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Sample records for hyperaccumulators alyssum murale

  1. Nickel and Manganese Accumulation, Interaction and Localization in Leaves of the Ni Hyperaccumulators Alyssum murale and Alyssum corsicum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Alyssum contains >50 Ni hyperaccumulator species; many can achieve 3% Ni in dry leaf. In soils with normal Mn levels, Alyssum trichome bases were observed previously to accumulate Ni and Mn to high levels. Here we report concentration and localization patterns in A. murale and A. corsicum...

  2. Hyperaccumulator Alyssum Murale Relies on a Different Metal Storage Mechanism for Cobalt than for Nickel.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nickel hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale has been developed as a commercial crop for phytoremediation/phytomining Ni-enriched soils (anthropogenic/geogenic) containing elevated concentrations of other metals. Metal co-tolerance, accumulation, and localization were investigated for Alyssum exposed to c...

  3. The Metal Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale Uses Nitrogen and Oxygen Donor Ligands for Ni Transport and Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kotodesh genotype of the nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale was examined to determine the compartmentalization and internal speciation of Ni, and other elements, in an effort to ascertain the mechanism used by this plant to tolerate extremely high shoot Ni concentrations. Plants were g...

  4. Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale Relies on a Different Metal Storage Mechanism for Cobalt than for Nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Tappero, R.; Peltier, E; Grafe, M; Heidel, K; Ginder-Vogel, M; Livi, K; Rivers, M; Marcus, M; Chaney, R; Sparks, D

    2007-01-01

    The nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale has been developed as a commercial crop for phytoremediation/phytomining Ni from metal-enriched soils. Here, metal co-tolerance, accumulation and localization were investigated for A. murale exposed to metal co-contaminants. A. murale was irrigated with Ni-enriched nutrient solutions containing basal or elevated concentrations of cobalt (Co) or zinc (Zn). Metal localization and elemental associations were investigated in situ with synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (SXRF) and computed-microtomography (CMT). A. murale hyperaccumulated Ni and Co (> 1000 {micro}g g{sup -1} dry weight) from mixed-metal systems. Zinc was not hyperaccumulated. Elevated Co or Zn concentrations did not alter Ni accumulation or localization. SXRF images showed uniform Ni distribution in leaves and preferential localization of Co near leaf tips/margins. CMT images revealed that leaf epidermal tissue was enriched with Ni but devoid of Co, that Co was localized in the apoplasm of leaf ground tissue and that Co was sequestered on leaf surfaces near the tips/margins. Cobalt-rich mineral precipitate(s) form on leaves of Co-treated A. murale. Specialized biochemical processes linked with Ni (hyper)tolerance in A. murale do not confer (hyper)tolerance to Co. A. murale relies on a different metal storage mechanism for Co (exocellular sequestration) than for Ni (vacuolar sequestration).

  5. Interaction of Nickel and Manganese in Accumulation and Localization in Leaves of the Ni Hyperaccumulators Alyssum murale and Alyssum corsicum

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhurst, C.; Tappero, R; Maugel, T; Erbe, E; Sparks, D; Chaney, R

    2009-01-01

    The genus Alyssum contains >50 Ni hyperaccumulator species; many can achieve >2.5% Ni in dry leaf. In soils with normal Mn levels, Alyssum trichome bases were previously observed to accumulate Ni and Mn to high levels. Here we report concentration and localization patterns in A. murale and A. corsicum grown in soils with nonphytotoxic factorial additions of Ni and Mn salts. Four leaf type subsets based on size and age accumulated Ni and Mn similarly. The greatest Mn accumulation (10 times control) was observed in A. corsicum with 40 mmol Mn kg-1 and 40 mmol Ni kg-1 added to potting soil. Whole leaf Ni concentrations decreased as Mn increased. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of whole fresh leaves showed localized in distinct high-concentration Mn spots associated with trichomes, Ni and Mn distributions were strongly spatially correlated. Standard X-ray fluorescence point analysis/mapping of cryofractured and freeze-dried samples found that Ni and Mn were co-located and strongly concentrated only in trichome bases and in cells adjacent to trichomes. Nickel concentration was also strongly spatially correlated with sulfur. Results indicate that maximum Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum may be reduced in soils with higher phytoavailable Mn, and suggest that Ni hyperaccumulation in Alyssum species may have developed from a Mn handling system.

  6. Growth and Metal Accumulation of an Alyssum murale Nickel Hyperaccumulator Ecotype Co-cropped with Alyssum montanum and Perennial Ryegrass in Serpentine Soil

    PubMed Central

    Broadhurst, Catherine L.; Chaney, Rufus L.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae) contains Ni hyperaccumulators (50), many of which can achieve 30 g kg−1 Ni in dry leaf. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viable candidates for commercial Ni phytoremediation and phytomining technologies. It is not known whether these species secrete organic and/or amino acids into the rhizosphere to solubilize Ni, or can make use of such acids within the soil to facilitate uptake. It has been hypothesized that in fields with mixed plant species, mobilization of metals by phytosiderophores secreted by Graminaceae plants could affect Alyssum Ni, Fe, Cu, and Mn uptake. We co-cropped the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, non-hyperaccumulator A. montanum and perennial ryegrass in a natural serpentine soil. All treatments had standard inorganic fertilization required for ryegrass growth and one treatment was compost amended. After 4 months A. murale leaves and stems contained 3600 mg kg−1 Ni which did not differ significantly with co-cropping. Overall Ni and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in A. murale than in A. montanum or L. perenne. Copper was not accumulated by either Alyssum species, but L. perenne accumulated up to 10 mg kg−1. A. montanum could not compete with either A. murale or ryegrass, and neither Alyssum species survived in the compost-amended soil. Co-cropping with ryegrass reduced Fe and Mn concentrations in A. murale but not to the extent of either increasing Ni uptake or affecting plant nutrition. The hypothesized Alyssum Ni accumulation in response to phytosiderophores secreted by co-cropped grass did not occur. Our data do not support increased mobilization of Mn by a phytosiderophore mechanism either, but the converse: mobilization of Mn by the Alyssum hyperaccumulator species significantly increased Mn levels in L. perenne. Tilling soil to maximize root penetration, adequate inorganic fertilization and appropriate plant densities are more important for developing efficient phytoremediation and

  7. Growth and Metal Accumulation of an Alyssum murale Nickel Hyperaccumulator Ecotype Co-cropped with Alyssum montanum and Perennial Ryegrass in Serpentine Soil.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Catherine L; Chaney, Rufus L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae) contains Ni hyperaccumulators (50), many of which can achieve 30 g kg(-1) Ni in dry leaf. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viable candidates for commercial Ni phytoremediation and phytomining technologies. It is not known whether these species secrete organic and/or amino acids into the rhizosphere to solubilize Ni, or can make use of such acids within the soil to facilitate uptake. It has been hypothesized that in fields with mixed plant species, mobilization of metals by phytosiderophores secreted by Graminaceae plants could affect Alyssum Ni, Fe, Cu, and Mn uptake. We co-cropped the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, non-hyperaccumulator A. montanum and perennial ryegrass in a natural serpentine soil. All treatments had standard inorganic fertilization required for ryegrass growth and one treatment was compost amended. After 4 months A. murale leaves and stems contained 3600 mg kg(-1) Ni which did not differ significantly with co-cropping. Overall Ni and Mn concentrations were significantly higher in A. murale than in A. montanum or L. perenne. Copper was not accumulated by either Alyssum species, but L. perenne accumulated up to 10 mg kg(-1). A. montanum could not compete with either A. murale or ryegrass, and neither Alyssum species survived in the compost-amended soil. Co-cropping with ryegrass reduced Fe and Mn concentrations in A. murale but not to the extent of either increasing Ni uptake or affecting plant nutrition. The hypothesized Alyssum Ni accumulation in response to phytosiderophores secreted by co-cropped grass did not occur. Our data do not support increased mobilization of Mn by a phytosiderophore mechanism either, but the converse: mobilization of Mn by the Alyssum hyperaccumulator species significantly increased Mn levels in L. perenne. Tilling soil to maximize root penetration, adequate inorganic fertilization and appropriate plant densities are more important for developing efficient phytoremediation and

  8. Do High-nickel Leaves Shed by the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum Murale Inhibit Seed Germination of Competing Plants?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elemental allelopathy suggests that nickel (Ni)-rich leaves shed by hyperaccumulators inhibit the germination and growth of nearby plant species. Here, the germination of eight herbaceous species following addition of Alyssum murale biomass or Ni(NO3)2, with the same Ni level added to soil, was ass...

  9. Exogenous cytokinin treatments of a Ni hyper-accumulator, Alyssum murale, grown in a serpentine soil: Implications for phytoextraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of exogenous plant growth regulators was examined as a viable technique to increase the efficiency of plant metal phytoextraction from contaminated soils. The aim of this study was to investigate the alteration of Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum murale, a Ni hyperaccumulator, following the...

  10. Transient Influx of Nickel in Root Mitochondria Modulates Organic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Nickel Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale*

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Bhavana; Czymmek, Kirk J.; Sparks, Donald L.; Bais, Harsh P.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are important targets of metal toxicity and are also vital for maintaining metal homeostasis. Here, we examined the potential role of mitochondria in homeostasis of nickel in the roots of nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum murale. We evaluated the biochemical basis of nickel tolerance by comparing the role of mitochondria in closely related nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale and non-accumulator Alyssum montanum. Evidence is presented for the rapid and transient influx of nickel in root mitochondria of nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale. In an early response to nickel treatment, substantial nickel influx was observed in mitochondria prior to sequestration in vacuoles in the roots of hyperaccumulator A. murale compared with non-accumulator A. montanum. In addition, the mitochondrial Krebs cycle was modulated to increase synthesis of malic acid and citric acid involvement in nickel hyperaccumulation. Furthermore, malic acid, which is reported to form a complex with nickel in hyperaccumulators, was also found to reduce the reactive oxygen species generation induced by nickel. We propose that the interaction of nickel with mitochondria is imperative in the early steps of nickel uptake in nickel hyperaccumulator plants. Initial uptake of nickel in roots results in biochemical responses in the root mitochondria indicating its vital role in homeostasis of nickel ions in hyperaccumulation. PMID:23322782

  11. Growth and metal accumulation of an Alyssum murale nickel hyperaccumulator ecotype co-cropped with Alyssum montanum or perennial ryegrass in serpentine soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 400 plant species naturally accumulate high levels of metals such as Cd, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The genus Alyssum (Brassicaceae) contains the greatest number of reported Ni hyperaccumulators (50), many of which can achieve 3 wt% Ni in dry leaves. Some Alyssum hyperaccumulators are viabl...

  12. The Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale uses Complexation with Nitrogen and Oxygen Donor Ligands for Ni Transport and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    McNear, Jr., D.; Chanay, R; Sparks, D

    2010-01-01

    The Kotodesh genotype of the nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale was examined to determine the compartmentalization and internal speciation of Ni, and other elements, in an effort to ascertain the mechanism used by this plant to tolerate extremely high shoot (stem and leaf) Ni concentrations. Plants were grown either hydroponically or in Ni enriched soils from an area surrounding an historic Ni refinery in Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and synchrotron based micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) spectroscopy were used to determine the metal distribution and co-localization and synchrotron X-ray and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopies were used to determine the Ni speciation in plant parts and extracted sap. Nickel is concentrated in the dermal leaf and stem tissues of A. murale bound primarily to malate along with other low molecular weight organic ligands and possibly counter anions (e.g., sulfate). Ni is present in the plant sap and vasculature bound to histidine, malate and other low molecular weight compounds. The data presented herein supports a model in which Ni is transported from the roots to the shoots complexed with histidine and stored within the plant leaf dermal tissues complexed with malate, and other low molecular weight organic acids or counter-ions.

  13. Using Chelator-Buffered Nutrient Solutions to Induce Ni-Deficiency in the Ni-Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ni is essential for all plants due to its role in urease. Many Alyssum species are known to hyperaccumulate Ni to over 20 g kg-1 dry weight (DW) while normal plants require only about 0.1 mg kg-1 DW. As part of our research on Ni hyperaccumulation by plants, we conducted experiments to measure the...

  14. Bacterial Inoculants Affecting Nickel Uptake by Alyssum murale From Low, Moderate and High Ni Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metal hyperaccumulator plants like Alyssum murale have a remarkable ability to hyperaccumulate Ni from soils containing mostly insoluble Ni. We have shown some rhizobacteria increase the phytoavailability of Ni in soils, thus enhancing Ni accumulation by A. murale. Nine bacterial strains, originally...

  15. Growth and Cadmium Phytoextraction by Swiss Chard, Maize, Rice, Noccaea caerulescens, and Alyssum murale in Ph Adjusted Biosolids Amended Soils.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Chaney, Rufus L; Davis, Allen P; Cox, Albert; Kumar, Kuldip; Reeves, Roger D; Green, Carrie E

    2015-01-01

    Past applications of biosolids to soils at some locations added higher Cd levels than presently permitted. Cadmium phytoextraction would alleviate current land use constraints. Unamended farm soil, and biosolids amended farm and mine soils were obtained from a Fulton Co., IL biosolids management facility. Soils contained 0.16, 22.8, 45.3 mg Cd kg(-1) and 43.1, 482, 812 mg Zn kg(-1) respectively with initial pH 6.0, 6.1, 6.4. In greenhouse studies, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), a Cd-accumulator maize (inbred B37 Zea mays) and a southern France Cd-hyperaccumulator genotype of Noccaea caerulescens were tested for Cd accumulation and phytoextraction. Soil pH was adjusted from ∼5.5-7.0. Additionally 100 rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes and the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale were screened for potential phytoextraction use. Chard suffered phytotoxicity at low pH and accumulated up to 90 mg Cd kg(-1) on the biosolids amended mine soil. The maize inbred accumulated up to 45 mg Cd kg(-1) with only mild phytotoxicity symptoms during early growth at pH>6.0. N. caerulescens did not exhibit phytotoxicity symptoms at any pH, and accumulated up to 235 mg Cd kg(-1) in 3 months. Reharvested N. caerulescens accumulated up to 900 mg Cd kg(-1) after 10 months. Neither Alyssum nor 90% of rice genotypes survived acceptably. Both N. caerulescens and B37 maize show promise for Cd phytoextraction in IL and require field evaluation; both plants could be utilized for nearly continuous Cd removal. Other maize inbreds may offer higher Cd phytoextraction at lower pH, and mono-cross hybrids higher shoot biomass yields. Further, maize grown only for biomass Cd maximum removal could be double-cropped. PMID:25174422

  16. Improving the Agronomy of Alyssum murale for Extensive Phytomining: A Five-Year Field Study.

    PubMed

    Bani, Aida; Echevarria, Guillaume; Sulçe, Sulejman; Morel, Jean Louis

    2015-01-01

    Large ultramafic areas exist in Albania, which could be suitable for phytomining with native Alyssum murale. We undertook a five-year field experiment on an ultramafic Vertisol, aimed at optimizing a low-cost Ni-phytoextraction crop of A. murale which is adapted to the Balkans. The following aspects were studied on 18-m2 plots in natural conditions: the effect of (i) plant phenology and element distribution, (ii) plant nutrition and fertilization, (iii) plant cover and weed control and (iv), planting technique (natural cover vs. sown crop). The optimal harvest time was set at the mid-flowering stage when Ni concentration and biomass yield were highest. The application of N, P, and K fertilizers, and especially a split 100-kg ha(-1) N application, increased the density of A. murale against all other species. It significantly increased shoot yield, without reducing Ni concentration. In natural stands, the control of graminaceous weeds required the use of an anti-monocots herbicide. However, after the optimization of fertilization and harvest time, weed control procured little benefit. Finally, cropping sown A. murale was more efficient than enhancing native stands and gave higher biomass and phytoextraction yields; biomass yields progressively improved from 0.3 to 9.0 t ha(-1) and phytoextracted Ni increased from 1.7 to 105 kg ha(-1). PMID:25237722

  17. THE EFFECT OF THE PH OF PH BUFFERED NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS ON NICKEL HYPERACCUMULATION BY ALYSSUM CORSICUM AND BERKHEYA CODDII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is hypothesized that plant hyperaccumulation of Ni evolved as a defense mechanism against diseases and insects. Two hyperaccumulators, Alyssum corsicum and Berkheya coddii, were compared to cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown in MES-HEPES buffered nutrient solutions and maintained at four pH levels...

  18. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria from the nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum bertolonii.

    PubMed

    Barzanti, Rita; Ozino, Francesca; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Galardi, Francesca; Gonnelli, Cristina; Mengoni, Alessio

    2007-02-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria, endemic to serpentine outcrops of Central Italy, from a nickel hyperaccumulator plant, Alyssum bertolonii Desv. (Brassicaceae). Eighty-three endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems, and leaves of A. bertolonii and classified by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA (ARDRA) and partial 16S rDNA sequencing in 23 different taxonomic groups. All isolates were then screened for siderophore production and for resistance to heavy metals. One isolate representative of each ARDRA group was then tested for plant tissue colonization ability in sterile culture. Obtained results pointed out that, despite the high concentration of heavy metals present in its tissues, A. bertolonii harbors an endophytic bacterial flora showing a high genetic diversity as well as a high level of resistance to heavy metals that could potentially help plant growth and Ni hyperaccumulation. PMID:17264998

  19. Response to cytosolic nickel of Slow Vacuolar channels in the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum bertolonii.

    PubMed

    Corem, Shira; Carpaneto, Armando; Soliani, Paolo; Cornara, Laura; Gambale, Franco; Scholz-Starke, Joachim

    2009-04-01

    We applied the patch-clamp technique to investigate the transport properties of the Slow Vacuolar (SV) channel identified in leaf vacuoles of Alyssum bertolonii Desv., a nickel hyperaccumulator plant growing in serpentine soil of the northern Apennines (Italy). SV currents recorded in vacuoles from adult plants collected in their natural habitat showed high sensitivity towards cytosolic nickel. Dose-response analyses indicated half-maximal current inhibition at submicromolar concentrations, i.e. up to three orders of magnitude lower than previously reported values from other plant species. The voltage-dependent increase of residual currents at saturating nickel concentrations could be interpreted as relief of channel block by nickel permeation at high positive membrane potentials. Including young plants of A. bertolonii into the study, we found that SV channels from these plants did not display elevated nickel sensitivity. This difference may be related to age-dependent changes in nickel hyperaccumulation of A. bertolonii leaf cells. PMID:19165480

  20. Evidence for nickel/proton antiport activity at the tonoplast of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum.

    PubMed

    Ingle, R A; Fricker, M D; Smith, J A C

    2008-11-01

    The mechanism of nickel uptake into vacuoles isolated from leaf tissue of Alyssum lesbiacum was investigated to help understand the ability of this species to hyperaccumulate Ni. An imaging system was designed to monitor Ni uptake by single vacuoles using the metal-sensitive fluorescent dye, Newport Green. Nickel uptake into isolated vacuoles from leaf tissue of A. lesbiacum was enhanced by the presence of Mg/ATP, presumably via energisation of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). This ATP-stimulated Ni uptake was abolished by bafilomycin (a diagnostic inhibitor of the V-ATPase) and by dissipation of the transmembrane pH difference with an uncoupler. These observations are consistent with Ni(2+)/nH(+) antiport activity at the tonoplast driven by a proton electrochemical gradient established by the V-ATPase, which would provide a mechanism for secondary active transport of Ni(2+) into the vacuole. This study provides insights into the molecular basis of Ni tolerance in Alyssum, and may aid in the identification of genes involved in Ni hyperaccumulation. PMID:18950432

  1. Responses to nickel in the proteome of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Robert A; Smith, J Andrew C; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2005-12-01

    A proteomic analysis of the Ni hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum was carried out to identify proteins that may play a role in the exceptional degree of Ni tolerance and accumulation characteristic of this metallophyte. Of the 816 polypeptides detected in root tissue by 2D SDS-PAGE, eleven increased and one decreased in abundance relative to total protein after 6-week-old plants were transferred from a standard nutrient solution containing trace concentrations of Ni to a moderately high Ni treatment (0.3 mM NiSO4) for 48 h. These polypeptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry and the majority were found to be involved in sulphur metabolism (consistent with a re-allocation of sulphur towards cysteine and glutathione), protection against reactive oxygen species, or heat-shock response. In contrast, very few polypeptides were found to change in abundance in root or shoot tissue after plants were exposed for 28 days to 0.03 mM NiSO4, a concentration representing the optimum for growth of this species but sufficient to lead to hyperaccumulation of Ni in the shoot. Under these conditions, constitutively expressed genes in this highly Ni-tolerant species may be sufficient to allow for effective chelation and sequestration of Ni without the need for additional protein synthesis. PMID:16388402

  2. NanoSIMS and EPMA analysis of nickel localisation in leaves of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, K. E.; Kilburn, M. R.; Salter, C. J.; Smith, J. A. C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.

    2007-02-01

    Certain plants known as `metal hyperaccumulators' can accumulate exceptional concentrations of elements such as zinc, manganese, nickel, cobalt, copper, selenium, cadmium or arsenic in their above ground tissue. In members of the genus Alyssum, nickel concentrations can reach values as high as 3% of leaf dry biomass. These plants must possess very effective mechanisms for the transport, chelation and sequestration of such elements within their tissues to avoid the toxic effects of free metal ions. Evidence from a number of different techniques suggests that nickel is concentrated primarily in the outermost, epidermal tissue of leaves of Alyssum hyperaccumulators, but there is currently no consensus on the principal sites of nickel sequestration. In this study, high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analysis has been performed on longitudinal sections of Alyssum lesbiacum leaves. Elemental maps were obtained which revealed the high concentrations of nickel in the peripheral regions of the large unicellular stellate leaf hairs (trichomes) and in the epidermal cell layer. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) was used to provide independent confirmation of elemental distribution in the specimens, but the superior spatial resolution and high chemical sensitivity of the NanoSIMS technique provided a more detailed image of elemental distribution in these biological specimens at the cellular level.

  3. Plant-by-plant variations of bacterial communities associated with leaves of the nickel hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii Desv.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Alessio; Pini, Francesco; Huang, Li-Nan; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Bazzicalupo, Marco

    2009-10-01

    Bacteria associated with tissues of metal-hyperaccumulating plants are of great interest due to the multiple roles they may play with respect to plant growth and resistance to heavy metals. The variability of bacterial communities associated with plant tissues of three populations of Alyssum bertolonii, a Ni hyperaccumulator endemic of serpentine outcrops of Central Italy, was investigated. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was applied to DNA extracted from leaf tissues of 30 individual plants from three geographically separated serpentine outcrops. Moreover, T-RFLP fingerprinting was also performed on DNA extracted from the same soils from which the plants were collected. Fifty-nine unique terminal-restriction fragments (TRFs) were identified, with more than half of the taxonomically interpreted TRFs assigned to Alpha- and Gamma-Proteobacteria and Clostridia. Data were then used to define the extent of variation of bacterial communities due to single plants or to plant populations. Results indicated a very high plant-by-plant variation of leaf-associated community (more than 93% of total variance observed). However, a core (numerically small) of plant-specific TRFs was found. This work demonstrates that plant-associated bacterial communities represent a large reservoir of biodiversity and that the high variability existing between plants, even from the same population, should be taken into account in future studies on association between bacteria and metal-hyperaccumulating plants. PMID:19479304

  4. Interference of nickel with copper and iron homeostasis contributes to metal toxicity symptoms in the nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum inflatum.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Rasoul; Ghaderian, S Majid; Krämer, Ute

    2009-11-01

    The divalent cations of several transition metal elements have similar chemical properties and, when present in excess, one metal can interfere with the homeostasis of another. To better understand the role of interactions between transition metals in the development of metal toxicity symptoms in plants, the effects of exposure to excess nickel (Ni) on copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) homeostasis in the Ni hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum inflatum were examined. Alyssum inflatum was hypertolerant to Ni, but not to Cu. Exposure to elevated subtoxic Ni concentrations increased Cu sensitivity, associated with enhanced Cu accumulation and enhanced root surface Cu(II)-specific reductase activity. Exposure to elevated Ni concentrations resulted in an inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Fe and concentration-dependent progressive Fe accumulation in root pericycle, endodermis and cortex cells of the differentiation zone. Shoot Fe concentrations, chlorophyll concentrations and Fe-dependent antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased in Ni-exposed plants when compared with unexposed controls. Foliar Fe spraying or increased Fe supply to roots ameliorated the chlorosis observed under exposure to high Ni concentrations. These results suggest that Ni interferes with Cu regulation and that the disruption of root-to-shoot Fe translocation is a major cause of nickel toxicity symptoms in A. inflatum. PMID:19691676

  5. HEAVY METAL RESISTANCE AND GENOTYPIC ANALYSIS OF METAL RESISTANCE GENES IN GRAM-POSITIVE AND GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA PRESENT IN SERPENTINE SOIL AND IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF ALYSSUM MURALE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six bacterial cultures, including one culture collection strain, thirty from the rhizosphere of Alyssum murale and fifteen from Ni-rich soil, were tested for their ability to tolerate arsenate, cadmium, chromium, zinc, mercury, lead, cobalt, copper, and nickel in their growth medium. The resis...

  6. Micro-PIXE as a technique for studying nickel localization in leaves of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, U.; Grime, G. W.; Smith, J. A. C.; Hawes, C. R.; Baker, A. J. M.

    1997-07-01

    Certain terrestrial plants are able to accumulate metals such as zinc, manganese, nickel, cobalt, or copper in their above-ground biomass. The largest group of these so-called "metal hyperaccumulators" is to be found among certain species in the family Brassicaceae endemic to ultramafic soils. For example, nickel concentrations in members of the genus Alyssum can reach 3% of the leaf dry biomass. However, nickel levels in the root tissue of these plants are low, suggesting that hyperaccumulation is associated with effective metal translocation from root to shoot and sequestration of the metal in non-toxic form within the leaves. To investigate the sites of nickel localization within A. lesbiacum, leaf cross-sections were examined by nuclear microscopy using PIXE and RBS on the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe (SPM) with a spatial resolution of 1 μm. This paper describes the sample preparation and analysis methods and presents some preliminary results indicating that nickel is sequestered to a considerable degree within the epidermal trichomes on the leaf surface.

  7. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel.

    PubMed

    Singer, Andrew C; Bell, Thomas; Heywood, Chloe A; Smith, J A C; Thompson, Ian P

    2007-05-01

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. PMID:17084494

  8. Genetic diversity of bacterial communities of serpentine soil and of rhizosphere of the nickel-hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum bertolonii.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, A; Grassi, E; Barzanti, R; Biondi, E G; Gonnelli, C; Kim, C K; Bazzicalupo, M

    2004-08-01

    Serpentine soils are characterized by high levels of heavy metals (Ni, Co, Cr), and low levels of important plant nutrients (P, Ca, N). Because of these inhospitable edaphic conditions, serpentine soils are typically home to a very specialized flora including endemic species as the nickel hyperaccumulator Alyssum bertolonii. Although much is known about the serpentine flora, few researches have investigated the bacterial communities of serpentine areas. In the present study bacterial communities were sampled at various distances from A. bertolonii roots in three different serpentine areas and their genetic diversity was assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. The obtained results indicated the occurrence of a high genetic diversity and heterogeneity of the bacterial communities present in the different serpentine areas. Moreover, TRFs (terminal restriction fragments) common to all the investigated A. bertolonii rhizosphere samples were found. A new cloning strategy was applied to 27 TRFs that were sequenced and taxonomically interpreted as mainly belonging to Gram-positive and alpha-Proteobacteria representatives. In particular, cloned TRFs which discriminated between rhizosphere and soil samples were mainly interpreted as belonging to Proteobacteria representatives. PMID:15546041

  9. Organic acids rather than histidine predominate in Ni chelation in Alyssum hyperaccumulator xylem exudate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A better understanding of Ni uptake mechanisms by hyperaccumulator plants is necessary to improve Ni uptake efficiency for phytoremediation technologies i.e. phytomining. It is known that an important aspect of Ni translocation involves Ni chelation with organic ligands. However, it is still not cle...

  10. Evolutionary lineages of nickel hyperaccumulation and systematics in European Alysseae (Brassicaceae): evidence from nrDNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, Lorenzo; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Arnetoli, Miluscia; Gonnelli, Cristina; Hasko, Agim; Selvi, Federico

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulation is a rare form of physiological specialization shared by a small number of angiosperms growing on ultramafic soils. The evolutionary patterns of this feature among European members of tribe Alysseae (Brassicaceae) are investigated using a phylogenetic approach to assess relationships among Ni hyperaccumulators at the genus, species and below-species level. Methods Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were generated for multiple accessions of Alysseae. Phylogenetic trees were obtained for the genera of the tribe and Alyssum sect. Odontarrhena. All accessions and additional herbarium material were tested for Ni hyperaccumulation with the dimethylglyoxime colorimetric method. Key Results Molecular data strongly support the poorly known hyperaccumulator endemic Leptoplax (Peltaria) emarginata as sister to hyperaccumulator species of Bornmuellera within Alysseae. This is contrary to current assumptions of affinity between L. emarginata and the non-hyperaccumulator Peltaria in Thlaspideae. The lineage Bornmuellera–Leptoplax is, in turn, sister to the two non-hyperaccumulator Mediterranean endemics Ptilotrichum rupestre and P. cyclocarpum. Low ITS sequence variation was found within the monophyletic Alyssum sect. Odontarrhena and especially in A. murale sensu lato. Nickel hyperaccumulation was not monophyletic in any of three main clades retrieved, each consisting of hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulators of different geographical origin. Conclusions Nickel hyperaccumulation in Alysseae has a double origin, but it did not evolve in Thlaspideae. In Bornmuellera–Leptoplax it represents an early synapomorphy inherited from an ancestor shared with the calcicolous, sister clade of Mediterranean Ptilotrichum. In Alyssum sect. Odontarrhena it has multiple origins even within the three European clades recognized. Lack of geographical cohesion suggests that accumulation ability has been lost or gained over the

  11. NiO (bunsenite) is not available to Alyssum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some species of the genus Alyssum are capable of accumulating up to 30 g kg-1 DW Ni in their leaves when grown on serpentine soils where these species are endemic. The unique ability of Alyssum species to hyperaccumulate high concentration of Ni stimulated basic research toward a better understandi...

