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  1. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  2. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Treatment What medicines are used to treat ADHD? Some of the medicines for ADHD are called psychostimulants. Some of these ...

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pubmed/22003063 . American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Prince JB, Wilens TE, Spencer TJ, Biederman ...

  4. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ADHD Health Capsules Genetic Sites Tied to Schizophrenia Helping Older Adults Talk With Their Doctors Featured ... and child mental health expert at NIH. “The diagnosis is made because the level of hyperactivity or ...

  5. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  6. Gifted Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihart, Maureen

    This digest summarizes what is known about gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It identifies three subtypes of ADHD, noting both criteria for diagnosis and the subjective determination of what constitutes significant impairment. Discussion of differences in gifted and non-gifted children with ADHD reports findings…

  7. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274. PMID:19761584

  8. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: ADHD Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Special Education Services.

    A Michigan task force examined existing and needed services for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), to assist school districts in developing services and to create a systematic plan for statewide information dissemination regarding referral, assessment, identification, intervention strategies, and legal mandates.…

  10. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs. PMID:16417850

  11. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). NetNews. Volume 7, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder that is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Between 3% and 7% of school-aged children are affected by ADHD. ADHD is a lifespan condition that affects children, adolescents and adults of all ages. It…

  12. Body Movements of Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during Computer Video Game Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrace-DiZinno, Anna Marie; Douglas, Graham; Houghton, Stephen; Lawrence, Vivienne; West, John; Whiting, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that recorded the type and severity of body movements of 79 boys with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and 67 non-ADHD boys while playing a computer video game. Results of multivariate analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences in body movements between ADHD and non-ADHD boys. (Author/LRW)

  13. Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Distinct or Related Disorders across Measurement Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert; Walle, Johan Vande

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding differences and similarities between the inattentive (IA) and combined (C) subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in order to detail challenges concerning further conceptualization, diagnostics, and treatment. The literature on ADHD-IA and…

  14. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures. PMID:26893231

  15. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  16. Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

  17. Pediatric Integrative Medicine Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Esparham, Anna; Evans, Randall G.; Wagner, Leigh E.; Drisko, Jeanne A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in children and is increasing in prevalence. There has also been a related increase in prescribing stimulant medication despite some controversy whether ADHD medication makes a lasting difference in school performance or achievement. Families who are apprehensive about side effects and with concerns for efficacy of medication pursue integrative medicine as an alternative or adjunct to pharmacologic and cognitive behavioral treatment approaches. Integrative medicine incorporates evidence-based medicine, both conventional and complementary and alternative therapies, to deliver personalized care to the patient, emphasizing diet, nutrients, gut health, and environmental influences as a means to decrease symptoms associated with chronic disorders. Pediatric integrative medicine practitioners are increasing in number throughout the United States because of improvement in patient health outcomes. However, limited funding and poor research design interfere with generalizable treatment approaches utilizing integrative medicine. The use of research designs originally intended for drugs and procedures are not suitable for many integrative medicine approaches. This article serves to highlight integrative medicine approaches in use today for children with ADHD, including dietary therapies, nutritional supplements, environmental hygiene, and neurofeedback. PMID:27417475

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... us to find out more about ADHD. Share Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Easy-to-Read) Download PDF Download ePub Order ... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ...

  19. Shared Genetic Influences Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Traits in Children and Clinical ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Stergiakouli, Evie; Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L.; Langley, Kate; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Owen, Michael J.; O'Donovan, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Davey Smith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective Twin studies and genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) are not in agreement regarding heritability estimates for behavioral traits in children from the general population. This has sparked a debate on the possible difference in genetic architecture between behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we test whether polygenic risk scores associated with variation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) trait levels in children from the general population predict ADHD diagnostic status and severity in an independent clinical sample. Method Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < .5 from a genome-wide association study of ADHD traits in 4,546 children (mean age, 7 years 7 months) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; general population sample) were selected to calculate polygenic risk scores in 508 children with an ADHD diagnosis (independent clinical sample) and 5,081 control participants. Polygenic scores were tested for association with case-control status and severity of disorder in the clinical sample. Results Increased polygenic score for ADHD traits predicted ADHD case-control status (odds ratio = 1.17 [95% CI = 1.08–1.28], p = .0003), higher ADHD symptom severity (β = 0.29 [95% CI = 0.04–0.54], p = 0.02), and symptom domain severity in the clinical sample. Conclusion This study highlights the relevance of additive genetic variance in ADHD, and provides evidence that shared genetic factors contribute to both behavioral traits in the general population and psychiatric disorders at least in the case of ADHD. PMID:25791149

  20. Use and Management of Medications for Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.; Barkley, Russell A.; DuPaul, George J.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides information and guidelines for the effective use of medication in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Basic principles of psychopharmacology, different types of medications that have been used successfully to treat ADHD, and best practices for assessing the effects of medication in children with ADHD are…

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Alternative Treatment Plans for School Age Children Diagnosed with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonell, Claudia L.

    This literature review of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for children diagnosed with ADHD. It describes the complexity of ADHD, its symptoms, treatments, and implications on a child's social and academic development as well as strategies for assisting such children. Individual sections…

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD and epilepsy common are both common childhood disorders and both can have significant negative consequences on a child's behavioural, learning, and social development. Both conditions can co-occur and population studies suggest that the prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is between 12 and 17%. The prevalence of epilepsy in ADHD is lower…

  3. Hyperactivity in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Ubiquitous Core Symptom or Manifestation of Working Memory Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Bolden, Jennifer; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2009-01-01

    Hyperactivity is currently considered a core and ubiquitous feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, an alternative model challenges this premise and hypothesizes a functional relationship between working memory (WM) and activity level. The current study investigated whether children's activity level is functionally…

  4. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.

    While it is acknowledged that there is no flawless measure of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood, a review of the literature reveals significant agreement in recommended assessment procedures. An overview of these procedures is presented in this paper. It begins with the diagnostic criteria for ADHD, such as symptom…

  5. Scales for the Identification of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Abigail; Deb, Shoumitro; Unwin, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is prevalent in the adult population. The associated co-morbidities and impairments can be relieved with treatment. Therefore, several rating scales have been developed to identify adults with ADHD who may benefit from treatment. No systematic review has yet sought to evaluate these scales in more…

  6. Time Perception: Modality and Duration Effects in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Time perception performance was systematically investigated in adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, the effects of manipulating modality (auditory and visual) and length of duration (200 and 1000 ms) were examined. Forty-six adolescents with ADHD and 44 controls were administered four duration…

  7. Perceived Effectiveness of Classroom Management Interventions with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conforti, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers are concerned about their ability to work effectively with students who have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to determine the perceived efficacy of common interventions used to address negative ADHD behaviors in the elementary and middle school classrooms. The…

  8. Understanding Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Applying Research to Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soffer, Stephen L.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Power, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    To date, the majority of research on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been completed with boys as the predominate participants in study samples. Over the past decade there has been increased attention focused on the characteristics and needs of girls with ADHD. Although much of the research comparing boys and girls with ADHD…

  9. Electrophysiological Indices of Abnormal Error-Processing in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Cahill, John D.; Bates, Alan T.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Calton, Timothy G.; Liddle, Peter F.; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been frequently observed in children and young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and might underlie the excessive hyperactivity and impulsivity in this population. We investigated behavioural and electrophysiological indices relevant to one domain of cognitive control; namely…

  10. Delivering Evidence-Based Treatments for Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the Context of Parental ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Christine H.; Mazursky-Horowitz, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral parent training (BPT) and stimulant medications are efficacious treatments for child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, there is some evidence to suggest that parental ADHD may reduce the effectiveness of both treatment modalities. This review paper summarizes the literature related to the evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatment of child ADHD in the context of parental ADHD. We also review the literature on the effects of treating parents’ ADHD symptoms on parenting and child behavior outcomes. Although the literature is small and inconsistent, studies suggest that medicating parents’ ADHD symptoms may or may not be sufficient in demonstrating desired improvements in parenting and child behavioral outcomes. Therefore, interventions targeting both parent and child ADHD, when both are present, are likely needed to improve parent-child interactions and family functioning. Ongoing studies using a multimodal approach are discussed. PMID:25135774

  11. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A National Survey of Training and Current Assessment Practices in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDemaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Schaefer, Katherine; DeLong, Lauren K.

    2003-01-01

    Surveys school psychologists to investigate their training and current assessment practices for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the schools. The respondents reported receiving adequate training in the assessment of ADHD. Results confirmed a substantial caseload of ADHD referrals. In the assessment of ADHD, the results indicated…

  12. ADHD (ATTENTION DEFFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER)--A TROUBLING ENTITY, SOMETIMES PERPETUATING DURING ADULT LIFE.

    PubMed

    Amihăesei, Ioana Cristina; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurologic development disorder resulting in impairment of attention and inhibitory control, manifested as attention deficit, hyperactivity, impulsiveness; symptoms should develop between age six and twelve and have to persist for more than six months. Approximately 30-50% of the diagnosed cases are manifesting the disorder during adulthood and 2.5-5% of the adults are suffering of ADHD. Genetics are important factors in ADHD, being involved in 75% of the cases, as well in the persistence of ADHD during adult life. Three subtypes of ADHD are described--one in which is predominating the attention deficit, one with predominant hyperactivity and impulsiveness and a third combined subtype. Diagnosis criteria in ADHD are established by the American Psychiatric Association (DSM criteria) and by World Health Organization. Differential diagnosis is mainly considering bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Management of ADHD is including behavioral therapies and medication, alone or combined. Stimulant medications such as amphetamine represent the therapy of choice, being effective in 80% of the cases. New data are underlying the need for following up of the cases during adulthood, since the risk for development of psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, as well as the suicidal behavior is higher than in the general population. PMID:27125066

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... us to find out more about ADHD. Share Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ...

  14. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    PubMed

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  15. The epidemiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a public health view.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Andrew S; Lesesne, Catherine A; Abramowitz, Ann J

    2002-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. However, basic information about how the prevalence of ADHD varies by race/ethnicity, sex, age, and socio-economic status remains poorly described. One reason is that difficulties in the diagnosis of ADHD have translated into difficulties developing an adequate case definition for epidemiologic studies. Diagnosis depends heavily on parent and teacher reports; no laboratory tests reliably predict ADHD. Prevalence estimates of ADHD are sensitive to who is asked what, and how information is combined. Consequently, recent systematic reviews report ADHD prevalence estimates as wide as 2%-18%. The diagnosis of ADHD is complicated by the frequent occurrence of comorbid conditions such as learning disability, conduct disorder, and anxiety disorder. Symptoms of these conditions may also mimic ADHD. Nevertheless, we suggest that developing an adequate epidemiologic case definition based on current diagnostic criteria is possible and is a prerequisite for further developing the epidemiology of ADHD. The etiology of ADHD is not known but recent studies suggest both a strong genetic link as well as environmental factors such as history of preterm delivery and perhaps, maternal smoking during pregnancy. Children and teenagers with ADHD use health and mental health services more often than their peers and engage in more health threatening behaviors such as smoking, and alcohol and substance abuse. Better methods are needed for monitoring the prevalence and understanding the public health implications of ADHD. Stimulant medication is the treatment of choice for treating ADHD but psychosocial interventions may also be warranted if comordid disorders are present. The treatment of ADHD is controversial because of the high prevalence of medication treatment. Epidemiologic studies could clarify whether the patterns of ADHD diagnosis and treatment in community settings is

  16. Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E

    2012-06-01

    Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult's ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD - cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785

  17. [Mindfulness-based intervention in attention-deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    PubMed

    Schmiedeler, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mindfulness means paying attention and being aware of the experiences occurring in the present moment, and it is usually developed by the practice of meditation. Research shows that mindfulness training is associated with improved attention systems and self-regulation, and that it therefore fosters those skills that are underdeveloped in individuals with ADHD. Although only few studies have investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness training in ADHD (many of which showing methodological limitations), the findings do suggest that mindfulness may be useful in ADHD interventions. PMID:25769764

  18. Spectrum of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) among Sudanese children with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Elwaleed E; Mohamed, Inaam N

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is commonly encountered in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aims to determine the spectrum of ADHD among Sudanese children with epilepsy. The study was conducted at the Epilepsy and Neurodisabilities Outpatient Clinic for Children at Saad Abu Elila University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan during the period January – July 2013. All patients with epilepsy who presented to the clinic during the study period were assessed for ADHD using psychometric questionnaire. According to the interpretation guide, the degree of probability of ADHD was identified. Out of 720 patients with epilepsy 77(10.6%) were identified as having ADHD. Of these 50 (19.50%) patients had a high probability of having ADHD, 29 (37.70%) above average, 29 (37.70%) average and 4 (5.20%) had low ADHD spectrum. PMID:27493420

  19. Reading Motivational Differences among Groups: Reading Disability (RD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), RD + ADHD, and Typical Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the reading motivation of 133 students at individual grade levels (2nd-5th), who were divided in subgroups with and without reading disabilities/difficulties (RD) and with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Major findings were that students in the RD subgroup had lower reading motivation (intrinsic,…

  20. Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) in a Population of French Students.

    PubMed

    Romo, L; Rémond, J J; Coeffec, A; Kotbagi, G; Plantey, S; Boz, F; Kern, L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that can be exacerbated by psychosocial factors. Various studies confirm that the severity of a psychiatric disorder, particularly when it comes to ADHD, is strongly correlated with the amount of use. This study (1) evaluated the association between ADHD and gambling among young students; (2) determined which symptom among ADHD's three symptoms (attention deficit, hyperactivity, or impulsivity) had the strongest association with video game addiction and gambling; and (3) determined the impact of the association between ADHD and video game addiction and gambling on self-esteem and academic performance of students. A total of 720 students (445 males and 274 females) were recruited from eight higher educational institutions of Ile de France. They all completed a battery of questionnaire consisting of Canadian Problem Gambling Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Rosenberg scales, and socio-demographic data. 13.33% of the participants had symptoms of ADHD during childhood (WURS scale score) and 40.41% of them have symptoms of ADHD in adulthood (ASRS score). Finally, among the participants, 37.5% had excessive gambling addiction, have positive results on WURS and ASRS scales, thus having a probable ADHD, whereas 14.55% had no gambling addiction. The results demonstrated that adult ADHD was associated with gambling addiction. Significant associations were observed between ADHD and impulsivity, academic difficulties and gambling addiction. The association between ADHD and gambling seems to be common among vulnerable populations such as adolescents and could be related to variables such as self-esteem, which appears to potentially worsen the prognosis. Further research on this relationship is needed to optimize prevention strategies and effective treatment. PMID:25466366

  1. The Association Between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Russell, Abigail Emma; Ford, Tamsin; Williams, Rebecca; Russell, Ginny

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review examines associations between parental socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by parental income, education, occupation and marital status. Results were mixed by measure of SES with no one aspect being differentially related to ADHD. 42 studies were included in the review, of which 35 found a significant univariate association between socioeconomic disadvantage and ADHD. Meta-analyses of dimensions of SES and their association with ADHD indicate that children in families of low SES are on average 1.85-2.21 more likely to have ADHD than their peers in high SES families. In spite of substantial between-study heterogeneity, there is evidence for an association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risk of ADHD measured in different ways. This is likely mediated by factors linked to low SES such as parental mental health and maternal smoking during pregnancy. PMID:26266467

  2. Beyond ADHD: A Consideration of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Pedagogy in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Brenton J.

    2008-01-01

    A psycho-medical discourse that explains behavioural dysfunction through neurological deficit has dominated debate about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, if only medical questions are asked, only medical answers will be found, resulting in more or less drug treatment. When behavioural dysfunction results in impairment…

  3. The STARS Program: Social Empowerment Training for Preadolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), there has been a dramatic increase in the number of children being diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the last several years. School nursing interventions need to be developed, implemented, and evaluated to address complexities experienced by this population. The…

  4. The Neural Correlates of Deficient Error Awareness in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Hester, Robert; Garavan, Hugh; Fitzgerald, Michael; Foxe, John J.; Robertson, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to detect and correct errors is critical to adaptive control of behaviour and represents a discrete neuropsychological function. A number of studies have highlighted that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with abnormalities in behavioural and neural responsiveness to performance errors. One limitation of…

  5. Increasing Awareness and Understanding of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Education to Promote Better Academic Outcomes for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinussen, Rhonda L.; Tannock, Rosemary; Chaban, Peter; McInnes, Alison; Ferguson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review three areas of research on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that have implications for the educational context. These areas are: (a) gender differences in ADHD, (b) inattention symptoms and academic risk, and (c) working memory and ADHD. We highlight the critical role that the school context plays in…

  6. Treatment of comorbidity in conduct disorder with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Turgay, Atilla

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. It is characterized by a variety of chronic antisocial behaviors, a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others, major age-appropriate societal norms, or both. Aggressive behavior, lying, stealing, fire-setting, and running away from home and school are the most frequent manifestations of CD and are often accompanied by hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, explosiveness, cognitive and learning problems, and poor social skills. The rate of comorbidity is high, with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) being the most common; comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders are also seen, especially in adolescents. The diagnostic process should include the use of structured interviews, and scores from reliable and valid rating scales that cover all psychiatric disorders must be considered in the differential diagnosis, because CD alone is an extreme rarity and multiple disorders are almost always the rule rather than exception. Treatment should include parenting skills training combined with training of the child to improve his or her relationships with peers, academic performance, and compliance with legitimate demands of authority figures. The appropriate use of medications and integration of patient/parent education and support, as well as individual, group, family, residential, and inpatient treatment may be beneficial for patients with CD and ADHD. The article describes a number of psychopharmacological agents that are used in patients with CD with ADHD and other comorbid disorders. Drugs that may be useful include psychostimulants; atomoxetine (Strattera); antidepressants (imipramine [Tofranil], desipramine [Norpramin]); Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs); atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone (Risperdal); or mood regulators including lithium (Eskalith). PMID

  7. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms Predict Alcohol Expectancy Development

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Brammer, Whitney A.; Ray, Lara A.; Lee, Steve S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Positive alcohol expectancies and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are independent risk factors for adolescent alcohol problems and substance use disorders. However, the association of early ADHD diagnostic status, as well as its separate dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity, with alcohol expectancies is essentially unknown. Method At baseline (i.e., Wave 1), parents of 139 6-to 9-year-old children (71% male) with (N = 77; 55%) and without (N = 62; 45%) ADHD completed structured diagnostic interviews of child psychopathology. Approximately two years later (i.e., Wave 2), children completed a Memory Model-Based Expectancy Questionnaire (MMBEQ) to ascertain their positive and negative expectancies regarding alcohol use. All children were alcohol naïve at both baseline and follow-up assessments. Results Controlling for age, sex, IQ, as well as the number of Wave 1 oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, the number of baseline hyperactivity symptoms prospectively predicted more positive arousing (i.e., MMBEQ “wild and crazy” subscale) alcohol expectancies at Wave 2. No predictive association was observed for the number of Wave 1 inattention symptoms and alcohol expectancies. Conclusions Childhood hyperactivity prospectively and positively predicted expectancies regarding the arousing properties of alcohol, independent of inattention and ODD/CD symptoms, as well as other key covariates. Even in the absence of explicit alcohol engagement, youths with elevated hyperactivity may benefit from targeted intervention given its association with more positive arousing alcohol expectancies. PMID:27110089

  8. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. PMID:24992694

  9. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  10. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an updated review of the essential facts.

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2014-11-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder that can affect individuals across the lifespan. It is associated with substantial heterogeneity in terms of aetiology, clinical presentation and treatment outcome and is the subject of extensive research. Because of this, it can be difficult for clinicians to stay up to date with the most relevant findings and know how best to respond to parents' questions and concerns about the disorder and interventions. This is a narrative review that aims to summarize key findings from recent research into ADHD and its treatment that clinicians can share with families in order to increase their knowledge about ADHD and intervention options. ADHD develops as a result of complex interplay between interdependent genetic and non-genetic factors. The disorder is associated with substantial impairments in functioning and poor long-term outcomes. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options are available for symptom management and to improve function, but functioning outcomes often fail to normalize in children with ADHD. Despite extensive advances in understanding this complex disorder, it is clear that there is still a long way to go. In particular, we address the need for future non-pharmacological interventions to be more specifically targeted for ADHD symptoms and its commonly associated functioning deficits in order to ensure the best long-term outcomes for children with ADHD. PMID:24725022

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

  12. The Nature, Clinical Assessment, and Treatment of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Gilliam, Brenda; Johnson, Annabel M.; McWilliams, Elizabeth; Avula, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in childhood. Symptoms of ADHD include developmentally inappropriate levels of activity, distractibility, and impulsivity. The behavior often leads to academic and social problems and may have a long-term adverse impact on a child's later life. This…

  13. Diagnosis of children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its association with cytomegalovirus infection with ADHD: a historical review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Xia, Qun; Shen, Huaiyun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yongli; Xu, Jiali

    2015-01-01

    As the most common mental disorder identified in children and teenagers, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects millions of children and their families, making it a critical health issue worldwide. This article reviewed the historical opinions about the diagnosis of ADHD and defined different subtypes of this disorder. It also summarized the current diagnostic criteria and available medications. After re-visiting the etiology of ADHD in the sense of both genetic and environment factors, it was further hypothesized that viral infection might be involved in ADHD pathogenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may be associated with ADHD, although both clinical observations and animal studies need to be performed for validation. PMID:26550354

  14. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2012) Detailed Information by State Top of Page Peer Relationships [ Read abstract ] Parents of children with a ... of ADHD report almost 3 times as many peer problems as those without a history of ADHD ( ...

  15. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Is it ADHD? Symptoms Checklist Fill out the symptoms checklist and ... more about other concerns and conditions . How is ADHD diagnosed? Healthcare professionals use the guidelines in the ...

  16. Disturbed sleep in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a question of psychiatric comorbidity or ADHD presentation.

    PubMed

    Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Thomsen, Per H; Møller, Lene R; Jennum, Poul J

    2016-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with three different presentations and high levels of psychiatric comorbidity. Serious sleep complaints are also common, but the role of the presentations and comorbidity in sleep is under-investigated in ADHD. Consequently, the goal of the study was to investigate sleep problems in medicine-naive school-aged children (mean age = 9.6 years) with ADHD compared to controls using objective methods and to examine the role of comorbidity and presentations. Ambulatory polysomnography results suggested that children with ADHD (n = 76) had significantly more sleep disturbances than controls (n = 25), including a larger percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and more sleep cycles, as well as lower mean sleep efficiency, mean non-REM (NREM) sleep stage 1 and mean NREM sleep stage 3. No significant between-group differences were found on the multiple sleep latency test. Stratifying for comorbidity in the ADHD group did not reveal major differences between groups, but mean sleep latency was significantly longer in children with ADHD and no comorbidity compared to controls (36.1 min; SD = 30.1 versus 22.6 min; SD = 15.2). No differences were found between ADHD presentations. Our results support the presence of night-time sleep disturbances in children with ADHD. Poor sleep does not appear to be attributable to comorbidity alone, nor do sleep disturbances differ within ADHD presentations. PMID:26762193

  17. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26121381

  18. Hemodynamic response of children with attention-deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) to emotional facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Nakato, Emi; Kanazawa, So; Shimamura, Keiichi; Sakuta, Yuiko; Sakuta, Ryoichi; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulty recognizing facial expressions. They identify angry expressions less accurately than typically developing (TD) children, yet little is known about their atypical neural basis for the recognition of facial expressions. Here, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to examine the distinctive cerebral hemodynamics of ADHD and TD children while they viewed happy and angry expressions. We measured the hemodynamic responses of 13 ADHD boys and 13 TD boys to happy and angry expressions at their bilateral temporal areas, which are sensitive to face processing. The ADHD children showed an increased concentration of oxy-Hb for happy faces but not for angry faces, while TD children showed increased oxy-Hb for both faces. Moreover, the individual peak latency of hemodynamic response in the right temporal area showed significantly greater variance in the ADHD group than in the TD group. Such atypical brain activity observed in ADHD boys may relate to their preserved ability to recognize a happy expression and their difficulty recognizing an angry expression. We firstly demonstrated that NIRS can be used to detect atypical hemodynamic response to facial expressions in ADHD children. PMID:25152531

  19. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    1998-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may arise when key brain circuits do not develop properly, perhaps due to an altered gene or genes. Describes ADHD in detail and introduces a psychological model of ADHD. (ASK)

  20. ADHD: A Scientific Fact or a Factual Opinion? A Critique of the Veracity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, John; Jehan, Zenib

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the debate on the phenomenon of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It explores how and why the discourses surrounding the aetiology and interventions are dominated by a bio-medical understanding of ADHD. Competing discourses are examined, particularly those marginalised because they do not support the…

  1. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  2. Emotional Lability in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Clinical Correlates and Familial Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobanski, Esther; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Chen, Wai; Franke, Barbara; Holtmann, Martin; Krumm, Bertram; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Stringaris, Argyris; Taylor, Eric; Anney, Richard; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD. Methods: One thousand, one hundred and eighty-six children with ADHD…

  3. Treatment Sensitivity of a Brief Rating Scale for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; Vaesen, Hilde; Roodenrijs, Dorien; Kelgtermans, Lut

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the treatment sensitivity of the ADHD Questionnaire (ADHD-Q), which is a brief rating scale for measuring symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in children. Parent, teacher, and child self-report data of the ADHD-Q were obtained for 17 clinically referred children with ADHD on the three occasions: (1) during…

  4. Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths

    PubMed Central

    Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16375770

  5. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25763856

  6. Confirmation and Extension of Association of Blood Lead with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD Symptom Domains at Population-Typical Exposure Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly; Mark Knottnerus, G.; Cavanagh, Kevin; Friderici, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its symptom domains are related to blood lead level, even at background exposure levels typical in western countries. However, recent studies disagreed as to whether lead was related to inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity within the ADHD…

  7. [Awareness of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Greece].

    PubMed

    Pehlivanidis, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopment disorder of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. In adults, the clinical picture of ADHD is complex and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders is the rule. The documentation that the disorder had a childhood onset and the various comorbid symptomatologies present both in childhood and adult life represent the most influential obstacles for the accurate clinical diagnosis of the disorder. In 75% of cases with adult ADHD there is at least one coexisting comorbid disorder, with anxiety and mood disorders as well as substance abuse and impulse control disorders being the most prevalent ones. Adult psychiatrists have limited experience in the diagnosis, treatment and overall management of the disorder. Greece is a member of the European Network Adult ADHD (ENAA), founded in 2003, aiming to increase awareness of the disorder and to improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. A clinic where diagnosis as well as treatment recommendations are given after a thorough assessment of adult ADHD patients, is hosted at the First Department of Psychiatry of the Athens National and Kapodistian University. The clinic is in close collaboration with ENAA. The diagnosis of ADHD is given after a detailed evaluation of the patient, based on history taken, self-administered questionnaires and a specific psychiatric interview. The reliable trace of the symptoms' onset back in early childhood, current symptomatology, as well as its impact on at least two major areas of functioning (school, home, work or personal relationships) are pivotal for the assessment procedure. Special attention should be paid in the distinction of symptoms often coexisting with the core symptoms of the ADHD, such as emotional liability, incessant mental activity, avoidance of situations like queuing, especially when there is also frustration, from those indicating a comorbid

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent

    2015-05-01

    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed. PMID:25411986

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD. PMID:25186567

  10. The STARS program: social empowerment training for preadolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Frame, Kathleen

    2004-10-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), there has been a dramatic increase in the number of children being diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the last several years. School nursing interventions need to be developed, implemented, and evaluated to address complexities experienced by this population. The STARS curriculum (Social Empowerment Training and Responsibilities for Students with ADHD) is a nursing intervention designed to improve perceptions of scholastic competence, social acceptance, and behavioral conduct in preadolescents diagnosed with ADHD. It consists of eight sessions with the theme of social empowerment training woven throughout the curriculum. The support group concept, with children helping children, initiated dynamic conversation as the participants creatively problem-solved and developed solutions to their difficulties. PMID:15469375

  11. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance. PMID:26854502

  12. The impact of distractions on young adult drivers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Fried, Ronna

    2010-05-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk for being involved in automobile crashes. Although driving simulators have been used to identify and understand underlying behaviors, prior research has focused largely on single-task, non-distracted driving. However, in-vehicle infotainment and communications systems often vie for a driver's attention, potentially increasing the risk of collision. This paper explores the impact of secondary tasks on individuals with and without ADHD, a medical condition known to affect the regulation of attention. Data are drawn from a validated driving simulation representing periods before, during, and after participation in a secondary cognitive task. A hands-free phone task was employed in a high stimulus, urban setting and a working memory task during low stimulus, highway driving. Drivers with ADHD had more difficulty on the telephone task, yet did not show an increased decrement in driving performance greater than control participants. In contrast, participants with ADHD showed a larger decline in driving performance than controls during a secondary task in a low demand setting. The results suggest that the interaction of the nature of the driving context and the secondary task has a significant influence on how drivers with ADHD allocate attention and, in-turn, on the relative impact on driving performance. Drivers with ADHD appear particularly susceptible to distraction during periods of low stimulus driving. PMID:20380911

  13. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder/learning disabilities (ADHD/LD): parental characterization and perception.

    PubMed

    Brook, Uzi; Boaz, Mona

    2005-04-01

    Sixty-six parents of adolescents (mean age, 14.8 years), who attended special education classes and who were diagnosed as having attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder/learning disabilities (ADHD/LD), were interviewed. The comorbidity of the ADHD group included emotional lability and/or depression, 70%; oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), 67%; obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 44%; addiction to buying, 44%; and aggressiveness, 62%. Twenty-one percent were either involved in the past or presently using drugs. Nine percent had attempted suicide. According to their parents, the main characteristic of these adolescents was low self-image. Parents enumerated five negative characteristics: impulsiveness; nervousness; angered easily ('short fused'); aggressiveness with cursing and outbursts; and impaired sociability with impoliteness. PMID:15797157

  14. Dietary patterns in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Dong Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Ju-Hee; Choe, Byeong Moo; Park, Jae Hong; Kang, Je-Wook; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Chueh, Hee Won; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-04-01

    The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the "traditional" pattern, the "seaweed-egg" pattern, the "traditional-healthy" pattern, and the "snack" pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12-0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD. PMID:24736898

  15. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Dong Woo; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Seo, Ju-Hee; Choe, Byeong Moo; Park, Jae Hong; Kang, Je-Wook; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Chueh, Hee Won; Lee, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD. PMID:24736898

  16. Treatment of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Irritability: Results From the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Simonoff, Emily; McGough, James J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinically impairing irritability affects 25% to 45% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); yet, we know little about what interventions are effective in treating children with ADHD and co-occurring irritability. We used data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA) to address 3 aims: to establish whether irritability in children with ADHD can be distinguished from other symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); to examine whether ADHD treatment is effective in treating irritability; and to examine how irritability influences ADHD treatment outcomes. Method Secondary analyses of data from the MTA included multivariate analyses, and intent-to-treat random-effects regression models were used. Results Irritability was separable from other ODD symptoms. For treating irritability, systematic stimulant treatment was superior to behavioral management but not to routine community care; a combination of stimulants and behavioral treatment was superior to community care and to behavioral treatment alone, but not to medication alone. Irritability did not moderate the impact of treatment on parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms in any of the 4 treatment groups. Conclusion Treatments targeting ADHD symptoms are helpful for improving irritability in children with ADHD. Moreover, irritability does not appear to influence the response to treatment of ADHD. Clinical trial registration information Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00000388. PMID:25524791

  17. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention. PMID:26429569

  18. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stimulant medications as cognitive enhancers.

