg DW in stems, and 380±323 mg/kg DW in leaves, which identifies it as Se secondary accumulator. Particularly, it could accumulate Se up to 1965±271 mg/kg DW in leaves, 1787±167 mg/kg DW in stem and 4414±3446 mg/kg DW in roots, living near Se mine tailing. Moreover, over 70% of the total Se accumulated in C. hupingshanesis were in the form of selenocystine (SeCys2), increasing with increased total Se concentration in plant, in contrast to selenomethionine (SeMet) in non-accumulators (eg. Arabidopsis) and secondary accumulators (eg. Brassica juncea), and selenomethylcysteine (SeMeCys) in hyperaccumulators (eg. Stanleya pinnata). There is no convincing explanation on SeCys2 accumulation in C. hupingshanesis based on current Se metabolism theory in higher plants, and further study will be needed.

Yuan, Linxi; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Banuelos, Gary; Li, Wei; Yin, Xuebin

2013-01-01

361

Genetic transformation and regeneration of Sesbania drummondii using cotyledonary nodes.  

PubMed

Sesbania drummondii (Rydb.) Cory is a source for phytopharmaceuticals. It also hyperaccumulates several toxic heavy metals. Development of an efficient gene transfer method is an absolute requirement for the genetic improvement of this plant with more desirable traits due to limitations in conventional breeding methods. A simple protocol was developed for Agrobacterium-mediated stable genetic transformation of Sesbania. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 containing the vector pCAMBIA 1305.1 having hptII and GUS plus genes was used for the gene transfer experiments. Evaluation of various parameters was carried out to assess the transformation frequency by GUS expression analysis. High transformation frequency was achieved by using 7-day-old precultured cotyledonary node (CN) explants. Further, the presence of acetosyringone (150 muM), infection of explants for 30-45 min and 3 days of cocultivation proved to be critical factors for greatly improving the transformation efficiency. Stable transformation of S. drummondii was achieved, and putative transgenic shoots were obtained on medium supplemented with hygromycin (25 mg l(-1)). GUS histochemical analysis of the putative transgenic tissues further confirmed the transformation event. Genomic Southern blot analysis was performed to verify the presence of transgenes and their stable integration. A transformation frequency of 4% was achieved for CN explants using this protocol. PMID:18825383

Padmanabhan, Priya; Sahi, Shivendra V

2009-01-01

362

Emission and control characteristics for incineration of Sedum plumbizincicola biomass in a laboratory-scale entrained flow tube furnace.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to investigate and control pollutant emission from incineration of Sedum plumbizincicola plants on a laboratory scale using an entrained flow tube furnace. Without control technologies, the flue gas contained 0.101 mg Nm(-3) of Cd, 46.4 mg Nm(-3) of Zn, 553 mg Nm(-3) of NOx, 131 pg Nm(-3) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) and 35.4 mg Nm(-3) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In pollutants control experiments. Al2O3, CaO, and kaolin were compared as adsorbents and activated carbon was used as an end-of-pipe method for the capture of pollutants. Kaolin, the most effective of the three adsorbents, removed 91.2% of the Cd in flue gas. While 97.6% of the Cd and 99.6% of the PAHs were removed by activated carbon. Incineration may therefore be regarded as a viable option for the safe disposal of the biomass of the zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulator species S. plumbizincicola. PMID:23488008

Wu, Longhua; Zhong, Daoxu; Du, Yingzhe; Lu, Shengyong; Fu, Dengqiang; Li, Zhu; Li, Xiaodong; Chi, Yong; Luo, Yongming; Yan, Jianhua

2013-01-01

363

Hijacking membrane transporters for arsenic phytoextraction  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid and recognized carcinogen. Arsenate and arsenite are the most common arsenic species available for uptake by plants. As an inorganic phosphate (Pi) analog, arsenate is acquired by plant roots through endogenous Pi transport systems. Inside the cell, arsenate is reduced to the thiol-reactive form arsenite. Glutathione (GSH)-conjugates of arsenite may be extruded from the cell or sequestered in vacuoles by members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters. In the present study we sought to enhance both plant arsenic uptake through Pi transporter overexpression, and plant arsenic tolerance through ABC transporter overexpression. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing the high-affinity Pi transporter family members, AtPht1;1 or AtPht1;7, are hypersensitive to arsenate due to increased arsenate uptake. These plants do not exhibit increased sensitivity to arsenite. Co-overexpression of the yeast ABC transporter YCF1 in combination with AtPht1;1 or AtPht1;7 suppresses the arsenate-sensitive phenotype while further enhancing arsenic uptake. Taken together, our results support an arsenic transport mechanism in which arsenate uptake is increased through Pi transporter overexpression, and arsenic tolerance is enhanced through YCF1-mediated vacuolar sequestration. This work substantiates the viability of coupling enhanced uptake and vacuolar sequestration as a means for developing a prototypical engineered arsenic hyperaccumulator.

LeBlanc, Melissa S.; McKinney, Elizabeth C.; Meagher, Richard B.; Smith, Aaron P.

2012-01-01

364

Laboratory Protocol for Measuring the Bioaccumulation of Mercury by Earthworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protocol was developed for a series of laboratory tests to determine if Canadian earthworms ( Lumbricus terrestris) can hyperaccumulate mercury from the soil in which they live. Two batches of 300 hundred worms each were measured for mercury uptake by establishing 3 populations (one control and two of known contamination). Populations were sampled every two weeks. Worm lengths were measured as an indicator of worm age and health. Worm tissue was processed by a modified EPA Method 7470 consisting of freeze drying, vacuum extraction, oxidation and acid extraction of the mercury. Each sample needed 2.000 g dry weight of worm tissue required 5 to 6 worms to be homogenized. Mercury concentration in the extraction fluid was measured by a CETAC M-6100 cold vapor mercury analyzer with an ASX-400 Autosampler having a method detection limit of 0.05 ppb. QA/QC activities such as calibration of instrumentation, spike samples, blank samples, reagent control samples, triplicate samples, and standard samples ensure acurate and precise measurements of mercury levels in tissue samples.

Steffy, D.; Nichols, A.; McLaughlin, A.

2007-12-01

365

Differential cadmium and zinc distribution in relation to their physiological impact in the leaves of the accumulating Zygophyllum fabago L.  

PubMed

Cadmium and zinc share many similar physiochemical properties, but their compartmentation, complexation and impact on other mineral element distribution in plant tissues may drastically differ. In this study, we address the impact of 10??m Cd or 50??m Zn treatments on ion distribution in leaves of a metallicolous population of the non-hyperaccumulating species Zygophyllum fabago at tissue and cell level, and the consequences on the plant response through a combined physiological, proteomic and metabolite approach. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry analyses indicated hot spots of Cd concentrations in the vicinity of vascular bundles in response to Cd treatment, essentially bound to S-containing compounds as revealed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure and non-protein thiol compounds analyses. A preferential accumulation of Zn occurred in vascular bundle and spongy mesophyll in response to Zn treatment, and was mainly bound to O/N-ligands. Leaf proteomics and physiological status evidenced a protection of photosynthetically active tissues and the maintenance of cell turgor through specific distribution and complexation of toxic ions, reallocation of some essential elements, synthesis of proteins involved in photosynthetic apparatus or C-metabolism, and metabolite synthesis with some specificities regarding the considered heavy metal treatment. PMID:24237383

Lefèvre, Isabelle; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Jeromel, Luka; Vavpeti?, Primož; Planchon, Sébastien; Ar?on, Iztok; Van Elteren, Johannes T; Lepoint, Gilles; Gobert, Sylvie; Renaut, Jenny; Pelicon, Primož; Lutts, Stanley

2014-06-01

366

Recent developments in microtomography at GeoSoilEnviroCARS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facility for x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) is operating as a national user facility for earth and environmental sciences research on the bending magnet beamline at the GeoSoilEnviroCARS sector at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The APS bending magnet has a critical energy of 20 keV, and thus provides high flux at photon energies up to 100 keV, making it well suited to imaging a wide range of earth materials up to several cm in size. The beamline is equipped with a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator covering the energy range from 5 to 70 keV with beam sizes up to 50mm wide and 6mm high. The transmitted x-rays are imaged with a single crystal YAG or CdWO 4 scintillator, a microscope objective and a 1300x1030 pixel 12-bit 5MHz CCD detector. The maximum spatial resolution is under 1.5 ?m in both the transmission radiographs and the reconstructed slices. Data collection times for full 3-D datasets range from 5-60 minutes. This facility has been used for a wide range of studies, including multiphase fluids in porous media, high-pressure studies, meteorites, and hyper-accumulating plants. We present recent technical improvements in the system, which include improved optics for samples larger than 5mm, significant reduction of ring artifacts, and correction of mechanical errors in the rotation stage.