  12. Nickel and zinc isotope fractionation in hyperaccumulating and nonaccumulating plants.

    PubMed

    Deng, Teng-Hao-Bo; Cloquet, Christophe; Tang, Ye-Tao; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Estrade, Nicolas; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-10-21

    Until now, there has been little data on the isotope fractionation of nickel (Ni) in higher plants and how this can be affected by plant Ni and zinc (Zn) homeostasis. A hydroponic cultivation was conducted to investigate the isotope fractionation of Ni and Zn during plant uptake and translocation processes. The nonaccumulator Thlaspi arvense, the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale and the Ni and Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens were grown in low (2 μM) and high (50 μM) Ni and Zn solutions. Results showed that plants were inclined to absorb light Ni isotopes, presumably due to the functioning of low-affinity transport systems across root cell membrane. The Ni isotope fractionation between plant and solution was greater in the hyperaccumulators grown in low Zn treatments (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.90 to -0.63‰) than that in the nonaccumulator T. arvense (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.21‰), thus indicating a greater permeability of the low-affinity transport system in hyperaccumulators. Light isotope enrichment of Zn was observed in most of the plants (Δ(66)Zn(plant-solution) = -0.23 to -0.10‰), but to a lesser extent than for Ni. The rapid uptake of Zn on the root surfaces caused concentration gradients, which induced ion diffusion in the rhizosphere and could result in light Zn isotope enrichment in the hyperaccumulator N. caerulescens. In high Zn treatment, Zn could compete with Ni during the uptake process, which reduced Ni concentration in plants and decreased the extent of Ni isotope fractionation (Δ(60)Ni(plant-solution) = -0.11 to -0.07‰), indicating that plants might take up Ni through a low-affinity transport system of Zn. We propose that isotope composition analysis for transition elements could become an empirical tool to study plant physiological processes. PMID:25222693

  13. Removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions using native and acid treated Ni-hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum discolor from Turkish serpentine soil.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Adiguzel, Nezaket

    2012-09-01

    Alyssum discolor biomass was collected from serpentine soil and was used for removal of metal ions. The plant species grown on serpentine soils are known to be rich with metals ions and thus have more capability for accumulating heavy metals. Native and acid-treated biomass of A. discolor (A. discolor) were utilized for the removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, initial concentration, and pH on the biosorption of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were investigated. Biosorption equilibrium was established in about 60 min. The surface properties of the biomass preparations were varied with pH, and the maximum amounts of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions on both A. discolor biomass preparations were adsorbed at pH 5.0. The maximum biosorption capacities of the native, and acid-treated biomass preparations for Ni(II) were 13.1 and 34.7 mgg(-1) and for Cu(II) 6.15 and 17.8 mgg(-1) dry biomass, respectively. The biosorption of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from single and binary component systems can be successfully described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. When the heavy metal ions were in competition, the amounts of biosorbed metal ions on the acid treated plant biomass were found to be 0.542 mmolg(-1) for Ni(II) and 0.162 mmolg(-1) for Cu(II), the A. discolor biomass was significantly selective for Ni(II) ions. The information gained from these studies was expected to indicate whether the native, and acid-treated forms can have the potential to be used for the removal and recovery of Ni(II) ions from wastewaters. PMID:22608134

  14. Evaluation of plant growth regulators to increase Ni phytoextraction by Alyssum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that application of phytohormones to shoots of Alyssum murale increased biomass production but did not increase Ni shoot concentration. Increased biomass and Ni phytoextraction efficiency is useful to achieve economically viable phytomining. The objective of this study wa...

  15. Chelator-buffered nutrient solution is ineffective in extracting Ni from seeds of Alyssum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperaccumulator species of the genera Alyssum can accumulate 100 times more Ni than normal crops and are therefore used for phytomining and phytoextraction of nickel contaminated soils. Basic studies on the physiology and metal uptake mechanisms of these plants are needed to increase efficiency and...

  16. NiO(s) (Bunsenite) is not Available to Alyssum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AIMS: To determine if the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum corsicum can absorb Ni from the kinetically inert crystalline mineral NiO(s) (bunsenite). METHODS: A. corsicum and A. montanum plants were grown for 30 days in a serpentine Hoagland solution. NiO was provided at 0 or 0.1 g L-1 (1.34 mmol L-1) ...

  17. Critical Muralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  18. Murals as Storytellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fradella, Laura

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes murals as visual storytelling. In times before most people could read or write, pictures were used to tell stories and to teach people. Visual storytelling is most often seen in the form of drawing, painting, collage, printmaking, quilts, stained-glass windows, and murals. The concept of visual storytelling…

  19. Constitutively High Expression of the Histidine Biosynthetic Pathway Contributes to Nickel Tolerance in Hyperaccumulator PlantsW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Robert A.; Mugford, Sam T.; Rees, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Malcolm M.; Smith, J. Andrew C.

    2005-01-01

    Plants that hyperaccumulate Ni exhibit an exceptional degree of Ni tolerance and the ability to translocate Ni in large amounts from root to shoot. In hyperaccumulator plants in the genus Alyssum, free His is an important Ni binding ligand that increases in the xylem proportionately to root Ni uptake. To determine the molecular basis of the His response and its contribution to Ni tolerance, transcripts representing seven of the eight enzymes involved in His biosynthesis were investigated in the hyperaccumulator species Alyssum lesbiacum by RNA gel blot analysis. None of the transcripts changed in abundance in either root or shoot tissue when plants were exposed to Ni, but transcript levels were constitutively higher in A. lesbiacum than in the congeneric nonaccumulator A. montanum, especially for the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway, ATP-phosphoribosyltransferase (ATP-PRT). Comparison with the weak hyperaccumulator A. serpyllifolium revealed a close correlation between Ni tolerance, root His concentration, and ATP-PRT transcript abundance. Overexpression of an A. lesbiacum ATP-PRT cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana increased the pool of free His up to 15-fold in shoot tissue, without affecting the concentration of any other amino acid. His-overproducing lines also displayed elevated tolerance to Ni but did not exhibit increased Ni concentrations in either xylem sap or shoot tissue, suggesting that additional factors are necessary to recapitulate the complete hyperaccumulator phenotype. These results suggest that ATP-PRT expression plays a major role in regulating the pool of free His and contributes to the exceptional Ni tolerance of hyperaccumulator Alyssum species. PMID:15923352

  20. An Ocean Mural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Frank; Graham, Ada

    1998-01-01

    Introduces a class project on oceans, fishes, and fishing industries around the world. Groups of students make a mural of the world, filling the oceans with accurate drawings of fish, fishing boats, and fishing equipment. Students learn about the importance of fish in various cultures and about the migration routes of fish. Includes a resource…

  1. Rain Forest Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  2. Sticky-Note Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a sticky-note mural project that originated from his desire to incorporate contemporary materials into his assignments as well as to inspire collaboration between students. The process takes much more than sticking sticky notes to the wall. It takes critical thinking skills and teamwork to design and complete…

  3. Murals Reflecting Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Safe and Drug Free Schools Program.

    This document is used in a collaborative project that engages children and adolescents in alcohol, tobacco, and drug prevention activities through the arts. The project offers an innovative teaching resource that uses the universal language of the arts for drug prevention. By creating murals with drug prevention themes, elementary and secondary…

  4. Feasibility of using hyperaccumulating plants to bioremediate metal-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.J.; Guerin, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study was carried out to determine whether selected plants were capable of hyperaccumulating anthropogenic sources of metals found in soils from three contaminated sites. A trial was conducted using the previously reported hyperaccumulators, Armeria maritima (thrift), Impatiens balsamina (balsam), Alyssum saxatile (gold dust), and the control species, Brassica oleracea (cabbage). Although none of these plants showed any substantial hyperaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd, it was established that there is an optimum period in the life-cycle of these plants in which the metal concentration reaches a maximum. This period was dependent on the metal, soil, and plant type. The current paper describes the data obtained for Zn and Cu uptake by thrift.

  5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF MURAL IN LOBBY. THE MURAL IS PAINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL OF MURAL IN LOBBY. THE MURAL IS PAINTED IN PASTEL SHADES, AND A REFLECTION OF THE BALUSTRADE OF THE OPPOSITE STAIRWAY IS VISIBLE IN THE MIRROR. - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  6. 7. INTERIOR DETAIL OF MURAL IN LOBBY. THE MURAL IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR DETAIL OF MURAL IN LOBBY. THE MURAL IS PAINTED IN PASTEL SHADES, AND A REFLECTION OF THE BALUSTRADE OF THE OPPOSITE STAIRWAY IS VISIBLE IN THE MIRROR - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  7. Chalk Murals and Great Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Kay

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Annual Chalk Mural project done by the members of the National Art Honor Society at the Sacramento County Day School. Discusses the tradition of the annual project and the planning and research involved. Focuses on the 7th Annual Chalk Mural featuring Wayne Thiebaud. (CMK)

  8. Ecological Mural as Community Reconnection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang Song, Young Imm; Gammel, Jo Ann

    2011-01-01

    Murals are particularly visually captivating forms of public art due to their size and accessibility. Mural images also capture public attention and provoke viewers to explore layers of meaning and find hidden stories. They are often in places that people come to visit, study, play, congregate and discuss matters that may relate to the content of…

  9. DEGRADATION OF ALYSSUM BIOMASS IN SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reasons for Ni hyperaccumulation remain unproven; however, elemental allelopathy has been suggested as a possible reason for this unusual trait. It has been suggested that continual transport of Ni from soil to leaves, then shedding of leaves to fall on the soil surface, may create a Ni toxic zo...

  10. Organic amendments for improving biomass production and metal yield of Ni-hyperaccumulating plants.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-López, V; Prieto-Fernández, Á; Cabello-Conejo, M I; Kidd, P S

    2016-04-01

    Ni phytomining is a promising technology for Ni recovery from low-grade ores such as ultramafic soils. Metal-hyperaccumulators are good candidates for phytomining due to their extraordinary capacity for Ni accumulation. However, many of these plants produce a low biomass, which makes the use of agronomic techniques for improving their growth necessary. In this study, the Ni hyperaccumulators Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum, A. serpyllifolium ssp. malacitanum, Alyssum bertolonii and Noccaea goesingense were evaluated for their Ni phytoextraction efficiency from a Ni-rich serpentine soil. Effects of soil inorganic fertilisation (100:100:125kgNPKha(-1)) and soil organic amendment addition (2.5, 5 or 10% compost) on plant growth and Ni accumulation were determined. All soil treatments greatly improved plant growth, but the highest biomass production was generally found after addition of 2.5 or 5% compost (w/w). The most pronounced beneficial effects were observed for N. goesingense. Total Ni phytoextracted from soils was significantly improved using both soil treatments (inorganic and organic), despite the decrease observed in soil Ni availability and shoot Ni concentrations in compost-amended soils. The most promising results were found using intermediate amount of compost, indicating that these types of organic wastes can be incorporated into phytomining systems. PMID:26803735

  11. Organic acid complexation, heavy metal distribution and the effect of ATPase inhibition in hairy roots of hyperaccumulator plant species.

    PubMed

    Boominathan, Rengasamy; Doran, Pauline M

    2003-03-01

    Heavy metal uptake and distribution were investigated in hairy roots of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens, and the Ni hyperaccumulator, Alyssum bertolonii. Hairy roots of both species contained high constitutive levels of citric, malic and malonic acids. After treatment with 20 ppm Cd or 25 ppm Ni, about 13% of the total Cd in T. caerulescens roots and 28% of the total Ni in A. bertolonii were associated with organic acids. T. caerulescens and A. bertolonii hairy roots remained healthy and grew well at high concentrations of Cd and Ni, respectively, whereas hairy roots of the non-hyperaccumulator, Nicotiana tabacum, did not. Most of the Cd in T. caerulescens and N. tabacum roots was localised in the cell walls. In contrast, 85-95% of the Ni in A. bertolonii and N. tabacum was associated with the symplasm. Growth of T. caerulescens and A. bertolonii hairy roots was severely reduced in the presence of diethylstilbestrol (DES), an inhibitor of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Treatment with DES increased the concentration of Cd in the symplasm of T. caerulescens about 6-fold with retention of root viability, whereas viability and Ni transport across the plasma membrane were both reduced in A. bertolonii. These results suggest that the mechanisms of Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in T. caerulescens hairy roots are capable of withstanding the effects of plasma membrane depolarisation, whereas Ni tolerance and hyperaccumulation in A. bertolonii hairy roots are not. PMID:12568742

  12. From Mission Statement to Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Brian Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an after-school project he reactivated at RHAM Middle School. The author embarked on the Mural Project, which he hoped would engaged students in a year-long cycle to depict just what the seven pillars mean to the social and academic well-being of the school community. What emerged from the project was a…

  13. Agronomy of strip intercropping broccoli with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic broccoli growers in California typically control aphids by intercropping broccoli with strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.) which attracts hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) that are important predators of aphids. A three year study with transplanted organic broccoli in Salinas, ...

  14. 21. View West, Detail Mural, Children's Room, Rip Van Winkle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View West, Detail Mural, Children's Room, Rip Van Winkle Mural, Project of the CWA (Civil Works Administration) Completed May 1934. - Ives Memorial Library, 133 Elm Street, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. Kids Paint Mural to Send Message!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Callie; Adams, Alexis

    1994-01-01

    Describes the efforts of a group called Teens Networking Together (TNT) to paint a mural and send a message to their neighbors about taking care of the environment and taking pride in their cultural history. The teens focused on the importance of clean water and waste disposal issues. (LZ)

  16. Highland's Mosaic Mural: The Project, the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Jan; Imming, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Describes how a group of upper-elementary students in Highland, Illinois, designed and constructed a large mosaic mural depicting their city. Students were enthusiastic and highly motivated by the project. Widespread publicity excited intense community interest and involvement. The problems of design and construction are discussed. (AM)

  17. Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum: Dilute solution and some physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Hesarinejad, M A; Razavi, Seyed M A; Koocheki, A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various temperatures (25-65°C) on some dilute solution properties of Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) as a novel potential source of hydrocolloid. Monosaccharide composition, FTIR analysis and molecular parameters were determined to provide more structural information. The results indicated that AHSG had a low molecular weight (3.66×10(5)Da), medium intrinsic viscosity (18.34dl/g) at 25°C, relatively flexible chain with a chain flexibility parameter of 618.54, and activation energy of 0.51×10(7)J/kgmol. With rise in temperature from 25 to 55°C, the intrinsic viscosity decreased as well as coil radius and volume of AHSG. The shape factor of AHSG macromolecule was spherical at all temperatures. The electrostatic interaction and particle size of AHSG solution were -25.81mV (at neutral pH) and 225.36nm, respectively. The results revealed that AHSG had high total sugar content (85.33%), small amount of uronic acids (5.63%) and it is likely a galactan-type polysaccharide. The FTIR spectra showed that AHSG behaved like a typical polyelectrolyte because of the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. PMID:26277752

  18. Agronomic aspects of strip intercropping lettuce with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic growers in California typically devote 5 to 10% of the area in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fields to insectary strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritime (L.) Desv.) to attract syrphid flies (Syrphidae) whose larvae provide biological control of aphids. A 2-year study with organic romaine lettuc...

  19. Production of nickel bio-ore from hyperaccumulator plant biomass: applications in phytomining.

    PubMed

    Boominathan, Rengasamy; Saha-Chaudhury, N M; Sahajwalla, Veena; Doran, Pauline M

    2004-05-01

    An important step in phytomining operations is the recovery of metal from harvested plant material. In this work, a laboratory-scale horizontal tube furnace was used to generate Ni-enriched bio-ore from the dried biomass of Ni hyperaccumulator plants. Prior to furnace treatment, hairy roots of Alyssum bertolonii were exposed to Ni in liquid medium to give biomass Ni concentrations of 1.9% to 7.7% dry weight; whole plants of Berkheya coddii were grown in Ni-containing soil to produce above-ground Ni levels of up to 0.49% dry weight. The concentration of Ca in the Ni-treated B. coddii biomass was about 15 times greater than in A. bertolonii. After furnace treatment at 1200 degrees C under air, Ni-bearing residues with crystalline morphology and containing up to 82% Ni were generated from A. bertolonii. The net weight loss in the furnace and the degree of concentration of Ni were significantly reduced when the furnace was purged with nitrogen, reflecting the importance of oxidative processes in Ni enrichment. Ni in the B. coddii biomass was concentrated by a factor of about 17 to yield a residue containing 8.6% Ni; this bio-ore Ni content is substantially higher than the 1% to 2% Ni typically found in mined ore. However, the B. coddii samples after furnace treatment also contained about 34% Ca, mainly in the form of hydroxyapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH. Such high Ca levels may present significant challenges for further metallurgical processing. This work demonstrates the feasibility of furnace treatment for generating Ni-rich bio-ore from hyperaccumulator plants. The results also suggest that minimizing the uptake of Ca and/or reducing the Ca content of the biomass prior to furnace treatment would be a worthwhile strategy for improving the quality of Ni bio-ore produced in phytomining operations. PMID:15083504

  20. Out of America: Exploring Collaborative Mural Teaching in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kong

    2012-01-01

    In February 2010, the author arrived in the city of Sofia, Bulgaria, to teach mural painting at the National Academy of Art for his five-month Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program lecturing award. He targeted Bulgaria as his host country in his 2009-2010 Fulbright U.S. Scholarship Program application because of its rich mural painting culture. He…

  1. Magnetic remanence of hematite-bearing murals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, R.; Zanella, E.; Saudino, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report on a series of experiments designed to test the ability of hematite-bearing colors to record the direction of the ambient magnetic field. Plasterboards accurately oriented with respect to the Earth's magnetic field were painted with red tempera colors prepared with hematite pigments. Magnetic measurements indicate that the color film retains a remanent magnetization and acquires a well developed magnetic fabric. The remanence direction is close to, yet slightly deviated from the Earth's magnetic field. The deviation is interpreted to result from preferential alignment of the pigment grains parallel to the plasterboard surface and depends on both its orientation with respect to magnetic north and the degree of magnetic anisotropy of the color film, which in turn varies according to the pigment used. Investigation of the magnetic remanence of murals may complement archaeomagnetic information derived from traditional materials such as baked and fired structures.

  2. 11. BASRELIEF DECORATION, 'REGENERATION,' MURAL COMMEMORATING THE REBUILDING OF CHICAGO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BAS-RELIEF DECORATION, 'REGENERATION,' MURAL COMMEMORATING THE REBUILDING OF CHICAGO AFTER THE GREAT FIRE - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Michigan Avenue, Spanning Chicago River at North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. 9. BASRELIEF DECORATION, 'DEFENSE', MURAL COMMEMORATING THE DEFENSE OF FORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BAS-RELIEF DECORATION, 'DEFENSE', MURAL COMMEMORATING THE DEFENSE OF FORT DEARBORN - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Michigan Avenue, Spanning Chicago River at North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 8. BASRELIEF DECORATION, 'THE DISCOVERS', MURAL COMMEMORATING JOLLIET, FATHER MARQUETTE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BAS-RELIEF DECORATION, 'THE DISCOVERS', MURAL COMMEMORATING JOLLIET, FATHER MARQUETTE, LASALLE AND TONTY - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Michigan Avenue, Spanning Chicago River at North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 35. Writing room with fireplace and a Chinese style mural ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Writing room with fireplace and a Chinese style mural painted by Alison Stilwell. (removed 1997) - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  6. 17. Missile mural, third flight of stairs. Lyon Whiteman ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Missile mural, third flight of stairs. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Minuteman Missile Launch Facility Trainer T-12, Northeast of Oscar-01 Missile Alert Facility, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  7. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF PODIUM, SENATE CHAMBER; MURAL TO LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF PODIUM, SENATE CHAMBER; MURAL TO LEFT DEPICTS 'FRANK P. BLAIR'S SPEECH AT LOUISIANA 1866' - Missouri State Capitol, High Street between Broadway & Jefferson Streets, Jefferson City, Cole County, MO

  8. Ovarian mucinous tumor with malignant mural nodules: dedifferentiation or collision?

    PubMed

    Desouki, Mohamed M; Khabele, Dineo; Crispens, Marta A; Fadare, Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian mucinous tumors with mural nodules are rare surface epithelial-stromal tumors. The mural nodules are divergent neoplasms that may be benign or malignant. The latter may be in the form of a sarcoma, carcinosarcoma, anaplastic carcinoma, or a variety of other recognized histotypes of carcinoma, which raises the question of whether malignant mural nodules represent a form of dedifferentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors or whether they represent collision tumors. We recently reported the K-RAS gene mutation status in a case of ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma with mural nodule of high-grade sarcoma. The mucinous and sarcomatous components revealed a mutation in codon 12 of the K-RAS gene of a different nucleotide substitution, indicating that these 2 tumor components were different clones of the same tumor. Herein, we are reporting another case of a 20-yr-old woman who presented with 22 cm pelvic mass, omental caking, and ascites. A diagnosis of invasive mucinous carcinoma with mural nodules of anaplastic carcinoma was rendered. K-RAS gene mutation studies revealed p.G12V, c.35G>T mutation in the 2 components of the tumor, which is the most common mutation reported in mucinous tumors of the ovary. The fact that sarcomatous or anaplastic carcinomatous mural nodules in ovarian mucinous tumors display the same K-RAS mutations as their underlying mucinous neoplasms provides supportive evidence that at least some malignant mural nodules represent a form of dedifferentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors, rather than a collision of 2 divergent tumor types. PMID:25473748

  9. Compartmentation and complexation of metals in hyperaccumulator plants

    PubMed Central

    Leitenmaier, Barbara; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators are being intensely investigated. They are not only interesting in scientific context due to their “strange” behavior in terms of dealing with high concentrations of metals, but also because of their use in phytoremediation and phytomining, for which understanding the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation is crucial. Hyperaccumulators naturally use metal accumulation as a defense against herbivores and pathogens, and therefore deal with accumulated metals in very specific ways of complexation and compartmentation, different from non-hyperaccumulator plants and also non-hyperaccumulated metals. For example, in contrast to non-hyperaccumulators, in hyperaccumulators even the classical phytochelatin-inducing metal, cadmium, is predominantly not bound by such sulfur ligands, but only by weak oxygen ligands. This applies to all hyperaccumulated metals investigated so far, as well as hyperaccumulation of the metalloid arsenic. Stronger ligands, as they have been shown to complex metals in non-hyperaccumulators, are in hyperaccumulators used for transient binding during transport to the storage sites (e.g., nicotianamine) and possibly for export of Cu in Cd/Zn hyperaccumulators [metallothioneins (MTs)]. This confirmed that enhanced active metal transport, and not metal complexation, is the key mechanism of hyperaccumulation. Hyperaccumulators tolerate the high amount of accumulated heavy metals by sequestering them into vacuoles, usually in large storage cells of the epidermis. This is mediated by strongly elevated expression of specific transport proteins in various tissues from metal uptake in the shoots up to the storage sites in the leaf epidermis. However, this mechanism seems to be very metal specific. Non-hyperaccumulated metals in hyperaccumulators seem to be dealt with like in non-hyperaccumulator plants, i.e., detoxified by binding to strong ligands such as MTs. PMID:24065978

  10. Compartmentation and complexation of metals in hyperaccumulator plants.

    PubMed

    Leitenmaier, Barbara; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators are being intensely investigated. They are not only interesting in scientific context due to their "strange" behavior in terms of dealing with high concentrations of metals, but also because of their use in phytoremediation and phytomining, for which understanding the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation is crucial. Hyperaccumulators naturally use metal accumulation as a defense against herbivores and pathogens, and therefore deal with accumulated metals in very specific ways of complexation and compartmentation, different from non-hyperaccumulator plants and also non-hyperaccumulated metals. For example, in contrast to non-hyperaccumulators, in hyperaccumulators even the classical phytochelatin-inducing metal, cadmium, is predominantly not bound by such sulfur ligands, but only by weak oxygen ligands. This applies to all hyperaccumulated metals investigated so far, as well as hyperaccumulation of the metalloid arsenic. Stronger ligands, as they have been shown to complex metals in non-hyperaccumulators, are in hyperaccumulators used for transient binding during transport to the storage sites (e.g., nicotianamine) and possibly for export of Cu in Cd/Zn hyperaccumulators [metallothioneins (MTs)]. This confirmed that enhanced active metal transport, and not metal complexation, is the key mechanism of hyperaccumulation. Hyperaccumulators tolerate the high amount of accumulated heavy metals by sequestering them into vacuoles, usually in large storage cells of the epidermis. This is mediated by strongly elevated expression of specific transport proteins in various tissues from metal uptake in the shoots up to the storage sites in the leaf epidermis. However, this mechanism seems to be very metal specific. Non-hyperaccumulated metals in hyperaccumulators seem to be dealt with like in non-hyperaccumulator plants, i.e., detoxified by binding to strong ligands such as MTs. PMID:24065978

  11. Unicystic Mural Ameloblastoma: An Unusual Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nagalaxmi, V.; Sangmesh, Mithare; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kodangal, Srikanth; Chappidi, Vani; Goyal, Stuti

    2013-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic neoplasm which frequently affects the mandible. The term ameloblastoma includes several clinicoradiological and histological types. Apart from the most commonly encountered clinicopathologic models, there are few variants, whose biological profile is unknown or not elicited. Among these types, unicystic ameloblastoma is the least encountered variant of the ameloblastoma. Unicystic ameloblastoma refers to those cystic lesions that show clinical, radiographic, or gross features of a jaw cyst but on histologic examination show a typical ameloblastomatous epithelium lining the cyst cavity, with or without luminal and/or mural tumor proliferation. Unicystic ameloblastoma is a less encountered variant of the ameloblastoma and is believed to be less aggressive. As this tumor shows considerable similarities with dentigerous cysts, both clinically and radiographically, the biologic behaviour of this tumor group was reviewed. Moreover, recurrence of unicystic ameloblastoma may be long delayed, and a long-term postoperative followup is essential for proper management of these patients. Here we are presenting a case of unicystic ameloblastoma in an 18-year-old female patient. PMID:23710377

  12. 4D Visualization of Painted Sculpture and Murals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, M. Y.; Tong, H.; Shen, L.; Wang, R. X.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Z. C.; Hu, Q. W.; Zhu, Y. X.; Zhang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Most cultural heritage applications address visualization with using various media or platforms: desktop-based multimedia presentations, museum kiosks, or videos produced with computer animation. However, these techniques can not directly reveal or show the course that the colorful surface of painted sculpture and murals becomes faint along with the change of the climate and time. Most current techniques just preserve the current appearance and disseminate the current situation of the painted sculpture and murals. The course how these forms of cultural heritage change along the time has not been visualized. In this paper we developed an approach to modelling of painted sculpture and murals that has undergone changes over the years. Different hypotheses has also be given if there is uncertainty. A painted sculpture of Mogao Grottoes is used to demonstate this approach.

  13. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  14. Recipe for Working Together: Gen. Colin Powell and the Baker's Dough Mural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Describes the process for creating a baker's-dough mural that would become a permanent part of the community and relates a visit made to the Sacramento (California) Boys & Girls Club by General Colin Powell. Discusses Powell's part in creating the mural. Includes the steps for how to make a Baker's-dough mural. (CMK)

  15. Phytomining of valuable metals from waste incineration residues using hyperaccumulator plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkranz, Theresa; Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    involving six plant species and an unplanted control as well as two different substrates. Fast growing species (Brassica napus, B. juncea, Nicotiana tabacum) will be harvested after two months, whereas slowly growing hyperaccumulators (Sedum plumbizincicola, Alyssum pintodasilvae) will be harvested after four months of growth. The plant tissue will be analyzed for the accumulation of the target metals. Moreover, the influence of plants on the substrate and solubility of certain metals is going to be evaluated.

  16. Xylem exudate composition and root-to-shoot nickel translocation in Alyssum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved understanding of Ni root-to-shoot translocation mechanism in hyperaccumulators is necessary to increase Ni uptake efficiency for phytoextraction technologies. It is presumed that an important aspect of Ni translocation and storage involves chelation with organic ligands. It has been re...