    PubMed

    Advokat, Claire; Scheithauer, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses, and the escalation of stimulant prescriptions, has raised concern about diversion and abuse of stimulants, as well as the ethics of using these drugs as "cognitive enhancers."Such concern appears misplaced in the face of substantial evidence that stimulant drugs do not improve the academic performance of ADHD-diagnosed students. Moreover, numerous studies have found little or no benefit of stimulants on neuropsychological tests of ADHD-diagnosed as well as normal, individuals. This paper examines the apparent paradox: why don't drugs that improve "attention," produce better academic outcomes in ADHD-diagnosed students? We found that stimulant drugs significantly improved impairment of episodic memory in ADHD-diagnosed undergraduate students. Nevertheless, we also found consistent academic deficits between ADHD students and their non-ADHD counterparts, regardless of whether or not they used stimulant medications. We reviewed the current literature on the behavioral effects of stimulants, to try to find an explanation for these conflicting phenomena. Across a variety of behavioral tasks, stimulants have been shown to reduce emotional reactions to frustration, improve the ability to detect errors, and increase effortful behavior. However, all of these effects would presumably enhance academic performance. On the other hand, the drugs were also found to promote "risky behavior" and to increase susceptibility to environmental distraction. Such negative effects, including the use of drugs to promote wakefulness for last minute study, might explain the lack of academic benefit in the "real world," despite their cognitive potential. Like many drugs, stimulants influence behavior in multiple ways, depending on the environmental contingencies. Depending on the circumstances, stimulants may, or may not, enhance cognition. PMID:23754970

  19. Do Hyperactive Symptoms Matter in ADHD-I Restricted Phenotype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…

  20. Pre-Service and In-Service Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge about Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Limeng; Gao, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed-method inquiry into pre-service and in-service secondary school teachers' knowledge about Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward students with this disorder in Hong Kong. The inquiry revealed no differences between pre-service and in-service secondary school teachers concerning their…

  1. Methodological Issues in the Assessment of Medication Effects in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in school-aged children and is usually treated with stimulant medications, including methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin[R], Ritalin-LA[R], Concerta[R], Metadate[R], or Focalin[R]) and other drug compounds (e.g., Adderall[R], Adderall-XR[R], or Dexedrine).…

  2. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in Childhood: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.; Clinton, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This article examines recent literature related to the diagnosis of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) in childhood. First, the article discusses diagnostic criteria presented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Next, it explores the diagnostic procedures for AD/HD…

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by the presence of 1 or more of ... of these behaviors. INATTENTIVE SYMPTOMS Doesn't pay attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork ...

  4. Increased prefrontal oxygenation related to distractor-resistant working memory in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Yasumura, Akira; Yamashita, Yushiro; Torii, Miyuki; Kaga, Makiko; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of distraction on working memory and its underlying neural mechanisms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To this end, we studied hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy while 16 children with ADHD and 10 typically developing (TD) children performed a working memory task. This task had two conditions: one involved a distraction during the memory delay interval, whereas the other had no systematic distraction. The ADHD patients showed significantly poorer behavioral performance compared with the TD group, particularly under the distraction. The ADHD group exhibited significantly higher level of prefrontal activation than did TD children. The activity level was positively correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms. These results suggest that the impairment in the inhibition of distraction is responsible for the working memory deficits observed in ADHD children. Inefficient processing in the prefrontal cortex appears to underlie such deficits. PMID:23385518

  5. Effects of essential fatty acids in iron deficient and sleep-disturbed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children.

    PubMed

    Yehuda, S; Rabinovitz-Shenkar, S; Carasso, R L

    2011-10-01

    Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity constitute the core diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Patients generally suffer from sleep disturbance and malnutrition that can account for tiredness during the day, poor concentration, poor eating and depressed mood, along with anemia and an n-3 polyunsaturated acid deficiency. The change of ADHD behavior in children (9-12) was studied, following 10 weeks of treatment with a polyunsaturated acid mixture on six variables: cooperation, mood, concentration, homework preparation, fatigue and sleep quality. Iron status was also examined. Polyunsaturated acid administration was associated with significant improvement in quality of life, ability to concentrate, sleep quality and hemoglobin levels. PMID:21587279

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sluggish cognitive tempo dimensions in relation to executive functioning in adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has failed to find a consistent relation between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) and executive function (EF) in youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) when laboratory-based neuropsychological tasks of EF are used, whereas recent research with youth and adults suggests a significant relation between SCT and ratings of EF. The purpose of this study was to examine ADHD dimensions and SCT symptoms in relation to ratings of EF in adolescents with ADHD. Fifty-two adolescents (ages 12-16; 70 % male) participated in this study. Parents and teachers completed validated measures of SCT, ADHD symptoms, and EF in daily life. Adolescents' intelligence and academic achievement were also assessed. ADHD and SCT symptoms were significantly correlated with ratings of EF. Regression analyses demonstrated that, as hypothesized, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were strongly associated with behavioral regulation EF deficits, with ADHD inattentive and SCT symptoms unrelated to behavioral regulation EF when hyperactive-impulsivity symptoms were included in the model. The parent-reported SCT Slow scale measuring motivation, initiative, and apathy predicted both parent- and teacher-reported metacognitive EF deficits above and beyond youth characteristics and ADHD symptoms. In contrast, teacher-reported ADHD inattention was most clearly associated with teacher-reported metacognitive EF deficits. This study provides preliminary evidence for the importance of SCT symptoms in relation to metacognitive EF deficits among adolescents with ADHD and the need to further investigate the overlap and distinctiveness of SCT/ADHD. Further research is needed to replicate and extend these findings. PMID:23443466

  7. Classifying adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on functional and structural imaging.

    PubMed

    Iannaccone, Reto; Hauser, Tobias U; Ball, Juliane; Brandeis, Daniel; Walitza, Susanne; Brem, Silvia

    2015-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disabling psychiatric disorder associated with consistent deficits in error processing, inhibition and regionally decreased grey matter volumes. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, interviews and questionnaires, which are to some degree subjective and would benefit from verification through biomarkers. Here, pattern recognition of multiple discriminative functional and structural brain patterns was applied to classify adolescents with ADHD and controls. Functional activation features in a Flanker/NoGo task probing error processing and inhibition along with structural magnetic resonance imaging data served to predict group membership using support vector machines (SVMs). The SVM pattern recognition algorithm correctly classified 77.78% of the subjects with a sensitivity and specificity of 77.78% based on error processing. Predictive regions for controls were mainly detected in core areas for error processing and attention such as the medial and dorsolateral frontal areas reflecting deficient processing in ADHD (Hart et al., in Hum Brain Mapp 35:3083-3094, 2014), and overlapped with decreased activations in patients in conventional group comparisons. Regions more predictive for ADHD patients were identified in the posterior cingulate, temporal and occipital cortex. Interestingly despite pronounced univariate group differences in inhibition-related activation and grey matter volumes the corresponding classifiers failed or only yielded a poor discrimination. The present study corroborates the potential of task-related brain activation for classification shown in previous studies. It remains to be clarified whether error processing, which performed best here, also contributes to the discrimination of useful dimensions and subtypes, different psychiatric disorders, and prediction of treatment success across studies and sites. PMID:25613588

  8. Topological organization of the “small-world” visual attention network in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shugao; Foxe, John J.; Sroubek, Ariane E.; Branch, Craig; Li, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood psychiatric disorder. Disrupted sustained attention is one of the most significant behavioral impairments in this disorder. We mapped systems-level topological properties of the neural network responsible for sustained attention during a visual sustained task, on the premise that strong associations between anomalies in network features and clinical measures of ADHD would emerge. Methods: Graph theoretic techniques (GTT) and bivariate network-based statistics (NBS) were applied to fMRI data from 22 children with ADHD combined-type and 22 age-matched neurotypicals, to evaluate the topological and nodal-pairing features in the functional brain networks. Correlation testing for relationships between network properties and clinical measures were then performed. Results: The visual attention network showed significantly reduced local-efficiency and nodal-efficiency in frontal and occipital regions in ADHD. Measures of degree and between-centrality pointed to hyper-functioning in anterior cingulate cortex and hypo-functioning in orbito-frontal, middle-occipital, superior-temporal, supra-central, and supra-marginal gyri in ADHD. NBS demonstrated significantly reduced pair-wise connectivity in an inner-network, encompassing right parietal and temporal lobes and left occipital lobe, in the ADHD group. Conclusions: These data suggest that atypical topological features of the visual attention network contribute to classic ADHD symptomatology, and may underlie the inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity that are characteristics of this syndrome. PMID:24688465

  9. Predictors of Adolescent Functioning in Girls with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Role of Childhood ADHD, Conduct Problems, and Peer Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Steve S.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent functioning were studied in an ethnically diverse sample of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 140) and age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls (n = 88) who participated in naturalistic summer programs during childhood. Over a 5-year follow-up (sample retention = 92%; age range = 11.3-18.2…

  10. Does ADHD Matter? Examining Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder on the Likelihood of Recidivism among Detained Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jill A.; Diehl, Robyn L.; Anderson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    There is limited research regarding attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among youth in the juvenile justice system, but the existing research demonstrates higher rates of difficulties, including substance abuse, parental dysfunction, and school issues. There is, however, little knowledge regarding the impact of detainment on…

  11. Knowledge and Misconceptions about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Comparison of Greek General and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Antonopoulou, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    School teachers play an important role in the identification and assessment of pupils' difficulties, and have been considered one of the most valuable sources of information with regard to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses. The study examines and compares general and special education teachers' knowledge and misconceptions…

  12. Larger Deficits in Brain Networks for Response Inhibition than for Visual Selective Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, James R.; Burman, Douglas D.; Meyer, Joel R.; Lei, Zhang; Trommer, Barbara L.; Davenport, Nicholas D.; Li, Wei; Parrish, Todd B.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Mesulam, M. Marsel

    2005-01-01

    Background: Brain activation differences between 12 control and 12 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children (9- to 12-year-olds) were examined on two cognitive tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Visual selective attention was measured with the visual search of a conjunction target (red triangle) in a…

  13. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Well-Being: Is Social Impairment an Issue for College Students with ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the psychological well-being of college students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was analyzed. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of undergraduates aged 18-25 at a Southern university (N = 317). Well-being was measured using Ryff's (1989) 6 likert scales of psychological well-being. Students with…

  14. Review of the possible relationship and hypothetical links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the simple sleep related movement disorders, parasomnias, hypersomnias, and circadian rhythm disorders.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Silvestri, Rosalia; Zucconi, Marco; Chandrashekariah, Ranju; Konofal, Eric

    2008-12-15

    Recent evidence has been accumulating that the sleep of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not only disrupted in a nonspecific way but that ADHD has an increased association with simple sleep related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements in sleep (RLS/PLMS), rhythmic movement disorder (body rocking and head banging), and parasomnias, such as disorders of partial arousal (sleep walking, sleep terrors, and confusional arousals). In addition increased associations have been reported between ADHD and hypersomnias such as narcolepsy and sleep apnea as well as circadian rhythm disorders, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome. These relationships are reviewed and the implications for such associations are explored. Patients with sleep disorders should be queried about the symptoms of ADHD and vice versa. PMID:19110891

  15. Understanding the Psycho-Social and Cultural Factors That Influence the Experience of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Chinese American College Students: A Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Edmund Wong Din-Mond

    2012-01-01

    A review of the extant research literature reveals limited data on college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Even less information is known in regards to minority populations living with ADHD, specifically Asian American college student. This research project was focused on Chinese American college students with ADHD.…

  16. A Neurophysiological Marker of Impaired Preparation in an 11-Year Follow-Up Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Schneider, Gudrun; Drechsler, Renate; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls. Methods: Subjects with ADHD ("N"…

  17. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents

  18. Familial-Environmental Risk Factors in South African Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Leana; Springer, Priscilla; Kidd, Martin; Steyn, Nellie; Solomons, Regan; van Toorn, Ronald

    2015-09-01

    We investigated familial and environmental risk factors in a cohort of South African children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A prospective, hospital-based case control study was conducted comprising 50 children diagnosed with ADHD and 50 matched non-ADHD controls. The adjusted effect of familial-environmental risk factors on ADHD was determined by systematic assessment. Birth complications, parental psychiatric disorder, maternal ADHD, early childhood trauma, and nonmaternal child care were significant risk factors for ADHD. Prolonged breastfeeding was found to be protective. In a multivariable logistic regression model, 5 criteria (birth complications, breastfeeding <3 months, at least 1 parent with tertiary education, presence of parental psychiatric disorder, and nonmaternal primary caregiver) differentiated ADHD from non-ADHD controls with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 86%, respectively. We found a correlation between certain familial and environmental risk factors and ADHD. A 5-criterion multivariable logistic regression model may offer clinical guidance in ADHD diagnosis. PMID:25512360

  19. Effects of Extended Release Methylphenidate Treatment on Ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Associated Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Cynthia W.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Casat, Charles D.; Mansour, Rosleen; Lane, David M.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Jerger, Susan W.; Factor, Perry; Vanwoerden, Salome; Perez, Evelyn; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon. Method The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age=8.8 years, SD=1.7; mean intelligence quotient [IQ]=85; SD=16.8). Effects of four dose levels of MPH on parent and teacher behavioral ratings were investigated using a within-subject, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Results MPH treatment was associated with significant declines in hyperactive and impulsive behavior at both home and school. Parents noted significant declines in inattentive and oppositional behavior, and improvements in social skills. No exacerbation of stereotypies was noted, and side effects were similar to those seen in typically developing children with ADHD. Dose response was primarily linear in the dose range studied. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that MPH formulations are efficacious and well-tolerated for children with ASD and significant ADHD symptoms. PMID:23782128

  20. Personal FM Systems for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and/or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Initial Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Erin C.; Mathews, Lauren; Mehta, Smita; Hill, Margaret; Munoz, Ashley; Bishop, Rachel; Moloney, Molly

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this initial investigation was to examine the potential benefit of a frequency modulation (FM) system for 11 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or both disorders through measures of speech recognition performance in noise, observed classroom behavior, and…

  1. Cognitive Rehabilitation for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Promises and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Tajik-Parvinchi, Diana; Wright, Leah; Schachar, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive training entails the repeated exercise of a specific cognitive process over a period of time to improve performance on the trained task as well as on tasks that were not specifically trained (transfer effect). Cognitive training shows promise in remediating deficits in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – a disorder believed to stem from deficient cognitive processes – where the focus has been primarily on training working memory and attention. We discuss evidence from studies that have produced broad, limited, or no transfer effects with the goal of identifying factors that may be responsible for this heterogeneity. Results: There are several implicit assumptions that appear to drive researchers’ decisions regarding both the selection of cognitive abilities to train as well as the training tasks chosen to target those abilities. We identify these implicit assumptions and their weaknesses. We also draw attention to design limitations that may be contributing to lack of transfer. Conclusion: Although the overall pattern of findings from these studies is promising, the methodological and theoretical limitations associated with the literature limit conclusions about the efficacy of cognitive training as a rehabilitation method for ADHD. We hypothesize several suggestions that may improve training effects and summarize the evidence which led to our hypotheses. PMID:25320614

  2. The clinical presentation of attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joanna; Thapar, Anita; Owen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in children with 22q11.2DS, it remains unclear whether its clinical presentation is similar to that in children with idiopathic ADHD. The aim of this study is to compare the ADHD phenotype in children with and without 22q11.2DS by examining ADHD symptom scores, patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, IQ and gender distribution. Methods: Forty‐four children with 22q11.2DS and ADHD (mean age = 9.6), 600 clinic children (mean age = 10.8) and 77 children with ADHD from a population cohort (mean age = 10.8) participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed using parent‐report research diagnostic instruments. Results: There was a higher proportion of females in the 22q11.2DS ADHD sample in relation to the clinical sample (χ2 = 18.2, P < 0.001). The 22q11.2DS group showed a higher rate of ADHD inattentive subtype (χ2 = 114.76, P < 0.001), and fewer hyperactive‐impulsive symptoms compared to the clinical group (z = 8.43, P < 0.001). The 22q11.2DS ADHD group parents reported fewer oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms (z = 6.33, P < 0.001) and a higher rate of generalized anxiety disorder (χ2 = 4.56, P = 0.03) in relation to the clinical group. Two percent of the 22q11.2 DS ADHD sample had received ADHD treatment. The results were similar when the 22q11.2 ADHD group was compared to the population cohort ADHD group. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of ADHD and patterns of co‐morbidity in 22q11.2DS is different from that in idiopathic ADHD. This could lead to clinical under‐recognition of ADHD in this group. Examining psychopathology in 22q11.2DS can provide insights into the genetic origins of psychiatric problems with implications beyond the 22q11.2DS population. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley

  3. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD FACT SHEET What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. It is sometimes referred to as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). It ...

  4. The Impact of Teacher Factors on Achievement and Behavioural Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Jody; Rasmussen, Carmen; Baydala, Lola

    2008-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder known to be associated with behavioural and academic difficulties. Several treatment options are available for children with ADHD, such as medication and behavioural therapy. Although researchers have examined the efficacy of these approaches, much less is understood…

  5. A Systematic Review of Parenting in Relation to the Development of Comorbidities and Functional Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deault, Louise C.

    2010-01-01

    This review synthesizes recent research evidence regarding the parenting characteristics associated with families with children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with a range of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its behavioral expression and different developmental…

  6. [Update on Current Care guidelines: ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, children and adolescents)].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The updated Current Care guideline for children and adolescents with ADHD covers both diagnosis and treatment. Psychosocial support is provided when hyperactivity problems arise, even before specific diagnosis. While psychosocial interventions are effective in the treatment of ADHD, the core symptoms are best treated with medication, such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, lisdexamphetamine or atomoxetine. Collaboration between families, primary health care services, specialist consultation services and day-care and school professionals is essential within the chain of care. PMID:22486070

  7. Disorder-specific functional abnormalities during temporal discounting in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism and comorbid ADHD and Autism.

    PubMed

    Chantiluke, Kaylita; Christakou, Anastasia; Murphy, Clodagh M; Giampietro, Vincent; Daly, Eileen M; Ecker, Christina; Brammer, Michael; Murphy, Declan G; Rubia, Katya

    2014-08-30

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often comorbid and share cognitive abnormalities in temporal foresight. A key question is whether shared cognitive phenotypes are based on common or different underlying pathophysiologies and whether comorbid patients have additive neurofunctional deficits, resemble one of the disorders or have a different pathophysiology. We compared age- and IQ-matched boys with non-comorbid ADHD (18), non-comorbid ASD (15), comorbid ADHD and ASD (13) and healthy controls (18) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a temporal discounting task. Only the ASD and the comorbid groups discounted delayed rewards more steeply. The fMRI data showed both shared and disorder-specific abnormalities in the three groups relative to controls in their brain-behaviour associations. The comorbid group showed both unique and more severe brain-discounting associations than controls and the non-comorbid patient groups in temporal discounting areas of ventromedial and lateral prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum and anterior cingulate, suggesting that comorbidity is neither an endophenocopy of the two pure disorders nor an additive pathology. PMID:24929553

  8. Parent Training Interventions for Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children Aged 5 to 18 Years. Campbell Systematic Reviews. 2012:2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwi, Morris; Jones, Hannah; Thorgaard, Camilla; York, Ann; Dennis, Jane A.

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that are present before the age of seven years, seen in a range of situations, inconsistent with the child's developmental level and causing social or academic impairment. Parent training…

  9. Pre- and Peri-Natal Environmental Risks for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Potential Role of Epigenetic Processes in Mediating Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, Jonathan; Petronis, Arturas

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neurobehavioural disorder defined by symptoms of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. As is the norm for most psychiatric phenotypes, traditional aetiological studies have focused primarily on the interplay between genetic and environmental…

  10. Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Siying; Hu, Howard; Sánchez, Brisa N; Peterson, Karen E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Wright, Robert O.; Basu, Niladri; Cantonwine, David E.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that blood lead levels are positively associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-symptoms in children. However, the associations between lead exposure and ADHD subtypes are inconsistent and understudied. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD symptoms in 578 Mexican children 6–13 years of age. Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children’s ADHD symptoms. We used imputation to fill missing values in blood lead levels and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the nonlinear relationship between blood lead and ADHD symptoms. Results: Mean ± SD blood lead levels were 3.4 ± 2.9 μg/dL. In adjusted models, a 1-μg/dL increase in blood lead was positively associated with Hyperactivity and Restless-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores on the CRS-R scale of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, but only in children with blood lead level ≤ 5 μg/dL. Blood lead was not associated with Inattentive symptoms or overall ADHD behavior. Conclusions: In this population of Mexican children, current blood lead level among children with low exposure (≤ 5 μg/dL) was positively associated with hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, but not with inattentiveness. These results add to the existing evidence of lead-associated neurodevelopmental deficits at low levels of exposure. Citation: Huang S, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Lamadrid-Figueroa H, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, Wright RO, Basu N, Cantonwine DE, Hernández-Avila M, Téllez-Rojo MM. 2016. Childhood blood lead levels and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a

  11. The Co-Occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Parents of Children with ASD or ASD with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Richards, Jennifer S.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; de Ruiter, Saskia W.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan. K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share about 50-72% of their genetic factors, which is the most likely explanation for their frequent co-occurrence within the same patient or family. An additional or alternative explanation for the co-occurrence may be (cross-)assortative mating, e.g.,…

  12. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    PubMed

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. PMID:27031593

  13. An Analysis of the Discourses on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in US Special Education Textbooks, with Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the discourses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found in textbooks used in pre-service special education programmes in the USA. Five textbooks are examined with the intent of discovering how ADHD is portrayed to future teachers. A discourse analysis framework is utilised, revealing five…

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  15. Predictors of Adolescent Functioning in Girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Role of Childhood ADHD, Conduct Problems, and Peer Status

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent functioning were studied in an ethnically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 140) and age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls (n = 88) who participated in naturalistic summer programs during childhood. Over a five-year follow-up (sample retention = 92%; age range = 11.3–18.2 years), conduct problems were predicted by hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms and noncompliance (NC). Academic achievement was predicted only by inattention symptoms, whereas school suspensions/expulsions were predicted by inattention symptoms (ADHD sample only), NC, and negative peer status. Substance use was predicted by NC and HI symptoms. Internalizing problems were predicted by HI symptoms, noncompliance, and covert antisocial behavior. Finally, initial peer status was the only significant predictor of later negative social preference. PMID:16836474

  16. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P < .0001) at follow-up. The mean decline on Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low. PMID:26936058

  17. Functional Genomics of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Risk Alleles on Dopamine Transporter Binding in ADHD and Healthy Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Madras, Bertha K.; Bonab, Ali A.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Batchelder, Holly; Clarke, Allison; Fischman, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the striatum in individuals with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), attending to the 3′-untranslated region of the gene (3′-UTR) and intron8 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms of the DAT (SLC6A3) gene. Methods Subjects consisted of 68 psychotropic (including stimulant)-naïve and smoking-naïve volunteers between 18 and 55 years of age (ADHD n = 34; control subjects n = 34). Striatal DAT binding was measured with positron emission tomography with 11C altropane. Genotyping of the two DAT (SLC6A3) 3′-UTR and intron8 VNTRs used standard protocols. Results The gene frequencies of each of the gene polymorphisms assessed did not differ between the ADHD and control groups. The ADHD status (t = 2.99; p < .004) and 3′-UTR of SLC6A3 9 repeat carrier status (t = 2.74; p < .008) were independently and additively associated with increased DAT binding in the caudate. The ADHD status was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of 3′-UTR genotype, and 3′-UTR genotype was associated with increased striatal (caudate) DAT binding regardless of ADHD status. In contrast, there were no significant associations between polymorphisms of DAT intron8 or the 3′-UTR-intron8 haplotype with DAT binding. Conclusions The 3′-UTR but not intron8 VNTR genotypes were associated with increased DAT binding in both ADHD patients and healthy control subjects. Both ADHD status and the 3′-UTR polymorphism status had an additive effect on DAT binding. Our findings suggest that an ADHD risk polymorphism (3′-UTR) of SLC6A3 has functional consequences on central nervous system DAT binding in humans. PMID:23273726

  18. [Proposals for social policies to improve the quality of life in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD

    PubMed

    Cid Foix, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effects of pre and postnatal stress on the cerebral morphological findings described as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. [ADHD]. The consequences of ADHD cause social problems because these children have difficulties with family, school and social integration. Previous treatments are reviewed up to the present day. The drug that has been used most frequently is Metilphenidate, a psychostimulant, and recently, a new drug, Atomoxetine, a non psychostimulant was introduced. The therapy is combined with physiological training. These drugs give relief to the symptoms but their long term side-effects are unknown. Recent investigations have shown that children with ADHD who are receiving either cognitive or control training have increased cerebral activity without previous medication. With these facts in mind the European ADHD Guidelines group suggests a new focus of attention on the children and adults with this problem with the aim of modifying the treatment followed until now. The ethical motives for this review are: a) to make society more aware of the problems of ADHD with the aim of taking measures to avoid the possible causes of the illness; b) to take into account that the effects of long term psychostimulant drugs on the developing mind are unknown; c) to gather information that supports the view that diagnosis of ADHD has increased. PMID:22040136

  19. Response disinhibition may be explained as an extinction deficit in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje

    2004-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder affecting between 2 and 12% of grade-school children disturbing social, academic, and occupational functioning. Problems related to social adjustment and functioning and/or psychiatric problems will exist in 50-70% of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ADHD as children. It has been suggested that altered reinforcement and extinction processes may cause the symptoms of ADHD. The present study investigated extinction processes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), possibly the best-validated animal model of ADHD. Extinction was tested after either a variable interval (VI) or a fixed interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement with and without the presence of a conditioned reinforcer (light in the water cubicle). The results indicate a slower extinction process in the SHR compared to the normal controls, especially during the initial transition from scheduled reinforcement to extinction. Also, more responses were retained in the SHR during the later part of extinction. The extinction deficit in the SHR may be linked to reinforcer unpredictability and the presence of conditioned reinforcers, and may explain response disinhibition seen in children with ADHD. PMID:15129781

  20. Low dopamine D5 receptor density in hippocampus in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Medin, T; Rinholm, J E; Owe, S G; Sagvolden, T; Gjedde, A; Storm-Mathisen, J; Bergersen, L H

    2013-07-01

    A state of low dopaminergic activity has been implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The clinical symptoms of ADHD include inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, as well as impaired learning; dopaminergic modulation of the functions in the hippocampus is important to both learning and memory. To determine dopamine receptor (DR) density in a well-established animal model for ADHD, we quantified the dopamine D5 receptors in the hippocampus in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. We used immunofluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy to quantify the dopamine D5 receptor density on CA1 pyramidal cell somas and dendrites and dendritic spines in the stratum radiatum and stratum oriens. The density of the dopamine D5 receptors was significantly lower in the cytoplasm of pyramidal cell somas in the spontaneously hypertensive rat compared to the control, indicating a reduced reservoir for insertion of receptors into the plasma membrane. DRs are important for long-term potentiation and long-term depression, hence the deficit may contribute to the learning difficulties in individuals with the diagnosis of ADHD. PMID:23541742

  1. Influence of methylphenidate on spatial attention asymmetry in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Silk, Timothy J; Newman, Daniel P; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Atypical asymmetries of spatial attention have been reported in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and may be exacerbated by non-spatial factors such as attentional capacity. Although preliminary evidence suggests that asymmetries of attention in ADHD may be modifiable by the psychostimulant, methylphenidate, further placebo-controlled studies are required. This study first aimed to confirm recent evidence that increasing non-spatial processing load at fixation can unmask a spatial gradient of target detection in children with ADHD but not Controls. Second, we used placebo-controlled randomised trial methodology to ask whether 20mg of methylphenidate (MPH) could remediate any load-dependent asymmetry of spatial attention in adolescents with ADHD. Twelve male adolescents with ADHD were assessed twice in a double-blind, randomized design, under either placebo or an acute dose of methylphenidate. Thirteen typically developing adolescent Controls completed a single session under placebo. Participants completed a computer-based task in which they monitored a centrally presented rapid serial visual presentation stream for a probe stimulus, while also responding to brief peripheral events. The attentional load of the central task was manipulated by varying the target instructions but not the physical stimuli or the frequency of targets. Between-group analyses under placebo conditions indicated that increased attentional load induced a spatial gradient for target detection in the ADHD but not Controls, such that load slowed response times for left, but not, right hemi-field targets. This load-dependent spatial asymmetry in the adolescents with ADHD was abolished by administration of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate may "normalise" target detection between the hemi-fields in ADHD via enhancement of the right-lateralised ventral attention networks that support non-spatial attention. PMID:24486422

  2. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a pyridoxine-dependent condition: urinary diagnostic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Dolina, S; Margalit, D; Malitsky, S; Rabinkov, A

    2014-01-01

    The data obtained in children with different forms of epilepsy allowed us to consider epilepsy as an inborn error of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) metabolism (Dolina et al., 2012). Mutual interconnections between ADHD and epilepsy indicate that such an approach is reasonable for ADHD. To check such an assumption we analyzed in ADHD patients the same parameters of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent tryptophan (TRP) degradation, which were analyzed in epileptic children. The level of TRP and concentrations of compounds formed or metabolized by TRP degradation, the ratios between some of them, and the level of 4-pyridoxic acid were HPLC detected in ADHD children and healthy controls. The data obtained, including low values of 4PA/TRP, IND/TRP and IND/KYN ratios, have evidenced dramatically impaired activity of pyridoxine-dependent enzymes in ADHD patients. Ritalin treatment did not change the general pattern of TRP degradation, but still created a kind of balance between some of detected metabolites. However, the 4PA/TRP, IND/TRP and IND/KYN ratios remained as low as in untreated patients, keeping the importance of diagnostic markers. Almost identical parameters of TRP degradation in untreated ADHD and epileptic patients allow to assume that inborn disorders of vitamin B6 metabolism are the common biochemical background of both diseases. The disturbed activity of PLP dependent enzymes apparently forms those profound disturbances of neurotransmitter systems, which are inherent in ADHD: low concentrations of monoamines and disordered amino acid metabolism. If vitamin B6 disorders are the core biochemical disturbances inherent in ADHD, then the long-term pyridoxine treatment is pathogenetically based replacement therapy of the disease. According to our data, multi-year pyridoxine treatment normalizes completely the pattern of ADHD behavior, without causing any serious side effects. PMID:24321736