Rivers, Mark L.; Wang, Yanbin

2006-08-01

367

Disruption of P450-mediated vitamin E hydroxylase activities alters vitamin E status in tocopherol supplemented mice and reveals extra-hepatic vitamin E metabolism  

PubMed Central

The widely conserved preferential accumulation of ?-tocopherol (?-TOH) in tissues occurs, in part, from selective postabsorptive catabolism of non-?-TOH forms via the vitamin E-?-oxidation pathway. We previously showed that global disruption of CYP4F14, the major but not the only mouse TOH-?-hydroxylase, resulted in hyper-accumulation of ?-TOH in mice fed a soybean oil diet. In the current study, supplementation of Cyp4f14?/? mice with high levels of ?- and ?-TOH exacerbated tissue enrichment of these forms of vitamin E. However, at high dietary levels of TOH, mechanisms other than ?-hydroxylation dominate in resisting diet-induced accumulation of non-?-TOH. These include TOH metabolism via ?-1/?-2 oxidation and fecal elimination of unmetabolized TOH. The ?-1 and ?-2 fecal metabolites of ?- and ?-TOH were observed in human fecal material. Mice lacking all liver microsomal CYP activity due to disruption of cytochrome P450 reductase revealed the presence of extra-hepatic ?-, ?-1, and ?-2 TOH hydroxylase activities. TOH-?-hydroxylase activity was exhibited by microsomes from mouse and human small intestine; murine activity was entirely due to CYP4F14. These findings shed new light on the role of TOH-?-hydroxylase activity and other mechanisms in resisting diet-induced accumulation of tissue TOH and further characterize vitamin E metabolism in mice and humans.

Bardowell, Sabrina A.; Ding, Xinxin; Parker, Robert S.

2012-01-01

368

Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.  

PubMed

This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste. PMID:21286847

Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

2011-12-01

369

Strategies for the engineered phytoremediation of toxic element pollution: mercury and arsenic.  

PubMed

Plants have many natural properties that make them ideally suited to clean up polluted soil, water, and air, in a process called phytoremediation. We are in the early stages of testing genetic engineering-based phytoremediation strategies for elemental pollutants like mercury and arsenic using the model plant Arabidopsis. The long-term goal is to develop and test vigorous, field-adapted plant species that can prevent elemental pollutants from entering the food-chain by extracting them to aboveground tissues, where they can be managed. To achieve this goal for arsenic and mercury, and pave the way for the remediation of other challenging elemental pollutants like lead or radionucleides, research and development on native hyperaccumulators and engineered model plants needs to proceed in at least eight focus areas: (1) Plant tolerance to toxic elementals is essential if plant roots are to penetrate and extract pollutants efficiently from heterogeneous contaminated soils. Only the roots of mercury- and arsenic-tolerant plants efficiently contact substrates heavily contaminated with these elements. (2) Plants alter their rhizosphere by secreting various enzymes and small molecules, and by adjusting pH in order to enhance extraction of both essential nutrients and toxic elements. Acidification favors greater mobility and uptake of mercury and arsenic. (3) Short distance transport systems for nutrients in roots and root hairs requires numerous endogenous transporters. It is likely that root plasma membrane transporters for iron, copper, zinc, and phosphate take up ionic mercuric ions and arsenate. (4) The electrochemical state and chemical speciation of elemental pollutants can enhance their mobility from roots up to shoots. Initial data suggest that elemental and ionic mercury and the oxyanion arsenate will be the most mobile species of these two toxic elements. (5) The long-distance transport of nutrients requires efficient xylem loading in roots, movement through the xylem up to leaves, and efficient xylem unloading aboveground. These systems can be enhanced for the movement of arsenic and mercury. (6) Aboveground control over the electrochemical state and chemical speciation of elemental pollutants will maximize their storage in leaves, stems, and vascular tissues. Our research suggests ionic Hg(II) and arsenite will be the best chemical species to trap aboveground. (7) Chemical sinks can increase the storage capacity for essential nutrients like iron, zinc, copper, sulfate, and phosphate. Organic acids and thiol-rich chelators are among the important chemical sinks that could trap maximal levels of mercury and arsenic aboveground. (8) Physical sinks such as subcellular vacuoles, epidermal trichome cells, and dead vascular elements have shown the evolutionary capacity to store large quantities of a few toxic pollutants aboveground in various native hyperaccumulators. Specific plant transporters may already recognize gluthione conjugates of Hg(II) or arsenite and pump them into vacuole. PMID:15995854

Meagher, Richard B; Heaton, Andrew C P

2005-12-01

370

Transfer of rare earth elements from natural metalliferous (copper and cobalt rich) soils into plant shoot biomass of metallophytes from Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REE) is generally assessed for the characterization of the geological systems where these elements represent the best proxies of processes involving the occurrence of an interface between different media. REE behavior is investigated according to their concentrations normalized with respect to the upper continental crust. In this study, the geochemical fingerprint of REE in plant shoot biomass of an unique metallicolous flora (i.e., Crepidorhopalon tenuis and Anisopappus chinensis) was investigated. The plants originate from extremely copper and cobalt rich soils, deriving from Cu and Co outcrops in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Some of the species investigated in this study are able to accumulate high amounts of Cu and Co in shoot hence being considered as Cu and Co hyperaccumulators. Therefore, assessing the behavior of REE may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of metal accumulation by this flora. The data obtained in this study indicate that REE uptake by plants is not primarily controlled by their concentration and speciation in the soil as previously shown in the literature (Brioschi et al. 2013). Indeed, the REE patterns in shoots are relatively flat whereas soils patterns are Middle REE enriched. In addition, it is worth noting that Eu enrichments occur in aerial parts of the plants. These positive Eu anomalies suggest that Eu3 + can form stable organic complexes replacing Ca2 + in several biological processes as in xylem fluids associated with the general nutrient flux. Therefore, is is possible that the Eu mobility in these fluids is enhanced by its reductive speciation as Eu2 +. Eventually, the geochemical behavior of REE illustrates that metals accumulation in aerial parts of C. tenuis and A. chinensis is mainly driven by dissolved complexation. Brioschi, L., Steinmann, M., Lucot, E., Pierret, M., Stille, P., Prunier, J., Badot, P., 2013. Transfer of rare earth elements (REE) from natural soil to plant systems: implications for the environmental availability of anthropogenic REE. Plant and Soil, 366, 143-163.

Pourret, Olivier; Lange, Bastien; Jitaru, Petru; Mahy, Grégory; Faucon, Michel-Pierre

2014-05-01

371

Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance in plants from mine tailings of the semiarid Cartagena-La Unión mining district (SE Spain).  