  17. Beautiful Walls: Reclaiming Urban Space through Mural Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Bethany J.

    2016-01-01

    During the nearly sixteen years she has lived and worked in inner city neighborhoods in New York, Delaware, and Philadelphia, Bethany Welch has seen communities reclaim these spaces by tackling the most visible things first. This includes clearing trash strewn vacant lots and creating murals on expansive exterior walls stained with marks of time.…

  18. University Extra-Mural Studies and Extension Outreach: Incompatibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The argument of this paper is that--within a wide range of university responses to the challenge of outreach--there grew up in the extra-mural or adult education departments of many UK universities an alternative epistemological paradigm to the older and more traditional extension programmes. This paradigm threatened the extension approach and has…

  19. Endoglin regulates mural cell adhesion in the circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Elisa; Smadja, David M; Boscolo, Elisa; Langa, Carmen; Arevalo, Miguel A; Pericacho, Miguel; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Kauskot, Alexandre; Botella, Luisa M; Gaussem, Pascale; Bischoff, Joyce; Lopez-Novoa, José M; Bernabeu, Carmelo

    2016-04-01

    The circulatory system is walled off by different cell types, including vascular mural cells and podocytes. The interaction and interplay between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells, such as vascular smooth muscle cells or pericytes, play a pivotal role in vascular biology. Endoglin is an RGD-containing counter-receptor for β1 integrins and is highly expressed by ECs during angiogenesis. We find that the adhesion between vascular ECs and mural cells is enhanced by integrin activators and inhibited upon suppression of membrane endoglin or β1-integrin, as well as by addition of soluble endoglin (SolEng), anti-integrin α5β1 antibody or an RGD peptide. Analysis of different endoglin mutants, allowed the mapping of the endoglin RGD motif as involved in the adhesion process. In Eng (+/-) mice, a model for hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia type 1, endoglin haploinsufficiency induces a pericyte-dependent increase in vascular permeability. Also, transgenic mice overexpressing SolEng, an animal model for preeclampsia, show podocyturia, suggesting that SolEng is responsible for podocytes detachment from glomerular capillaries. These results suggest a critical role for endoglin in integrin-mediated adhesion of mural cells and provide a better understanding on the mechanisms of vessel maturation in normal physiology as well as in pathologies such as preeclampsia or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. PMID:26646071

  20. On the Wall: Art Students Learn to Paint a Mural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the Mississippi University for Women's studio art course that teaches students the ins and outs of mural making from inception and design to application of the final glaze. While students in other courses may spend the semester working toward a final exam or paper, this four-and-a-half-week summer course…

  1. 18. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. 'MISSILE ART' MURAL PAINTED ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. 'MISSILE ART' MURAL PAINTED ON INTERIOR WALL OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  2. Vascular Mural Cells Promote Noradrenergic Differentiation of Embryonic Sympathetic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Vitor; Pardanaud, Luc; Brunet, Isabelle; Ola, Roxana; Ristori, Emma; Santoro, Massimo M; Nicoli, Stefania; Eichmann, Anne

    2015-06-23

    The sympathetic nervous system controls smooth muscle tone and heart rate in the cardiovascular system. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons (SNs) develop in close proximity to the dorsal aorta (DA) and innervate visceral smooth muscle targets. Here, we use the zebrafish embryo to ask whether the DA is required for SN development. We show that noradrenergic (NA) differentiation of SN precursors temporally coincides with vascular mural cell (VMC) recruitment to the DA and vascular maturation. Blocking vascular maturation inhibits VMC recruitment and blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling prevents VMC differentiation and also blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. NA differentiation is normal in cloche mutants that are devoid of endothelial cells but have VMCs. Thus, PDGFR-mediated mural cell recruitment mediates neurovascular interactions between the aorta and sympathetic precursors and promotes their noradrenergic differentiation. PMID:26074079

  3. Characterizing microbial diversity and damage in mural paintings.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Tânia; Mirão, José; Candeias, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Mural paintings are some of the oldest and most important cultural expressions of mankind and play an important role for the understanding of societies and civilizations. These cultural assets have high economic and cultural value and therefore their degradation has social and economic impact. The present work presents a novel microanalytical approach to understand the damages caused by microbial communities in mural paintings. This comprises the characterization and identification of microbial diversity and evaluation of damage promoted by their biological activity. Culture-dependent methods and DNA-based approaches like denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing are important tools in the isolation and identification of the microbial communities allowing characterization of the biota involved in the biodeterioration phenomena. Raman microspectrometry, infrared spectrometry, and variable pressure scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry are also useful tools for evaluation of the presence of microbial contamination and detection of the alteration products resulting from metabolic activity of the microorganisms. This study shows that the degradation status of mural paintings can be correlated to the presence of metabolically active microorganisms. PMID:25358672

  4. Successful treatment of Candida parapsilosis mural endocarditis with combined caspofungin and voriconazole

    PubMed Central

    López-Ciudad, Víctor; Castro-Orjales, María J; León, Cristóbal; Sanz-Rodríguez, César; de la Torre-Fernández, María J; de Juan-Romero, Miguel A Pérez; Collell-Llach, María D; Díaz-López, María D

    2006-01-01

    Background Fungal mural endocarditis is a rare entity in which the antemortem diagnosis is seldom made. Seven cases of mural endocarditis caused by Candida spp. have been collected from literature and six of these patients died after treatment with amphotericin B. Case presentation We report a case of mural endocarditis diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiogram and positive blood cultures to Candida parapsilosis. Because blood cultures continued to yield C. parapsilosis despite caspofungin monotherapy, treatment with voriconazole was added. Conclusion This is the first description of successful treatment of C. parapsilosis mural endocarditis with caspofungin and voriconazole. PMID:16608509

  5. Prospecting for hyperaccumulators of trace elements: a review.

    PubMed

    Krzciuk, Karina; Gałuszka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Specific plant species that can take up and accumulate abnormally high concentrations of elements in their aboveground tissues are referred to as "hyperaccumulators". The use of this term is justified in the case of enormous element-binding capacity of plants growing in their natural habitats and showing no toxicity symptoms. An increasing interest in the study of hyperaccumulators results from their potential applications in environmental biotechnology (phytoremediation, phytomining) and their emerging role in nanotechnology. The highest number of plant species with confirmed hyperaccumulative properties has been reported for hyperaccumulators of nickel, cadmium, zinc, manganese, arsenic and selenium. More limited data exist for plants accumulating other elements, including common pollutants (chromium, lead and boron) or elements of commercial value, such as copper, gold and rare earth elements. Different approaches have been used for the study of hyperaccumulators - geobotanical, chemical, biochemical and genetic. The chemical approach is the most important in screening for new hyperaccumulators. This article presents and critically reviews current trends in new hyperaccumulator research, emphasizing analytical methodology that is applied in identification of new hyperaccumulators of trace elements and its future perspectives. PMID:24938121

  6. SOIL MICROBIAL EFFECTS ON HEAVY METAL UPTAKE INTO HYPERACCUMULATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uptake of heavy metals into hyperaccumulators is influenced by a number of chemical, physical and biological factors. Of these, recent evidence has shown that microbes living within the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulators may have a significant effect on metal uptake. Much is known about the role my...

  7. Art, Education, and the Bomb: Reflections on an International Children's Peace Mural Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Argues that social change can be evidenced in the absence of an image. Discusses how murals painted by children 50 years after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki do not depict "the bomb," but it pervades the murals nonetheless. Shows that viewers draw unintended analogies between the images and the bombings. (DSK)

  8. Unusual Radiologic Finding of Intracranial Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Presenting a Cyst with Mural Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Heok; Chung, Dong-Sup

    2015-01-01

    An intracranial cyst tumor with a mural nodule can be representative of some types of brain tumors, but is a rare presentation of intracranial inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Herein, we report the case of an intracranial IMT in a 48-year-old woman presenting with the extremely unusual radiologic findings of a cyst with a mural nodule. PMID:26605272

  9. Teaching with Murals at a Post Office: A Community's Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Jaehan

    2009-01-01

    Murals in a post office can be an important way to explore how public art functions in a community because they represent stories about history, culture, people, and lives. In this lesson, middle school students will investigate murals at a local post office in Sheboygan, Wisconsin to learn about the function of public art and the social role…

  10. Tiene Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holscher, Louis M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)

  11. Grossesse intra murale à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    de Tové, Kofi-Mensa Savi; Salifou, Kabibou; Imorou, Rachidi Sidi; Biaou, Olivier; Boco, Vicentia

    2015-01-01

    La grossesse intra-murale est la variété la plus rare de grossesse extra-utérine. Il s'agit de la localisation de l’œuf dans l’épaisseur du myomètre. En cas de retard diagnostic, l’évolution peut être catastrophique avec rupture utérine et hémorragie cataclysmique. L’échographie permet dans certains cas un diagnostic pré opératoire. Les auteurs rapportent un cas survenu chez une patiente aux antécédents de curetage. PMID:26448812

  12. Unicystic Ameloblastoma with Mural Proliferation Managed by Conservative Treatment.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Natália Galvão; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; Rodrigues, Moacyr Tadeu Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Unicystic ameloblastoma is a distinguishable entity of ameloblastomas, characterized by slow growth and being relatively locally aggressive. Three histological types are recognized according to the degree of ameloblastomatous epithelial extension, namely, luminal, intraluminal, and mural types. This classification has a direct bearing on their biological behavior, treatment, and prognosis. However, there is difficulty in determining the most appropriate form of treatment for unicystic ameloblastoma. We present a case of unicystic ameloblastoma that occurred in the right posterior mandible of 19-year-old girl, which was enucleated and did not recur after 12-month follow-up. PMID:27610259

  13. Unicystic Ameloblastoma with Mural Proliferation Managed by Conservative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Unicystic ameloblastoma is a distinguishable entity of ameloblastomas, characterized by slow growth and being relatively locally aggressive. Three histological types are recognized according to the degree of ameloblastomatous epithelial extension, namely, luminal, intraluminal, and mural types. This classification has a direct bearing on their biological behavior, treatment, and prognosis. However, there is difficulty in determining the most appropriate form of treatment for unicystic ameloblastoma. We present a case of unicystic ameloblastoma that occurred in the right posterior mandible of 19-year-old girl, which was enucleated and did not recur after 12-month follow-up. PMID:27610259

  14. Solar and Calendrical Symbolism in the Early Medieval Finnish Church Murals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridderstad, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    The earliest church murals of the first stone churches in Finland were painted at the time when Christianity had only just become the official faith in the region and the old ethnic religion was still widely practiced. The 'pagan' motifs of these Early Medieval Finnish church murals reflect the complexity of the religious beliefs in this transition phase. The church actively transformed the festivals of the vernacular religion by giving Christian meanings to the symbols and rituals, as well as by replacing the ethnic deities with Christian figures. The solar symbolism and the calendrical motifs of the church murals are interpreted as imagery largely based on the Christianized remnants of the pre-Christian annual festivals. The earliest church murals thus provide important insight into the pre-Christian religious beliefs of late Iron Age Finland. Many of the motifs and symbols represented in the murals are related to the annual fertility cult and the solar goddess as one of its central figures.

  15. Effects of arsenic on nitrogen metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ferns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of arsenic on the in vitro activities of the enzymes (nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) involved in nitrate metabolism in the roots, rhizomes, and fronds of two four-month old fern plants, Pteris vittata, an arsenic-hyperaccumulator, and Pteris ensiformis, ...

  16. Terahertz analysis of an East Asian historical mural painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, K.; Hosako, I.; Kohdzuma, Y.; Koezuka, T.; Kim, M.-J.; Ikari, T.; Du, X.

    2010-05-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and THz and imaging techniques are expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. We have applied THz imaging to analyse the historic mural painting of a Lamaism temple by using a transportable time-domain THz imaging system; such an attempt is the first in the world. The reflection image revealed that there are two orange colours in the painting, although they appear the same to the naked eye. THz imaging can also estimate the depth of cracks. The colours were examined by X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, and the results were found to be in good agreement. This work proved that THz imaging can contribute to the non-invasive analysis of cultural heritage.

  17. Arabis gemmifera is a hyperaccumulator of Cd and Zn.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Chisato

    2003-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators are essential for phytoremediation of heavy metals. In Europe and North America, many studies have been conducted to find more effective plants for phytoremediation of various pollutants. In Japan, this field of research has just recently come more into focus. A type of fern in Japan, Athyrium yokoscense, is well known as a hyperaccumulator of Cd and Zn. However, it is not suitable for phytoremediation because it is a summer green and grows slowly. Therefore, in order to find hyperaccumulators other than from A. yokoscense, we surveyed plants growing at polluted sites in Japan. We found that the Brassicae Arabis gemmifera is a hyperaccumulator of Cd and Zn, with phytoextraction capacities almost equal to Thlaspi caerulescens. PMID:14750427

  18. Cd hyperaccumulative characteristics of Australia ecotype Solanum nigrum L. and its implication in screening hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Clark, Gary; Doronila, Augustine Ignatius; Jin, Jian; Monsant, Alison Carol

    2013-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was used to determine the differences in uptake characteristics of a cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. discovered in China, an ecotype from Melbourne, Australia and a non-hyperaccumulator Solanum melogena Australian ecotype was not significantly different to the China ecotype. In particular, Cd concentration in leaves and shoots of S. nigrum collected from Australia were 166.0 and 146.3 mg kg(-1) respectively when 20 mg kg(-1) Cd spiked, and were not significantly different to the ecotype imported from China which had 109.8 and 85.3 mg kg(-1) respectively, in the stems and leaves. In contrast, the tolerance of the eggplant to Cd was significantly less than the two S. nigrum ecotypes. Although some morphological properties of S. nigrum collected from Australia were different from that of the plants collected from China, Cd hyperaccumulator characteristics of two ecotypes were similar. The results suggested that the tolerance and uptake of Cd may be a constitutive trait of this species. PMID:23488006

  19. Reactive oxygen species metabolism during the cadmium hyperaccumulation of a new hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-chun; Qiu, Bao-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Sedum alfredii Hance, a newly discovered hyperaccumulator, could serve as a good material for phytoremediation of Cd polluted sites. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidases (catalase (CAT); superoxide dismutase (SOD); peroxidase (POD)) in the leaf were determined when S. alfredii was treated for 15 d with various CdCl2 concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 micromol/L. The results showed that the production rate of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF), which is an indicator of ROS level, reached up to the maximum at 400 micromol/L CdCl2 and then declined with the increase of CdCl2 concentration, while MDA accumulation tended to increase. CAT activity was significantly inhibited at all tested CdCl2 concentrations and SOD activity was sharply suppressed at 800 micromol/L CdCl2. However, the enhancement of POD activity was observed when CdCl2 concentration was higher than 400 micromol/L. In addition, its activity increased when treated with 600 micromol/L CdCl2 for more than 5 d. When sodium benzoate, a free radical scavenger, was added, S. alfredii was a little more sensitive to Cd toxicity than that exposed to Cd alone, and the Cd accumulation tended to decline with the increase of sodium benzoate concentration. It came to the conclusions that POD played an important role during Cd hyperaccumulation, and the accumulation of ROS induced by Cd treatment might be involved in Cd hyperaccumulation. PMID:18232224

  20. Tolerance to cadmium in plants: the special case of hyperaccumulators.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Nathalie; Juraniec, Michal; Baliardini, Cecilia; Meyer, Claire-Lise

    2013-08-01

    On sols highly polluted by trace metallic elements the majority of plant species are excluders, limiting the entry and the root to shoot translocation of trace metals. However a rare class of plants called hyperaccumulators possess remarkable adaptation because those plants combine extremely high tolerance degrees and foliar accumulation of trace elements. Hyperaccumulators have recently gained considerable interest, because of their potential use in phytoremediation, phytomining and biofortification. On a more fundamental point of view hyperaccumulators of trace metals are case studies to understand metal homeostasis and detoxification mechanisms. Hyperaccumulation of trace metals usually depends on the enhancement of at least four processes, which are the absorption from the soil, the loading in the xylem in the roots and the unloading from the xylem in the leaves and the detoxification in the shoot. Cadmium is one of the most toxic trace metallic elements for living organisms and its accumulation in the environment is recognized as a worldwide concern. To date, only nine species have been recognized as Cd hyperaccumulators that is to say able to tolerate and accumulate more than 0.01 % Cd in shoot dry biomass. Among these species, four belong to the Brassicaceae family with Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea caerulescens being considered as models. An update of our knowledge on the evolution of hyperaccumulators will be presented here. PMID:23881358

  1. Effects of Cadmium on Nickel Tolerance and Accumulation in Alyssum species and Cabbage Grown in Nutrient Solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nickel phytoextraction using hyperaccumulator plant species to accumulate Ni from mineralized and contaminated soils rich in Ni is an emerging technology. Serpentinite derived soils which contain Ni ore value have a very low ratio of Ca:Mg among soils due the nature of the parent rock. In crop plant...

  2. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemdan, R.; et al.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl α pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  3. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural's many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc.) reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines) an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect the actual state of

  4. Streptococcus agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart

    PubMed Central

    Ariyoshi, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Keisuke; Bolger, Dennis T.

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old Caucasian man with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type 2 was admitted with a 1-week duration of fevers, chills, and a non-productive cough. He had a left ischiorectal abscess 1 month prior to admission. Physical examination revealed caries on a left upper molar and a well-healed scar on the left buttock, but no heart murmur or evidence of micro-emboli. Blood cultures grew Streptococcus agalactiae. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a mobile mass in the right ventricle that attached to chordae tendineae without valvular disease or dysfunction. A computed tomography (CT) with contrast revealed the mass within the right ventricle, a left lung cavitary lesion, and a splenic infarction. He was initially treated with penicillin G for a week. Subsequently, ceftriaxone was continued for a total of 8 weeks. A follow-up CT showed no evidence of right ventricular mass 8 weeks after discharge. This is the first reported case of S. agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart. PMID:27124171

  5. Streptococcus agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Keisuke; Bolger, Dennis T

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old Caucasian man with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type 2 was admitted with a 1-week duration of fevers, chills, and a non-productive cough. He had a left ischiorectal abscess 1 month prior to admission. Physical examination revealed caries on a left upper molar and a well-healed scar on the left buttock, but no heart murmur or evidence of micro-emboli. Blood cultures grew Streptococcus agalactiae. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a mobile mass in the right ventricle that attached to chordae tendineae without valvular disease or dysfunction. A computed tomography (CT) with contrast revealed the mass within the right ventricle, a left lung cavitary lesion, and a splenic infarction. He was initially treated with penicillin G for a week. Subsequently, ceftriaxone was continued for a total of 8 weeks. A follow-up CT showed no evidence of right ventricular mass 8 weeks after discharge. This is the first reported case of S. agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart. PMID:27124171

  6. The tectonic plates are shifting: cultural change vs. mural dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Kenneth; Friedman, Leonard H; Allyn, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    In response to a rapidly changing healthcare marketplace, a variety of new business models have arisen, including new specialties (hospitalists), selective care (concierge medicine), and joint ventures (ambulatory surgical centers, specialty hospitals), some with hospitals and others with independent vendors. Since both hospitals and physicians are feeling the squeeze of rising expenses, burdensome regulations, heightened consumer expectations, and stagnant or decreasing reimbursement, the response to global economic competition and the need to improve clinical and financial outcomes can bring physicians and hospitals together rather than drive them farther apart. In response to perceived threats, physicians and hospital executives can engage in defensive reasoning that may feel protective but can also lead to mural dyslexia, the inability or unwillingness to see the handwriting on the wall. The strategies of positive deviance (finding solutions that already exist in the community rather than importing best practices), appreciative inquiry (building on success rather than relying solely on root-cause analyses of problems), and structured dialogue (allowing practicing physicians to articulate clinical priorities rather than assuming they lack the maturity and will to come to consensus) are field-tested approaches that allow hospital leaders to engage practicing physicians and that can help both parties work more interdependently to improve patient care in a dynamically changing environment. Physician-hospital collaboration based on transparency, active listening, and prompt implementation can offer sustainable competitive advantage to those willing to embark on a lifetime learning journey. PMID:17907689

  7. Limewashed mural paintings as seen by VIS-IR reflectography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, R.; Striova, J.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Mariotti, P.

    2015-06-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) reflectography is a well-established technique for painting diagnostics, offering a fundamental contribution to the conservation of paintings. Since the '80s it has been routinely applied to study the execution technique of the author, as well as the presence of pentimenti, retouches, integrations or underdrawing. In the last decades IR reflectography has been extended to the visible (VIS) spectral range, providing information about the pigment composition. Up to now the multispectral analysis is still applied at an experimental level, as the processing of the image set is not straightforward. Rarely multispectral VIS-IR application has been applied to frescos, probably due to the lack, in most cases, of a scattering background. In this work we present the results provided by a multispectral scanning device based on single sensor acquisition, working in the 380-2500 nm spectral range, that is a laboratory prototype specifically built for research-grade imaging. The technique have been applied on a mock up simulating a mural painting substrate where an underdrawing, made of either carbon or iron-gall ink, was covered by different surface layers of limewash, the so-called scialbo.

  8. Hyperaccumulative property comparison of 24 weed species to heavy metals using a pot culture experiment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Zhou, Qixing; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Chuanjie; Hu, Yahu; Ren, Liping

    2009-05-01

    The screening of hyperaccumulators is still very much needed for phytoremediation. With properties such as strong tolerance to adverse environment, fast growing and highly reproductive rate, weed species may be an ideal plant for phytoremediation. The objectives of this study were to examine the tolerance and hyperaccumulative characteristics of 24 species in 9 families to Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn by using the outdoor pot-culture experiment. In the screening experiment, only Conyza canadensis and Rorippa globosa displayed Cd-hyperaccumulative characteristics. In a further concentration gradient experiment, C. canadensis was affirmed that it is not a Cd hyperaccumulator. Only R. globosa, indicated all Cd hyperaccumulative characteristics, especially Cd concentration in its stems and leaves were higher than 100 mg/kg, the minimum Cd concentration what a Cd-hyperaccumulator should accumulate. Thus, R. globosa was further validated as a Cd-hyperaccumulator. PMID:18483772

  9. Investigation of Ni hyperaccumulation by true elemental imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybyłowicz, W. J.; Pineda, C. A.; Prozesky, V. M.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.

    1995-09-01

    The newly implemented Dynamic Analysis method for on-line elemental imaging was used to study Ni hyperaccumulation in Senecio coronatus (Thunb.) Harv. Asteraceae, one of only nine Ni hyperaccumulating plants found in the African continent. Elemental maps were obtained from samples with thicknesses varying from 0.4 to 5 mg/cm 2 by assuming cellulose (C 6H 10O 5) as constant matrix composition for the whole scanned area. The agreement between point analyses and results inferred from maps is good for small thickness variations within scanned regions. Maps of very inhomogeneous samples require a more time-consuming approach of thickness corrections in every pixel.

  10. Sarcoma-like mural nodule in a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik; Bhowmik, Sourav

    2014-10-01

    Sarcoma-like mural nodule (SLMN) is a very uncommon and misleading benign entity which may be associated with benign, borderline or malignant mucinous neoplasm of the ovary. It should be distinguished from other malignant mural nodules with sarcoma, carcinosarcoma or anaplastic carcinoma for proper management. We report a rare case of SLMN in a borderline mucinous tumor of the ovary in a 30-year-old lady. In spite of having confusing histopathological features the final diagnosis was made depending on the younger age of the patient, well circumscription of the nodule, absence of vascular invasion and immunohistochemical profile. PMID:25540570

  11. Improved Understanding of Hyperaccumulation Yields Commercial Phytoextraction and Phytomining Technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews progress in phytoextraction of soil elements and illustrates the key role of hyperaccumulator plant species in useful technologies. Much research has focused on elements which are not practically phytoextracted (Pb); on addition of chelating agents which cause unacceptable contam...

  12. Cadmium uptake, translocation and tolerance in the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F J; Jiang, R F; Dunham, S J; McGrath, S P

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis halleri is a well-known zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, but its status as a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator is less certain. Here, we investigated whether A. halleri can hyperaccumulate Cd and whether Cd is transported via the Zn pathway. Growth and Cd and Zn uptake were determined in hydroponic experiments with different Cd and Zn concentrations. Short-term uptake and root-to-shoot transport were measured with radioactive 109Cd and 65Zn labelling. A. halleri accumulated > 1000 mg Cd kg(-1) in shoot dry weight at external Cd concentrations >or= 5 microm, but the short-term uptake rate of 109Cd was much lower than that of 65Zn. Zinc inhibited short-term 109Cd uptake kinetics and root-to-shoot translocation, as well as long-term Cd accumulation in shoots. Uptake of 109Cd and 65Zn were up-regulated, respectively, by low iron (Fe) or Zn status. A. halleri was much less tolerant to Cd than to Zn. We conclude that A. halleri is able to hyperaccumulate Cd partly, at least, through the Zn pathway, but the mechanisms responsible for cellular Zn tolerance cannot detoxify Cd effectively. PMID:17096791

  13. [Cadmium-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and its accumulating characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-he; Zhou, Qi-xing; Wang, Xin

    2005-05-01

    It is main groundwork and the first step of phytoextraction of its commercial application on a large scale to screen out a series of ideal hyperaccumulators that can effectively remedy contaminated soil by heavy metals, which is also difficult point and front field of contaminated environment phytoremediation. With the properties of strong endurance to adverse environment, fast growing and high reproduction, especially the characteristic of the biomass could increase sharply under feasible environmental factors, weed can supply a gap of discovered hyperaccumulating plants, so it is a kind of ideal remediative resource. A cadmium-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. (weed) was first discovered by using the pot-culture method arranged in outdoor and sampling-analyzing experiments carried out in heavy metal contaminated areas. The pot-culture experiments show that the average concentration of Cd in stems and leaves of S. nigrum growing in soil added with 25 mg/kg of Cd were all greater than the accepted critical concentration of 100 mg/kg what Cd hyperaccumulator should accumulate. The Cd concentration in its overground parts was higher than that in its roots, and the Cd accumulation coefficient in its overground parts was higher than 1 too. Compared with the control, the overground biomass of S. nigrum under the condition of 25 mg/kg (Cd) was not decreased significantly. Furthermore, it was also confirmed that S. nigrum had basic characteristics of Cd-hyperaccumulator by sample-analyze experiment in contaminated area with heavy metals. This kind of method of identifying hyper accumulators in a clean area is useful to the discovery of materials applied to the phytoremediation of contaminated soils with Cd. PMID:16124492

  14. Murals as Text: A Social-Cultural Perspective on Family Literacy Events in US Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, William

    2011-01-01

    Literacy and parenting programmes in US prisons tend to be generic and skills-oriented, insensitive to pressing personal needs of parents and their distant children. This study reports on a prison-based family/art/literacy programme that attended to the local needs and interests of participants through a mural project. The article describes some…

  15. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of Community Mural Making and Social Action Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetto, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Through a hermeneutic phenomenological study of interview data from 8 community artists, the author sought to discover commonalities and differences in the worldviews and philosophies of self that underlie community mural making as they relate to art therapy as social action and art therapy practice within a traditional Western cultural framework.…

  16. Public Art Education in Brunei Darussalam: The Cultural Language of Community Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kong

    2014-01-01

    Two mural projects in Brunei offer insight into the specific and universal aspects of public art education and community art making. This article describes how the author used his initiative and experience as a muralist to plan and implement two community art research projects in Bandar Seri Begwan, the capital of Brunei Darussalam. A premise of…

  17. Reciprocal grafting separates the roles of the root and shoot in zinc hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens

    PubMed Central

    de A Guimarães, Marcelo; Gustin, Jeffery L; Salt, David E

    2009-01-01

    The extreme phenotype of zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation, which is found in several Brassicaceae species, is determined by mechanisms that promote elevated Zn tolerance and high Zn accumulation in shoots. We used reciprocal grafting between a Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens, and a Zn nonaccumulator, Thlaspi perfoliatum, to determine the relative importance of roots and shoots in Zn hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance. Leaves from plants with a T. perfoliatum rootstock and a T. caerulescens shoot scion did not hyperaccumulate Zn, whereas plants with a T. caerulescens rootstock and a T. perfoliatum shoot scion did hyperaccumulate Zn. However, although leaves from plants with a T. caerulescens rootstock and a T. perfoliatum shoot scion hyperaccumulated Zn, at high Zn loads these leaves showed significant symptoms of Zn toxicity, unlike leaves of self grafted T. caerulescens. Hyperaccumulation of Zn in leaves of the hyperaccumulator T. caerulescens is pri-marily dictated by root processes. Further, the mechanisms controlling Zn hypertolerance in the hyperaccumulator T. caerulescens are driven primarily by shoot processes. PMID:19656301

  18. Role of Leukocyte Elastase in Preventing Cellular Re-Colonization of the Mural Thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Vincent; Touat, Ziad; Mtairag, El Mostafa; Vranckx, Roger; Louedec, Liliane; Houard, Xavier; Andreassian, Bernard; Sebbag, Uriel; Palombi, Tonino; Jacob, Marie-Paule; Meilhac, Olivier; Michel, Jean-Baptiste

    2004-01-01

    To explore possible mechanisms responsible for the absence of cell re-colonization of mural thrombi in aneurysms, we analyzed the release and storage of leukocyte proteases in the most luminal layer versus intermediate and abluminal layers of 10 mural thrombi of human abdominal aortic aneurysms. The luminal layer contained many polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), which released pro-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-8. Leukocyte elastase was also stored and released by the luminal layer (immunohistochemistry, activity on synthetic substrates, and casein zymography). Acid buffer allowed extraction of leukocyte elastase from the luminal layer, which was inhibited by elastase inhibitors. Casein zymography of luminal extracts and conditioned medium from formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated PMNs exhibited a similar lysis pattern, corresponding to elastase activity. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) seeding resulted in colonization of the intermediate thrombus layer ex vivo but not of the luminal layer. Extracts of the luminal layer induced loss of anchorage of both cultured human smooth muscle cells and stromal cells of bone marrow origin (anoikis). This anoikis was prevented by preincubation of the extracts with serine protease inhibitors. Moreover, adhesion of human SMCs and stromal bone marrow cells on fibrin gels was strongly inhibited when the gel was preincubated with pure elastase, medium of fMLP-stimulated PMNs, or extracts of luminal layers of mural thrombi. This loss of cell anchorage was prevented by the preincubation of the medium or extracts with α1-antitrypsin, but not when α1-antitrypsin was added after binding of elastase to the fibrin gel. In conclusion, elastase released by PMNs trapped within the mural thrombus impairs the spontaneous anchorage of mesenchymal cells to a fibrin matrix. This phenomenon could be one mechanism by which cellular healing of the mural thrombus in aneurysms is prevented. PMID:15161642

  19. Study of the painting methods of mural paintings in ancient tombs of Goguryeo using scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Hwasoo

    2013-08-01

    Disputes on the painting methods of Goguryeo murals can mainly be categorized into whether the murals adapted eastern secco or western fresco; however, the murals have their own unique methods as well. There are different viewpoints among experts on interpreting the painting methods. This study involved the creation of research samples to discover the painting methods under dispute and may help discover the methods based on scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) studies. Goguryeo murals introduced pseudo-fresco rather than buon fresco methods. Unlike fresco techniques in the West, Goguryeo painters mixed traditional soft binders and adapted typical secco painting techniques for paintings, borders, and corrections after drying. The disputed issues may be resolved by these techniques, and samples may be produced based on the analyzed data. Therefore, many questions can finally be answered through SEM-EDX elemental mapping. PMID:23920197

  20. Hyperaccumulation, complexation and distribution of nickel in Sebertia acuminata.

    PubMed

    Sagner, S; Kneer, R; Wanner, G; Cosson, J P; Deus-Neumann, B; Zenk, M H

    1998-02-01

    The nickel content in different parts of the hyperaccumulating tree Sebertia acuminata was analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Nickel was found to be mainly located in laticifers. The total nickel content of a single mature tree was estimated to be 37 kg. By gel filtration and NMR spectroscopy, citric acid was unequivocally identified as counter ion for about 40% of this metal present. Nitrate was assumed to be a further partner for a complete ionic balance. Phytochelatins were not found to be involved in nickel detoxification in Sebertia. The localization of nickel complexes inside the laticifers was demonstrated by light microscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy in combination with an EDX system for the analysis of elements. A repellent effect of the plant sap was observed on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster indicating that in hyperaccumulating plants nickel functions as an agent to prevent predation. PMID:9433812

  1. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  2. Investigating Heavy-metal Hyperaccumulation using Thlaspi caerulescens as a Model System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperaccumulation was a term first coined by Brooks for plants that are endemic to metalliferous soils and are able to tolerate and accumulate large amounts of metals in their above ground tissues. Of the nearly 90 metal hyperaccumulating species in the Brassicaceae family, two species in particula...

