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1

Correlation of the AUA symptom index with urodynamics in patients with suspected benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

The AUA symptom index is widely used to access patients with suspected benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In order to determine how well symptoms as assessed by this index correlate with urodynamic findings, we evaluated 83 patients referred to our urology clinics with symptoms of BPH. All patients completed the AUA symptom index and then underwent a multichannel urodynamic evaluation. Patients were classified as obstructed, unobstructed, or equivocal according to the Abrams Griffiths nomogram. The AUA symptom index was recorded as the total score and, for purposes of symptom classification, further subdivided into an obstructive score (questions 3, 5, and 6) and an irritative score (questions 1, 2, 4, and 7). The mean age of the 83 patients was 67 (45-84). The mean total AUA symptom score was 16.6 (6-34), mean obstructive score was 6.1 (0-15), and the mean irritative score 10.4 (3-20). Pressure flow analysis using the Abrams-Griffiths nomogram classified 28 patients (34%) as obstructed, 17 (20%) as unobstructed, and 38 (46%) as equivocal. Using the analysis of variance procedure (ANOVA) there was no statistically significant difference in the mean total (P = 0.446), obstructive (P = 0.979), or irritative (P = 0.136) scores. Detrusor instability was present in 45 patients (54%). While total and obstructive scores were not significantly different in patients with detrusor instability vs. those with stable bladders, irritative scores were higher in patients with instability (P = 0.028) using the T-test procedure. Using ANOVA, the difference in post void residual (PVR) between the groups was not quite statistically significant (P = 0.057).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7530554

Nitti, V W; Kim, Y; Combs, A J

1994-01-01

2

The quality of life in adult female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: A comprehensive study of the impact of genital malformations and chronic disease on female patients life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia have been frequently studied in order to determine the impact of prenatal androgen exposure on various aspects of psychological, psychosocial and psychosexual development. There is no published study to evaluate the impact of the genital malformation, genital operations and chronic medication on the quality of life in adult females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We

Ursula Kuhnle; Monika Bullinger; H. P. Schwarz

1995-01-01

3

Determining scientific impact using a collaboration index  

PubMed Central

Researchers collaborate on scientific projects that are often measured by both the quantity and the quality of the resultant peer-reviewed publications. However, not all collaborators contribute to these publications equally, making metrics such as the total number of publications and the H-index insufficient measurements of individual scientific impact. To remedy this, we use an axiomatic approach to assign relative credits to the coauthors of a given paper, referred to as the A-index for its axiomatic foundation. In this paper, we use the A-index to compute the weighted sums of peer-reviewed publications and journal impact factors, denoted as the C- and P-indexes for collaboration and productivity, respectively. We perform an in-depth analysis of bibliometric data for 186 biomedical engineering faculty members and from extensive simulation. It is found that these axiomatically weighted indexes better capture a researcher’s scientific caliber than do the total number of publications and the H-index, allowing for fairer and sharper evaluation of researchers with diverse collaborative behaviors. PMID:23720314

Stallings, Jonathan; Vance, Eric; Yang, Jiansheng; Vannier, Michael W.; Liang, Jimin; Pang, Liaojun; Dai, Liang; Ye, Ivan; Wang, Ge

2013-01-01

4

Endometrial Hyperplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... is endometrial hyperplasia? Endometrial hyperplasia occurs when the endometrium , the lining of the uterus , becomes too thick. ... to cancer of the uterus. How does the endometrium normally change throughout the menstrual cycle? The endometrium ...

5

Exendin-4 shows no effects on the prostatic index in high-fat-diet-fed rat with benign prostatic hyperplasia by improving insulin resistance.  

PubMed

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease globally, and accumulating evidence has indicated an association between BPH, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Exendin-4 is widely used in clinics, which could enhance the proliferation of pancreatic ? cells. The ability of exendin-4 to promote tumorigenesis has been of concern, and whether exendin-4 would enhance the propagation of BPH is not fully understood. We aimed to determine whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) were expressed in rat prostate and to determine the effect of exendin-4 on prostate of BPH. Male Wistar rats were used and assigned to six groups: normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD + exendin-4, HFD + BPH, HFD + BPH + exendin-4 and HFD + BPH + rosiglitazone group. After castration, steroids were injected subcutaneously for 4 weeks to induce BPH. Rats were kept on high-fat diet to induce IR. Treatment groups were treated with exendin-4 and rosiglitazone. Prostatic index and HOMA-IR index were used to evaluate the prostatic hyperplasia status and the degree of IR respectively. The expression of GLP-1R was indicated not only by immunohistochemistry, but also by Western blot analysis. The expression of GLP-1R was significantly higher, and HOMA-IR index and body weight significantly decreased after administration of exendin-4. However, no significant differences in the prostatic index were observed between exendin-4 treatment groups and non-exendin-4 treatment groups. Prostatic index was not influenced by exendin-4 maybe by improving IR and weight loss. PMID:24605934

Zheng, J-X; Xiao, Y-C; Hu, Y-R; Hao, M; Kuang, H-Y

2015-03-01

6

On the Impact of Random Index-Partitioning on Index Compression  

E-print Network

The performance of processing search queries depends heavily on the stored index size. Accordingly, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of efficient compression techniques for inverted indexes. Roughly, index compression relies on two factors: the ordering of the indexed documents, which strives to position similar documents in proximity, and the encoding of the inverted lists that result from the ordered stream of documents. Large commercial search engines index tens of billions of pages of the ever growing Web. The sheer size of their indexes dictates the distribution of documents among thousands of servers in a scheme called local index-partitioning, such that each server indexes only several millions pages. Due to engineering and runtime performance considerations, random distribution of documents to servers is common. However, random index-partitioning among many servers adversely impacts the resulting index sizes, as it decreases the effectiveness of document ordering sche...

Feldman, M; Somekh, O; Vornovitsky, K

2011-01-01

7

Impact of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Pharmacological Treatment on Transrectal Prostate Biopsy Adverse Effects  

PubMed Central

Background. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) pharmacological treatment may promote a decrease in prostate vascularization and bladder neck relaxation with theoretical improvement in prostate biopsy morbidity, though never explored in the literature. Methods. Among 242 consecutive unselected patients who underwent prostate biopsy, after excluding those with history of prostate biopsy/surgery or using medications not for BPH, we studied 190 patients. On the 15th day after procedure patients were questioned about symptoms lasting over a week and classified according to pharmacological BPH treatment. Results. Thirty-three patients (17%) were using alpha-blocker exclusively, five (3%) 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor exclusively, twelve (6%) patients used both medications, and 140 (74%) patients used none. There was no difference in regard to age among groups (P = 0.5). Postbiopsy adverse effects occurred as follows: hematuria 96 (50%), hematospermia 53 (28%), hematochezia 22 (12%), urethrorrhagia 19 (10%), fever 5 (3%), and pain 20 (10%). There was a significant negative correlation between postbiopsy hematuria and BPH pharmacological treatment with stronger correlation for combined use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor and alpha-blocker over 6 months (P = 0.0027). Conclusion. BPH pharmacological treatment, mainly combined for at least 6 months seems to protect against prostate biopsy adverse effects. Future studies are necessary to confirm our novel results. PMID:24876834

Falcone, Ciro Eduardo; Amstalden Neto, Arnaldo; Moretti, Tomás Bernardo Costa; Magna, Luis Alberto; Denardi, Fernandes; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira

2014-01-01

8

The Impact of Diabetes Type 2 in the Pathogenesis of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Clinical observation of larger prostate glands in men with diabetes mellitus type 2 led some investigators to hypothesize that an association between these two conditions exists. In fact, both diseases are very common in men as they age and seem to be sharing similar epidemiologic features. Several studies examining the above hypothesis were yielded. Aim. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the existing literature focusing on the coexistence of BPH and diabetes mellitus type 2 and to elucidate whether or not an association among these conditions exists. Methods. We identified studies published from 1990 onwards by searching the MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine. Initial search terms were benign prostatic hyperplasia, epidemiology, and risk factor, combined with diet hyperinsulinemia, and diabetes mellitus type 2. Results. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and hyperinsulinemia are quite common conditions and often coexist with BPH. There are several studies (observational, epidemiological, and experimental) examining the association between them in literature. Conclusion. Evidence suggests that an association between BPH and diabetes through a common pathogenic mechanism is possible. The specific pathway interfering in the development of both conditions is still poorly investigated; thus, the exact relationship of BPH to diabetes remains unclear. PMID:19902013

Stamatiou, K.; Lardas, M.; Kostakos, E.; Koutsonasios, V.; Michail, E.

2009-01-01

9

Impact of Metabolic Syndrome on Response to Medical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the response to medical therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) after a 3-month period of treatment. Materials and Methods This was a cohort study of 100 patients, 47 with MetS and 53 without MetS, referred to either the primary care unit or referral hospital with BPH who had moderate lower urinary tract symptoms of prostate involvement and were candidates for medical treatment. Our main outcome was response to medical treatment with prazosin 1 mg twice a day and finasteride 5 mg daily in patients with BPH on the basis of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare BPH treatment response in patients with and without MetS before and after receiving treatment. Results The mean volume of the prostate was significantly higher in MetS patients than in patients without MetS (57±32.65 mL compared with 46.00±20.19 mL, p=0.036). The control group demonstrated an 11-unit reduction in IPSS, whereas those with MetS showed a reduction in the symptom score of only 6 units (p<0.001). Regarding the components of MetS separately, triglyceride (p<0.001), fasting blood sugar (p=0.001), and waist circumference (p=0.028) significantly affected the clinical progression of BPH. The observational nature of this study may be a limitation in comparison with an interventional study. Conclusions The results of the present study showed that MetS can negatively affect the response to medical treatment of BPH. Therefore, it is necessary to consider MetS in selecting patients with BPH for drug therapy. PMID:25512816

Cyrus, Ali; Goodarzi, Davood; Talaei, Afsaneh; Moradi, Ali; Rafiee, Mohammad; Moghimi, Mehrdad; Shahbazi, Elham; Farmani, Elaheh

2014-01-01

10

ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF P-INDEX IMPLEMENTATION IN PENNSYLVANIA  

E-print Network

ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF P-INDEX IMPLEMENTATION IN PENNSYLVANIA PHASE II PROJECT REPORT Submitted to: Pennsylvania State Conservation Commission Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture 2301 North, and Doug Beegle Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, 116 ASI University

Guiltinan, Mark

11

[Impact of moss soil crust on vegetation indexes interpretation].  

PubMed

Vegetation indexes were the most common and the most important parameters to characterizing large-scale terrestrial ecosystems. It is vital to get precise vegetation indexes for running land surface process models and computation of NPP change, moisture and heat fluxes over surface. Biological soil crusts (BSC) are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid, polar and sub-polar regions. The spectral characteristics of dry and wet BSCs were quite different, which could produce much higher vegetation indexes value for the wet BSC than for the dry BSC as reported. But no research was reported about whether the BSC would impact on regional vegetation indexes and how much dry and wet BSC had impact on regional vegetation indexes. In the present paper, the most common vegetation index NDVI were used to analyze how the moss soil crusts (MSC) dry and wet changes affect regional NDVI values. It was showed that 100% coverage of the wet MSC have a much higher NDVI value (0.657) than the dry MSC NDVI value (0.320), with increased 0.337. Dry and wet MSC NDVI value reached significant difference between the levels of 0.000. In the study area, MSC, which had the average coverage of 12.25%, would have a great contribution to the composition of vegetation index. Linear mixed model was employed to analyze how the NDVI would change in regional scale as wet MSC become dry MSC inversion. The impact of wet moss crust than the dry moss crust in the study area can make the regional NDVI increasing by 0.04 (14.3%). Due to the MSC existence and rainfall variation in arid and semi-arid zones, it was bound to result in NDVI change instability in a short time in the region. For the wet MSC's spectral reflectance curve is similar to those of the higher plants, misinterpretation of the vegetation dynamics could be more severe due to the "maximum value composite" (MVC) technique used to compose the global vegetation maps in the study of vegetation dynamics. The researches would be useful for detecting and mapping MSC from remote sensing imagery. It also is to the advantage to employing vegetation index wisely. PMID:21595239

Fang, Shi-bo; Zhang, Xin-shi

2011-03-01

12

Adrenal medullary hyperplasia. Hyperplasia-pheochromocytoma sequence.  

PubMed

We present a case of unilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia in a 63-year-old woman with clinical signs and symptoms of pheochromocytoma unassociated with multiple endocrine neoplasia. The surgically removed adrenal gland revealed diffuse medullary hyperplasia with multiple micronodules measuring up to 2 mm. The micronodules were composed of enlarged chromaffin cells with atypia, histologically similar to those of pheochromocytoma, forming small solid alveolar patterns separated by a fibrovascular stroma. Removal of the hyperplastic adrenal gland resulted in disappearance of paroxysmal nocturnal hypertension and palpitation. These results suggest that diffuse and nodular medullary hyperplasia is the precursor of pheochromocytoma. PMID:2260475

Kurihara, K; Mizuseki, K; Kondo, T; Ohoka, H; Mannami, M; Kawai, K

1990-09-01

13

Differentiation of Rebound and Lymphoid Thymic Hyperplasia from Anterior Mediastinal Tumors with Dual-Echo Chemical-Shift MR Imaging in Adulthood: Reliability of the Chemical-Shift Ratio and Signal Intensity Index.  

PubMed

Purpose To prospectively evaluate (a) effectiveness and limits of dual-echo chemical-shift magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for distinguishing hyperplastic thymus from anterior mediastinal tumors in adulthood by using chemical-shift ratio ( CSR chemical-shift ratio ) and signal intensity index ( SII signal intensity index ), with proposal of optimal threshold value for each, and (b) whether age affects these indexes. Materials and Methods Study was institutional review board approved, with informed consent obtained. Ninety-two subjects (53 men, 39 women; age range, 18-84 years) were divided into a rebound and lymphoid hyperplasia group (group A, 30 patients) and a tumor group (group B, 62 patients). MR images were assessed; interrater reliability was evaluated. Differences in CSR chemical-shift ratio and SII signal intensity index were tested with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Discrimination abilities of CSR chemical-shift ratio and SII signal intensity index were evaluated with logistic regression models, and optimal cutoff points were proposed. Quantitative parameters were correlated with age by using Pearson correlation coefficients. Results Interreader agreement was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient: CSR chemical-shift ratio , 0.893; SII signal intensity index , 0.898). Mean CSR chemical-shift ratio and SII signal intensity index ± standard deviation were 0.545 ± 0.162 and 46.29% ± 18.41 for group A and 1.045 ± 0.094 and -0.06% ± 4.89 for group B, respectively, with significant differences for both indexes between groups (P < .0001). No overlap was found for SII signal intensity index between groups; CSR chemical-shift ratio values overlapped in a few younger adults. Distinguishing hyperplastic thymus from tumors was better with SII signal intensity index than CSR chemical-shift ratio . Respective sensitivity, specificity, and cutoff points were 100%, 100%, and 8.92% for SII signal intensity index and 100%, 96.7%, and 0.849 for CSR chemical-shift ratio . Significant correlation was found for CSR chemical-shift ratio (r = -0.761) and SII signal intensity index (r = 0.821) with age in group A (P < .001). For group B, significant correlation with age was seen for CSR chemical-shift ratio (r = 0.702, P < .001) but not SII signal intensity index (r = -0.196, P = .127). All subjects but one in group A and none in group B had signal intensity decrease at chemical-shift MR imaging. Conclusion With dual-echo chemical-shift MR imaging, SII signal intensity index and CSR chemical-shift ratio have high accuracy to distinguish thymic hyperplasia from tumors, although overlapped CSR chemical-shift ratio values can occur in early adulthood. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:25105246

Priola, Adriano M; Priola, Sandro M; Ciccone, Giovannino; Evangelista, Andrea; Cataldi, Aldo; Gned, Dario; Pazè, Francesco; Ducco, Lorena; Moretti, Federica; Brundu, Maria; Veltri, Andrea

2015-01-01

14

Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact

Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

2011-01-01

15

The role of inflammation in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and its potential impact on medical therapy.  

PubMed

A chronic prostatic inflammation seems to play a crucial role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) pathogenesis and progression. Therefore, inflammation could represent a new potential target for medical therapy of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to BPH (LUTS/BPH). This review article analyzes the evidence supporting the role of inflammation in the onset and progression of BPH, and it assesses the potential impact of previous mechanisms on medical therapy of LUTS/BPH. Literature data support the role of inflammation as a relevant factor in the pathogenesis of BPH. Indeed, several data favour the role of infiltrating lymphocytes in the development and progression of prostate adenoma as an effect of a self-maintaining remodeling process. Although available drugs commonly used in the treatment of LUTS/BPH do not exhibit an anti-inflammatory activity, it seems to be obvious considering the inflammation as a new target in the treatment of LUTS/BPH. Drugs currently investigated for the treatment of prostatic inflammation include the hexanic lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and vitamin D receptor agonists. PMID:25312251

Ficarra, Vincenzo; Rossanese, Marta; Zazzara, Michele; Giannarini, Gianluca; Abbinante, Maria; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Mirone, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Francesco

2014-12-01

16

Comparative analysis between impact factor and h-index for pharmacology and psychiatry journals  

E-print Network

1 Comparative analysis between impact factor and h-index for pharmacology and psychiatry journals" and "Psychiatry" journals computed from the ISI Web of Science. For the two samples, the IF and the h-index is high for Psychiatry but lower for Pharmacology. The linearity test performed between the h-index and 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Comparative analysis between impact factor and h-index for psychiatry Pascal Badora,*  

E-print Network

1 Comparative analysis between impact factor and h-index for psychiatry journals Pascal Badora (journal h-index) applied to a sample of psychiatry journals and compared to IF. Method: In order of psychiatry. We studied the statistical correlation between the IF 2006 and h- index 2006. Results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Impact Assessment of Satellite-Derived Leaf Area Index Datasets Using a General Circulation Model  

E-print Network

Impact Assessment of Satellite-Derived Leaf Area Index Datasets Using a General Circulation Model the impact of two different remote sensing­derived leaf area index (RSLAI) datasets retrieved from the same in simulations over several regions. Based on the analysis of these two RSLAI datasets for 17 yr from 1982

Xue, Yongkang

19

The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT {+-} indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: <18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and >30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT {+-} indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: <18.5, (0%) 0/6 patients; 18.5-24.9 (6%), 6 of 105 patients developed HO; 25-29.9 (19%), 22 of 117; >30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06-1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT {+-} indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

Mourad, Waleed Fouad, E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY (United States); Packianathan, Satya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

2012-04-01

20

Contribution of Endothelial Injury and Inflammation in Early Phase to Vein Graft Failure: The Causal Factors Impact on the Development of Intimal Hyperplasia in Murine Models  

PubMed Central

Objectives Autologous veins are preferred conduits in by-pass surgery. However, long-term results are hampered by limited patency due to intimal hyperplasia. Although mechanisms involved in development of intimal hyperplasia have been established, the role of inflammatory processes is still unclear. Here, we studied leukocyte recruitment and intimal hyperplasia in inferior vena cava grafts transferred to abdominal aorta in mice. Methods and Results Several microscopic techniques were used to study endothelium denudation and regeneration and leukocyte recruitment on endothelium. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated denudation of vein graft endothelium 7 days post-transfer and complete endothelial regeneration by 28 days. Examination of vein grafts transferred to mice transgenic for green fluorescent protein under Tie2 promoter in endothelial cells showed regeneration of graft endothelium from the adjacent aorta. Intravital microscopy revealed recruitment of leukocytes in vein grafts at 7 days in wild type mice, which had tapered off by 28 days. At 28 and 63 days there was significant development of intimal hyperplasia. In contrast; no injury, leukocyte recruitment nor intimal hyperplasia occurred in arterial grafts. Leukocyte recruitment was reduced in vein grafts in mice deficient in E- and P-selectin. In parallel, intimal hyperplasia was reduced in vein grafts in mice deficient in E- and P-selectin and in wild type mice receiving P-selectin/E-selectin function-blocking antibodies. Conclusion The results show that early phase endothelial injury and inflammation are crucial processes in intimal hyperplasia in murine vein grafts. The data implicate endothelial selectins as targets for intervention of vein graft disease. PMID:24887332

Tseng, Chi-Nan; Karlöf, Eva; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lengquist, Mariette; Rotzius, Pierre; Berggren, Per-Olof; Hedin, Ulf; Eriksson, Einar E.

2014-01-01

21

ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) - a new index for assessing impacts of alien species on benthic communities.  