PubMed

Mine tailings are a characteristic of landscapes where mineral extraction has occurred. These tailings usually contain high heavy metal concentrations and have low fertility. In arid and semiarid zones, erosion may be an additional problem. The removal of these tailings is often impractical due to their large volumes. Therefore, a need exists to develop in situ low cost technologies to effect surface stabilization. The use of vegetation can be an attractive option, since there are some native plant species that can colonize parts of these polluted sites unaided. Some edaphic factors were investigated, including heavy metal concentrations, in three mine tailings from a semiarid mining zone in Southeast Spain. High total metal concentrations were found: 5000-8000 mg/kg for lead and 7600-12300 mg/kg for zinc. Two of these mine tailings had pH values between 6 and 7, while the other was acidic, with a pH of 2.5. Metal solubility was pH dependent, with more than 10% of the total zinc soluble in the acid substrate and less than 1% in the neutral substrates. The metal concentrations (copper, lead and zinc) in shoots of native vegetation colonizing in these sites were studied. No species of hyperaccumulators were found. The highest concentrations were found in Zygophyllum fabago, with 530 mg/kg zinc, Helichrysum decumbens with 390 mg/kg lead, and Tamarix sp. with 11 mg/kg copper. An analysis of the rhizospheric soil of these plants indicated that Lygeum spartum grew in pH 3 soil and had low metal concentration in shoots (40 mg/kg zinc and 41 mg/kg lead). PMID:16499952

Conesa, Héctor M; Faz, Angel; Arnaldos, Raquel

2006-07-31

372

Soil aluminium uptake and accumulation by Paspalum notatum.  

PubMed

Paspalum notatum Flugge has been widely utilized for the purpose of ecological restoration of degraded land in the tropics and subtropics, where soil active aluminium (Al) is usually high as a result of acidification. Pot experiments were conducted to determine Al toxicity on P. notatum and to compare its potential to remove Al with another three plant species, Vetiveria zizanioides, Tristania conferta and Schima wallichii. In the Al addition experiment, the biomass of P. notatum and Al accumulation significantly decreased as the added Al concentration increased, but Al concentration in the plant markedly increased. A parallel experiment was conducted with the above four species, grown in lateritic soil and in oil shale waste containing high concentration of active Al. The biomasses of all four species were reduced obviously in the waste compared to in the soil. The effects of substrate on Al concentration, accumulation and translocation efficiency differed among species, and plants had significantly higher Al accumulation factors when grown in the soil than in the waste. Most of the Al taken up by P. notatum was transferred to above-ground parts; as a result, Al concentration in stems and leaves became quite high, over 1000 or even 3000 mg kg(-1); whereas for the other three species, Al concentration in shoots was much lower than in roots. Paspalum notatum was therefore much higher than the other three species with regard to Al translocation efficiency and therefore P. notatum may be regarded as both an effective Al hyper-accumulator and a potential Al hyper-remover. PMID:19423590

Huang, Juan; Xia, Hanping; Li, Zhi'an; Xiong, Yanmei; Kong, Guohui; Huang, Juan

2009-10-01

373

Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against hyperaccumulation of some toxic metals.

Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

374

Pleiotropic phenotypes of the salt-tolerant and cytosine hypomethylated leafless inflorescence, evergreen dwarf and irregular leaf lamina mutants of Catharanthus roseus possessing Mendelian inheritance.  

PubMed

In Catharanthus roseus, three morphological cum salt-tolerant chemically induced mutants of Mendelian inheritance and their wild-type parent cv Nirmal were characterized for overall cytosine methylation at DNA repeats, expression of 119 protein coding and seven miRNA-coding genes and 50 quantitative traits. The mutants, named after their principal morphological feature(s), were leafless inflorescence (lli), evergreen dwarf (egd) and irregular leaf lamina (ill). The Southern-blot analysis of MspI digested DNAs of mutants probed with centromeric and 5S and 18S rDNA probes indicated that, in comparison to wild type, the mutants were extensively demethylated at cytosine sites. Among the 126 genes investigated for transcriptional expression, 85 were upregulated and 41 were downregulated in mutants. All of the five genes known to be stress responsive had increased expression in mutants. Several miRNA genes showed either increased or decreased expression in mutants. The C. roseus counterparts of CMT3, DRM2 and RDR2 were downregulated in mutants. Among the cell, organ and plant size, photosynthesis and metabolism related traits studied, 28 traits were similarly affected in mutants as compared to wild type. Each of the mutants also expressed some traits distinctively. The egd mutant possessed superior photosynthesis and water retention abilities. Biomass was hyperaccumulated in roots, stems, leaves and seeds of the lli mutant. The ill mutant was richest in the pharmaceutical alkaloids catharanthine, vindoline, vincristine and vinblastine. The nature of mutations, origins of mutant phenotypes and evolutionary importance of these mutants are discussed. PMID:24371160

Kumari, Renu; Sharma, Vishakha; Sharma, Vinay; Kumar, Sushil

2013-12-01

375

Uranium contents in plants and mushrooms grown on a uranium-contaminated site near Ronneburg in Eastern Thuringia/Germany.  

PubMed

Uranium concentrations in cultivated (sunflower, sunchoke, potato) and native plants, plant compartment specimens, and mushrooms, grown on a test site within a uranium-contaminated area in Eastern Thuringia, were analyzed and compared. This test site belongs to the Friedrich-Schiller University Jena and is situated on the ground of a former but now removed uranium mine waste leaching heap. For determination of the U concentrations in the biomaterials, the saps of the samples were squeezed out by using an ultracentrifuge, after that, the uranium concentrations in the saps and the remaining residue were measured, using ICP-MS. The study further showed that uranium concentrations observed in plant compartment and mushroom fruiting bodies sap samples were always higher than their associated solid residue sample. Also, it was found that the detected uranium concentration in the root samples were always higher than were observed in their associated above ground biomass, e.g., in shoots, leaves, blossoms etc. The highest uranium concentration was measured with almost 40 ppb U in a fruiting body of a mushroom and in roots of butterbur. However, the detected uranium concentrations in plants and mushrooms collected in this study were always lower than in the associated surface and soil water of the test site, indicating that under the encountered natural conditions, none of the studied plant and mushroom species turned out to be a hyperaccumulator for uranium, which could have extracted uranium in sufficient amounts out of the uranium-contaminated soil. In addition, it was found that the detected uranium concentrations in the sap samples, despite being above the sensitivity limit, proved to be too low-in combination with the presence of fluorescence quenching substances, e.g., iron and manganese ions, and/or organic quenchers-to extract a useful fluorescence signal, which could have helped to identify the uranium speciation in plants. PMID:23812734

Baumann, Nils; Arnold, Thuro; Haferburg, Götz

2014-06-01

376

Role of soil microbes in the rhizospheres of plants growing on trace metal contaminated soils in phytoremediation.  

PubMed

This article reviews recent developments in in situ bioremediation of trace metal contaminated soils, with particular reference to the microbial dynamics in the rhizospheres of plants growing on such soils and their significance in phytoremediation. In non-agricultural conditions, the natural role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), P-solubilizing bacteria, mycorrhizal-helping bacteria (MHB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in maintaining soil fertility is more important than in conventional agriculture, horticulture, and forestry where higher use of agrochemicals minimize their significance. These microbes initiate a concerted action when a particular population density is achieved, i.e. quorum sensing. AMF also recognize their host by signals released by host roots, allowing a functional symbiosis. AM fungi produce an insoluble glycoprotein, glomalin, which sequester trace elements and it should be considered for biostabilization leading to remediation of contaminated soils. Conclusions drawn from studies of metal uptake kinetics in solution cultures may not be valid for more complex field conditions and use of some combination of glasshouse and field experiments with organisms that occur within the same plant community is suggested. Phytoextraction strategies, such as inoculation of plants to be used for phytoremediation with appropriate heavy metal adapted rhizobial microflora, co-cropping system involving a non-mycorrhizal hyperaccumulator plant and a non-accumulator but mycorrhizal with appropriate AMF, or pre-cropping with mycotrophic crop systems to optimize phytoremediation processes, merit further field level investigations. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transfer and mobilization of trace elements by rhizosphere microbiota and to conduct research on selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes. This is necessary if we are to improve the chances of successful phytoremediation. PMID:16028497

Khan, Abdul G

2005-01-01

377

Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.  