  3. Vitamin D Status at Birth and Future Risk of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Lars; Lindh, Christian H.; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Ode, Amanda; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A.; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Haglund, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have lower levels of Vitamin D3 at birth than matched controls. Material Umbilical cord blood samples collected at birth from 202 children later diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder were analysed for vitamin D content and compared with 202 matched controls. 25-OH vitamin D3 was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results No differences in cord blood vitamin D concentration were found between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (median 13.0 ng/ml) and controls (median 13.5 ng/ml) (p = 0.43). In a logistic regression analysis, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder showed a significant association with maternal age (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.92–0.99) but not with vitamin D levels (odds ratio: 0.99, 95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.02). Conclusion We found no difference in intrauterine vitamin D levels between children later developing Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and matched control children. However, the statistical power of the study was too weak to detect an eventual small to medium size association between vitamin D levels and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. PMID:26509435

  4. A randomised controlled trial of the Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) for childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Karpouzis, Fay; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Background An abundance of literature is dedicated to research for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most, is in the area of pharmacological therapies with less emphasis in psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions and even less in the area of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The use of CAM has increased over the years, especially for developmental and behavioral disorders, such as ADHD. 60–65% of parents with children with ADHD have used CAM. Medical evidence supports a multidisciplinary approach (i.e. pharmacological and psychosocial) for the best clinical outcomes. The Neuro Emotional Technique (NET), a branch of Chiropractic, was designed to address the biopsychosocial aspects of acute and chronic conditions including non-musculoskeletal conditions. Anecdotally, it has been suggested that ADHD may be managed effectively by NET. Design/methods A placebo controlled, double blind randomised clinical trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of NET on a cohort of children with medically diagnosed ADHD. Children aged 5–12 years who met the inclusion criteria were randomised to one of three groups. The control group continued on their existing medical regimen and the intervention and placebo groups had the addition of the NET and sham NET protocols added to their regimen respectively. These two groups attended a clinical facility twice a week for the first month and then once a month for six months. The Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales (CRS) were used at the start of the study to establish baseline data and then in one month and in seven months time, at the conclusion of the study. The primary outcome measures chosen were the Conners' ADHD Index and Conners' Global Index. The secondary outcome measures chosen were the DSM-IV: Inattentive, the DSM-IV:Hyperactive-Impulsive, and the DSM-IV:Total subscales from the Conners' Rating Scales, monitoring changes in inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity

  5. Overcoming barriers to effective early parenting interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): parent and practitioner views

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E; Koerting, J; Latter, S; Knowles, M M; McCann, D C; Thompson, M; Sonuga-Barke, E J

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of early intervention approaches for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been increasingly acknowledged. Parenting programmes (PPs) are recommended for use with preschool children with ADHD. However, low ‘take-up’ and high ‘drop-out’ rates compromise the effectiveness of such programmes within the community. Methods This qualitative study examined the views of 25 parents and 18 practitioners regarding currently available PPs for preschool children with ADHD-type problems in the UK. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to identify both barriers and facilitators associated with programme access, programme effectiveness, and continued engagement. Results and conclusions Many of the themes mirrored previous accounts relating to generic PPs for disruptive behaviour problems. There were also a number of ADHD-specific themes. Enhancing parental motivation to change parenting practice and providing an intervention that addresses the parents' own needs (e.g. in relation to self-confidence, depression or parental ADHD), in addition to those of the child, were considered of particular importance. Comparisons between the views of parents and practitioners highlighted a need to increase awareness of parental psychological barriers among practitioners and for better programme advertising generally. Clinical implications and specific recommendations drawn from these findings are discussed and presented. PMID:24814640

  6. Personal recovery in individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD) and co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Linda M; Verkerk-Tamminga, Roeliene; Goossens, Peter J J; van den Brink, Wim; van Achterberg, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The process of personal recovery in people diagnosed with substance use disorder and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was mapped. Four general themes representing four consecutive stages in the recovery process were identified in both client groups: (1) crisis and diagnosis; (2) dealing with agitation, symptoms, and burden; (3) reorganization of life; and (4) meaningful life. However, the personal recovery outcomes and the need for support were different for the two clients groups. Based on these findings, mental health nurses can offer recovery supporting care tailored to the challenging needs of these clients. For the SUD+ADHD group, overall, a coaching attitude is preferred. For the SUD+ASD group, overall, instructional, supportive and directive attitude is needed. PMID:26165980

  7. Parenting in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)☆

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Charlotte; Mash, Eric J.; Miller, Natalie; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Although the validity of adult ADHD is well established and research has identified a variety of impairments associated with the condition in adults, study of how ADHD impacts an adult’s ability to parent has been relatively neglected. Parenting is a particularly important domain of functioning given the familial nature of the disorder and emerging evidence that parenting behaviors play a role in the development or maintenance of child ADHD symptoms, comorbid psychopathologies, and other associated difficulties. In this paper, we focus on three broad categories of cognitive dysfunction proposed across models of ADHD — cognitive processes (e.g., working memory, planning, and inhibitory control), self-regulation deficits (e.g., self-monitoring of performance to detect errors or the need for regulation of behavior and/or emotions), and motivational or arousal difficulties (e.g., response to incentives, delay aversion). We consider how these deficits may lead to impairments in the parenting behaviors of effective behavioral control and emotional responsiveness, and review the available evidence regarding parenting in adults with ADHD symptoms. We conclude by noting the limitations in existing studies, and argue for further research that is theoretically grounded in how core deficits of ADHD may be related to dimensions of parenting. The implications of an improved understanding of how ADHD impacts parenting for the development of early intervention or prevention programs are outlined. PMID:22459785

  8. A Follow-Up Study of Maternal Expressed Emotion Toward Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Relation With Severity and Persistence of ADHD and Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jennifer S.; Vásquez, Alejandro Arias; Rommelse, Nanda N.J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with conflicted parent–child relationships. The underlying mechanisms of this association are not yet fully understood. We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between externalizing psychopathology in children with ADHD, and expressed emotion (EE; warmth and criticism) and psychopathology in mothers. Method In this 6-year follow-up study 385 children with an ADHD combined subtype were included at baseline (mean=11.5 years, 83.4% male), of which 285 children (74%) were available at follow-up (mean=17.5 years, 83.5% male). At both time points, measures of child psychopathology (i.e., ADHD severity, oppositional, and conduct problems), maternal EE, and maternal psychopathology (i.e., ADHD and affective problems) were obtained. Results EE was not significantly correlated over time. At baseline, we found a nominally negative association (p≤.05) between maternal warmth and child ADHD severity. At follow-up, maternal criticism was significantly associated with child oppositional problems, and nominally with child conduct problems. Maternal warmth was nominally associated with child oppositional and conduct problems. These associations were independent of maternal psychopathology. No longitudinal associations were found between EE at baseline and child psychopathology at follow-up, or child psychopathology at baseline and EE at follow-up. Conclusions The results support previous findings of cross-sectional associations between parental EE and child psychopathology. This, together with the finding that EE was not stable over six years, suggests that EE is a momentary state measure varying with contextual and developmental factors. EE does not appear to be a risk factor for later externalizing behavior in children with ADHD. PMID:24565358

  9. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Guimarães, Rachel Silvany Quadros; Jagersbacher, João Gabriel; Barretto, Thiago Lima; de Jesus-Silva, Jéssica Regina; Santos, Samantha Nunes; Argollo, Nayara; Lucena, Rita

    2016-06-01

    Studies investigating the possible benefits of transcranial direct current stimulation on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been performed. This study assesses the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD on neuropsychological tests of visual attention, visual and verbal working memory, and inhibitory control. An auto-matched clinical trial was performed involving transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD, using SNAP-IV and subtests Vocabulary and Cubes of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III). Subjects were assessed before and after transcranial direct current stimulation sessions with the Digit Span subtest of the WISC-III, inhibitory control subtest of the NEPSY-II, Corsi cubes, and the Visual Attention Test (TAVIS-3). There were 9 individuals with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) criteria. There was statistically significant difference in some aspects of TAVIS-3 tests and the inhibitory control subtest of NEPSY-II. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be related to a more efficient processing speed, improved detection of stimuli, and improved ability to switch between an ongoing activity and a new one. PMID:26879095

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bokor, Gyula; Anderson, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological condition of childhood onset with the hallmarks of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Inattention includes excessive daydreaming, disorganization, and being easily distracted. Impulsivity manifests as taking an action before fully thinking of the consequences. Hyperactivity includes an excessive rate of speech and motor activity. Complications of ADHD include academic failure, low self-esteem, poor work performance, substance abuse, criminal justice issues, and social problems. ADHD is predominately due to decreased activity in the frontal lobe. Dopamine and norepinephrine are the main neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Pharmacological treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, α2 agonists, bupropion, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most effective medications are the psychostimulants. Nonpharmacological treatment of ADHD includes coaching, providing structure, academic accommodations, and work accommodations. PMID:25092688

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

  12. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac…

  13. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  14. Beyond symptom control for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what can parents do to improve outcomes?

    PubMed

    Tarver, J; Daley, D; Sayal, K

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its associated behavioural manifestations develop and progress as the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Parents exert a substantial influence and play a major role in their child's social environment. Despite this, recent evidence has suggested that adapting the child's environment via parenting interventions has minimal effects on child ADHD symptoms when analysing data from informants who are probably blind to treatment allocation. However, adverse parenting and family environments may act as a source of environmental risk for a number of child outcomes beyond ADHD symptoms. This is a narrative review that critically discusses whether parenting interventions are beneficial for alternative functioning outcomes in ADHD including neuropsychological, academic and social functioning and disruptive behaviour and how parenting and familial environments may be associated with these outcomes. In addition, the review explores how parental depression and parenting efficacy impact on capacity for optimal parenting and whether parenting interventions benefit parents too. A review of the evidence suggests that with modification, parenting interventions are beneficial for a number of outcomes other than ADHD symptom reduction. Improving the parent-child relationship may have indirect benefits for disruptive behaviour. Furthermore, parenting behaviours may directly benefit child neuropsychological, academic and social functioning. Parenting interventions can have therapeutic benefits for parents as well as children, which is important as parent and child well-being is likely to have a transactional relationship. Evaluation of the clinical success of parenting interventions should focus on a wider range of outcomes in order to aid understanding of the multifaceted benefits that they may be able to offer. Parenting interventions should not be seen as a redundant adjunct to medication in multi-modal treatment

  15. Functional Properties of Rare Missense Variants of Human CDH13 Found in Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mavroconstanti, Thegna; Johansson, Stefan; Winge, Ingeborg; Knappskog, Per M.; Haavik, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The CDH13 gene codes for T-cadherin, a GPI-anchored protein with cell adhesion properties that is highly expressed in the brain and cardiovascular system. Previous studies have suggested that CDH13 may be a promising candidate gene for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aims of this study were to identify, functionally characterize, and estimate the frequency of coding CDH13 variants in adult ADHD patients and controls. We performed sequencing of the CDH13 gene in 169 Norwegian adult ADHD patients and 63 controls and genotyping of the identified variants in 641 patients and 668 controls. Native and green fluorescent protein tagged wild type and variant CDH13 proteins were expressed and studied in CHO and HEK293 cells, respectively. Sequencing identified seven rare missense CDH13 variants, one of which was novel. By genotyping, we found a cumulative frequency of these rare variants of 2.9% in controls and 3.2% in ADHD patients, implying that much larger samples are needed to obtain adequate power to study the genetic association between ADHD and rare CDH13 variants. Protein expression and localization studies in CHO cells and HEK293 cells showed that the wild type and mutant proteins were processed according to the canonical processing of GPI-anchored proteins. Although some of the mutations were predicted to severely affect protein secondary structure and stability, no significant differences were observed between the expression levels and distribution of the wild type and mutant proteins in either HEK293 or CHO cells. This is the first study where the frequency of coding CDH13 variants in patients and controls is reported and also where the functional properties of these variants are examined. Further investigations are needed to conclude whether CDH13 is involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD or other conditions. PMID:23936508

  16. Functional properties of rare missense variants of human CDH13 found in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients.

    PubMed

    Mavroconstanti, Thegna; Johansson, Stefan; Winge, Ingeborg; Knappskog, Per M; Haavik, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The CDH13 gene codes for T-cadherin, a GPI-anchored protein with cell adhesion properties that is highly expressed in the brain and cardiovascular system. Previous studies have suggested that CDH13 may be a promising candidate gene for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aims of this study were to identify, functionally characterize, and estimate the frequency of coding CDH13 variants in adult ADHD patients and controls. We performed sequencing of the CDH13 gene in 169 Norwegian adult ADHD patients and 63 controls and genotyping of the identified variants in 641 patients and 668 controls. Native and green fluorescent protein tagged wild type and variant CDH13 proteins were expressed and studied in CHO and HEK293 cells, respectively. Sequencing identified seven rare missense CDH13 variants, one of which was novel. By genotyping, we found a cumulative frequency of these rare variants of 2.9% in controls and 3.2% in ADHD patients, implying that much larger samples are needed to obtain adequate power to study the genetic association between ADHD and rare CDH13 variants. Protein expression and localization studies in CHO cells and HEK293 cells showed that the wild type and mutant proteins were processed according to the canonical processing of GPI-anchored proteins. Although some of the mutations were predicted to severely affect protein secondary structure and stability, no significant differences were observed between the expression levels and distribution of the wild type and mutant proteins in either HEK293 or CHO cells. This is the first study where the frequency of coding CDH13 variants in patients and controls is reported and also where the functional properties of these variants are examined. Further investigations are needed to conclude whether CDH13 is involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD or other conditions. PMID:23936508

  17. The Association Between Youth Violence Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in a Sample of Fifth-Graders

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Terri; Elliott, Marc N.; Toomey, Sara L.; Cuccaro, Paula; Emery, Susan Tortolero; Schwebel, David C.; Visser, Susanna N.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls. PMID:26460708

  18. The association between youth violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of fifth-graders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; Schwebel, David C; Elliott, Marc N; Visser, Susanna N; Toomey, Sara L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero Emery, Susan; Banspach, Stephen W; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between violence exposures (no exposure, witness or victim only, and both witness and victim) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as well as the potential moderating role of gender. Data from 4,745 5th graders and their primary caregivers were drawn from the Healthy Passages study of adolescent health. Parent respondents completed the DISC Predictive Scales for ADHD, and youth provided information about exposure to violence. Results indicated that youth who reported both witnessing and victimization had more parent-reported ADHD symptoms and were more likely to meet predictive criteria for ADHD. Among those with both exposures, girls exhibited a steeper increase in ADHD symptoms and higher probability of meeting predictive criteria than did boys. Findings indicate that being both victim-of and witness-to violence is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms particularly among girls. PMID:26460708

  19. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26502205

  20. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Ptáček, R; Kuželová, H; Papežová, H; Stěpánková, T

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child diagnosis with frequent comorbidities (Quinn, 2008). According to present studies eating disorders may represent one of them (Mikami et al., 2008). Several studies reported ADHD relation to the higher predisposition to obesity (Altafas, 2002), higher values of signs of overnutrition, as body mass index (Waring and Lapane, 2008) or higher value of fat (Ptacek et al., 2009a, c). These characteristics are considered to be directly related to the disorder. They can be caused by impulsivity and probable specific feeding customs of ADHD patients. The presence of eating disorders in ADHD patients could partially explain previously described growth and weight changes. PMID:20946717

  2. Effects of delayed reinforcers on the behavior of an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje; Kvande, Grethe

    2005-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), affecting 3-5% of grade-school children, is a behavioral disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It has been suggested that the symptoms are caused by altered reinforcement and extinction processes, behaviorally described as an abnormally short and steep delay-of-reinforcement gradient in ADHD. The present study tested predictions from the suggested shortened and steepened delay gradient in ADHD in an animal model, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). It was predicted that SHR responding during baseline would mainly consist of responses with short inter-response times, and that responding would be more rapidly reduced in the SHR than in the controls by the introduction of a time interval between the response and reinforcer delivery. Effects of a resetting delay of reinforcement procedure with water as the reinforcer were tested on two baseline reinforcement schedules: variable interval 30 s (VI 30 s) and conjoint variable interval 60 s differential reinforcement of high rate 1s (VI 60 s DRH 1 s). The results showed a higher rate of responses in the SHR than in the controls during baseline, mainly consisting of responses with short inter-response times. The statistical analyses showed that response rates decreased more rapidly as a function of reinforcer delay in the SHR than in the controls. The analyses of the estimates of the reinforcer decay parameter showed no strain differences during the VI 30 s schedule but showed a significant strain difference at the end, but not at the start, of the sessions during the VI 60 s DRH 1 s schedule. In general, the results support predictions from the suggested steepened delay gradient in SHR. However, the predictions were only partly confirmed by the analyses of the decay parameter. PMID:15922066

  3. Critique of the Article by Visser and Jehan (2009): "ADHD--A Scientific Fact or a Factual Opinion? A Critique of the Veracity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to evaluate and take further the discussion put forward by Visser and Jehan ("Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties" 14, no. 2: 127-40). It begins by focusing on the biomedical discourse, its dominance in the academic and professional literature and why the existence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a…

  4. Does Maternal Warmth Moderate the Effects of Birth Weight on Twins' Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms and Low IQ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Lucy A.; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The moderating effect of maternal warmth on the association between low birth weight and children's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ was studied in 2,232 twins. Half of 5-year-old children had low birth weights, below 2,500 g. Maternal warmth, a component of expressed emotion, was coded from mothers' audiotaped…

  5. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities. PMID:26365689

  6. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) in children with ADHD (n=32) and typically developing controls (n=34), using a novel emotion task with four conditions: negative induction, negative suppression, positive induction, and positive suppression of affect. Both groups showed strong task-response effects in RSA. However, typically developing children showed systematic variation in parasympathetic activity (RSA) depending on both emotion valence (more activation for negative emotion, reduced activation for positive emotion) and task demand (more activation for suppression than induction). In contrast, children with ADHD displayed a stable pattern of elevated parasympathetic activity (RSA) across all task conditions compared to baseline. No group differences in sympathetic activity (PEP) were observed. It is concluded ADHD in childhood is associated with abnormal parasympathetic mechanisms involved in emotion regulation. PMID:21394506

  7. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD. PMID:24787685

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, Mark L

    2006-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. For diagnosis, the clinician needs to establish the presence of ADHD on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria requiring information from parents and teachers and considering both alternative diagnoses and co-occurring conditions. In the treatment of ADHD as a chronic illness, the clinician needs to educate the family about the condition and partner with them about treatment decisions. The 2 treatments with demonstrated efficacy for ADHD are medications (stimulant medications and a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibiter) and behavior-modification programs. PMID:17178358

  9. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah; Woltering, Steven; Mawjee, Karizma; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1), in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD. Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males) with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students' self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1-2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ) and executive functioning (BDEFS). Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47), and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66). The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63) and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74). Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores. Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current symptoms of

  10. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful. PMID:26529403

  11. Nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in an adult rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Spitzer, Alexander; Watterson, Lucas R; Brackney, Ryan J; Zavala, Arturo R; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased risk of tobacco dependence. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, appears to be implicated in ADHD-related tobacco dependence. However, the behavioral responsiveness to nicotine of the prevalent animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), is currently underinvestigated. The present study examined the activational effects of acute and chronic nicotine on the behavior of adult male SHRs, relative to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) controls. Experiment 1 verified baseline strain differences in open-field locomotor activity. Experiment 2 tested for baseline strain differences in rotational behavior using a Rotorat apparatus. Adult SHR and WKY rats were then exposed to a 7-day regimen of 0.6mg/kg/d s.c. nicotine, or saline, prior to each assessment. A separate group of SHRs underwent similar training, but was pre-treated with mecamylamine, a cholinergic antagonist. Nicotine sensitization, context conditioning, and mecamylamine effects were then tested. Baseline strain differences were observed in open-field performance and in the number of full rotations in the Rotorat apparatus, but not in the number of 90° rotations or direction changes. In these latter measures, SHRs displayed weaker nicotine-induced rotational suppression than WKYs. Both strains expressed nicotine-induced sensitization of rotational activity, but evidence for strain differences in sensitization was ambiguous; context conditioning was not observed. Mecamylamine reversed the effects of nicotine on SHR performance. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced aversion to nicotine (expressed in rats as robust locomotion) may facilitate smoking among adults with ADHD. PMID:27363925

  12. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  13. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  14. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  15. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Differential Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Warren A.; Emslie, Graham J.

    This paper presents information on the diagnostic criteria and management of disorders that may be wrongly identified as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or may coexist with ADHD thus complicating identification and treatment. The disorders discussed are: depression, mania, primary disorder of vigilance, narcolepsy, developmental…

  17. Symbolic dynamics of heart rate variability - a promising tool to investigate cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Farsky, Ivan; Mestanik, Michal; Visnovcova, Zuzana; Mestanikova, Andrea; Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate complex cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using heart rate variability (HRV) nonlinear analysis - symbolic dynamics. We examined 29 boys with untreated ADHD and 25 healthy boys (age 8-13 years). ADHD symptoms were evaluated by ADHD-RS-IV scale. ECG was recorded in 3 positions: baseline supine position, orthostasis, and clinostasis. Symbolic dynamics indices were used for the assessment of complex cardiac sympathovagal regulation: normalised complexity index (NCI), normalised unpredictability index (NUPI), and pattern classification measures (0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%). The results showed that HRV complexity was significantly reduced at rest (NUPI) and during standing position (NCI, NUPI) in ADHD group compared to controls. Cardiac-linked sympathetic index 0V% was significantly higher during all posture positions and cardiovagal index 2LV% was significantly lower to standing in boys suffering from ADHD. Importantly, ADHD symptom inattention positively correlated with 0V%, and negatively correlated with NCI, NUPI. Concluding, symbolic dynamics revealed impaired complex neurocardiac control characterised by potential cardiac beta-adrenergic overactivity and vagal deficiency at rest and to posture changes in boys suffering from ADHD that is correlated with inattention. We suggest that symbolic dynamics indices could represent promising cardiac biomarkers in ADHD. PMID:26963175

  18. Expert recommendation: contributions to clinical practice of the new prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Alda, José A; Soutullo, César; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Quintero, Javier; Hervás, Amaia; Hernández-Otero, Isabel; Sans-Fitó, Anna; Cardo-Jalón, Esther Cardo-Jalón; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Fernández-Pérez, Maximino; Hidalgo-Vicario, M Inés; Eddy-Ives, Lefa S; Sánchez, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobiological disorders in childhood, and is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsiveness, with an estimated prevalence of 5.29%. ADHD can have a negative impact upon all areas of the life of the patient. The main clinical guides accept multimodal treatment, involving both pharmacological and psychological measures, as the best management approach in ADHD (psychoeducational, behavioural and academic). Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a new drug for the treatment of ADHD. A multidiscipline expert document has been developed, compiling the scientific evidence referred to this new molecule. The study also addresses the existing shortcomings in current drug therapy for ADHD and the contributions of LDX to routine clinical practice, in an attempt to help and guide physicians in the use of this new treatment. This document is endorsed by the ADHD and Psychoeducational Development task Group of the Spanish Society of Primary Care Pediatrics (Grupo de TDAH y Desarrollo Psicoeducativo de la Asociación Española de Pediatría de Atención Primaria, AEPap), the Spanish Society of Pediatric Neurology (Sociedad Española de Neurología Pediátrica, SENEP) and the Spanish Society of Out-hospital Pediatrics and Primary Care (Sociedad Española de Pediatría Extrahospitalaria y Atención Primaria, SEPEAP). PMID:25644658

  19. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account.

    PubMed

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ODD/CD, studies were classified in hot and cool executive functioning (EF). Both the meta-analytic and narrative reviews showed evidence of smaller brain structures and lower brain activity in individuals with ODD/CD in mainly hot EF-related areas: bilateral amygdala, bilateral insula, right striatum, left medial/superior frontal gyrus, and left precuneus. Evidence was present in both structural and functional studies, and irrespective of the presence of ADHD comorbidity. There is strong evidence that abnormalities in the amygdala are specific for ODD/CD as compared to ADHD, and correlational studies further support the association between abnormalities in the amygdala and ODD/CD symptoms. Besides the left precuneus, there was no evidence for abnormalities in typical cool EF related structures, such as the cerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Resulting areas are associated with emotion-processing, error-monitoring, problem-solving and self-control; areas associated with neurocognitive and behavioural deficits implicated in ODD/CD. Our findings confirm the involvement of hot, and to a smaller extent cool, EF associated brain areas in ODD/CD, and support an integrated model for ODD/CD (e.g. Blair, Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 865-891, 2005). PMID:26846227

  20. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement. PMID:24942100

  1. Behavioral effects of intra-cranial self-stimulation in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje

    2005-07-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by inappropriate levels of activity, attention, and impulsivity, has been suggested to be caused by changes in reinforcement and extinction processes possibly linked to dysfunctioning dopamine systems. The present study investigated reinforcement processes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of ADHD. Using intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS), behavioral effects of varying current intensity, reinforcer density, and reinforcer delay were tested. Current was varied in order to find the weakest current producing the maximal response rate (optimal current) in the SHR and the controls during high (120 reinforcers/min) and low reinforcer densities (1 reinforcer/min). The results showed that optimal current was significantly lower in the SHR than in the controls during high reinforcer density while maximal response rates were not significantly different. During low reinforcer density, optimal current was not significantly different in the two strains, but maximal response rate was significantly higher in the SHR than in the controls. The SHR produced more responses during the testing of reinforcer density, but changes in reinforcer density affected response rates similarly in the two strains. The decrease in response rate as a function of reinforcer delay was more pronounced in the SHR than in the controls. Overall, more responses with short inter-response times (IRT) were found in the SHR compared to the controls during intermittent reinforcement. The results are consistent with a steepened delay-of-reinforcement gradient in SHR. PMID:15922065

  2. Hyperactivity persists in male and female adults with ADHD and remains a highly discriminative feature of the disorder: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptoms of hyperactivity are believed to fade with age leaving ADHD adults mostly inattentive and impulsive. Our aim was to test this assertion using objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Method Participants were 40 subjects with ADHD (23M/17F; 35±10 yrs) and 60 healthy adults (28M/32F; 29±9 yrs) blindly assessed using Wender-Reimherr interview ratings, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and DSM-IV criteria. Infrared motion capture systems tracked head and leg movements during performance of a No-4’s cognitive control task. Subjects also completed the Conners’ CPT-II. Results ADHD and controls differed significantly in activity and attention. Effect sizes for activity measures (d’ = 0.7–1.6) were, on average, two-fold larger than differences in attention or impulsivity, correlated more strongly with executive function ratings and were more discriminatory (ROC area = 0.83 for activity composite, 0.65 for No-4’s distraction composite, 0.63 for Conners’ CPT-II confidence index, 0.96 for the combined activity and attention diagnostic index). This finding was true for subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype as well as subjects with combined or predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Males and females with ADHD were equally active. The superior accuracy of activity measures was confirmed using Random Forest and predictive modeling techniques. Conclusions Objectively measured hyperactivity persists in adults with ADHD and is a more discriminative feature of the disorder than computerized measures of inattention or impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that a deficient ability to sit still remains a defining feature of the disorder in adults when it is measured objectively. PMID:23134619

  3. Change over time in adolescent and friend alcohol use: Differential associations for youth with and without childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Pedersen, Sarah L; King, Kevin M; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems by adulthood. However, few studies have examined contextual factors that may contribute to this risk. The current study examined 1 widely investigated social-contextual risk factor, friend alcohol use, in a sample of adolescents with and without a history of ADHD. One hundred and 59 adolescents (14-17 years old) with childhood ADHD and 117 demographically similar youth without ADHD were interviewed annually in the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study. Adolescents reported the frequency of their own alcohol use in the prior 12 months and the number of friends who used alcohol regularly or occasionally (perceived friend alcohol use). Multiple-group parallel process models indicated that increases in friend alcohol use were more strongly associated with increases in adolescent alcohol use over time for individuals with ADHD (r = .15, SE = 0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.08, 0.22]) than for those without ADHD (r = .06, SE = 0.03; 95% CI [0.00, 0.11]). These results suggest that social factors are an important part of escalating alcohol use among adolescents with ADHD histories, and they highlight the possibility that interventions focused on the peer context could be important for these at-risk youth. Additional social network research on adolescent alcohol use within the larger context of other relationships (e.g., family and romantic relationships) is indicated. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26437359

  4. Slower extinction of responses maintained by intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje

    2005-07-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show performance deficits and excessive motor activity during extinction and in situations where no reinforcer can be identified, suggesting an extinction deficit in ADHD possibly linked to dopamine dysfunction. The present study examined extinction of responding previously maintained by intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of ADHD using three different extinction procedures. Delivery of electrical pulses were terminated altogether or presented independently of responding using two different current intensities. The results showed that more responses were retained in the SHR, especially during the initial transition from ICSS-maintained responding to response-independent delivery of electrical pulses with current reduced relative to that given during reinforcement. Slower extinction of previously reinforced behavior is suggested as an alternative explanation for the frequently observed increased behavioral output that has previously been interpreted as "disinhibition" of behavior in ADHD. PMID:15922064

  5. Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Finding an Answer to ADHD as an Adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... education, social and family situations and relationships, employment, self-esteem, and emotional health. It is never too late ... tasks. It can also address feelings of low self-esteem and help adults with ADHD gain confidence, as ...