PubMed

Biotic indices are mainly aimed at assessing levels of deterioration caused by chemical or organic pollution. However, no biotic index to date has been developed to detect impacts of alien species on benthic communities. In this paper, a new biotic index, namely ALEX, is proposed to address the objectives of the Water Framework Directive and was tested in Mersin Bay (Levantine Sea, Turkey). Species were divided into four biogeographic groups, namely native species, casual species, established species and invasive species, and the metric considers the relative importance of these groups in samples. The index classified the ecological status of some stations which are shallow, and close to harbor and river mouths as bad or poor in February and October. The ALEX values were positively and significantly correlated with total nitrogen, silicate and silt percentage in sediment, and negatively correlated with depth and the distance from the harbor. PMID:25125285

Cinar, Melih Ertan; Bakir, Kerem

2014-10-15

22

Evaluation of distributed hydrologic impacts of temperature-index and energy-based snow models  

E-print Network

Evaluation of distributed hydrologic impacts of temperature-index and energy-based snow models Accepted 13 March 2013 Available online 26 March 2013 Keywords: Snow Energy-balance Temperature that both the Isnobal energy-balance and calibrated temperature-index methods adequately reproduce snow

Dozier, Jeff

23

Saw Palmetto for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 225 men over the age of 49 years who had moderate-to-severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia to one year of treatment with saw palmetto extract (160 mg twice a day) or placebo. The pri- mary outcome measures were changes in the scores on the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) and the maximal

Stephen Bent; Christopher Kane; Katsuto Shinohara; John Neuhaus; Esther S. Hudes; Harley Goldberg; Andrew L. Avins

2006-01-01

24

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children but much shorter ...

25

A transition index for rock failure due to liquid impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impingement of rocks by liquid projectiles causes the erosion of structures, but is also the principal process for non-traditional drilling and cutting methods, such as hydrodemolition, hydrodynamic fragmentation, and cavitating drilling. Based on loading and failure analyses, an elastic–plastic transition condition is proposed which is characterised by a toughness-strength-index, KIc2\\/(?C3cM); here KIc is the fracture toughness, ?c is the compressive

A. W. Momber

2006-01-01

26

Alternative to the Science Citation Index Impact Factor as an Assessment of Emergency Medicine's Scientific Contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

See related article and editorialStudy objective: The Science Citation Indeximpact factor” is the only available quantitative estimate of a journal's scientific contributions. However, the derivation of this factor contains an intrinsic bias that underestimates the impact of emergency medicine journals. We wished to test the hypothesis that use of an alternative criterion standard would provide an improved profile of

Douglas P Barnaby; E. John Gallagher

1998-01-01

27

Contemporary Labor Patterns: The Impact of Maternal Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare labor patterns by body mass index (BMI). Study Design 118,978 gravidas with a singleton term cephalic gestation were studied. Repeated-measures analysis constructed average labor curves by parity and BMI categories for those that reached 10cm. Interval censored regression analysis determined median traverse times adjusting for covariates in vaginal deliveries and intrapartum cesareans. Results For nulliparas, the time difference to reach 10 cm was 1.2 hours from the lowest to highest BMI category. Multiparas entered active phase by 6 cm, but reaching this point took longer for BMI?40.0 (3.4hours) compared to BMI<25.0 (2.4hours). Progression by centimeter (P<0.001) except from 7–9cm in multiparas (P>0.05), and from 4–10cm (P<0.001) increased as BMI increased for nulliparas and multiparas. Second stage length with and without an epidural was similar among BMI categories for nulliparas (P>0.05), but decreased as BMI increased for multiparas (P<0.001). Conclusion Labor proceeds more slowly as BMI increases suggesting that labor management be tailored to allow for these differences. PMID:21798510

KOMINIAREK, Michelle A.; ZHANG, Jun; VANVELDHUISEN, Paul; TROENDLE, James; BEAVER, Julie; HIBBARD, Judith U.

2011-01-01

28

Clinical impact of body mass index on bactibilia and bacteremia  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between obesity and infected bile or bacteremia in patients with acute calculous cholecystitis. Methods Authors analyzed the medical records of 139 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy for the treatment of acute calculous cholecystitis from January 2007 to June 2013 in a single teaching hospital. Association of body mass index (BMI) with bactibilia and bacteremia was assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Clinical findings and biliary infection related data were recorded for the following variables: gender, age, alcohol and smoking history, the results of blood and bile cultures, cholesterolosis, diabetes, hypertension, and duration of the hospital stay. Results The microbial culture rate of bactibilia and bacteremia were 50.4% and 21.6%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, bacteremia was associated with bactibilia (OR: 4.33, p?=?0.002). In the multivariate analysis for the risk factors of bactibilia, BMI and bacteremia were related with bactibilia (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.42-0.84, p?=?0.003) (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.22-9, p?=?0.02). In the multivariate analysis for the risk factors of bacteremia, BMI, bactibilia and age were related with bacteremia (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59-0.99, p?=?0.04) (OR: 3.46, 95% CI: 1.27-9.45, p?=?0.02) (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09, p?=?0.02). Conclusion In this retrospective study, BMI was inversely correlated with bacteremia or bactibilia, which means obese or overweight patients are less likely to be associated with bacteremia or bactibilia in patients with acute calculous cholecystitis. PMID:24902609

2014-01-01

29

The impact of global warming on the Southern Oscillation Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)—a measure of air pressure difference across the Pacific Ocean, from Tahiti in the south-east to Darwin in the west—is one of the world's most important climatic indices. The SOI is used to track and predict changes in both the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and the Walker Circulation (WC). During El Niño, for example, the WC weakens and the SOI tends to be negative. Climatic variations linked to changes in the WC have a profound influence on climate, ecosystems, agriculture, and societies in many parts of the world. Previous research has shown that (1) the WC and the SOI weakened in recent decades and that (2) the WC in climate models tends to weaken in response to elevated atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Here we examine changes in the SOI and air pressure across the Pacific in the observations and in numerous WCRP/CMIP3 climate model integrations for both the 20th and 21st centuries. The difference in mean-sea level air pressure (MSLP) between the eastern and western equatorial Pacific tends to weaken during the 21st century, consistent with previous research. Here we show that this primarily arises because of an increase in MSLP in the west Pacific and not a decline in the east. We also show, in stark contrast to expectations, that the SOI actually tends to increase during the 21st century, not decrease. Under global warming MSLP tends to increase at both Darwin and Tahiti, but tends to rise more at Tahiti than at Darwin. Tahiti lies in an extensive region where MSLP tends to rise in response to global warming. So while the SOI is an excellent indicator of interannual variability in both the equatorial MSLP gradient and the WC, it is a highly misleading indicator of long-term equatorial changes linked to global warming. Our results also indicate that the observed decline in the SOI in recent decades has been driven by natural, internally generated variability. The externally forced signal in the June-December SOI during 2010 is estimated to be approximately 5% of the standard deviation of variability in the SOI during the 20th century. This figure is projected to increase to 40% by the end of the 21st century under the A2 SRES scenario. The 2010 global warming signal is already a major contributor to interdecadal variability in the SOI, equal to 45% of the standard deviation of 30-year running averages of the SOI. This figure is projected to increase to nearly 340% by the end of the 21st century. Implications that these discoveries have for understanding recent climatic change and for seasonal prediction are discussed.

Power, Scott B.; Kociuba, Greg

2011-11-01

30

Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

2014-01-01

31

A STATEWIDE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACTS OF P-INDEX IMPLEMENTATION IN PENNSYLVANIA  

E-print Network

A STATEWIDE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACTS OF P-INDEX IMPLEMENTATION IN PENNSYLVANIA (PHASE 1 REPORT) Submitted to: Pennsylvania State Conservation Commission Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture 2301 North Department of Crop and Soil Sciences The Pennsylvania State University, 116 ASI, University Park, PA 16802

Guiltinan, Mark

32

Hypertrichosis with hereditary gingival hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Two cases of infantile hypertrichosis who subsequently developed oral abnormalities are described. In one case generalized gingival hyperplasia was associated with retarded eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth and macrodontia. In the second case the mucosal hyperplasia was limited to the palatal surface. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4834021

Winter, G. B.; Simpkiss, M. J.

1974-01-01

33

Hyperplasia and carcinoma in secretory endometrium: a diagnostic challenge.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma in a background of secretory endometrium can be difficult. We attempt to establish the diagnostic criteria to be used in such cases. We examined 80 cases of endometrial hyperplasia, carcinoma, and other conditions with glandular crowding arising in secretory endometrium, analyzed their morphologic features, assessed the volume percentage stroma in each case and performed Ki67 immunostaining on 27 cases. Thirteen cases each of secretory and gestational endometrium served as controls. The mean age of the patients was 45 yr. The non-neoplastic diseases included simple hyperplasia without atypia (56%), endometrial polyps (12.5%), and chronic endometritis with glandular crowding (3%). The proportion of cases with complex hyperplasia without atypia was 10%. Neoplastic diseases included atypical complex hyperplasia (12.5%) and endometrioid carcinoma (6%). The secretory changes were usually less advanced in the hyperplastic glands than in the background endometrium. The morphologic features that best distinguished hyperplasia or carcinoma from secretory endometrium included glandular crowding that stood out from the background; architectural disorder (the long axes of the glands pointing in different directions or parallel to the endometrial surface); dilated, irregularly shaped glands, including budding or branching glands and staghorn-shaped glands; stroma of a polyp; cribriform or confluent glands in cases of carcinoma; nuclear atypia in cases of atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma; and crowded nonsecretory glands. The volume percentage stroma of neoplastic lesions was less than that of non-neoplastic ones (34% vs. 61%, P=0.000001) and that of secretory endometrium (34% vs. 68%, P=0.000038). Non-neoplastic lesions did not have significantly more crowded glands than secretory endometrium (61% vs. 68%, P=0.11). Gestational endometrium had more crowded glands than non-neoplastic lesions (39% vs. 61%, P=0.000004), an approximately equal volume percentage stroma with complex hyperplasia without atypia (39% vs. 43%, P=0.51), and less crowded glands than neoplastic lesions (39% vs. 34%, P=0.03). The Ki67 index of the neoplastic lesions was higher than that of the controls, including secretory and gestational endometria (positive nuclei per 100 epithelial cells, 44.8 vs. 4.6, P=0.0004), of the non-neoplastic lesions (44.8 vs. 5.4, P=0.002) and of complex hyperplasia without atypia (44.8 vs. 9.3, P=0.007). Hyperplasia and carcinoma in secretory endometrium can be diagnosed on the basis of increased glandular crowding, architectural irregularity, nuclear atypia, and increased Ki67 index. PMID:24487463

Truskinovsky, Alexander M; Lifschitz-Mercer, Beatriz; Czernobilsky, Bernard

2014-03-01

34

Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science  

PubMed Central

Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal. PMID:21738548

Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

2011-01-01

35

A More Comprehensive Index in the Evaluation of Scientific Research: The Single Researcher Impact Factor Proposal  

PubMed Central

Good alternatives to the Impact Factor (IF) algorithm are needed. The Thomson IF represents a limited measure of the importance of an individual article because 80% of a journal's IF is determined by only the 20% of the papers published. In the past few years, several new indexes has been created to provide alternatives to the IF algorithm. These include the removal of self citations from the calculation of the IF using the Adjusted IF, Index Copernicus initiative and other modifications such as the Cited Half-Life IF, Median IF, Disciplinary IF, and Prestige Factor. There is also the Euro-Factor, born in Europe to avoid the strong US centrality, and the English language basis of the Thomson database. One possible strategy to avoid "IF supremacy" is to create a new index, the Single Researcher Impact Factor (SRIF), that would move the evaluation from the power of scientific journals to the quality of single researchers. This measure can take into account the number and quality of the traditional publications and other activities usually associated with being a researcher, such as reviewing manuscripts, writing books, and attending scientific meetings. Also, in funding policy, it might be more useful to consider the merits, contributions, and real impact of all the scientific activities of a single researcher instead of adding only the journals' IF numbers. The major aim of this paper is to propose and describe the SRIF index that could represent a novel option to evaluate scientific research and researchers. PMID:21339895

Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Limonta, Daniel; Sarmiento, Luis; Molinari, Enrico

2010-01-01

36

Development of a new index to assess river regime impacts after dam construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Construction of dams affects river flow regimes and changes downstream ecosystems in many ways. The impacts of dams depend on local climate, dam purpose and operation policy. This study analysed the impacts of dam construction on river flow regimes and developed a new method to evaluate the effects on river flow. By using three main flow characteristics of river regime (magnitude, timing and intra-annual alteration), a new combined river impact (RI) index to assess construction impacts based on monthly flow data was developed. A preliminary evaluation of the method was made using the river Ebro as a case. A classification was developed where the impact was assessed using a scale from low to drastic. The method was further tested to quantify the effect of dams in 15 rivers located in different regions. The method showed good potential to classify different dam types of variable sizes constructed for different purposes. The RI index method also proved suitable for assessing the environmental impacts of dam construction and could be extended by adding other characteristics of flow regime to evaluate the effects of climate change or changes in land use on river flow regimes.

Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

2014-11-01

37

Enhancing the h index for the objective assessment of healthcare researcher performance and impact  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether the h index (a bibliometric tool which is increasingly used to assess and appraise an individual's research performance) could be improved to better measure the academic performance and citation profile for individual healthcare researchers. Design Cohort study. Setting Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. Participants Publication lists from 1 January 2000 until 31 December 2009 for 501 academic healthcare researchers from the Faculty of Medicine. Main outcome measures The h index for each researcher was calculated over a nine-year period. The citation count for each researcher was differentiated into high (h2 upper), core (h2 centre) and low (h2 lower) visibility areas. Segmented regression model (sRM) was used to statistically estimate number of high visibility publications (sRM value). Validity of the h index and other proposed adjuncts were analysed against academic rank and conventional bibliometric indicators. Results Construct validity was demonstrated for h index, h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM value (all P < 0.05). Convergent validity of the h index and sRM value was shown by significant correlations with total number of publications (r = 0.89 and 0.86 respectively, P < 0.05) and total number of citations (r = 0.96 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.05). Significant differences in h index and sRM value existed between non-physician and physician researchers (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study supports the construct validity of the h index as a measure of healthcare researcher academic rank. It also identifies the assessment value of our developed indices of h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM. These can be applied in combination with the h index to provide additional objective evidence to appraise the performance and impact of an academic healthcare researcher. PMID:23358276

Patel, Vanash M; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bornmann, Lutz; Mutz, Rüdiger; Makanjuola, Jonathan; Skapinakis, Petros; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

2013-01-01

38

Impact on enzyme activity as a new quality index of wastewater.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to define a new indicator for the quality of wastewaters that are released into the environment. A quality index is proposed for wastewater samples in terms of the inertness of wastewater samples toward enzyme activity. This involves taking advantage of the sensitivity of enzymes to pollutants that may be present in the waste samples. The effect of wastewater samples on the rate of a number of different enzyme-catalyzed reactions was measured, and the results for all the selected enzymes were analyzed in an integrated fashion (multi-enzymatic sensor). This approach enabled us to define an overall quality index, the "Impact on Enzyme Function" (IEF-index), which is composed of three indicators: i) the Synoptic parameter, related to the average effect of the waste sample on each component of the enzymatic sensor; ii) the Peak parameter, related to the maximum effect observed among all the effects exerted by the sample on the sensor components; and, iii) the Interference parameter, related to the number of sensor components that are affected less than a fixed threshold value. A number of water based samples including public potable tap water, fluids from urban sewage systems, wastewater disposal from leather, paper and dye industries were analyzed and the IEF-index was then determined. Although the IEF-index cannot discriminate between different types of wastewater samples, it could be a useful parameter in monitoring the improvement of the quality of a specific sample. However, by analyzing an adequate number of waste samples of the same type, even from different local contexts, the profile of the impact of each component of the multi-enzymatic sensor could be typical for specific types of waste. The IEF-index is proposed as a supplementary qualification score for wastewaters, in addition to the certification of the waste's conformity to legal requirements. PMID:23353880

Balestri, Francesco; Moschini, Roberta; Cappiello, Mario; Del-Corso, Antonella; Mura, Umberto

2013-03-15

39

Prognostic impact of body mass index in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundObesity has numerous adverse effects on general, and especially, cardiovascular health. Plasma adiponectin, an adipokine, is inversely related to adipose tissue mass, and also the prognosis of heart failure and coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery is usually the treatment of choice for patients with complex CAD.ObjectiveTo investigate the impact of body mass index (BMI) and

Shih-Hsien Sung; Tao-Cheng Wu; Cheng-Hsiung Huang; Shing-Jong Lin; Jaw-Wen Chen

2011-01-01

40

Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH) is the most fatal form of CAH, as it disrupts adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. Most cases of lipoid CAH are caused by recessive mutations in the gene encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Affected patients typically present with signs of severe adrenal failure in early infancy and 46,XY genetic males are phenotypic females due to disrupted testicular androgen secretion. The StAR p.Q258X mutation accounts for about 70% of affected alleles in most patients of Japanese and Korean ancestry. However, it is more prevalent (92.3%) in the Korean population. Recently, some patients have been showed that they had late and mild clinical findings. These cases and studies constitute a new entity of 'nonclassic lipoid CAH'. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc (CYP11A1), plays an essential role converting cholesterol to pregnenolone. Although progesterone production from the fetally derived placenta is necessary to maintain a pregnancy to term, some patients with P450scc mutations have recently been reported. P450scc mutations can also cause lipoid CAH and establish a recently recognized human endocrine disorder. PMID:25654062

2014-01-01

41

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH).  

PubMed

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumour of the liver (hepatic tumour), which is the second most prevalent tumour of the liver (the first is hepatic hemangioma). It has a higher incidence in females, 20-40 years old, but also occurs in men and even in children. It is usually asymptomatic, rarely grows or bleeds, and has no malignant potential. This tumour was once often resected because it was difficult to distinguish from hepatic adenoma, but with modem multiphase imaging it is now diagnosed strictly by imaging criteria, and not resected. We present the case of a 78 years old man who presented to emergency room (ER) with a history of dry cough, chest pain and mild dyspnea. Chest X-ray showed ascension of the right hemidiaphragm, and a homogeneous round opacity of 6/6.2 cm in the right cardiophrenic angle. The first suspicion was of pulmonary tumor, but the final diagnosis was FNH, confirmed by CT scan. We discuss the differential diagnosis and prognosis of this entity. The particularities of the case are the presentation with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary mass, and the age of the patient. PMID:25000678

Nat, Laura; Poant?, Laura Irina

2014-01-01

42

Amphiregulin and Epidermal Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of amphiregulin has been shown to induce psoriasiform changes in the skin of transgenic mice shortly after birth. Therefore, amphiregulin has been suggested as a target for anti-psoriatic therapy. To test this theory, a humanized monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing human amphiregulin was examined for anti-proliferative effects in the human skin-severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse transplant model. The anti-amphiregulin antibody reduced epidermal thickness of transplanted psoriatic skin and also inhibited the hyperplastic response that developed in nonpsoriatic skin after transplantation. The same antibody also suppressed keratinocyte proliferation in monolayer culture in a dose-dependent manner. Under the same conditions in which keratinocyte proliferation was inhibited, the antibody had little effect on proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts and no effect on type I procollagen production by these cells. Taken together, these data indicate an important role for amphiregulin in psoriatic hyperplasia and suggest that inhibition of amphiregulin activity could be an efficacious therapeutic strategy for psoriasis. These data also suggest that the hyperplastic response occurring in nonpsoriatic human skin on transplantation to the SCID mouse is mediated, in large part, by amphiregulin. PMID:15793282

Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Nerusu, Kamalakar C.; Fisher, Gary J.; Liu, Gao; Thakur, Archana B.; Gemmell, Lorraine; Kumar, Shankar; Xu, Zenghai H.; Hinton, Paul; Tsurushita, Naoya; Landolfi, Nicholas F.; Voorhees, John J.; Varani, James

2005-01-01

43

Advances in x-ray powder pattern data collection and its impact on unit cell indexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

: Advances in x-ray powder pattern data collection and its impact on unit cell indexing. Simon Bates:: Bede Scientific Inc. Indexing of powder patterns is one of the major bottle necks for achievement of full structural solutions from powder data. The largest experimental uncertainty that limits the effectiveness of powder pattern indexing is a precise determination of the measured peak positions. Parallel beam x-ray diffraction optics allows the measurement of peak positions without the influence of any defocusing. When combined with a transmission geometry or +/- reflection geometry, the parallel beam optics allow the measurement of a powder sample using Bonds technique for absolute lattice parameter determination. In Bonds technique adapted from single crystal measurements, the powder pattern is collected from 0 to positive max_2Theta and then from 0 to negative max_2Theta. The folding of the two patterns removes any remaining peak positional errors. For the application of Bonds technique to be most effective, a goniometer with absolute linear positional encoding is required. Data will be presented on a wide range of powder samples covering metals and alloys, minerals and organic materials. It will be shown using Bond's method that for all material types the absolute peak positions can be determined over the complete measurement range with a positional uncertainty of the order of 0.005 degrees 2Theta. With measured peak positions of this positional accuracy, in most cases no special effort is required to index the full pattern.