  3. Non-invasive detection of murals with pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Zhang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed terahertz reflected imaging technology has been expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. In this paper, three types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by a pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system. These preset defects include a circular groove, a cross-shaped slit and a piece of "Y-type" metal plate built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. Additionally, three-dimensional analyses have been performed in order to reveal the internal structure of defects. Terahertz reflective imaging can be applied to the defect investigation of the murals.

  4. Effects of cadmium on ultrastructure and antioxidative defense system in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaofen; Yang, Xiaoe; Islam, Ejazul; Liu, Dan; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2008-08-15

    Plant growth, ultrastructural and antioxidant adaptations and glutathione biosynthesis in Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance (HE) countering high Cd environment were investigated and compared with its non Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Cadmium exposure resulted in significant ultrastructural changes in root meristem and leaf mesophyll cells of S. alfredii, but damage was more pronounced in NHE even when Cd concentrations were one-tenth of those applied to HE. Cadmium stress damaged chloroplasts causing imbalanced lamellae formation coupled with early leaf senescence. Histochemical results revealed that glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis inhibition led to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and superoxide radical (O(2)(*-)) in HE but not in NHE. Differences were noted in both HE and NHE for catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities under various Cd stress levels. No relationship was found between antioxidative defense capacity including activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, GPX, APX and GR as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) contents and Cd tolerance in the two ecotypes of S. alfredii. The GSH biosynthesis induction in root and shoot exposed to elevated Cd conditions may be involved in Cd tolerance and hyperaccumulation in HE of S. alfredii H. PMID:18242844

  5. Approach of the measurement of thermal diffusivity of mural paintings by front face photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candoré, Jean Charles; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, Vincent; Remy, B.; Grossel, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we present, in an experimental way, the possibilities of front face photothermal radiometry to measure, in situ, the longitudinal thermal diffusivity of mural paintings. First, we present the principle of the method of measurement. Then, we present the experimental device implemented for the study. Finally, we show, using the experimental study of a plaster sample, the photothermal method allows in a particular case, a good approximation of the parameter longitudinal thermal diffusivity.

  6. Development of a portable ESPI system for the analysis in situ of mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaglio, E.; Lamas, J.; López, Ana J.; Ramil, A.; Pereira, L.; Prieto, B.; Silva, B.

    2012-10-01

    The use of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) is well documented in the literature as a non-destructive technique for structural diagnostics in the field of cultural heritage.. In the case of mural paintings the lack of adhesion between the plaster and the mural support is one of the most important risk factors that threaten their conservation. With this non-invasive method it is possible to detect detachments and cracks in the paintings before they become visible The objective of this work is the development of ESPI portable equipment based on a fibre interferometer for in situ qualitative analysis of mural paintings. The novelty of the presented set up is the use of a variable ratio coupler which makes the system more immune to vibrations and allows for better use of available light compared with the equivalent of free air guided. This configuration simplifies the arrangement and makes it possible to obtain ESPI interferograms with high contrast; moreover, the use of a ceramic heater as excitation source enables the analysis during the heating. Preliminary results obtained in laboratory conditions have shown that detachments and cracks can be successfully detected on model samples of the wall paintings.

  7. Chromium accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Leersia hexandra Swartz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Hong; Liu, Jie; Huang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Yi-Nian; Wang, Dun-Qiu

    2007-04-01

    Leersia hexandra Swartz (Gramineae), which occurs in Southern China, has been found to be a new chromium hyperaccumulator by means of field survey and pot-culture experiment. The field survey showed that this species had an extraordinary accumulation capacity for chromium. The maximum Cr concentration in the dry leaf matter was 2978 mg kg(-1) on the side of a pond near an electroplating factory. The average concentration of chromium in the leaves was 18.86 times as that in the pond sediment, and 297.41 times as that in the pond water. Under conditions of the nutrient solution culture, it was found that L. hexandra had a high tolerance and accumulation capacity to Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Under 60 mg l(-1) Cr(III) and 10 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) treatment, there was no significant decrease of biomass in the leaves of L. hexandra (p>0.05). The highest bioaccumulation coefficients of the leaves for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 486.8 and 72.1, respectively. However, L. hexandra had a higher accumulation capacity for Cr(III) than for Cr(VI). At the Cr(III) concentration of 10 mg l(-1) in the culture solution, the concentration of chromium in leaves was 4868 mg kg(-1), while at the same Cr(VI) concentration, the concentration of chromium in leaves was only 597 mg kg(-1). These results confirmed that L. hexandra is a chromium hyperaccumulator which grows rapidly with a great tolerance to Cr and broad ecological amplitude. This species could provide a new plant resource that explores the mechanism of Cr hyperaccumulation, and has potential for usage in the phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated soil and water. PMID:17207838

  8. Immunophenotype and K-RAS mutation in mucinous ovarian adenocarcinoma with mural nodule of high-grade sarcoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Desouki, Mohamed M; Fadare, Oluwole; Kanbour, Anisa; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian mucinous tumors with mural nodules are rare. The mural nodules are microscopically divergent neoplasms of varying sizes that may be benign (eg, sarcoma-like and carcinosarcoma-like), or malignant (eg, anaplastic carcinoma and sarcoma). The K-RAS gene mutation in ovarian mucinous neoplasms with mural nodules has not been previously reported. This is a case report of a 25-year-old female diagnosed with ovarian invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma with mural nodule of high-grade sarcoma. The mucinous tumor component demonstrated a K-RAS codon 12/13 mutation (p.G12V, c.35 G>T), whereas the sarcomatous component demonstrated a K-RAS codon 12/13 mutation (p.G12D, c.35 G>A). Although both tumor components revealed a mutation in codon 12 of K-RAS, they were of different nucleotide substitutions, indicating that these 2 tumor components were of different clonal origins. However, the fact that the 2 mutations identified in the tumor components are the most common mutations reported in mucinous tumors of the ovary, raises the possibility that sarcomatous mural nodules simply represent a form of dedifferentiation in mucinous tumors. PMID:24487474

  9. Genetic and Molecular Dissection of Arsenic Hyperaccumulation in the fern Pteris vittata.

    SciTech Connect

    Jo Ann Banks; David Salt

    2008-04-04

    Pteris vittata is a fern that is extraordinary in its ability to tolerate hyperaccumulate high levels of arsenic (As). The goals of the proposed research, to identify the genes that are necessary for As hyperaccumulation in P. vittata using molecular and genetic approaches and to understand the physiology of arsenic uptake and distribution in the living plant, were accomplished during the funding period. The genes that have been identified may ultimately enable the engineering or selection of other plants capable of As hyperaccumulation. This is important for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils in areas where P. vittata cannot grow.

  10. Cadmium hyperaccumulation leads to an increase of glutathione rather than phytochelatins in the cadmium hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qin; Ye, Zhi Hong; Wang, Xiao Rong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2007-11-01

    Sedum alfredii has been reported to be a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator. Phytochelatins (PCs) and other thiol (SH)-containing compounds have been proposed to play an important role in the detoxification and tolerance of some heavy metals, but it is not clear whether PCs are responsible for Cd hyperaccumulation and tolerance in S. alfredii. In this study, two geographically isolated populations of S. alfredii were studied: one population grew on an old Pb/Zn mine site, while the other on a non-mine site. The mine population of this species exhibited a stronger heavy metal tolerance than in the other population. Root-to-shoot transport of Cd was higher in population located at the mine site than at the non-mine site. Considerable amounts of Cd were accumulated in leaves and stems of mine plants, while most Cd was distributed in roots of non-mine plants. Non-protein SH in plant tissues of two populations were further investigated by a HPLC pre-column derivatization system. Upon exposure to Cd, no PCs were detected in all tissues of mine population, while an appreciable amount of glutathione (GSH) was observed in the descending order of stem>root>leaf. The concentrations of GSH consistently increased with the increase of exogenous Cd concentrations and time. On the contrary, Cd exposure strongly induced the production of PCs (mainly PC(2) and PC(3)) and GSH in plant tissues of non-mine population, and the concentrations of GSH showed an initial drop over the duration of 7-d exposure. The present results provided strong evidence that PCs are not involved in Cd transport, hyperaccumulation and tolerance in mine population of S. alfredii. PMID:17207552

  11. Nopalea cochenillifera, a potential chromium (VI) hyperaccumulator plant.

    PubMed

    Adki, Vinayak S; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Bapat, Vishwas A

    2013-02-01

    Hexavalant chromium [Cr(VI)] tolerance and accumulation in in vitro grown Nopalea cochenillifera Salm. Dyck. plants was investigated. A micropropagation protocol was establish for a rapid multiplication of N. cochenillifera and [Cr(VI)] tolerance and accumulation was studied in in vitro grown cultures. Cr concentration was estimated by atomic absorption spectroscopy in roots and shoots to confirm plant's hyperaccumulation capacity. Plants showed tolerance up to 100 μM K(2)Cr(2)O(7) without any significant changes in root growth after 16 days treatment; whereas, chlorophyll content in plants treated with 1 and 10 μM K(2)Cr(2)O(7) were not so different than the control plant. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation increased significantly (p < 0.01) with increasing concentration of chromium. Exposures of N. cochenillifera to lower concentrations of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) (≤ 10 μM) induced catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly (p < 0.001) but higher concentrations of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) (>100 μM) inhibited the activities of CAT and SOD. Roots accumulated a maximum of 25,263.396 ± 1,722.672 mg Cr Kg(-1) dry weight (DW); while the highest concentration of Cr in N. cochenillifera shoots was 705.714 ± 32.324 mg Cr Kg(-1) DW. N. cochenillifera could be a prospective hyperaccumulator plant of Cr(VI) and a promising candidate for phytoremediation purposes. PMID:22914913

  12. Tissue fractions of cadmium in two hyperaccumulating Jerusalem artichoke genotypes.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiaohua; Ni, Ni; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed; Jiang, Xin; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms in two Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) genotypes that hyperaccumulate Cd, a sand-culture experiment was carried out to characterize fractionation of Cd in tissue of Cd-hyperaccumulating genotypes NY2 and NY5. The sequential extractants were: 80% v/v ethanol (FE), deionized water (FW), 1 M NaCl (FNaCl), 2% v/v acetic acid (FAcet), and 0.6 M HCl (FHCl). After 20 days of treatments, NY5 had greater plant biomass and greater Cd accumulation in tissues than NY2. In both genotypes the FNaCl fraction was the highest in roots and stems, whereas the FAcet and FHCl fractions were the highest in leaves. With an increase in Cd concentration in the culture solution, the content of every Cd fraction also increased. The FW and FNaCl ratios in roots were lower in NY5 than in NY2, while the amount of other Cd forms was higher. It implied that, in high accumulator, namely, NY5, the complex of insoluble phosphate tends to be shaped more easily which was much better for Cd accumulation. Besides, translocation from plasma to vacuole after combination with protein may be one of the main mechanisms in Cd-accumulator Jerusalem artichoke genotypes. PMID:24883399

  13. A newly found manganese hyperaccumulator--Polygonum lapathifolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehui; Yu, Fangming; Chen, Menglin; Zhou, Zhenming; Chen, Chaoshu; Li, Ming Shun; Zhu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, both field investigation and laboratory experiment were carried out to testify whether Polygonum lapathifolium L. is a potential manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulator. Results from field investigation showed that P. lapathifolium had great tolerance and accumulation to Mn. Mn concentrations in leaves were the highest, varied from 6889.2 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) to 18841.7 mg kg(-1) DW with the average of 12180.6 mg kg(-1). The values of translocation factor (the concentrations of Mn in leaf to that in root) ranged from 5.72 to 9.53. Results from laboratory experiment illuminated that P. lapathifolium could grow well and show no toxic symptoms even under high Mn stress (16 mmol L(-1)). Although the changes of antioxidant enzymes activities were triggered under Mn stress, the alterations of pigments were not significant (P > 0.05) as compared with control. Total plant biomass and plant height increased with increasing Mn supply. Mn concentrations in leaves and stems were constantly greater than those in roots, the ratio of concentrations in leaves to that in roots were 2.58-6.72 and the corresponding values in stems to that in roots were 1.45-3.18. The results showed that P. lapathifolium is a Mn-hyperaccumulator. PMID:26514228

  14. Successful micropropagation of the cadmium hyperaccumulator Viola baoshanensis (Violaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Tian; Deng, Dong-Mei; Peng, Guang-Tian; Deng, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Jun; Liao, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Viola baoshanensis is one of the most rare cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulators, however, it is hard to propagate. Micropropagation has been applied to solve the problems with propagation of a few heavy metal hyperaccumulators. Therefore there is a high likelihood that micropropagation may offer a suitable method for large-scale propagation of V. baoshanensis To test this hypothesis, three types of explants were used for shoot regeneration and various combinations of four plant growth regulators were used to improve shoot regeneration efficiency from leaflet of V. baoshanensis. Best shoot regeneration efficiency was obtained by incubating leaflet in a 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 2.5 oM BA + 2.5 microM IBA, therein shoot regeneration rate was 70.9% and the number of shoots formation per explant was 22.4. Rooting was achieved from almost all regenerated shoot growing on 1/2 MS medium without plant growth regulator. Micropropagated seedlings were acclimatized under greenhouse conditions and 95% of them survived and showed no visible morphological variation compared to their donor plant. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between regenerated and seed-germinated V. baoshanensis in Cd tolerance and accumulation. These results suggested that an efficient and rapid micropropogation system was successfully developed for V. baoshanensis. PMID:21166346

  15. Youngia erythrocarpa, a newly discovered cadmium hyperaccumulator plant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lijin; Ning, Bo; Liao, Ming'an; Ren, Yajun; Wang, Zhihui; Liu, Yingjie; Cheng, Ji; Luo, Li

    2015-01-01

    The farmland weed Youngia erythrocarpa has been found to have the basic characteristics of a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator. This study carried out preliminary and further Cd concentration gradient experiments and field experiment using Y. erythrocarpa to confirm this fact. The results showed that the biomass and resistance coefficient of Y. erythrocarpa decreased, but the root/shoot ratio and the Cd content in roots and shoots increased with the increase in soil Cd concentration. The Cd content in shoots of Y. erythrocarpa exceeded 100 mg/kg when the soil Cd concentration was 25 mg/kg in the two concentration gradient experiments, up to the maxima of 293.25 and 317.87 mg/kg at 100 mg/kg soil Cd. Both the bioconcentration factor of the shoots and the translocation factor exceeded 1 in all Cd treatments. In the field experiment, the total Cd extraction by shoots was 0.934-0.996 mg/m(2) at soil Cd levels of 2.04-2.89 mg/kg. Therefore, Y. erythrocarpa is a Cd hyperaccumulator that could be used to remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil efficiently. PMID:25504193

  16. Tissue Fractions of Cadmium in Two Hyperaccumulating Jerusalem Artichoke Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xiaohua; Ni, Ni; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed; Jiang, Xin; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms in two Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) genotypes that hyperaccumulate Cd, a sand-culture experiment was carried out to characterize fractionation of Cd in tissue of Cd-hyperaccumulating genotypes NY2 and NY5. The sequential extractants were: 80% v/v ethanol (FE), deionized water (FW), 1 M NaCl (FNaCl), 2% v/v acetic acid (FAcet), and 0.6 M HCl (FHCl). After 20 days of treatments, NY5 had greater plant biomass and greater Cd accumulation in tissues than NY2. In both genotypes the FNaCl fraction was the highest in roots and stems, whereas the FAcet and FHCl fractions were the highest in leaves. With an increase in Cd concentration in the culture solution, the content of every Cd fraction also increased. The FW and FNaCl ratios in roots were lower in NY5 than in NY2, while the amount of other Cd forms was higher. It implied that, in high accumulator, namely, NY5, the complex of insoluble phosphate tends to be shaped more easily which was much better for Cd accumulation. Besides, translocation from plasma to vacuole after combination with protein may be one of the main mechanisms in Cd-accumulator Jerusalem artichoke genotypes. PMID:24883399

  17. Exaggerated venous mural hypertrophy in association with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, W.L.; Dellers, E.A.; Putong, P.B. )

    1991-01-01

    A 61-year-old black man presented with metastases to the right groin 5 years after 125iodine treatment for a well differentiated primary prostatic adenocarcinoma. Medium sized veins within and immediately adjacent to the neoplasm showed marked mural thickening due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the inner circular and outer longitudinal muscles. There was no histological evidence of radiation effect in the stroma or in the tumor cells. We could find no report in the literature of such changes associated with metastatic carcinoma.

  18. Microbeam methodologies as powerful tools in manganese hyperaccumulation research: present status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Denise R.; Marshall, Alan; Baker, Alan J. M.; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Microbeam studies over the past decade have garnered unique insight into manganese (Mn) homeostasis in plant species that hyperaccumulate this essential mineral micronutrient. Electron- and/or proton-probe methodologies employed to examine tissue elemental distributions have proven highly effective in illuminating excess foliar Mn disposal strategies, some apparently unique to Mn hyperaccumulating plants. When applied to samples prepared with minimal artefacts, these are powerful tools for extracting true ‘snapshot’ data of living systems. For a range of reasons, Mn hyperaccumulation is particularly suited to in vivo interrogation by this approach. Whilst microbeam investigation of metallophytes is well documented, certain methods originally intended for non-biological samples are now widely applied in biology. This review examines current knowledge about Mn hyperaccumulators with reference to microbeam methodologies, and discusses implications for future research into metal transporters. PMID:23970891

  19. Microbeam methodologies as powerful tools in manganese hyperaccumulation research: present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Denise R; Marshall, Alan; Baker, Alan J M; Mizuno, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Microbeam studies over the past decade have garnered unique insight into manganese (Mn) homeostasis in plant species that hyperaccumulate this essential mineral micronutrient. Electron- and/or proton-probe methodologies employed to examine tissue elemental distributions have proven highly effective in illuminating excess foliar Mn disposal strategies, some apparently unique to Mn hyperaccumulating plants. When applied to samples prepared with minimal artefacts, these are powerful tools for extracting true 'snapshot' data of living systems. For a range of reasons, Mn hyperaccumulation is particularly suited to in vivo interrogation by this approach. Whilst microbeam investigation of metallophytes is well documented, certain methods originally intended for non-biological samples are now widely applied in biology. This review examines current knowledge about Mn hyperaccumulators with reference to microbeam methodologies, and discusses implications for future research into metal transporters. PMID:23970891

  20. Molecular Dissection of The Cellular Mechanisms Involved In Nickel Hyperaccumulation in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Salt

    2002-04-08

    Hyperaccumulator plant species are able to accumulate between 1-5% of their biomass as metal. However, these plants are often small, slow growing, and do not produce a high biomass. Phytoextraction, a cost-effective, in situ, plant based approach to soil remediation takes advantage of the remarkable ability of hyperaccumulating plants to concentrate metals from the soil and accumulate them in their harvestable, above-ground tissues. However, to make use of the valuable genetic resources identified in metal hyperaccumulating species, it will be necessary to transfer this material to high biomass rapidly growing crop plants. These plants would then be ideally suited to the phytoremediation process, having the ability to produce large amount of metal-rich plant biomass for rapid harvest and soil cleanup. Although progress is being made in understanding the genetic basis of metal hyperaccumulation a more complete understanding will be necessary before we can take full advantage of the genetic potential of these plants.

  1. Investigating Heavy-metal Hyperaccumulation using Thlaspi caerulescens as a Model System

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Matthew J.; Kochian, Leon V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Metal-hyperaccumulating plant species are plants that are endemic to metalliferous soils and are able to tolerate and accumulate metals in their above-ground tissues to very high concentrations. One such hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens, has been widely studied for its remarkable properties to tolerate toxic levels of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and sometimes nickel (Ni) in the soil, and accumulate these metals to very high levels in the shoot. The increased awareness regarding metal-hyperaccumulating plants by the plant biology community has helped spur interest in the possible use of plants to remove heavy metals from contaminated soils, a process known as phytoremediation. Hence, there has been a focus on understanding the mechanisms that metal-hyperaccumulator plant species such as Thlaspi caerulescens employ to absorb, detoxify and store metals in order to use this information to develop plants better suited for the phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. Scope In this review, an overview of the findings from recent research aimed at better understanding the physiological mechanisms of Thlaspi caerulescens heavy-metal hyperaccumulation as well as the underlying molecular and genetic determinants for this trait will be discussed. Progress has been made in understanding some of the fundamental Zn and Cd transport physiology in T. caerulescens. Furthermore, some interesting metal-related genes have been identified and characterized in this plant species, and regulation of the expression of some of these genes may be important for hyperaccumulation. Conclusions Thlaspi caerulescens is a fascinating and useful model system not only for studying metal hyperaccumulation, but also for better understanding micronutrient homeostasis and nutrition. Considerable future research is still needed to elucidate the molecular, genetic and physiological bases for the extreme metal tolerance and hyperaccumulation exhibited by plant species such as T

  2. Adult bone marrow-derived cells recruited during angiogenesis comprise precursors for periendothelial vascular mural cells.

    PubMed

    Rajantie, Iiro; Ilmonen, Maritta; Alminaite, Agne; Ozerdem, Ugur; Alitalo, Kari; Salven, Petri

    2004-10-01

    Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells are thought to participate in the growth of blood vessels during postnatal vascular regeneration and tumor growth, a process previously attributed to stem and precursor cells differentiating to endothelial cells. We used multichannel laser scanning confocal microscopy of whole-mounted tissues to study angiogenesis in chimeric mice created by reconstituting C57BL mice with genetically marked syngeneic BM. We show that BM-derived endothelial cells do not significantly contribute to tumor- or cytokine-induced neoangiogenesis. Instead, BM-derived periendothelial vascular mural cells were persistently detected at sites of tumor- or vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis. Subpopulations of these cells expressed the pericyte-specific NG2 proteoglycan, or the hematopoietic markers CD11b and CD45, but did not detectably express the smooth muscle markers smooth muscle alpha-actin or desmin. Thus, the major contribution of the BM to angiogenic processes is not endothelial, but may come from progenitors for periendothelial vascular mural and hematopoietic effector cells. PMID:15191949

  3. Sarcoma-Like Mural Nodule in a Borderline Mucinous Tumour of Ovary.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rabia; Din, Hafeez Ud; Hashmi, Shoaib Naiyar; Muhammad, Iqbal

    2016-05-01

    A 37-year female presented with complaint of lower abdominal pain and amenorrhoea to the Military Hospital, Rawalpindi. Ultrasound of pelvis showed a right adnexal cystic lesion. On investigation, CA-125 was raised. Her MRI scan of pelvis revealed a right adnexal mass of fluid intensity measuring 15.2 x 12.9 x 9.2 cm. Right ovarian cystectomy was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. Grossly, the mass was cystic in appearance and measured 13.5 x 10 x 10 cm. On sectioning, it was unilocular and filled with turbid material. The cyst wall showed multiple papillary structures along with a nodule measuring 1.1 x 1 cm. Microscopically, the sections revealed borderline mucinous tumour with a sarcoma-like mural nodule composed of spindle shaped cells and epulis-like giant cells. Sarcoma-like mural nodules are rare nodules which are associated with mucinous tumours of the ovary. However, they have excellent prognosis and should not be interpreted as malignant. PMID:27225154

  4. Haemophilus parainfluenzae Mural Endocarditis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Giurgea, Luca T.; Lahey, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus parainfluenzae, which uncommonly causes endocarditis, has never been documented to cause mural involvement. A 62-year-old immunocompetent female without predisposing risk factors for endocarditis except for poor dentition presented with fever, emesis, and dysmetria. Echocardiography found a mass attached to the left ventricular wall with finger-like projections. Computed tomography showed evidence of embolic phenomena to the brain, kidneys, spleen, and colon. Cardiac MRI revealed involvement of the chordae tendineae of the anterior papillary muscles. Blood cultures grew Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The patient was treated successfully with ceftriaxone with resolution of symptoms, including neurologic deficits. After eleven days of antibiotics a worsening holosystolic murmur was discovered. Worsening mitral regurgitation on echocardiography was only found three weeks later. Nine weeks after presentation, intraoperative evaluation revealed chord rupture but no residual vegetation and mitral repair was performed. Four weeks after surgery, the patient was back to her baseline. This case illustrates the ability of Haemophilus parainfluenzae to form large mural vegetations with high propensity of embolization in otherwise normal cardiac tissue among patients with dental risk factors. It also underscores the importance of physical examination in establishing a diagnosis of endocarditis and monitoring for progression of disease. PMID:27382494

  5. Preliminary Results of the Er:YAG Laser Cleaning of Mural Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreotti, A.; Colombini, M. P.; Felici, A.; deCruz, A.; Lanterna, G.; Lanfranchi, M.; Nakahara, K.; Penaglia, F.

    The conservation of mural paintings requires a deep knowledge of the alterations caused by natural ageing, environmental agents and previous restoration treatments. All the operations concerning cleaning and consolidation of wall paintings must assure the safety of the paint layers. This is especially true the more fragile the painting technique. For example, "a secco" paintings, executed with organic binders such as tempera, oil, glue, when altered and damaged, present a very weak adhesion to the mortar underneath, and provoke detachment of paint fragments. In this circumstance it is necessary to find a feasible alternative to the usual cleaning methods (wet and mechanical ones) and a valid way to operate. Moreover, the removal of scialbo layers (a thick, pure lime layer applied on the wall painting) presents difficulties in order to preserve the integrity of the painting layers. Previous experiments carried out in Opificio with Er:YAG laser on easel painting cleaning, lead us to extend the experiments on the cleaning of mural paintings.