PubMed

Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. PMID:24210365

Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

2014-01-01

378

Arsenic(V) Removal in Wetland Filters Treating Drinking Water with Different Substrates and Plants  

PubMed Central

Constructed wetlands are an attractive choice for removing arsenic (As) within water resources used for drinking water production. The role of substrate and vegetation in As removal processes is still poorly understood. In this study, gravel, zeolite (microporous aluminosilicate mineral), ceramsite (lightweight expanded clay aggregate) and manganese sand were tested as prospective substrates while aquatic Juncus effuses (Soft Rush or Common Rush) and terrestrial Pteris vittata L. (Chinese Ladder Brake; known as As hyperaccumulator) were tested as potential wetland plants. Indoor batch adsorption experiments combined with outdoor column experiments were conducted to assess the As removal performances and process mechanisms. Batch adsorption results indicated that manganese sand had the maximum As(V) adsorption rate of 4.55 h–1 and an adsorption capacity of 42.37 ?g/g compared to the other three aggregates. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm equations better than other kinetic and isotherm models. Film-diffusion was the rate-limiting step. Mean adsorption energy calculation results indicated that chemical forces, particle diffusion and physical processes dominated As adsorption to manganese sand, zeolite and gravel, respectively. During the whole running period, manganese sand-packed wetland filters were associated with constantly 90% higher As(V) reduction of approximate 500 ?g/L influent loads regardless if planted or not. The presence of P. vittata contributed to no more than 13.5% of the total As removal. In contrast, J. effuses was associated with a 24% As removal efficiency.

Li, Qingyun; Tang, Xianqiang; Huang, Zhuo; Lin, Li; Scholz, Miklas

2014-01-01

379

A greenhouse and field-based study to determine the accumulation of arsenic in common homegrown vegetables grown in mining-affected soils.  

PubMed

The uptake of arsenic by plants from contaminated soils presents a health hazard that may affect home gardeners neighboring contaminated environments. A controlled greenhouse study was conducted in parallel with a co-created citizen science program (home garden experiment) to characterize the uptake of arsenic by common homegrown vegetables near the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund site in southern Arizona. The greenhouse and home garden arsenic soil concentrations varied considerably, ranging from 2.35 to 533 mg kg(-1). In the greenhouse experiment four vegetables were grown in three different soil treatments and in the home garden experiment a total of 63 home garden produce samples were obtained from 19 properties neighboring the site. All vegetables accumulated arsenic in both the greenhouse and home garden experiments, ranging from 0.01 to 23.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight. Bioconcentration factors were determined and show that arsenic uptake decreased in the order: Asteraceae>Brassicaceae>Amaranthaceae>Cucurbitaceae>Liliaceae>Solanaceae>Fabaceae. Certain members of the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae plant families have been previously identified as hyperaccumulator plants, and it can be inferred that members of these families have genetic and physiological capacity to accumulate, translocate, and resist high amounts of metals. Additionally, a significant linear correlation was observed between the amount of arsenic that accumulated in the edible portion of the plant and the arsenic soil concentration for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Fabaceae families. The results suggest that home gardeners neighboring mining operations or mine tailings with elevated arsenic levels should be made aware that arsenic can accumulate considerably in certain vegetables, and in particular, it is recommended that gardeners limit consumption of vegetables from the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae plant families. PMID:23201696

Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Artiola, Janick F; Maier, Raina M

2013-01-15

380

Interactions of Trametes versicolor, Coriolopsis rigida and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola on the copper tolerance of Eucalyptus globulus.  

PubMed

The presence of high levels of Cu in soil decreases the shoot and root dry weights of Eucalyptus globulus. However, higher plant tolerance of Cu has been observed in the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus deserticola. The hyphal length of G. deserticola was sensitive to low Cu concentrations, and the percentage of AM root colonisation and the metabolic activity of the AM fungus were also decreased by Cu. Therefore, a direct effect of Cu on the development of the AM fungus inside and outside the root cannot be ruled out. E. globulus colonised by G. deserticola had higher metal concentrations in the roots and shoots than do non-mycorrhizal plants; however, the absence of a higher root to shoot metal ratio in the mycorrhizal plants (1.70+/-0.11) indicated that G. deserticola did not play a filtering/sequestering role against Cu. The saprobe fungi Coriolopsis rigida and Trametes versicolor were able to remove Cu ions from the asparagine-glucose growth media. However, plants inoculated with C. rigida and T. versicolor did not accumulate more Cu than non-inoculated controls, and the growth of the plant was not increased in the presence of these fungi. However, C. rigida increased the shoot dry weight, AM root length colonisation, and metabolic mycelial activity of plants colonised with G. deserticola in the presence of Cu; only this saprobe-AM fungus combination increased the tolerance of E. globulus to Cu. Inoculation with G. deserticola and C. rigida increased the E. globulus Cu uptake to levels reached by hyperaccumulative plants. PMID:19692112

Arriagada, C; Aranda, E; Sampedro, I; Garcia-Romera, I; Ocampo, J A

2009-09-01

381

Intraspecific differences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in their impacts on arsenic accumulation by Pteris vittata L.  

PubMed

It has been shown that Pteris vittata, an arsenic hyperaccumulator, could be colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi either in controlled conditions or at field sites. However, physiological mechanisms of AM fungi influencing As accumulation and tolerance in the plant are not fully elucidated. Two predominant fungal species, Glomus mosseae and Glomus geosporum, and a rapidly sporulating fungal species, Glomus etunicatum, associated with P. vittata were isolated from As-contaminated soils. Two uncontaminated isolates, G. mosseae and G. etunicatum, served as reference isolates. Based on germination of spores exposed to elevated As, Pb and Zn concentrations, two contrasting isolates of G. mosseae were selected to investigate As accumulation in two populations of P. vittata [from an uncontaminated site of Hong Kong (HK) and an As-contaminated site located in Jinchuantang (JCT) of Hunan Province, China, respectively] under hydroponic culture and pot trials. At lower levels of As exposure (50-200 microM), both uncontaminated and metal-contaminated isolates of G. mosseae significantly increased short-term As influx into roots of P. vittata. However, at higher levels of As exposure (400-1000 microM), only uncontaminated isolates significantly increased short-term As influx into roots. When growing on 100mg As kg(-1) soils, uncontaminated isolates exhibited a higher level of colonization in roots of P. vittata than metal-contaminated isolates and only the former significantly increased As accumulation in roots of HK population and in fronds of JCT population. It was concluded that there were intraspecific differences of AM fungi in their impacts on As accumulation by P. vittata. PMID:19535126

Wu, F Y; Ye, Z H; Wong, M H

2009-08-01

382

Cadmium stress responses in Brassica juncea: hints from proteomics and metabolomics.  