  6. Written Expression Performance in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBono, Tony; Hosseini, Armita; Cairo, Cassandra; Ghelani, Karen; Tannock, Rosemary; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined written expression performance in a sample of adolescents with ADHD and subthreshold ADHD using two different strategies: examining performance on standardized measures of written expression and using other indicators of written expression developed in this study. We examined associations between standardized measures of written…

  7. Nonstimulant therapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Waxmonsky, James G

    2005-01-01

    While stimulant medications are the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD across the lifespan, a subset of patients with ADHD do not experience significant symptom relief from stimulants or can not tolerate effective stimulant doses. Psychosocial therapies, particularly behavioral modification techniques, should be considered for children with ADHD and oppositional behaviors, while Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) may be a helpful adjunct for adolescents and adults with ADHD. Among the nonstimulant medications, atomoxetine (Strattera) is the only the FDA approved option. It has been found to be efficacious for the entire spectrum of ADHD symptoms in both children and adults. However, daily compliance is essential, and it may take several weeks to achieve full therapeutic effect. Other nonstimulants that have been used to treat ADHD include bupropion (Wellbutrin), the alpha-2 agonists guanfacine (Tenex) and clonidine (Catapres) as well as the tricylic antidepressants. Modafinil (Provigil) is actively being studied for the treatment of pediatric ADHD, and there has been some preliminary studies assessing the efficacy of cholinergic agents for ADHD. Recently, there has been increasing interest in combining nonstimulant therapies with stimulants to further enhance treatment effects. However, more controlled data on the safety and efficacy of combining pharmacological therapies are needed. PMID:16222911

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) neurofeedback as a treatment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Anna-Maria; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Furdea, Adrian; Holtmann, Martin; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Rothenberger, Aribert; Gevensleben, Holger; Freitag, Christine M.; Fuchsenberger, Yvonne; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Strehl, Ute

    2015-01-01

    In this pilot study near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) neurofeedback was investigated as a new method for the treatment of Attention Deficit-/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Oxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of children with ADHD was measured and fed back. 12 sessions of NIRS-neurofeedback were compared to the intermediate outcome after 12 sessions of EEG-neurofeedback (slow cortical potentials, SCP) and 12 sessions of EMG-feedback (muscular activity of left and right musculus supraspinatus). The task was either to increase or decrease hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex (NIRS), to produce positive or negative shifts of SCP (EEG) or to increase or decrease muscular activity (EMG). In each group nine children with ADHD, aged 7–10 years, took part. Changes in parents’ ratings of ADHD symptoms were assessed before and after the 12 sessions and compared within and between groups. For the NIRS-group additional teachers’ ratings of ADHD symptoms, parents’ and teachers’ ratings of associated behavioral symptoms, childrens’ self reports on quality of life and a computer based attention task were conducted before, 4 weeks and 6 months after training. As primary outcome, ADHD symptoms decreased significantly 4 weeks and 6 months after the NIRS training, according to parents’ ratings. In teachers’ ratings of ADHD symptoms there was a significant reduction 4 weeks after the training. The performance in the computer based attention test improved significantly. Within-group comparisons after 12 sessions of NIRS-, EEG- and EMG-training revealed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms in the NIRS-group and a trend for EEG- and EMG-groups. No significant differences for symptom reduction were found between the groups. Despite the limitations of small groups and the comparison of a completed with two uncompleted interventions, the results of this pilot study are promising. NIRS-neurofeedback could be a time-effective treatment for ADHD and an

  9. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  10. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  11. A simple behavioral paradigm to measure impulsive behavior in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pitna; Choi, Inha; Pena, Ike Campomayor Dela; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Kyung Ja; Park, Jin Hee; Han, Seol-Heui; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2012-01-01

    Impulsiveness is an important component of many psychiatric disorders including Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurobiological basis of ADHD is unresolved, behavioral tests in animal models have become indispensable tools for improving our understanding of this disorder. In the punishment/extinction paradigm, impulsivity is shown by subjects that persevere with responding despite punishment or unrewarded responses. Exploiting this principle, we developed a new behavioral test that would evaluate impulsivity in the most validated animal model of ADHD of the Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) as compared with the normotensive "control" strain, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). In this paradigm we call the Electro-Foot Shock aversive water Drinking test (EFSDT), water-deprived rats should pass over an electrified quadrant of the EFSDT apparatus to drink water. We reasoned that impulsive animals show increased frequency to drink water even with the presentation of an aversive consequence (electro-shock). Through this assay, we showed that the SHR was more impulsive than the WKY as it demonstrated more "drinking attempts" and drinking frequency. Methylphenidate, the most widely used ADHD medication, significantly reduced drinking frequency of both SHR and WKY in the EFSDT. Thus, the present assay may be considered as another behavioral tool to measure impulsivity in animal disease models, especially in the context of ADHD. PMID:24116285

  12. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. PMID:26072341

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Strategies for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Johnny R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses classroom strategies used with students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methods for controlling the ADHD child's behavior, and the need for consistency and collaboration between the school and home. (Author/JDD)

  14. The association of Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition system among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia

    2016-09-30

    The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies. PMID:27449004

  15. Assessment and Intervention Practices for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A National Survey of School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borick, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined school psychologists' assessment and intervention practices regarding ADHD. Five hundred school psychologists who practiced in a school setting and were regular members of the National Association of School Psychologists were randomly selected to complete and return a questionnaire titled Assessment and Intervention Practices…

  16. The Increased Risk of Road Crashes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Adult Drivers: Driven by Distraction? Results from a Responsibility Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    El Farouki, Kamal; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Orriols, Ludivine; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Contrand, Benjamin; Galéra, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Both distractions (external and internal) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are serious risk factors for traffic crashes and injuries. However, it is still unknown if ADHD (a chronic condition) modifies the effect of distractions (irregular hazards) on traffic crashes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of distractions and ADHD on traffic crash responsibility. Methods A responsibility case-control study was conducted in the adult emergency department of Bordeaux University Hospital, France. Subjects were recruited among drivers injured in a motor vehicle crash between April 2010 and August 2011. Responsibility levels were estimated using a standardized method. Frequencies of exposures were compared between drivers responsible and drivers not responsible for the crash. Independent risk factors were identified using a multivariate logistic regression including test interactions between distractions and ADHD. Results A total of 777 subjects were included in the analysis. Factors associated with responsibility were distraction induced by an external event (adjusted OR (aOR)  = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.06–2.05]), distraction induced by an internal thought (aOR = 2.38; CI: [1.50–3.77]) and ADHD (aOR = 2.18 CI: [1.22–3.88]). The combined effect of ADHD and external distractions was strongly associated with responsibility for the crash (aOR = 5.79 CI: [2.06–16.32]). Interaction assessment showed that the attributable proportion due to the interaction among participants with both exposures was 68%. Discussion Adults with ADHD are a population at higher risk of being responsible for a road traffic crash when exposed to external distractions. This result reinforces the need to diagnose adult ADHD and to include road safety awareness messages delivered by the physician. Developing advanced driver assistance systems devoted to the management of attention lapses is also

  17. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  18. Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Retz, Wolfgang; Ringling, Jutta; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Vogelgesang, Monika; Rösler, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent mental disorder with childhood onset and high persistence into adulthood. There is much evidence that ADHD increases the risk for the development of other psychiatric disorders and functional problems in several domains of everyday life. In this study, the association of ADHD with gambling disorder (GD) was investigated. 163 adult subjects suffering from GD were examined for childhood and current ADHD according to DSM-5 as well as co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Moreover, characteristics of gambling behavior have been evaluated. The prevalence of lifetime ADHD was 28.8 %, with 25.2 % of the study population presenting ADHD as a full syndrome according to DSM-5. The prevalence of co-morbid substance use disorders and adjustment disorders and cluster B personality disorders was higher in GD patients with current ADHD than in the group without. Also, an increased rate of suicide attempts was detected in gamblers with ADHD. In contrast with gamblers without ADHD, those with ADHD were reported to spend more time with gambling, a sedative effect of gambling and a faster development of GD. The high prevalence of ADHD in patients with GD indicates that childhood ADHD is a risk factor for the development of GD in later life. Moreover, treatment of patients with GD and ADHD is complicated by a high rate of co-morbid disorders. Regarding therapeutic approaches, it should be considered that functional aspects of gambling differ in GD patients with and without ADHD. PMID:27328979

  19. Parental Involvement Moderates Etiological Influences on Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Behaviors in Child Twins

    PubMed Central

    Nikolas, Molly A; Klump, Kelly; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Although few would now contest the presence of gene x environment (GxE) effects in the development of child psychopathology, it remains unclear how these effects manifest themselves. Alternative GxE models have been proposed (i.e., diathesis-stress, differential susceptibility, bio-ecological), each of which has notably different implications for etiology. Child twin studies present a powerful tool for discriminating between these models. The current study examined whether and how parental involvement moderated etiological influences on ADHD within 500 twin pairs aged 6–11 years. Results indicated moderation of genetic and non-shared environmental contributions to ADHD by parental involvement, and moreover, suggested both differential susceptibility and bio-ecological models of GxE. Results highlight the utility of child twin samples in testing different manifestations of GxE effects. PMID:25263271

  20. Do parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) receive adequate information about the disorder and its treatments? A qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rana; Borst, Jacqueline M; Yong, Cheng Wei; Aslani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent pediatric neurodevelopmental condition, commonly treated using pharmacological agents such as stimulant medicines. The use of these agents remains contentious, placing parents in a difficult position when deciding to initiate and/or continue their child’s treatment. Parents refer to a range of information sources to assist with their treatment decision-making. This qualitative study aimed to investigate 1) parents’ ADHD-related knowledge pre- and post-diagnosis, 2) the information sources accessed by parents, 3) whether parents’ information needs were met post-diagnosis, and 4) parents’ views about strategies to meet their information needs. Methods Three focus groups (n=16 parents), each lasting 1.0–1.5 hours were conducted. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using the framework method, coded, and categorized into themes. Results Generally, parents had limited ADHD-related knowledge prior to their child’s diagnosis and perceived prescription medicines indicated for ADHD in a negative context. Parents reported improved knowledge after their child’s diagnosis; however, they expressed dissatisfaction with information that they accessed, which was often technical and not tailored to their child’s needs. Verbal information sought from health care professionals was viewed to be reliable but generally medicine-focused and not necessarily comprehensive. Parents identified a need for concise, tailored information about ADHD, the medicines used for its treatment, and changes to their child’s medication needs with age. They also expressed a desire for increased availability of support groups and tools to assist them in sourcing information from health care professionals during consultations, such as question prompt lists. Conclusion There are gaps in parents’ knowledge about ADHD and its treatment, and an expressed need for

  1. Working memory deficits in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): An examination of orthographic coding and episodic buffer processes.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Patros, Connor H G; Hudec, Kristen L; Tarle, Stephanie J; Lea, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    The episodic buffer component of working memory was examined in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing peers (TD). Thirty-two children (ADHD = 16, TD = 16) completed three versions of a phonological working memory task that varied with regard to stimulus presentation modality (auditory, visual, or dual auditory and visual), as well as a visuospatial task. Children with ADHD experienced the largest magnitude working memory deficits when phonological stimuli were presented via a unimodal, auditory format. Their performance improved during visual and dual modality conditions but remained significantly below the performance of children in the TD group. In contrast, the TD group did not exhibit performance differences between the auditory- and visual-phonological conditions but recalled significantly more stimuli during the dual-phonological condition. Furthermore, relative to TD children, children with ADHD recalled disproportionately fewer phonological stimuli as set sizes increased, regardless of presentation modality. Finally, an examination of working memory components indicated that the largest magnitude between-group difference was associated with the central executive. Collectively, these findings suggest that ADHD-related working memory deficits reflect a combination of impaired central executive and phonological storage/rehearsal processes, as well as an impaired ability to benefit from bound multimodal information processed by the episodic buffer. PMID:24830472

  2. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Charmaine B.; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n = 7024) were included in the analysis. Parents/guardians reported the presence of a bedroom TV and average weekday TV screen time. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models assessed the effects of a bedroom on screen time. Results Youth with ADD/ADHD engaged in screen time with an average of 149.1 min/weekday and 59% had a TV in their bedroom. Adjusting for child and family characteristics, having a TV in the bedroom was associated with 25 minute higher daily screen time (95% CI: 12.8–37.4 min/day). A bedroom TV was associated with 32% higher odds of engaging in screen time for over 2 h/day (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7). Conclusion Future research should explore whether removing TVs from bedrooms reduces screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. PMID:25599016

  3. Influence of a Latrophilin 3 (LPHN3) risk haplotype on event-related potential measures of cognitive response control in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Dresler, Thomas; Reif, Andreas; Jacob, Christian P.; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Muenke, Maximilian; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Current research strategies have made great efforts to further elucidate the complex genetic architecture of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the impact of an LPHN3 haplotype that has recently been associated with ADHD (Arcos-Burgos et al., 2010) on neural activity in a visual Go-NoGo task. Two hundred sixteen adult ADHD patients completed a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) while the ongoing EEG was simultaneously recorded. Results showed that patients carrying two copies of the LPHN3 risk haplotype (n=114) made more omission errors and had a more anterior Go-centroid of the P300 than patients carrying at least one LPHN3 non-risk haplotype (n=102). Accordingly, the NoGo-Anteriorization (NGA; topographical ERP difference of the Go- and NoGo-condition), a neurophysiological marker of prefrontal functioning, was reduced in the LPHN3 high risk group. However, in the NoGo-condition itself no marked differences attributable to the LPHN3 haplotype could be found. Our findings indicate that, within a sample of ADHD patients, the LPHN3 gene impacts behavioral and neurophysiological measures of cognitive response control. The results of our study further strengthen the concept of an LPHN3 risk haplotype for ADHD and support the usefulness of the endophenotype approach in psychiatric and psychological research. PMID:23245769

  4. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  5. A Pilot Study of Stimulant Medication for Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Who Are Parents of Adolescents with ADHD: The Acute Effects of Stimulant Medication on Observed Parent–Adolescent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Waxmonsky, James G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Humphrey, Hugh; Alfonso, Alexandra; Crum, Kathleen I.; Bernstein, Melissa; Slavec, Janine; Augustus, Junea N.; Pelham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study explores the use of stimulant medication for parents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who also have adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Five parents, diagnosed with ADHD, had their dose of lisdexamfetamine (LDX) titrated to optimal effect. Next, parents and their adolescents completed two interactions, once when parents were on placebo and once when parents were on optimal dose of LDX, to assess acute effects of parental medication on parenting during a neutral discussion (NeuDiss), a problem discussion (ProbDiss), and a homework task (HW). Results: Parents demonstrated a significant decrease in the ratio of commands to total verbalizations during the NeuDiss on LDX compared with placebo. Although no other statistically significant effects emerged at the p<0.05 level, moderate to large effects of medication on some aspects of parenting related to the amount and timing of speech (i.e., total verbalizations, total commands, ratio of commands to total verbalizations, and responsiveness) emerged and varied by task. Parental stimulant medication did not appear to impact the content of parents' speech (i.e., use of negative talk or praise). Conclusions: These results add to a growing literature suggesting that treatment for parental ADHD may impact parenting performance, and suggest that attention to parental ADHD in treatment for adolescents with ADHD may possibly enhance family functioning. PMID:25386742

  6. Non-pharmacological interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) delivered in school settings: systematic reviews of quantitative and qualitative research.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Michelle; Moore, Darren A; Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Rogers, Morwenna; Whear, Rebecca; Newlove-Delgado, Tamsin V; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Christopher; Taylor, Eric; Cooper, Paul; Stein, Ken; Garside, Ruth; Ford, Tamsin J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by age-inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. School can be particularly challenging for children with ADHD. Few reviews have considered non-pharmacological interventions in school settings. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions delivered in school settings for pupils with, or at risk of, ADHD and to explore the factors that may enhance, or limit, their delivery. DATA SOURCES Twenty electronic databases (including PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Education Resources Information Centre, The Cochrane Library and Education Research Complete) were searched from 1980 to February-August 2013. Three separate searches were conducted for four systematic reviews; they were supplemented with forward and backwards citation chasing, website searching, author recommendations and hand-searches of key journals. REVIEW METHODS The systematic reviews focused on (1) the effectiveness of school-based interventions for children with or at risk of ADHD; (2) quantitative research that explores attitudes towards school-based non-pharmacological interventions for pupils with ADHD; (3) qualitative research investigating the attitudes and experiences of children, teachers, parents and others using ADHD interventions in school settings; and (4) qualitative research exploring the experience of ADHD in school among pupils, their parents and teachers more generally. Methods of synthesis included a random-effects meta-analysis, meta-regression and narrative synthesis for review 1, narrative synthesis for review 2 and meta-ethnography and thematic analysis for reviews 3 and 4. RESULTS For review 1, 54 controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. For the 36 meta-analysed randomised controlled trials, beneficial effects (p < 0.05) were observed for several symptom and scholastic outcomes. Mean weighted effect sizes ranged from

  7. Alternative treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Arnold, L E

    2001-06-01

    A previous review of alternative treatments (Tx) of ADHD--those other than psychoactive medication and behavioral/psychosocial Tx--was supplemented with an additional literature search focused on adults with ADHD. Twenty-four alternative Tx were identified, ranging in scientific documentation from discrediting controlled studies through mere hypotheses to positive controlled double-blind clinical trials. Many of them are applicable only to a specific subgroup. Although oligoantigenic (few-foods) diets have convincing double-blind evidence of efficacy for a properly selected subgroup of children, they do not appear promising for adults. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization, relaxation/EMG biofeedback, and deleading also have controlled evidence of efficacy. Iron supplementation, magnesium supplementation, Chinese herbals, EEG biofeedback, massage, meditation, mirror feedback, channel-specific perceptual training, and vestibular stimulation all have promising prospective pilot data, many of these tests reasonably controlled. Single-vitamin megadosage has some intriguing pilot trial data. Zinc supplementation is hypothetically supported by systematic case-control data, but no systematic clinical trial. Laser acupuncture has promising unpublished pilot data and may be more applicable to adults than children. Essential fatty acid supplementation has promising systematic case-control data, but clinical trials are equivocal. RDA vitamin supplementation, non-Chinese herbals, homeopathic remedies, and antifungal therapy have no systematic data in ADHD. Megadose multivitamin combinations are probably ineffective for most patients and are possibly dangerous. Simple sugar restriction seems ineffective. Amino acid supplementation is mildly effective in the short term, but not beyond 2-3 months. Thyroid treatment is effective in the presence of documented thyroid abnormality. Some alternative Tx of ADHD are effective or probably effective, but mainly for certain patients. In some

  8. Transition to adult mental health services for young people with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a qualitative analysis of their experiences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little research on the process of transition between child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and adult mental health services (AMHS). More recently, there is growing recognition that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may persist into adulthood requiring services beyond age 18. However, despite National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Guidance which recommends specialist services for adults with ADHD, there is currently a lack of such services in the UK. The aim of the current study is to explore the experiences of young people with ADHD during transition from CAMHS to AMHS. Method Semi-structured qualitative interviews with ADHD patients accessing CAMHS clinics in Nottinghamshire were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Ten semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analysed. We found that patients’ relationships with their clinician were a key factor in both their reported experience of CAMHS and the transition process. Perceived responsibility of care was also pivotal in how the transition process was viewed. Nature and severity of problems and patients expectations of adult services were also contributing factors in the transition process. The need for continued parental support was openly accepted and thought to be required by the majority of young people with ADHD during transition. Conclusions Timely preparation, joint working, good clinician relationships and parental support serve to facilitate the process of transition for young people with ADHD. Nature and severity of problems are perceived to impede or facilitate transition, with predominantly more ‘complex presentations’ with associated mental health problems more familiar to AMHS (e.g. self-harm, depression) making for smoother transitions to adult services. Transitions to AMHS were more difficult when ADHD was viewed as the main or sole clinical problem. Further exploration of young people’s experiences of transition

  9. Gene by environment interactions influencing reading disability (RD) and the inattentive symptom dimension of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Jenni; Pennington, Bruce F.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background RD and ADHD are comorbid and genetically correlated, especially the inattentive dimension of ADHD (ADHD-I). However, previous research indicates that RD and ADHD enter into opposite gene by environment (GxE) interactions. Methods This study used behavioral genetic methods to replicate these opposite GxE interactions in a sample of same-sex MZ and DZ twin pairs from the Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center (CLDRC; DeFries et al., 1997) and to test a genetic hypothesis for why these opposite interactions occur. Results We replicated opposite GxE interactions for RD (bioecological) and ADHD-I (diathesis-stress) with parental education in the same sample of participants. The genetic hypothesis for this opposite pattern of interactions is that only genes specific to each disorder enter into these opposite interactions, not the shared genes underlying their comorbidity. To test this hypothesis, we used single models with an exploratory three-way interaction, in which the GxE interactions for each disorder were moderated by comorbidity. Neither three-way interaction was significant. The heritability of RD did not vary as a function of parental education and ADHD-I. Similarly, the heritability of ADHD-I did not vary as a function of parental education and RD. Conclusions We documented opposite GxE interactions in RD and ADHD-I in the same overall twin sample, but the explanation for this apparent paradox remains unclear. Examining specific genes and more specific environmental factors may help resolve the paradox. PMID:21884522

  10. A Longitudinal Twin Study on the Association between Inattentive and Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greven, Corina U.; Asherson, Philip; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Plomin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    DSM-IV distinguishes two symptom domains of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity. The present study examines the aetiologies and developmental relations underlying the associations between inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity over time, based on a representative population sample…

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Decade of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Sharyn

    This guide to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is organized in three parts which address understanding the problem, getting help, and sustaining hope. A question-and-answer format addresses the following topics: symptoms of ADHD; other conditions which may produce similar symptoms; other disorders which may accompany ADHD; causes of…

  12. Cognitive Improvement of Attention and Inhibition in the Late Afternoon in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treated With Osmotic-Release Oral System Methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Slama, Hichem; Fery, Patrick; Verheulpen, Denis; Vanzeveren, Nathalie; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Long-acting medications have been developed and approved for use in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These compounds are intended to optimize and maintain symptoms control throughout the day. We tested prolonged effects of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate on both attention and inhibition, in the late afternoon. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 36 boys (7-12 years) with ADHD and 40 typically developing children. The ADHD children received an individualized dose of placebo or osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate. They were tested about 8 hours after taking with 2 continuous performance tests (continuous performance test-X [CPT-X] and continuous performance test-AX [CPT-AX]) and a counting Stroop. A positive effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate was present in CPT-AX with faster and less variable reaction times under osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate than under placebo, and no difference with typically developing children. In the counting Stroop, we found a decreased interference with osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate but no difference between children with ADHD under placebo and typically developing children. PMID:25296928

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  14. Professor Perceptions of College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Teresa Ann; Weyandt, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: From April to June 2005, the authors investigated professor perceptions of college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants: 253 participants completed the ADHD Beliefs Survey-Revised, a 40-question survey measuring professor perceptions of ADHD. Methods: Analysis of variance measured false and…

  15. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Early Identification Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fewell, Rebecca R.

    A major aim of this study was to determine if Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) type behaviors observed at the age of 30 months in low birth weight children are predictive of ADHD and school difficulties at 5 and 8 years of age. Three major questions were addressed: (1) Do children who exhibit ADHD characteristics at 30 months differ…

  17. Peer Victimization in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Mak, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This study explored peer victimization in 9- to 14-year-old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 104 children, 52 of whom had a previous ADHD diagnosis. Children with ADHD had higher overall rates of self-reported victimization by peers and parent- and teacher-reported bullying behavior…

  18. Prospective observational study protocol to investigate long-term adverse effects of methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD: the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) study

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, S K; Carucci, S; Garas, P; Häge, A; Banaschewski, T; Buitelaar, J K; Dittmann, R W; Falissard, B; Hollis, C; Kovshoff, H; Liddle, E; McCarthy, S; Nagy, P; Neubert, A; Rosenthal, E; Sonuga-Barke, E; Wong, I; Zuddas, A; Coghill, D C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. Following concerns about its safety, the European Commission called for research into the long-term effects of methylphenidate on children and adolescents with ADHD. The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) research programme was designed to address this call. At the heart of this programme is a 2-year longitudinal naturalistic pharmacovigilance study being conducted in 27 European sites. Methods and analysis 3 cohorts of children and adolescents (aged 6–17) living in the UK, Germany, Italy and Hungary are being recruited: Group 1 (Medicated ADHD): 800 ADHD medication-naive children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD about to start methylphenidate treatment for the first time. Group 2 (Unmedicated ADHD): 400 children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD who have never been treated with ADHD medication and have no intention of beginning medication. Group 3 (Non-ADHD): 400 children and adolescents without ADHD who are siblings of individuals in either group 1 or 2. All participants will be assessed 5 times during their 2-year follow-up period for growth and development, psychiatric, neurological and cardiovascular health. The primary outcome measure will be the height velocity SD score. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study has been granted by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Following this approval, patient information leaflets and consent forms were translated as necessary and submissions made by lead sites in each of the other 3 countries to their own ethics committees. Following ethical approval in each country, local ethical permissions at each site were sought and obtained as needed. The study's website (http://www.adhd-adduce.org/page/view/2/Home) provides information for researchers, participants and the general

  19. Impact of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on prescription dug spending for children and adolescents: increasing relevance of health economic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Schlander, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background During the last decade, pharmaceutical spending for patients with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been escalating internationally. Objectives First, to estimate future trends of ADHD-related drug expenditures from the perspectives of the statutory health insurance (SHI; Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung, GKV) in Germany and the National Health Service (NHS) in England, respectively, for children and adolescents age 6 to 18 years. Second, to evaluate the budgetary impact on individual prescribers (child and adolescent psychiatrists and pediatricians treating patients with ADHD) in Germany. Methods A model was developed to predict plausible scenarios of future pharmaceutical expenditures for treatment of ADHD. Model inputs were derived from demographic and epidemiological data, a literature review of past spending trends, and an analysis of new pharmaceutical products in development for ADHD. Only products in clinical development phase III or later were considered. Uncertainty was addressed by way of scenario analysis. For each jurisdiction, five scenarios used different assumptions of future diagnosis prevalence, treatment prevalence, rates of adoption and unit costs of novel drugs, and treatment intensity. Results Annual ADHD pharmacotherapy expenditures for children and adolescents will further increase and may exceed €310 m (D; E: ₤78 m) in 2012 (2002: ~€21.8 m; ~₤7.0 m). During this period, overall drug spending by individual physicians may increase 2.3- to 9.5-fold, resulting from the multiplicative effects of four variables: increased number of diagnosed cases, growing acceptance and intensity of pharmacotherapy, and higher unit costs of novel medications. Discussion Even for an extreme low case scenario, a more than six-fold increase of pharmaceutical spending for children and adolescents is predicted over the decade from 2002 to 2012, from the perspectives of both the NHS in England and the GKV in Germany. This budgetary

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD. PMID:19497749

  1. Use of Digital Console Game for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Tsung-Yen; Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chih

    2010-01-01

    ADHD or ADD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is one of the most frequently diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders of children. Children with ADHD are characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Although there is no "cure" for ADHD, there are accepted treatments that specifically…

  2. Learning disabilities and ADHD: overlapping spectrumn disorders.

    PubMed

    Mayes, S D; Calhoun, S L; Crowell, E W

    2000-01-01

    Clinical and psychoeducational data were analyzed for 119 children ages 8 to 16 years who were evaluated in a child diagnostic clinic. A learning disability (LD) was present in 70% of the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a learning disability in written expression two times more common (65%) than a learning disability in reading, math, or spelling. Children with LD and ADHD had more severe learning problems than children who had LD but no ADHD, and the former also had more severe attention problems than children who had ADHD but no LD. Further, children with ADHD but no LD had some degree of learning problem, and children with LD but no ADHD had some degree of attention problem. Results suggest that learning and attention problems are on a continuum, are interrelated, and usually coexist. PMID:15495544

  3. [Prevention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Quintero, J; Martin, M; Alcindor, P; Perez-Templado, J

    2016-02-21

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins at an early age and can be present until adulthood. Subjects with ADHD not only have symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity or hyperactivity but also have their social and emotional areas affected. In addition, they have an associated increased risk for presenting comorbilities with other psychiatric disorders, overshadowing the development. Considering ADHD as a evolutionary risk factor, prevention should be considered as a primary goal. Most preventive actions on ADHD have been focused on tertiary prevention. The present review aims to study the factors involved in the development of ADHD in order to form a prevention model beyond tertiary prevention. This research focuses on models of primary prevention (early detection of disease) and secondary prevention (to prevent or delay the disease), trying to incorporate them into daily practice. This study reviews risk factors that affect ADHD. Through actions aimed to pursue an early detection, development of the disorder could be improved, and by identifying population at risk, efforts could be concentrated on developing a true primary prevention (perinatal period and early childhood) that eventually could contribute to reduce the incidence of ADHD. PMID:26922966

  4. Parental Involvement in Children's Learning: Comparing Parents of Children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Maria A.; Wiener, Judith; Marton, Imola; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined involvement in children's learning among parents of 101 children between 8 and 12 years of age (53 parents of children with ADHD, 48 parents of children without ADHD). Compared to parents of children without ADHD, parents of children with ADHD reported lower self-efficacy in their ability to help their children, felt…

  5. Atomoxetine Treatment for Pediatric Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with Comorbid Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Daniel; Donnelly, Craig; Lopez, Frank; Rubin, Richard; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Sutton, Virginia; Bakken, Rosalie; Paczkowski, Martin; Kelsey, Douglas; Sumner, Calvin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests 25% to 35% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have comorbid anxiety disorders. This double-blind study compared atomoxetine with placebo for treating pediatric ADHD with comorbid anxiety, as measured by the ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator Administered and Scored…

  6. Sleep Patterns in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    Background: In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder (TD), and their coexistence (ADHD + TD comorbidity) are very common and clinically important. Associated sleep patterns and their clinical role are still insufficiently investigated. This study aimed at characterizing these sleep patterns in children with ADHD,…

  7. Differentiating Attention Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Ramage, Barbara; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The attention and inhibition problems found in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also common in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Attempts to distinguish ADHD from FASDs in terms of these deficits are rare and were pursued in this study. Method: A total of 116 children (47 with ADHD, 31…

  8. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  9. [Methylphenidate use in dogs with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A case report of a Weimaraner bitch].