  6. Haemophilus parainfluenzae Mural Endocarditis: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Giurgea, Luca T; Lahey, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus parainfluenzae, which uncommonly causes endocarditis, has never been documented to cause mural involvement. A 62-year-old immunocompetent female without predisposing risk factors for endocarditis except for poor dentition presented with fever, emesis, and dysmetria. Echocardiography found a mass attached to the left ventricular wall with finger-like projections. Computed tomography showed evidence of embolic phenomena to the brain, kidneys, spleen, and colon. Cardiac MRI revealed involvement of the chordae tendineae of the anterior papillary muscles. Blood cultures grew Haemophilus parainfluenzae. The patient was treated successfully with ceftriaxone with resolution of symptoms, including neurologic deficits. After eleven days of antibiotics a worsening holosystolic murmur was discovered. Worsening mitral regurgitation on echocardiography was only found three weeks later. Nine weeks after presentation, intraoperative evaluation revealed chord rupture but no residual vegetation and mitral repair was performed. Four weeks after surgery, the patient was back to her baseline. This case illustrates the ability of Haemophilus parainfluenzae to form large mural vegetations with high propensity of embolization in otherwise normal cardiac tissue among patients with dental risk factors. It also underscores the importance of physical examination in establishing a diagnosis of endocarditis and monitoring for progression of disease. PMID:27382494

  7. The Use of Murals in Preadolescent Inpatient Groups: An Art Therapy Approach to Cumulative Trauma. Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Nicole; McCarthy, James B.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a small group of preadolescent, psychiatric inpatients and their collaborative painting of a memorial mural about the September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center in New York City. Through an immersion in the group experience, the group members became increasingly introspective about their feelings of loss and their…

  8. A Cross-Cultural Collaboration: Using Visual Culture for the Creation of a Socially Relevant Mural in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how high school and university students in Georgia and members of a small weaving pueblo in Oaxaca, Mexico, collaborated in designing and creating a mural in the central market ("mercado") of the pueblo. A number of lessons emerged from this multi-cultural collaboration. First they learned that using images…

  9. What’s Wrong with the Murals at the Mogao Grottoes: A Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meijun; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Zheng; Ren, Jinchang; Chai, Bolong; Sun, Jizhou

    2015-09-01

    Although a significant amount of work has been performed to preserve the ancient murals in the Mogao Grottoes by Dunhuang Cultural Research, non-contact methods need to be developed to effectively evaluate the degree of flaking of the murals. In this study, we propose to evaluate the flaking by automatically analyzing hyperspectral images that were scanned at the site. Murals with various degrees of flaking were scanned in the 126th cave using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral camera with a spectral range of approximately 900 to 1700 nm. The regions of interest (ROIs) of the murals were manually labeled and grouped into four levels: normal, slight, moderate, and severe. The average spectral data from each ROI and its group label were used to train our classification model. To predict the degree of flaking, we adopted four algorithms: deep belief networks (DBNs), partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component analysis with a support vector machine (PCA + SVM) and principal component analysis with an artificial neural network (PCA + ANN). The experimental results show the effectiveness of our method. In particular, better results are obtained using DBNs when the training data contain a significant amount of striping noise.

  10. What’s Wrong with the Murals at the Mogao Grottoes: A Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Method

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meijun; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Zheng; Ren, Jinchang; Chai, Bolong; Sun, Jizhou

    2015-01-01

    Although a significant amount of work has been performed to preserve the ancient murals in the Mogao Grottoes by Dunhuang Cultural Research, non-contact methods need to be developed to effectively evaluate the degree of flaking of the murals. In this study, we propose to evaluate the flaking by automatically analyzing hyperspectral images that were scanned at the site. Murals with various degrees of flaking were scanned in the 126th cave using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral camera with a spectral range of approximately 900 to 1700 nm. The regions of interest (ROIs) of the murals were manually labeled and grouped into four levels: normal, slight, moderate, and severe. The average spectral data from each ROI and its group label were used to train our classification model. To predict the degree of flaking, we adopted four algorithms: deep belief networks (DBNs), partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component analysis with a support vector machine (PCA + SVM) and principal component analysis with an artificial neural network (PCA + ANN). The experimental results show the effectiveness of our method. In particular, better results are obtained using DBNs when the training data contain a significant amount of striping noise. PMID:26394926

  11. The Tractor and the Taxi: Rural and Urban Students Build a New Vehicle for Friendship in an Internet Mural Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    Describes how students in a rural Missouri high school collaborated online with students in an urban New York high school to create a mural in real space that celebrates the strengths of their two communities. Students had to conduct research, create a design, and then paint collaboratively via the Internet. The project forced them to address…

  12. GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION MEDIATES TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-BETA ACTIVATION AND ENDOTHELIAL-INDUCED MURAL CELL DIFFERENTIATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During blood vessel assembly, endothelial cells recruit mesenchymal progenitors and induce their differentiation into mural cells via contact-dependent transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) activation. We investigated whether gap junction channels are formed between endothelial cells and recrui...

  13. Heavy metal tolerance in metal hyperaccumulator plant, Salvinia natans.

    PubMed

    Dhir, B; Srivastava, S

    2013-06-01

    Metal tolerance capacity of Salvinia natans, a metal hyperaccumulator, was evaluated. Plants were exposed to 10, 30 and 50 mg L⁻¹ of Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Plant biomass, photosynthetic efficiency, quantum yield, photochemical quenching, electron transport rate and elemental (%C, H and N) constitution remained unaffected in Salvinia exposed to 30 mg L⁻¹ of heavy metals, except for Cu and Zn exposed plants, where significant reductions were noted in some of the measured parameters. However, a significant decline was noted in most of the measured parameters in plants exposed to 50 mg L⁻¹ of metal concentration. Results suggest that Salvinia has fairly high levels of tolerance to all the metals tested, but the level of tolerance varied from metal to metal. PMID:23553503

  14. Cadmium tolerance and antioxidative defenses in hairy roots of the cadmium hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Boominathan, Rengasamy; Doran, Pauline M

    2003-07-20

    Plant species capable of hyperaccumulating heavy metals are of considerable interest for phytoremediation and phytomining. This work aims to identify the role of antioxidative metabolism in heavy metal tolerance in the Cd hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens. Hairy roots of T. caerulescens and the non-hyperaccumulator, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), were used to test the effects of high Cd environments. In the absence of Cd, endogenous activities of catalase were two to three orders of magnitude higher in T. caerulescens than in N. tabacum. T. caerulescens roots also contained significantly higher endogenous superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentrations. Exposure to 20 ppm (178 microM) Cd prevented growth of N. tabacum roots and increased hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels by a factor of five relative to cultures without Cd. In contrast, growth was maintained in T. caerulescens, and H(2)O(2) concentrations were controlled to low, nontoxic levels in association with a strong catalase induction response. Treatment of roots with the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), exacerbated H(2)O(2) accumulation in Cd-treated N. tabacum, but had a relatively minor effect on H(2)O(2) levels and did not reduce Cd tolerance in T. caerulescens. Lipid peroxidation was increased by Cd treatment in both the hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator roots. This work demonstrates that metal-induced oxidative stress occurs in hyperaccumulator tissues even though growth is unaffected by the presence of heavy metals. It also suggests that superior antioxidative defenses, particularly catalase activity, may play an important role in the hyperaccumulator phenotype of T. caerulescens. PMID:12768621

  15. Investigation of Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulation at the Cellular Level: Development and Characterization of Thlaspi caerulescens Suspension Cell Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of metal hyperaccumulator plant species to accumulate high concentrations of toxic heavy metals requires the coordinated uptake, transport and sequestration of these metals to avoid damage to photosynthetic mechanisms. A number of previous studies have examined how hyperaccumulating pla...

  16. Interactive effects of Cd and PAHs on contaminants removal from co-contaminated soil planted with hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil contamination by multiple organic and inorganic contaminants is common but its remediation by hyperaccumulator plants is rarely reported. The growth of a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and removal of contaminants from Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) co-contaminated s...

  17. Contribution to the improvement of heritage mural painting non-destructive testing by stimulated infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Di Pallo, Luigi; Detalle, Vincent; Vallet, Jean-Marc; Duvaut, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    Non-destructive testing of heritage mural paintings by means of stimulated infrared thermography has now become rather efficient [1-14]. However, pigments, which form a pictorial layer, have contrasting radiative properties possibly leading to artifact detection. In this paper, attempts to alleviate this difficulty are presented. Based on the spectroscopic study of different paint layers, one can argue that, in the medium infrared field, this radiative disparity decreases significantly. Then, with similar settings, it can be shown that ceramic radiative sources allow reaching this wavelength band. Finally, on the basis of a study carried out on an academic sample and a partial copy of a fresco from the cathedral of Angers, combining ceramic heat sources with a laboratory SAMMTHIR experimental setup enables to make real headway in terms of defects' detection.

  18. Calcifying odontogenic cyst with luminal and mural component (Type 1c)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bhushan; Koshy, George; Kapoor, Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) was first described and classified by Gorlin et al. It is defined as a cystic lesion in which the epithelial lining shows a well defined basal layer of columnar cells, an overlying layer that often resemble stellate reticulum and masses of ghost cells that may be in the epithelial cystic lining or in the fibrous capsule. The lesion generally occurs in the region anterior to maxillary and mandibular molars and either intraosseous or extraosseus. This entity might present as a cystic or solid lesion. Praetorius et al. classified COC into 2 main entities namely a cyst (Type 1) and a neoplasm (Type 2). The present case report exhibit a cystic lesion with both luminal and mural component.

  19. The bacterial rhizobiome of hyperaccumulators: future perspectives based on omics analysis and advanced microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Visioli, Giovanna; D'Egidio, Sara; Sanangelantoni, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperaccumulators are plants that can extract heavy metal ions from the soil and translocate those ions to the shoots, where they are sequestered and detoxified. Hyperaccumulation depends not only on the availability of mobilized metal ions in the soil, but also on the enhanced activity of metal transporters and metal chelators which may be provided by the plant or its associated microbes. The rhizobiome is captured by plant root exudates from the complex microbial community in the soil, and may colonize the root surface or infiltrate the root cortex. This community can increase the root surface area by inducing hairy root proliferation. It may also increase the solubility of metals in the rhizosphere and promote the uptake of soluble metals by the plant. The bacterial rhizobiome, a subset of specialized microorganisms that colonize the plant rhizosphere and endosphere, makes an important contribution to the hyperaccumulator phenotype. In this review, we discuss classic and more recent tools that are used to study the interactions between hyperaccumulators and the bacterial rhizobiome, and consider future perspectives based on the use of omics analysis and microscopy to study plant metabolism in the context of metal accumulation. Recent data suggest that metal-resistant bacteria isolated from the hyperaccumulator rhizosphere and endosphere could be useful in applications such as phytoextraction and phytoremediation, although more research is required to determine whether such properties can be transferred successfully to non-accumulator species. PMID:25709609

  20. The role of Ca pathway in Cd uptake and translocation by the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingli; Tian, Shengke; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoe; Jiang, Hong

    2010-11-15

    Effect of Ca on plant growth, Cd uptake and translocation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated, as to reveal the possible pathway of Cd entry into the plants system. High Ca increased plant growth under Cd stress after 7 d, and significantly affected the total Cd influx and translocation rate. Short-term kinetics of (109)Cd influx performed using radiotracers confirmed a significant inhibition of (109)Cd influx into the roots induced by high Ca. Under exposure of 5.0 mM Ca, K(m) of (109)Cd influx into roots was 2-fold higher in the hyperaccumulator, although the V(max) value remained at similar level, when compared with the treatments of 0.5 mM Ca. Calcium concentrations in xylem sap of the hyperaccumulator decreased with the increasing Cd levels and significant negative correlationship between the two elements was observed. However, increased xylem loading of Cd was observed in the hyperaccumulator in response to the increasing exogenous Ca level from 0.5 to 4.0 mM, but reverse effect was observed when higher Ca levels (8-32 mM) were presented in the solutions. These results suggest that Cd uptake and translocation in the hyperaccumulator S. alfredii plants is positively associated with Ca pathway. PMID:20674155

  1. Recent advances in the analysis of metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance in plants using proteomics

    PubMed Central

    DalCorso, Giovanni; Fasani, Elisa; Furini, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Hyperaccumulator/hypertolerant plant species have evolved strategies allowing them to grow in metal-contaminated soils, where they accumulate high concentrations of heavy metals in their shoots without signs of toxicity. The mechanisms that allow enhanced metal uptake, root-to-shoot translocation and detoxification in these species are not fully understood. Complementary approaches such as transcriptomic-based DNA microarrays and proteomics have recently been used to gain insight into the molecular pathways evolved by metal hyperaccumulator/hypertolerant species. Proteomics has the advantage of focusing on the translated portion of the genome and it allows to analyze complex networks of proteins. This review discusses the recent analysis of metal hyperaccumulator/hypertolerant plant species using proteomics. Changes in photosynthetic proteins, sulfur, and glutathione metabolism, transport, biotic and xenobiotic defenses as well as the differential regulation of proteins involved in signaling and secondary metabolism are discussed in relation to metal hyperaccumulation. We also consider the potential contribution of several proteins to the hyperaccumulation phenotype. PMID:23898342

  2. Molecular dissection of the cellular mechanisms involved in nickel hyperaccumulation. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Salt, D.E.

    1997-10-28

    'Phytoremediation, the use of plants for environmental cleanup of pollutants, including toxic metals, holds the potential to allow the economic restoration of heavy metal and radionuclide contaminated sites. A number of terrestrial plants are known to naturally accumulate high levels of metals in their shoots (1--2% dry weight), and these plants have been termed metal-hyperaccumulators. Clearly, the genetic traits that determine metal-hyperaccumulation offers the potential for the development of practical phytoremediation processes. The long-term objective is to rationally design and generate plants ideally suited for phytoremediation using this unique genetic material. Initially, the strategy will focus on isolating and characterizing the key genetic information needed for expression of the metal-hyperaccumulation phenotype. Recently, histidine has been shown to play a major role in Ni hyperaccumulation. Based on this information the authors propose to investigate, at the molecular level, the role of histidine biosynthesis in Ni hyperaccumuIation in Thlaspi goesingense, a Ni hyperaccumulator species.'

  3. Using hyperaccumulator plants to phytoextract soil Ni and Cd.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Rufus L; Angle, J Scott; McIntosh, Marla S; Reeves, Roger D; Li, Yin-Ming; Brewer, Eric P; Chen, Kuang-Yu; Roseberg, Richard J; Perner, Henrike; Synkowski, Eva Claire; Broadhurst, C Leigh; Wang, S; Baker, Alan J M

    2005-01-01

    Two strategies of phytoextraction have been shown to have promise for practical soil remediation: domestication of natural hyperaccumulators and bioengineering plants with the genes that allow natural hyperaccumulators to achieve useful phytoextraction. Because different elements have different value, some can be phytomined for profit and others can be phytoremediated at lower cost than soil removal and replacement. Ni phytoextraction from contaminated or mineralized soils offers economic return greater than producing most crops, especially when considering the low fertility or phytotoxicity of Ni rich soils. Only soils that require remediation based on risk assessment will comprise the market for phytoremediation. Improved risk assessment has indicated that most Zn + Cd contaminated soils will not require Cd phytoextraction because the Zn limits practical risk from soil Cd. But rice and tobacco, and foods grown on soils with Cd contamination without corresponding 100-fold greater Zn contamination, allow Cd to readily enter food plants and diets. Clear evidence of human renal tubular dysfunction from soil Cd has only been obtained for subsistence rice farm families in Asia. Because of historic metal mining and smelting, Zn + Cd contaminated rice soils have been found in Japan, China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand. Phytoextraction using southern France populations of Thlaspi caerulescens appears to be the only practical method to alleviate Cd risk without soil removal and replacement. The southern France plants accumulate 10-20-fold higher Cd in shoots than most T. caerulescens populations such as those from Belgium and the UK. Addition of fertilizers to maximize yield does not reduce Cd concentration in shoots; and soil management promotes annual Cd removal. The value of Cd in the plants is low, so the remediation service must pay the costs of Cd phytoextraction plus profits to the parties who conduct phytoextraction. Some other plants have been studied for Cd

  4. Pb and Zn accumulation in a Cd-hyperaccumulator (Viola baoshanensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuan; Liao, Bin; Wang, Sheng-Long; Zhang, Jun; Li, Jin-Tian

    2010-08-01

    Viola baoshanensis has been identified as a Cd-hyperaccumulator, however, its ability to accumulate Pb or Zn is less certain. Therefore, this study focused on determining whether or not V. baoshanensis can accumulate Pb or Zn, by means of field survey, hydroponic and pot experiments. In addition, we also tried to obtain further information on the Cd hyperaccumulating characteristics of this species. Under field conditions, V. baoshanensis accumulated on average 1090 mg Cd kg(-1), 1902 mg Pb kg(-1) and 3428 mg Zn kg(-1) in its shoots, respectively. In hydroponic and pot experiments, V. baoshanensis showed high tolerance to Cd, Pb, and Zn, as well as the ability to accumulate exceptionally high concentrations of the three elements in its shoots (> 2% Cd, > 1% Pb, and > 0.5% Zn on a dry matter basis). These results, taken together, suggested that V. baoshanensis is not only a Cd-hyperaccumulator, but also a strong accumulator of Pb and Zn. PMID:21166282

  5. Microfocus of Anaplastic Carcinoma Arising in Mural Nodule of Ovarian Mucinous Borderline Tumor With Very Rapid and Fatal Outcome.

    PubMed

    Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Ramzan, Amin; Walia, Saloni; Pham, Huyen Q; Yessaian, Annie

    2016-07-01

    A 36-yr-old woman presented with abdominal discomfort. A computed tomography scan revealed a large left cystic and solid pelvic mass without evidence of metastatic disease. Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and tumor staging was performed. Grossly, the ovarian mass measured 20×18 cm and the cut surface was multiloculated with 1 single mural nodule measuring 2×1.5 cm. The histologic diagnosis of ovarian mucinous borderline tumor with a microfocus of anaplastic carcinoma arising in sarcoma-like mural nodule, FIGO Stage IA was rendered. After 3 mo, the patient returned with symptomatic anemia. A computed tomography scan showed enlarged retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes. Image-guided biopsy of the pelvic lymph node showed a metastatic anaplastic carcinoma from her primary ovarian carcinoma. Chemotherapy was initiated, but the patient developed fulminant disseminated intravascular coagulation within <1 wk of her presentation which was fatal. PMID:26598983

  6. The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaro, Patrizia; Cattaneo, Chiara; Bona, Elisa; Berta, Graziella; Cavaletto, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first known step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms. Although the presence of one mRNA arsenate reductase (PvACR2) has been characterized in gametophytes of P. vittata, no arsenate reductase protein has been directly observed in this arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, yet. In order to assess the possible presence of arsenate reductase in P. vittata, two recombinant proteins, ACR2-His6 and Trx-His6-S-Pv2.5-8 were prepared in Escherichia coli, purified and used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The presence of these two enzymes was evaluated by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and direct MS analysis. Enzymatic activity was detected in crude extracts. For the first time we detected and identified two arsenate reductase proteins (PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8) in sporophytes and gametophytes of P. vittata. Despite an increase of the mRNA levels for both proteins in roots, no difference was observed at the protein level after arsenic treatment. Overall, our data demonstrate the constitutive protein expression of PvACR2 and Pv2.5-8 in P. vittata tissues and propose their specific role in the complex metabolic network of arsenic reduction.

  7. The arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata expresses two arsenate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Cesaro, Patrizia; Cattaneo, Chiara; Bona, Elisa; Berta, Graziella; Cavaletto, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic reduction of arsenate to arsenite is the first known step in arsenate metabolism in all organisms. Although the presence of one mRNA arsenate reductase (PvACR2) has been characterized in gametophytes of P. vittata, no arsenate reductase protein has been directly observed in this arsenic hyperaccumulating fern, yet. In order to assess the possible presence of arsenate reductase in P. vittata, two recombinant proteins, ACR2-His6 and Trx-His6-S-Pv2.5–8 were prepared in Escherichia coli, purified and used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The presence of these two enzymes was evaluated by qRT-PCR, immunoblotting and direct MS analysis. Enzymatic activity was detected in crude extracts. For the first time we detected and identified two arsenate reductase proteins (PvACR2 and Pv2.5–8) in sporophytes and gametophytes of P. vittata. Despite an increase of the mRNA levels for both proteins in roots, no difference was observed at the protein level after arsenic treatment. Overall, our data demonstrate the constitutive protein expression of PvACR2 and Pv2.5–8 in P. vittata tissues and propose their specific role in the complex metabolic network of arsenic reduction. PMID:26412036

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus murimartini LMG 21005T, an Alkalitolerant Bacterium Isolated from a Church Wall Mural in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie-ping; Liu, Guo-hong; Xiao, Rong-feng; Zheng, Xue-fang; Shi, Huai; Ge, Ci-bin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus murimartini LMG 21005T is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, and alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from a church wall mural. Here, we report the 4.17-Mb genome sequence of B. murimartini LMG 21005T, which will accelerate the application of this alkalitolerant bacterium and provide useful information for genomic taxonomy and phylogenomics of Bacillus-like bacteria. PMID:26494676

  9. Improvement of distension and mural visualization of bowel loops using neutral oral contrasts in abdominal computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Jahanbakhsh; Davoudi, Yasmin; Taghavi, Mina; Pezeshki Rad, Masoud; Moghadam, Amien Mahajeri

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess and compare the image quality of 4% sorbitol and diluted iodine 2% (positive oral contrast agent) in abdomino-pelvic multi-detector computed tomography. METHODS: Two-hundred patients, referred to the Radiology Department of a central educational hospital for multi-detector row abdominal-pelvic computed tomography, were randomly divided into two groups: the first group received 1500 mL of 4% sorbitol solution as a neutral contrast agent, while in the second group 1500 mL of meglumin solution as a positive contrast agent was administered in a one-way randomized prospective study. The results were independently reviewed by two radiologists. Luminal distension and mural thickness and mucosal enhancement were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 16 and the Mann-Whitney test at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS: Use of neutral oral contrast agent significantly improved visualization of the small bowel wall thickness and mural appearance in comparison with administration of positive contrast agent (P < 0.01). In patients who received sorbitol, the small bowel showed better distention compared with those who received iodine solution as a positive contrast agent (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of the study demonstrated that oral administration of sorbitol solution allows better luminal distention and visualization of mural features than iodine solution as a positive contrast agent. PMID:25550995

  10. Enhanced cadmium efflux and root-to-shoot translocation are conserved in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii (Crassulaceae family).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongchun; Yu, Qi; Du, Hanying; Ai, Wenli; Yao, Xuan; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Qiu, Baosheng

    2016-06-01

    Investigation on the molecular mechanisms of cadmium hyperaccumulation has been mostly focused on members of the Brassicaceae family. Here, we show using hyperaccumulating (HP) and nonhyperaccumulating (NHP) populations of Sedum alfredii (Crassulaceae), that Cd hypertolerance correlates with higher Cd efflux rates and less cadmium accumulation in suspension cells and roots. The heavy metal ATPase HMA2, but not HMA4, was highly expressed in suspension cultures and roots from HP plants compared to NHP cells and plants. Reciprocal grafting also showed that Cd translocation is more efficient in HP plants. These results suggest that cadmium efflux is a conserved mechanism among natural cadmium hyperaccumulator species. PMID:27222256

  11. Paenibacillus sepulcri sp. nov., isolated from biodeteriorated mural paintings in the Servilia tomb.

    PubMed

    Smerda, Jakub; Sedlácek, Ivo; Pácová, Zdena; Krejcí, Eva; Havel, Ladislav

    2006-10-01

    In 2001, a Gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from biodeteriorated mural paintings in the Servilia tomb of the Roman necropolis of Carmona was deposited as Paenibacillus strain LMG 19508. Subsequently, the strain was characterized in detail using phenotypic and molecular methods. The 16S rRNA gene sequence confirmed that the strain belongs to the genus Paenibacillus and indicated its relationship to Paenibacillus mendelii CCM 4839(T) (96.7 % sequence similarity). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid of the A1gamma type. The DNA G+C content (50 mol%) and the major fatty acid (anteiso-C(15 : 0)) of strain LMG 19508(T) were also consistent with its affiliation to the genus Paenibacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization distinguished strain LMG 19508(T) from other phylogenetically related Paenibacillus species. Therefore, the isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus sepulcri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CCM 7311(T) (=LMG 19508(T)). PMID:17012558

  12. Modeling the adaptive permeability response of porcine iliac arteries to acute changes in mural shear.

    PubMed

    Hazel, A L; Grzybowski, D M; Friedman, M H

    2003-04-01

    The hypothesis that much of the uptake of macromolecules by the vascular wall takes place while the endothelial lining is adapting to changes in its hemodynamic environment is being tested by a series of in vivo measurements of the uptake of Evans-blue-dye-labeled albumin by porcine iliac arteries subjected to acute changes in blood flow. The uptake data are interpreted through an ad hoc model of the dynamic permeability response that is proposed to accompany alterations in mural shear. The model is able to correlate, with a single set of parameters, the vascular response to a variety of experimental protocols, including sustained step increases and decreases in shear, and alternations in shear of various periods. The best-fit parameters of the model suggest that the adaptive response to an increase in shear proceeds with a latency of approximately 1.5 min and a time constant of approximately 90 min that is substantially shorter than the response to a decrease in shear. PMID:12723682

  13. [Successful endovascular repair of a ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with severe mural thrombus].

    PubMed

    Nakao, Yoshihisa; Akagi, Haruhiko; Irie, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Shoji; Sakai, Kei

    2014-11-01

    A 51-year-old man was transferred to our hospital on an emergency basis complaining of a sudden onset of severe left lumbar back pain. An emergency contrasted computed tomography showed a ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm( rTAAA:Crawford classification type III). The ruptured site was near the aortic bifurcation, and the aneurysm had a relatively narrow segment with an extensive mural thrombus just below the renal arteries. Considering the high mortality of open surgery for the rTAAA and the poor general condition of the patient, we decided to perform endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) as a rescue procedure using the narrowed segment by the thrombus for a proximal landing zone. The abdominal part of the thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) was successfully excluded with a stent graft to obtain complete hemostasis. The postoperative course was uneventful except for the need for hemodialysis. Even though there is a risk of developing late type 1 endoleak, this procedure can be a feasible option as a rescue procedure or a bridge to radical open surgery for ruptured TAAA in a specially anatomical setting like this case. PMID:25391465

  14. Chemical, morphological and chromatic behavior of mural paintings under Er:YAG laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striova, J.; Camaiti, M.; Castellucci, E. M.; Sansonetti, A.

    2011-08-01

    Several pigments (malachite CuCO3ṡCu(OH)2, azurite 2CuCO3ṡCu(OH)2, yellow ochre (goethite α-FeOOH, gypsum CaSO4ṡ2H2O), St. John's white CaCO3 formed from slaked lime) and respective mural paintings specimens were subjected to the free-running Er:YAG laser radiation in order to study their damage thresholds, in a broad range of laser fluences, both in dry and wet conditions. The specimens' damage thresholds were evaluated by spectroscopic methods, colorimetric measurements and microscopic observation. The pigments containing -OH groups were found to be more sensitive than St. John's white; hence the most sensitive paint layers in dry conditions are those containing malachite, azurite (both 1.3 J/cm2) and yellow ochre (2.5 J/cm2) as compared to the ones containing St. John's white (15.2 J/cm2). The presence of wetting agents (w.a.) attenuated the pigments chemical alteration. The damage thresholds of all the paint layers, in presence of w.a., were found to be around 2.5 J/cm2. The alteration was caused by thermo-mechanical damage and by binding medium ablation of a fresco and a secco prepared specimens, respectively.

  15. Netrin-4 promotes mural cell adhesion and recruitment to endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Netrins are secreted molecules involved in axon guidance and angiogenesis. We previously showed that Netrin-4 acts as an anti-angiogenic factor by inhibiting endothelial cell (EC) functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Netrin-4 on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) activity in vitro and in vivo. We show that exogenous Netrin-4 stimulated VSMC adhesion and migration, and increased their coverage on EC tubes (grown on a Matrigel substrate). siRNA knock-down of endogenous Netrin-4 expression in VSMC decreased their recruitment to EC tubes. VSMC expressed Netrin-4 and three of the six Netrin-1 cognate receptors: DCC, Neogenin, and Unc5B. Silencing of these receptors reduced Netrin-4 adhesion to VSMC, strongly suggesting that these receptors were involved in the recruitment process. We previously showed that Netrin-4 overexpression in PC3 cancer cells delayed tumor growth in a model of subcutaneous xenograft by reducing tumor vessel density. Here, we show that Netrin-4 overexpression improved tumor blood vessel structure and increased VSMC coverage. Thus, Netrin-4 induced mural cell recruitment may play a role in the inhibition of tumor growth. Our data suggest that Netrin-4 is important for blood vessel normalization through the regulation of both endothelial and perivascular cells. PMID:24472220

  16. FINAL REPORT. MOLECULAR DISSECTION OF THE CELLULAR MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN NICKEL HYPERACCUMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hyperaccumulator plant species are able to accumulate between 1-5% of their biomass as metal. However, these plants are often small, slow growing, and do not produce a high biomass. Phytoextraction, a cost-effective, in situ, plant based approach to soil remediation takes advanta...