Bates, Simon

2003-03-01

44

A Comparison of the Environmental Impact of Different AOPs: Risk Indexes.  

PubMed

Today, environmental impact associated with pollution treatment is a matter of great concern. A method is proposed for evaluating environmental risk associated with Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) applied to wastewater treatment. The method is based on the type of pollution (wastewater, solids, air or soil) and on materials and energy consumption. An Environmental Risk Index (E), constructed from numerical criteria provided, is presented for environmental comparison of processes and/or operations. The Operation Environmental Risk Index (EOi) for each of the unit operations involved in the process and the Aspects Environmental Risk Index (EAj) for process conditions were also estimated. Relative indexes were calculated to evaluate the risk of each operation (E/NOP) or aspect (E/NAS) involved in the process, and the percentage of the maximum achievable for each operation and aspect was found. A practical application of the method is presented for two AOPs: photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis with suspended TiO2 in Solarbox. The results report the environmental risks associated with each process, so that AOPs tested and the operations involved with them can be compared. PMID:25558859

Giménez, Jaime; Bayarri, Bernardí; González, Óscar; Malato, Sixto; Peral, José; Esplugas, Santiago

2014-01-01

45

Assessment of the Impacts of Rice Cropping through a Soil Quality Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Entre Ríos (Argentina), rice cultivation is carried out mainly in Vertisols. Several factors, such as the use of sodium bicarbonate waters for irrigation, the excessive tillage required, and the lack of proper planning for land use, mainly regarding the crop sequence, cause serious impacts on the soil and have an effect on sustainable agriculture. Thus, the development of methodologies to detect these impacts has become a priority. The aim of this study was to standardize soil quality indicators (SQI) and integrate them into an index to evaluate the impacts of the rice production system on soil, at the farm scale. The study was conducted in farms of the traditional rice cultivation area of Entre Ríos province, Argentina. We evaluated a minimum data set consisting of six indicators: structural stability and percolation, total organic matter content (TOM), exchangeable sodium content (ESC), electrical conductivity of saturation extract (ECe) and reaction of the soil (pH). From a database from 75 production lots, we determined the reference values, i.e. limits to ensure the maintenance of long-term productivity and the allowable thresholds for each indicator. The indicators were standardized and integrated into a soil quality index. Five ranges of soil quality were established: very low, low, moderate, high and very high, depending on the values assigned to each SQI. This index allowed differentiating the impact of different crop sequences and showed that the increased participation of rice crop in the rotation resulted in a deterioration of the soil structure due to the decrease in the TOM and to the cumulative increase in ESC caused by the sodium bicarbonate water used for irrigation. Soil management strategies should aim to increase TOM values and to reduce the input of sodium to the exchange complex. A rotation with 50% to 60% of pasture and 40 to 50% of agriculture with a participation of rice lower than 20 to 25% would allow the sustainability of the production system. The use of the so called SQI, i.e. soil quality index, for rice crop production will allow generating early warning of degradation and thus adopting recovery measures.

Sione, S. M.; Wilson, M. G.; Paz González, A.

2012-04-01

46

Florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of terminal ileum  

PubMed Central

Florid lymphoid hyperplasia in the terminal ileum can present to surgeons as an acute abdominal pain. Only few cases were reported in the literature. Our case illustrates that a rare case of florid lymphoid hyperplasia can present to surgeons as acute appendicitis. During the operation the gross appearance may mimic Crohn’s disease. A limited resection is sufficient to clinch the diagnosis of florid lymphoid hyperplasia / Crohn’s disease. In florid lymphoid hyperplasia limited resection may be curative. PMID:22242075

Kanakala, Venkatesh; Birch, Peter; Kasaraneni, Ramesh

2010-01-01

47

Adenomatoid hyperplasia of lower lip  

PubMed Central

Adenomatoid hyperplasia (AH) is an uncommon, non-neoplastic swelling on the palate caused due to hyperplasia of the mucinous acini. The lesion clinically presents as a sessile tumor-like nodule resembling pleomorphic adenoma. Histopathologic findings include lobules of enlarged mucinous acini which are filled with secretory granules. The nuclei are squeezed to the basal portions, associated with focal inflammation and ductal dilatation, and a history of trauma is often elicited. Here, we report a rare case of AH of the lower lip in a 20-year-old male patient, which mimics a mucous retention cyst or mucocele. PMID:22135695

Sharma, Gaganjot Kaur; Sharma, Manish; Vanaki, Srinivas S.

2011-01-01

48

Thymic hyperplasia in Graves’ disease  

PubMed Central

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune thyroid condition characterized by the production of autoantibodies against the thyrotropin receptor. It is known to be associated with autoimmune conditions such as myasthenia gravis, Addison's disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and vitiligo. We present a case of rare autoimmune association of Graves’ disease with thymic hyperplasia which regressed after treatment with antithyroid drugs. Exact pathophysiology of thymic hyperplasia in Graves’ is not well understood; it is likely to be the result of rather than the cause of Graves’ disease. PMID:23869315

Kotwal, Narendra; Singh, Yashpal; Menon, Anil; Behera, Vineet

2013-01-01

49

A statistical assessment of the impact of land uses on surface water quality indexes.  

PubMed

The release of wastewater from various land uses is threatening the quality of surface water. Different land uses pose varying degrees of danger to water resources. The hazardous extent of each activity depends on the amount and characteristics of the wastewater. The concept of the contamination potential index (CPI) of an activity is introduced and applied here. The index depends on the quantity of wastewater from a single source and on various chemicals in the waste whose concentrations are above allowable standards. The CPI concept and the land use impact assessment are applied to the surface water conditions in Nakhon Nayok Province in the central region of Thailand. The land uses considered in this study are residential area, industrial zone, in-season and off-season rice farming, and swine and poultry livestock. Multiple linear regression analysis determines the impact of the CPIs of these land uses on certain water quality characteristics, i.e., total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, phosphate, and chloride concentrations, using CPIs and previous water quality measurements. The models are further verified according to the current CPIs and measured concentrations. The results of the backward and forward modeling show that the land uses that affect water quality are off-season rice farming, raising poultry, and residential activity. They demonstrate that total dissolved solids and conductivity are reasonable parameters to apply in the land use assessment. PMID:22406854

Seeboonruang, Uma

2012-06-30

50

Evaluating Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

The clinical manifestations of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) include lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), poor bladder emptying, urinary retention, detrusor instability, urinary tract infection, hematuria, and renal insufficiency. However, the majority of men with BPH present with LUTS only. Because LUTS can indicate a variety of conditions, evaluation of symptomatic men must first aim to identify or exclude BPH and, if present, assess its severity. It is important to assess symptom severity at baseline and during follow-up, using the American Urological Association Symptom Index or the International Prostate Symptom Score. Further testing can then be tailored to narrow the diagnosis and guide treatment decisions. Factors such as patient age and concomitant malignancy will also affect management, but the main goal of treatment remains the improvement of quality of life for the patient. PMID:16985855

Lepor, Herbert

2004-01-01

51

Indexes to anticipate negative impacts of heat waves in urban Mediterranean environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study intention is to understand what might be the better indexes to anticipate health deterioration during temperature extreme events in a urban Mediterranean environment like Porto. To do this we look to the effects of the July 2006 Heat Wave using the Heat Index on the Mortality (All Causes) and Morbidity (All Causes, Respiratory and Circulatory diseases) in general, and in people over 74 years and by Gender, in Porto. The Poisson Generalized Additive Regression model was used in order to estimate the impact of Apparent Temperature (Heat Index) and Daily Mortality and Morbidity during the July 2006 Heat Wave. Daily Mortality, Morbidity and Heat Index was correlated with lags of Apparent Temperature up to 7 days using Pearson correlation. For a 1°C increase in mean Apparent Temperature we observed a 2.7% (95%CI:1.7-3.6%) increase in Mortality (for All Causes), 1.7% (95%CI:0.6-2.9%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,2% (95%CI:0.4-4.1%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 5,4% (95%CI:1.1-6.6%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity and 7,5% (95%CI:1.3-14.1%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity, for the entire population. For people ? 75 years, our work showed a 3,3% increase (95%CI:1.7-5.0%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,7% (95%CI:0.4-5.1%) in Men Respiratory Morbidity, 3,9% (95%CI:1.6-6.3%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 7.0% (95%CI:1.1-13.2%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and 9.0% (95%CI:0.3-18.5%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We conclude that the use of Heat Index in a Mediterranean Tempered Climate enabled the identification of the effects of the July 2006 Heat Wave in Mortality due to All Causes and in Respiratory Morbidity of the General Population, as well as in Respiratory Morbidity of individuals with more than 74 years of age.

Monteiro, A. M.; Carvalho, C. V.; Velho, S. V.; Sousa, C. S.

2012-04-01

52

Are phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors effective for the management of lower urinary symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To review the efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostate hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). METHODS: A comprehensive research was conducted to identify all publications relating to benign prostate hyperplasia and treatment with sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil. To assess the efficacy, the changes in total international prostate symptom score (IPSS), IPSS subscore including voiding, storage and quality of life (QoL), Benign prostatic hyperplasia Impact Index (BII), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) were extracted. A meta-analytical technique was used for the analysis of integrated data from the included studies to evaluate the mean difference in the results. RESULTS: Total IPSS score, IIEF and BII showed a significant improvement in trials in which LUTS/BPH with or without erectile dysfunction (ED) were compared with the placebo. For LUTS/BPH, the mean differences of total IPSS score, IIEF and BII are -2.17, 4.88 and -0.43, P < 0.00001, respectively. For LUTS/BPH with comorbid ED, the mean difference are -1.97, 4.54 and -0.52, P < 0.00001, respectively. PDE5-Is appear to improve IPSS storage, voiding and QoL subscore (mean difference = -0.71, -1.23 and -0.33, P < 0.00001, respectively). Although four doses of tadalafil (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg) failed to reach significance in Qmax (mean difference = 0.22, P = 0.10), the 5 mg dose of tadalafil significantly improved the Qmax (mean difference = 0.33, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: PED5-Is demonstrated efficacy for improving LUTS in BPH patients with or without ED and could be considered to be the first line treatment for LUTS/BPH. PMID:25664256

Zhang, Li Tao; Park, Jong Kwan

2015-01-01

53

Reversible papillary hyperplasia of the rat urinary bladder.  

PubMed

A rapid reproducible method for the production of ulcers and reversible regenerative hyperplasia of the urinary bladder of rats is described. This method does not involve administration of a toxic chemical or retention of a foreign body. Ulceration was produced by means of applying a steel rod, 5 mm in diameter, frozen at -78 C, to the serosal surface of the bladder for 2 seconds, twice, with a 5-second interval between each application. Sequential histologic observations showed that ulcers were accompanied by necrosis of the entire thickness of the bladder at the site of freezing with extensive acute inflammation. Regenerative hyperplasia was evident at the edge of the ulcer by the second day, with greatest severity at 5 days when papillary and nodular hyperplasia were present. At 15 days the bladders were normal or had only minimal hyperplasia. The labeling index by autoradiography was highest in the mildly hyperplastic area near the ulcer at 2 days and remained relatively high through 5 days. The hyperplastic epithelium surrounding the ulcer observed by scanning electron microscopy had numerous degenerative cells on the surface, and small epithelial cells with numerous short, uniform microvilli on their luminal surface were also observed. The numerous short, uniform microvilli on their luminal surface were also observed. The microvilli had a symmetric luminal membrane, as observed on trasmission electron microscopy. More peripherally the cells had microridges only or microvilli and microridges on their luminal surface. Neither pleomorphic microvili nor a structured glycocalyx fuzz on microvilli was observed during the process of regenerative hyperplasia, distinguishing it from neoplastic bladder proliferations. PMID:645820

Shirai, T; Cohen, S M; Fukushima, S; Hananouchi, M; Ito, N

1978-04-01

54

Atypical lymphoid hyperplasia mimicking lymphoma.  

PubMed

The distinction between reactive and neoplastic lymphoid infiltrates is a common problem in clinical practice and can be problematic. The clinical implications for both the patient and the treating clinician are profound. In this article, we discuss six of the common entities that can present as atypical lymphoid hyperplasia and thus can mimic malignant lymphomas, with emphasis on morphologic features, immunophenotypic findings, and molecular correlates that help distinguish these disorders from neoplastic conditions. The six conditions to be discussed in detail include reactive follicular hyperplasia versus follicular lymphoma; progressive transformation of germinal centers versus nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma; immunoblastic proliferations versus diffuse large B-cell lymphomas; variant forms of Castleman disease that may mimic a number of lymphoid cancers; Kikuchi's disease versus large cell lymphomas; and finally, dermatopathic lymphadenopathy and its distinction from lymph nodes showing early involvement by cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (Mycosis fungoides). PMID:19577167

Good, David J; Gascoyne, Randy D

2009-08-01

55

Hypoglycaemia in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed Central

Two young children with salt-losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia developed profound hypoglycaemia. In one child hypoglycaemia occurred after a prolonged fast and in the other it was precipitated by infection. This complication may be more common than the literature suggests, and emergency treatment with glucose or hydrocortisone, given by injection, should be given to any child with the disorder who suddenly or unexpectedly collapses. PMID:879852

Mackinnon, J; Grant, D B

1977-01-01

56

Dutasteride plus Tamsulosin fixed-dose combination first-line therapy versus Tamsulosin Monotherapy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a budget impact analysis in the Greek healthcare setting  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to explore the budget impact of dutasteride plus tamsulosin fixed-dose combination (DUT?+?TAM FDC) versus tamsulosin monotherapy, in the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from the perspective of the Greek healthcare insurance system. Methods A Microsoft Excel-based model was developed to estimate the financial consequences of adopting DUT + TAM FDC within the Greek healthcare setting. The model, compared six mutually exclusive health states in two alternative treatment options: current standard of care and the introduction of DUT + TAM FDC in the market. The model used clinical inputs from the CombAT study; data on resource use associated with the management of BPH in Greece were derived from expert panel, and unit cost data were derived from official reimbursement tariffs. A payer perspective was taken into account. As patient distribution data between public and private sectors are not available in Greece two scenarios were investigated, considering the whole eligible population in each scenario. A 4 year time horizon was taken into account and included treatment costs, number of transurethral resections of the prostate (TURPs) and acute urinary retention (AUR) episodes avoided. Results The clinical benefit from the market adoption of DUT?+?TAM FDC in Greece was 1,758 TURPs and 972 episodes of AUR avoided cumulatively in a four year period. The increase in total costs from the gradual introduction of DUT?+?TAM FDC to the Greek healthcare system ranges from €1.3 million in the first year to €5.8 million in the fourth year, for the public sector, and €1.2 million to €4.0 million, for the private sector. This represents an increase of 1.91% to 7.94% for the public sector and 1.10% 3.29% in the private sector, during the 4-year time horizon. Conclusions Budget impact analysis (BIA) results indicated that the gradual introduction of DUT?+?TAM FDC, would increase the overall budget of the disease, however providing better clinical outcomes. DUT?+?TAM FDC drug acquisition cost is partly offset by the reduction in the costs associated with the treatment of the disease. PMID:25255740

2014-01-01

57

Possible modification of the cooling index of interstellar helium pickup ions by electron impact ionization in the inner heliosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

neutrals penetrating into the inner heliosphere are ionized by photoionization, charge exchange with solar wind ions, and electron impact ionization. These processes comprise the first step in the evolution of interstellar pickup ion (PUI) distributions. Typically, PUI distributions have been described in terms of velocity distribution functions that cool adiabatically under solar wind expansion, with a cooling index of 3/2. Recently, the cooling index has been determined experimentally in observations of He PUI distributions with Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer and found to vary substantially over the solar cycle. The experimental determination of the cooling index depends on the knowledge of the ionization rates and their spatial variation. Usually, ionization rates increase with 1/r2 as neutral particles approach the Sun, which is not exactly true for electron impact ionization, because the electron temperature increases with decreasing distance from the Sun due to the complexity of its distributions and different radial gradients in temperature. This different dependence on distance may become important in the study of the evolution of PUI distributions and is suspected as one of the potential reasons for the observed variation of the cooling index. Therefore, we investigate in this paper the impact of electron ionization on the variability of the cooling index. We find that the deviation of the electron ionization rate from the canonical 1/r2 behavior of other ionization processes plays only a minor role.

Chen, Jun Hong; Bochsler, Peter; Möbius, Eberhard; Gloeckler, George

2014-09-01

58

Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update  

PubMed Central

In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B.

2012-01-01

59

Climate Change Impact on Forest Cover using Warmth Index and Minimum Temperature in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of study was to predict the changes in regional forest distribution using the Warmth Index (WI) and minimum temperature index (MTI) in Korea. Previously, there were several trials to explain the forest cover changes in Korea using global-scale models, such as MC1 (MAPSS-CENTURY) and CEVSA (Carbon Exchange between Vegetation, Soil, and Atmosphere). However, these global vegetation models are not pertinent to simulate the climate change impact on relatively small Korean ecosystem. Therefore, the zonal distribution of WI and MTI was applied to interpret the spatial patterns of forest vegetation. Firstly, the climate data of past years (1971-2000) was prepared by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), and ECHO-G model provided future climate data under A1B scenario. Then, the optimal habitat rages of tree species were plotted by spatial distribution patterns of WI and MTI. In terms of cold tolerance for tree species, minimum monthly mean temperature of January (the coldest month) was converted to MTI, which related to intercellular freezing. MTI distribution of Korea in past years was ranged from -84.85 to 14. Overall MTI will be inclined in future period (2021-2050) and period (2071-2100), ranged from -80.91 to 19.45 and from 34.36 to -58.73, respectively. Also, WI was calculated by summing up of monthly mean temperature above 5 degrees Celsius. WI distribution of Korea in past years (1971-2000) was ranged from 72 to 132.9 degrees Celsius month. Overall WI will be increased in future period (2021-2050) and period (2071-2100), ranged from 81 to 147.9 degrees Celsius month and from 98 to 174.1 degrees Celsius month, respectively. As results of simulations, there were certain changes in vegetation distribution by climate change. The optimal habitat range of evergreen needleleaf species will be decreased and the range of deciduous and evergreen broadleaf species will be increased in the future; 1) especially, the optimal range of Pinus densiflora will shrink in the future, and 2) in southern part of Korea, the integration of WI and MTI tends to be laid over the optimal range for evergreen broadleaf species, such as Camellia japonica and Cyclobalanopsis glauca. The zonal distribution of integrated WI and MTI can explain more specifically than previous studies using only WI or MTI and global scale models.

Choi, S.; Lee, W.; Yoo, S.; Park, S.

2009-12-01

60

Impact of body mass index on diastolic function in patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a major public health epidemic and is associated with increased risk of heart failure and mortality. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (DD). Methods: We reviewed clinical records and echocardiogram of patients with baseline echocardiogram between 1996 and 2005 that showed normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Diastolic function was labeled as normal, stage 1, stage 2 or stage 3/4 dysfunction. Patients were categorized as normal weight (BMI <25?kg?m?2), overweight (25–29.9?kg?m?2), obese (30–39.9?kg?m?2) and morbidly obese (?40?kg?m?2). Multivariable ordinal and ordinary logistic regression were performed to identify factors associated with DD, and evaluate the independent relationship of BMI with DD. Results: The cohort included 21?666 patients (mean (s.d.) age, 57.1 (15.1); 55.5% female). There were 7352 (33.9%) overweight, 5995 (27.6%) obese and 1616 (7.4%) morbidly obese patients. Abnormal diastolic function was present in 13?414 (61.9%) patients, with stage 1 being the most common. As BMI increased, the prevalence of normal diastolic function decreased (P<0.0001). Furthermore, there were 1733 patients with age <35 years; 460 (26.5%) and 407 (23.5%) were overweight and obese, respectively, and had higher prevalence of DD (P<0.001). Using multivariable logistic regression, BMI remained significant in both ordinal (all stages of diastolic function) and binary (normal versus abnormal). Also, obesity was associated with increased odds of DD in all patients and those aged <35 years. Conclusions: In patients with normal LVEF, higher BMI was independently associated with worsening DD. PMID:23448803

AlJaroudi, W; Halley, C; Houghtaling, P; Agarwal, S; Menon, V; Rodriguez, L; Grimm, R A; Thomas, J D; Jaber, W A

2012-01-01

61

[Factor impact and indexing in bibliographic databases: comparison of these quality criteria for the assessment of pharmaceutical journals].  