    PubMed

    Piturru, P

    2014-04-16

    A 10-month-old Weimaraner bitch was presented at the practice exhibiting agitation, hyperactivity, inability to learn and attention deficit. The diagnostic findings were excessive, long-lasting acoustic and locomotory activity with unexpected inappropriate reactions. Hematological and biochemical blood analyses did not demonstrate abnormal findings. The first attempts at behavioral therapy and fluoxetine application were unsatisfactory. Therefore, a test was conducted with medication for central nervous system stimulation to confirm a diagnosis of hyperkinesis. Following the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the therapy was continued with behavioral modifications, with special consideration of rehabituation and resocialization as well as the use of methylphenidate. During the course of the therapy the bitch developed hyperactivity again when on heat. After changing the dosage of methylphenidate and additionally using dog appeasing pheromone, the behavior of the bitch became normal after 8 days. Two months later endoscopic ovarioectomy was performed. Twelve months after the initial use of methylphenidate the medication could be discontinued completely and the dog's behavior was normal. The methylphenidate dosage used during this therapy was much higher than recommended in the literature. PMID:24737187

  10. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the ‘Acting in Awareness’ dimension perhaps due to shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence. PMID:19681107

  11. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shaywitz, B A; Fletcher, J M; Shaywitz, S E

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter we have reviewed the diagnosis and management of attention deficit disorder, focusing particularly on the role of stimulant therapy in ADHD. Hisorical review suggests that ADHD has roots that extend back almost a century. The definition of ADHD is based on inclusion and exclusion criteria that are established by history and reflect behavioral concerns. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disorder affecting the child's home, school, and community life. The primary symptoms of the disorder manifest a developmental pattern: activity diminishes while attentional deficits persist. Major sources of concern are the secondary and often more resistant problems of learning difficulties, behavioral problems, lack of peer acceptance, and low self-esteem. An often frustrating and perplexing characteristic of the disorder is its marked variability-over time, across situations, and within the same child and similar situations. Educational management represents an important priority and often forms the cornerstone of all other therapies, nonpharmacologic or pharmacologic. Cognitive-behavioral therapies represent the most widely used alternative to pharmacotherapy. Although the effects of CBT alone are disappointing, recent studies suggest that such therapies may provide a useful adjunct to pharmacotherapy and may be helpful when children are tapered off medication. Psychotherapy, or a combination of psychotherapy and medication (termed multimodality therapy), may also be useful. Pharmacotherapy for ADHD originated almost 60 years ago, and at this time the ameliorative effects of medications in ADHD are well established. The general skepticism of experienced clinicians, coupled with a climate where parents are reluctant to medicare children, serves to limit their use except where indicated. Although the effects of stimulants on attention and activity seem well established, effects on cognition, conduct, and social behavior are more controversial

  12. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetected feigned ADHD such as substantial costs covered by society for unnecessary assessments and treatments, unjustified occupation of limited medical resources and undermining society's trust in the existence of the disorder or the effectiveness of treatment. In times of economic crisis and cost savings in the medical sector, the detection of feigned ADHD is of importance. This review briefly describes the research on this topic with an emphasis on the approaches available for detection of feigned ADHD (i.e., self-report questionnaires, personality inventories, cognitive tests used in routine neuropsychological assessment and tests specifically designed for detecting feigned cognitive dysfunction). Promising approaches and measures are available for identifying feigned ADHD but there is an immediate need for further research. PMID:25096370

  13. Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning. PMID:27229276

  14. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

  15. Using the test of variables of attention to determine the effectiveness of modafinil in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a prospective methylphenidate-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Goez, Helly R; Scott, Ori; Nevo, Neta; Bennett-Back, Odeya; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of modafinil in comparison with methylphenidate in treatment of pediatric attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been thoroughly investigated. This study compared the effect of modafinil versus methylphenidate on continuous attention task in children with ADHD, using the Test of Variables of Attention. Twenty-eight participants completed a baseline test followed by administration of a single dose of either methylphenidate or modafinil, after which the test was repeated. The test was performed a third time, after each subject received a dose of the medication not previously administered. Comparison of scores showed mean baseline, postmethylphenidate, and postmodafinil scores of -2.04, 0.017, and 0.09, respectively. No difference was found between improvements observed with either medication (P < .05). Adverse events for both agents were mild and self-limited, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hyposomnia. The authors conclude that modafinil is as effective as methylphenidate; however, a larger scale long-term study is required to confirm these results. PMID:22447850

  16. CHIP: Defining a dimension of the vulnerability to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using sibling and individual data of children in a community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Curran, Sarah; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Martin, Neilson; Marusic, Katja; Asherson, Philip; Taylor, Eric; Sham, Pak

    2003-05-15

    We are taking a quantitative trait approach to the molecular genetic study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using a truncated case-control association design. An epidemiological sample of children aged 5 to 15 years was evaluated for symptoms of ADHD using a parent rating scale. Individuals scoring high or low on this scale were selected for further investigation with additional questionnaires and DNA analysis. Data in studies like this are typically complicated. In the study reported on here, individuals have from 1 to 4 questionnaires completed on them and the sample is composed of a mixture of singletons and siblings. In this paper, we describe how we used a genetic hierarchical model to fit our data, together with a twin dataset, in order to estimate genetic factor loadings. Correlation matrices were estimated for our data using a maximum likelihood approach to account for missing data. We describe how we used these results to create a composite score, the heritability of which was estimated to be acceptably high using the twin dataset. This score measures a quantitative dimension onto which molecular genetic data will be mapped. PMID:12707944

  17. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  18. Sequential Pharmacotherapy for Children with Comorbid Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity and Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard; McGough, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; McCracken, James; Davies, Mark; Walkup, John; Riddle, Mark; Oatis, Melvin; Greenhill, Laurence; Skrobala, Anne; March, John; Gammon, Pat; Robinson, James; Lazell, Robert; McMahon, Donald J.; Ritz, Louise

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by clinically significant anxiety, but few empirical data guide treatment of children meeting full DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and anxiety disorders (ADHD/ANX). This study examined the efficacy of sequential pharmacotherapy for ADHD/ANX children. Method: Children, age 6…

  19. ADHD: Not Just a Childhood Disorder--A Discussion of Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, William

    2008-01-01

    While many people tend to think of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a childhood problem, at least two-thirds of children with ADHD maintain symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity into adulthood. This article presents the fifth of a 10-part series exploring ADHD. The author provides some background…

  20. Objectively-Measured Impulsivity and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Testing Competing Predictions from the Working Memory and Behavioral Inhibition Models of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiker, Joseph S.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is a hallmark of two of the three DSM-IV ADHD subtypes and is associated with myriad adverse outcomes. Limited research, however, is available concerning the mechanisms and processes that contribute to impulsive responding by children with ADHD. The current study tested predictions from two competing models of ADHD--working memory (WM)…

  1. Cardiovascular safety of methylphenidate among children and young people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): nationwide self controlled case series study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ju-Young; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Park, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether treatment with methylphenidate in children and young people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was associated with cardiovascular events. Design Self controlled case series analysis. Setting Nationwide health insurance database, 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2011, in South Korea. Participants 1224 patients aged ≤17 who had experienced an incident cardiovascular event and had had at least one incident prescription for methylphenidate. Main outcome measures A recorded diagnosis (either a primary or secondary cause) of any of the following cardiovascular adverse events: arrhythmias (ICD-10 (international classification of diseases, 10th revision) codes I44, I45, I47, I48, I49), hypertension (codes I10-I15), myocardial infarction (code I21), ischemic stroke (code I63), or heart failure (code I50). Incidence rate ratios were calculated with conditional Poisson regression and adjusted for time varying comorbidity and comedication. Results Increased risk of arrhythmia was observed in all exposed time periods—that is, periods of treatment with methylphenidate—(incidence rate ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 1.74), and the risk was highest in the children who had congenital heart disease. No significant risk of myocardial infarction was observed for all exposed time periods (1.33, 0.90 to 1.98), though risk was higher in the early risk periods between eight and 56 days after the start of treatment with methylphenidate. No significant increased risk was observed for hypertension, ischemic stroke, or heart failure. Conclusion The relative risk of myocardial infarction and arrhythmias is increased in the early period after the start of methylphenidate treatment for ADHD in children and young people. Though the absolute risk is likely to be low, the risk-benefit balance of methylphenidate should be carefully considered, particularly in children with mild ADHD. PMID:27245699

  2. Early Identification and Systemic Educational Intervention for Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandau, Hannes; Pretis, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the international experience with early identification and intervention for children with AD/HD. Much less is known about AD/HD in two- to five-year-old preschool children than is known for older school-aged youngsters. Despite this lack of knowledge, AD/HD is increasingly recognized in this population and stimulant…

  3. Comorbidity in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takashi; Takahashi, Osamu; Kawamura, Yuuichi; Ohta, Tatsuro

    2003-10-01

    Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been noted for its high rate of comorbidity. The present study is the first report in Japan evaluating the proportion of comorbidity in ADHD cases presenting in the clinical setting, aiming at clarifying the picture of ADHD in Japan. The subjects consisted of 68 child and adolescent cases meeting criteria for ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn) under treatment at a child psychiatry clinic (IQ > 50, mental age >or= 4 years old). Disorders evaluated as comorbid disorders were mood disorders, anxiety disorders, elimination disorders, sleep disorders, tic disorders, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), school refusal, and epilepsy. Comorbidity with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, ODD, and CD, were found to be lower than the high rates conventionally reported in North America. The lower age of the present subjects, primarily in infancy and elementary school age with few adolescent cases, and a bias towards milder cases from an outpatient clinic without inpatient facilities are believed to be factors accounting for this disparity. Furthermore, it was a notable fact that mentally delayed cases (IQ: 51-84) amounted to 34% of the cases, indicating the necessity to consider intelligence level when formulating a treatment strategy for ADHD. PMID:12950698

  4. Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Collaborative Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillingford-Butler, M. Ann; Theodore, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The school setting can be a difficult place for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The core symptoms of ADHD, which include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, make meeting the curriculum demands of the classroom challenging. That ADHD negatively impacts not only academic performance but also social and…

  5. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  6. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Conveys Familial Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder through Striatal Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Fossella, John A.; Mulder, Martijn J.; Casey B. J.; Ziermans, Tim B.; Vessaz, M. Nathalie; Van Engeland, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the effect of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results confirm that DAT1 translates the genetic risk of ADHD through striatal activation.

  7. Childhood Maltreatment and Conduct Disorder: Independent Predictors of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders in Youth with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Sanctis, Virginia A.; Trampush, Joey W.; Harty, Seth C.; Marks, David J.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment and later substance use disorders (SUDs). We investigated the relationship of childhood maltreatment and other risk factors to SUDs among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Eighty adolescents diagnosed with ADHD when they were 7 to 11…

  8. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset <7 years, n=147) and late-onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment. PMID:26318976

  9. [Language and executive functioning skills of students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and in reading comprehension difficulties (RCD)].

    PubMed

    Miranda Casas, Ana; Fernández Andrés, María Inmaculada; García Castellar, Rosa; Roselló Miranda, Belén; Colomer Diago, Carla

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the specificity of deficits in linguistic and executive functioning of students with ADHD and with RCD and to determine the profile of deficits in the comorbid group (ADHD+RCD). Participants in the study were 84 students, ages 12-16 years divided into four groups with an equal number of subjects (N= 21): ADHD, RCD, ADHD+RCD and comparison group (without ADHD and without RCD). We measured vocabulary, oral comprehension, lexical access, verbal and visual working memory, inhibition and attention. The results show that the ADHD+RCD group presents the most important linguistic deficits, followed by the RCD group. On the other hand, the three clinical groups (ADHD, RCD and ADHD+RCD) display greater performance problems in working memory than the comparison group, whereas the two groups with ADHD had more problems in attention and inhibition. These results suggest the dissociation of linguistic and executive deficits that affect the RCD group and ADHD group to a greater extent, respectively. Lastly, the comorbid group showed deficits both in language and in executive skills. We discuss the implications of these findings for designing interventions. PMID:22047859

  10. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rohit; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mathur, Shachi

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of childhood onset characterized by severe, developmentally inappropriate motor hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness that result in impairment in more than one setting. It affects the home, school, and community life of 39% of school-going children worldwide. There is increasing recognition that ADHD symptoms and clinically defined disorder can persist into adult life and are associated with later drug and alcohol misuse and social and work difficulties. Added to that is the extreme variability of the disorder over time, within the same individual, between individuals, and across different circumstances. Treatment with stimulants and nonstimulants has proven effective in different subgroups, with the effectiveness of specific agents most likely related to the primary neurotransmitter involved. However, stimulants with a short duration of action have been problematic for some patients. Parent training and cognitive behavioral therapies represent the most widely adjunct psychosocial interventions to pharmacotherapy. PMID:21977081

  11. Current pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D S

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in children and adults characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. It affects about 3-10% of children and 2-5% of adolescents and adults and occurs about four times more commonly in boys than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it has strong genetic and environment components. The first-line treatment options for ADHD include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy with stimulants or both. Methylphenidate and amphetamine salts are the stimulant drugs of choice for ADHD treatment. Amphetamines act by increasing presynaptic release of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the brain. Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and therefore its pharmacology is identical to that of amphetamines. Lisdex-amfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine with low feasibility for abuse. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an alternative, non-stimulant drug for ADHD but it is less efficacious than stimulants. Stimulants are generally safe but are associated with adverse effects including headache, insomnia, anorexia and weight loss. There is increased awareness about serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with ADHD drugs including concern for growth suppression in children. Stimulants have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and should be handled safely to prevent misuse and abuse. PMID:24191257

  12. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  13. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  14. Competing Core Processes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Do Working Memory Deficiencies Underlie Behavioral Inhibition Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Hudec, Kristen L.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined competing predictions of the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Behavioral inhibition was measured using a conventional stop-signal task, and central executive, phonological, and visuospatial working memory components (Baddeley 2007) were assessed in 14 children with ADHD and 13 typically developing…

  15. Adrenocortical Functioning in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Subtypes of ADHD and Associated Comorbid Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Paul D.; Fortier, Isabel; Utendale, William T.; Simard, Louise R.; Robaey, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function have been associated with varying forms of psychopathology in children. Studies suggesting children with ADHD have blunted HPA function have been complicated by the prevalence of comorbid diagnoses and heterogeneity of ADHD. The goals of this research were to assess the relations…

  16. Brief Report: The Impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms on Academic Performance in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four…

  17. Executive Dysfunctions among Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Performance-Based Test and Parents Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty in executive functions (EF) is a core symptom of ADHD. Yet, the EF assessments are still in controversy. It is still unclear whether the everyday implementation of EF can be assessed under laboratory conditions. Therefore, the purposes of the present study are: (a) to examine EF among boys with ADHD both in everyday behavior (as…

  18. Motor Control and Sequencing of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) During Computer Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Milner, Nikki; West, John; Douglas, Graham; Lawrence, Vivienne; Whiting, Ken; Tannock, Rosemary; Durkin, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The motor control of 49 unmedicated boys clinically diagnosed with ADHD, case-matched with 49 non-ADHD boys, was assessed while playing Crash Bandicoot I, a SonyTM Playstation platform computer video game. In Crash Bandicoot participants control the movements of a small-animated figure through a hazardous jungle environment. Operationally defined…

  19. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  20. Brief report: The impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on academic performance in an adolescent community sample.

    PubMed

    Birchwood, James; Daley, Dave

    2012-02-01

    Less is understood about the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in adolescents than the relationship in younger children. As such, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prospective relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic performance in a community adolescent sample. Three hundred and twenty-four participants, aged 15 and 16, in their final year of compulsory education, completed measures of ADHD, anxiety, depression, and motivation, and a test of general cognitive ability. Participants were also asked for permission for their academic grades to be viewed on a later occasion (approximately 6 months later). In regression analyses, ADHD symptoms were the most significant independent psychopathological predictor of academic performance, and were almost as significant as motivation and cognitive ability. The results suggest that adolescents with more ADHD symptoms are likely to encounter greater academic difficulties. PMID:20880572

  1. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  2. DSM-5 further inflates attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-06-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible harmful consequences of further expansion of this already broad, defined, and inflated DSM category. PMID:22652611

  3. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  4. The Neurological Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Shirley; Bolan, Morna; Burton, Michael; Snyder, Sherry; Pasterczyk-Seabolt, Claire; Martin, Don

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examines the role of neurochemical stimulation and signs of neurological deficits. Describes the chemical action of drugs used to treat ADHD, along with cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects, and side effects. Elaborates on drug treatment and basic behavior modification…

  5. Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

  6. Predicting Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder from Preschool Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Thakar, Dhara A.; Errazuriz, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the power of measures of early preschool behavior to predict later diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 168 children with behavior problems at age 3 who underwent a multimethod assessment of ADHD and ODD symptoms and…

  7. Test of Alternative Hypotheses Explaining the Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Willcutt, Erik G.; Hartman, Christie A.; Pennington, Bruce F.; DeFries, John C.

    2008-01-01

    There is significant comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD). The conclusions of studies that examined the causes of comorbidity between ADHD and CD conflict, with some researchers finding support for the three independent disorders model and others finding support for the correlated risk…

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Childress, Ann C.; Cutler, Andrew J.; Gasior, Maria; Hamdani, Mohamed; Ferreira-Cornwell, M. Celeste; Squires, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) efficacy and safety versus placebo in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Adolescents (13 through 17) with at least moderately symptomatic ADHD (ADHD Rating Scale IV: Clinician Version [ADHD-RS-IV] score greater than or equal to 28) were randomized to…

  9. Associations between Maternal Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Raggi, Veronica L.; Clarke, Tana L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for an ADHD diagnosis themselves, which is likely associated with impairments in parenting. The present study utilized a multi-method assessment of maternal ADHD and parenting to examine the extent to which maternal ADHD symptoms are associated with…

  10. Interaction of Parenting Styles and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iranian Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Andries, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships between parenting styles and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), utilizing a sample of Iranian parents of children with and without ADHD. Results indicate significant relationships between ADHD and parenting styles. There is a negative relationship between having an ADHD child and applying authoritative…

  11. Social Correlates of Bullying in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermanis, Victoria; Wiener, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the levels and social correlates of bullying in adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Sixty-four male and female participants (40 ADHD) and their parents and teachers complete standardized questionnaires. Compared to adolescents without ADHD, adolescents with ADHD are more likely to report…

  12. Teacher Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Middle School Students in South Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Fred R., Jr.; Brown, Michelle S.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the knowledge levels middle school teachers in South Texas have in relation to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study specifically compared teacher knowledge levels among three specific ADHD knowledge areas: (a) general knowledge of ADHD, (b) knowledge of symptoms/diagnosis of ADHD, and (c)…

  13. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Print A A A ... doesn't involve hyperactivity. Symptoms and Signs of ADHD Because ADHD covers lots of different things — attention, ...

  14. Understanding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder From Childhood to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Spencer, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common neurobehavioral disorders presenting for treatment in children and adolescents. ADHD is often chronic with prominent symptoms and impairment spanning into adulthood. ADHD is often associated with co-occurring disorders including disruptive, mood, anxiety, and substance abuse. The diagnosis of ADHD is clinically established by review of symptoms and impairment. The biological underpinning of the disorder is supported by genetic, neuroimaging, neurochemistry and neuropsychological data. Consideration of all aspects of an individual’s life needs to be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Multimodal treatment includes educational, family, and individual support. Psychotherapy alone and in combination with medication is helpful for ADHD and comorbid problems. Pharmacotherapy including stimulants, noradrenergic agents, alpha agonists, and antidepressants plays a fundamental role in the long-term management of ADHD across the lifespan. PMID:20861593

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Allergy: Is There a Link? A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder usually co-occur in the same individuals, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Previous evidence has shown that a frequent coexistence of allergic diseases was noted in patients with ADHD or tic disorder. We attempted to investigate the possible link among ADHD,…

  16. Hyperactivity as a Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Kathleen J.

    While hyperactivity in children has been alternately viewed as a form of minimal brain dysfunction, as a behavior disorder, or as an attention deficit disorder, recent findings on hyperactive adolescents and adults suggest that hyperactivity can be better understood as a personality disorder. Striking similarities appear when characteristics of…

  17. Combined ω3 and ω6 supplementation in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) refractory to methylphenidate treatment: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Perera, Hemamali; Jeewandara, Kamal Chandima; Seneviratne, Sudarshi; Guruge, Chandima

    2012-06-01

    Children (6-12 years) with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) being treated with methylphenidate and standard behavior therapy for more than 6 months, whose parents reported no improvement in behavior and academic learning, were randomly assigned to receive supplementation with a combined ω3 and ω6 preparation or a placebo. Outcome was measured at 3 and 6 months after treatment using a self-assessment checklist completed by the parents. Statistically significant improvement was found in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (P < .01) in the following measures: restlessness, aggressiveness, completing work, and academic performance. Statistically significant improvement was not found at 3 months of treatment between groups but was evident at 6 months of treatment (P < .05) with inattention, impulsiveness, and cooperation with parents and teachers. Distractibility failed to show improvement. Effect sizes ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 at 3 months and 0.2 to 1.4 at 6 months for individual symptom variables. PMID:22596014

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among inmates in Bergen Prison.

    PubMed

    Stokkeland, Lisa; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Waage, Leif; Hansen, Anita L

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether clinical findings are consistent with research indicating a high prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among prison inmates. Forty-three male inmates who were referred for ADHD assessment at the health service in Bergen prison participated. Although most of them reported symptoms in accordance with ADHD both in childhood and adulthood, only 35% of the referred inmates fulfilled the criteria for ADHD when a comprehensive assessment was conducted. The results emphasize the importance of a comprehensive assessment when diagnosing ADHD among prison inmates. PMID:24818657

  19. Psychosocial interventions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: update.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common reason for referral to child and adolescent psychiatry clinics. Although stimulant medications represent an evidence-based approach to managing ADHD, psychosocial interventions for child/adolescent ADHD target functional impairments as the intervention goal, and rely heavily on behavioral therapy techniques and operant conditioning principles. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for managing pediatric ADHD include behavioral parent training, school-based interventions relying on behavioral modification, teaching skills, and operant conditioning principles, and intensive summer treatment programs. The use of conjoint psychosocial treatments with ADHD medications may enable lower doses of each form of treatment. PMID:25455577

  20. Psychopathological Profile in Children with Chronic Tic Disorder and Co-Existing ADHD: Additive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessner, Veit; Becker, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the co-occurrence of chronic tic disorders (CTD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Especially in the field of psychopathology, the relationship of CTD and ADHD remains to be clarified. Thus, the aim of the present chart review study was to specify the contribution of CTD and/or ADHD to the…

  1. Event-Related Potentials in Adolescents with Combined ADHD and CD Disorder: A Single Stimulus Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jing; Li, Jianming; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Qianjin; Livesley, W. John; Jang, Kerry L.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Some studies of the event-related potentials demonstrated a reduction of the voluntary component P3 (P300 or P3b) in youngsters with the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or in conduct disorders (CD), and a reduction of the automatic processing component, mismatch negativity, in patients with both ADHD and CD (ADHD+CD). Recently, a…

  2. Emotional Face Identification in Youths with Primary Bipolar Disorder or Primary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Karen E.; Pescosolido, Matthew F.; Reidy, Brooke L.; Galvan, Thania; Kim, Kerri L.; Young, Matthew; Dickstein, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid or confounded; therefore, we evaluated emotional face identification to better understand brain/behavior interactions in children and adolescents with either primary BD, primary ADHD, or typically developing controls (TDC). Method: Participants…

  3. Parenting Practices and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: New Findings Suggest Partial Specificity of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Brandi; Nigg, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The relation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and parenting practices is examined by assessing 182 children for ADHD and non ADHD status through parent semistructured clinical interview. Results show that maternal inconsistent discipline and paternal low involvement is associated with the disorder.

  4. Working Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Contribution of Central Executive and Subsystem Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Alderson, R. Matt; Kofler, Michael J.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Bolden, Jennifer; Sims, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated contradictory findings from recent experimental and meta-analytic studies concerning working memory deficits in ADHD. Working memory refers to the cognitive ability to temporarily store and mentally manipulate limited amounts of information for use in guiding behavior. Phonological (verbal) and visuospatial…

  5. Conscientiousness as a Mediator of the Association between Masculinized Finger-Length Ratios and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: One often-overlooked biological risk factor that may help explain sex-biased prevalence rates in psychopathology is sex hormones. Personality traits, which also show sex differences, may mediate relations between biological risk factors like hormones and childhood psychopathology such as ADHD (or, alternatively, be independent risk…

  6. Associations between Birth Weight and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptom Severity: Indirect Effects via Primary Neuropsychological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Burt; Healey, Dione M.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD has a range of aetiological origins which are associated with a number of disruptions in neuropsychological functioning. This study aims to examine how low birth weight, a proxy measure for a range of environmental complications during gestation, predicts ADHD symptom severity in preschool-aged children indirectly via neuropsychological functioning. Methods 197 preschool-aged children were recruited as part of a larger longitudinal study. Two neuropsychological factors were derived from NEPSY domain scores. One, referred to as ‘Primary Neuropsychological Function,’ loaded highly with Sensorimotor and Visuospatial scores. The other, termed ‘Higher-Order Function’ loaded highly with Language and Memory domain scores. Executive functioning split evenly across the two. Analyses examined whether these neuropsychological factors allowed for an indirect association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. Results While both factors were associated with symptom severity, only the Primary Neuropsychological Factor was associated with birth weight. Furthermore, birth weight was indirectly associated to symptom severity via this factor. Conclusions These data indicate that birth weight is indirectly associated with ADHD severity via disruption of neuropsychological functions that are more primary in function as opposed to functions that play a higher-order role in utilising and integrating the primary functions. PMID:24795955

  7. The Effects of Yoga on the Attention and Behavior of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Pauline. S.; Kenny, Dianna T.

    2004-01-01

    Boys diagnosed with ADHD by specialist pediatricians and stabilized on medication were randomly assigned to a 20-session yoga group (n = 11) or a control group (cooperative activities; n = 8). Boys were assessed pre- and post-intervention on the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Long (CPRS-R:L & CTRS-R:L; Conners, 1997), the Test…

  8. Developmental trajectories of clinically significant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms from grade 3 through 12 in a high-risk sample: Predictors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sasser, Tyler R; Kalvin, Carla B; Bierman, Karen L

    2016-02-01

    Developmental trajectories of clinically significant attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms were explored in a sample of 413 children identified as high risk because of elevated kindergarten conduct problems. Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity were modeled simultaneously in a longitudinal latent class analyses, using parent reports collected in Grades 3, 6, 9, and 12. Three developmental trajectories emerged: (1) low levels of inattention and hyperactivity (low), (2) initially high but then declining symptoms (declining), and (3) continuously high symptoms that featured hyperactivity in childhood and early adolescence and inattention in adolescence (high). Multinomial logistic regressions examined child characteristics and family risk factors as predictors of ADHD trajectories. Relative to the low class, children in the high and declining classes displayed similar elevations of inattention and hyperactivity in early childhood. The high class was distinguished from the declining class by higher rates of aggression and hyperactivity at school and emotion dysregulation at home. In contrast, the declining class displayed more social isolation at home and school, relative to the low class. Families of children in both high and declining trajectory classes experienced elevated life stressors, and parents of children in the high class were also more inconsistent in their discipline practices relative to the low class. By late adolescence, children in the high class were significantly more antisocial than those in the low class, with higher rates of arrests, school dropout, and unemployment, whereas children in the declining class did not differ from those in the low trajectory class. The developmental and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26854506

  9. Does ADHD Predict Substance-Use Disorders? A 10-Year Follow-up Study of Young Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Martelon, MaryKate; Joshi, Gagan; Bateman, Clancey; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High rates of substance-use disorders (SUD) have been found in samples of adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Predictors of SUD in children with ADHD who are at risk for the development of SUDs remain understudied. The main aims of this study were to identify clinically meaningful characteristics…

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Athletes

    PubMed Central

    White, Russell D.; Harris, George D.; Gibson, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in the general population, and many individuals with this condition participate in sports activity at all competition levels. Evidence Acquisition: Related studies were selected through literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 1991 to 2011. Key search terms were ADD, ADHD, sports, athletes, athletics, guidelines, NCAA, WADA, IOC, college, concussion, diagnosis, management, treatment, evaluation, return-to-play, pharmacotherapy, adult, adolescent, student, screening, injury, risk, neuropsychiatry, TBI, traumatic brain injury, and epidemiology. Study Design: Literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: ADHD usually has an early onset, with delayed diagnosis in some patients due to heterogeneous presentations. Suspected cases can be evaluated with available diagnostic tools and confirmed clinically. Athletes with ADHD may participate at all competition levels. Conclusion: Athletes with ADHD are able to participate at all competition levels by following published guidelines and requirements. Exercise benefits many athletes with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and concussion syndromes is currently under investigation. PMID:24587866

  11. Comparison of Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR) and Beta Training on Selective Attention and Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Trend Report

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Malmir, Nastaran; Khaleghi, Ali; Aminiorani, Majd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the effect of two neurofeedback protocols (SMR/theta and beta/theta) on ADHD symptoms, selective attention and EEG (electroencephalogram) parameters in children with ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 16 children (9-15 year old: 13 boys; 3 girls) with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C). All of children used methylphenidate (MPH) during the study. The neurofeedback training consisted of two phases of 15 sessions, each lasting 45 minutes. In the first phase, participants were trained to enhance sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz) and reduce theta activity (4-8 Hz) at C4 and in the second phase; they had to increase beta (15-18 Hz) and reduce theta activity at C3. Assessments consisted of d2 attention endurance test, ADHD rating scale (parent form) at three time periods: before, middle and the end of the training. EEG signals were recorded just before and after the training. Result: Based on parents’ reports, inattention after beta/theta training, and hyperactivity/impulsivity were improved after the end of the training. All subscales of d2 test were improved except for the difference between maximum and minimum responses. However, EEG analysis showed no significant differences. Conclusion: Neurofeedback in conjunction with Methylphenidate may cause further improvement in ADHD symptoms reported by parents and selective attention without long-term impact on EEG patterns. However, determining the exact relationship between EEG parameters, neurofeedback protocols and ADHD symptoms remain unclear. PMID:26877750

  12. Genetic Support for the Dual Nature of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Substantial Genetic Overlap between the Inattentive and Hyperactive-Impulsive Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Grainne; Ronald, Angelica; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, complex and highly heritable disorder, characterised by inattentive, impulsive and overactive behaviour. Evidence for the heritability of ADHD measures in twin population samples has come from the analysis of total scores that combine inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive…

  13. Mechanism of action of guanfacine: a postsynaptic differential approach to the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd).