PubMed

Among heavy metal stressors, cadmium (Cd) pollution is one leading threat to the environment. In this view, research efforts have been increasingly put forward to promote the individuation of phytoextractor plants that are capable of accumulating and withstanding the toxic metals, including Cd, in the aerial parts. We hereby adopted the hyperaccumulator B. juncea (Indian mustard) as a model to investigate plant responses to Cd stress at low (25 ?M) and high (100 ?M) doses. Analytical strategies included mass-spectrometry-based determination of Cd and the assessment of its effect on the leaf proteome and metabolome. Results were thus integrated with routine physiological data. Taken together, physiology results highlighted the deregulation of photosynthesis efficiency, ATP synthesis, reduced transpiration, and the impairment of light-independent carbon fixation reactions. These results were supported at the proteomics level by the observed Cd-dependent alteration of photosystem components and the alteration of metabolic enzymes, including ATP synthase subunits, carbonic anhydrase, and enzymes involved in antioxidant responses (especially glutathione and phytochelatin homeostasis) and the Calvin cycle. Metabolomics results confirmed the alterations of energy-generating metabolic pathways, sulfur-compound metabolism (GSH and PCs), and Calvin cycle. Besides, metabolomics results highlighted the up-regulation of phosphoglycolate, a byproduct of the photorespiration metabolism. This was suggestive of the likely increased photorespiration rate as a means to cope with Cd-induced unbalance in stomatal conductance and deregulation of CO2 homeostasis, which would, in turn, promote CO2 depletion and O2 (and thus oxidative stress) accumulation under prolonged photosynthesis in the leaves from plants exposed to high doses of CdCl2. Overall, it emerges that Cd-stressed B. juncea might rely on photorespiration, an adaptation that would prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and photoinhibition. PMID:24074147

D'Alessandro, Angelo; Taamalli, Manel; Gevi, Federica; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Ghnaya, Tahar

2013-11-01

383

Heavy metal-induced glutathione accumulation and its role in heavy metal detoxification in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

Phanerochaete chrysosporium are known to be vital hyperaccumulation species for heavy metal removal with admirable intracellular bioaccumulation capacity. This study analyzes the heavy metal-induced glutathione (GSH) accumulation and the regulation at the intracellular heavy metal level in P. chrysosporium. P. chrysosporium accumulated high levels of GSH, accompanied with high intracellular concentrations of Pb and Cd. Pb bioaccumulation lead to a narrow range of fluctuation in GSH accumulation (0.72-0.84 ?mol), while GSH plummeted under Cd exposure at the maximum value of 0.37 ?mol. Good correlations between time-course GSH depletion and Cd bioaccumulation were determined (R (2)?>?0.87), while no significant correlations have been found between GSH variation and Pb bioaccumulation (R (2)?

Xu, Piao; Liu, Liang; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Zhao, Meihua; Huang, Chao; Li, Ningjie; Wei, Zhen; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chen; Lai, Mingyong; He, Yibin

2014-07-01

384

Phytoremediation: using green plants to clean up contaminate soil, groundwater, and wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds and radioactive compounds in soil or water. Our research includes a successful field demonstration of a plant bioreactor for processing the salty wastewater from petroleum wells; the demonstration is currently under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma, in cooperation with Devon Energy Corporation. A greenhouse experiment on zinc uptake in hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) was initiated in 1995. These experiments are being conducted to confirm and extend field data indicating high levels of zinc (4,200 ppm) in leaves of hybrid poplar growing as a cleanup system at a site with zinc contamination in the root zone of some of the trees. Analyses of soil water from experimental pots that had received several doses of zinc indicated that the zinc was totally sequestered by the plants in about 4 hours during a single pass through the root system. The data also showed concentrations of sequestered metal of >38,000 ppm Zn in the dry root tissue. These levels of sequestered zinc exceed the levels found in either roots or tops of many of the known ``hyperaccumulator`` species. Because the roots sequester most of the contaminant taken up in most plants, a major objective of this program is to determine the feasibility of root harvesting as a method to maximize the removal of contaminants from soils. Available techniques and equipment for harvesting plant roots, including young tree roots, are being evaluated and modified as necessary for use with phytoremediation plants.

Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gatliff, E.G. [Applied Natural Sciences, Inc., Hamilton, OH (United States)

1996-07-01

385

Disruption of mouse cytochrome p450 4f14 (Cyp4f14 gene) causes severe perturbations in vitamin E metabolism.  

PubMed

Vitamin E is a family of naturally occurring and structurally related lipophilic antioxidants, one of which, ?-tocopherol (?-TOH), selectively accumulates in vertebrate tissues. The ?-hydroxylase cytochrome P450-4F2 (CYP4F2) is the only human enzyme shown to metabolize vitamin E. Using cDNA cloning, cell culture expression, and activity assays, we identified Cyp4f14 as a functional murine ortholog of CYP4F2. We then investigated the effect of Cyp4f14 deletion on vitamin E metabolism and status in vivo. Cyp4f14-null mice exhibited substrate-specific reductions in liver microsomal vitamin E-?-hydroxylase activity ranging from 93% (?-TOH) to 48% (?-tocotrienol). In vivo data obtained from metabolic cage studies showed whole-body reductions in metabolism of ?-TOH of 90% and of 68% for ?- and ?-TOH. This metabolic deficit in Cyp4f14(-/-) mice was partially offset by increased fecal excretion of nonmetabolized tocopherols and of novel ?-1- and ?-2-hydroxytocopherols. 12'-OH-?-TOH represented 41% of whole-body production of ?-TOH metabolites in Cyp4f14(-/-) mice fed a soybean oil diet. Despite these counterbalancing mechanisms, Cyp4f14-null mice fed this diet for 6 weeks hyper-accumulated ?-TOH (2-fold increase over wild-type littermates) in all tissues and appeared normal. We conclude that CYP4F14 is the major but not the only vitamin E-?-hydroxylase in mice. Its disruption significantly impairs whole-body vitamin E metabolism and alters the widely conserved phenotype of preferential tissue deposition of ?-TOH. This model animal and its derivatives will be valuable in determining the biological actions of specific tocopherols and tocotrienols in vivo. PMID:22665481

Bardowell, Sabrina A; Duan, Faping; Manor, Danny; Swanson, Joy E; Parker, Robert S

2012-07-27

386

Selected Morphological Characteristics, Lead Uptake and Phytochelatin Synthesis by Coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.) Grown in Elevated Levels of Lead-Contaminated Soil  

PubMed Central

Remediation of lead-contaminated soil is significant due to the inherent toxicity of lead (Pb), and the quantity of Pb discharged into the soil. One of the most cost-effective and environmentally sound technologies for the cleanup of metal-contaminated soils is through the use of plants. While much is known about the ecological evolution of metal tolerance in plants, the physiological, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms of tolerance is not well understood in the majority of resistant ecotypes such as the legume, Sesbania exaltata Raf. This study was therefore conducted to determine the morphological and physiological characteristics of Sesbania that had been grown in Pb-contaminated soil, and to assess phytochelatin synthesis as a way of elucidating its relative Pb tolerance. Sesbania plants were grown in the greenhouse and exposed to various levels of Pb: 0, 1000, and 2000 mg Pb/kg soil. Plants were harvested after 6, 8, and 10 weeks of growth and morphological characteristics (e.g., root and shoot biomass, root length, number of root nodules, shoot height, number of leaves, number of flowers, number and length of pods) were recorded. Generally, there were no statistical differences in morphological characteristics among the treatments. Further, no discernible phytotoxic symptoms, such as chlorosis, wilting, or necrotic lesions, in neither roots nor shoots were observed. We concluded that while Sesbania did not fit the model of a hyperaccumulator, the plant was, nonetheless, tolerant to elevated Pb levels. Our assessment for phytochelatin synthesis as a tolerance mechanism was inconclusive and further investigations of tolerance mechanisms are warranted.

Miller, Gloria; Begonia, Gregorio; Begonia, Maria F. T.