PubMed

In spite of limits, the impact factor (IF) of Journal Citation Reports (JCR) of Science Citation Index (SCI) edited by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) is the most currently used bibliometric factor by scientists. Otherwise, bibliographic systems select and index scientific journals with their own quality criterion. In order to bring scientists and information professionals some new journal evaluation developments, we studied and compared pharmaceutical journal IF and the number of bibliographic systems in which they were indexed. We firstly have given our definition of pharmaceutical journal and then evaluated these journals by giving one point each time they were indexed in one of the five following bibliographic systems: Index Medicus/Medline, Excerpta Medica/Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, Current Contents. We then compared their results with IF. We selected 292 journals: 14.4% scored 5 points, 22.3% scored 4 points, 27.7% scored 3 points, 18.8% scored 2 points, 16.8% scored 1 point. We also showed that the more journals scored highly, the more they had chances of being taken by JCR. We studied the first hundred journals indexed by JCR and having the highly IF: 31, 40, 21, 6 and 2 journals were respectively indexed by 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 bibliographic systems. We showed that there was a significant difference between the two classifications. So, we can say that people who take IF as the one and only journal quality criterion have in fact a very partial representation of the edition of scientific papers. PMID:9609967

Bador, P; Petit, O

1998-01-01

62

Assessment of different doses of N applied to a melon crop in the quality of groundwater: environmental impact indexes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Provided that the intensive use of N in agricultural systems has negatively impacted environmental quality, because a higher fertilization requirements of the crop to make the nitrate leached into the aquifer contaminating, as well as increasing their presence on the ground resulting in a time of intercropping nitrates washing with the arrival of rains. It's necessary to know the N management to reduce the pollution risks and may lead the higher production with the fewer economic cost, environmental and health. The aim of this study was to asses how different doses of nitrogen applied to a melon crop affected the quality of groundwater. The doses of N applied ranged between 11 and 393 kg ha-1. Several indexes, based in N leaching consequence of the agricultural practice, were calculated and provided an essential tool for knowing the risks of groundwater pollution with the practices used. Drinking water impact, irrigation water management impact and environmental impact indexes were obtained during four years in a vulnerable area of the centre of Spain. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111

Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Ribas, F.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

2010-05-01

63

A Simplified Murine Intimal Hyperplasia Model Founded on a Focal Carotid Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Murine models offer a powerful tool for unraveling the mechanisms of intimal hyperplasia and vascular remodeling, although their technical complexity increases experimental variability and limits widespread application. We describe a simple and clinically relevant mouse model of arterial intimal hyperplasia and remodeling. Focal left carotid artery (LCA) stenosis was created by placing 9-0 nylon suture around the artery using an external 35-gauge mandrel needle (middle or distal location), which was then removed. The effect of adjunctive diet-induced obesity was defined. Flowmetry, wall strain analyses, biomicroscopy, and histology were completed. LCA blood flow sharply decreased by ?85%, followed by a responsive right carotid artery increase of ?71%. Circumferential strain decreased by ?2.1% proximal to the stenosis in both dietary groups. At 28 days, morphologic adaptations included proximal LCA intimal hyperplasia, which was exacerbated by diet-induced obesity. The proximal and distal LCA underwent outward and negative inward remodeling, respectively, in the mid-focal stenosis (remodeling indexes, 1.10 and 0.53). A simple, defined common carotid focal stenosis yields reproducible murine intimal hyperplasia and substantial differentials in arterial wall adaptations. This model offers a tool for investigating mechanisms of hemodynamically driven intimal hyperplasia and arterial wall remodeling. PMID:23159527

Tao, Ming; Mauro, Christine R.; Yu, Peng; Favreau, John T.; Nguyen, Binh; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Ozaki, C. Keith

2014-01-01

64

Dissecting the mechanisms of Notch induced hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

The outcome of the Notch pathway on proliferation depends on cellular context, being growth promotion in some, including several cancers, and growth inhibition in others. Such disparate outcomes are evident in Drosophila wing discs, where Notch overactivation causes hyperplasia despite having localized inhibitory effects on proliferation. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we have used genomic strategies to identify the Notch-CSL target genes directly activated during wing disc hyperplasia. Among them were genes involved in both autonomous and non-autonomous regulation of proliferation, growth and cell death, providing molecular explanations for many characteristics of Notch induced wing disc hyperplasia previously reported. The Notch targets exhibit different response patterns, which are shaped by both positive and negative feed-forward regulation between the Notch targets themselves. We propose, therefore, that both the characteristics of the direct Notch targets and their cross-regulatory relationships are important in coordinating the pattern of hyperplasia. PMID:23232763

Djiane, Alexandre; Krejci, Alena; Bernard, Frédéric; Fexova, Silvie; Millen, Katherine; Bray, Sarah J

2013-01-01

65

Gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Hemifacial hypertrophy is a rare developmental disorder, characterized by unilateral enlargement of facial tissues. The hemifacial hyperplasia is classified as true hemifacial hypertrophy and partial hemifacial hypertrophy. It is unilateral enlargement of viscerocranial condition in which not all structures are enlarged. We present a rare case of gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia highlighting the clinical and radiological findings with the corrective treatment offered for gingival enlargement.

Jagtap, Rasika Ravindra; Deshpande, Gaurav Shekhar

2014-01-01

66

Endometrial Stromal Hyperplasia: An Underrecognized Condition  

PubMed Central

Hyperplasia of the endometrial stroma is a poorly recognized lesion, lacking widespread recognition with most, if not all, such cases sequestrated in the literature as endometrial stromal nodules or low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas. In this paper, we describe three examples of “endometrial stromal hyperplasia” which have a remarkable morphological similarity with the normally proliferating endometrial stroma and the endometrial stromal neoplasms, but which also possess subtle, but sufficient, differences to justify their taxonomic separation. PMID:23710401

Koutsougeras, Gerasimos; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

2013-01-01

67

Benefits of Biofuels in Sweden: A Probabilistic Reassessment of the Index of New Cars’ Climate Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climate impact of new cars in Sweden 2009 has been evaluated by the Swedish Transport Administration including reduction factors to attribute the positive impact of renewable fuels on CO2 emissions. The Swedish Transport Administration recommends to the public to buy cars that can be operated on biofuels. Besides acknowledging prevailing uncertainties for many of the input parameters to the

Nils Lubbe; Ullrika Sahlin

2012-01-01

68

Impact of food processing on the glycemic index (GI) of potato products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potatoes are one of the most popular carbohydrate foods in industrialized and some developing countries. However, contradicting arguments and misconceptions on potatoes as a high glycemic index (GI) food is directly affecting potato consumption during the past years. Potato varieties, maturity level...

69

Physiological mechanisms and observed health impacts related to the glycaemic index: some observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses common misconceptions about the glycaemic index (GI). The rate of carbohydrate digestion is only one of the many determinants of GI and, hence, in vitro methods cannot reliably predict the GI of a food. GI has been criticized as being extremely variable between subjects and not applying in mixed meals. In fact, however, GI controls for differences

T M S Wolever; TMS Wolever

2006-01-01

70

Impact of Increased Body Mass Index on Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laparoscopy was initially considered to be a risky procedure for rectal cancer patients, especially patients with an increased body weight. The literature is scarce regarding the effects of obesity on laparoscopic rectal surgery. The aim of the current study was to analyze the effect of an increased body mass index (BMI) on outcome of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer.

Tayfun Karahasanoglu; Ismail Hamzaoglu; Bilgi Baca; Erman Aytac; Ebru Kirbiyik

2011-01-01

71

Adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the gallbladder with perineural invasion: revisited.  

PubMed

We report 9 examples of segmental adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the gallbladder with perineural invasion. Five patients were women and 4 men. Their ages ranged from 49 to 81 years (mean age 64 y). Eight patients had gallbladder calculi. The original pathologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was made in 5 patients and of "adenoma malignum" in one. Six patients are disease-free for 2 to 11 years following cholecystectomy, 1 patient died of unrelated causes and 2 were lost to follow-up. Histologically 2 types of adenomyomatous hyperplasia were recognized. The first one characterized by numerous Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses (RASs) was accompanied by smooth muscle hyperplasia and an expanded subserosal layer containing numerous nerve trunks (6 cases). The second type was characterized by an extensively fibrotic gallbladder wall with numerous RASs but with few or no smooth muscle bundles and an expanded subserosal layer containing abundant nerve-trunks (3 cases). Perineural (7 cases) and intraneural invasion (2 cases) was identified only in the subserosal layer. The lack of p53 reactivity and the very low MIB-1-labeling index provide additional support to the non-neoplastic nature of the lesion. The pseudoinvasive pattern of the RASs, reactive epithelial atypia, and the perineural and intraneural invasion probably contributed to the erroneous diagnosis of adenocarcinoma or "adenoma malignum." The mechanism by which the epithelial structures "invaded" the perineural spaces and the nerves is unclear. We favor the hypothesis that the migration of the benign glandlike structures into the nerves is related to the production of chemotactic factors or signaling substances and the activation of cell receptors. PMID:17895763

Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Keenportz, Brent; Bejarano, Pablo A; Alexander, Alan A Z; Henson, Donald E

2007-10-01

72

Delayed uterine fluid clearance and reduced uterine perfusion in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia and clinical management with postmating antibiotic.  

PubMed

In many species a transient uterine inflammatory response follows mating and is proposed to remove excess spermatozoa, bacteria, and other contaminants from the uterus. Similar events have been documented in the bitch involving increased uterine contractions, polymorphonuclear neutrophil influx and uterine artery vasodilation. Some healthy bitches with endometrial hyperplasia have increased numbers of uterine luminal polymorphonuclear neutrophils after mating and reduced fertility; it is purported that this represents a presumed postmating endometritis. This study used B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography at the time of mating to measure uterine contractions, clearance of ejaculated fluid, and uterine artery velocity in normal bitches and those with endometrial hyperplasia. Mating resulted in an increase in the number of uterine contractions, although fewer mating-induced contractions were noted in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia. Interestingly, uterine fluid cleared significantly more slowly after mating from the bitches with endometrial hyperplasia than the normal bitches (P = 0.01). In a further study, Doppler ultrasonography showed that in normal bitches there was a significant increase in uterine artery blood velocity (P = 0.04) and a decrease in the resistance index after mating (P = 0.04), indicating vasodilation. In bitches with endometrial hyperplasia the baseline resistance index was significantly higher than normal bitches (P = 0.05), and furthermore, although there was a significant decrease in resistance index after mating, in the bitches with endometrial hyperplasia this was of a smaller magnitude that in normal bitches. These findings indicate lower baseline uterine perfusion, and a blunted vasodilation response to mating in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia. Short-duration postmating administration of systemic antibiotic increased pregnancy rates in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia (P < 0.01). Litter sizes in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia were lower than those of normal bitches both before and after treatment with postmating antibiotic (P = 0.04 and < 0.01, respectively). Mating-induced endometritis in bitches with endometrial hyperplasia appears to affect fertility by reducing the uterine vasodilatory response to mating and delaying clearance of uterine fluid as a result of decreased uterine contractions but the effect can be ameliorated in part by the postmating administration of antibiotic. PMID:22980089

England, G C W; Moxon, R; Freeman, S L

2012-10-15

73

On indexing in the Web of Science and predicting journal impact factor.  

PubMed

We discuss what document types account for the calculation of the journal impact factor (JIF) as published in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Based on a brief review of articles discussing how to predict JIFs and taking data differences between the Web of Science (WoS) and the JCR into account, we make our own predictions. Using data by cited-reference searching for Thomson Scientific's WoS, we predict 2007 impact factors (IFs) for several journals, such as Nature, Science, Learned Publishing and some Library and Information Sciences journals. Based on our colleagues' experiences we expect our predictions to be lower bounds for the official journal impact factors. We explain why it is useful to derive one's own journal impact factor. PMID:18600790

Wu, Xiu-Fang; Fu, Qiang; Rousseau, Ronald

2008-07-01

74

Impact of serum albumin and body-mass index on survival in hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin are associated with increased risk of mortality in patients with chronic kidney\\u000a disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate BMI and serum albumin as predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular\\u000a (CV) mortality in hemodialysed (HD) patients. We describe the results of a five-year retrospective observational study with\\u000a 187 HD

Denise Mafra; Najla Elias Farage; Daniele Lima Azevedo; Giselle Gomide Viana; Juliana Pires Mattos; Luis Guillermo Coca Velarde; Denis Fouque

2007-01-01

75

KPG Index versus OPG Measurements: A Comparison between 3D and 2D Methods in Predicting Treatment Duration and Difficulty Level for Patients with Impacted Maxillary Canines  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study was to test the agreement between orthopantomography (OPG) based 2D measurements and the KPG index, a new index based on 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images, in predicting orthodontic treatment duration and difficulty level of impacted maxillary canines. Materials and Methods. OPG and CBCT images of 105 impacted canines were independently scored by three orthodontists at t0 and after 1 month (t1), using the KPG index and the following 2D methods: distance from cusp tip and occlusal plane, cusp tip position in relation to the lateral incisor, and canine inclination. Pearson's coefficients were used to evaluate the degree of agreement and the ?2 with Yates correction test was used to assess the independence between them. Results. Inter- and intrarater reliability were higher with KPG compared to 2D methods. Pearson's coefficients showed a statistically significant association between all the indexes, while the ?2 with Yates correction test resulted in a statistically significant rejection of independency only for one 2D index. Conclusions. 2D indexes for predicting impacted maxillary canines treatment duration and difficulty sometimes are discordant; a 3D index like the KPG index could be useful in solving these conflicts. PMID:25126566

Visconti, Luca

2014-01-01

76

Impact of body mass index on breast cancer in accordance with the life-stage of women  

PubMed Central

A large amount of epidemiological evidence suggests that the impact of body weight on breast cancer risk should be heterogeneous throughout the life-stage of women. At birth, high weight has been positively associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. While, the body mass index (a relative body weight; BMI kg/m2) has been inversely associated with breast cancer risk among pre-menopausal women. The inverse trend had been observed in both Western and Asian population, with a relatively lower percentage of obesity and higher percentage of leanness, suggested that the inverse trend could be explained not only by the protective impact due to obesity, but also by the increased risk of breast cancer due to leanness. Among post-menopausal women, however, an elevated BMI has been positively associated with the development of breast cancer, particularly in the cases of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) tumors. Currently, the mechanisms underlying the heterogeneous impacts between BMI on breast cancer risk and the life-stage of women remain poorly understood. We reviewed several proposed biological mechanisms that may contribute to the various impacts of relative body weight on breast cancer risk across life-stage. We also discussed the impact of BMI upon the outcome of endocrine therapy, particularly for aromatase inhibitor, in breast cancer patients. To prevent breast cancer incidence and recurrence, the desirable BMI of women may differ throughout their life-stage. To define the underlying mechanism for the various impacts of BMI in the context of breast cancer across various female life stages, further studies will be required. PMID:23061041

Suzuki, Reiko; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

2012-01-01

77

Pancreatic fibrosis associated with age and ductal papillary hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Little is known about the frequency, type and pathogenesis of fibrotic changes that may occur in the pancreas of persons without any clinically apparent or macroscopically visible pancreatic disease. We screened pancreas specimens for the presence and pattern of fibrosis, determined the relationship between fibrosis, age, and duct lesions, and studied the fibrogenic mechanisms. In 89 postmortem specimens from persons without any known pancreatic disease (age range 20-86 years), fibrosis was recorded and graded and the patients were divided into two age classes (younger or older than 60 years). In addition, we analyzed the association between ductal papillary hyperplasia [i.e., pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia type 1B (PanIN-1B)] and fibrotic foci in the pancreatic tissue to determine the potential impact of obliterating duct lesions on pancreatic fibrosis. Finally, we studied the occurrence in the pancreas of myofibroblasts, identified on the basis of their alpha-SMA and desmin positivity, and determined their relationship to the fibrotic foci. Thirty-eight (44%) of 89 pancreata showed scattered foci of lobular fibrosis affecting peripheral lobuli. Fibrotic changes were significantly more common in individuals older than 60 years. Fibrotic foci were commonly associated (p<0.05) with ductal papillary hyperplasia in ducts draining fibrotic lobuli. Myofibroblasts were detected in the fibrotic foci. The "normal" pancreas develops a specific type of focally accentuated fibrosis that is highly age related. This patchy lobular fibrosis in the elderly (PLFE) was closely associated with PanIN-1B lesions in the ducts, suggesting that the narrowing of a duct due to papillary hyperplasia of the epithelium may hamper secretion and cause fibrosis of the drained lobule. The presence of myofibroblasts in association with the fibrotic foci indicates an ongoing fibrogenic process. PMID:16021508

Detlefsen, Sönke; Sipos, Bence; Feyerabend, Bernd; Klöppel, Günter

2005-11-01

78

Fuzzy Clustering Analysis in Environmental Impact Assessment--A Complement Tool to Environmental Quality Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of rapid progress achieved in the methodological research underlying environmental impact assessment (EIA), the problem of weighting various parameters has not yet been solved. This paper presents a new approach, fuzzy clustering analysis, which is illustrated with an EIA case study on Baoshan-Wusong District in Shanghai, China. (Author)

Kung, Hsiang-Te; And Others

1993-01-01

79

The impact of water temperature on water quality indexes in north of Liaodong Bay.  

PubMed

The north of Liaodong Bay is one of the most severely polluted areas in Bohai Sea. Because the self-purification capacity from the sea water exchange process is limited, the pollutants from the land and river sources cannot be completed degraded and an obviously contaminated zone was formed in the north of Liaodong Bay. Therefore the self-purification capacity from biological process is essential for maintaining ecosystem balance. Marine heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in degradation of the dissolved organic matters and constitution of the primary production in the coastal areas. The shift of water temperature between winter and summer is about 28 °C in the north of Liaodong Bay, which causes changes in the self-purification capacity of the sea area. Certain indexes of water quality in Liaodong Bay were investigated in order to detect how these indexes response to the changing of water temperature. The experimental results show that COD, DO and the concentration of fecal coliform vary a little with the changing of water temperature; TBC increases dramatically when the water temperature is over 16 °C; and TBC in summer is 30 times more than that in winter. By this study, the paper provides a reference to assess the environmental purification capacity of the sea area during different seasons. PMID:24492152

Kong, Xiangpeng; Ye, Shuhong

2014-03-15

80

Impact factor, H index, peer comparisons, and Retrovirology: is it time to individualize citation metrics?  

PubMed Central

There is a natural tendency to judge a gift by the attractiveness of its wrapping. In some respect, this reflects current mores of measuring the gravitas of a scientific paper based on the journal cover in which the work appears. Most journals have an impact factor (IF) which some proudly display on their face page. Although historically journal IF has been a convenient quantitative shorthand, has its (mis)use contributed to inaccurate perceptions of the quality of scientific articles? Is now the time that equally convenient but more individually accurate metrics be adopted? PMID:17577403

Jeang, Kuan-Teh

2007-01-01

81

Atypical Sweat Duct Hyperplasia Accompanying Keratoacanthoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

25 cases of atypical sweat duct proliferation in association with cutaneous tumors are described. 20 of these were keratoacanthomas. The compression of the duct either in its dermal or intraepidermal portion is considered to be the etiology. Similar changes are seen with decubitus ulcer and stasis dermatitis. Atypical sweat duct hyperplasia may be useful as an extra aid in the

Daniel J. Santa Cruz; Kathryn Clausen

1977-01-01

82

Assessing the impact of a fistula after a pancreaticoduodenectomy using the Post-operative Morbidity Index  

PubMed Central

Background The Post-operative Morbidity Index (PMI) is a quantitative utility measure of a complication burden created by severity weighting. The Fistula Risk Score (FRS) is a validated model that predicts whether a patient will develop a post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF). These novel tools might provide further discrimination of the ISGPF grading system. Methods From 2001 to 2012, 1021 pancreaticoduodenectomies were performed at four institutions. POPFs were categorized by ISGPF standards. PMI scores were calculated based on the Modified Accordion Severity Grading System. FRS scores were assigned according to the relative influence of four recognized factors for developing a clinically relevant POPF (CR-POPF). Results In total, 231 patients (22.6%) developed a POPF, of which 54.1% were CR-POPFs. The PMI differed significantly between the ISGPF grades and patients with no or non-fistulous complications (P < 0.001). 64.9% of POPFs and 84.0% of CR-POPFs contributed the highest Accordion grade to the PMI. Overall, the FRS correlated well with PMI (R2 = 0.81, P < 0.001). Conclusion These data quantitatively reinforce the ISGPF grades that were developed qualitatively around the concept of clinical severity. CR-POPFs usually reflect the patient's highest Accordion score whereas biochemical POPFs are often superseded. The correlation between FRS and PMI indicates that risk factors for a fistula contribute to overall pancreaticoduodenectomy morbidity. PMID:23869603

Miller, Benjamin C; Christein, John D; Behrman, Stephen W; Callery, Mark P; Drebin, Jeffrey A; Kent, Tara S; Pratt, Wande B; Lewis, Russell S; Vollmer, Charles M

2013-01-01

83

Cellulose crystallinity index: measurement techniques and their impact on interpreting cellulase performance  

PubMed Central

Although measurements of crystallinity index (CI) have a long history, it has been found that CI varies significantly depending on the choice of measurement method. In this study, four different techniques incorporating X-ray diffraction and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were compared using eight different cellulose preparations. We found that the simplest method, which is also the most widely used, and which involves measurement of just two heights in the X-ray diffractogram, produced significantly higher crystallinity values than did the other methods. Data in the literature for the cellulose preparation used (Avicel PH-101) support this observation. We believe that the alternative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR methods presented here, which consider the contributions from amorphous and crystalline cellulose to the entire XRD and NMR spectra, provide a more accurate measure of the crystallinity of cellulose. Although celluloses having a high amorphous content are usually more easily digested by enzymes, it is unclear, based on studies published in the literature, whether CI actually provides a clear indication of the digestibility of a cellulose sample. Cellulose accessibility should be affected by crystallinity, but is also likely to be affected by several other parameters, such as lignin/hemicellulose contents and distribution, porosity, and particle size. Given the methodological dependency of cellulose CI values and the complex nature of cellulase interactions with amorphous and crystalline celluloses, we caution against trying to correlate relatively small changes in CI with changes in cellulose digestibility. In addition, the prediction of cellulase performance based on low levels of cellulose conversion may not include sufficient digestion of the crystalline component to be meaningful. PMID:20497524

2010-01-01

84

Cellulose crystallinity index: measurement techniques and their impact on interpreting cellulase performance.  