  17. PROGRESS REPORT. MOLECULAR DISSECTION OF THE CELLULAR MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN NICKEL HYPERACCUMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hyperaccumulator plant species are able to accumulate between 1-5% of their biomass as metal. However, these plants are often small, slow growing, and do not produce a high biomass. Phytoextraction, a cost-effective, in situ, plant based approach to soil remediation takes advanta...

  18. Uncoupling of reactive oxygen species accumulation and defence signalling in the metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Bennett, Mark H; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2013-09-01

    The metal hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens is protected from disease by the accumulation of high concentrations of metals in its aerial tissues, which are toxic to many pathogens. As these metals can lead to the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS), metal hyperaccumulator plants have developed highly effective ROS tolerance mechanisms, which might quench ROS-based signals. We therefore investigated whether metal accumulation alters defence signalling via ROS in this plant. We studied the effect of zinc (Zn) accumulation by N. caerulescens on pathogen-induced ROS production, salicylic acid accumulation and downstream defence responses, such as callose deposition and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression, to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. The accumulation of Zn caused increased superoxide production in N. caerulescens, but inoculation with P. syringae did not elicit the defensive oxidative burst typical of most plants. Defences dependent on signalling through ROS (callose and PR gene expression) were also modified or absent in N. caerulescens, whereas salicylic acid production in response to infection was retained. These observations suggest that metal hyperaccumulation is incompatible with defence signalling through ROS and that, as metal hyperaccumulation became effective as a form of elemental defence, normal defence responses became progressively uncoupled from ROS signalling in N. caerulescens. PMID:23758201

  19. Efficient xylem transport and phloem remobilization of Zn in the hyperaccumulator plant species Sedum alfredii.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingli; Tian, Shengke; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoe; Labavitch, John M; Webb, Samuel M; Latimer, Matthew; Brown, Patrick H

    2013-05-01

    Sedum alfredii is one of a few species known to hyperaccumulate zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). Xylem transport and phloem remobilization of Zn in hyperaccumulating (HP) and nonhyperaccumulating (NHP) populations of S. alfredii were compared. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) images of Zn in the roots of the two S. alfredii populations suggested an efficient xylem loading of Zn in HP S. alfredii, confirmed by the seven-fold higher Zn concentrations detected in the xylem sap collected from HP, when compared with NHP, populations. Zn was predominantly transported as aqueous Zn (> 55.9%), with the remaining proportion (36.7-42.3%) associated with the predominant organic acid, citric acid, in the xylem sap of HP S. alfredii. The stable isotope (68)Zn was used to trace Zn remobilization from mature leaves to new growing leaves for both populations. Remobilization of (68)Zn was seven-fold higher in HP than in NHP S. alfredii. Subsequent analysis by μ-XRF, combined with LA-ICPMS (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), confirmed the enhanced ability of HP S. alfredii to remobilize Zn and to preferentially distribute the metal to mesophyll cells surrounding phloem in the new leaves. The results suggest that Zn hyperaccumulation by HP S. alfredii is largely associated with enhanced xylem transport and phloem remobilization of the metal. To our knowledge, this report is the first to reveal enhanced remobilization of metal by phloem transport in hyperaccumulators. PMID:23421478

  20. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Bidens pilosa L. as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuebing; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Lin; Liu, Weitao

    2009-01-30

    Recently, researchers are becoming interested in using hyperaccumulators for decontamination of heavy metal polluted soils, whereas few species that hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd) has been identified in the plant kingdom. In this study, the physiological mechanisms at the seedling stage and growth responses and Cd uptake and accumulation at flowering and mature stages of Bidens pilosa L. under Cd treatments were investigated. At the seedling stage, when soil Cd was lower than 16mgkg(-1), the plant did not show obvious symptom of phytoxicity, and the alterations of chlorophyll (CHL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and soluble protein (SP) did not have significant differences when compared with the control. At the flowering and mature stages, under low Cd treatments (hyperaccumulator. All the results elementarily indicated that B. pilosa is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulating plant. PMID:18513866

  1. The metal hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia can broaden our understanding of nickel accumulation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Jaffré, Tanguy; Pillon, Yohan; Thomine, Sébastien; Merlot, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    While an excess of metals such as zinc, cadmium or nickel (Ni) is toxic for most plants, about 500 plant species called hyperaccumulators are able to accumulate high amounts of these metals. These plants and the underlying mechanisms are receiving an increasing interest because of their potential use in sustainable biotechnologies such as biofortification, phytoremediation, and phytomining. Among hyperaccumulators, about 400 species scattered in 40 families accumulate Ni. Despite this wide diversity, our current knowledge of the mechanisms involved in Ni accumulation is still limited and mostly restricted to temperate herbaceous Brassicaceae. New Caledonia is an archipelago of the tropical southwest pacific with a third of its surface (5500 km2) covered by Ni-rich soils originating from ultramafic rocks. The rich New Caledonia flora contains 2145 species adapted to these soils, among which 65 are Ni hyperaccumulators, including lianas, shrubs or trees, mostly belonging to the orders Celastrales, Oxalidales, Malpighiales, and Gentianales. We present here our current knowledge on Ni hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia and the latest molecular studies developed to better understand the mechanisms of Ni accumulation in these plants. PMID:23898341

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of Cadmium Stress Response in the Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoe; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd), as well as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≧2.0) and down-regulated (Fold Change ≦0.5) by chronic Cd treatment in S. alfredii Hance (HE) at q-value cutoff of 0.005, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR was employed to compare gene expression patterns between S. alfredii Hance (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Our results demonstrated that several genes involved in cell wall modification, metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. PMID:23755133

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of cadmium stress response in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Sun, Ling; Yang, Xiaoe; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The Sedum alfredii Hance hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) has the ability to hyperaccumulate cadmium (Cd), as well as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in above-ground tissues. Although many physiological studies have been conducted with these plants, the molecular mechanisms underlying their hyper-tolerance to heavy metals are largely unknown. Here we report on the generation of 9.4 gigabases of adaptor-trimmed raw sequences and the assembly of 57,162 transcript contigs in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots by the combination of Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technologies. We also have functionally annotated the transcriptome and analyzed the transcriptome changes upon Cd hyperaccumulation in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. There are 110 contigs and 123 contigs that were up-regulated (Fold Change ≥ 2.0) and down-regulated (Fold Change hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Our results demonstrated that several genes involved in cell wall modification, metal translocation and remobilization were more induced or constitutively expressed at higher levels in HE shoots than that in NHE shoots in response to Cd exposure. Together, our study provides large-scale expressed sequence information and genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Cd responses in S. alfredii Hance (HE) shoots. PMID:23755133

  4. Cadmium uptake and xylem loading are active processes in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ling-li; Tian, Sheng-ke; Yang, Xiao-e; Li, Ting-qiang; He, Zhen-li

    2009-04-01

    Sedum alfredii is a well known cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator native to China; however, the mechanism behind its hyperaccumulation of Cd is not fully understood. Through several hydroponic experiments, characteristics of Cd uptake and translocation were investigated in the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) of S. alfredii in comparison with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results showed that at Cd level of 10 microM measured Cd uptake in HE was 3-4 times higher than the implied Cd uptake calculated from transpiration rate. Furthermore, inhibition of transpiration rate in the HE has no essential effect on Cd accumulation in shoots of the plants. Low temperature treatment (4 degrees C) significantly inhibited Cd uptake and reduced upward translocation of Cd to shoots for 9 times in HE plants, whereas no such effect was observed in NHE. Cadmium concentration was 3-4-fold higher in xylem sap of HE, as compared with that in external uptake solution, whereas opposite results were obtained for NHE. Cadmium concentration in xylem sap of HE was significantly reduced by the addition of metabolic inhibitors, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), in the uptake solutions, whereas no such effect was noted in NHE. These results suggest that Cd uptake and translocation is an active process in plants of HE S. alfredii, symplastic pathway rather than apoplastic bypass contributes greatly to root uptake, xylem loading and translocation of Cd to the shoots of HE, in comparison with the NHE plants. PMID:18937997

  5. Cadmium leaching from micro-lysimeters planted with the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens: experimental findings and modeling.

    PubMed

    Ingwersen, Joachim; Bücherl, Barbara; Neumann, Günter; Streck, Thilo

    2006-01-01

    The use of heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants has the potential to become a promising new technique to remediate contaminated sites. We investigated the role of metal mobilization in the Cd hyperaccumulation of Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl, 'Ganges'). In a micro-lysimeter experiment we investigated the dynamics of Cd concentration of leachate as well as Cd removal by plant uptake in four treatments: (i) Control (bare soil), (ii) T. caerulescens, (iii) nonhyperaccumulator Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ('PI 426308'), and (iv) co-cropping of the hyperaccumulator and nonhyperaccumulator. The experimental findings were analyzed using one- and two-site rate-limited desorption models. Co-cropping of T. caerulescens and B. juncea did not enhance metal uptake by B. juncea. Although Cd uptake of T. caerulescens was 10 times higher than that of B. juncea, the Cd concentration of leachate of the T. caerulescens treatment did not decrease below that of the B. juncea treatment. The Cd depletion in leachate was well reproduced by the two-site rate-limited desorption model. The optimized desorption coefficient was three orders of magnitude higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. Our results indicate that T. caerulescens accelerates the resupply of Cd from soil pointing to an important role of kinetic desorption in the hyperaccumulation by T. caerulescens. PMID:17071874

  6. Nickel hyperaccumulation as an elemental defense of Streptanthus polygaloides (Brassicaceae): influence of herbivore feeding mode.

    PubMed

    Jhee, Edward M; Boyd, Robert S; Eubanks, Micky D

    2005-11-01

    No study of a single nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator species has investigated the impact of hyperaccumulation on herbivores representing a variety of feeding modes. Streptanthus polygaloides plants were grown on high- or low-Ni soils and a series of no-choice and choice feeding experiments was conducted using eight arthropod herbivores. Herbivores used were two leaf-chewing folivores (the grasshopper Melanoplus femurrubrum and the lepidopteran Evergestis rimosalis), a dipteran rhizovore (the cabbage maggot Delia radicum), a xylem-feeder (the spittlebug Philaenus spumarius), two phloem-feeders (the aphid, Lipaphis erysimi and the spidermite Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and two cell-disruptors (the bug Lygus lineolaris and the whitefly Tetranychus urticae). Hyperaccumulated Ni significantly decreased survival of the leaf-chewers and rhizovore, and significantly reduced population growth of the whitefly cell-disruptor. However, vascular tissue-feeding insects were unaffected by hyperaccumulated Ni, as was the bug cell-disruptor. We conclude that Ni can defend against tissue-chewing herbivores but is ineffective against vascular tissue-feeding herbivores. The effects of Ni on cell-disruptors varies, as a result of either variation of insect Ni sensitivity or the location of Ni in S. polygaloides cells and tissues. PMID:16219073

  7. The leguminous species Anthyllis vulneraria as a Zn-hyperaccumulator and eco-Zn catalyst resources.

    PubMed

    Grison, Claire M; Mazel, Marine; Sellini, Amandine; Escande, Vincent; Biton, Jacques; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Anthyllis vulneraria was highlighted here as a Zn-hyperaccumulator for the development of a pilot phytoextraction process in the mine site of Les Avinières in the district of Saint-Laurent-Le-Minier. A. vulneraria appeared to hyperaccumulate the highest concentration of Zn in shoots with a better metal selectivity relative to Cd and Pb than the reference Zn-hyperaccumulator Noccea caerulescens. A bigger biomass production associated to a higher Zn concentration conducted A. vulneraria to the highest total zinc gain per hectare per year. As a legume, A. vulneraria was infected by rhizobia symbionts. Inoculation of A. vulneraria seeds showed a positive impact on Zn hyperaccumulation. A large-scale culture process of symbiotic rhizobia of A. vulneraria was investigated and optimized to allow large-scale inoculation process. Contaminated shoots of A. vulneraria were not considered as wastes and were recovered as Eco-Zn catalyst in particular, examples of organic synthesis, electrophilic aromatic substitution. Eco-Zn catalyst was much more efficient than conventional catalysts and allowed greener chemical processes. PMID:25253057

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF ZINC TOLERANCE GENES IN THE ZINC/CADMIUM HYPERACCUMULATOR, THLASPI CAERULESCENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thlaspi caerulescens, a heavy metal hyperaccumulating plant species, accumulates up to 30,000 ppm zinc in the above ground biomass without exhibiting toxicity symptoms. Previous work in our lab has shown that altered regulation of micronutrient uptake, transport and sequestration in this species pla...

  9. MOLECULAR AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THLASPI CAERULESCENS, A ZN/CD HYPERACCUMULATOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain plant species have evolved specialized mechanisms that allow them to grow and thrive on metalliferous soils and accumulate high levels of heavy metals in the shoots that are toxic to normal plants. One such plant species is Thlaspi caerulescens, a Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator, and its metal h...

  10. Hyperaccumulation of cadmium by hairy roots of Thlaspi caerulescens

    SciTech Connect

    Nedelkoska, T.V.; Doran, P.M.

    2000-03-05

    Hairy roots were used to investigate cadmium uptake by Thlaspi caerulescens, a metal hyperaccumulator plant with potential applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Experiments were carried out in nutrient media under conditions supporting root growth. Accumulation of Cd in short-term (9-h) experiments varied with initial medium pH and increased after treating the roots with H{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor. The highest equilibrium Cd content measured in T. caerulescens roots was 62,800 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight, or 6.3% dry weight, at a liquid Cd concentration of 3,710 ppm. Cd levels in live T. caerulescens roots were 1.5- to 1.7-fold those in hairy roots of nonhyperaccumulator species exposed to the same Cd concentration, but similar to the Cd content of auto-claved T. caerulescens roots. The ability to grow at Cd concentrations of up to 100 ppm clearly distinguished T. caerulescens hairy roots from the nonhyperaccumulators. The specific growth rate of T. caerulescens roots was essentially unaffected by 20 to 50 ppm Cd in the culture medium; in contrast, N. tabacum roots turned dark brown at 20 ppm and growth was negligible. Up to 10,600 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight Cd was accumulated by growing T. caerulescens hairy roots. Measurement of Cd levels in while roots and in the cell wall fraction revealed significant differences in the responses of T. caerulescens and N. tabacum roots to 20 ppm Cd. Most metal was transported directly into the symplasm of N. tabacum roots within 3 days of exposure; in contrast, T. caerulescens roots stored virtually all of their Cd in the wall fraction for the first 7 to 10 days. This delay in transmembrane uptake may represent an important defensive strategy against Cd poisoning in T. caerulescens, allowing time for activation of intracellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification.

  11. Forms of zinc accumulated in the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri.

    PubMed

    Sarret, Géraldine; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Bert, Valérie; Proux, Olivier; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Traverse, Agnès; Marcus, Matthew A; Manceau, Alain

    2002-12-01

    The chemical forms of zinc (Zn) in the Zn-tolerant and hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri and in the non-tolerant and nonaccumulator Arabidopsis lyrata subsp. petraea were determined at the molecular level by combining chemical analyses, extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS), synchrotron-based x-ray microfluorescence, and muEXAFS. Plants were grown in hydroponics with various Zn concentrations, and A. halleri specimens growing naturally in a contaminated site were also collected. Zn speciation in A. halleri was independent of the origin of the plants (contaminated or non-contaminated) and Zn exposure. In aerial parts, Zn was predominantly octahedrally coordinated and complexed to malate. A secondary organic species was identified in the bases of the trichomes, which contained elevated Zn concentrations, and in which Zn was tetrahedrally coordinated and complexed to carboxyl and/or hydroxyl functional groups. This species was detected thanks to the good resolution and sensitivity of synchrotron-based x-ray microfluorescence and muEXAFS. In the roots of A. halleri grown in hydroponics, Zn phosphate was the only species detected, and is believed to result from chemical precipitation on the root surface. In the roots of A. halleri grown on the contaminated soil, Zn was distributed in Zn malate, Zn citrate, and Zn phosphate. Zn phosphate was present in both the roots and aerial part of A. lyrata subsp. petraea. This study illustrates the complementarity of bulk and spatially resolved techniques, allowing the identification of: (a) the predominant chemical forms of the metal, and (b) the minor forms present in particular cells, both types of information being essential for a better understanding of the bioaccumulation processes. PMID:12481065

  12. The Colors of Keith Haring: A Spectroscopic Study on the Materials of the Mural Painting Tuttomondo and on Reference Contemporary Outdoor Paints.

    PubMed

    Cucci, Costanza; Bartolozzi, Giovanni; De Vita, Marco; Marchiafava, Veronica; Picollo, Marcello; Casadio, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    To date, little attention has been given to the scientific investigation of modern and contemporary mural paintings. This paper reports on: (1) the in situ spectroscopic analyses of the mural Tuttomondo (1989) painted by Keith Haring (1958-1990) in Pisa (Italy); and (2) the laboratory characterization of acrylic paints produced by Caparol Italy GmbH & Co., the original supplier of paint materials to the artist for the mural. Ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), and near-infrared (NIR) fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) measurements were carried out in situ. The Caparol paint samples were characterized using benchtop instrumentation including both dispersive and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR; with sample pre-treatment to remove filler interference in the fingerprint region), and UV-Vis-NIR FORS. This combined analytical approach confirmed that the materials used by Haring for the mural Tuttomondo have the same composition of the new Caparol acrylic paints, except for the case of the yellow pigment. This information offers valuable documentation for the materials history and for the conservation of a mural painting that is considered the last great public work by Haring. PMID:26767644

  13. Hyperaccumulation of lead, zinc, and cadmium in plants growing on a lead/zinc outcrop in Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. L.; Liao, W. B.; Yu, F. Q.; Liao, B.; Shu, W. S.

    2009-08-01

    A field survey was conducted to identify potential hyperaccumulators of Pb, Zn or Cd in the Beichang Pb/Zn mine outcrop in Yunnan Province, China. The average total concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in the soils were up to 28,438, 5,109, and 52 mg kg-1, respectively. A total of 68 plant species belonging to 60 genera of 37 families naturally colonizing the outcrop were recorded. According to metal accumulation in the plants and translocation factor (TF), Silene viscidula was identified as potential hyperaccumulator of Pb, Zn, and Cd with mean shoot concentrations of 3,938 mg kg-1 of Pb (TF = 1.2), 11,155 mg kg-1 of Zn (TF = 1.8) and 236 mg kg-1 of Cd (TF = 1.1), respectively; S. gracilicanlis (Pb 3,617 mg kg-1, TF = 1.2) and Onosma paniculatum (Pb 1,837 mg kg-1, TF = 1.9) were potential Pb hyperaccumulators. Potentilla griffithii (Zn 8,748 mg kg-1, TF = 1.5) and Gentiana sp. (Zn 19,710 mg kg-1, TF = 2.7) were potential Zn hyperaccumulators. Lysimachia deltoides (Cd 212 mg kg-1, TF = 3.2) was a potential Cd hyperaccumulator. These new plant resources could be used to explore the mechanisms of Pb, Zn and/or Cd hyperaccumulation, and the findings could be applied for the phytoremediation of Pb, Zn and/or Cd-contaminated soils.

  14. Do selenium hyperaccumulators affect selenium speciation in neighboring plants and soil? An X-Ray Microprobe Analysis.

    PubMed

    El Mehdawi, Ali F; Lindblom, Stormy D; Cappa, Jennifer J; Fakra, Sirine C; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2015-01-01

    Neighbors of Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus were found earlier to have elevated Se levels. Here we investigate whether Se hyperaccumulators affect Se localization and speciation in surrounding soil and neighboring plants. X-ray fluorescence mapping and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy were used to analyze Se localization and speciation in leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana, Symphyotrichum ericoides and Chenopodium album growing next to Se hyperaccumulators or non-accumulators at a seleniferous site. Regardless of neighbors, A. ludoviciana, S. ericoides and C. album accumulated predominantly (73-92%) reduced selenocompounds with XANES spectra similar to the C-Se-C compounds selenomethionine and methyl-selenocysteine. Preliminary data indicate that the largest Se fraction (65-75%), both in soil next to hyperaccumulator S. pinnata and next to nonaccumulator species was reduced Se with spectra similar to C-Se-C standards. These same C-Se-C forms are found in hyperaccumulators. Thus, hyperaccumulator litter may be a source of organic soil Se, but soil microorganisms may also contribute. These findings are relevant for phytoremediation and biofortification since organic Se is more readily accumulated by plants, and more effective for dietary Se supplementation. PMID:26030363

  15. Transcriptomic Diversification of Developing Cumulus and Mural Granulosa Cells in Mouse Ovarian Follicles1

    PubMed Central

    Wigglesworth, Karen; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Emori, Chihiro; Sugiura, Koji; Eppig, John J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cumulus cells and mural granulosa cells (MGCs) have functionally distinct roles in antral follicles, and comparison of their transcriptomes at a global and systems level can propel future studies on mechanisms underlying their functional diversity. These cells were isolated from small and large antral follicles before and after stimulation of immature mice with gonadotropins, respectively. Both cell types underwent dramatic transcriptomic changes, and differences between them increased with follicular growth. Although cumulus cells of both stages of follicular development are competent to undergo expansion in vitro, they were otherwise remarkably dissimilar with transcriptomic changes quantitatively equivalent to those of MGCs. Gene ontology analysis revealed that cumulus cells of small follicles were enriched in transcripts generally associated with catalytic components of metabolic processes, while those from large follicles were involved in regulation of metabolism, cell differentiation, and adhesion. Contrast of cumulus cells versus MGCs revealed that cumulus cells were enriched in transcripts associated with metabolism and cell proliferation while MGCs were enriched for transcripts involved in cell signaling and differentiation. In vitro and in vivo models were used to test the hypothesis that higher levels of transcripts in cumulus cells versus MGCs is the result of stimulation by oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs). Surprisingly ∼48% of transcripts higher in cumulus cells than MGCs were not stimulated by ODPFs. Those stimulated by ODPFs were mainly associated with cell division, mRNA processing, or the catalytic pathways of metabolism, while those not stimulated by ODPFs were associated with regulatory processes such as signaling, transcription, phosphorylation, or the regulation of metabolism. PMID:25376232

  16. Rinorea niccolifera (Violaceae), a new, nickel-hyperaccumulating species from Luzon Island, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Edwino S; Quimado, Marilyn O; Doronila, Augustine I

    2014-01-01

    A new, nickel-hyperaccumulating species of Rinorea (Violaceae), Rinorea niccolifera Fernando, from Luzon Island, Philippines, is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to the widespread Rinorea bengalensis by its fasciculate inflorescences and smooth subglobose fruits with 3 seeds, but it differs by its glabrous ovary with shorter style (5 mm long), the summit of the staminal tube sinuate to entire and the outer surface smooth, generally smaller leaves (3-8 cm long × 2-3 cm wide), and smaller fruits (0.6-0.8 cm diameter). Rinorea niccolifera accumulates to >18,000 µg g(-1) of nickel in its leaf tissues and is thus regarded as a Ni hyperaccumulator. PMID:24843295

  17. Halophilic Microorganisms Are Responsible for the Rosy Discolouration of Saline Environments in Three Historical Buildings with Mural Paintings

    PubMed Central

    Ettenauer, Jörg D.; Jurado, Valme; Piñar, Guadalupe; Miller, Ana Z.; Santner, Markus; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Sterflinger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    A number of mural paintings and building materials from monuments located in central and south Europe are characterized by the presence of an intriguing rosy discolouration phenomenon. Although some similarities were observed among the bacterial and archaeal microbiota detected in these monuments, their origin and nature is still unknown. In order to get a complete overview of this biodeterioration process, we investigated the microbial communities in saline environments causing the rosy discolouration of mural paintings in three Austrian historical buildings using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent techniques as well as microscopic techniques. The bacterial communities were dominated by halophilic members of Actinobacteria, mainly of the genus Rubrobacter. Representatives of the Archaea were also detected with the predominating genera Halobacterium, Halococcus and Halalkalicoccus. Furthermore, halophilic bacterial strains, mainly of the phylum Firmicutes, could be retrieved from two monuments using special culture media. Inoculation of building materials (limestone and gypsum plaster) with selected isolates reproduced the unaesthetic rosy effect and biodeterioration in the laboratory. PMID:25084531

  18. Selenium Distribution and Speciation in the Hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus and Associated Ecological Partners1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Valdez Barillas, José R.; Quinn, Colin F.; Freeman, John L.; Lindblom, Stormy D.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Gilligan, Todd M.; Alford, Élan R.; Wangeline, Ami L.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate how plant selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation may affect ecological interactions and whether associated partners may affect Se hyperaccumulation. The Se hyperaccumulator Astragalus bisulcatus was collected in its natural seleniferous habitat, and x-ray fluorescence mapping and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy were used to characterize Se distribution and speciation in all organs as well as in encountered microbial symbionts and herbivores. Se was present at high levels (704–4,661 mg kg−1 dry weight) in all organs, mainly as organic C-Se-C compounds (i.e. Se bonded to two carbon atoms, e.g. methylselenocysteine). In nodule, root, and stem, up to 34% of Se was found as elemental Se, which was potentially due to microbial activity. In addition to a nitrogen-fixing symbiont, the plants harbored an endophytic fungus that produced elemental Se. Furthermore, two Se-resistant herbivorous moths were discovered on A. bisulcatus, one of which was parasitized by a wasp. Adult moths, larvae, and wasps all accumulated predominantly C-Se-C compounds. In conclusion, hyperaccumulators live in association with a variety of Se-resistant ecological partners. Among these partners, microbial endosymbionts may affect Se speciation in hyperaccumulators. Hyperaccumulators have been shown earlier to negatively affect Se-sensitive ecological partners while apparently offering a niche for Se-resistant partners. Through their positive and negative effects on different ecological partners, hyperaccumulators may influence species composition and Se cycling in seleniferous ecosystems. PMID:22645068

  19. Effects of elevated CO₂ on rhizosphere characteristics of Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingqiang; Tao, Qi; Han, Xuan; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-06-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on the metal bioavailability and the rhizosphere characteristics of hyperaccumulator are not well understood. In this study, soil pot experiment was carried out to contrast the effects of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere characteristics between a hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and a non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum alfredii grown under ambient (350 μL L(-1)) or elevated (800 μL L(-1)) CO2. Elevated CO2 facilitated the growth of both ecotypes of S. alfredii, but the promotion in the HE was much greater than in the NHE. No significant (P<0.05) changes in soil pH, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and microbial biomass (Cmic) were observed in the rhizosphere of NHE under both CO2 level. For HE, however, elevated CO2 reduced soil pH by 0.3 units, increased DOM (especially for hydrophilic acid (HiA) fractions) by 19.2% and Cmic by 19%, as compared to ambient CO2. Mobile Cd and Zn (extractable with 1M NH4NO3) in the rhizosphere of HE decreased considerably, but the decreases were greater under ambient CO2 than under elevated CO2. Phytoextraction efficiency of Cd and Zn by HE was increased significantly by elevated CO2 (P<0.05). The results suggest that elevated CO2 can change soil microenvironment, increase bioavailability of Cd and Zn and thus facilitate metal uptake by the HE. This work highlights that elevated CO2 may be a useful way to improve phytoremediation efficiency of Cd/Zn-contaminated soil by hyperaccumulating ecotype S. alfredii. PMID:23567171

  20. Comparison of trace element emissions from thermal treatments of heavy metal hyperaccumulators.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengyong; Du, Yingzhe; Zhong, Daoxu; Zhao, Bing; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Mengxia; Li, Zhu; Luo, Yongming; Yan, Jianhua; Wu, Longhua

    2012-05-01

    Phytoextraction has become one of the most promising remediation techniques for heavy metal (HM) contaminated soils. However, the technique invariably produces large amounts of HM-enriched hyperaccumulators, which need further safe disposal. In this study, two different thermal treatment methods are investigated as potential options for evaporative separation of HMs from the residues. A horizontal tube furnace and a vertical entrained flow tube furnace were used for testing the disposal of grounded hyperaccumulators. The release characteristics of HMs (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) into flue gas and residues were investigated for thermal treatment of the Cd and Zn hyperaccumulators Sedum plumbizincicola and Sedum alfredii. In a horizontal tube furnace, incineration favors the volatilization of Cu and Cd in contrast to pyrolysis. The percentages of HMs in residues after incineration are lower than those after pyrolysis, especially for Cd, Pb, and Zn. However, in an entrained flow tube furnace, Zn content in flue gas increases with increasing temperature, but Cu and Cd contents are fluctuated. In addition, a higher incineration temperature enhances the Cu content in residues. PMID:22458922

  1. The molecular physiology of heavy metal transport in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Pence, N S; Larsen, P B; Ebbs, S D; Letham, D L; Lasat, M M; Garvin, D F; Eide, D; Kochian, L V

    2000-04-25

    An integrated molecular and physiological investigation of the fundamental mechanisms of heavy metal accumulation was conducted in Thlaspi caerulescens, a Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulating plant species. A heavy metal transporter cDNA, ZNT1, was cloned from T. caerulescens through functional complementation in yeast and was shown to mediate high-affinity Zn(2+) uptake as well as low-affinity Cd(2+) uptake. It was found that this transporter is expressed at very high levels in roots and shoots of the hyperaccumulator. A study of ZNT1 expression and high-affinity Zn(2+) uptake in roots of T. caerulescens and in a related nonaccumulator, Thlaspi arvense, showed that alteration in the regulation of ZNT1 gene expression by plant Zn status results in the overexpression of this transporter and in increased Zn influx in roots of the hyperaccumulating Thlaspi species. These findings yield insights into the molecular regulation and control of plant heavy metal and micronutrient accumulation and homeostasis, as well as provide information that will contribute to the advancement of phytoremediation by the future engineering of plants with improved heavy metal uptake and tolerance. PMID:10781104