    PubMed

    Alamo, Cecilio; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Sánchez-García, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The treatment of ADHD has focused on the use of psychostimulants drugs such as methylphenidate or amphetamine and derivatives, or not stimulants agents, such as atomoxetine. These agents act mainly on catecholaminergic presynaptic mechanisms. Recently the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved another not psychostimulant drug, guanfacine extended release (ER), as a new option to the treatment of ADHD, which acts at postsynaptic level. Guanfacine stimulates postsynaptic alfa-2A adrenergic receptors so it inhibits the production of cAMP and closes HCN channels enhancing the effectiveness of the signal of the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), thus improving working memory and attention. In addition, stimulation of the alpha-2A receptors promotes growth and maturation of the dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons of the medial PFc, that are associated with brain function such as learning and memory. In contrast with psychostimulants or atomoxetine, guanfacine mimics noradrenaline stimulation of postsynaptic receptors alfa-2A on the PFC. PMID:27254403

  14. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  15. Executive dysfunctions among boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): performance-based test and parents report.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Ma'ayan; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty in executive functions (EF) is a core symptom of ADHD. Yet, the EF assessments are still in controversy. It is still unclear whether the everyday implementation of EF can be assessed under laboratory conditions. Therefore, the purposes of the present study are: (a) to examine EF among boys with ADHD both in everyday behavior (as reported by parents) and in a performance-based test. (b) To examine correlations between the two tests. Both the Behavior Assessment of Dysexecutive Functions for Children (BADS-C) and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) were independently applied to 25 boys aged 8-11 years with ADHD and 25 age-matched typical boys. Results of the two assessments were compared between the two groups to indicate differences in EF. Correlations between the two assessments for all participants were evaluated. Overall, significant differences in EF were found between the two groups on both assessments. Significant correlations were found between BADS-C and BRIEF, specifically in metacognition but not in behavioral regulation. Findings indicate that poor EF manifests itself in everyday behavior. These difficulties are found in metacognitive and behavioral regulation components. Nevertheless, applying a valid ecological assessment of behavior regulation merits future research. PMID:22230238

  16. Toward Personalized Smoking-Cessation Treatment: Using a Predictive Modeling Approach to Guide Decisions Regarding Stimulant Medication Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Sean X.; Covey, Lirio S.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R.; Nunes, Edward V.; Winhusen, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) did not show overall benefit as an adjunct smoking cessation treatment for adult smokers with ADHD in a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. A secondary analysis revealed a significant interaction between ADHD symptom severity and treatment-response to OROS-MPH, but did not account for other baseline covariates or estimate the magnitude of improvement in outcome if treatment were optimized. This present study addressed the gaps in how this relationship should inform clinical practice. Methods Using data from the Adult Smokers with ADHD Trial (N = 255, six sites in five US States), we build predictive models to calculate the probability of achieving prolonged abstinence, verified by self-report, and expired carbon monoxide measurement. We evaluate the potential improvement in achieving prolonged abstinence with and without stratification on baseline ADHD severity. Results Predictive modeling demonstrates that the interaction between baseline ADHD severity and treatment group is not affected by adjusting for other baseline covariates. A clinical trial simulation shows that giving OROS-MPH to patients with baseline Adult ADHD Symptom Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) >35 and placebo to those with ADHD-RS ≤35 would significantly improve the prolonged abstinence rate (52 ± 8% vs. 42 ± 5%, p < .001). Conclusions and Scientific Significance In smokers with ADHD, utilization of a simple decision rule that stratifies patients based on baseline ADHD severity can enhance overall achievement of prolonged smoking abstinence. Similar analysis methods should be considered for future clinical trials for other substance use disorders. PMID:25659348

  17. Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)

    PubMed Central

    DIAMOND, ADELE

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being distractible, may instead be easily bored, their problem being more in motivation (under-arousal) than in inhibitory control. Much converging evidence points to a primary disturbance in the striatum (a frontal–striatal loop) in the combined type of ADHD. It is proposed here that the primary disturbance in truly inattentive-type ADHD (ADD) is in the cortex (a frontal–parietal loop). Finally, it is posited that these are not two different types of ADHD, but two different disorders with different cognitive and behavioral profiles, different patterns of comorbidities, different responses to medication, and different underlying neurobiologies. PMID:16262993

  18. Substance Use Disorder and ADHD: Is ADHD a Particularly "Specific" Risk Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousha, Maryam; Shahrivar, Zahra; Alaghband-rad, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the pattern of substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescents with and without history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using an Iranian sample in the context of a cultural background and drug availability is differing from Western countries. Method: In this case-control study, the participants were interviewed…

  19. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Vazirian, Shams; Seyedzadeh, Abolhasan; Rafeie, Mohammad; Salehi, Bahman; Amiri, Mohammad; Ebrahimimonfared, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic disease. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to compare the results with those of healthy children. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted for six months (December 22, 2013 to June 21, 2014) on five to 16-year-old children, visiting the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Amirkabir Hospital, Arak, Iran, and Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 100 children with ESRD who had undergone CAPD for at least six months and 100 healthy children were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV-TR criteria, and was confirmed through consultation by psychologist. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS 18. Results: The ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with CAPD and five controls (5%) (P = 0.01). Moreover, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was observed in 27 cases (27%) with CAPD and seven controls (9%) (P = 0.002). Despite these significant differences, no children were diagnosed with ADHD combined type among all subjects. Conclusions: Inattentive type and hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD are more prevalent in children with ESRD undergoing CAPD. Therefore screening methods for ADHD is necessary in these patients. PMID:25830120

  20. "He's Just Enthusiastic. Is That Such a Bad Thing?" Experiences of Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Ruth; Hennessy, Eilis

    2012-01-01

    Parenting a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a challenging experience. The hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention of a child with ADHD often put parenting skills to the test. The present study thus aimed to explore the experiences of parents of children with ADHD in Ireland. Eighteen parents of 7-12-year-old boys…

  1. Hyperactivity and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... their child has hyperactivity that is part of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or another mental health condition. ... Cunningham N, Jensen P. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. ... eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  2. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Childress, Ann C; Berry, Sally A

    2012-02-12

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioural disorder in children and adolescents, consisting of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. The majority of children with ADHD will continue to experience significant ADHD symptoms as teens. ADHD in adolescents can result in significant functional impairment and poorer quality of life. Children and adolescents with ADHD are at higher risk of developing other psychiatric illnesses such as mood, conduct and substance abuse disorders. Stimulants (amphetamines and methylphenidates) and nonstimulants (atomoxetine, guanfacine extended-release (XR) and clonidine XR) have been found to be effective and are approved by the US FDA for the treatment of ADHD in adolescents in the US. Of the agents approved in the US, only guanfacine XR and clonidine XR are not approved in any other countries. There is growing evidence that treatment of ADHD with stimulants reduces the risk of development of other psychiatric co-morbidities, including substance abuse disorders. To date, all FDA-approved stimulants and nonstimulants that have been adequately studied have been demonstrated to be safe and effective in treating ADHD in both children and adolescents. Therefore, clinical decisions used in selecting pharmacotherapy to treat ADHD in children aged 6-12 years can be applied in the adolescent population. PMID:22316347

  3. Distinct Response Time Distributions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Querne, Laurent; Berquin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To address the issue of response time (RT) profiles in hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI), inattentive (ADHD-IA), and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes of ADHD. We hypothesized that children with ADHD-HI should respond more rapidly than children without ADHD and children with ADHD-IA and ADHD-C should respond more slowly than children without…

  4. Effects of Methylphenidate on Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Erin B.; Klorman, Rafael; Thatcher, Joan E.; Borgstedt, Agneta D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of methylphenidate on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes. Method: Nineteen ADHD/inattentive (ADHD/I) and 22 ADHD/combined (ADHD/C) 6- to 12-year-old children entered a 6-week, double-blind trial of placebo and methylphenidate in divided doses (0.94 [plus or minus] 0.02 mg/kg/day = 33.06 [plus…

  5. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  6. A Weak Association between Traits of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Gambling in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.; Schatz, Nicole K.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been characterized as a comorbidity to pathological gambling (PG). However, contradictory evidence has emerged, and it has not been established whether nonimpulsive features of ADHD (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity) contribute to PG risk, or how robust this relationship is in college samples.…

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced.

    PubMed

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Weissenberger, Simon; Akotia, Devang; Raboch, Jiri; Papezova, Hana; Domkarova, Lucie; Stepankova, Tereza; Goetz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs). In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1) impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2) other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3) poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4) other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from both a historical perspective and the one based on the revealing nature of its comorbidities. PMID:27042070

  8. [GEITDAH consensus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gastaminza-Pérez, X; Catalá, M A; Ruiz-Sanz, F; Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Herreros-Rodríguez, O; García-Giral, M; Ortiz-Guerra, J; Alda-Díez, J A; Mojarro-Práxedes, D; Cantó-Díez, T; Mardomingo-Sanz, M J; Sasot-Llevadot, J; Pàmias, M; Rey-Sánchez, F

    2010-11-16

    In this article, the GEITDAH -the Spanish abbreviation of the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD)- presents a consensus reached by experts in the management of ADHD from all over Spain. The consensus concerns fundamental aspects that should be the starting point for future local or regional consensus guides. Another aim of this consensus is also to reduce the amount of variability that occurs in the health care offered to patients with ADHD in our country, as well as to act as a stimulus in educational matters. That fact that it is not very long will make it more popular among greater numbers of people and this will allow these goals to be reached more effectively. The conclusions in the consensus guide have been constructed around an introduction dealing with basic aspects and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment (both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic), patient flow and organisational aspects. PMID:21069642

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, reading disability, and personality disorders in a prison population.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, K; Almvik, R; Levander, S

    2001-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has long been recognized in children, and for many the disorder persists into adulthood. There is a growing concern that the adults with ADHD who have the least favorable outcome, are among those who end up in prison. The aim of this study was to assess childhood ADHD and its persistence into adulthood among a representative sample of Norwegian prison inmates, as well as personality disorders and reading difficulties, which in previous studies have been linked to ADHD. The results indicate that persistent ADHD is very common among prison inmates. Personality disorders and reading difficulties are also common. Psychiatric comorbidity complicates the diagnosis of ADHD in adults. A greater awareness about ADHD in adults certainly is warranted, especially within the prison system because of the risk of misdiagnosing psychiatric disorders and also the risk of missing a condition possibly amenable to treatment. PMID:11471785

  10. Fluoxetine Monotherapy in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Non-Bipolar Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintana, Humberto; Butterbaugh, Grant J.; Purnell, William; Layman, Ann K.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for developing comorbid non-bipolar mood disorders. Fluoxetine monotherapy is an established treatment for pediatric mood disorders; however its efficacy in ADHD and comorbid mood disorder is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated 30 children who met DSM-IV criteria for…

  11. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brieber, Sarah; Neufang, Susanne; Bruning, Nicole; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fink, Gereon R.; Konrad, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two distinct neurodevelopmental diseases, they share behavioural, neuropsychological and neurobiological characteristics. For the identification of endophenotypes across diagnostic categories, further investigations of phenotypic overlap…

  12. Comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with psychiatric disorder: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pliszka, S R

    1998-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been noted to be comorbid with a variety of psychiatric disorders. These include oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, as well as affective, anxiety, and learning disorders. Considerable debate has revolved as to the meaning of this overlap. Does it occur by chance or is it an artifact of referral bias? Are the comorbid conditions secondary to the ADHD, or can other psychiatric disorders masquerade as attentional problems? Alternatively, ADHD may exist as distinct subtypes, each with its specific comorbidity. Studies that have examined the comorbidity of oppositional, conduct, affective, anxiety, and learning disorders in ADHD are reviewed. ADHD and ADHD with conduct disorder appear to be distinct subtypes, possibly with different etiologies. While the short-term response to stimulants is the same in these two groups, children with ADHD and conduct disorder children have higher rates of antisocial personality as adults. Coexisting anxiety appears to attenuate impulsivity in ADHD, and stimulant response is poorer in ADHD children with comorbid anxiety. Anxiety and ADHD appear to be inherited independently. A subset of ADHD children also meet criteria for bipolar disorder, although the exact prevalence of this diagnosis in ADHD children is strongly debated. Regardless of prevalence, this is a severely impaired group of ADHD children, with high rates of aggression and psychiatric disorder in their families. The comorbidity of ADHD and major depression is much less studied, and few firm conclusions can be made about it. Finally, about 20%-25% of ADHD children meet criteria for a learning disorder, but learning disorders appear to be independent of ADHD. PMID:9680053

  13. Duplications in ADHD patients harbour neurobehavioural genes that are co‐expressed with genes associated with hyperactivity in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Avigail; Steinberg, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset disorder, prevalent in 5.3% of children and 1–4% of adults. ADHD is highly heritable, with a burden of large (>500 Kb) copy number variants (CNVs) identified among individuals with ADHD. However, how such CNVs exert their effects is poorly understood. We examined the genes affected by 71 large, rare, and predominantly inherited CNVs identified among 902 individuals with ADHD. We applied both mouse‐knockout functional enrichment analyses, exploiting behavioral phenotypes arising from the determined disruption of 1:1 mouse orthologues, and human brain‐specific spatio‐temporal expression data to uncover molecular pathways common among genes contributing to enriched phenotypes. Twenty‐two percent of genes duplicated in individuals with ADHD that had mouse phenotypic information were associated with abnormal learning/memory/conditioning (“l/m/c”) phenotypes. Although not observed in a second ADHD‐cohort, we identified a similar enrichment among genes duplicated by eight de novo CNVs present in eight individuals with Hyperactivity and/or Short attention span (“Hyperactivity/SAS”, the ontologically‐derived phenotypic components of ADHD). In the brain, genes duplicated in patients with ADHD and Hyperactivity/SAS and whose orthologues’ disruption yields l/m/c phenotypes in mouse (“candidate‐genes”), were co‐expressed with one another and with genes whose orthologues’ mouse models exhibit hyperactivity. Moreover, genes associated with hyperactivity in the mouse were significantly more co‐expressed with ADHD candidate‐genes than with similarly identified genes from individuals with intellectual disability. Our findings support an etiology for ADHD distinct from intellectual disability, and mechanistically related to genes associated with hyperactivity phenotypes in other mammalian species. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B

  14. A Coaching Intervention for College Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stacy L.; Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we describe coaching as an intervention for college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Coaching college students with ADHD empowers individuals to organize and execute their responsibilities, both in academia and in everyday life. With the assistance of a coach, individuals with ADHD can create structure…

  15. The Prevalence of Features of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Special School in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, S.; Hillery, J.; Guerin, S.; McEvoy, J.; Dodd, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Irish schools is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of features of ADHD in a special school, in order to ascertain the number of children who may need further assessment for ADHD.…

  16. Striatal Sensitivity during Reward Processing in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Mehta, Mitul A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to deficits in the dopaminergic reward-processing circuitry; yet, existing evidence is limited, and the influence of genetic variation affecting dopamine signaling remains unknown. We investigated striatal responsivity to rewards in ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) using…

  17. An Examination of Peer Relationships of Children With and Without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Tali

    2005-01-01

    The study examined Friendship Qualities among 39 children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and 17 children without ADHD, studying in mainstreamed classes, and compared their self-reports with their parents' and teachers' perceptions. Although the literature has described ADHD children as having social difficulties, a higher rate…

  18. Perceived Social Support by Children with Characteristics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates perceptions of social support behaviors exhibited by significant adults and peers at school among a group of students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) characteristics. Data indicates that children with characteristics of ADHD perceived lower frequencies of overall support, and that both the ADHD and control groups…

  19. Predictors of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder within 6 Months after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Schachar, Russell J.; Levin, Harvey S.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Dennis, Maureen; Saunders, Ann; Landis, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the phenomenology and predictive factors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (SADHD). Method: Children without preinjury ADHD 5-14 years old with TBI from consecutive admissions (n = 143) to five trauma centers were observed prospectively for 6…

  20. Empathy and Social Perspective Taking in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Imola; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria; Moore, Chris; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    This study explored empathy and social perspective taking in 8 to 12 year old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 92 children, 50 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 42 typically developing comparison children. Although children with ADHD were rated by their parents as less empathic than…

  1. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders among Students in Christian Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jacob J.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores current research, diagnosis, and common problems of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among Christian college and university students. For years, ADHD was believed to dissipate as children mature, but current research contradicts that belief. Proctor (2009) and others detail the continuance of ADHD into…

  2. Co-Occurrence of Motor Problems and Autistic Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiersen, Angela M.; Constantino, John N.; Todd, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the concurrence between parent-reported motor problems and clinical autistic symptoms in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results suggest that children with ADHD and parent-reported motor problems are likely to have more severe autistic symptoms than those with ADHD alone.

  3. Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Report the distribution of scores from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and estimate the prevalence of self-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms as compared to clinical diagnoses. Participants: Participants were 1,080 college students, divided into 3 groups: (1) no ADHD diagnosis (n = 972), (2)…

  4. Some Evidence for Distinctive Language Use by Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports early findings from a wider study that sought to test the hypothesis that differences in language use exist between children who have a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and their non-ADHD peers. Twenty-two, 8 to 12 year-old children (11 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 11 matched peers) comprised the…

  5. Adults with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Assessment and Treatment Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, John S.; Harper, Dennis C.

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adults is characterized by inattentiveness and impulsivity. This article provides counselors with information about the etiology, assessment, and treatment of adult ADHD. The identification of the genetic and neurological features of ADHD has led to improvements in evaluation and treatment.…

  6. Gender Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning of New Zealand Adolescents with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2006-01-01

    Only recently have studies included a female Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) sample when investigating neurocognitive functioning of individuals with ADHD. As such, the generalisability of findings of impaired executive functioning is limited to ADHD males. This study compared four groups aged 13-17 years: 30 male controls, 35…

  7. Sustained Attention and Response Inhibition in Young Children at Risk for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwid, Olga G.; Curko Kera, Elizabeth A.; Marks, David J.; Santra, Amita; Bender, Heidi A.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have variably shown ADHD-related impairment in both inhibitory control and sustained attention. However, few studies have examined ADHD-associated patterns of performance on these tasks among younger children (below age 7…

  8. Fundamental Movement Skills and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Peer Comparisons and Stimulant Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Reid, Greg; Grizenko, Natalie; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fundamental movement skills of 22 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), from 6 to 12 years of age, to gender- and age-matched peers without ADHD and assess the effects of stimulant medication on the movement skill performance of the children with ADHD. Repeated measures analyses…

  9. Evidence-Based Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, Jr., William E.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Massetti, Greta M.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines evidence-based assessment practices for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The nature, symptoms, associated features, and comorbidity of ADHD are briefly described, followed by a selective review of the literature on the reliability and validity of ADHD assessment methods. It is concluded that symptom rating…

  10. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, J. Russell; Rostain, Anthony L.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental syndrome that persists into adulthood for the majority of children with ADHD. Other individuals may not experience the full negative effects of undiagnosed ADHD until they face the demands of adult life. College counseling centers in particular are seeing a rise in the number of…

  11. [Assessment of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    PubMed

    Gross, J; Blocher, D; Trott, G E; Rösler, M

    1999-01-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders in childhood and adolescence with a prevalence of app. 5%. The importance of ADHD in childhood as a factor of vulnerability for psychiatric disorders in adults is becoming a focus of discussion. It was shown that there is a comorbidity in adults with substance abuse, delinquency and personality disorders. There is a growing evidence that ADHD will persist in a significant number of patients during adulthood. This is the first german study to evaluate this interdependence. We examined 164 adult inpatients and 48 healthy volunteers with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), a retrospective self-evaluation scale for the diagnosis of ADHD in childhood, and the Eysenck impulsiveness questionnaire I7. It could be shown that the WURS and the I7 are suitable instruments for the evaluation of the ADHD in adults especially concerning the aspects of attention deficits and impulsiveness. PMID:10087514

  12. College Students with ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation College Students with ADHD Quick Links Facts For Families Guide Facts For ... No. 111; Updated December 2013 Many students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face ...

  13. Epigenetics in Developmental Disorder: ADHD and Endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Trevor; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Blum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with complex interactive operations of genetic and environmental factors, is expressed in a variety of disorder manifestations: severity, co-morbidities of symptoms, and the effects of genes on phenotypes. Neurodevelopmental influences of genomic imprinting have set the stage for the structural-physiological variations that modulate the cognitive, affective, and pathophysiological domains of ADHD. The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors provide rapidly proliferating insights into the developmental trajectory of the condition, both structurally and functionally. Parent-of-origin effects seem to support the notion that genetic risks for disease process debut often interact with the social environment, i.e., the parental environment in infants and young children. The notion of endophenotypes, markers of an underlying liability to the disorder, may facilitate detection of genetic risks relative to a complex clinical disorder. Simple genetic association has proven insufficient to explain the spectrum of ADHD. At a primary level of analysis, the consideration of epigenetic regulation of brain signalling mechanisms, dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline is examined. Neurotrophic factors that participate in the neurogenesis, survival, and functional maintenance of brain systems, are involved in neuroplasticity alterations underlying brain disorders, and are implicated in the genetic predisposition to ADHD, but not obviously, nor in a simple or straightforward fashion. In the context of intervention, genetic linkage studies of ADHD pharmacological intervention have demonstrated that associations have fitted the “drug response phenotype,” rather than the disorder diagnosis. Despite conflicting evidence for the existence, or not, of genetic associations between disorder diagnosis and genes regulating the structure and function of neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic

  14. The search for biomarkers for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Deeann

    2010-09-01

    The main characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity which is more frequent and severe than is usually expected in individuals at a comparable level of development. ADHD is estimated to affect approximately 5.29% of school-aged children and is therefore the most common childhood onset psychological disorder. A conservative estimate of the annual societal cost of illness for ADHD in childhood and adolescence is USD 42.5 billion in the U.S. alone. Global sales of ADHD medicines could reach USD 4.3 billion by 2012. Despite the prevalence, high heritability and costs of ADHD, biological markers do not exist. Such biomarkers are in high demand as they would help eliminate the subjective diagnoses based on interviews and potentially allow for earlier diagnosis and personalized medicine. Lack of markers likely stems from several factors that complicate ADHD research and the assessment of pharmacological responses. This review analyses complicating factors in defining ADHD phenotype and etiology, identifying specific diagnostic markers and the difficulties in the assessment of pharmacogenomic markers. The dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype and methylphenidate (MPH) response are detailed as an example of a biomarker. A recent report of a novel ADHD gene and its possible role as a biomarker is explored. Finally, suggestions for strategies and study designs for future research for the definition of effective ADHD biomarkers are made. PMID:20862396

  15. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  16. The Utility of Home Problem Pervasiveness and Severity in Classifying Children Identified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Tammy D.; Pinard, Ferne A.; Barry, Christopher T.; Garland, Beth H.; Lyman, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Given the propensity for clinical assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to focus on core behavioral symptoms, the current study examined how well other predictors classified children who were diagnosed with ADHD by licensed practitioners. Participants were 91 children (39 ADHD-identified, 52 without ADHD), aged 8 to 13…

  17. Gene by Environment Interactions Influencing Reading Disability and the Inattentive Symptom Dimension of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jenni; Pennington, Bruce F.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Olson, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reading disability (RD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are comorbid and genetically correlated, especially the inattentive dimension of ADHD (ADHD-I). However, previous research indicates that RD and ADHD enter into opposite gene by environment (G x E) interactions. Methods: This study used behavioral genetic…

  18. Maternal Parenting Styles and Mother-Child Relationship among Adolescents with and without Persistent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated mothering and mother-child interactions in adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 190 adolescents with persistent DSM-IV ADHD, 147 without persistent ADHD, and 223 without ADHD. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews for diagnosis of ADHD…

  19. Non-Drug Interventions for Improving Classroom Behavior and Social Functioning of Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliff, David

    This paper explores research on use of medication and non-drug interventions to modify the behavior of preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It begins by discussing the symptoms of ADHD, neurological differences between children with ADHD and those without ADHD, and expected adolescent and adult outcomes for…

  20. Mother and Adolescent Reports of Interparental Discord among Parents of Adolescents with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence is scarce regarding the prevalence of interparental discord in families of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using data collected from adolescents with childhood ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD; n = 46) or conduct disorder (CD; n = 23), with childhood ADHD only (n = 26), and without…

  1. Attentional Functions in Children and Adolescents with ADHD, Depressive Disorders, and the Comorbid Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Thomas; Konrad, Kerstin; De Brito, Stephane A.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Vloet, Timo D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorders (DDs) often co-occur in children and adolescents, but evidence on the respective influence of these disorders on attention parameters is inconsistent. This study examines the influence of DDs on ADHD in a model-oriented approach that includes selectivity and…

  2. Drug therapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: current trends.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Avinash; Kalra, Gurvinder

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder with an age onset prior to 7 years. Children with ADHD have significantly lower ability to focus and sustain attention and also score higher on impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, have remained the mainstay of ADHD treatment for decades with evidence supporting their use. However, recent years have seen emergence of newer drugs and drug delivery systems, like osmotic release oral systems and transdermal patches, to mention a few. The use of nonstimulant drugs like atomoxetine and various other drugs, such as α-agonists, and a few antidepressants, being used in an off-label manner, have added to the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. This review discusses current trends in drug therapy of ADHD and highlights the promise pharmacogenomics may hold in the future. PMID:22654382

  3. Drug Therapy of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Trends

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Avinash; Kalra, Gurvinder

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder with an age onset prior to 7 years. Children with ADHD have significantly lower ability to focus and sustain attention and also score higher on impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, have remained the mainstay of ADHD treatment for decades with evidence supporting their use. However, recent years have seen emergence of newer drugs and drug delivery systems, like osmotic release oral systems and transdermal patches, to mention a few. The use of nonstimulant drugs like atomoxetine and various other drugs, such as α-agonists, and a few antidepressants, being used in an off-label manner, have added to the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. This review discusses current trends in drug therapy of ADHD and highlights the promise pharmacogenomics may hold in the future. PMID:22654382

  4. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Chi-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Yen-Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and epilepsy in clinical settings. We assessed 64 children with ASD, 64 with ADHD, 64 with epilepsy, and 64 typically developing children without any neuropsychiatric disorders by using a sex-and age-matched…

  5. Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Kimberly; Willcutt, Erik G.; Davalos, Deana B.; Ross, Randal G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few…

  6. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on the frontlines: management in the primary care office.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A

    1999-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, disabling pediatric psychiatric disorder. Diagnosis of this disorder requires systematic data collection from multiple sources. The preferred therapy for ADHD is a combination of behavioral modification, educational assistance, and stimulant medications. PMID:10470515

  7. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Telemental Health

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Nancy B.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Geyer, John R.; DeSalvo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders diagnosed in children and adolescents (youth). ADHD is equally distributed geographically, but services are not. Access to expert evaluation and treatment remains limited for youth with ADHD living in rural areas, as well as for ethnic and racial minority youth. Telepsychiatry is a service delivery model with the potential to reach these youth and to develop collaborative models of care among local primary care physicians, remote telepsychiatrists, and local families. Care delivered through telepsychiatry can readily adhere to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Work to date indicates that ADHD is the most common disorder treated through telepsychiatry. This article reviews the status of child and adolescent telepsychiatry, with particular focus on its potential to improve the care and outcomes of underserved populations of youth diagnosed with ADHD. PMID:20625857

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and telemental health.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Nancy B; Myers, Kathleen M; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCarty, Carolyn A; Geyer, John R; Desalvo, Amy

    2010-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders diagnosed in children and adolescents (youth). ADHD is equally distributed geographically, but services are not. Access to expert evaluation and treatment remains limited for youth with ADHD living in rural areas, as well as for ethnic and racial minority youth. Telepsychiatry is a service delivery model with the potential to reach these youth and to develop collaborative models of care among local primary care physicians, remote telepsychiatrists, and local families. Care delivered through telepsychiatry can readily adhere to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Work to date indicates that ADHD is the most common disorder treated through telepsychiatry. This article reviews the status of child and adolescent telepsychiatry, with particular focus on its potential to improve the care and outcomes of underserved populations of youth diagnosed with ADHD. PMID:20625857

  9. Executive Functioning Differences between Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Initiation, Planning and Strategy Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramham, Jessica; Ambery, Fiona; Young, Susan; Morris, Robin; Russell, Ailsa; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Asherson, Philip; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits characterize the neuropsychological profiles of the childhood neurodevelopmental disorders of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study sought to determine whether similar impairments exist in adults with ADHD (N = 53) and ASD (N = 45) in comparison with a…

  10. Screening for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult inpatients with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Geetha; Faden, Justin; Steer, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose was to assess the effectiveness of the adult ADHD Module from the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales: Screening Version DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total Scale (CAARS-S:SV) in screening for attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder in patients hospitalized for other psychiatric disorders. Assessment measures were administered to 55 (50%) female and 55 (50%) male adult (>18 yr. old) inpatients. Only six (5%) of the 110 inpatients had been diagnosed with comorbid ADHD according to medical charts. In contrast, 55 (50%) patients met criteria for ADHD according to the MINI, and 39 (36%) patients met criteria on the CAARS-S:SV. The higher rates of prevalence for the MINI and the CAARS-S:SV were attributable to symptom criteria for ADHD being similar to those shared with comorbid disorders. PMID:21879629

  11. Can the Brain Be Trained? Comparing the Literature on the Use of EEG Biofeedback/Neurofeedback as an Alternative or Complementary Therapy for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankus, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Psychologists, social workers, and school counselors are increasingly adding neurofeedback (NFT), a controversial alternative or complementary therapy to their treatment plans for patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. NFT involves training the patient in self-regulation of brain wave patterns, employing a standard diagnostic…

  12. Infrequent, but Not Frequent, Reinforcers Produce More Variable Responding and Deficient Sustained Attention in Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aase, Heidi; Sagvolden, Terje

    2006-01-01

    Background: The underlying behavioral/psychological processes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are unclear. Motivational factors, related to dopamine dysfunction, may play an important role in the development of the behavioral symptoms. Particularly, infrequent, but not frequent, reinforcers have been suggested to be associated with…

  13. Autism Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Familial Trait which Correlates with Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, Language and Motor Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Anney, Richard J. L; O'Regan, Myra; Chen, Wai; Butler, Louise; Fitzgerald, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Rothenberger, Aribert; Minderaa, Ruud; Nijmeijer, Judith; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buschgens, Cathelijne; Christiansen, Hanna; Franke, Barbara; Gabriels, Isabel; Hartman, Catharina; Kuntsi, Jonna; Marco, Rafaela; Meidad, Sheera; Mueller, Ueli; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Rommelse, Nanda; Thompson, Margaret; Uebel, Henrik; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Phil; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gill, Michael

    2009-01-01

    It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeFries-Fulker analysis. Autism symptoms were higher…

  14. Risperidone Augmentation for Treatment-Resistant Aggression in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenteros, Jorge L.; Lewis, John E.; Davalos, Marisabel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-five children (ages 7-12 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) and significant aggressive behaviors were randomized to risperidone or placebo for 4…

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, CNS stimulants and sport.