PubMed

Although measurements of crystallinity index (CI) have a long history, it has been found that CI varies significantly depending on the choice of measurement method. In this study, four different techniques incorporating X-ray diffraction and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were compared using eight different cellulose preparations. We found that the simplest method, which is also the most widely used, and which involves measurement of just two heights in the X-ray diffractogram, produced significantly higher crystallinity values than did the other methods. Data in the literature for the cellulose preparation used (Avicel PH-101) support this observation. We believe that the alternative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR methods presented here, which consider the contributions from amorphous and crystalline cellulose to the entire XRD and NMR spectra, provide a more accurate measure of the crystallinity of cellulose. Although celluloses having a high amorphous content are usually more easily digested by enzymes, it is unclear, based on studies published in the literature, whether CI actually provides a clear indication of the digestibility of a cellulose sample. Cellulose accessibility should be affected by crystallinity, but is also likely to be affected by several other parameters, such as lignin/hemicellulose contents and distribution, porosity, and particle size. Given the methodological dependency of cellulose CI values and the complex nature of cellulase interactions with amorphous and crystalline celluloses, we caution against trying to correlate relatively small changes in CI with changes in cellulose digestibility. In addition, the prediction of cellulase performance based on low levels of cellulose conversion may not include sufficient digestion of the crystalline component to be meaningful. PMID:20497524

Park, Sunkyu; Baker, John O; Himmel, Michael E; Parilla, Philip A; Johnson, David K

2010-01-01

85

Assessing the Influence of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) on Erectile Dysfunction (ED) among patients in Poland  

PubMed Central

Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) and the lower urinary tract symptoms caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) are highly prevalent among aging men. More data are needed from studies evaluating the impact of LUTS/BPH on ED. This study aimed to assess ED in patients with LUTS/BPH independent of comorbidities. Material and methods During 2007 and 2008, we examined 10,932 patients aged 50 to 69 years with LUTS/BPH (IPSS = 8-19 points) using questionnaires: Sex-Score and International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5). Patients who used alcohol and/or cigarettes and those with hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia and cholesterolemia were excluded from meta analyses, which left 4,354 patients with LUTS/BPH without any comorbidity for the analyses. The main survey instruments used were the Sex-Score and IIEF-5. Results Regarding sexual coexistence, 1,497 (34.4%) and 2,638 (60.6%) patients considered it very important or important respectively; however, 219(5%) patients reported no sexual activity. After excluding sexually inactive patients, only 1,088 (25%) patients had the ability to obtain an erection during sexual activity always or nearly always. However, that erection was only strong enough to penetrate their partner almost always or most of the time in 218 (5%) and 826 (19%) patients respectively and only 610 (14%) patients were always able to maintain their erection during sexual intercourse. While only 87 (2%) patients had no difficulty maintaining their erection until the completion of intercourse, 174 (4%) and 914 (21%) patients stated that sexual intercourse gave satisfaction nearly always or most of the time respectively. Conclusions The impact of ED on patients with LUTS/BPH is evident across domains. PMID:24578949

Skawi?ski, Dariusz; Duda, Wies?aw; Duda, Magdalena

2012-01-01

86

Development and validation of a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) for assessing urban impacts to Northern California freshwater wetlands.  

PubMed

Despite California policies requiring assessment of ambient wetland condition and compensatory wetland mitigations, no intensive monitoring tools have been developed to evaluate freshwater wetlands within the state. Therefore, we developed standardized, wadeable field methods to sample macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated 40 wetlands across Northern California to develop a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI). A priori reference sites were selected with minimal urban impacts, representing a best-attainable condition. We screened 56 macroinvertebrate metrics for inclusion in the IBI based on responsiveness to percent urbanization. Eight final metrics were selected for inclusion in the IBI: percent three dominant taxa; scraper richness; percent Ephemeroptera, Odonata, and Trichoptera (EOT); EOT richness; percent Tanypodinae/Chironomidae; Oligochaeta richness; percent Coleoptera; and predator richness. The IBI (potential range 0-100) demonstrated significant discriminatory power between the reference (mean?=?69) and impacted wetlands (mean?=?28). It also declined with increasing percent urbanization (R (2)?=?0.53, p?

Lunde, Kevin B; Resh, Vincent H

2012-06-01

87

Impacts of body mass index, physical activity, and smoking on femoral bone loss: the Tromsø study.  

PubMed

Bone mineral density (BMD) is a reflection of bone strength and lifestyles that preserve bone mass and may reduce fracture risk in old age. This study examined the effect of combined profiles of smoking, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) on lifetime bone loss. Data were collected from the population-based Tromsø Study. BMD was measured as g/cm(2) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the total hip and femoral neck in 2580 women and 2084 men aged 30 to 80 years in the 2001-02 survey, and repeated in 1401 women and 1113 men in the 2007-08 survey. Height and weight were measured and lifestyle information was collected through questionnaires. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models with second-degree fractional polynomials. From the peak at the age around 40 years to 80 years of age, loss rates varied between 4% at the total hip and 14% at femoral neck in nonsmoking, physically active men with a BMI of 30?kg/m(2) to approximately 30% at both femoral sites in heavy smoking, physically inactive men with a BMI value of 18?kg/m(2) . In women also, loss rates of more than 30% were estimated in the lifestyle groups with a BMI value of 18?kg/m(2) . BMI had the strongest effect on BMD, especially in the oldest age groups, but a BMI above 30?kg/m(2) did not exert any additional effect compared with the population average BMI of 27?kg/m(2) . At the age of 80 years, a lifestyle of moderate BMI to light overweight, smoking avoidance, and physical activity of 4 hours of vigorous activity per week through adult life may result in 1 to 2 standard deviations higher BMD levels compared with a lifestyle marked by heavy smoking, inactivity, and low weight. In the prevention of osteoporosis and fracture risk, the effect of combined lifestyles through adult life should be highlighted. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:24676861

Emaus, Nina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ahmed, Luai Awad

2014-09-01

88

First data on an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on fish assemblages for the assessment of the impact of deforestation in a tropical West African river system  

Microsoft Academic Search

African tropical rainforests, and especially their freshwater biodiversity, are seriously threatened by ongoing industrial deforestation. Sound ecological management is needed to ensure the sustainability of these resources. For this purpose, an index of biotic integrity (IBI), based on fish assemblage characteristics, is developed in this paper. It is used to quantify the impact of industrial deforestation on freshwater biodiversity. Data

André Kamdem Toham; Guy G. Teugels

1999-01-01

89

Intractable verrucous hyperplasia: a surgically corrected case.  

PubMed

Skin problems commonly occur after lower limb amputation. Wart-like lesions of verrucous hyperplasia is one such skin anomaly that develops on the residual-limb. The process is reversible if external compression in combination with adequate control of bacterial infection and edema is applied. Prosthetic adjustments usually help with this condition. However, we experienced an intractable verrucous hyperplasia case in a 65-year-old female. She complained of a painful, oozing, verrucous papule at the amputation site. Despite management with typical treatment procedures, the lesion worsened. Surgical treatment was therefore carried out. This case demonstrated that an intractable case is possible despite appropriate management and sometimes surgical correction is necessary. PMID:25479281

Chang, Ji Hea; Moon, Hee Bong; Kim, Chang Jae; Nam, Kiyeun; Lee, Ho Jun; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin-Woo

2014-12-01

90

Sebaceous gland hyperplasia of the foreskin.  

PubMed

Two men, aged in their 20s, presented with multiple, soft, rounded papules on the prepuce. The lesions were centrally umbilicated, resembling molluscum contagiosum, but clearly distinct from Tyson's glands. Surface microscopy showed well-defined, milky-white, bag-shaped structures, which under histological examination were found to be sebaceous glands with various features of hyperplasia. A lymphocytic T-cell infiltrate, closely associated with progressive degeneration and destruction of the sebocytes, was visible around the glands. In the differential diagnosis of penile papular lesions, this unusual clinical presentation supported by dermatoscopy is consistent with preputial sebaceous gland hyperplasia. As both patients had a prominent T-cell infiltration, it is possible that under inflammatory stimulation, sebaceous glands undergo hypertrophy and gradual central involution. PMID:19077090

Ena, P; Origa, D; Massarelli, G

2009-04-01

91

Fertility in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the most frequently encountered genetic steroid disorder affecting fertility. Steroid hormones play a crucial role in sexual development and reproductive function; patients with either 21- hydroxylase or 11?-hydroxylase deficiency thus face immense challenges to their fertility. Given the relevance of CAH in reproductive medicine as well as the diagnostic challenges posed by the phenotypic overlap with polycystic ovary syndrome, we review the reproductive pahophysiology of both classic and nonclassic CAH and present contemporary treatment options. PMID:24355046

Reichman, David E; White, Perrin C; New, Maria I; Rosenwaks, Zev

2014-02-01

92

Genomic Grade Index (GGI): Feasibility in Routine Practice and Impact on Treatment Decisions in Early Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Genomic Grade Index (GGI) is a 97-gene signature that improves histologic grade (HG) classification in invasive breast carcinoma. In this prospective study we sought to evaluate the feasibility of performing GGI in routine clinical practice and its impact on treatment recommendations. Methods Patients with pT1pT2 or operable pT3, N0-3 invasive breast carcinoma were recruited from 8 centers in Belgium. Fresh surgical samples were sent at room temperature in the MapQuant Dx™ PathKit for centralized genomic analysis. Genomic profiles were determined using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 and GGI calculated using the MapQuant Dx® protocol, which defines tumors as low or high Genomic Grade (GG-1 and GG-3 respectively). Results 180 pts were recruited and 155 were eligible. The MapQuant test was performed in 142 cases and GGI was obtained in 78% of cases (n=111). Reasons for failures were 15 samples with <30% of invasive tumor cells (11%), 15 with insufficient RNA quality (10%), and 1 failed hybridization (<1%). For tumors with an available representative sample (? 30% inv. tumor cells) (n=127), the success rate was 87.5%. GGI reclassified 69% of the 54 HG2 tumors as GG-1 (54%) or GG-3 (46%). Changes in treatment recommendations occurred mainly in the subset of HG2 tumors reclassified into GG-3, with increased use of chemotherapy in this subset. Conclusion The use of GGI is feasible in routine clinical practice and impacts treatment decisions in early-stage breast cancer. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01916837, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01916837 PMID:23990869

Metzger-Filho, Otto; Catteau, Aurélie; Michiels, Stefan; Buyse, Marc; Ignatiadis, Michail; Saini, Kamal S.; de Azambuja, Evandro; Fasolo, Virginie; Naji, Sihem; Canon, Jean Luc; Delrée, Paul; Coibion, Michel; Cusumano, Pino; Jossa, Veronique; Kains, Jean Pierre; Larsimont, Denis; Richard, Vincent; Faverly, Daniel; Cornez, Nathalie; Vuylsteke, Peter; Vanderschueren, Brigitte; Peyro-Saint-Paul, Hélène; Piccart, Martine; Sotiriou, Christos

2013-01-01

93

Mitotically active microglandular hyperplasia of the cervix: a case series with implications for the differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Microglandular hyperplasia (MGH) is a benign proliferation of endocervical glands with relatively uniform columnar or cuboidal nuclei, and rare to absent mitoses. Endometrial adenocarcinomas with mucinous differentiation or a microglandular pattern can closely mimic MGH, often resulting in a diagnostic dilemma in small biopsy specimens. Rare unusual morphologic features-mild to moderate nuclear atypia, solid or reticular growth pattern, hobnail and signet ring cells-have been previously reported in MGH. We present 9 cases of unusual, mitotically active-between 5 and 11 mitotic figures per 10 HPF-MGH, all of which presented as endocervical polyps and had morphologic features otherwise typical of MGH. The patients' age ranged between 35 and 56 yr, 2 patients were postmenopausal. High-risk human papillomavirus status was available in 7 patients, all of which were negative. The Ki-67 proliferation index ranged between 1% and 15%, and all cases were negative for p16, carcinoembryonic antigen, and vimentin immunostains. The clinical follow-up ranged from 3 to 76.2 mo, with a median of 40.7 mo, all patients were doing well without evidence of endocervical or endometrial malignancy. In summary, this case series documents the presence of rare cases of MGH demonstrating significant mitotic activity (up to 11/10 HPF) without a negative impact on the clinical prognosis. Mitotic activity alone should be interpreted with caution in small biopsy specimens with microglandular growth pattern. Immunohistochemical stains, especially p16, carcinoembryonic antigen, and vimentin, may be helpful-in addition to the patient's clinical history and human papillomavirus status to rule out endocervical or endometrial malignancy. PMID:25083971

Abi-Raad, Rita; Alomari, Ahmed; Hui, Pei; Buza, Natalia

2014-09-01

94

Genetics Home Reference: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder catalog Conditions > Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency On this page: Description Genetic ... 2011 What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency? Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due ...

95

Impact of body mass index on outcomes of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with long-term follow-up.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the functional and oncological results of patients who had undergone laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). Material and methods. In total, 1224 patients with follow-up data (>24 months) were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups according to BMI (kg/m(2)) as: group 1 (normal, BMI <25, n = 425), group 2 (overweight, 25 ?BMI <30, n = 594) and group 3 (obese, BMI ?30, n = 205). Demographic, intraoperative and postoperative data with oncological outcomes were recorded. The impact of obesity on those parameters was evaluated and statistical analyses were performed. Results. Mean age was 63.8 ± 6.1 years and mean follow-up was 43.1 ± 25.1 months (mean ± SD). There were 425 (34.7%) patients in group 1, 594 (48.5%) in group 2 and 205 (16.8%) in group 3. Operation time, clinical stage and estimated blood loss were significantly higher in group 3 than in the other groups (p < 0.001, p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Bilateral nerve-sparing rate and bladder neck-sparing rate were significantly decreased in group 3 compared with the other groups (p = 0.001 and p < 0.038, respectively). Statistically significantly higher pathological stage, tumour volume, positive surgical margin and Gleason scores were determined in group 3 compared with the other groups (p = 0.023, p = 0.018, p = 0.009 and p = 0.028, respectively). There were similar urinary continence rates among the groups. The rate of penetration with or without medication was significantly lower in group 3 than in the other groups (p = 0.593 and p = 0.007, respectively). Conclusions. LRP seemed safe and effective in obese patients, with similar mean overall survival, cancer-specific survival, complication rates and continence rates to normal weight patients in the long term. PMID:25130508

Gözen, Ali Serdar; Akin, Yigit; Özden, Ender; Ates, Mutlu; Hruza, Marcel; Rassweiler, Jens

2015-02-01

96

Impact of body mass index on estradiol depletion by aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Body mass index (BMI) has an impact on survival outcome in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Obesity is associated with an increased body aromatisation and may be a cause of insufficient estradiol depletion. Methods: Sixty-eight postmenopausal oestrogen receptor-positive patients with early breast cancer were prospectively included in this study. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol were analysed immediately in the clinical routine lab and in a dedicated central lab before (T1) and 3 months after start with aromatase inhibitors (T2). Results: A total of 40 patients were normal or overweight (non-obese: BMI 18.5–29.9?kg?m?2) and 28 were obese (BMI?30?kg?m?2). Aromatase inhibitors significantly suppressed estradiol serum levels (T1: 19.5?pg?ml?1, T2: 10.5?pg?ml?1, P<0.01) and increased FSH serum levels (T1: 70.2?mIU?ml?1, T2: 75.7?mIU?ml?1, P<0.05). However, after 3 months of AI treatment, estradiol levels of obese patients were nonsignificantly higher compared with non-obese patients (12.5?pg?ml?1 vs 9.0?pg?ml?1, P=0.1). This difference was reflected by significantly lower FSH serum levels in obese compared with non-obese patients (65.5?mIU?ml?1 vs 84.6?mIU?ml?1, P<0.01). The significant effects of BMI on FSH serum levels could be detected both in the routine as well as in the dedicated central lab. Conclusion: Aromatase inhibitors are less efficient at suppressing estradiol serum levels in obese when compared with non-obese women. PMID:24002592

Pfeiler, G; Königsberg, R; Hadji, P; Fitzal, F; Maroske, M; Dressel-Ban, G; Zellinger, J; Exner, R; Seifert, M; Singer, C; Gnant, M; Dubsky, P

2013-01-01

97

Role of Inflammation in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Inflammation of the prostate may represent a mechanism for hyperplastic changes to occur in the prostate. There are a variety of growth factors and cytokines that may lead to a proinflammatory process within the prostate. There are several proposed mechanisms that lead to both the intrinsic and extrinsic basis of inflammation. Prostatic inflammation may represent an important factor in influencing prostatic growth and progression of symptoms. This article reviews the recent literature on inflammation leading to chronic prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:22110398

Chughtai, Bilal; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven

2011-01-01

98

Prolonged exposure of cholestatic rats to complete dark inhibits biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis.  