2011-01-01

387

Greenhouse studies on the phyto-extraction capacity of Cynodon nlemfuensis for lead and cadmium under irrigation with treated wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over 30 years, discharge of sewage effluent and sludge on pasturelands has been used in Zimbabwe as a cheap method for secondary treatment of wastewater without any monitoring of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and grasses, let alone in animals grazing on the pastures. Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) has been the main grass planted on the wastewater irrigated pasturelands. This study was conducted to assess the capacity of star grass to accumulate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and develop models incorporating grass yield, metal uptake and soil bio-available (EDTA extractable) metal content, that could be used to determine critical grass and soil concentrations at which grass productivity declines. Star grass was planted in 30 fertilized pots containing sandy soil within a greenhouse. The pots consisted of nine treatments of varying levels of added inorganic Pb and Cd subjected to treated wastewater application and one control that had no added metals and received water application only. The elements were applied to the soils once just after planting the grass. Chemical analyses showed that star grass had a relatively high phyto-extraction capacity of Pb and Cd, comparable to that of hyper-accumulating grasses such as Lolium perenne (rye grass). It accumulated Pb and Cd to levels far beyond the recommended maximum limits for pasture grass. Analysis of variance on log-normal transformed data showed that bio-available soil metal concentrations correlated strongly with grass metal content and grass metal content correlated strongly with the yield. There was however a weak correlation between the yield and bio-available soil levels. The yield versus grass metal content models that were developed for the first crop and re-growth predicted similar critical metal concentrations and yields. Using the critical grass metal concentrations in the soil bio-available metal concentration versus grass metal concentration models allowed for the prediction of the corresponding critical soil concentrations.

Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M. J.; Schutte, C. F.; Nyamangara, J.

388

Plants accumulating heavy metals in the Danube River wetlands  

PubMed Central

Background We present herein our results regarding the accumulation of four heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) in four aquatic species plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton lucens, Potamogeton perfoliatus) collected from the Danube River, South-Western part of Romania and their possible use as indicators of aquatic ecosystems pollution with heavy metals. Methods Elements concentration from the vegetal material was determined through Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry. Results The species were chosen based on their previous use as bioindicators in aquatic ecosystems and due to the fact they are one of the most frequent aquatic plant species of the Danube River ecosystems within the Iron Gates Natural Park. Highest amounts are recorded for Ceratophyllum demersum (3.52 ?g/g for Cd; 22.71 ?g/g for Cu; 20.06 ?g/g for Pb; 104.23 ?g/g for Zn). Among the Potamogeton species, the highest amounts of heavy metals are recorded in Potamogeton perfoliatus (1.88 ?g/g for Cd; 13.14 ?g/g for Cu; 13.32 ?g/g for Pb; 57.96 ?g/g for Zn). The sequence for the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) calculated in order to describe the accumulation of the four metals is Cd >> Zn > Pb > Cu. Increase of the zinc concentration determines an increase of the cadmium concentration (Spearman rho=0.40, p=0.02). Conclusions Despite the low ambiental levels of heavy metals, the four aquatic plants have the ability to accumulate significant amounts, which make them useful as biological indicators. BCF value for Ceratophyllum demersum indicated this species as a cadmium hyperaccumulator.

2013-01-01

389

Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species  

SciTech Connect

Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

1999-10-01

390

Differential gene regulation by V(IV) and V (V) ions in the branchial sac, intestine, and blood cells of a vanadium-rich ascidian, Ciona intestinalis.  

PubMed

Ascidians are hyperaccumulators that have been studied in detail. Proteins and genes involved in the accumulation process have been identified, but regulation of gene expression related to vanadium accumulation remains unknown. To gain insights into the regulation of gene expression by vanadium in a genome-wide manner, we performed a comprehensive study on the effect of excess vanadium ions on a vanadium-rich ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, using a microarray. RT-PCR and enzyme activity assay were performed from the perspective of redox and accumulation of metal ions in each tissue. Glutathione metabolism-related proteins were significantly up-regulated by V(IV) treatment. Several genes involved in the transport of vanadium and protons, such as Nramp and V-ATPase, were significantly up-regulated by V(IV) treatment. We observed significant up-regulation of glutathione synthesis and degradation pathways in the intestine and branchial sac. In blood cells, expression of Ci-Vanabin4, glutathione reductase activity, glutathione levels, and vanadium concentration increased after V(IV) treatment. V(IV) treatment induced significant changes related to vanadium exclusion, seclusion, and redox pathways in the intestine and branchial sac. It also induced an enhancement of the vanadium reduction and accumulation cascade in blood cells. These differential responses in each tissue in the presence of excess vanadium ions suggest that vanadium accumulation and reduction may have regulatory functions. This is the first report on the gene regulation by the treatment of vanadium-rich ascidians with excess vanadium ions. It provided much information for the mechanism of regulation of gene expression related to vanadium accumulation. PMID:22811043

Kume, Satoshi; Ueki, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Hiroki; Hamada, Mayuko; Satoh, Nori; Michibata, Hitoshi

2012-10-01

391

gid1, a gibberellin-insensitive dwarf mutant, shows altered regulation of probenazole-inducible protein (PBZ1) in response to cold stress and pathogen attack.  

PubMed

A recessive gibberellin (GA)-insensitive dwarf mutant of rice, gibberellin-insensitive dwarf1 (gid1), has been identified, which shows a severe dwarf phenotype and contains high concentrations of endogenous GA. To elucidate the function of gid1, proteins regulated downstream of gid1 were analysed using a proteomic approach. Proteins extracted from suspension-cultured cells of gid1 and its wild type were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Of a total of 962 proteins identified from the suspension-cultured cells, 16 were increased and 14 were decreased in gid1 compared with its wild type. Among the proteins hyper-accumulated in gid1 were osmotin, triosephosphate isomerase, probenazole inducible protein (PBZ1) and pathogenesis-related protein 10. Of these four genes, only the expression of PBZ1 was increased by exogenous GA3 application. Expression of this gene was also enhanced in shoots of the wild type by cold stress or by rice blast fungus infection. Under normal growth conditions, there was more PBZ1 protein in gid1 than in the wild type. In addition, gid1 showed increased tolerance to cold stress and resistance to blast fungus infection. The entcopalyl diphosphate synthase (OsCPS) genes, which encode enzymes at the branch point between GA and phytoalexin biosynthesis, were expressed differentially in gid1 relative to the wild type. Specifically, OsCPS1, which encodes an enzyme in the GA biosynthesis pathway, was down-regulated and OsCPS2 and OsCPS4, which encode enzymes in phytoalexin biosynthesis, were up-regulated in gid1. These results suggest that the expression of PBZ1 is regulated by GA signalling and stress stimuli, and that gid1 is involved in tolerance to cold stress and resistance to blast fungus. PMID:17080612

Tanaka, Naoki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Kitano, Hidemi; Asano, Takayuki; Kaku, Hisatoshi; Komatsu, Setsuko