  2. The molecular physiology of heavy metal transport in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    PubMed Central

    Pence, Nicole S.; Larsen, Paul B.; Ebbs, Stephen D.; Letham, Deborah L. D.; Lasat, Mitch M.; Garvin, David F.; Eide, David; Kochian, Leon V.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated molecular and physiological investigation of the fundamental mechanisms of heavy metal accumulation was conducted in Thlaspi caerulescens, a Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulating plant species. A heavy metal transporter cDNA, ZNT1, was cloned from T. caerulescens through functional complementation in yeast and was shown to mediate high-affinity Zn2+ uptake as well as low-affinity Cd2+ uptake. It was found that this transporter is expressed at very high levels in roots and shoots of the hyperaccumulator. A study of ZNT1 expression and high-affinity Zn2+ uptake in roots of T. caerulescens and in a related nonaccumulator, Thlaspi arvense, showed that alteration in the regulation of ZNT1 gene expression by plant Zn status results in the overexpression of this transporter and in increased Zn influx in roots of the hyperaccumulating Thlaspi species. These findings yield insights into the molecular regulation and control of plant heavy metal and micronutrient accumulation and homeostasis, as well as provide information that will contribute to the advancement of phytoremediation by the future engineering of plants with improved heavy metal uptake and tolerance. PMID:10781104

  3. Thermal Characteristics of Hyperaccumulator and Fate of Heavy Metals during Thermal Treatment of Sedum plumbizincicola.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Daoxu; Zhong, Zhaoping; Wu, Longhua; Xue, Hui; Song, Zuwei; Luo, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Thermal treatment is one of the most promising disposal techniques for heavy metal- (HM)-enriched hyperaccumulators. However, the thermal characteristics and fate of HMs during thermal treatment of hyperaccumulator biomass need to be known in detail. A horizontal tube furnace was used to analyze the disposal process of hyperaccumulator biomass derived from a phyto-extracted field in which the soil was moderately contaminated with heavy metals. Different operational conditions regarding temperature and gas composition were tested. A thermo-dynamic analysis by advanced system for process engineering was performed to predict HM speciation during thermal disposal and SEM-EDS, XRD and sequential chemical extraction were used to characterize the heavy metals. The recovery of Zn, Pb and Cd in bottom ash decreased with increasing temperature but recovery increased in the fly ash. Recovery of Zn, Pb and Cd fluctuated with increasing air flow rate and the metal recovery rates were higher in the fly ash than the bottom ash. Most Cl, S, Fe, Al and SiO2 were found as alkali oxides, SO2, Fe2(SO4)3, iron oxide, Ca3Al2O6, K2SiO3 and SiO2 instead of reacting with HMs. Thus, the HMs were found to occur as the pure metals and their oxides during the combustion process and as the sulfides during the reducing process. PMID:26030364

  4. Response of ATP sulfurylase and serine acetyltransferase towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei-dong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Xiao-e; Chao, Yue-en; Feng, Ying

    2009-01-01

    We studied the responses of the activities of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyltransferase (SAT) to cadmium (Cd) levels and treatment time in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum alfredii Hance, as compared with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results show that plant growth was inhibited in NHE but promoted in HE when exposed to high Cd level. Cd concentrations in leaves and shoots rapidly increased in HE rather than in NHE, and they became much higher in HE than in NHE along with increasing treatment time and Cd supply levels. ATPS activity was higher in HE than in NHE in all Cd treatments, and increased with increasing Cd supply levels in both HE and NHE when exposed to Cd treatment within 8 h. However, a marked difference of ATPS activity between HE and NHE was found with Cd treatment for 168 h, where ATPS activity increased in HE but decreased in NHE. Similarly, SAT activity was higher in HE than in NHE at all Cd treatments, but was more sensitive in NHE than in HE. Both ATPS and SAT activities in NHE leaves tended to decrease with increasing treatment time after 8 h at all Cd levels. The results reveal the different responses in sulfur assimilation enzymes and Cd accumulation between HE and NHE. With increasing Cd stress, the activities of sulfur assimilation enzymes (ATPS and SAT) were induced in HE, which may contribute to Cd accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. PMID:19353742

  5. Response of ATP sulfurylase and serine acetyltransferase towards cadmium in hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei-dong; Liang, Jun; Yang, Xiao-e; Chao, Yue-en; Feng, Ying

    2009-04-01

    We studied the responses of the activities of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyltransferase (SAT) to cadmium (Cd) levels and treatment time in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) Sedum alfredii Hance, as compared with its non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). The results show that plant growth was inhibited in NHE but promoted in HE when exposed to high Cd level. Cd concentrations in leaves and shoots rapidly increased in HE rather than in NHE, and they became much higher in HE than in NHE along with increasing treatment time and Cd supply levels. ATPS activity was higher in HE than in NHE in all Cd treatments, and increased with increasing Cd supply levels in both HE and NHE when exposed to Cd treatment within 8 h. However, a marked difference of ATPS activity between HE and NHE was found with Cd treatment for 168 h, where ATPS activity increased in HE but decreased in NHE. Similarly, SAT activity was higher in HE than in NHE at all Cd treatments, but was more sensitive in NHE than in HE. Both ATPS and SAT activities in NHE leaves tended to decrease with increasing treatment time after 8 h at all Cd levels. The results reveal the different responses in sulfur assimilation enzymes and Cd accumulation between HE and NHE. With increasing Cd stress, the activities of sulfur assimilation enzymes (ATPS and SAT) were induced in HE, which may contribute to Cd accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance. PMID:19353742

  6. Flowering stage characteristics of cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and their significance to phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Zhou, Qixing; Koval, Pavel V

    2006-10-01

    The Cd accumulation and biomass characteristics of a newly found Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. were investigated at the flowering stage and the mature stage. The results showed that the concentration of Cd in the stems and leaves of S. nigrum harvested at the flowering stage was up to 83.1% and 85.5% of that at the mature stage, and the dry-weight sum of the stems and leaves of S. nigrum harvested at the flowering stage was 93.4% of that at its seed maturity. The Cd-removing ratio by the shoots of S. nigrum harvested at the flowering stage was 87.5% of that at the mature stage. It was also found by observing the growth duration of S. nigrum that the frostless period at the experimental site was at least twice as long as the growth duration from the seedling-transplanted phase to the flowering stage of the hyperaccumulator. Therefore, S. nigrum could be transplanted into contaminated soils twice in one year by harvesting the hyperaccumulator at its flowering stage based on climatic conditions of the site and traits of the plant growth. In particular, the extraction efficiency of Cd by harvesting the shoots of S. nigrum at its flowering stage twice in one year could increase 75.0% compared to that of at its single maturity. Thus, the method of multiple harvesting would be very important to increase phytoremediation efficiency in practice. PMID:16859734

  7. Increase of glutathione in mine population of Sedum alfredii: a Zn hyperaccumulator and Pb accumulator.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q; Ye, Z H; Wang, X R; Wong, M H

    2005-11-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) have been induced in a large range of plant species, but their role in heavy metal tolerance is unclear. Sedum alfredii is a new zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator found in an old Pb/Zn mine in the Zhejiang Province of China. Until now, the mechanisms of its hyperaccumulation/accumulation and tolerance were poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate whether PCs were differentially produced in mine populations of S. alfredii compared with a non-mine control of the same species. The results showed that plants from the mine site were more tolerant to increasing Zn and Pb concentrations than those from the control site. No PCs and cysteine (Cys) were detected by pre-column derivatization with HPLC fluorescence in any tissues of two populations at any treatment, which in turn indicated they were not responsible for Zn and Pb tolerance in the mine population. Instead, Zn and Pb treatments resulted in the increase of glutathione (GSH) for both populations in a tissue-dependent manner. Significant increases were observed in leaf, stem and root tissues of plants grown on the mine site. The results suggest that GSH, rather man PCs, may be involved in Zn and Pb transport, hyperaccumulation/accumulation and tolerance in mine population of S. alfredii. PMID:16225897

  8. Mn accumulation and tolerance in Celosia argentea Linn.: a new Mn-hyperaccumulating plant species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xuehong; Zhu, Yinian; Yu, Ke

    2014-02-28

    Identifying a hyperaccumulator is an important groundwork for the phytoextraction of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Celosia argentea Linn., which grew on a Mn tailing wasteland, was found to hyperaccumulate Mn (14 362mgkg(-1) in leaf dry matter) in this study. To investigate Mn tolerance and accumulation in C. argentea, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Results showed that the biomass and the relative growth rate of C. argentea were insignificantly different (p>0.05) at the Mn supply level ranging from 2.5mgL(-1) (control) to 400mgL(-1). Manganese concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached maxima of 20228, 8872, and 2823mgkg(-1) at 600mgMnL(-1), respectively. The relative rate of Mn accumulation increased by 91.2% at 400mgMnL(-1). Over 95% of the total Mn taken up by C. argentea was translocated to shoots. Thus, C. argentea exhibits the basic characteristics of a Mn-hyperaccumulator. This species has great potential to remediate Mn-contaminated soil cheaply and can also aid the studies of Mn uptake, translocation, speciation, distribution and detoxification in plants. PMID:24444455

  9. Application of rhizosphere interaction of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens to remediate cadmium-contaminated agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Wang, Wei; Li, Hua-Fen

    2011-10-01

    There is an urgent requirement for selecting appropriate technologies to solve food safety problems due to soil contamination. In this study, the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and a high Cd accumulator pakchoi cultivar (Brassica rapa L. spp. Chinenesis cv.) were grown in a moderately Cd-contaminated soil with three planting systems (monocrop, inter-crop, and crop-rotation) and three growing durations (25, 50, and 75 days) to study the role of rhizosphere interaction of both species on the uptake of Cd. The Cd accumulations in the shoot of pakchoi were significantly reduced in the inter-crop treatment, also the decreased percentage increased with rhizosphere interaction between the two species. In the inter-crop systems of 75 days, the Cd concentration and amount in the shoot of pakchoi represented 54% and 83% reduction, respectively, while the total depletion of Cd decreased by approximate 19%. Although the Cd concentration and amount in the shoot of pakchoi were significantly reduced by 52% and 44%, respectively, in the crop-rotation treatment, the decreased percentage were markedly lower than in the inter-crop treatment. Therefore, the rhizosphere interaction of hyperaccumulator with non-hyperaccumulator may reduce the risk of vegetable contamination during making full use of or remediating the contaminated soil. PMID:21972514

  10. Root and shoot transcriptome analysis of two ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens uncovers the role of NcNramp1 in Cd hyperaccumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator, Noccaea caerulescens, has been studied extensively for its ability to accumulate Zn and Cd in its leaves to extremely high levels. Previous studies have indicated that the Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation trait exhibited by this species involves different transport and toleran...

  11. Local adaptation is associated with zinc tolerance in Pseudomonas endophytes of the metal-hyperaccumulator plant Noccaea caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Fones, H N; McCurrach, H; Mithani, A; Smith, J A C; Preston, G M

    2016-05-11

    Metal-hyperaccumulating plants, which are hypothesized to use metals for defence against pests and pathogens, provide a unique context in which to study plant-pathogen coevolution. Previously, we demonstrated that the high concentrations of zinc found in leaves of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens provide protection against bacterial pathogens, with a potential trade-off between metal-based and pathogen-induced defences. We speculated that an evolutionary arms race between zinc-based defences in N. caerulescens and zinc tolerance in pathogens might have driven the development of the hyperaccumulation phenotype. Here, we investigate the possibility of local adaptation by bacteria to the zinc-rich environment of N. caerulescens leaves and show that leaves sampled from the contaminated surroundings of a former mine site harboured endophytes with greater zinc tolerance than those within plants of an artificially created hyperaccumulating population. Experimental manipulation of zinc concentrations in plants of this artificial population influenced the zinc tolerance of recovered endophytes. In laboratory experiments, only endophytic bacteria isolated from plants of the natural population were able to grow to high population densities in any N. caerulescens plants. These findings suggest that long-term coexistence with zinc-hyperaccumulating plants leads to local adaptation by endophytic bacteria to the environment within their leaves. PMID:27170725

  12. Effect of cadmium toxicity on nitrogen metabolism in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a newly found cadmium hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zhou, Qixing; Ding, Lingling; Sun, Yuebing

    2008-06-15

    Hyperaccumulators are ideal plant species used for phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A full understanding of metal tolerance mechanisms of hyperaccumulators will facilitate enhancing their phytoremediation efficiency. However, how Cd affects N metabolism and which role plays the response of N metabolism to Cd toxicity in the tolerance of hyperaccumulators are still unknown. To clarify these questions, this study investigated the effects of various soil Cd levels on the concentrations of N forms and the activity of key enzymes involved in N metabolism in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L. The results showed that its growth and all N metabolism indicators were normal at low Cd exposure (hyperaccumulator. PMID:18077088

  13. Synergistic effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate rock on heavy metal uptake and accumulation by an arsenic hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Leung, H M; Wu, F Y; Cheung, K C; Ye, Z H; Wong, M H

    2010-09-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and phosphate rock on the phytorextraction efficiency of a hyperaccumulator (Pteris vittata) and a non-hyperaccumulator (Cynodon dactylon) plant were studied. Both seedlings were planted in As contaminated soil under different treatments [(1) control (contaminated soil only), (2) indigenous mycorrhizas (IM), (3) mixed AM inoculum [indigenous mycorrhiza + Glomus mosseae (IM/Gm)] and (4) IM/Gm + phosphate rock (P rock)] with varying intensities (40%, 70% and 100%) of water moisture content (WMC). Significant As reduction in soil (23.8% of soil As reduction), increase in plant biomass (17.8 g/pot) and As accumulation (2054 mg/kg DW) were observed for P. vittata treated with IM/Gm + PR at 100% WMC level. The overall results indicated that the synergistic effect of mycorrhiza and P rock affected As subcellular distribution of the hyperaccumulator and thereby altered its As removal efficiency under well-watered conditions. PMID:20541316

  14. Localisation and quantification of elements within seeds of Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox by micro-PIXE.

    PubMed

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan; Simcic, Jure; Pelicon, Primoz; Budnar, Milos; Povh, Bogdan; Regvar, Marjana

    2007-05-01

    Cd, Zn and Pb accumulation, spatial distribution within seeds and germinating seedlings, and seeds fitness of metal hyperaccumulating Thlaspi praecox were investigated in order to gain more knowledge on plant reproductive success at metal polluted sites. The seeds contained up to 1351 microg g-1 (dry weight) of Cd, 121 microg g-1 of Zn and 17 microg g-1 of Pb. Seed fitness was negatively influenced by seed Cd hyperaccumulation. Nevertheless, the viability of seeds was decreased by maximally 20%, indicating very efficient tolerance of the plant embryos to Cd. Localisation by micro-PIXE revealed preferential storage of most elements in the embryonic axis. Cd and Zn were preferentially localised in the epidermis of cotyledons. The restriction of seed Pb and Zn uptake and hyperaccumulation of Cd, accompanied by partitioning of Cd in the epidermal tissues of cotyledons, may enable the survival of T. praecox embryos and seedlings in Cd polluted environments. PMID:17070633

  15. Giovanni Battista Morgagni in the murals of Diego Rivera at the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Estañol, Bruno; Delgado, Guillermo R

    2014-07-01

    The Italian physician Giovanni Battista Morgagni was the founder of the clinico-anatomical method. His masterpiece De sedibus, et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis represented a major breakthrough in the history of medicine. In the murals of Diego Rivera at the National Institute of Cardiology, Morgagni appears at the center of the fresco. With his left index finger points to the chest of a dying patient with a bulging pulsating aortic aneurysm below the left clavicle, and with his right hand, that holds a scalpel, shows the aneurysm found at the autopsy table. With this striking image the clinico-anatomical method is succinctly depicted. Professor Ignacio Chávez, the founder of the National Institute of Cardiology, gave the artist the elements to draw Morgagni, but the disposition and the importance of Morgagni in the fresco were due to the talent of Rivera. PMID:23493179

  16. Mural folliculitis and alopecia caused by infection with goat-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus in two sika deer.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Timothy B; Li, Hong; Rosenburg, Stuart R; Norhausen, Robert W; Garner, Michael M

    2002-09-15

    Two sika deer from a zoo in Florida were examined because of chronic hair loss and skin lesions. No common causes of alopecia were identified in either deer. One deer was treated with prednisone, but the condition worsened when the dosage was decreased. Both deer were euthanatized after several months because of continued disease. The predominant histologic lesion in skin specimens was granulomatous mural folliculitis. Serologic testing and sequencing of fragments produced with a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that both deer were infected with caprine herpesvirus-2, a newly recognized member of the malignant catarrhal fever group of viruses. Disease in these deer was substantially different from that typically seen following infection with ovine herpesvirus-2, the sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus. Findings in these deer establish the pathogenicity of caprine herpesvirus-2 in sika deer and illustrate the ability of this group of complex herpesviruses to cause a wide variety of clinical abnormalities in diverse species. PMID:12322924

  17. Selenium hyperaccumulators harbor a diverse endophytic bacterial community characterized by high selenium resistance and plant growth promoting properties

    PubMed Central

    Sura-de Jong, Martina; Reynolds, Ray J. B.; Richterova, Klara; Musilova, Lucie; Staicu, Lucian C.; Chocholata, Iva; Cappa, Jennifer J.; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Frantik, Tomas; Dolinova, Iva; Strejcek, Michal; Cochran, Alyssa T.; Lovecka, Petra; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se)-rich plants may be used to provide dietary Se to humans and livestock, and also to clean up Se-polluted soils or waters. This study focused on endophytic bacteria of plants that hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) to 0.5–1% of dry weight. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was used to compare the diversity of endophytic bacteria of hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) and Astragalus bisulcatus (Fabaceae) with those from related non-accumulators Physaria bellii (Brassicaceae) and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae) collected on the same, seleniferous site. Hyperaccumulators and non-accumulators showed equal T-RF diversity. Parsimony analysis showed that T-RFs from individuals of the same species were more similar to each other than to those from other species, regardless of plant Se content or spatial proximity. Cultivable endophytes from hyperaccumulators S. pinnata and A. bisulcatus were further identified and characterized. The 66 bacterial morphotypes were shown by MS MALDI-TOF Biotyper analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to include strains of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Staphylococcus, Paenibacillus, Advenella, Arthrobacter, and Variovorax. Most isolates were highly resistant to selenate and selenite (up to 200 mM) and all could reduce selenite to red elemental Se, reduce nitrite and produce siderophores. Seven isolates were selected for plant inoculation and found to have plant growth promoting properties, both in pure culture and when co-cultivated with crop species Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae) or M. sativa. There were no effects on plant Se accumulation. We conclude that Se hyperaccumulators harbor an endophytic bacterial community in their natural seleniferous habitat that is equally diverse to that of comparable non-accumulators. The hyperaccumulator endophytes are characterized by high Se resistance, capacity to produce elemental Se and plant growth promoting properties. PMID:25784919

  18. Selenium hyperaccumulators harbor a diverse endophytic bacterial community characterized by high selenium resistance and plant growth promoting properties.

    PubMed

    Sura-de Jong, Martina; Reynolds, Ray J B; Richterova, Klara; Musilova, Lucie; Staicu, Lucian C; Chocholata, Iva; Cappa, Jennifer J; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Frantik, Tomas; Dolinova, Iva; Strejcek, Michal; Cochran, Alyssa T; Lovecka, Petra; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se)-rich plants may be used to provide dietary Se to humans and livestock, and also to clean up Se-polluted soils or waters. This study focused on endophytic bacteria of plants that hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) to 0.5-1% of dry weight. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was used to compare the diversity of endophytic bacteria of hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) and Astragalus bisulcatus (Fabaceae) with those from related non-accumulators Physaria bellii (Brassicaceae) and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae) collected on the same, seleniferous site. Hyperaccumulators and non-accumulators showed equal T-RF diversity. Parsimony analysis showed that T-RFs from individuals of the same species were more similar to each other than to those from other species, regardless of plant Se content or spatial proximity. Cultivable endophytes from hyperaccumulators S. pinnata and A. bisulcatus were further identified and characterized. The 66 bacterial morphotypes were shown by MS MALDI-TOF Biotyper analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to include strains of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Staphylococcus, Paenibacillus, Advenella, Arthrobacter, and Variovorax. Most isolates were highly resistant to selenate and selenite (up to 200 mM) and all could reduce selenite to red elemental Se, reduce nitrite and produce siderophores. Seven isolates were selected for plant inoculation and found to have plant growth promoting properties, both in pure culture and when co-cultivated with crop species Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae) or M. sativa. There were no effects on plant Se accumulation. We conclude that Se hyperaccumulators harbor an endophytic bacterial community in their natural seleniferous habitat that is equally diverse to that of comparable non-accumulators. The hyperaccumulator endophytes are characterized by high Se resistance, capacity to produce elemental Se and plant growth promoting properties. PMID:25784919

  19. Extraction and isolation of the salidroside-type metabolite from zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yan; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Xia; Zhang, Meng-xi; Gao, Ling-ling; Yang, Xiao-e

    2012-10-01

    The active metabolite in the post-harvested biomass of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance from phytoextraction is of great interest in China. The current study demonstrates that a salidroside-type metabolite can be yielded from the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator S. alfredii biomass by means of sonication/ethanol extraction and macroporous resin column (AB-8 type) isolation. The concentrations of Zn and Cd in the salidroside-type metabolite were below the limitation of the national standards. PMID:23024051

  20. Extraction and isolation of the salidroside-type metabolite from zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance*

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Peng, Hong-yun; Li, Xia; Zhang, Meng-xi; Gao, Ling-ling; Yang, Xiao-e

    2012-01-01

    The active metabolite in the post-harvested biomass of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance from phytoextraction is of great interest in China. The current study demonstrates that a salidroside-type metabolite can be yielded from the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator S. alfredii biomass by means of sonication/ethanol extraction and macroporous resin column (AB-8 type) isolation. The concentrations of Zn and Cd in the salidroside-type metabolite were below the limitation of the national standards. PMID:23024051

  1. Manganese uptake and accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae).

    PubMed

    Xue, S G; Chen, Y X; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M; Lin, Q; Fernando, Denise R

    2004-10-01

    The perennial herb Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae), which occurs in Southern China, has been found to be a new manganese hyperaccumulator by means of field surveys on Mn-rich soils and by glasshouse experiments. This species not only has remarkable tolerance to Mn but also has extraordinary uptake and accumulation capacity for this element. The maximum Mn concentration in the leaf dry matter was 19,300 microg/g on Xiangtan Mn tailings wastelands, with a mean of 14,480 microg/g. Under nutrient solution culture conditions, P. acinosa could grow normally with Mn supplied at a concentration of 8000 micromol/l, although with less biomass than in control samples supplied with Mn at 5 micromol/l. Manganese concentration in the shoots increased with increasing external Mn levels, but the total mass of Mn accumulated in the shoots first increased and then decreased. At an Mn concentration of 5000 micromol/l in the culture solution, the Mn accumulation in the shoot dry matter was highest (258 mg/plant). However, the Mn concentration in the leaves reached its highest value (36,380 microg/g) at an Mn supply level of 12,000 micromol/l. These results confirm that P. acinosa is an Mn hyperaccumulator which grows rapidly, has substantial biomass, wide distribution and a broad ecological amplitude. This species provides a new plant resource for exploring the mechanism of Mn hyperaccumulation, and has potential for use in the phytoremediation of Mn-contaminated soils. PMID:15261402

  2. Nickel, Zn and Cd localisation in seeds of metal hyperaccumulators using μ-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer; Walsh, Kerry B.; Singh, Balwant

    2009-06-01

    Metal hyperaccumulators are a rare group of plant species that accumulate exceptionally high concentrations of metals in above ground tissues without showing symptoms of phytotoxicity. Quantitative localisation of the accumulated metals in seed tissues is of considerable interest to help understand the eco-physiology of these unique plant species. We investigated the spatial localisation of metals within seeds of Ni hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. adpressus, H. floribundus subsp. floribundus and Pimelea leptospermoides and dual-metal (Cd and Zn) hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens using quantitative micro-proton induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy. Intact seeds were hand-sectioned, sandwiched between Formvar films and irradiated using the 3 MeV high energy heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO. Elemental maps of whole H. floribundus subsp. adpressus seeds showed an average Ni concentration of 5.1 × 10 3 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) with highest Ni concentration in cotyledonary tissues (7.6 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW), followed by the embryonic axis (4.4 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). Nickel concentration in whole H. floribundus subsp. floribundus seeds was 3.5 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW without a clear pattern of Ni localisation. The average Ni concentration in whole P. leptospermoides seeds was 2.6 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW, and Ni was preferentially localised in the embryonic axis (4.3 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW). In T. caerulescens, Cd concentrations were similar in cotyledon (4.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) and embryonic axis (3.3 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) tissues, whereas Zn was highest in cotyledonary tissues (1.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). In all species, the presence of the accumulated metal within the cotyledonary and embryonic axis tissues indicates that the accumulated metal was able to move apoplastically within the seed.

  3. Tandem quadruplication of HMA4 in the zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Ó Lochlainn, Seosamh; Bowen, Helen C; Fray, Rupert G; Hammond, John P; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Graham, Neil S; Broadley, Martin R

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulation may have evolved twice in the Brassicaceae, in Arabidopsis halleri and in the Noccaea genus. Tandem gene duplication and deregulated expression of the Zn transporter, HMA4, has previously been linked to Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in A. halleri. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tandem duplication and deregulation of HMA4 expression also occurs in Noccaea.A Noccaea caerulescens genomic library was generated, containing 36,864 fosmid pCC1FOS™ clones with insert sizes ∼20-40 kbp, and screened with a PCR-generated HMA4 genomic probe. Gene copy number within the genome was estimated through DNA fingerprinting and pooled fosmid pyrosequencing. Gene copy numbers within individual clones was determined by PCR analyses with novel locus specific primers. Entire fosmids were then sequenced individually and reads equivalent to 20-fold coverage were assembled to generate complete whole contigs.Four tandem HMA4 repeats were identified in a contiguous sequence of 101,480 bp based on sequence overlap identities. These were flanked by regions syntenous with up and downstream regions of AtHMA4 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Promoter-reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion analysis of a NcHMA4 in A. thaliana revealed deregulated expression in roots and shoots, analogous to AhHMA4 promoters, but distinct from AtHMA4 expression which localised to the root vascular tissue.This remarkable consistency in tandem duplication and deregulated expression of metal transport genes between N. caerulescens and A. halleri, which last shared a common ancestor >40 mya, provides intriguing evidence that parallel evolutionary pathways may underlie Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in Brassicaceae. PMID:21423774

  4. Tandem Quadruplication of HMA4 in the Zinc (Zn) and Cadmium (Cd) Hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    PubMed Central

    Ó Lochlainn, Seosamh; Bowen, Helen C.; Fray, Rupert G.; Hammond, John P.; King, Graham J.; White, Philip J.; Graham, Neil S.; Broadley, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulation may have evolved twice in the Brassicaceae, in Arabidopsis halleri and in the Noccaea genus. Tandem gene duplication and deregulated expression of the Zn transporter, HMA4, has previously been linked to Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in A. halleri. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tandem duplication and deregulation of HMA4 expression also occurs in Noccaea. A Noccaea caerulescens genomic library was generated, containing 36,864 fosmid pCC1FOS™ clones with insert sizes ∼20–40 kbp, and screened with a PCR-generated HMA4 genomic probe. Gene copy number within the genome was estimated through DNA fingerprinting and pooled fosmid pyrosequencing. Gene copy numbers within individual clones was determined by PCR analyses with novel locus specific primers. Entire fosmids were then sequenced individually and reads equivalent to 20-fold coverage were assembled to generate complete whole contigs. Four tandem HMA4 repeats were identified in a contiguous sequence of 101,480 bp based on sequence overlap identities. These were flanked by regions syntenous with up and downstream regions of AtHMA4 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Promoter-reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion analysis of a NcHMA4 in A. thaliana revealed deregulated expression in roots and shoots, analogous to AhHMA4 promoters, but distinct from AtHMA4 expression which localised to the root vascular tissue. This remarkable consistency in tandem duplication and deregulated expression of metal transport genes between N. caerulescens and A. halleri, which last shared a common ancestor >40 mya, provides intriguing evidence that parallel evolutionary pathways may underlie Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in Brassicaceae. PMID:21423774

  5. Mobilization of cadmium by dissolved organic matter in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingqiang; Liang, Chengfeng; Han, Xuan; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-05-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Cd speciation in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum alfredii and its effects on Cd mobility. After growing HE S. alfredii, the rhizosphere soil solution pH of heavily polluted soil (HPS) and slightly polluted soil (SPS) was reduced by 0.49 and 0.40 units, respectively, due to enhanced DOC derived from root exudation. The total Cd concentration in soil solution decreased significantly but the decrease accounted for less than 1% of the total Cd uptake in the shoots of HE S. alfredii. Visual MINTEQ speciation predicted that Cd-DOM complexes were the dominant Cd species in soil solutions after the growth of S. alfredii for both soils, followed by the free metal Cd(2+) species. However, Cd-DOM complexes fraction in the rhizosphere soil solution of HE S. alfredii (89.1% and 74.6% for HPS and SPS, respectively) were much greater than NHE S. alfredii (82.8% and 64.7% for HPS and SPS, respectively). Resin equilibration experiment results indicated that DOM from the rhizosphere (R-DOM) of both ecotypes of S. alfredii had the ability to form complexes with Cd, whereas the degree of complexation was significantly higher for HE-R-DOM (79-89%) than NHE-R-DOM (63-74%) in the undiluted sample. The addition of HE-R-DOM significantly (P<0.05) increased the solubility of four Cd minerals while NHE-R-DOM was not as effective at the same concentration. It was concluded that DOM in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating ecotype of S. alfredii could significantly increase Cd mobility through the formation of soluble DOM-metal complexes. PMID:23466273

  6. Cellular compartmentation of cadmium and zinc in relation to other elements in the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri.