PubMed

Biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are common features in cholestatic liver disease. Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland as well as the liver. Melatonin inhibits biliary hyperplasia of bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. Since melatonin synthesis (by the enzyme serotonin N-acetyltransferase, AANAT) from the pineal gland increases after dark exposure, we hypothesized that biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are diminished by continuous darkness via increased melatonin synthesis from the pineal gland. Normal or BDL rats (immediately after surgery) were housed with light-dark cycles or complete dark for 1 wk before evaluation of 1) the expression of AANAT in the pineal gland and melatonin levels in pineal gland tissue supernatants and serum; 2) biliary proliferation and intrahepatic bile duct mass, liver histology, and serum chemistry; 3) secretin-stimulated ductal secretion (functional index of biliary growth); 4) collagen deposition, liver fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver, and cholangiocytes; and 5) expression of clock genes in cholangiocytes. In BDL rats exposed to dark there was 1) enhanced AANAT expression/melatonin secretion in pineal gland and melatonin serum levels; 2) improved liver morphology, serum chemistry and decreased biliary proliferation and secretin-stimulated choleresis; and 4) decreased fibrosis and expression of fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver and cholangiocytes and reduced biliary expression of the clock genes PER1, BMAL1, CLOCK, and Cry1. Thus prolonged dark exposure may be a beneficial noninvasive therapeutic approach for the management of biliary disorders. PMID:25214401

Han, Yuyan; Onori, Paolo; Meng, Fanyin; DeMorrow, Sharon; Venter, Julie; Francis, Heather; Franchitto, Antonio; Ray, Debolina; Kennedy, Lindsey; Greene, John; Renzi, Anastasia; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

2014-11-01

99

Genetics of primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed

ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome (CS), accounting for <2% of all endogenous CS cases; however it is more frequently identified incidentally with sub-clinical cortisol secretion. Recently, cortisol secretion has been shown to be regulated by ectopic corticotropin, which is in turn produced by clusters of steroidogenic cells of the hyperplastic adrenal nodules. Hence, the term 'ACTH-independent' is not entirely appropriate for this disorder. Accordingly, the disease is designated primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH) in this review article. The means by which cortisol production is regulated in PMAH despite the suppressed levels of ACTH of pituitary origin is exceedingly complex. Several molecular events have been proposed to explain the enhanced cortisol secretion, increased cell proliferation, and nodule formation in PMAH. Nonetheless, the precise sequence of events and the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition remain unclear. The purpose of this review is therefore to present new insights on the molecular and genetic profile of PMAH pathophysiology, and to discuss the implications for disease progression. PMID:25472909

Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares; Alencar, Guilherme Asmar; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Almeida, Madson Queiroz; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Lacroix, André

2015-01-01

100

Conditional deletion of Pten causes bronchiolar hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (Pten(Delta/Delta)) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as indicated by beta-tubulin and FOXJ1 expression in ciliated cells and by CCSP expression in nonciliated cells, cell proliferation (detected by expression of Ki-67, phospho-histone-H3, and cyclin D1) was increased and associated with activation of the AKT/mTOR survival pathway. Deletion of Pten caused papillary epithelial hyperplasia characterized by a hypercellular epithelium lining papillae with fibrovascular cores that protruded into the airway lumens. Cell polarity, as assessed by subcellular localization of cadherin, beta-catenin, and zonula occludens-1, was unaltered. PTEN is required for regulation of epithelial cell proliferation in the lung and for the maintenance of the normal simple columnar epithelium characteristics of bronchi and bronchioles. PMID:17921358

Davé, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R; Loudy, Dave E; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

2008-03-01

101

Brunner's Gland Hyperplasia: Treatment of Severe Diffuse Nodular Hyperplasia Mimicking a Malignancy on Pancreatic-Duodenal Area  

PubMed Central

Brunner's gland hyperplasia is a benign tumor of the duodenum and it is rarely associated with clinical symptoms. We report on a 64-yr-old man with Brunner's gland hyperplasia who had undergone a duodenocephalo-pancreatectomy. The reason is that he presented upper gastrointestinal obstructive symptoms and the esophagogastroduodenoscopic finding revealed the lesion to be an infiltrating type mass on the second portion of the duodenum with luminal narrowing. An abdominal computed tomography showed a 2.5 cm-sized mass in the duodenal second portion with a suspicious pancreatic invasion and 7 mm-sized lymph node around the duodenum. Duodenocephalopancreatectomy was successfully performed. Histological examination revealed a Brunner's gland hyperplasia. The final diagnosis was the coexistence of Brunner's gland hyperplasia and pancreatic heterotopia with a pancreatic head invasion. The literature on Brunner's gland hyperplasia is reviewed. PMID:18583897

Lee, Woong Chul; Lee, Yun Jung; Jung, Sung Hee; Choi, Gi Young; Go, Hoon; Kim, Anna; Cha, Sang Woo

2008-01-01

102

The dynamic association of body mass index and all-cause mortality in multiple cohorts and its impacts  

PubMed Central

Background In the literature, different shapes of associations have been found between body mass index (BMI) and mortality and some of the findings were opposite to each other. The association of BMI and mortality in a single cohort has been found to be dynamic that can lead to different findings under different settings. The identified dynamic features were consistent with the heterogeneity in the literature. It is meaningful to find out whether such dynamic associations exist in other populations. Methods Data of six different cohorts were used for analysis and comparison. The proportional hazards assumptions for BMI in Cox models were tested to identify dynamic associations in each cohort. Time-dependent covariates Cox model was used to model the association of BMI and mortality risk as functions of follow-up time. The Cox model was applied to the pooled data with survival times censored at 5 to 40 years to show the potential impact of the dynamic association on traditional Meta-analysis. Results and discussion Dynamic associations were identified in six models (4 for men and 2 for women), four of which showed the same changing pattern: the elevated mortality risk for low BMI decreased while that for high BMI increased with follow-up time. When the Cox model was applied to the pooled data excluding the largest and also the shortest cohort, low BMI was but high BMI was not associated with high mortality for men with censoring at 5 years but the association for low BMI became weaker and that for high BMI became much stronger when censoring time was at 40 years. The dynamic association indicated that shorter studies tend to obtain inverse associations between BMI and mortality while longer studies tend to obtain J-shaped associations. Conclusions Different or even opposite results about body weight and mortality in the literature may be in part due to the underlying dynamic association of BMI and mortality. The dynamic features need to be taken into consideration in future studies. PMID:25352909

2014-01-01

103

Aroma-impact compounds in dried spice as a quality index using solid phase microextraction with olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.  

PubMed

A systematic experimental procedure is used to identify the aroma-impact compounds, leading to a shelf quality index based on head space solid-phase microextraction. Dried (ground) fennel seeds, having shelf life of 6 months (0.5Y) and 5 years (5Y), were used as a spice model for assessment of comparative aroma quality. Aroma-impact odorants were analysed by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) in parallel with comprehensive two-dimensional GC-flame ionisation detection (GC×GC-FID) using a polar/non-polar phase combination for the GC×GC column set. Tentative identification of aroma-impact odorants involved correlating data from the GC-O/FID system with GC×GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis by means of retention indices. Major compounds responsible for aroma perception were limonene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, estragole and trans-anethole, and showed an average decrease of 30-50% NIF from 0.5Y to 5Y. Monoterpenes which represent 'freshness', e.g. ?-pinene and ?-myrcene, exhibited identifiable aroma-impact only for the 0.5Y product. Sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene oxides are suggested as an aging index, being present in increased amounts in 5Y. p-Anisaldehyde odour intensity for both samples remained the same (aroma perception sweet creamy, floral odour and Chinese seasoning powder). PMID:23993622

Maikhunthod, Bussayarat; Marriott, Philip J

2013-12-15

104

Impact of a modified data capture period on Liu comorbidity index scores in Medicare enrollees initiating chronic dialysis  

E-print Network

Background: The Liu Comorbidity Index uses the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) to quantify comorbidity in chronic dialysis patients, capturing baseline comorbidities from days 91 through 270 after dialysis initiation. ...

Rigler, Sally K.; Wetmore, James B.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Dong, Lei; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Shireman, Theresa I.

2013-01-27

105

Phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A minireview.  

PubMed

Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition affecting older men, with an incidence that is age-dependent. Histological BPH, which typically develops after the age of 40 years, ranges in prevalence from >50% at 60 years to as high as 90% by 85 years of age. Typical symptoms include increased frequency of urination, nocturia, urgency, hesitancy, and weak urine stream. Conventional medicines used for the treatment of BPH include alpha blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. This articles review the mode of action, the efficacy, and the safety, including herb-drug interactions of the most common botanicals (Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica, and Cucurbita pepo) and nutraceuticals (isoflavones, lycopene, selenium, and ?-Sitosterol) in controlling the lower urinary tract symptoms associated to BPH. PMID:25165780

Pagano, Ester; Laudato, Massimiliano; Griffo, Michele; Capasso, Raffaele

2014-07-01

106

Microwave Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microwave ablation in the form of microwave energy applied to a heart muscle by a coaxial catheter inserted in a vein in the groin area can be used to heat and kill diseased heart cells. A microwave catheter has been developed to provide deep myocardial ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia by restoring appropriate electrical activity within the heart and eliminating irregular heartbeats. The resulting microwave catheter design, which is now being developed for commercial use in treating ventricular tachycardia, can be modified to treat prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inasmuch as the occurrence of BPH is increasing currently 350,000 operations per year are performed in the United States alone to treat this condition this microwave catheter has significant commercial potential.

Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Raffoul, George

2005-01-01

107

Rete testis adenomatous hyperplasia: our experience.  

PubMed

The word "adenomatous hyperplasia of rete testis" (AHRT) was used by M. Nistal et Al. for the first time in an article about the cystic dysplasia of the testis (1976). AHRT is a benign lesion of the testis. The patient who came to our attention was studied with a testicular echo color Doppler that identified a solid, well circumscribed and hypoechoic mass of 4.5 x3.8mm as diameter, localized in the upper third of the right testicle and with a perilesional vascularization pattern. The preoperative study was based on an accurate medical history, on an ultrasound with contrast and on a RMI. The treatment consisted in an echo guided excisional biopsy of the testicular lesion, considering this as the best approach for those testicular neoformation difficult to define, with a lot of benefits for the patients, especially for those monorchid. PMID:24311150

Martino, Giovanni; Pasta, Vittorio; Ciardi, Antonio; Palmieri, Andrea; Marinaccio, Lucia; Malavenda, Maria Stella; Monti, Massimo

2013-01-01

108

MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

109

Augmentation of postresection mucosal hyperplasia by plerocercoid growth factor (PGF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postresection villus hyperplasia is a major compensatory mechanism in the short-bowel patient. Substances capable of augmenting postresection mucosal hyperplasia could have therapeutic implications. Human growth hormone (hGH) and human growth hormone releasing factor (hGHRF) stimulate growth of the gastrointestinal tract; however, the diabetogenic actions of growth hormone limit its usefulness in clinical practice. Plerocercoid larvae of the tapewormSpirometra mansonoides produce

Michael H. Hart; C. K. Phares; Steven H. Erdman; Carter J. Grandjean; Jung H. Y. Park; Jon A. Vanderhoof

1987-01-01

110

Nodular regenerative hyperplasia mimicking cirrhosis of the liver.  

PubMed Central

Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver usually presents with signs of portal hypertension with little evidence of obvious liver disease. We report a 47 year old man who presented with clinical signs of decompensated cirrhosis, recurrent encephalopathy, and tense ascites but at liver transplant was found to have nodular regenerative hyperplasia associated with a portal vein thrombosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2379880

McDonald, J A; Painter, D M; Gallagher, N D; McCaughan, G W

1990-01-01

111

HUMAN USE INDEX  

EPA Science Inventory

Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

112

HUMAN USE INDEX (FUTURE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

113

Development and validation of a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) for assessing urban impacts to Northern California freshwater wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite California policies requiring assessment of ambient wetland condition and compensatory wetland mitigations, no intensive\\u000a monitoring tools have been developed to evaluate freshwater wetlands within the state. Therefore, we developed standardized,\\u000a wadeable field methods to sample macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated 40 wetlands across Northern California to develop\\u000a a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI). A priori reference sites were selected

Kevin B. Lunde; Vincent H. Resh

114

Cinacalcet HCl prevents development of parathyroid gland hyperplasia and reverses established parathyroid gland hyperplasia in a rodent model of CKD  

PubMed Central

Background. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) represents an adaptive response to progressively impaired control of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is characterized by parathyroid hyperplasia and excessive synthesis and secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hyperplasia in uremic rats can be prevented by calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) activation with the calcimimetic cinacalcet (Sensipar®/Mimpara®); however, it is unknown, how long the effects of cinacalcet persist after withdrawal of treatment or if cinacalcet is efficacious in uremic rats with established sHPT. Methods. We sought to determine the effect of cinacalcet discontinuation in uremic rats and whether cinacalcet was capable of influencing parathyroid hyperplasia in animals with established sHPT. Results. Discontinuation of cinacalcet resulted in reversal of the beneficial effects on serum PTH and parathyroid hyperplasia. In rats with established sHPT, cinacalcet decreased serum PTH and mediated regression of parathyroid hyperplasia. The cinacalcet-mediated decrease in parathyroid gland size was accompanied by increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Prevention of cellular proliferation with cinacalcet occurred despite increased serum phosphorus and decreased serum calcium. Conclusions. The animal data provided suggest established parathyroid hyperplasia can be reversed by modulating CaSR activity with cinacalcet and that continued treatment may be necessary to maintain reductions in PTH. PMID:22036941

Miller, Gerald; Davis, James; Shatzen, Edward; Colloton, Matthew; Martin, David

2012-01-01

115

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: an update in children  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in children, the majority of which is due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, represents a group of disorders in which there is impaired cortisol synthesis and abnormalities in adrenal hormonal profiles. There continues to be debate regarding the optimal management of and treatment for these children. This review will highlight the most recent advances in neonatal screening for CAH, as well as the timeliest recommendations for the treatment and management of 21-hydroxylase deficiency, both the classic and non-classic forms of the disorder. Recent findings Substantive advancements have been made with regards to neonatal screening for CAH, allowing for earlier diagnosis while minimizing the morbidity and mortality associated with delayed detection. While the achievement of normal growth and development remains the ultimate goal of treatment, recent studies have provided further insight into the management and refinement of therapy in these children. Summary The optimal management and treatment for children with CAH is still unclear. While there have been recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of this group of disorders, there is still much to learn in order to optimize therapy for these individuals. PMID:21494138

Trapp, Christine M.; Speiser, Phyllis W.; Oberfield, Sharon E.

2013-01-01

116

Neointimal hyperplasia associated with synthetic hemodialysis grafts  

PubMed Central

Stenosis is a major cause of failure of hemodialysis vascular grafts and is primarily caused by neointimal hyperplasia (NH) at the anastomoses. The objective of this article is to provide a scientific review of the biology underlying this disorder and a critical review of the state-of-the-art investigational preventive strategies in order to stimulate further research in this exciting area. The histology of the NH shows myofibroblasts (that are probably derived from adventitial fibroblasts), extracellular matrices, pro-inflammatory cells including foreign-body giant cells, a variety of growth factors and cytokines, and neovasculature. The contributing factors of the pathogenesis of NH include surgical trauma, bioincompatibility of the synthetic graft, and the various mechanical stresses that result from luminal hypertension and compliance mismatch between the vessel wall and graft. These mechanical stimuli are focal in nature and may have a significant influence on the preferential localization of the NH. Novel mechanical graft designs and local drug delivery strategies show promise in animal models in preventing graft NH development. Successful prevention of graft stenosis would provide a superior alternative to the native fistula as hemodialysis vascular access. PMID:18668026

Li, Li; Terry, Christi M.; Shiu, Yan-Ting E.; Cheung, Alfred K.

2008-01-01

117

Assessing the true role of coauthors in the h-index measure of an author scientific impact  

E-print Network

A method based on the classical principal component analysis leads to demonstrate that the role of co-authors should give a h-index measure to a group leader higher than usually accepted. The method rather easily gives what is usually searched for, i.e. an estimate of the role (or "weight") of co-authors, as the additional value to an author papers' popularity. The construction of the co-authorship popularity H-matrix is exemplified and the role of eigenvalues and the main eigenvector component are discussed. An example illustrates the points and serves as the basis for suggesting a generally practical application of the concept.

Ausloos, Marcel

2015-01-01

118

Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 1)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

Chan, Kin Hang

2009-01-01

119

Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 2)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

Chan, Kin Hang

2009-01-01

120

A substrate classification index for the visual assessment of the impact of acid mine drainage in lotic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of acid mine drainage (AMD) on lotic receiving waters is complex and difficult to assess. While low pH, elevated sulphate and metals all characterize AMD these vary both spatially and temporally, with high river dilutions resulting in low absolute concentrations which are difficult to measure. From field observations the best indications of AMD contamination of lotic systems appear

N. F. Gray

1996-01-01

121

Photoselective Vaporization for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Background As an alternative to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) provides a bloodless, relatively painless relief of lower urinary tract symptoms for men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Following a review of the evidence in 2006, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee recommended that a study be conducted to evaluate PVP in Ontario. Objectives To compare the clinical effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, and budget impact of PVP compared to conventional TURP for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Ontario. Methods A prospective, nonrandomized trial was conducted in 3 Ontario centres. Consenting subjects were assessed at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months following surgery. Outcome measures included International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), peak urinary flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual (PVR) volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using the EuroQol 5 Domain questionnaire, and the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score. Adverse events, resource utilization, and productivity losses were also assessed. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses were completed using data from the study. Results Between February 2008 and August 2010, 164 subjects were enrolled in the study (n = 140 for PVP and n = 24 for TURP). Treatment outcomes were similar between the 2 groups at 6 months, with the IPSS decreasing similarly over time (P = 0.718). For other treatment outcomes (Qmax, PSA, HRQOL, SHIM) both treatments provided similar benefit over time; only changes in PVR volume favoured PVP (P = 0.018). The majority of PVP patients were managed on an outpatient basis, with only 7.1% requiring admission (all TURP subjects were inpatients). At 6 months, PVP was less costly than TURP ($3,891 versus $4,863; P = 0.001), with similar quality-adjusted life-years (0.448 versus 0.441; P = 0.658). PVP remained the most cost-effective treatment across all decision-making thresholds, with the technology costing less and providing similar clinical outcomes. Extrapolating the results to a provincial level indicated (based on an estimated case volume of 12,335 TURPs) that there is an opportunity to reallocate just over $14 million (Cdn), primarily related to the reduced need for hospital admission. Limitations This study was nonrandomized, and the results should be interpreted with some caution, despite generally similar baseline characteristics between the 2 groups. Recruiting individuals to the TURP arm was a challenge, resulting in a size imbalance between treatment arms. Conclusions Based on this analysis, PVP appears to be a cost-effective alternative to TURP, providing similar clinical benefit at a lower cost to the health system. Plain Language Summary For men with lower urinary tract symptoms due to an enlarged prostate, a laser treatment called photoselective vaporization of the prostate (or PVP) is just as effective as surgery. PVP does not require an overnight stay in the hospital for most men, and it costs almost $1,000 less. This report describes the results of a study that collected information about treatment outcomes, quality of life, and health care use related to PVP and surgery in Ontario. PMID:24019857

Bowen, James M.; Whelan, J. Paul; Hopkins, Robert B.; Burke, Natasha; Woods, Edward A.; McIsaac, Gary P.; O’Reilly, Daria J.; Xie, Feng; Sehatzadeh, Shayan; Levin, Leslie; Mathew, Suja P.; Patterson, Lisa L.; Goeree, Ron; Tarride, Jean-Eric

2013-01-01

122

Role of transvaginal sonography (TVS) in the detection of endometrial hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Transvaginal sonography is superior to transabdominal sonography in most cases of pelvic pathology. A cross sectional study was done with forty patients to evaluate the clinical usefulness of transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) in pre, peri and post menopausal women suspected to have endometrial hyperplasia.. The study was carried out January 2007 to November 2008 for a period of two years. The patients having endometrial hyperplasia diagnosed by TVS were correlated with histopathological diagnosis. Of total 40 cases, 18(45.0%) cases were endometrial hyperplasia and 22(55.0%) were negative for endometrial hyperplasia respectively in TVS findings. Only 2 cases were found as negative for endometrial hyperplasia in histopathology among the all suspected endometrial hyperplasia, which were diagnosed by TVS. On the other hand 17(42.5%) cases were endometrial hyperplasia and 23(57.5%) cases were negative for endometrial hyperplasia in histopathological findings. Among 22 negative for endometrial hyperplasia cases which were diagnosed by TVS, 1 case was endometrial hyperplasia and the rest 21 cases were negative for endometrial hyperplasia in histopathological findings. The validity of TVS in diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia were studied by calculating sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, which were 94%, 92%, 93%, 89% and 96% respectively. As the TVS findings of the present study correlated well with the histopathology findings and the validity test values were higher than observed by others, it can be concluded that TVS is sensitive and accurate modality in the evaluation of endometrial hyperplasia. PMID:25178606

Showkat, M S; Khondker, L; Nabi, S; Bhowmik, B

2014-07-01

123

Oxidative stress in benign prostate hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is the common health problem in ageing male. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced more with advancement of age leads to oxidative stress. This study aims to assess Malondialdehyde (MDA), the marker of lipid peroxidation and vitaminic antioxidants e.g. alpha-Tocopherol (Toc) and Ascorbate (Asc) status in plasma of BPH patients. This is a case control study conducted in Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with Dept of Surgery, BPKIHS. Forty eight (n = 48) confirmed patients of BPH and forty six (n = 46) healthy age matched controls were enrolled. Plasma MDA, Asc and alpha-Toc were estimated. Plasma MDA level showed 4.81 +/- 1.87 nmol/ml in BPH patients compared to 3.69 +/- 1.56 nmol/ml in healthy controls (p < 0.001). There were significant decrease in plasma alpha-Toc and Asc level which were 0.85 +/- 0.12 mg/dl and 0.93 +/- 0.13 mg/dl in BPH patients compared to 1.37 +/- 0.31 mg/dl and 1.44 +/- 0.38 mg/dl in healthy controls respectively. Inverse correlation of plasma MDA with a- Toc (r = -0.09) and Asc (r = -0.51) was found in BPH patients. There was mild elevation of PSA in BPH patients compared with control but was not statistically significant. Thus, our study showed the evidence of association of oxidative stress in BPH patients. PMID:18298008

Aryal, M; Pandeya, A; Gautam, N; Baral, N; Lamsal, M; Majhi, S; Chandra, L; Pandit, R; Das, B K L

2007-12-01

124

Centripetal spread of arterial collateral endothelial cell hyperplasia after renal artery stenosis in the rat.  