2006-04-01

392

Manganese-mitigation of cadmium toxicity to seedling growth of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. is controlled by the manganese/cadmium molar ratio under hydroponic conditions.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) can interact with cadmium (Cd) in environments and influence the toxic effect of Cd on plants. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the Mn/Cd ratio and plant Cd-toxicity along Cd concentrations. In this paper, we studied the effects of external Mn/Cd molar ratios (0, 10, 30, 50 and 60) on Cd toxicity in the Mn hyperaccumulator and Cd tolerant plant, Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., at three Cd levels (50, 100 and 200 ?M) under hydroponic conditions. Our result showed that seedling growth (y) under Cd stress was strongly positively related to the solution Mn/Cd molar ratio (SMCR). The relationship between the two variables under solution Cd concentrations was well explained by the linear regression model y=a+b1 (SMCR)+b2 (Solution-Cd). Increasing SMCR significantly reduced the Cd concentration and increased the Mn concentration in plant tissues. However, seedling growth was consistent with the shoot Mn/Cd molar ratio rather than with the Mn or Cd concentrations in plant tissues. At low levels of SMCR (e.g. 0 and 10), elevation of Mn distribution in shoot tissues might be a mechanism in P. acinosa seedlings to defend against Cd-toxicity. In comparison with low levels of SMCR, high levels of SMCR (e.g. 50 and 60) greatly alleviated lipid peroxidation and plant water-loss, and enhanced photosynthesis. However, the alleviated lipid peroxidation in the Mn-mitigation of Cd toxicity was likely to be the secondary effect resulting from the antagonism between Mn and Cd in the plant. PMID:24095921

Liu, Huimin; Zhang, Yuxiu; Chai, Tuanyao; Tan, Jinjuan; Wang, Jianwu; Feng, Shanshan; Liu, Geyu

2013-12-01

393

Genotypic Variation in the Phytoremediation Potential of Indian Mustard for Chromium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term “phytoremediation” is used to describe the cleanup of heavy metals from contaminated sites by plants. This study demonstrates phytoremediation potential of Indian mustard ( Brasicca juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.) genotypes for chromium (Cr). Seedlings of 10 genotypes were grown hydroponically in artificially contaminated water over a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of Cr (VI), and the responses of genotypes in the presence of Cr, with reference to Cr accumulation, its phytotoxity and anti-oxidative system were investigated. The Cr accumulation potential varied largely among Indian mustard genotypes. At 100 ?M Cr treatment, Pusa Jai Kisan accumulated the maximum amount of Cr (1680 ?g Cr g-1 DW) whereas Vardhan accumulated the minimum (107 ?g Cr g-1 DW). As the tolerance of metals is a key plant characteristic required for phytoremediation purpose, effects of various levels of Cr on biomass were evaluated as the gross effect. The extent of oxidative stress caused by Cr stress was measured as rate of lipid peroxidation. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was enhanced at all Cr treatments when compared to the control. Inductions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants were monitored as metal-detoxifying responses. All the genotypes responded to Cr-induced oxidative stress by modulating nonenzymatic antioxidants [glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (Asc)] and enzymatic antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR)]. The level of induction, however, differed among the genotypes, being at its maximum in Pusa Jai Kisan and its minimum in Vardhan. Pusa Jai Kisan was grown under natural field conditions with various Cr treatments, and Cr-accumulation capacity was studied. The results confirmed that Pusa Jai Kisan is a hyperaccumulator of Cr and hypertolerant to Cr-induced stress, which makes this genotype a viable candidate for use in the development of phytoremediation technology of Cr-contaminated sites.

Diwan, Hema; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

2008-05-01

394

A role for calcium in the regulation of neutral trehalase activity in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed Central

Neutral trehalases mobilize trehalose accumulated by fungal cells as a protective and storage carbohydrate. A structural feature of these enzymes is the presence of an EF-like motif similar to that shown by many Ca2+-binding proteins. In this study we provide direct evidence for physical binding of Ca2+ to neutral trehalase (Ntp1p) of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and show that aspartic residues at positions 97 and 108 in the conserved putative Ca2+-binding motif of Ntp1p appear to be responsible for this interaction. Mutations in these residues do not interfere with the ability of Ntp1p to associate in vivo with trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, but prevent activation of neutral trehalase triggered by the addition of glucose or by subjecting cells to stressing conditions. Strains expressing Ntp1p variants that are unable to bind Ca2+ partially resemble those devoid of the ntp1+ gene in terms of trehalose hyperaccumulation. Gel filtration of cell extracts from wild-type cells after EDTA treatment or from cells containing Ntp1p with mutations in aspartic acid residues within the Ca2+-binding site revealed that Ntp1p eluted mainly in an inactive conformation instead of the dimeric or trimeric active form of the enzyme. These results suggest that activation of S. pombe Ntp1p under different conditions depends upon Ca2+ binding through the Ca2+-binding motif as a prerequisite for correct enzyme oligomerization to its active form. Given the high degree of conservation of the Ca2+ accommodation site, this might be a general mechanism regulating neutral trehalase activity in other yeasts and filamentous fungi.

Franco, Alejandro; Soto, Teresa; Vicente-Soler, Jero; Paredes, Vanessa; Madrid, Marisa; Gacto, Mariano; Cansado, Jose

2003-01-01

395

Zinc Deficiency Impacts CO2 Assimilation and Disrupts Copper Homeostasis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential nutrient because of its role in catalysis and in protein stabilization, but excess zinc is deleterious. We distinguished four nutritional zinc states in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: toxic, replete, deficient, and limited. Growth is inhibited in zinc-limited and zinc-toxic cells relative to zinc-replete cells, whereas zinc deficiency is visually asymptomatic but distinguished by the accumulation of transcripts encoding ZIP family transporters. To identify targets of zinc deficiency and mechanisms of zinc acclimation, we used RNA-seq to probe zinc nutrition-responsive changes in gene expression. We identified genes encoding zinc-handling components, including ZIP family transporters and candidate chaperones. Additionally, we noted an impact on two other regulatory pathways, the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and the nutritional copper regulon. Targets of transcription factor Ccm1 and various CAH genes are up-regulated in zinc deficiency, probably due to reduced carbonic anhydrase activity, validated by quantitative proteomics and immunoblot analysis of Cah1, Cah3, and Cah4. Chlamydomonas is therefore not able to grow photoautotrophically in zinc-limiting conditions, but supplementation with 1% CO2 restores growth to wild-type rates, suggesting that the inability to maintain CCM is a major consequence of zinc limitation. The Crr1 regulon responds to copper limitation and is turned on in zinc deficiency, and Crr1 is required for growth in zinc-limiting conditions. Zinc-deficient cells are functionally copper-deficient, although they hyperaccumulate copper up to 50-fold over normal levels. We suggest that zinc-deficient cells sequester copper in a biounavailable form, perhaps to prevent mismetallation of critical zinc sites.

Malasarn, Davin; Kropat, Janette; Hsieh, Scott I.; Finazzi, Giovanni; Casero, David; Loo, Joseph A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Wollman, Francis-Andre; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

2013-01-01

396

Zinc deficiency impacts CO2 assimilation and disrupts copper homeostasis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

Zinc is an essential nutrient because of its role in catalysis and in protein stabilization, but excess zinc is deleterious. We distinguished four nutritional zinc states in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: toxic, replete, deficient, and limited. Growth is inhibited in zinc-limited and zinc-toxic cells relative to zinc-replete cells, whereas zinc deficiency is visually asymptomatic but distinguished by the accumulation of transcripts encoding ZIP family transporters. To identify targets of zinc deficiency and mechanisms of zinc acclimation, we used RNA-seq to probe zinc nutrition-responsive changes in gene expression. We identified genes encoding zinc-handling components, including ZIP family transporters and candidate chaperones. Additionally, we noted an impact on two other regulatory pathways, the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) and the nutritional copper regulon. Targets of transcription factor Ccm1 and various CAH genes are up-regulated in zinc deficiency, probably due to reduced carbonic anhydrase activity, validated by quantitative proteomics and immunoblot analysis of Cah1, Cah3, and Cah4. Chlamydomonas is therefore not able to grow photoautotrophically in zinc-limiting conditions, but supplementation with 1% CO2 restores growth to wild-type rates, suggesting that the inability to maintain CCM is a major consequence of zinc limitation. The Crr1 regulon responds to copper limitation and is turned on in zinc deficiency, and Crr1 is required for growth in zinc-limiting conditions. Zinc-deficient cells are functionally copper-deficient, although they hyperaccumulate copper up to 50-fold over normal levels. We suggest that zinc-deficient cells sequester copper in a biounavailable form, perhaps to prevent mismetallation of critical zinc sites. PMID:23439652

Malasarn, Davin; Kropat, Janette; Hsieh, Scott I; Finazzi, Giovanni; Casero, David; Loo, Joseph A; Pellegrini, Matteo; Wollman, Francis-André; Merchant, Sabeeha S

2013-04-12

397

Phytoaccumulation prospects of cadmium and zinc by mycorrhizal plant species growing in industrially polluted soils.  