    PubMed

    Hickey, G; Fricker, P

    1999-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 1 to 10% of children and is characterised by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Over one-half of children with ADHD have associated conditions, including learning disabilities, conduct disorders, poor coordination, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and bipolar disorders. CNS stimulant medication used in the management of ADHD is not permitted for use in competition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and this poses a problem for the physicians of patients with ADHD. On the one hand, attention and concentration are improved by stimulant medication and fine motor coordination and balance are improved after methylphenidate administration, but these therapeutic and sport-related benefits are not available to the athlete with ADHD who wishes to compete under IOC rules. It has been suggested that treatment with methylphenidate may be suitable for athletes with ADHD, as cessation of therapy 24 hours before competition is usually adequate to allow drug clearance which should avoid a positive result being returned on drug testing. More research is needed to establish whether stimulant medication for athletes with ADHD provides an unfair advantage in competition. PMID:10028130

  16. Is the Inattentive Subtype of ADHD Different from the Combined/Hyperactive Subtype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizenko, Natalie; Paci, Michael; Joober, Ridha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the ADHD combined/hyperactive subtype (ADHD/CH) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD/I) on the level of comorbidity, treatment response, and possible etiological factors. Method: A total of 371 clinically referred children diagnosed with ADHD aged between 6 and 12 years are recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled…

  17. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative…

  18. Novel treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Thomas J; Biederman, Joseph; Wilens, Timothy E; Faraone, Stephen V

    2002-01-01

    Optimal medications for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) would be effective, well tolerated, and long acting and not cause mood swings or worsen comorbid conditions. Current medications work on brain dopamine and/or norepinephrine systems, which are thought to be involved in ADHD. The medication class with the most evidence of efficacy in ADHD is stimulants, but they may be abused, are effective for only 4 to 12 hours, and may cause mood swings or increase tic severity. In recent years, alternative treatments have been explored. Tricyclic antidepressants have efficacy comparable to that of stimulants but may cause constipation, dry mouth, tremors, blood pressure changes, and potentially serious side effects including cardiac conduction and repolarization delays. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors may improve ADHD symptoms but are associated with severe dietary restrictions. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors have little or no effect in ADHD but may improve comorbid depression. Bupropion, although less effective than stimulants, may improve both ADHD symptoms and comorbid depression. Antihypertensive agents may improve impulsivity, hyperactivity, and comorbid tics but cause sedation or rebound hypertension. Atomoxetine, which is being developed for ADHD, reduces symptoms of ADHD without exacerbating comorbid conditions and is associated with only minor side effects, including subtle changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Before prescribing a treatment, physicians should consider the appropriateness and effectiveness of any medication for children with ADHD, who may be less tolerant of side effects and less able to monitor and express concerns about their well-being than adults. PMID:12562057

  19. [Emotional dysfunctions in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Franc, N

    2011-06-01

    Inattention, motor instability, and impulsivity, associated in varying degrees of severity depending on the clinical subtype, constitute the key symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, emotional symptoms are frequent in patients with ADHD and may, in some cases, be responsible for a major part of the negative impact on functioning and outcome. Emotional problems have been described in ADHD even in the absence of characterized comorbid conditions such as depressive or anxiety disorders. They can manifest acutely in the form of severe tantrums and aggressive behaviour, generally in reaction to an environmental trigger, or show a more chronic course of irritable or labile mood. Symptoms of emotional undercontrol seem to occur more frequently when ADHD is associated with oppositional defiant behaviour, but they are not specific and may contribute to difficulties in making a differential diagnosis, especially with bipolar disorder and prodromal symptoms of personality disorders. The frequency and negative impact of emotional symptoms and the need to differentiate them from bipolar disorder has led some authors to the description of a novel clinical entity called "severe mood dysregulation" or "temper dysregulation with dysphoria." This article aims to review the recent literature on emotional symptoms associated with ADHD and to discuss relevant clinical and biological issues. Current research highlights the links between emotional self-regulation and executive functions and possible involvement of motivational systems. The role of environmental factors in the development of emotional regulation and self-control is another important issue, especially because environmental modification is the major focus of current preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:21497072

  20. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD. PMID:25630971

  1. Impulsiveness, overactivity, and poorer sustained attention improve by chronic treatment with low doses of l-amphetamine in an animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background ADHD is currently defined as a cognitive/behavioral developmental disorder where all clinical criteria are behavioral. Overactivity, impulsiveness, and inattentiveness are presently regarded as the main clinical symptoms. There is no biological marker, but there is considerable evidence to suggest that ADHD behavior is associated with poor dopaminergic and noradrenergic modulation of neuronal circuits that involve the frontal lobes. The best validated animal model of ADHD, the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), shows pronounced overactivity, impulsiveness, and deficient sustained attention. The primary objective of the present research was to investigate behavioral effects of a range of doses of chronic l-amphetamine on ADHD-like symptoms in the SHR. Methods The present study tested the behavioral effects of 0.75 and 2.2 mg l-amphetamine base/kg i.p. in male SHRs and their controls, the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). ADHD-like behavior was tested with a visual discrimination task measuring overactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness. Results The striking impulsiveness, overactivity, and poorer sustained attention seen during baseline conditions in the SHR were improved by chronic treatment with l-amphetamine. The dose-response curves were, however, different for the different behaviors. Most significantly, the 0.75 mg/kg dose of l-amphetamine improved sustained attention without reducing overactivity and impulsiveness. The 2.2 mg/kg dose improved sustained attention as well as reduced SHR overactivity and impulsiveness. Discussion The effects of l-amphetamine to reduce the behavioral symptoms of ADHD in the SHR were maintained over the 14 days of daily dosing with no evidence of tolerance developing. PMID:21450079

  2. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    PubMed

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. PMID:23864520

  3. Differences in Motor Imagery between Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder with and without the Combined Type of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Matthew; Vance, Alasdair; Maruff, Paul; Wilson, Peter; Cairney, Sheree

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed, and questioned, whether motor impairments in attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-C) alone, developmental coordination disorder (DCD) alone, and ADHD-C and comorbid DCD (ADHD-C/DCD) may arise from disruption to a common set of cognitive functions and their related neural substrate. This study examined…

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and neurocognitive correlates after childhood stroke.

    PubMed

    Max, Jeffrey E; Mathews, Katherine; Manes, Facundo F; Robertson, Brigitte A M; Fox, Peter T; Lancaster, Jack L; Lansing, Amy E; Schatz, Amy; Collings, Nicole

    2003-09-01

    We investigated the frequency and neurocognitive correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and traits of this disorder (ADHD/Traits) after childhood stroke and orthopedic diagnosis in medical controls. Twenty-nine children with focal stroke lesions and individually matched children with clubfoot or scoliosis were studied with standardized psychiatric, intellectual, academic, adaptive, executive, and motivation function assessments. Lifetime ADHD/Traits were significantly more common in stroke participants with no prestroke ADHD than in orthopedic controls (16/28 vs. 7/29; Fisher's Exact p < .02). Lifetime ADHD/Traits in the orthopedic controls occurred exclusively in males with clubfoot (7/13; 54%). Participants with current ADHD/Traits functioned significantly worse (p < .005) than participants without current ADHD/Traits on all outcome measures. Within the stroke group, current ADHD/Traits was associated with significantly lower verbal IQ and arithmetic achievement (p < .04), more nonperseverative errors (p < .005), and lower motivation (p < .004). A principal components analysis of selected outcome variables significantly associated with current ADHD/Traits revealed "impaired neurocognition" and "inattention-apathy" factors. The latter factor was a more consistent predictor of current ADHD/Traits in regression analyses. These findings suggest that inattention and apathy are core features of ADHD/Traits after childhood stroke. This association may provide clues towards the understanding of mechanisms underlying the syndrome. PMID:14632240

  5. Vocal characteristics in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Deeb, Reem; Sibai, Abla; Rameh, Charbel; Rifai, Hani; Fayyad, John

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate vocal changes in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nineteen children diagnosed to have ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria and 19 controls were enrolled in this study. They underwent vocal perceptual evaluation and acoustic analysis. Hoarseness, breathiness, strain, and loudness were graded on a scale of 0-3. The following acoustic parameters were recorded: Fundamental frequency, Shimmer, Relative average perturbation, Noise-to-Harmony ratio, Voice Turbulence Index, and Habitual pitch. Children with ADHD were perceived to have significantly more hoarseness, breathiness, and straining in their voice. They were also louder compared to controls. There were no significant changes in the acoustic parameters except for the Fundamental frequency, which was lower in the ADHD group. The vocal behavior in children with ADHD is different than controls. Early diagnosis of such behavior in this group of children is important. PMID:18082369

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    PubMed Central

    Ptacek, Radek; Stefano, George B; Weissenberger, Simon; Akotia, Devang; Raboch, Jiri; Papezova, Hana; Domkarova, Lucie; Stepankova, Tereza; Goetz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs). In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1) impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2) other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3) poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4) other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from both a historical perspective and the one based on the revealing nature of its comorbidities. PMID:27042070

  7. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Juvenile Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Paul Kyuman; Jung, Hyun-Oak; Noh, Kyung-Sun

    2001-01-01

    Identifies attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in Korean juvenile delinquents. Intelligence tests, Test of Variables of Attention, Teacher Report form, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale were administered to 98 incarcerated youth and 84 nondelinquent youth. In the delinquent youth, 42.2% of the adolescents were…

  9. A Review of the Literature on Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children: Peer Interactions and Collaborative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Bella; Chambers, Susan M.

    1996-01-01

    A review of the literature on Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) children suggests that maladaptive classroom peer interactions for ADHD children may disadvantage their learning on collaborative tasks. Provides a definition of the disorder and discusses key aspects of ADHD and its effects on peer interactions. Makes suggestions for…

  10. Acceptability of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Relations to Child and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Charlotte; Hommersen, Paul; Seipp, Carla

    2008-01-01

    One-hundred nine mothers of 5- to 12-year-old boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) participated. Mothers read case descriptions of boys with ADHD and of boys with both ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Half of the mothers were randomly assigned to read descriptions of behavioral parent training and half to read…

  11. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  12. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  13. Malingered ADHD in adolescents diagnosed with conduct disorder: a brief note.

    PubMed

    Conti, Richard P

    2004-06-01

    This brief note cautions clinicians about the possibility of adolescents with Conduct Disorder malingering the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to obtain medication. Presented are some guidelines to consider when the diagnosis of ADHD is indicated in forensic settings with adolescents such as the need for a comprehensive assessment and the importance of exploring the possibility of malingering. PMID:15217060

  14. Executive Functioning Characteristics Associated with ADHD Comorbidity in Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…

  15. Temporal Discounting of Monetary Rewards in Children and Adolescents with ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert; Baeyens, Dieter; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    It has been difficult to differentiate attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in terms of some aspects of their cognitive profile. While both show deficits in executive functions, it has been suggested that they may differ in their response to monetary reward. For instance, children with ADHD prefer…

  16. Medicating Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and ADHD: A State Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runnheim, Veronica A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Wisconsin teachers provided information on 1,300 students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who were receiving medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ADHD/EBD students comprised approximately 26% of all EBD students. The most common medication was Ritalin, and teachers believed the medication effectively…

  17. Child Attachment and Family Environment Differences of Adolescent Children with ADHD and/or Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, Jennifer; Thompson, Bruce

    This study explored the development of attachment bonds in adolescents with diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or conduct disorder (CD). Participants included 102 mother/adolescent-child dyads from both rural and metropolitan areas and from six states. Subjects had received an ADHD diagnosis, a CD diagnosis, or a…

  18. Parenting Stress in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Ana; Tárraga, Raul; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla; Pastor, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 121 children from 5 to 9 years old with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), comorbid ASD+ADHD, and typical development in different domains related to child and parent characteristics using the Parenting Stress…

  19. Youths with ADHD with and without Tic Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology, Executive Function and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…

  20. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  1. Effects of Self-monitoring Technique on Inattentive Behaviors of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mirnasab, Mir Mahmoud; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari

    2011-01-01

    Beneficial effects of stimulants on core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been reported in several studies. Behavioral interventions have also been proposed as empirically supported interventions for ADHD. Although cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) have been criticized for the lack of evidence-based data, some studies have indicated the positive effects of CBT techniques on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reports the effects of self-monitoring technique, as a CBT technique, on inattentive behaviors of children with ADHD. PMID:22952528

  2. Treatment Strategies for Co-Occurring ADHD and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, John J.; Levin, Frances R.

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common co-occurring mental disorder among patients with substance use disorders (SUD). Clinicians must be cognizant of the complicated nature of diagnosis and treatment of ADHD when comorbid with SUD. Pharmacotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for ADHD, although complementary psychotherapeutic approaches have been developed. Psychostimulant medications are the most commonly used medications to treat ADHD, but many clinicians are reluctant to prescribe stimulants to patients with SUD. Recommendations for treatment planning and clinical management for patients with co-occurring ADHD and SUD are discussed. PMID:17453606

  3. Treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Dusan; Keller, Amanda; Golfinopoulos, Maria; Cumyn, Lucy; Syer, Cassidy; Hechtman, Lily

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. It briefly addresses prevalence, diagnostic and differential diagnostic issues specific to adults. Stimulant medication, non-stimulant medication, and psychosocial treatments are thoroughly reviewed. For each class of medication possible mechanism of action, efficacy and side effects are summarized. Special attention is given to the pharmacological treatment for patients with adult ADHD and various comorbidities. In summary, stimulant medications are most effective and combined medication and psychosocial treatment is the most beneficial treatment option for most adult patients with ADHD. PMID:18728745

  4. Treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Dusan; Keller, Amanda; Golfinopoulos, Maria; Cumyn, Lucy; Syer, Cassidy; Hechtman, Lily

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. It briefly addresses prevalence, diagnostic and differential diagnostic issues specific to adults. Stimulant medication, non-stimulant medication, and psychosocial treatments are thoroughly reviewed. For each class of medication possible mechanism of action, efficacy and side effects are summarized. Special attention is given to the pharmacological treatment for patients with adult ADHD and various comorbidities. In summary, stimulant medications are most effective and combined medication and psychosocial treatment is the most beneficial treatment option for most adult patients with ADHD. PMID:18728812

  5. Economic Impact of Childhood and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doshi, Jalpa A.; Hodgkins, Paul; Kahle, Jennifer; Sikirica, Vanja; Cangelosi, Michael J.; Setyawan, Juliana; Erder, M. Haim; Neumann, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in children in the United States and often persists into adulthood with associated symptomatology and impairments. This article comprehensively reviews studies reporting ADHD-related incremental (excess) costs for children/adolescents and…

  6. Motor Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulardins, Juliana B.; Marques, Juliana C. Bilhar; Casella, Erasmo B.; Nascimento, Roseane O.; Oliveira, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the motor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined type. Method: The case group consisted of 34 treatment-naive, male patients, aged 7-11 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD, combined type, without comorbidities (except oppositional defiant disorder). The…

  7. Consequences of Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Children's Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.; Ash, Andrea C.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and communication disorders represent a frequently encountered challenge for school-based practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to examine in more detail the clinical phenomenology of co-occurring ADHD and language impairments (LIs). Method: Measures of nonword…

  8. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  9. Children's Perceived Parent-Child Relationships and Family Functioning in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Shams, Fatemeh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare Children's Perceived Parent-Child Relationships (PCR) and family functioning in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and a general population sample. Method: A total of 49 ADHD subjects and 51 subjects without any psychiatric disorder were matched for age, sex, educational level, family income, level…

  10. Atomoxetine for Hyperactivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Placebo-Controlled Crossover Pilot Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Cook, Amelia M.; Witwer, Andrea N.; Hall, Kristy L.; Thompson, Susan; Ramadan, Yaser

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore placebo-controlled efficacy and safety of atomoxetine (ATX) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Children ages 5 to 15 with ASD and prominent ADHD symptoms were randomly assigned to order in a crossover of clinically titrated ATX and placebo, 6…

  11. Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Short, Elizabeth J.; McNamara, Nora K.; Demeter, Christine A.; Stansbrey, Robert J.; Gracious, Barbara L.; Whipkey, Resaca; Manos, Michael J.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2007-01-01

    The short-term efficacy of methylphenidate in the treatment of youths aged 5 to 17 years with bipolar disorder (BD) and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was investigated. The trial observation showed that euthymic youths with BD and ADHD might benefit from short-term concomitant treatment with methylphenidate.

  12. Working Memory, Processing Speed, and Set-Shifting in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piek, Jan P.; Dyck, Murray J.; Francis, Mona; Conwell, Alistair

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the high levels of comorbidity between attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be attributed to a common underlying neurocognitive mechanism. This study assessed whether children with DCD and ADHD share deficits on tasks measuring working memory, set-shifting, and…

  13. Living in Chaos and Striving for Control: How Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Deal with Their Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Michele; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Houghton, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a Grounded Theory of "Living in Chaos and Striving for Control" developed in response to the central research question of how adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) deal with their disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 males diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood. "Chaos" emerged…

  14. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  15. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV and ICD-10 Criteria for ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung I.; Schachar, Russell J.; Chen, Shirley X.; Ornstein, Tisha J.; Charach, Alice; Barr, Cathy; Ickowicz, Abel

    2008-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to compare the predictive validity of the two main diagnostic schemata for childhood hyperactivity--attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-IV) and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD; "International Classification of Diseases"-10th Edition). Methods: Diagnostic criteria for…

  16. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  17. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-09-30

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  18. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Craig, Francesco; Margari, Francesco; Legrottaglie, Anna R; Palumbi, Roberto; de Giambattista, Concetta; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. PMID:27274255

  19. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Francesco; Margari, Francesco; Legrottaglie, Anna R; Palumbi, Roberto; de Giambattista, Concetta; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. PMID:27274255

  20. Male Adolescent Substance Use Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Eme, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Approximately, one-third of male adolescents in treatment for a substance use disorder (SUD) also have an Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This strongly suggests that ADHD is a major risk factor for the development of SUD which practitioners must address if they are to provide adequate treatment for adolescents with SUD/ADHD. This paper supports a causal role for ADHD in the development of SUD and examines the developmental mechanisms whereby ADHD increases risk for SUD. These mechanisms include increased risk for conduct disorder, academic failure, deviant peer affiliation, engaging in risk behaviors, and self-medication. Assessment and treatment recommendations for those comorbid for SUD/ADHD are provided. PMID:25969828

  1. Identifying Loci for the Overlap between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Genome-Wide QTL Linkage Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Altink, Marieke E.; Anney, Richard J. L.; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Gill, Michael; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara; Ebstein, Richard P.; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The genetic basis for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was addressed using a genome-wide linkage approach. Method: Participants of the International Multi-Center ADHD Genetics study comprising 1,143 probands with ADHD and 1,453 siblings were analyzed. The total and…

  2. Attentional Performance in Children and Adolescents with Tic Disorder and Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: New Insights from a 2 x 2 Factorial Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greimel, Ellen; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Roessner, Veit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of both tic disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on attentional functions. N = 96 children and adolescents participated in the study, including n = 21 subjects with TD, n = 23 subjects with ADHD, n = 25 subjects with TD+ADHD, and n = 27 controls. Attentional…

  3. Attributional Responses to Students with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Who Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jamie G.; Benton, Stephen L.

    2005-01-01

    Preservice teachers' responses to students with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder who reportedly failed a classroom test were investigated. Undergraduate students (n=49), during their semester of student teaching, rated six vignettes that varied by student gender, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, and medication…

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Rasch Analysis of the SWAN Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deidra J.; Levy, Florence; Martin, Neilson C.; Hay, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been estimated at 3-7% in the population. Children with this disorder are often characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity, which can significantly impact on many aspects of their behaviour and performance. This study investigated the…

  5. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  6. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to differentiate cases of LI from ADHD; (b) the impact of co-occurring ADHD on children's LI; (c) cross-etiology comparisons of the nonlinguistic abilities of children with ADHD and specific LI (SLI); and (d) the extent to which ADHD contributes to educational and health disparities among individuals with LI. Results Evidence is presented demonstrating the value of using adjusted parent ratings of ADHD symptoms and targeted assessments of children's tense marking, nonword repetition, and sentence recall for differential diagnosis and the identification of comorbidity. Reports suggest that the presence of ADHD does not aggravate children's LI. The potential value of cross-etiology comparisons testing the necessity and sufficiency of proposed nonlinguistic contributors to the etiology of SLI is demonstrated through key studies. Reports suggest that children with comorbid ADHD+LI receive speech-language services at a higher rate than children with SLI. Conclusion The ADHD context is multifaceted and provides the management and study of LI with both opportunities and obstacles. PMID:26502026

  7. Functional consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on children and their families.

    PubMed

    Usami, Masahide

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with core symptoms that include hyperactivity, impulsiveness, and inattention, and it is the most common psychiatric disorder among children and adolescents. These core symptoms are continuously recognized throughout the day from childhood to adulthood. Furthermore, children with ADHD from childhood to adulthood might also have various comorbid psychiatric disorders. Recently, bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, a new clinical issue, have been discussed as comorbid disorders or differential disorders associated with ADHD. Furthermore, comorbid disorders of ADHD are related to quality of life and family burden. Children with ADHD have poorer long-term outcomes than controls with respect to: academic achievement and attainment, occupational rank and job performance, risky sexual practices and early unwanted pregnancies, substance use, relationship difficulties, marital problems, traffic violations, and car accidents. Irritability of children with ADHD has been a key symptom that clinicians and researchers have used to evaluate the developmental condition of children with ADHD. ADHD is sometimes a chronic disorder that occurs over a long period, increasing the family burden of these children (including health-care costs), which will increase with aging for unremitted children with ADHD. Therefore, clinicians should evaluate not only the mental condition of the child but also the family burden. Children with ADHD should be treated during childhood to reduce their clinical symptoms and family burden. PMID:27061213

  8. Are Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Different Manifestations of One Overarching Disorder? Cognitive and Symptom Evidence from a Clinical and Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meer, Jolanda M. J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Lappenschaar, Martijn G. A.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. Given the heterogeneity of both disorders, several more homogeneous ASD-ADHD comorbidity subgroups may exist. The current study examined whether such subgroups exist, and whether their overlap or distinctiveness in associated…

  9. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD…

  10. Perspectives on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: executive functions, working memory, and language disabilities.

    PubMed

    Westby, Carol; Watson, Silvana

    2004-08-01

    The conceptualization of the nature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has changed in the last decade. ADHD is now viewed as a neurologically based condition with primary deficits in executive functions and working memory (WM). Students with ADHD have deficits in discourse organization, inferring, and monitoring that are related to their executive function and WM deficits. A large number of students with ADHD also have comorbid reading and language disabilities that exist in addition to the deficits directly associated with the ADHD. Comprehensive evaluation of students with ADHD is essential to address their specific learning needs. PMID:15359368

  11. Tourette syndrome associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The impact of tics and psychopharmacological treatment options.

    PubMed

    Oluwabusi, Olumide O; Parke, Susan; Ambrosini, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Several studies describe the association between TS and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty percent of children diagnosed with ADHD have comorbid tic disorder. ADHD related symptoms have been reported in 35% to 90% of children with TS. Since ADHD is the most prevalent comorbid condition with TS and those with concomitant TS and ADHD present with considerable psychosocial and behavioral impairments, it is essential for clinicians to be familiar with these diagnoses and their management. This paper highlights the association between treating ADHD with stimulants and the development of tic disorders. The two cases discussed underscore the fact that children with TS may present with ADHD symptomatology prior to the appearance of any TS related symptoms. Appropriate management of TS in a patient diagnosed with ADHD can lead to quality of life improvements and a reduction in psychosocial impairments. PMID:26862512

  12. Tourette syndrome associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The impact of tics and psychopharmacological treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Oluwabusi, Olumide O; Parke, Susan; Ambrosini, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Several studies describe the association between TS and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty percent of children diagnosed with ADHD have comorbid tic disorder. ADHD related symptoms have been reported in 35% to 90% of children with TS. Since ADHD is the most prevalent comorbid condition with TS and those with concomitant TS and ADHD present with considerable psychosocial and behavioral impairments, it is essential for clinicians to be familiar with these diagnoses and their management. This paper highlights the association between treating ADHD with stimulants and the development of tic disorders. The two cases discussed underscore the fact that children with TS may present with ADHD symptomatology prior to the appearance of any TS related symptoms. Appropriate management of TS in a patient diagnosed with ADHD can lead to quality of life improvements and a reduction in psychosocial impairments. PMID:26862512

  13. ADHD Subtypes and Comorbid Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Mahr, Fauzia; Hillwig-Garcia, Jolene; Elamir, Belal; Edhere-Ekezie, Linda; Parvin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Objective Sleep problems were analyzed in children with ADHD (Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder). Methods Scales were completed by parents of 135 control children and 681 children with ADHD combined type (ADHD-C) or inattentive type (ADHD-I) with or without comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, or depression. Results Children with ADHD-I alone had the fewest sleep problems and did not differ from controls. Children with ADHD-C had more sleep problems than controls and children with ADHD-I. Comorbid anxiety/depression increased sleep problems, whereas ODD did not. Daytime sleepiness was greatest in ADHD-I and was associated with sleeping more (not less) than normal. Medicated children had greater difficulty falling asleep than unmedicated children. Conclusions Differences in sleep problems were found as a function of ADHD subtype, comorbidity, and medication. PMID:18676503

  14. Psychosocial treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Daly, Brian P; Creed, Torrey; Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Brown, Ronald T

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews studies examining the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A specific emphasis is placed on evidence-based interventions that include parent training, classroom, academic, and peer interventions. Results indicate that school-aged children respond to behavioral interventions when they are appropriately implemented both at home and in the classroom setting. Combined treatments (behavioral management and stimulant medication) represent the gold standard in ADHD treatment and are often recommended as the first-line treatment option due to the many problems faced by children with ADHD. Diversity issues, although an important consideration in the treatment of ADHD, continue to remain an understudied area. Recommendations for future research are made pertaining to treatment sequencing with regard to behavior management as well as for subgroups of ADHD children who may respond best to specific treatments. PMID:17260167

  15. Peer victimization in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Jamie L; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the correlation of peer victimization to psychosocial adjustment in a sample of children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 303 files of youth who received a psycho-educational assessment were reviewed; of these, 116 had an ADHD diagnosis. The data collected included the Child Behavior Checklist (which includes items assessing peer victimization), Conner's Parent Rating Scale, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale and Children's Depression Inventory. Peer victimization was positively correlated with parent reports of anxiety, depression, social problems, delinquent behavior and aggressive behavior. Children with a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis with ADHD reported higher rates of peer victimization than those without a comorbid diagnosis. Children diagnosed with ADHD along with a comorbid externalizing psychiatric diagnosis experienced higher rates of peer victimization than those with a comorbid internalizing psychiatric diagnosis. The implications of this study concerning peer victimization and psychosocial adjustment in children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:17709359

  16. The Role of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Self-Perceptions of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jessica L.; Heath, Nancy Lee; Finn, Cindy A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared the teacher ratings and self-perceptions of two groups of children with emotional and/or behavioural difficulties: a) Those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and b) those with average or below average levels of hyperactivity and attention. Results showed that the ADHD group was rated more poorly by…

  17. Different Neural Patterns Are Associated with Trials Preceding Inhibitory Errors in Children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinelli, Simona; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Vasa, Roma A.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with difficulty inhibiting impulsive, hyperactive, and off-task behavior. However, no studies have examined whether a distinct pattern of brain activity precedes inhibitory errors in typically developing (TD) children and children with ADHD. In healthy adults, increased…

  18. The Relationship between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirbekk, Benedicte; Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Oerbeck, Beate; Kristensen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT), subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and anxiety disorders (AnxDs). One hundred and forty-one children (90 males, 51 females) aged 7-13 years were assigned to four groups, i.e., referred children with comorbid AnxDs…

  19. Speech-Sound Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Short, Elizabeth J.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Avrich, Allison A.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of speech-sound disorders (SSD) with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the severity of the SSD and the mode of transmission of SSD within the pedigrees of children with SSD. Participants and Methods: The participants were 412 children who were enrolled…

  20. Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Future Substance Use Disorders: Comparative Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charach, Alice; Yeung, Emanuela; Climans, Troy; Lillie, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In recent years cohort studies have examined childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term risk is estimated for development of alcohol, cannabis, combined alcohol and psychoactive SUDs, combined SUDs (nonalcohol), and…

  1. A Comprehensive Investigation of Memory Impairment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sinead M.; Park, Joanne; Seth, Sarah; Coghill, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We conducted a comprehensive and systematic assessment of memory functioning in drug-naive boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Methods: Boys performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) component (storage and central executive) and verbal and spatial storage load tasks,…

  2. Developmental Coordination Disorder in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and Physical Therapy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watemberg, Nathan; Waiserberg, Nilly; Zuk, Luba; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2007-01-01

    Although physical therapy (PT) is effective in improving motor function in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), insufficient data are available on the impact of this intervention in children with combined attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and DCD. This prospective study aimed to establish the prevalence of DCD…

  3. The Impact of Mindfulness Training on Hyperactive Behaviors Demonstrated by Elementary Age Children with a Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carboni, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders in the United States. Although many children with an ADHD diagnosis are prescribed medication to control symptoms, behavioral concerns are still regularly noted in the classroom, home, and other settings. Therefore, school psychologists are often…

  4. The neurological basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ballard, S; Bolan, M; Burton, M; Snyder, S; Pasterczyk-Seabolt, C; Martin, D

    1997-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious disability with long-term consequences. At present the disorder is considered organic in pathology, particularly in regard to central nervous system functioning. This paper reviews research on ADHD. The role of neurochemical stimulation is discussed, and the signs of neurological deficits are explored. Nearly 600,000 young people in the United States receive medication daily for ADHD, and these drugs mimic brain neurotransmitters. The chemical action of these drugs and the cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects are discussed. Side effects and dosage levels are also examined. Basic behavior modification with ADHD children and how these techniques can be combined with effective drug treatment are elaborated. PMID:9426808

  5. Correlates for Academic Performance and School Functioning among Youths with and without Persistent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Szu-Ying; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with academic underachievement and school dysfunction. Little is known whether such association varies with the persistence of ADHD symptoms. The authors investigated school functioning among youths with and without persistent ADHD and identified the clinical correlates for…

  6. Vocational Safety Preference of College Men with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.

    2007-01-01

    For college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is associated with increased accidental injury, mindfulness regarding safety issues in vocational choice may be indicated. In this study, a group of male college students with ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-IA) reported placing less emphasis on job safety…

  7. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Special Education Programming for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Using a Daily Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Pelham, William E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Massetti, Greta M.; Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Naylor, Justin; Yu, Jihnhee; Robins, Melissa; Carnefix, Tarah; Greiner, Andrew R.; Volker, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) make up a considerable proportion of students who receive special education services in schools. The present study aimed to enhance the outcomes of students with ADHD in special education settings by using a daily report card (DRC). Thirty-three children with ADHD in special education…

  8. Out of Sight, Out of Mind/Out of Mind, Out of Site: Schooling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a diagnostic term now indelibly scored on the public psyche. In some quarters, a diagnosis of ADHD is regarded with derision. In others it is welcomed with relief. Despite intense multidisciplinary research, the jury is still out with regard to the "truth" of ADHD. Not surprisingly, the rapid…

  9. Peer Rejection and Friendships in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Contributions to Long-Term Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrug, Sylvie; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hoza, Betsy; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Even after evidence-based treatment, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor long-term outcomes. These outcomes may be partly explained by difficulties in peer functioning, which are common among children with ADHD and which do not respond optimally to standard ADHD treatments. We examined whether peer rejection and…

  10. Effects of Zinc and Ferritin Levels on Parent and Teacher Reported Symptom Scores in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner, Ozgur; Oner, Pinar; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Odabas, Elif; Keser, Nilufer; Karadag, Hasan; Kizilgun, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Objective: It has been suggested that both low iron and zinc levels might be associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, the association of zinc and iron levels with ADHD symptoms has not been investigated at the same time in a single sample. Method: 118 subjects with ADHD (age = 7-14 years, mean = 9.8,…

  11. Practice Brief: Assessing Compensatory Strategies and Motivational Factors in High-Achieving Postsecondary Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Research speculates that high-achieving college students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may demonstrate a set of compensatory strategies and experience areas of difficulty and motivational factors that differ from the general ADHD populace. This Practice Brief used informal surveys with seven undergraduates with ADHD who had…

  12. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This practice parameter describes the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on the current scientific evidence and clinical consensus of experts in the field. This parameter discusses the clinical evaluation for ADHD, comorbid conditions associated with ADHD, research on the…

  13. Elements of Working Memory as Predictors of Goal-Setting Skills in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Anna; Taskinen, Taina; Gronroos, Matti; Haataja, Leena; Lahdetie, Jaana; Korhonen, Tapio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how goal-setting skills of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be predicted with elements of working memory. The study involved 30 children with an ADHD diagnosis and 30 healthy volunteers. The IQ of the participants was assessed, and ADHD symptoms were evaluated by parents. Each of…

  14. Predictors of Secondary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents 6 to 24 Months after Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Schachar, Russell J.; Levin, Harvey S.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Dennis, Maureen; Saunders, Ann; Landis, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the phenomenology and predictive factors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (SADHD). Method: Children without preinjury ADHD 5-14 years old with TBI from consecutive admissions (n = 143) to five trauma centers were observed prospectively from 6 to…

  15. Intra-Individual Variability in ADHD, Autism Spectrum Disorders and Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Grasman, Raoul P. P. P.; Verte, Sylvie; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; van Kammen, Serena M.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for response variability to serve as an endophenotype for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) rests, in part, upon the development of reliable and valid methods to decompose variability. This study investigated the specificity of intra-individual variability (IIV) in 53 children with ADHD by comparing them with 25…

  16. Childhood Maltreatment and Conduct Disorder: Independent Predictors of Criminal Outcomes in ADHD Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Sanctis, Virginia A.; Nomura, Yoko; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment in childhood and criminality as they enter into adolescence and early adulthood. Here, we investigated the effect of moderate to severe childhood maltreatment on later criminality among adolescents/young adults diagnosed with ADHD in…

  17. The Efficacy of Barabasz's Alert Hypnosis and Neurotherapy on Attentiveness, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity in Children with ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Dennis A.; Barabasz, Arreed F.; Barabasz, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    Eighteen children and one young adult ADHD patients were treated with alert hypnosis as an adjunct to neurotherapy. Posttest means for each subscale (Inattentive, Impulsive, and Hyperactive) of the Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale-Home Version were significantly lower than pretest scores. No comparison group was used, and outcomes were…

  18. Adults' versus Children's Perceptions of a Child with Autism or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnum, Marsha; Duffy, Jim; Ferguson, Duncan A.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined public perceptions toward children with autism or with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A convenience sample was used consisting of 30 children (7-12-year-olds) and 30 adults. Participants read a stereotyped scenario featuring either a child with autism, a child with ADHD, or a normal child. Child…

  19. Caregiver Survey of Pharmacotherapy to Treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Marilee A.; Seyfer, Daisha L.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Foster, Jessica E. A.; McClure, Kelsey E.; Coury, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by a unique neurocognitive and behavioral profile, including increased incidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceived helpfulness and side effects of medications used to treat ADHD (methylphenidate class,…

  20. Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature on Social Skills Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Brian P.; Olmi, D. Joe

    1994-01-01

    Social interactions between children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and their teachers, peers, and parents are discussed. Problematic interactions may depend on social skills deficits. Changing the focus to ADHD children who are not experiencing social skills deficits may prove beneficial. A review of the previous literature…

  1. The Effect of Acupressure for Moderating Behavior of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lynn; Sinnott, Jan

    This study examined the effects of an acupressure intervention with two adolescents previously diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An inventory based on standard criteria for diagnosing ADHD was completed by each student, their parents, case workers, and teachers both before and after the intervention. The intervention…

  2. Peer Problems in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Julia D.; Hoza, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    This article extends previous reviews regarding the peer problems of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in several ways. In addition to summarizing past and current literature regarding the social behaviors of children with ADHD, these behaviors are discussed in terms of subtype and gender differences and treatment…

  3. Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Teachers: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kos, Julie M.; Richdale, Amanda L.; Hay, David A.