PubMed

The factors responsible for collateral arterial growth after major artery occlusion remain obscure, despite their importance for tissue survival. An increase in endothelial cell labelling with tritiated thymidine, as an index of collateral arterial growth, occurs early after renal artery occlusion. Our working premise was that an increase in endothelial cell labelling would occur simultaneously throughout the length of the collateral arteries if biophysical factors related to blood flow were the responsible mechanism, because blood flow must be increased simultaneously throughout the length of the small, preformed collateral arterial vessels. On the other hand, if the information spread from the ischemic zone, one would anticipate centripetal spread of the endothelial cell hyperplasia in a retrograde direction from the ischemic zone. With the periureteric collateral arterial supply as the model, we performed serial studies of tritiated thymidine labelling following renal artery stenosis in the rat. As anticipated, endothelial cell labelling rose sharply within 24 to 48 hours, first evident in the area immediately adjacent to the renal hilum. Thereafter, a progressive, time-related centripetal gradient in endothelial cell tritiated thymidine labelling occurred (p less than 0.01). These findings indicate that the factors responsible for endothelial cell hyperplasia are less related to blood flow in the lumen than to downstream, ischemic events. Although the mechanism responsible for the centripetal spread remains speculative, the communication system is likely to involve cell-to-cell contact in the vessel wall. PMID:3581447

Hollenberg, N K; Odori, T

1987-03-01

125

Definition and impact of a quality index for radar-based reference measurements in the H-SAF precipitation product validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) provides rainfall estimations based on infrared and microwave satellite sensors on board polar and geostationary satellites. The validation of these satellite estimations is performed by the H-SAF Precipitation Product Validation Group (PPVG). A common validation methodology has been defined inside the PPVG in order to make validation results from several institutes comparable and understandable. The validation of the PR-OBS-3 (blended infrared-microwave (IR-MW) instantaneous rainfall estimation) product using radar-based rainfall estimations as ground reference is described herein. A network of C-band and Ka-band radars throughout Europe ensures a wide area coverage with different orographic configurations and climatological regimes, but the definition of a quality control protocol for obtaining consistent ground precipitation fields across several countries is required. Among the hydro-meteorological community, the evaluation of the data quality is a quite consolidated practice, even though a unique definition of a common evaluation methodology between different countries and institutions has not been set up yet. Inside H-SAF, the first definition of the quality index of the radar rainfall observations has been introduced at the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC). In the evaluation of the DPC quality index, several parameters are considered, some measured by the radar itself (static clutter map, range distance, radial velocity, texture of differential reflectivity, texture of co-polar correlation coefficient and texture of differential phase shift) and some obtained by external sources (digital elevation model, freezing layer height). In some cases, corrections were applied for clutter and beam blocking. The DPC quality index was calculated and applied to some relevant meteorological events reported by a radar test site in Italy. The precipitation field derived by radar data was compared with the PR-OBS-3 precipitation product, with varying thresholds of quality index: the impact of the introduction of the quality index defined on the statistical results of the satellite product validation as well as their sensitivity to the threshold choice were thus evaluated. Results show that PR-RMSE (a relative RMSE here introduced) is reduced from values between 2.5 and 3 to values around 1 when the quality threshold is increased from 0 (no threshold) to 0.8. Fractional standard error also decreases, from values around 2 to values around 1.5 in the same span of the quality threshold.

Rinollo, A.; Vulpiani, G.; Puca, S.; Pagliara, P.; Ka?ák, J.; Lábó, E.; Okon, L'.; Roulin, E.; Baguis, P.; Cattani, E.; Laviola, S.; Levizzani, V.

2013-10-01

126

A hybrid fuzzy-ontology based intelligent system to determine level of severity and treatment recommendation for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.  

PubMed

This paper deals with application of fuzzy intelligent systems in diagnosing severity level and recommending appropriate therapies for patients having Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Such an intelligent system can have remarkable impacts on correct diagnosis of the disease and reducing risk of mortality. This system captures various factors from the patients using two modules. The first module determines severity level of the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and the second module, which is a decision making unit, obtains output of the first module accompanied by some external knowledge and makes an appropriate treatment decision based on its ontology model and a fuzzy type-1 system. In order to validate efficiency and accuracy of the developed system, a case study is conducted by 44 participants. Then the results are compared with the recommendations of a panel of experts on the experimental data. Then precision and accuracy of the results were investigated based on a statistical analysis. PMID:24184111

Torshizi, Abolfazl Doostparast; Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein Fazel; Torshizi, Ghazaleh Doostparast; Eghbali, Kamyar

2014-01-01

127

Pathophysiology and management of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

Endometrial cancer is currently the commonest pelvic malignancy affecting American women, most of whom share the same pathophysiologic basis, that is, unopposed estrogenic stimulation. The initial result of hyperestrogenism is the development of endometrial hyperplasia, which is reversible in most cases by appropriate hormonal therapy. Persistent stimulation eventually leads to atypical hyperplasia with nuclear atypia and invasive carcinoma. Because there is no cost-effective screening method for the detection of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, it is essential to survey the high-risk population with appropriate diagnostic techniques. After diagnosis, therapy should be individualized based on pathologic findings (cell type and histologic grade) and extent of disease (International Federation of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians stage, depth of myometrial invasion, and pelvic and para-aortic lymph node status). Recent studies suggest that sex hormone receptors and nuclear DNA ploidy patterns provide useful prognostic information independent of histologic grade. Images PMID:2202159

Fu, Y. S.; Gambone, J. C.; Berek, J. S.

1990-01-01

128

Collagenous spherulosis of the breast with atypical epithelial hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Collagenous spherulosis of the breast is a recently described lesion that was previously been seen only in a setting of benign, typical epitheliosis. We report that unusual case of a collagenous spherulosis of the breast in association with severely atypical epithelial hyperplasia in a 45-year-old woman. The patient presented an asymptomatic right lump and underwent a wide breast tissue resection. After a postoperative follow-up of twelve months, the patient remained well with no breast symptoms. Since atypical hyperplasia in the breast is considered predictive of relatively high risk of later carcinoma development, the finding of collagenous spherulosis with atypical hyperplasia should suggest a long-term follow-up. although at present the biological and prognostic significance of this association is unknown. PMID:8516022

Guarino, M; Tricomi, P; Cristofori, E

1993-01-01

129

Sclerosing Lobular Hyperplasia- Correlation between Cytomorphological and Histological Findings  

PubMed Central

Sclerosing lobular hyperplasia of the mammary gland is an uncommmon benign lesion which is mainly seen in adolescents and young women. The breast lobules are enlarged due to ductal and acinar proliferations but they have normal architecture. There is extensive fibrosis of the intralobular stroma, and to a lesser degree, of the interlobular parenchyma. Patients generally complain of a palpable, painless/slightly tender and well-defined lump in breast. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia is non diagnostic with features similar to fibroadneoma except for the absence of stromal fragments. In order to reach a definitive diagnosis, a histopathologic evaluation is needed. However, a distinction between the two benign entities is of no clinical significance.We are describing a case of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia that occurred in the left breast of a 26-year-old lady. PMID:24783103

Lamichaney, Rachna; Sherpa, Mingma; Pradhan, Diwakar

2014-01-01

130

Sclerosing Lobular Hyperplasia- Correlation between Cytomorphological and Histological Findings.  

PubMed

Sclerosing lobular hyperplasia of the mammary gland is an uncommmon benign lesion which is mainly seen in adolescents and young women. The breast lobules are enlarged due to ductal and acinar proliferations but they have normal architecture. There is extensive fibrosis of the intralobular stroma, and to a lesser degree, of the interlobular parenchyma. Patients generally complain of a palpable, painless/slightly tender and well-defined lump in breast. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia is non diagnostic with features similar to fibroadneoma except for the absence of stromal fragments. In order to reach a definitive diagnosis, a histopathologic evaluation is needed. However, a distinction between the two benign entities is of no clinical significance.We are describing a case of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia that occurred in the left breast of a 26-year-old lady. PMID:24783103

Lamichaney, Rachna; Sherpa, Mingma; Pradhan, Diwakar

2014-03-01

131

Role of Metabolic Environment on Nitric Oxide Mediated Inhibition of Neointimal Hyperplasia in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is well known to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. Previously, we reported that NO was more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a type 2 diabetic environment than control. We also found that NO was ineffective in an uncontrolled type 1 diabetic environment; however, insulin restored the efficacy of NO. Thus, the goal of this study was to more closely evaluate the effect of insulin and glucose on the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments using different doses of insulin as well as pioglitazone. Type 1 diabetes was induced in male Lean Zucker (LZ) rats with streptozotocin (60mg/kg IP). Groups included control, moderate glucose control, and tight glucose control. Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats fed Purina 5008 chow were used as a type 2 diabetic model. Groups included no therapy, insulin therapy, or pioglitazone therapy. After 4 weeks of maintaining group assignments, the carotid artery injury model was performed. Treatment groups included: control, injury, and injury plus NO. 2 weeks following arterial injury, in the type 1 diabetic rats, NO most effectively reduced the neointimal area in the moderate and tightly controlled groups (81% and 88% vs. 33%, respectively, p=0.01). In type 2 diabetic rats, the metabolic environment had no impact on the efficacy of NO (81%–82% reduction for all groups). Thus, in this study, we show NO is effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments. A greater understanding of how the metabolic environment may impact the efficacy of NO may lead to the development of more effective NO-based therapies for patients with diabetes. PMID:24333562

Wang, Zheng; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Kibbe, Melina R.

2014-01-01

132

Role of metabolic environment on nitric oxide mediated inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is well known to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. Previously, we reported that NO was more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a type 2 diabetic environment than control. We also found that NO was ineffective in an uncontrolled type 1 diabetic environment; however, insulin restored the efficacy of NO. Thus, the goal of this study was to more closely evaluate the effect of insulin and glucose on the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments using different doses of insulin as well as pioglitazone. Type 1 diabetes was induced in male lean Zucker (LZ) rats with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg IP). Groups included control, moderate glucose control, and tight glucose control. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats fed Purina 5008 chow were used as a type 2 diabetic model. Groups included no therapy, insulin therapy, or pioglitazone therapy. After 4 weeks of maintaining group assignments, the carotid artery injury model was performed. Treatment groups included: control, injury and injury plus NO. 2 weeks following arterial injury, in the type 1 diabetic rats, NO most effectively reduced the neointimal area in the moderate and tightly controlled groups (81% and 88% vs. 33%, respectively, p=0.01). In type 2 diabetic rats, the metabolic environment had no impact on the efficacy of NO (81-82% reduction for all groups). Thus, in this study, we show NO is effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments. A greater understanding of how the metabolic environment may impact the efficacy of NO may lead to the development of more effective NO-based therapies for patients with diabetes. PMID:24333562

Rodriguez, Monica P; Emond, Zachary M; Wang, Zheng; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Kibbe, Melina R

2014-01-30

133

Impact of Pretreatment Body Mass Index on Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the association of pretreatment body mass index (preT BMI) with outcomes of head-and-neck cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: All 1,562 patients diagnosed with head-and-neck cancer and treated with curative-intent RT to a dose of 60 Gy or higher were retrospectively studied. Body weight was measured both at entry and at the end of RT. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis (DM) were analyzed by preT BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2} vs. {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}). The median follow-up was 8.6 years. Results: Patients with lower preT BMI were statistically significantly associated with poorer CSS and OS than those with higher preT BMI. There was no significant difference between preT BMI groups in terms of LRC and DM. Body weight loss (BWL) during radiation did not influence survival outcomes. However, in the group with higher preT BMI, CSS, OS, and DM-free survival of patients with less BWL during radiation were statistically longer when compared with greater BWL. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that higher preT BMI positively influenced survival outcomes for patients with head-and-neck cancer. Patients with higher preT BMI who were able to maintain their weight during radiation had significantly better survival than patients with greater BWL.

Pai, Ping-Ching [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Chi-Cheng [Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Chen-Kan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tsang, Ngan-Ming, E-mail: ss0122@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kai-Ping [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Yen, Tzu-Chen [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Liao, Chun-Ta [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ji-Hong; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

2012-05-01

134

Impact of a low glycemic index diet in pregnancy on markers of maternal and fetal metabolism and inflammation.  

PubMed

This is a secondary analysis of 621 women in ROLO study, a randomized control trial of low glycemic index (GI) diet in pregnancy to prevent the recurrence of macrosomia, which aims to assess the effect of the diet on maternal and fetal insulin resistance, leptin, and markers of inflammation. In early pregnancy and at 28 weeks, serum was analyzed for insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). At delivery, cord blood concentrations of leptin, TNF-?, IL-6, and C-peptide were recorded. We found no difference between those who did or did not receive low GI advice with respect to the concentrations of any marker in early pregnancy, at 28 weeks or in cord blood. Women in the intervention arm of the study did have a lower overall rise in insulin concentrations from early pregnancy to 28 weeks gestation, P = .04. Of the women in the intervention arm, 20% were in the highest quartile for insulin change (28-week insulin - insulin at booking) compared to 29% of controls (P = .02). In conclusion, a low GI diet in pregnancy has little effect on leptin and markers of inflammation although an attenuated response to the typical increase in insulin resistance seen in pregnancy with advancing gestation was seen in those who received the low GI advice. PMID:24642719

Walsh, Jennifer M; Mahony, Rhona M; Culliton, Marie; Foley, Michael E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

2014-11-01

135

Impact of ?-amylase during breadmaking on in vitro kinetics of starch hydrolysis and glycaemic index of enriched bread with bran.  

PubMed

Nowadays, the use of enzymes has become a common practice in the bakery industry, as they can improve dough quality and texture of final product. However, the use of ?-amylases could have a negative effect in the glycaemic load of product, due to the released sugars from the starch hydrolysis that are not used by yeasts during the fermentation process. This study evaluated the effect of the addition of ?-amylase in bakery products with bran on in vitro kinetics of starch hydrolysis. The use of flour with a high degree of extraction or high bran amount could decrease the GI even with the inclusion of ?-amylase in the formulation. It should be taken into account the amount of bran and ?-amylase when formulating breads in order to obtain products with lower GI than white bread. However, the fact that kinetics of starch hydrolysis remained unaltered indicates that the use of ?-amylase in bread-making processes could provide technological advantages improving quality of breads without markedly changes in their glycaemic index. PMID:25074672

Sanz-Penella, Juan Mario; Laparra, José Moisés; Haros, Monika

2014-09-01

136

Dihydrotestosterone and the Concept of 5?–Reductase Inhibition in Human Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The development of the human benign prostatic hyperplasia clearly requires a combination of testicular androgens and aging. Although the role of androgens as the causative factor for human benign prostatic hyperplasia is debated, they undoubtedly have at least a permissive role. The principal prostatic androgen is dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Although not elevated in human benign prostatic hyperplasia, DHT levels in the

G. Bartsch; R. S. Rittmaster; H. Klocker

2000-01-01

137

Dihydrotestosterone and the concept of 5a-reductase inhibition in human benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) clearly requires a combination of testicular androgens and the ageing process. Although the role of androgens as the causative factor for human benign prostatic hyperplasia is debated, they undoubtedly play, at least, a permissive role. The principal prostatic androgen is dihydrotestosterone. Although not elevated in human benign prostatic hyperplasia, dihydrotestosterone levels in

G. Bartsch; R. Rittmaster; H. Klocker

2002-01-01

138

Estrogenic action of commonly used fragrant agent citral induces prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rat model for benign prostatic hyperplasia in man (BPH) was investigated. Citral treatment of male Copenhagen rats for 4 months via the transdermal route resulted in a marked hyperplasia of glandular epithelium and interglandular stroma in the ventral prostate. Despite the cellular hyperplasia there was not a significant increase in prostate weight. Investigations of the mechanism of action of

A. A. Geldof; C. Engel; B. R. Rao

1992-01-01

139

Application of ERICA index to evaluation of soil ecosystem health according to sustainability threshold for chemical impact.  

PubMed

The aim of the improved ERICA model for risk assessment (Boriani et al., 2010) is to give an instrument able to measure the effect of xenobiotics introduced into the environment. This will be of great help for "green" processes and sustainable industries and may help to advertise their products as safe for the environment following impact assessment. In this work we have added new indicators and scoring systems to be used in particular with attention for the soil compartment. Even though it is partly starting to be considered by some legislations, there is still an open debate to assess if a compound added to a certain scenario will increase risk for human beings and the environment. The prolonged environmental occurrence introduces uncertainty regarding the presence and properties of degradation products and cumulative effects from multiple substances present in the environment. Tools capable of efficiently coping with this issue may prove useful for stakeholders. For instance, industries able to show that their substances present good characteristics also related to fate and transport properties may document the added value of environmental friendly products. Furthermore, the use of these tools may lead to awareness by industries of minimizing the environmental impact of the whole production chain. In the present study we show how the instrument ERICA may work by addressing multiple sources of exposure. An improved version of ERICA and in particular its parameter EF (fate and transport of chemical compounds into the environment) is described in this paper and is applied to a scenario of two veterinarian pharmaceutical compounds: Sulfadiazine (SDZ) and Toltrazuril and their metabolites present in the environment. Results show that the new EF parameter is able to prioritize the chemical compounds better than the previous version with respect to their ability to degrade or not into the environment. PMID:23186630

Boriani, Elena; Benfenati, Emilio; Baderna, Diego; Thomsen, Marianne

2013-01-15

140

Tomotherapy treatment plan quality assurance: The impact of applied criteria on passing rate in gamma index method  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Pretreatment patient plan verification with gamma index (GI) metric analysis is standard procedure for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the variability of the local and global gamma index obtained during standard pretreatment quality assurance (QA) measurements for plans performed with Tomotherapy unit. The QA measurements were performed with a 3D diode array, using variable passing criteria: 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm, each with both local and global normalization.Methods: The authors analyzed the pretreatment QA results for 73 verifications; 37 were prostate cancer plans, 16 were head and neck plans, and 20 were other clinical sites. All plans were treated using the Tomotherapy Hi-Art System. Pretreatment QA plans were performed with the commercially available 3D diode array ArcCHECK™. This device has 1386 diodes arranged in a helical geometry spaced 1 cm apart. The dose measurements were acquired on the ArcCHECK™ and then compared with the calculated dose using the standard gamma analysis method. The gamma passing rate (%GP), defined as the percentage of points satisfying the condition GI < 1, was calculated for different criteria (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm) and for both global and local normalization. In the case of local normalization method, the authors set three dose difference threshold (DDT) values of 2, 3, and 5 cGy. Dose difference threshold is defined as the minimum absolute dose error considered in the analysis when using local normalization. Low-dose thresholds (TH) of 5% and 10% were also applied and analyzed.Results: Performing a paired-t-test, the authors determined that the gamma passing rate is independent of the threshold values for all of the adopted criteria (5%TH vs 10%TH, p > 0.1). Our findings showed that mean %GPs for local (or global) normalization for the entire study group were 93% (98%), 84% (92%), and 66% (61%) for 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm criteria, respectively. DDT was equal to 2 cGy for the local normalization analysis cases. The authors observed great variability in the resulting %GP. With 3%/3 mm gamma criteria, the overall passing rate with local normalization was 4.6% less on the average than with global one, as expected. The wide difference between %GP calculated with global or local approach is also confirmed by an unpaired t-test statistical analysis.Conclusions: The variability of %GP obtained confirmed the necessity to establish defined agreement criteria that could be universal and comparable between institutions. In particular, while the gamma passing rate does not depend on the choice of threshold, the choice of DDT strongly influences the gamma passing rate for local calculations. The difference between global and local %GP was statistically significant for prostate and other treatment sites when DDT was changed from 2 to 3 cGy.

Bresciani, Sara; Di Dia, Amalia; Maggio, Angelo; Cutaia, Claudia; Miranti, Anna; Infusino, Erminia; Stasi, Michele [Medical Physics Division, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCCS), 10060 Candiolo (Italy)] [Medical Physics Division, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCCS), 10060 Candiolo (Italy)

2013-12-15

141

Impact of radiatively interactive dust aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 climate model: Sensitivity to dust particle shape and refractive index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

radiative effects of Saharan dust aerosols are investigated in the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. A sectional aerosol microphysics model (CARMA) is run online in GEOS-5. CARMA treats the dust aerosol lifecycle, and its tracers are radiatively coupled to GEOS-5. A series of AMIP-style simulations are performed, in which input dust optical properties (particle shape and refractive index) are varied. Simulated dust distributions for summertime Saharan dust compare well to observations, with best results found when the most absorbing dust optical properties are assumed. Dust absorption leads to a strengthening of the summertime Hadley cell circulation, increased dust lofting to higher altitudes, and a strengthening of the African easterly jet, resulting in increased dust atmospheric lifetime and farther northward and westward transport. We find a positive feedback of dust radiative forcing on emissions, in contrast with previous studies, which we attribute to our having a relatively strong longwave forcing caused by our simulating larger effective particle sizes. This longwave forcing reduces the magnitude of midday net surface cooling relative to other studies, and leads to a nighttime warming that results in higher nighttime wind speeds and dust emissions. The radiative effects of dust particle shape have only minor impact on transport and emissions, with small (~5%) impact on top of atmosphere shortwave forcing, in line with previous studies, but relatively more pronounced effects on shortwave atmospheric heating and surface forcing (~20% increase in atmospheric forcing for spheroids). Shape effects on longwave heating terms are of order ~10%.

Colarco, Peter R.; Nowottnick, Edward P.; Randles, Cynthia A.; Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Smith, Jamison A.; Bardeen, Charles G.