    PubMed

    Küpper, H; Lombi, E; Zhao, F J; McGrath, S P

    2000-12-01

    The cellular compartmentation of elements was analysed in the Zn hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz (=Cardaminopsis halleri) using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated tissues. Quantitative data were obtained using oxygen as an internal standard in the analyses of vacuoles, whereas a peak/background ratio method was used for quantification of elements in pollen and dehydrated trichomes. Arabidopsis halleri was found to hyperaccumulate not only Zn but also Cd in the shoot biomass. While large concentrations of Zn and Cd were found in the leaves and roots, flowers contained very little. In roots grown hydroponically, Zn and Cd accumulated in the cell wall of the rhizodermis (root epidermis), mainly due to precipitation of Zn/Cd phosphates. In leaves, the trichomes had by far the largest concentrations of Zn and Cd. Inside the trichomes there was a striking sub-cellular compartmentation, with almost all the Zn and Cd being accumulated in a narrow ring in the trichome base. This distribution pattern was very different from that for Ca and P. The epidermal cells other than trichomes were very small and contained lower concentrations of Zn and Cd than mesophyll cells. In particular, the concentrations of Cd and Zn in the mesophyll cells increased markedly in response to increasing Zn and Cd concentrations in the nutrient solution. This indicates that the mesophyll cells in the leaves of A. halleri are the major storage site for Zn and Cd, and play an important role in their hyperaccumulation. PMID:11219586

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Selenium Tolerance and Hyperaccumulation in Stanleya pinnata1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, John L.; Tamaoki, Masanori; Stushnoff, Cecil; Quinn, Colin F.; Cappa, Jennifer J.; Devonshire, Jean; Fakra, Sirine C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; McGrath, Steve P.; Van Hoewyk, Doug; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for selenium (Se) tolerance and hyperaccumulation were studied in the Se hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) by comparing it with the related secondary Se accumulator Stanleya albescens using a combination of physiological, structural, genomic, and biochemical approaches. S. pinnata accumulated 3.6-fold more Se and was tolerant to 20 μm selenate, while S. albescens suffered reduced growth, chlorosis and necrosis, impaired photosynthesis, and high levels of reactive oxygen species. Levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione, total sulfur, and nonprotein thiols were higher in S. pinnata, suggesting that Se tolerance may in part be due to increased antioxidants and up-regulated sulfur assimilation. S. pinnata had higher selenocysteine methyltransferase protein levels and, judged from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, mainly accumulated the free amino acid methylselenocysteine, while S. albescens accumulated mainly the free amino acid selenocystathionine. S. albescens leaf x-ray absorption near-edge structure scans mainly detected a carbon-Se-carbon compound (presumably selenocystathionine) in addition to some selenocysteine and selenate. Thus, S. albescens may accumulate more toxic forms of Se in its leaves than S. pinnata. The species also showed different leaf Se sequestration patterns: while S. albescens showed a diffuse pattern, S. pinnata sequestered Se in localized epidermal cell clusters along leaf margins and tips, concentrated inside of epidermal cells. Transcript analyses of S. pinnata showed a constitutively higher expression of genes involved in sulfur assimilation, antioxidant activities, defense, and response to (methyl)jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, or ethylene. The levels of some of these hormones were constitutively elevated in S. pinnata compared with S. albescens, and leaf Se accumulation was slightly enhanced in both species when these hormones were supplied. Thus, defense-related phytohormones

  8. Selenium biofortification of broccoli and carrots grown in soil amended with Se-enriched hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amending soils with Se-hyperaccumulator plant derived sources of selenium (Se) may be useful for increasing Se content in food crops in Se-deficient regions of the world. In this study, we evaluated total Se and the different chemical species of Se in broccoli and carrots grown in soils amended with...

  9. Phytochelatin synthesis is not responsible for Cd tolerance in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl).

    PubMed

    Ebbs, Stephen; Lau, Ingar; Ahner, Beth; Kochian, Leon

    2002-02-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl, "Prayon") is a heavy-metal hyperaccumulator that accumulates Zn and Cd to high concentrations (40,000 and 4,000 mg kg DW-1 respectively) without phytotoxicity. The mechanism of Cd tolerance has not been characterized but reportedly involves vacuolar sequestration. The role of phytochelatins (PCs) in metal tolerance in T. caerulescens and the related non-accumulator T. arvense was examined. Although PCs were produced by both species in response to Cd, these peptides do not appear to be involved in metal tolerance in the hyperaccumulator. Leaf and root PC levels for both species showed a similar positive correlation with tissue Cd, but total PC levels in the hyperaccumulator were generally lower, despite correspondingly higher metal concentrations. The lack of a role for PCs in the hyperaccumulator's response to metal stress suggests that other mechanisms are responsible Cd tolerance. The lower level of leaf PCs in T. caerulescens also implies that Cd in the shoot is sequestered in a compartment or form that does not elicit a PC response. PMID:11925047

  10. Potential hyperaccumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in endurant plants distributed in an old smeltery, northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shuang; Zhou, Qixing; Chao, Lei

    2007-01-01

    The absorption and accumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in some endurant weed plant species that survived in an old smeltery in Liaoning, China, were systematically investigated. Potential hyperaccumulative characteristics of these species were also discussed. The results showed that metal accumulation in plants differed with species, tissues and metals. Endurant weed plants growing in this contaminated site exhibited high metal adaptability. Both the metal exclusion and detoxification tolerance strategies were involved in the species studied. Seven species for Pb and four species for Cd were satisfied for the concentration time level standard for hyperaccumulator. Considering translocation factor (TF) values, one species for Pb, seven species for Zn, two species for Cu and five species for Cd possessed the characteristic of hyperaccumulator. Particularly, Abutilon theophrasti Medic, exhibited strong accumulative ability to four heavy metals. Although enrichment coefficients of all samples were lesser than 1 and the absolute concentrations didn’t reach the standard, species mentioned above were primarily believed to be potential hyperaccumulators.

  11. Screening of a new cadmium hyperaccumulator, Galinsoga parviflora, from winter farmland weeds using the artificially high soil cadmium concentration method.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lijin; Jin, Qian; Liu, Yingjie; Ning, Bo; Liao, Ming'an; Luo, Li

    2014-11-01

    A new method, the artificially high soil cadmium (Cd) concentration method, was used to screen for Cd hyperaccumulators among winter farmland weeds. Galinsoga parviflora was the most promising remedial plant among 5 Cd accumulators or hyperaccumulators. In Cd concentration gradient experiments, as soil Cd concentration increased, root and shoot biomass decreased, and their Cd contents increased. In additional concentration gradient experiments, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities increased with soil Cd concentrations up to 75 mg kg(-1) , while expression of their isoenzymes strengthened. Catalase (CAT) activity declined and CAT isoenzyme expression weakened at soil Cd concentrations less than 50 mg kg(-1) . The maxima of Cd contents in shoots and roots were 137.63 mg kg(-1) and 105.70 mg kg(-1) , respectively, at 100 mg kg(-1) Cd in soil. The root and shoot bioconcentration factors exceeded 1.0, as did the translocation factor. In a field experiment, total extraction of Cd by shoots was 1.35 mg m(-2) to 1.43 mg m(-2) at soil Cd levels of 2.04 mg kg(-1) to 2.89 mg kg(-1) . Therefore, the artificially high soil Cd concentration method was effective for screening Cd hyperaccumulators. Galinsoga parviflora is a Cd hyperaccumulator that could be used to efficiently remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil. PMID:25053512

  12. Inoculation of Astragalus racemosus and Astragalus convallarius with selenium-hyperaccumulator rhizosphere fungi affects growth and selenium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Stormy Dawn; Fakra, Sirine C; Landon, Jessica; Schulz, Paige; Tracy, Benjamin; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about how fungi affect plant selenium (Se) accumulation. Here we investigate the effects of two fungi on Se accumulation, translocation, and chemical speciation in the hyperaccumulator Astragalus racemosus and the non-accumulator Astragalus convallarius. The fungi, Alternaria astragali (A3) and Fusarium acuminatum (F30), were previously isolated from Astragalus hyperaccumulator rhizosphere. A3-inoculation enhanced growth of A. racemosus yet inhibited growth of A. convallarius. Selenium treatment negated these effects. F30 reduced shoot-to-root Se translocation in A. racemosus. X-ray microprobe analysis showed no differences in Se speciation between inoculation groups. The Astragalus species differed in Se localization and speciation. A. racemosus root-Se was distributed throughout the taproot and lateral root and was 90 % organic in the lateral root. The related element sulfur (S) was present as a mixture of organic and inorganic forms in the hyperaccumulator. Astragalus convallarius root-Se was concentrated in the extreme periphery of the taproot. In the lateral root, Se was exclusively in the vascular core and was only 49 % organic. These findings indicate differences in Se assimilation between the two species and differences between Se and S speciation in the hyperaccumulator. The finding that fungi can affect translocation may have applications in phytoremediation and biofortification. PMID:23117393

  13. HOST-SWITCHING DOES NOT CIRCUMVENT THE NI-BASED DEFENCE OF THE NI HYPERACCUMULATOR STREPTANTHUS POLYGALOIDES (BRASSICACEAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar concentration of heavy metals, such as nickel, may help defend metal --hyperaccumulating plants against both herbivores and pathogens. Host switching by generalist herbivores might be one strategy by which they can dilute lifetime consumption of toxic nickel. We examined the effects of host...

  14. How phytohormone IAA and chelator EDTA affect lead uptake by Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata.

    PubMed

    Du, Rui-Jun; He, Er-Kai; Tang, Ye-Tao; Hu, Peng-Jie; Ying, Rong-Rong; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and/or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on lead uptake by a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Picris divaricata were studied. P. divaricata responded to Pb by better root system and increased biomass in presence of phytohormone IAA, which was able to reduce the inhibiting effects of Pb on transpiration without reducing the uptake of Pb The application of 100 microM IAA increased plant transpiration rate by about 20% and Pb concentration in leaves by about 37.3% as compared to treatment exposed to Pb alone. The enhanced phytoextraction efficiency could be attributed to the mechanisms played by IAA through alleviating Pb toxicity, creating better root system and plant biomass, promoting a higher transpiration rate as well as regulating the level of nutrient elements. On the contrary, inefficiency of phytoextraction was found with EDTA or the combination of IAA and EDTA probably because most Pb was in the form of Pb-EDTA complex which blocked the uptake by P. divaricata. The present study demonstrated that IAA was able to enhance the phytoextraction of Pb by Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator P. divaricata, providing a feasible method for the phytoremediation of polymetallic contaminated soils. PMID:21972569

  15. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  16. The impact of Ni on the physiology of a Mediterranean Ni-hyperaccumulating plant.

    PubMed

    Roccotiello, Enrica; Serrano, Helena Cristina; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio; Branquinho, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    High nickel (Ni) levels exert toxic effects on plant growth and plant water content, thus affecting photosynthesis. In a pot experiment, we investigated the effect of the Ni concentration on the physiological characteristics of the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssoides utriculata when grown on a vermiculite substrate in the presence of different external Ni concentrations (0-500 mg Ni L(-1)). The results showed that the Ni concentration was higher in leaves than in roots, as evidenced by a translocation factor = 3 and a bioconcentration factor = 10. At the highest concentration tested (500 mg Ni L(-1)), A. utriculata accumulated 1100 mg Ni per kilogram in its leaves, without an effects on its biomass. Plant water content increased significantly with Ni accumulation. Ni treatment did not, or only slightly, affected chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The photosynthetic efficiency (FV/FM) of A. utriculata was stable between Ni treatments (always ≥ 0.8) and the photosynthetic performance of the plant under Ni stress remained high (performance index = 1.5). These findings support that A. utriculata has several mechanisms to avoid severe damage to its photosynthetic apparatus, confirming the tolerance of this species to Ni under hyperaccumulation. PMID:26983814

  17. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of −0.70‰ to −0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and −0.51‰ to −0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  18. Cellular sequestration of cadmium in the hyperaccumulator plant species Sedum alfredii.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Labavitch, John; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli; Hu, Hening; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Newville, Matt; Commisso, Joel; Brown, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Spatial imaging of cadmium (Cd) in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in vivo by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray microfluorescence imaging. Preferential Cd accumulation in the pith and cortex was observed in stems of the Cd hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE), whereas Cd was restricted to the vascular bundles in its contrasting nonhyperaccumulating ecotype. Cd concentrations of up to 15,000 μg g(-1) were measured in the pith cells, which was many fold higher than the concentrations in the stem epidermis and vascular bundles in the HE plants. In the leaves of the HE, Cd was mainly localized to the mesophyll and vascular cells rather than the epidermis. The distribution pattern of Cd in both stems and leaves of the HE was very similar to calcium but not zinc, irrespective of Cd exposure levels. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy analysis showed that Cd in the stems and leaves of the HE was mainly associated with oxygen ligands, and a larger proportion (about 70% in leaves and 47% in stems) of Cd was bound with malic acid, which was the major organic acid in the shoots of the plants. These results indicate that a majority of Cd in HE accumulates in the parenchyma cells, especially in stems, and is likely associated with calcium pathways and bound with organic acid (malate), which is indicative of a critical role of vacuolar sequestration of Cd in the HE S. alfredii. PMID:22025609

  19. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a potential hyperaccumulator--Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Fenghui; Yan, Kun; Tao, Dali

    2009-09-30

    Phytoremediation using hyperaccumulators is a promising technique of removing soil pollutants. In the study, growth responses, cadmium (Cd) accumulation capability and physiological mechanisms of Lonicera japonica Thunb. under Cd stress were investigated. Exposed to 5 and 10 mg L(-1) Cd, the plants did not show any visual symptoms, furthermore, the height, dry biomass of leaves, roots and total and the chlorophyll (CHL) content were obtained different grade increase. When the concentration of Cd was up to 50 mg L(-1), the height, dry biomass of leaves and roots had not significant differences compared with the control. The indexes of tolerance (IT) were all above 0.8. The maintenance of high superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, suggesting strong internal detoxification mechanisms inside plant cells. After 21 days exposure to 25 mg L(-1) Cd, stem and shoot Cd concentrations reached 344.49+/-0.71 and 286.12+/-9.38 microg g(-1) DW, respectively and the plant had higher bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF). According to these results, it was shown L. japonica had strong tolerance and accumulation capability to Cd, therefore it is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator. PMID:19380199

  20. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ(114/110)Cdorgans-solution) of -0.70‰ to -0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and -0.51‰ to -0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology. PMID:27076359

  1. Cellular Sequestration of Cadmium in the Hyperaccumulator Plant Species Sedum alfredii1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Labavitch, John; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli; Hu, Hening; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Newville, Matt; Commisso, Joel; Brown, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Spatial imaging of cadmium (Cd) in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in vivo by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray microfluorescence imaging. Preferential Cd accumulation in the pith and cortex was observed in stems of the Cd hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE), whereas Cd was restricted to the vascular bundles in its contrasting nonhyperaccumulating ecotype. Cd concentrations of up to 15,000 μg g−1 were measured in the pith cells, which was many fold higher than the concentrations in the stem epidermis and vascular bundles in the HE plants. In the leaves of the HE, Cd was mainly localized to the mesophyll and vascular cells rather than the epidermis. The distribution pattern of Cd in both stems and leaves of the HE was very similar to calcium but not zinc, irrespective of Cd exposure levels. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy analysis showed that Cd in the stems and leaves of the HE was mainly associated with oxygen ligands, and a larger proportion (about 70% in leaves and 47% in stems) of Cd was bound with malic acid, which was the major organic acid in the shoots of the plants. These results indicate that a majority of Cd in HE accumulates in the parenchyma cells, especially in stems, and is likely associated with calcium pathways and bound with organic acid (malate), which is indicative of a critical role of vacuolar sequestration of Cd in the HE S. alfredii. PMID:22025609

  2. Does cadmium play a physiological role in the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens?

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Qing; Yanai, Junta; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Fusuo; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2008-04-01

    The southern French (Ganges) ecotype of Thlaspi caerulescens J & C Presl is able to hyperaccumulate several thousand mg Cd kg(-1) shoot dry weight without suffering from phytotoxicity. We investigated the effect of Cd on growth and the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA), a typical Zn-requiring enzyme, of T. caerulescens in soil and hydroponic experiments. In one of the hydroponic experiments, T. caerulescens was compared to the non-accumulator Thlaspi ferganense N. Busch. In the soil experiment, additions of Cd at 5-500 mg kg(-1) soil increased the growth of T. caerulescens significantly. In the hydroponic experiments, exposure to Cd at 1-50 microM for three weeks had no significant effect on the growth of T. caerulescens, but decreased the growth of T. ferganense markedly even at the lowest concentration of Cd (1muM). Cadmium exposure significantly increased the CA activity in T. caerulescens, but decreased it in T. ferganense. The CA activity in T. caerulescens correlated positively with the Cd concentration in the shoots up to 6000 mg kg(-1), even though shoot Zn concentration was decreased by the Cd treatments. For comparison, Cd treatments had no consistent effect on the activity of superoxide dismutase in T. caerulescens. The results suggest that Cd may play a physiological role in the Cd-hyperaccumulating ecotype of T. caerulescens by enhancing the activities of some enzymes such as CA. Further research is needed to establish whether a Cd-requiring CA exists in T. caerulescens. PMID:18262587

  3. Molecular dissection of the role of histidine in nickel hyperaccumulation in Thalspi goesingense (Halacsy)

    SciTech Connect

    Persans, M.W.; Yan, X.; Patnoe, J.M.M.L.; Kraemer, U.; Salt, D.E.

    1999-12-01

    To understand the role of free histidine (His) in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, the authors investigated the regulation of His biosynthesis at both the molecular and biochemical levels. Three T. goesingense cDNAs encoding the following His biosynthetic enzymes, ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, imidazoleglycerol phosphate dehydratase, and histidinol dehydrogenase, were isolated by functional complementation of Escherichia coli His autotrophs. Northern analysis of THJG1, THD1, and THB1 gene expression revealed that each gene is expressed in both roots and shoots, but at the concentrations and dosage times of Ni treatment used in this study, these genes failed to show any regulation by Ni. The authors were also unable to observe any increases in the concentration of free His in root, shoot, or xylem sap of T. goesingense in response to Ni exposure. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of root and shoot tissue from T. goesingense and the non-accumulator species Thlaspi reverse revealed no major differences in the coordination of Ni by His in these tissues. They therefore conclude that the Ni hyperaccumulation phenotype in T. goesingense is not determined by the overproduction of His in response to Ni.

  4. Combined endophytic inoculants enhance nickel phytoextraction from serpentine soil in the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    PubMed Central

    Visioli, Giovanna; Vamerali, Teofilo; Mattarozzi, Monica; Dramis, Lucia; Sanangelantoni, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of specific bacterial endophytes on the phytoextraction capacity of the Ni-hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens, spontaneously growing in a serpentine soil environment. Five metal-tolerant endophytes had already been selected for their high Ni tolerance (6 mM) and plant growth promoting ability. Here we demonstrate that individual bacterial inoculation is ineffective in enhancing Ni translocation and growth of N. caerulescens in serpentine soil, except for specific strains Ncr-1 and Ncr-8, belonging to the Arthrobacter and Microbacterium genera, which showed the highest indole acetic acid production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-deaminase activity. Ncr-1 and Ncr-8 co-inoculation was even more efficient in promoting plant growth, soil Ni removal, and translocation of Ni, together with that of Fe, Co, and Cu. Bacteria of both strains densely colonized the root surfaces and intercellular spaces of leaf epidermal tissue. These two bacterial strains also turned out to stimulate root length, shoot biomass, and Ni uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in MS agar medium supplemented with Ni. It is concluded that adaptation of N. caerulescens in highly Ni-contaminated serpentine soil can be enhanced by an integrated community of bacterial endophytes rather than by single strains; of the former, Arthrobacter and Microbacterium may be useful candidates for future phytoremediation trials in multiple metal-contaminated sites, with possible extension to non-hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:26322074

  5. Cellular Sequestration of Cadmium in the Hyperaccumulator Plant Species Sedum alfredii

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Labavitch, John M.; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli; Hu, Hening; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Newville, Matt; Commisso, Joel; Brown, Patrick Hugh

    2012-07-23

    Spatial imaging of cadmium (Cd) in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii was investigated in vivo by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and x-ray microfluorescence imaging. Preferential Cd accumulation in the pith and cortex was observed in stems of the Cd hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE), whereas Cd was restricted to the vascular bundles in its contrasting nonhyperaccumulating ecotype. Cd concentrations of up to 15,000 {micro}g g{sup -1} were measured in the pith cells, which was many fold higher than the concentrations in the stem epidermis and vascular bundles in the HE plants. In the leaves of the HE, Cd was mainly localized to the mesophyll and vascular cells rather than the epidermis. The distribution pattern of Cd in both stems and leaves of the HE was very similar to calcium but not zinc, irrespective of Cd exposure levels. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy analysis showed that Cd in the stems and leaves of the HE was mainly associated with oxygen ligands, and a larger proportion (about 70% in leaves and 47% in stems) of Cd was bound with malic acid, which was the major organic acid in the shoots of the plants. These results indicate that a majority of Cd in HE accumulates in the parenchyma cells, especially in stems, and is likely associated with calcium pathways and bound with organic acid (malate), which is indicative of a critical role of vacuolar sequestration of Cd in the HE S. alfredii.

  6. Extreme nickel hyperaccumulation in the vascular tracts of the tree Phyllanthus balgooyi from Borneo.

    PubMed

    Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech; Barnabas, Alban; van der Ent, Antony

    2016-03-01

    Phyllanthus balgooyi (Phyllanthaceae), one of > 20 nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator plant species known in Sabah (Malaysia) on the island of Borneo, is remarkable because it contains > 16 wt% Ni in its phloem sap, the second highest concentration of Ni in any living material in the world (after Pycnandra acuminata (Sapotaceae) from New Caledonia with 25 wt% Ni in latex). This study focused on the tissue-level distribution of Ni and other elements in the leaves, petioles and stem of P. balgooyi using nuclear microprobe imaging (micro-PIXE). The results show that in the stems and petioles of P. balgooyi Ni concentrations were very high in the phloem, while in the leaves there was significant enrichment of this element in the major vascular bundles. In the leaves, cobalt (Co) was codistributed with Ni, while the distribution of manganese (Mn) was different. The highest enrichment of calcium (Ca) in the stems was in the periderm, the epidermis and subepidermis of the petiole, and in the palisade mesophyll of the leaf. Preferential accumulation of Ni in the vascular tracts suggests that Ni is present in a metabolically active form. The elemental distribution of P. balgooyi differs from those of many other Ni hyperaccumulator plant species from around the world where Ni is preferentially accumulated in leaf epidermal cells. PMID:26508435

  7. Spatial Imaging, Speciation, and Quantification of Selenium in theHyperaccumulator Plants Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.L.; Zhang, L.H.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; McGrath,S.P.; Pilon-Smits, E.A.H.

    2006-09-01

    Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata hyperaccumulate selenium (Se) up to 1% of plant dry weight. In the field, Se was mostly present in the young leaves and reproductive tissues of both hyperaccumulators. Microfocused scanning x-ray fluorescence mapping revealed that Se was hyperaccumulated in trichomes in young leaves of A. bisulcatus. None of 10 other elements tested were accumulated in trichomes. Micro x-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that Se in trichomes was present in the organic forms methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys; 53%) and {gamma}-glutamyl-MeSeCys (47%). In the young leaf itself, there was 30% inorganic Se (selenate and selenite) in addition to 70% MeSeCys. In young S. pinnata leaves, Se was highly concentrated near the leaf edge and surface in globular structures that were shown by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis to be mainly in epidermal cells. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed both MeSeCys (88%) and selenocystathionine (12%) inside leaf edges. In contrast, both the Se accumulator Brassica juncea and the nonaccumulator Arabidopsis thaliana accumulated Se in their leaf vascular tissues and mesophyll cells. Se in hyperaccumulators appears to be mobile in both the xylem and phloem because Se-treated S. pinnata was found to be highly toxic to phloem-feeding aphids, and MeSeCys was present in the vascular tissues of a S. pinnata young leaf petiole as well as in guttation fluid. The compartmentation of organic selenocompounds in specific storage areas in the plant periphery appears to be a unique property of Se hyperaccumulators. The high concentration of Se in the plant periphery may contribute to Se tolerance and may also serve as an elemental plant defense mechanism.

  8. Leaf-age and soil-plant relationships: key factors for reporting trace-elements hyperaccumulation by plants and design applications.

    PubMed

    Losfeld, Guillaume; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Mc Coy, Stéphane; Grison, Claude; Jaffré, Tanguy

    2015-04-01

    Relationships between the trace-elements (TE) content of plants and associated soil have been widely investigated especially to understand the ecology of TE hyperaccumulating species to develop applications using TE phytoextraction. Many studies have focused on the possibility of quantifying the soil TE fraction available to plants, and used bioconcentration (BC) as a measure of the plants ability to absorb TE. However, BC only offers a static view of the dynamic phenomenon of TE accumulation. Accumulation kinetics are required to fully account for TE distributions in plants. They are also crucial to design applications where maximum TE concentrations in plant leaves are needed. This paper provides a review of studies of BC (i.e. soil-plant relationships) and leaf-age in relation to TE hyperaccumulation. The paper focuses of Ni and Mn accumulators and hyperaccumulators from New Caledonia who were previously overlooked until recent Ecocatalysis applications emerged for such species. Updated data on Mn hyperaccumulators and accumulators from New Caledonia are also presented and advocate further investigation of the hyperaccumulation of this element. Results show that leaf-age should be considered in the design of sample collection and allowed the reclassification of Grevillea meisneri known previously as a Mn accumulator to a Mn hyperaccumulator. PMID:25138558

  9. Iliac artery mural thrombus formation. Effect of antiplatelet therapy on 111In-platelet deposition in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, S.R.; Paxton, L.D.; Harker, L.A.

    1986-09-01

    To measure the rate, extent, and time course of arterial mural thrombus formation in vivo and to assess the effects of antiplatelet therapy in that setting, we have studied autologous /sup 111/In-platelet deposition induced by experimental iliac artery aneurysms in baboons. Scintillation camera imaging analyses were performed at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hours after implantation of the device. Correction for tissue attenuation was determined by using a small, comparably located /sup 111/In source implanted at the time of surgery. In five animals, /sup 111/In-platelet activity accumulated progressively after device implantation, reaching a maximum after the third day. Repeat image analysis carried out 2 weeks after the surgical procedure also showed progressive accumulation of /sup 111/In-platelets over 3 days but at markedly reduced amounts as compared with the initial study. In five additional animals, treatment with a combination of aspirin and dipyridamole begun 1 hour after surgical implantation reduced /sup 111/In-platelet deposition to negligible levels by the third day. Although platelet survival time was shortened and platelet turnover was reciprocally increased in all operated animals, platelet survival and turnover were not affected by antiplatelet therapy. We conclude that, in contrast to platelet survival and turnover measurements, /sup 111/In-platelet imaging is a reliable and sensitive method for localizing and quantifying focal arterial thrombi and for assessing the effects of antiplatelet therapy.

  10. Evaluation of hyperaccumulator plant species grown in metalliferous sites in Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babani, F.; Civici, N.; Mullaj, A.; Kongjika, E.; Ylli, A.

    2007-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils causes serious problems to our society. A small number of interesting plant species have been identified that can grow in soils containing high levels of heavy metals, and can also accumulate these metals to high concentrations in the shoot. The heavy metal contents in root, shoot, leaves and flowers of spontaneous plants grown in metalliferous sites in Albania together with the elemental composition of the native soils were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus of analyzed ecotypes was evaluated via chlorophyll fluorescence imaging during induction kinetics. Response of plant root system to the presence of metals, the available pools of metals to plants, effect of plant biomass to phytoextraction, photosynthetic pigment metabolism and chlorophyll fluorescence signature of leaves allowed to characterize hyperaccumulator properties and to detect the variation between selected ecotypes to heavy metal accumulation.