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence regarding the academic and social difficulties children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience, but less is known about what their teachers do and should know. This article provides a summary of this evidence, including information on the difficulties experienced by students with ADHD, the…

  4. The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzo-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age,…

  5. Old and New Controversies in the Alternative Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Neal L.; Chan, Eugenia

    2005-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become widespread in both referral and primary care populations. We review the purported mechanism of action and available evidence for selected CAM therapies for ADHD. Enduring controversies, such as elimination of artificial…

  6. Time Estimation and Performance on Reproduction Tasks in Subtypes of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Carmen C.; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Barkley, Russell A.; Martinez, Jose V.; Cumba, Eduardo; Ramirez, Rafael R.; Reina, Graciela; Matos, Maribel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared Hispanic children (ages 7 to 11) with combined type (CT, n = 33) and inattentive type (IT, n = 21) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a control group (n = 25) on time-estimation and time-reproduction tasks. The ADHD groups showed larger errors in time reproduction but not in time estimation than the control…

  7. Neural Mechanisms of Interference Control and Time Discrimination in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vloet, Timo D.; Gilsbach, Susanne; Neufang, Susanne; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Both executive functions and time perception are typically impaired in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the exact neural mechanisms underlying these deficits remain to be investigated. Method: Fourteen subjects with ADHD and 14 age- and IQ-matched controls (aged 9 through 15 years) were assessed…

  8. Handwriting Performance and Underlying Factors in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, I-Hsuan; Lee, Tsai-Yun; Chen, Chia-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that handwriting difficulties are common to children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the nature of the task-specific impairments is needed to be clarified. The aim of this study was to describe handwriting capacity in ADHD children without DCD and identify underlying factors of…

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Boys with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durston, Sarah; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Steenhuis, Mark P.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Kahn, Rene S.; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of increased familial risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on brain morphology. Method: Volumetric cerebral measures based on whole brain magnetic resonance imaging scans from 30 boys with ADHD, 30 of their unaffected siblings, and 30 matched controls were compared. Results: Both subjects with…

  10. Can Executive Functions Explain the Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda; McBurnett, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational "chat room" task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the…

  11. Linkages between Child Abuse and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Girls: Behavioral and Social Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe-Smith, Allison M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine whether girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of having histories of abuse and to assess whether the presence of an abuse history may constitute a distinct subgroup of youth with ADHD. Method: We examined rates and correlates of child abuse in an…

  12. Cortical Gray Matter in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batty, Martin J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Pitiot, Alain; Toro, Roberto; Groom, Madeleine J.; Scerif, Gaia; Liotti, Mario; Liddle, Peter F.; Paus, Tomas; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown smaller brain volume and less gray matter in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Relatively few morphological studies have examined structures thought to subserve inhibitory control, one of the diagnostic features of ADHD. We examined one such region, the pars opercularis,…

  13. Clonidine Extended-Release Tablets for Pediatric Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Rakesh; Segal, Scott; Kollins, Scott H.; Khayrallah, Moise

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the efficacy and safety of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets (CLON-XR) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: This 8-week, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial, including 3 weeks of dose escalation, of patients 6 to 17 years old with ADHD evaluated the…

  14. Individuals with a Gifted/Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kelly M.; Olenchak, F. Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on twice-exceptional students who are dual diagnosed as having giftedness and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This area of research is warranted because giftedness and ADHD present similarly but have different ramifications for performance and outcomes. In addition, research inquiry and…

  15. Recognizing and Treating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevatt, Frances; Young, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally diagnosed in children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is now regarded as a life span condition. The academic difficulties experienced by children and adolescents with ADHD have been observed to continue into young adulthood. Treatment outcome studies demonstrate that behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions…

  16. Knowledge of and Attitude towards Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Asian American Families: Challenges in Assessment and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Andy V.

    2013-01-01

    Studies addressing assessment and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have primarily been focused on Caucasian populations, although a growing number of studies have included ethnic minority populations, particularly Hispanic and African American children. Findings regarding the relationship between ADHD diagnosis and race…

  18. Identifying Demographic and Language Profiles of Children with a Primary Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Irene P.; Scullion, Mary; Burns, Sarah; MacEvilly, Deirdre; Brosnan, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    As the language presentation of children with attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (ADHD) is highly complex, this study aims to delineate the profile of a cohort of 40 children with ADHD, aged between 9 and 12 years, attending a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS). Speech and language therapists (SLTs) assessed the children on…

  19. A Candidate Gene Analysis of Methylphenidate Response in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Loo, Sandra K.; Manganiello, Marc; Leung, Michael C.; Tietjens, Jeremy R.; Trinh, Thao; Baweja, Shilpa; Suddath, Robert; Smalley, Susan L.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the potential role of candidate genes in moderating treatment effects of methylphenidate (MPH) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Eighty-two subjects with ADHD aged 6 to 17 years participated in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, crossover titration trial of…

  20. Teaching Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Instructional Strategies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This guide outlines a series of instructional strategies that have proven to be successful in educating children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These techniques have also been found useful with all children. Three major components of a successful strategy for educating children with ADHD are academic instruction, behavioral…

  1. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. NICHCY Briefing Paper. 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Mary

    This briefing paper uses a question-and-answer format to provide basic information about children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). It is intended to help parents, teachers, and others interested in AD/HD know what to look for, what to do, and how to get help. Questions address the following concerns: nature…

  2. Teaching Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Instructional Strategies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This guide outlines a series of instructional strategies that have proven to be successful in educating children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, these techniques are also highly useful for all children. The three main components of a successful strategy for educating children with ADHD are academic instruction,…

  3. Peer-Assessed Outcomes in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoza, Betsy; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Mrug, Sylvie; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Bukowski, William M.; Gold, Joel A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Jensen, Peter S.; Kraemer, Helena C.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Peer-assessed outcomes were examined at the end of treatment (14 months after study entry) for 285 children (226 boys, 59 girls) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were rated by their classmates (2,232 classmates total) using peer sociometric procedures. All children with ADHD were participants in the Multimodal Treatment…

  4. Predicting the Early Developmental Course of Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Campbell, Susan B.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were examined to test whether: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms remain stable from 54 months through early elementary school; behavioral inhibition and attention deficits assessed at 54 months predict ADHD symptoms in elementary…

  5. Delay Aversion in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Empirical Investigation of the Broader Phenotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitsakou, Paraskevi; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Thompson, Margaret; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Delay-related motivational processes are impaired in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here we explore the impact of ADHD on the performance of three putative indices of Delay Aversion (DAv): (i) the choice for immediate over delayed reward; (ii) slower reaction times following delay; and (iii) increased…

  6. Learning and Memory Impairments in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Per N.; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2013-01-01

    There are relatively few studies on learning and delayed memory with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of the present study was to examine acquisition, free delayed memory, and recognition skills in medication naive children and adolescents aged 8-16 years with ADHD combined subtype (36 participants) and inattentive…

  7. Study of Level of Stress in the Parents of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethi, Sujata; Gandhi, Raghu; Anand, Vidhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parents who have children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience high level of stress related to caring for their children. But not much research has been conducted in this area in India. This study aimed to assess the stress of parenting children with ADHD. Methods: This is a clinic based comparative…

  8. Digit Naming Speed Performance among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E.; Christo, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the "Digit Naming Speed Test" (DNS) performance of 20 children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to 20 carefully matched peers without ADHD. Matching variables included age, grade, gender, and word reading ability. Sample construction included procedures that allowed for the identification and removal from…

  9. Relationship of Ferritin to Symptom Ratings Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effect of Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner, Pinar; Oner, Ozgur

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the relation between behavioral symptoms and hematological variables which are related with iron deficiency and anemia, ferritin, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and reticulosite distribution width (RDW) in children and adolescents with pure Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or ADHD comorbid with…

  10. Study of Anxiety in Parents and Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Jose Juan Castro; Bermúdez, M. Olga Escandell; Sevilla, M. del Sol Fortea; Hernán-Pérez, Alejandra Sanjuán

    2015-01-01

    The identification of factors that influence attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will help to develop intervention strategies for the personal and social adjustment of these individuals. The goal of the study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and adolescents with ADHD and the anxiety that their parents…

  11. Predictors of Stability of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes from Childhood to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Richard D.; Huang, Hongyan; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Neuman, Rosalind J.; Reiersen, Angela M.; Henderson, Cynthia A.; Reich, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    A 5-year prospective study attempts to determine the predictors of stability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes from childhood to young adulthood. The results conclude that population-defined ADHD subtype criteria indicate improved diagnostic stability over 5 years.

  12. What Knowledge and Conceptions Do Irish Primary Schoolteachers Hold on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria Ann

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis rates have increased significantly in recent times. A teacher's role is crucial in determining if a child will be referred for an ADHD assessment. Teachers' opinions and observations are also required for and play a huge role in the actual assessment process. For this reason,…

  13. Use of the Differential Ability Scales for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Braunstein, Dania J.; Dumont, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The validity of the Differential Ability Scales (DAS) was assessed among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a matched control sample. The sample included 45 children with ADHD (69% with comorbidity) and 45 controls matched by age, gender, ethnicity, and parental educational level. Multivariate analysis of variance…

  14. Biomarkers and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scassellati, Catia; Bonvicini, Cristian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gennarelli, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether peripheral biochemical markers (biomarkers) might differentiate patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from non-ADHD individuals. Method: We conducted a systematic search and a series of meta-analyses of case-control studies comprising studies from 1969 to 2011. Results: We identified 210…

  15. The Neural Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An ALE Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Steven G.; Bannon, Katie; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent and commonly studied forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Causal models of ADHD have long implicated dysfunction in fronto-striatal and frontal-parietal networks supporting executive function, a hypothesis that can now be examined…

  16. Efficacy of Teacher In-Service Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Heather A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) evidence many problems in the classroom. Teacher in-service training is routinely used to inform school professionals about a number of special topics; however, the efficacy of such in-service training for ADHD has not been established. The present study examined the efficacy of brief…

  17. Seizure Risk in Patients with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Atomoxetine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernicke, Joachim F.; Holdridge, Karen Chilcott; Jin, Ling; Edison, Timothy; Zhang, Shuyu; Bangs, Mark E.; Allen, Albert J.; Ball, Susan; Dunn, David

    2007-01-01

    The comorbidity of seizures, epilepsy, and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prompted the examination of whether atomoxetine use for ADHD is associated with an increased risk of seizures. Seizures and seizure-related symptoms were reviewed from two independent Eli Lilly and Company databases: the atomoxetine clinical trials database…

  18. An Evaluation of the Response Modulation Hypothesis in Relation to Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Richard F.; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2006-01-01

    Several hypotheses related to Newman's (e.g., Patterson & Newman, 1993) response modulation hypothesis were examined among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 18) and normal controls (n = 23). Consistent with predictions, youth with ADHD committed more passive avoidance errors (PAEs) than controls during the latter…

  19. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Perspectives of Participants in the Identification and Treatment Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Judy C.

    2001-01-01

    Questions the rising incidence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) diagnosis in the United States. Suggests that AD/HD is a socially constructed phenomenon rather than biologically based. Urges educators, medical personnel, and parents to take a holistic view of each child, with a serious examination of the wide range of causation…

  20. The Developmental Trajectories of Executive Function of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ying; Shuai, Lan; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Qian, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of executive function (EF) of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Han Chinese. Five hundred and fifteen children and adolescents with ADHD and 249 healthy controls took part in this study. All of them were administered four EF tests capturing…

  1. Evidence-Based Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Measuring Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Steven W.; Youngstrom, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This column focuses on the valid, reliable, and useful measurement of treatment effects in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated in practice settings. The case is presented of Polly, an 11 year-old female who was evaluated and determined to have probably met diagnostic criteria for ADHD, combined…

  2. Does Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Exacerbate Executive Dysfunction in Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jonathan M.; Arnold, Shelley S.; Pride, Natalie A.; North, Kathryn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Although approximately 40% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) meet diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the impact of ADHD on the executive functioning of children with NF1 is not understood. We investigated whether spatial working memory and response inhibition are impaired in children with…

  3. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, William E., Jr.; Fabiano, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    Pelham, Wheeler, and Chronis (1998) reviewed the treatment literature on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and concluded behavioral parent training (BPT) and behavioral classroom management (BCM) were well-established treatments for children with ADHD. This review updates and extends the finding of the prior review. Studies conducted…

  4. Children Say the Darndest Things: Physical Activity and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, William J.; Wilkinson, Shawn; Pressé, Cindy; Joober, Ridha; Grizenko, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical educators suggested that they are not well-informed about behaviors of children with disabilities, especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD represent a significant number of students in school systems worldwide who often experience difficulties in performing fundamental movement skills.…

  5. Speed of Inhibition Predicts Teacher--Rated Medication Response in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheres, Anouk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating whether one of the key deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), slow response inhibition, predicted the response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment. In order to address this issue, we used Stop Signal Reaction Times (SSRTs) measured at baseline in 20 medication-naive boys with ADHD as…

  6. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Associated Features among Children in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecendreux, Michel; Konofal, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies point to the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be similar around the world. There is, however, a wide variety in estimates. The prevalence of ADHD in youth has never been examined in France. Method: Starting with 18 million telephone numbers, 7,912 numbers are randomly selected. Among the…

  7. Written Composition Performance of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Ferrer, Manuel Soriano; Fortea, Inmaculada Baixauli

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with learning disabilities. The present study examined the written composition of children with ADHD, which depends to a large degree on continuous self-regulation and attentional control skills for organizing information and maintaining the level of effort. Fifty children…

  8. Stimulus-Dependent Dopamine Release in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikstrom, Sverker; Soderlund, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to an attenuated and dysfunctional dopamine system. Normally, a high extracellular dopamine level yields a tonic dopaminergic input that down-regulates stimuli-evoked phasic dopamine responses through autoreceptors. Abnormally low tonic extracellular dopamine in ADHD up-regulates the…

  9. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Context of a High Intellectual Quotient/Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with a high intellectual quotient (IQ) and/or giftedness is controversial with many opinions existing on both sides of the debate. Relationships between IQ and cognitive vulnerabilities frequently described in the ADHD population vary in strength. Data asserting the…

  10. School-Based Interventions for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Research Implications and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Sherrill, Joel

    2007-01-01

    In this issue of "School Psychology Review," various authors devoted their articles to school-based interventions for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD has been one of the most extensively investigated mental conditions of childhood. Still, important questions regarding the extent of treatment effectiveness remain…

  11. Medication and School Intervention for Elementary Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morisoli, Kelly; McLaughlin, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects increasing numbers of children in every country around the world. Children who are diagnosed with ADHD are constantly having difficulties in the classroom environment. There are various medication therapies and evidence based procedures (EBP) which teachers can employ to further assist…

  12. Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resource for School and Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This resource guide designed for families and educators provides information on how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is identified and treated. The resource includes sections on legal requirements, treatment options, educational and medical evaluations, how ADHD affects school performance, and evidence-based hints on how to improve…

  13. The Ideal versus the Feasible when Designing Interventions for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Margaret M.

    2007-01-01

    As a practitioner who has worked with youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for the past 30 years, the author has done her best to stay current with the research literature on ADHD, particularly intervention research. However, she was always bothered by one nagging thought. Sure, there is good research to show effective…

  14. Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resource for School and Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This resource guide designed for families and educators provides information on how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is identified and treated. The resource includes sections on legal requirements, treatment options educational and medical evaluations, how ADHD affects school performance, and helpful evidence-based hints on how to…

  15. Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Diverse Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Regina; Mason, Dana M.; Bell, Lindsay; Porter, Phillip; Garvan, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a diverse community sample. Method: ADHD screening of a school district sample of 1,615 students aged 5 to 11 years was followed by a case-control study 8 years later. High-risk youths meeting full (n = 94) and subthreshold (n = 75) DSM-IV…

  16. School Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Where to from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author considers some issues concerning future research into school-based assessment and management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). He focuses on a few issues of some relevance to school interventions for children and teens with ADHD. He features three articles that found that less intensive interventions…

  17. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

  18. Clonidine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: II. ECG Changes and Adverse Events Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Patel, Nick C.; Robb, Adelaide S.; McDermott, Michael P.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Palumbo, Donna; Harris, Peter; Sallee, Floyd R.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the safety and tolerance of clonidine, alone or with methylphenidate as a form of treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) is conducted. Results conclude that clonidine used alone or in combination with methylphenidate were safe and well tolerated in children with ADHD.

  19. Ethnic Disparities in Special Education Labeling among Children with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Davis, Jasmine K.; Bevans, Katherine; Guevara, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined disparities in special education labeling among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by merging calendar year 2002 special education records and Medicaid mental health claims for 4,852 children who had been diagnosed with ADHD in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Thirty-eight percent were receiving…

  20. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Bathula, Deepti; Herting, Megan; Schmitt, Colleen; Kroenke, Christopher D.; Fair, Damien; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identification of biomarkers is a priority for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies have documented macrostructural brain alterations in ADHD, but few have examined white matter microstructure, particularly in preadolescent children. Given dramatic white matter maturation across childhood, microstructural differences…

  1. Temperament and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Development of a Multiple Pathway Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Sachek, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the parallels between major theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relevant temperament domains, summarizing recent research from our laboratories on (a) child temperament and (b) adult personality traits related to ADHD symptoms. These data are convergent in suggesting a role of effortful control and…

  2. EEG Analysis of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Reading Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Adam R.; Barry, Robert J.; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) differences between children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with reading disabilities (ADHD + RD) (n=20) or without (n=20), and 20 controls. Results indicate differences found in the ADHD + RD group represent an electrophysiological component associated with the reading disability…

  3. Malondialdehyde levels in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Mahmut; Selek, Salih; Gergerlioglu, H. Serdar; Savas, Haluk A.; Yilmaz, H. Ramazan; Yuce, Murat; Ekici, Giyasettin

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the biochemical basis of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (A-ADHD), we compared lipid peroxidation status in the plasma of A-ADHD patients, and that of control subjects without A-ADHD by quantifying the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of fatty acid oxidation. We aimed to examine the association between MDA and A-ADHD. Method The study comprised 20 A-ADHD patients from Gaziantep University Sahinbey Research Hospital Psychiatry Clinic, diagnosed by 2 psychiatrists (H.A.S. and S.S.) according to the Turkish version of the adult ADD/ADHD DSM-IV-Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale, and 21 healthy volunteers. Malondialdehyde levels were measured in plasma samples of both study groups. Results The mean (standard deviation [SD]) MDA levels in patients (2.44 [0.84] nmol/mL) were significantly higher than those of control subjects (0.36 [0.20] nmol/mL) (t = 11.013, df = 39, p < 0.01). MDA levels were correlated with overall number of criteria met (n = 20, p = 0.01, Ro = 0.56) and total hyperactivity/impulsivity score (n = 20, p = 0.02, Ro = 0.51). Conclusion The fact that MDA levels were increased in A-ADHD could be an indication of increased oxidative stress in this disease. We suggest that such changes may have a pathological role in A-ADHD. This is the first study evaluating the MDA levels in A-ADHD, and our findings may provide a scientific guide for the further clinical enzymologic and biochemical studies on this disorder. PMID:18043768

  4. Parenting teens with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Chaplin, Margaret; Godsay, Viraj; Soovajian, Victoria

    2014-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presents in childhood with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and is associated with functional impairments. These children tend to display a variety of disruptive behaviors, which may worsen in adolescence. Teens with ADHD may show high levels of defiance, posing significant challenges for parents. Early efforts to understand parenting in the context of teen ADHD reveal high levels of parental stress and reactivity in response to the teen's ADHD symptoms. Subsequent research recognized that some of these parents have ADHD or other psychopathology that may contribute to maladaptive parenting. However, some parents adjust and demonstrate optimism and resilience in the face of their teens' ADHD. Recent research has identified parental factors (eg, emotional intelligence) and interventions (eg, mindfulness training) that may improve parenting/teen relationships and the developmental outcomes of teens. This article explores parenting teens with ADHD with a focus on these novel interventions. PMID:24982442

  5. The Family Psychosocial Characteristics of Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional or Conduct Problems in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satake, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the correlates of family psychosocial characteristics among Japanese children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ according to the comorbid condition of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Three groups of children (12 ADHD, 15 ADHD + ODD/ CD, and 14 control) were compared on…

  6. Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnsil, Chawanun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

  7. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues.

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V; Rohde, Luis A

    2016-06-01

    For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, and atomoxetine, and psychosocial interventions, to those seen in children and adolescents. As a result, awareness of ADHD in adults has rapidly increased and new clinical practice has emerged across the world. Despite this progress, treatment of adult ADHD in Europe and many other regions of the world is not yet common practice, and diagnostic services are often unavailable or restricted to a few specialist centres. This situation is remarkable given the strong evidence base for safe and effective treatments. Here we address some of the key conceptual issues surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD relevant to practising health-care professionals working with adult populations. We conclude that ADHD should be recognised in the same way as other common adult mental health disorders, and that failure to recognise and treat ADHD is detrimental to the wellbeing of many patients seeking help for common mental health problems. PMID:27183901

  8. The Coincidence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Creativity. Attention Deficit Disorder Research-Based Decision Making Series 9508.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramond, Bonnie

    This monograph examines the particular problems that can beset creative children when their behaviors are mistaken for the frequently diagnosed psychoeducational condition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A brief history of ADHD is given, tracing the difficulty that researchers have experienced in defining and accurately…

  9. When attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder co-occurs with anxiety disorders: effects on treatment.

    PubMed

    Manassis, Katharina

    2007-08-01

    Anxiety disorders (ANX) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly co-occur; this comorbidity is associated with a high degree of impairment and a poor long-term prognosis. In this review, the nature of this comorbidity and its treatment will be described, and an approach to treating children with ANX + ADHD will be presented. The etiology of ANX + ADHD is controversial, with biological, developmental, environmental and cognitive factors examined in various studies. There is increasing evidence that ANX + ADHD may be distinct from each separate disorder, and may represent a neuropsychiatric condition that involves dysregulation in both anxiety and ADHD domains. Treatment usually requires a combination of medication and psychotherapeutic intervention. Stimulant medications have been found most helpful so far compared with other medications, although atomoxetine is also being studied. There is limited evidence for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and their potential for behavioral activation may be problematic in these children. Intensive behavior modification was shown to be beneficial in conjunction with medication for ANX + ADHD in a multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been used to address anxiety symptoms, but may need to be individualized in ANX + ADHD as cognitive limitations and ADHD behaviors may otherwise interfere. Parental anxious or ADHD traits and the child's developmental level must also be considered to optimize treatment. PMID:17678493

  10. Self-Handicapping Prior to Academic-Oriented Tasks in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Medication Effects and Comparisons with Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Craig, Rebecca; Pelham, William E., Jr.; King, Sara

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined self-handicapping prior to academic-oriented tasks in children with and without ADHD and examined whether stimulant medication influenced self-handicapping. Participants were 61 children ages 6 to 13, including 22 children with ADHD tested after taking a placebo, 21 children with ADHD tested after taking stimulant medication,…

  11. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Iramina, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS) are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7–11 years (27 males, six females) and twenty five adults participants aged 21–29 years old (19 males, six females) participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD. PMID:26797613

  12. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Iramina, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS) are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7-11 years (27 males, six females) and twenty five adults participants aged 21-29 years old (19 males, six females) participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD. PMID:26797613

  13. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper. PMID:26601963

  14. Association of ADHD, Tics, and Anxiety with Dopamine Transporter ("DAT1") Genotype in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Hatchwell, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with high rates of psychiatric disturbance to include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder, and anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) functional polymorphism located in the…

  15. Assessment of Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messina, Lucinete de Freitas; Tiedemann, Klaus Bruno; de Andrade, Enio Roberto; Primi, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This research investigated the cognitive abilities and the working memory in children and youngsters with three different types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): (a) mainly with attention-deficit, (b) hyperactive and impulsive, and (c) combined. Method: A computerized test called Infant Cognitive Abilities Test, which…

  16. Subtypes versus Severity Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Muthen, Bengt; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Swanson, James M.; Yang, May H.; Taanila, Anja; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to analyze whether behaviors of attention-deficit, hyperactivity among adolescents in Northern Finland reflect distinct subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that the majority of the Cohort falls into low-scoring groups of unaffecteds while a high-scoring minority group reflects an ADHD…

  17. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study with 30 children showing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found a normal diurnal saliva cortisol rhythm in only 43.3 percent of the subjects and a dexamethasone suppression in 46.7 percent, with both these abnormalities more frequent in the severely than the mildly hyperactive group. Results suggest abnormalities in…

  18. A Review of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Women and Girls: Uncovering This Hidden Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Madhoo, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical presentation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in women and girls and factors influencing proper diagnosis and treatment. Data Sources: A PubMed search was conducted in April 9, 2012 for English-language publications from the previous 10 years. Search terms included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and AD/HD combined with gender, girls, females, women, continuity, discontinuity, gap, treatment, untreated, and lack of treatment. Study Selection/Data Extraction: A total of 41 articles were reviewed for relevance. Reference lists from relevant articles were reviewed for additional publications; sources known to the authors were also included. Results: Attitudes about ADHD among individuals with ADHD and knowledgeable informants (families, teachers, colleagues) vary on the basis of the diagnosed individual’s gender. The ADHD prevalence rates are higher among boys than girls. A low index of clinical suspicion exists for girls; their presentation is considered “subthreshold” because inattentiveness is more prominent than hyperactivity/impulsivity. Females with ADHD may develop better coping strategies than males to mask their symptoms. Lastly, anxiety and depression, common comorbidities in female patients with ADHD, can lead to missed or misdiagnosis. If not properly diagnosed and treated, girls with ADHD experience the same negative consequences as boys, including poor academic performance and behavioral problems. Unique issues related to hormonal effects on ADHD expression and treatment response are also experienced by women and girls. Conclusions: Accurate ADHD diagnosis in women and girls requires establishing a symptom history and an understanding of its gender-specific presentation. Coexisting anxiety and depression are prominent in female patients with ADHD; satisfactory academic achievement should not rule out an ADHD diagnosis. PMID:25317366

  19. Validity of DSM-IV attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions and subtypes.

    PubMed

    Willcutt, Erik G; Nigg, Joel T; Pennington, Bruce F; Solanto, Mary V; Rohde, Luis A; Tannock, Rosemary; Loo, Sandra K; Carlson, Caryn L; McBurnett, Keith; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2012-11-01

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) specify two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that are used to define three nominal subtypes: predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-H), predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I), and combined type (ADHD-C). To aid decision making for DSM-5 and other future diagnostic systems, a comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis of 546 studies was completed to evaluate the validity of the DSM-IV model of ADHD. Results indicated that DSM-IV criteria identify individuals with significant and persistent impairment in social, academic, occupational, and adaptive functioning when intelligence, demographic factors, and concurrent psychopathology are controlled. Available data overwhelmingly support the concurrent, predictive, and discriminant validity of the distinction between inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, and indicate that nearly all differences among the nominal subtypes are consistent with the relative levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that define the subtypes. In contrast, the DSM-IV subtype model is compromised by weak evidence for the validity of ADHD-H after first grade, minimal support for the distinction between ADHD-I and ADHD-C in studies of etiological influences, academic and cognitive functioning, and treatment response, and the marked longitudinal instability of all three subtypes. Overall, we conclude that the DSM-IV ADHD subtypes provide a convenient clinical shorthand to describe the functional and behavioral correlates of current levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, but do not identify discrete subgroups with sufficient long-term stability to justify the classification of distinct forms of the disorder. Empirical support is stronger for an alternative model that would replace the subtypes with dimensional

  20. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Kevin; Smart, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determine the prevalence and symptomatology of ADHD in postsecondary students, to examine its effects on academic achievement, and discuss appropriate management. The prevalence of ADHD symptoms among postsecondary students ranges from 2% to 12%. Students with ADHD have lower grade point averages and are more likely to withdraw from courses, to indulge in risky behaviors, and to have other psychiatric comorbidities than their non-ADHD peers. Ensuring that students with ADHD receive appropriate support requires documented evidence of impairment to academic and day-to-day functioning. In adults with ADHD, stimulants improve concentration and attention, although improved academic productivity remains to be demonstrated. ADHD negatively impacts academic performance in students and increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol problems. Affected students may therefore benefit from disability support services, academic accommodations, and pharmacological treatment. PMID:25298735