PubMed

The natural vegetation growing along a wastewater channel was subjected to analyze the uptake of Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) and their subsequent accumulation in aboveground and underground plant parts. Species which were mycorrhizal and growing in soils receiving industrially contaminated wastewater were collected along with their rhizospheric soil samples. The nearby uncontaminated control (reference) area was also subjected to sampling on similar pattern for comparison. Both Cd and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in soils of the study area as compared to the reference site. Five plant species i.e. Desmostachya bipinnata, Dichanthium annulatum, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Saccharum bengalense, and Trifolium alexandrinum were analyzed for metal uptake. The maximum phytoaccumulation of Cd was observed in Desmostachya bipinnata (20.41 microg g(-1)) and Dichanthium annulatum (15.22 microg g(-1)) for shoot and root tissues, respectively. However, Malvastrum coromandelianum revealed maximum Zn accumulation for both the shoot and the root tissues (134 and 140 mug g(-1), respectively). The examination of cleared and stained roots of the plants from both the areas studied revealed that all of them were colonized to a lesser or a greater degree by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The Cd hyperaccumulating grasses i.e. Desmostachya bipinnata and Dichanthium annulatum, from study area had smaller root:shoot (R/S) ratio as compared to those growing on reference area indicating a negative pressure of soil metal contamination. The lower R/S ratio in the mycorrhizal roots observed was probably due to increased AM infection and its mediatory role in soil plant transfer of heavy metals. Furthermore, comparatively lower soil pH values in the study areas may have played a key role in making the overall phytoavailability of both the metals. Consequently variations in Cd and Zn tissue concentration among species were observed that also indicate the phytoaccumulation potential of the native species. PMID:18327685

Rashid, Audil; Ayub, Najma; Ahmad, Tahira; Gul, Jamshaid; Khan, Abdul G

2009-02-01

398

Evolutionary tinkering of the expression of PDF1s suggests their joint effect on zinc tolerance and the response to pathogen attack  

PubMed Central

Multigenic families of Plant Defensin type 1 (PDF1) have been described in several species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as zinc tolerant and hyperaccumulator A. halleri. In A. thaliana, PDF1 transcripts (AtPDF1) accumulate in response to pathogen attack following synergic activation of ethylene/jasmonate pathways. However, in A. halleri, PDF1 transcripts (AhPDF1) are constitutively highly accumulated. Through an evolutionary approach, we investigated the possibility of A. halleri or A. thaliana species specialization in different PDF1s in conveying zinc tolerance and/or the response to pathogen attack via activation of the jasmonate (JA) signaling pathway. The accumulation of each PDF1 from both A. halleri and A. thaliana was thus compared in response to zinc excess and MeJA application. In both species, PDF1 paralogues were barely or not at all responsive to zinc. However, regarding the PDF1 response to JA signaling activation, A. thaliana had a higher number of PDF1s responding to JA signaling activation. Remarkably, in A. thaliana, a slight but significant increase in zinc tolerance was correlated with activation of the JA signaling pathway. In addition, A. halleri was found to be more tolerant to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea than A. thaliana. Since PDF1s are known to be promiscuous antifungal proteins able to convey zinc tolerance, we propose, on the basis of the findings of this study, that high constitutive PDF1 transcript accumulation in A. halleri is a potential way to skip the JA signaling activation step required to increase the PDF1 transcript level in the A. thaliana model species. This could ultimately represent an adaptive evolutionary process that would promote a PDF1 joint effect on both zinc tolerance and the response to pathogens in the A. halleri extremophile species.

Nguyen, Nga N. T.; Ranwez, Vincent; Vile, Denis; Soulie, Marie-Christine; Dellagi, Alia; Expert, Dominique; Gosti, Francoise

2014-01-01

399

Enhancement of Cd phytoextraction by two Amaranthus species with endophytic Rahnella sp. JN27.  

PubMed

Microbe-assisted phytoextraction shows a potential for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The aim of this study was to isolate, characterize, and evaluate the potential of endophytic bacteria in improving plant growth and metal uptake by Cd-hyperaccumulators-Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Amaranthus mangostanus. An endophytic bacterial strain JN27 isolated from roots of Zea mays displayed high tolerance and mobilization to Cd, and was identified as Rahnella sp. based on 16S rDNA sequencing. The strain also exhibited multiple plant growth beneficial features including the production of indole-3-acetic acid, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and solubilization of insoluble phosphate. Subsequently, a pot trial was performed to elucidate the effects of inoculation with JN27 on plant growth and Cd uptake by A. hypochondriacus, A. mangostanus, Solanum nigrum and Z. mays grown in soils with different levels of Cd (25, 50, 100 mg Cd kg(-1)). The results revealed that inoculation with JN27 significantly increased the biomasses of all the tested plants and the Cd concentrations of all the tested plants except Z. mays in both above-ground and root tissues. Moreover, strain JN27 could successfully re-colonized in rhizosphere soils of all the tested plants and root interior of A. hypochondriacus and Z. mays. The present results indicated that the symbiont of A. hypochondriacus (or A. mangostanus) and strain JN27 can effectively improve the Cd uptake by plants and would be a new strategy in microbe-assisted phytoextraction for metal-contaminated soils. PMID:24314897

Yuan, Ming; He, Huaidong; Xiao, Li; Zhong, Ting; Liu, Hui; Li, Shubin; Deng, Peiyan; Ye, Zhihong; Jing, Yuanxiao

2014-05-01

400

Selected morphological characteristics, lead uptake and phytochelatin synthesis by coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.) grown in elevated levels of lead-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Remediation of lead-contaminated soil is significant due to the inherent toxicity of lead (Pb), and the quantity of Pb discharged into the soil. One of the most cost-effective and environmentally sound technologies for the cleanup of metal-contaminated soils is through the use of plants. While much is known about the ecological evolution of metal tolerance in plants, the physiological, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms of tolerance is not well understood in the majority of resistant ecotypes such as the legume, Sesbania exaltata Raf. This study was therefore conducted to determine the morphological and physiological characteristics of Sesbania that had been grown in Pb-contaminated soil, and to assess phytochelatin synthesis as a way of elucidating its relative Pb tolerance. Sesbania plants were grown in the greenhouse and exposed to various levels of Pb: 0, 1000, and 2000 mg Pb/kg soil. Plants were harvested after 6, 8, and 10 weeks of growth and morphological characteristics (e.g., root and shoot biomass, root length, number of root nodules, shoot height, number of leaves, number of flowers, number and length of pods) were recorded. Generally, there were no statistical differences in morphological characteristics among the treatments. Further, no discernible phytotoxic symptoms, such as chlorosis, wilting, or necrotic lesions, in neither roots nor shoots were observed. We concluded that while Sesbania did not fit the model of a hyperaccumulator, the plant was, nonetheless, tolerant to elevated Pb levels. Our assessment for phytochelatin synthesis as a tolerance mechanism was inconclusive and further investigations of tolerance mechanisms are warranted. PMID:21776237

Miller, Gloria; Begonia, Gregorio; Begonia, Maria F T

2011-06-01