2014-01-01

142

Serenoa Repens, lycopene and selenium: a triple therapeutic approach to manage benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a major health concern that is likely to have an increasing impact in line with the gradual aging of the population. BPH is characterized by smooth muscle and epithelial proliferation primarily within the prostatic transition zone that can cause a variety of problems for patients, the most frequent are the lower urinary tract symptoms. BPH is thought to involve in disruption of dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-supported homeostasis between cell proliferation and cell death, and, as a result, proliferative processes predominate and apoptotic processes are inhibited. Phytotherapeutic supplements, mainly based on Saw Palmetto-derived Serenoa Repens (SeR), are numerous and used frequently. Serenoa Repens reduces inflammation and decreases in vivo the androgenic support to prostatic cell growth. Furthermore, SeR stimulates the apoptotic machinery; however, data supporting efficacy is limited, making treatment recommendations difficult. Besides SeR, selenium (Se), an essential trace element mainly functioning through selenoproteins and able to promote an optimal antioxidant/oxidant balance, and lycopene (Ly), a dietary carotenoid synthesized by plants, fruits, and microorganisms with a strong antioxidant activity, has been shown to exert beneficial effects in prostate disease. SeR is frequently associated with Ly and Se, in order to increase its therapeutic activity in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It has been shown that the Ly-Se-SeR association has a greater and enhanced antiinflammatory activity that might be of particular interest in the treatment of BPH. The Ly-Se-SeR association is also more effective than SeR alone in reducing prostate weight and hyperplasia, in augmenting the pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-9 and blunting the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 mRNA. In addition, Ly-Se-SeR more efficiently suppresses the EGF and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expressions in hyperplastic prostates. Therefore, SeR particularly when combined with Se and Ly may have a greater potential for the management of benign prostate hyperplasia. PMID:23432584

Minutoli, L; Bitto, A; Squadrito, F; Marini, H; Irrera, N; Morgia, G; Passantino, A; Altavilla, D

2013-01-01

143

Pretreatment with intraluminal rapamycin nanoparticle perfusion inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in a rabbit vein graft model  

PubMed Central

Purpose Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA-NP) are widely used as a biodegradable biomaterial in medicine. Rapamycin-eluting stents have been used for prevention of restenosis during surgery. This study investigated the effect of pretreatment with intraluminal perfusion of carbopol-encapsulated rapamycin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (RAP-PLGA-NP) on neointimal hyperplasia in a rabbit vein graft model. Methods A segment of common carotid artery was replaced with a segment of external jugular vein in 60 rabbits which were then separated into four treatment groups, ie, Group 1, in which vein grafts were pretreated with intraluminal RAP-PLGA-NP perfusion, Group 2 in which vein grafts underwent equivalent empty vehicle (PLGA-NP) perfusion, Group 3, in which vein grafts received no treatment, and Group 4, which served as a sham operation group receiving normal vein contrast. On postoperative day 28, the grafts and normal veins were harvested for histologic examination, flow cytometry analysis, and high-performance liquid chromatography measurement. Results Compared with Group 1, the intima of the grafts were thickened, the ratio of intimal area to vessel area increased, and the collagen volume index of the vein grafts increased significantly in Groups 2 and 3. The cell proliferation index in Group 1 (21.11 ± 3.15%) was much lower than that in Group 2 (30.35 ± 2.69%) and in Group 3 (33.86 ± 8.72%). By high-performance liquid chromatography measurement, retention of rapamycin was detected in Group 1 (11.2 ± 0.37 ?g/10 mg) 28 days after single drug perfusion. Conclusion Pretreatment with intraluminal RAP-PLGA-NP perfusion may inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in vein grafts by penetrating into local tissue and limiting cell proliferation. PMID:21042547

Liu, Kai; Cao, Guangqing; Zhang, Xiquan; Liu, Ruifang; Zou, Weiwei; Wu, Shuming

2010-01-01

144

Outcomes and quality of life issues in the pharmacological management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)  

PubMed Central

Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of the aging male population. BPH treatment includes a variety of pharmacological and surgical interventions. The goal of this paper is to review the natural history of BPH, outcomes of pharmacological management, effects on quality of life (QoL), future pharmacotherapies, and associated patient-focused perspectives. Materials and methods Medline searches for the keywords benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH, alpha blockers, 5 alpha-reductase, and quality of life were performed. Relevant literature was reviewed and analyzed. Results Alpha blockers, 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, and phytotherapy are the three categories of pharmaceutical interventions currently available for BPH. Various clinical trials have shown that alpha blockers and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors are safe, efficacious, and improve QoL in patients with BPH. The evidence for phytotherapeutics is not as convincing. The current armamentarium of pharmaceutical interventions are encompassed in these three classes of medications. New pharmacotherapies based on novel mechanisms are on the horizon. Conclusion There are a variety of safe and efficacious medical therapies available for the management of BPH and it is important for the practicing physician to have an understanding of these pharmacotherapies and their potential impact on the patient. There is not enough evidence to make a recommendation regarding phytotherapy use. New classes of drugs for BPH will likely find their way into routine use. PMID:18360626

Cambio, Angelo J; Evans, Christopher P

2007-01-01

145

Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

2014-10-01

146

Analysis of leaf area index in the ECMWF land surface model and impact on latent heat and carbon fluxes: Application to West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new version of the land surface model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (Carbon-TESSEL, or CTESSEL) includes a vegetation growth model. This study describes a leaf area index (LAI) data assimilation system (LDAS) based on CTESSEL and satellite LAI for operational Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) predictions. The LDAS is evaluated over West Africa. A preliminary experiment shows a significant impact of the LAI on the CTESSEL NEE. The LAI is compared to two satellite products: the predicted annual cycle is delayed over the Sahel and savannah, and the LAI values differ from the satellite products. Preliminary to their use in the LDAS, the LAI products are rescaled to the CTESSEL predictions. The LDAS simulations are confronted to measurements of biomass and LAI for a site in Mali. The LAI analysis is shown to improve the predicted biomass and the annual cycles of the water (latent heat flux, or LE) and carbon (NEE) fluxes. Afterward, the LDAS is run over West Africa with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer products (2001-2005). The analysis of LAI shows a limited impact on LE, but it impacts strongly on NEE. Finally, the CTESSEL NEE are compared to two other models' outputs (simple biosphere (SIB) and Carnegie-Ames-Stanford (CASA)). The order of magnitude of the three data sets agrees well, and the shift in annual cycle of CTESSEL is reduced by the LDAS. It is concluded that a LAI data assimilation system is essential for NEE prediction at seasonal and interannual timescales, while a LAI satellite-based climatology may be sufficient for accurate LE predictions.

Jarlan, L.; Balsamo, G.; Lafont, S.; Beljaars, A.; Calvet, J. C.; Mougin, E.

2008-12-01

147

Learning Disabilities in Children With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early exposure to androgens may be a cause of the higher incidence of learning disabilities among males. To test this hypothesis, we determined the frequency of learning disabilities, as measured by extent of Wechsler Verbal-Performance IQ discrepancy, among female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, who are exposed in utero to excess androgens for their sex. A significantly larger Verbal-Performance IQ

Ruth Nass; Susan Baker

1991-01-01

148

Psychosexual Development of Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (N= 31) and their unaffected sisters or female cousins (N= 15) participated in a study of psychosexual development. All participants were ?18 years of age (mean age, 25 years; range, 18–40). Comparisons were also made between the CAH women with the salt-wasting (SW) form of the disorder and those with simple virilization (SV). A

Kenneth J. Zucker; Susan J. Bradley; Gillian Oliver; Jennifer Blake; Susan Fleming; Jane Hood

1996-01-01

149

Focal fibrous hyperplasia: A review of 193 cases  

PubMed Central

Context: Focal fibrous hyperplasia, also known as irritation or traumatic fibroma, is a reactive, inflammatory hyperplastic lesion of the connective tissue. Aim: The aim of this study is to perform a retrospective study of a focal fibrous hyperplasia of 18 years. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 193 cases of focal fibrous hyperplasia of the oral cavity from the medical and histological reports of the Department of Oral Pathology, Pernambuco University, Brazil, during the period between January 1992 and December 2009. Settings and Design: Data with regard to age, gender, location, size of the lesion (equal to or less than 1 cm, between 1 and 2 cm and greater than 2 cm), pain, history of trauma, treatment, length of follow-up (from diagnosis to release or last review) and recurrence, were collected. Results: The most commonly affected site was the buccal mucosa (n = 119, 61.7%). Almost two-thirds of the cases were concentrated from the second to the fifth decade of life. Females were more affected than men and a history of trauma was related by 90.7% of the patients. Two recurrences were notified (1.0%). Conclusion: Further studies are needed on the distribution of the lesion in different ethnic and geographical populations. The influence of sex hormones on the development of focal fibrous hyperplasia must be clarified. PMID:25364187

de Santana Santos, Thiago; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete; Piva, Marta Rabello; de Souza Andrade, Emanuel Sávio

2014-01-01

150

Prenatal and Neonatal Diagnosis and Treatment of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Clinical management of patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) involves treating hormonal deficiencies, addressing issues related to genital ambiguity, avoiding morbidities and communicating with the family about risk of CAH in other members. This article briefly reviews the prenatal and neonatal diagnosis of CAH caused by steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, as well as treatment options and neonatal screening approaches. Conclusions:

Phyllis W. Speiser

2007-01-01

151

The underestimated role of neointimal hyperplasia: balloon folding  

E-print Network

The underestimated role of neointimal hyperplasia: balloon folding M. De Beule, P. Mortier, D. Van and expansion data from both stents and balloons Virtual expansion of the Cypher (Cordis) stent by the inflation of a trifolded Raptor balloon using ABAQUS FEA software The balloon folding pattern seems a major factor

Gent, Universiteit

152

Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impact, emergency escape and crash survival protection are studied. Accleration, the G system of units, data interpretation, and human tolerance limits are summarized, along with physiological and biochemical response to impact. Biomechanical factors of impact are also cited.

Snyder, R. G.

1973-01-01

153

Index Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Index numbers are used to aggregate detailed information on prices and quantities into scalar measures of price and quantity levels or their growth. The paper reviews four main approaches to bilateral index number theory where two price and quantity vectors are to be aggregated: fixed basket and average of fixed baskets, stochastic, test or axiomatic and economic approaches. The paper

Erwin Diewert

2007-01-01

154

Oral Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: Report of Three Cases.  

PubMed

Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is an infrequent asymptomatic condition caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32 affecting the mucous membrane of the mouth and is commonly seen in young individuals. Firstly, it was described in Indians and Eskimos, but it exists in various populations. We present three cases of Heck's disease in an Afghan immigrant family group living in Iran that seem to have familial predominance. The disease was identified as oral focal epithelial hyperplasia on the basis of histopathologic and clinical findings. The lesions were reduced significantly after 4 months of good oral hygiene. Dentists should be familiar with the clinical manifestations of these types of lesions that affect the oral cavity. In fact, histopathologic assessment and clinical observation are necessary to establish the diagnosis. PMID:24585348

Ghalayani, Parichehr; Tavakoli, Payam; Eftekhari, Mehdi; Haghighi, Mohammad Akhondzadeh

2014-02-27

155

Minimally invasive surgery for coronoid hyperplasia: endoscopically assisted intraoral coronoidectomy.  

PubMed

The term hyperplasia of the coronoid process of the mandible defines an abnormal elongation of the coronoid process consisting of histologically normal bone. The main clinical finding of hyperplasia of the coronoid process is a progressive painless difficulty in opening the mouth owing to the contact with the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone or medial surface of the zygomatic arch. Computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction is essential and is the gold standard for an accurate diagnosis. The etiology remains unknown, although several theories have been suggested. The main aim of treatment was to restore mouth opening, and this article introduces and illustrates the advantages of endoscopic assistance for coronoidectomy through the classic "intraoral" approach and emphasize this minimally invasive approach. PMID:23147302

Robiony, Massimo; Casadei, Matteo; Costa, Fabio

2012-11-01

156

Pituitary hyperplasia secondary to acquired hypothyroidism: case report  

PubMed Central

Objective and Importance despite recent progress in imaging, it is still difficult to distinguish between pituitary adenoma and hyperplasia, even using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with gadolinium injection. We describe an example of reactive pituitary hyperplasia from primary hypothyroidism that mimicked a pituitary macroadenoma in a child. Clinical Presentation a 10 year old boy presented with headache and statural growth arrest. MRI revealed an intrasellar and suprasellar pituitary mass. Endocrine evaluation revealed primary hypothyroidism. Intervention the patient was started on levothyroxine with resolution of the mass effect. Conclusion primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. Examination of thyroid function in patients with sellar and suprasellar masses revealed by MRI may avoid unnecessary operations which can cause irreversible complications. PMID:21473748

2011-01-01

157

[Turner's syndrome with pituitary hyperplasia: a case report].  

PubMed

Turner's syndrome, a sex-chromosome abnormality, is often accompanied by cardiovascular disorders, such as coarctation of the aorta. We encountered a case of Turner's syndrome with meningioma and pituitary hyperplasia which resulted in death from dissection of the aorta. The patient was 36-year-old female who was diagnosed as having Turner's syndrome of mosaic-type at the age of 15. She had accepted sex-hormone replacement with estrogen and progesterone over 20 years. She lost consciousness and was transferred to our institute on June 20th, 1992. She was in shock but her condition began to improve after intensive treatment. CT scan revealed a calcified mass lesion at the left frontal convexity and a markedly enhanced round mass lesion at the suprasellar region. Angiography showed tumor stain of the suprasellar region fed by the posterior ethmoidal artery. These tumors were diagnosed as multiple meningiomas. She developed dyspnea on June 24th and chest X-ray showed right pleural fluid collection and cardiomegaly. This condition was diagnosed as congestive heart failure. Her condition was getting worse and she suffered abrupt cardiac arrest on June 28th. Autopsy revealed dissection of the aorta as the cause of death. The tumor of the convexity was meningioma, and the suprasellar lesion was diagnosed as pituitary hyperplasia. It is well known that frequent excess dose injection of estrogen can induce pituitary adenoma or hyperplasia in rats. In this case, the presence of pituitary hyperplasia was thought to be the result of long-term injection of estrogen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8164797

Kido, G; Miyagi, A; Shibuya, T; Miyagami, M; Tsubokawa, T; Sawada, T

1994-04-01

158

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. A report of two cases.  

PubMed

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a benign vascular neoplasm characterized by marked proliferation of large endothelial cells and an inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and eosinophiles. The condition must be differentiated from malignant vascular tumors and from several other benign conditions. Although lesions may be ablated by several means of treatment, there is a tendency to recurrence, but, even untreated, there is a tendency to eventual spontaneous regression. PMID:7229181

Baler, G R

1981-03-01

159

Therapeutic options in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Current theraputic options for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are reviewed. Therapeutic options for mild lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as defined by the American Urological Association, are generally treated medically. Moderate to severe LUTS can be treated medically or with surgical therapy. Current medical and surgical treatments for LUTS secondary to BPH are reviewed and evolving treatments are explored. PMID:19936164

Sandhu, Jaspreet S

2009-01-01

160

Supernumerary nostril: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia with a rare congenital anomaly  

PubMed Central

Multiple or supernumerary nostril is a rare congenital anomaly with unknown etiology. The first case was reported by Lindsay as bilateral supernumerary nostrils. Supernumerary nostril cases are mostly unilateral and isolated. They are also reported with other congenital malformations like facial clefts and congenital anomalies like congenital auricular hypoplasia, congenital cataracts, eusophageal atresia and patent ductus arteriosus. Here, we report a case of supernumerary nostril with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Ciloglu, Sinem; Duran, Alpay; Buyukdogan, Hasan; Yigit, Ahmet K.

2014-01-01

161

Management of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Results of the ESPE Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of children and adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) remains difficult. To assess the current European practice in diagnosis and management of CAH, an ESPE (European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology) survey was circulated in 2000\\/2001. The questionnaire was answered by 34% of ESPE members, representing 125 institutions which cared for 6,553 CAH patients. Paediatric endocrinologists, surgeons, gynaecologists, geneticists,

Felix G. Riepe; Nils Krone; Matthias Viemann; Carl-Joachim Partsch; Wolfgang G. Sippell

2002-01-01

162

Energy Delivery Systems for Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) to conduct a health technology assessment on energy delivery systems for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition BPH is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland and the most common benign tumour in aging men. (1) It is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and is an important cause of diminished quality of life among aging men. (2) The primary goal in the management of BPH for most patients is a subjective improvement in urinary symptoms and quality of life. Until the 1930s, open prostatectomy, though invasive, was the most effective form of surgical treatment for BPH. Today, the benchmark surgical treatment for BPH is transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), which produces significant changes of all subjective and objective outcome parameters. Complications after TURP include hemorrhage during or after the procedure, which often necessitates blood transfusion; transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome; urinary incontinence; bladder neck stricture; and sexual dysfunction. A retrospective review of 4,031 TURP procedures performed by one surgeon between 1979 and 2003 showed that the incidence of complications was 2.4% for blood transfusion, 0.3% for TUR syndrome, 1.5% for hemostatic procedures, 2.8% for bladder neck contracture, and 1% for urinary stricture. However, the incidence of blood transfusion and TUR syndrome decreased as the surgeon’s skills improved. During the 1990s, a variety of endoscopic techniques using a range of energy sources have been developed as alternative treatments for BPH. These techniques include the use of light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser), radiofrequency, microwave, and ultrasound, to heat prostate tissue and cause coagulation or vaporization. In addition, new electrosurgical techniques that use higher amounts of energy to cut, coagulate, and vaporize prostatic tissue have entered the market as competitors to TURP. The driving force behind these new treatment modalities is the potential of producing good hemostasis, thereby reducing catheterization time and length of hospital stay. Some have the potential to be used in an office environment and performed under local anesthesia. Therefore, these new procedures have the potential to rival TURP if their effectiveness is proven over the long term. The Technology Being Reviewed The following energy-based techniques were considered for assessment: transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate (TUVP) transurethral electrovapor resection of the prostate (TUVRP) transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate using bipolar energy (plasmakinetic vaporization of the prostate [PKVP]) visual laser ablation of the prostate (VLAP) transurethral ultrasound guided laser incision prostatectomy (TULIP) contact laser vaporization of the prostate (CLV) interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) holmium laser resection of the prostate (HoLRP) holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) holmium laser ablation of the prostate (HoLAP) potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) transurethral needle ablation (TUNA) Review Strategy A search of electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment [INAHTA] database) was undertaken to identify evidence published from January 1, 2000 to June 21, 2006. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The literature search identified 284 citations, of which 38 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Since the application of high-power (80 W) KTP laser (photoselective vaporization of the prostate [PVP]) has been supported in the United States and has resulted in a rapid diffusion of this technology in the absence of any RCTs, th

2006-01-01

163

UK Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UK Index provides a searchable index of resources in or about the United Kingdom. The Quick Reference section offers links to News Resources in the UK such as the BBC, weather information, UK record charts, and UK related USENET newsgroups. The Foreign & Commonwealth Office provides good advice for travelers. The search engine allows the selection of categories such as arts or business to restrict the search to pages included in one category or a combination of categories.

164

Prostate . Author manuscript Inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia: a 282 patients'  

E-print Network

), including 282 patients treated by surgery for a complicated and/or symptomatic BPH. Inflammation score Analysis ; Middle Aged ; Prostatic Hyperplasia ; complications ; pathology ; Prostatitis ; complications

Boyer, Edmond

165

Ki-67 index as an ancillary tool in the differential diagnosis of proliferative endometrial lesions with secretory change.  

PubMed

"Secretory change" can accompany a variety of proliferative endometrial lesions, ranging from hyperplasia to carcinoma. It is characterized by subnuclear or supranuclear vacuolization, mimicking early secretory endometrium (SEM). As an additional diagnostic challenge, mitotic activity and cytologic atypia are often low in hyperplastic lesions with secretory change. As mitotic activity in lesions with secretory change is decreased, the mitotic index may not be useful to distinguish SEM with glandular crowding from hyperplasia with secretory change. We therefore hypothesized that Ki-67 immunohistochemistry, an alternative marker of proliferative activity, might be useful in this setting. Forty-four endometrial lesions with secretory change and 30 controls were stained for Ki-67. Three "hot spot" areas per case were photographed and 200 to 300 cells were manually counted to obtain the ratio of Ki-67-positive cells versus total cells. A second pathologist performed an independent review of the same preselected fields and estimates without preselection. There was an incremental increase in the Ki-67 index from 2.6% in SEM to 17% in nonatypical hyperplasia, 36% in atypical hyperplasia, and 60% in endometrial carcinoma. The Ki-67 index for SEM was significantly (P<0.01) lower than hyperplastic lesions and carcinoma with secretory change. Similar, statistically significant results were obtained by independent estimates of Ki-67 immunopositivity. In the setting of secretory morphology, the Ki-67 index was highly sensitive and specific (>90%) for the differential diagnosis of SEM with crowding versus nonatypical hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia, and endometrial carcinoma. In summary, the Ki-67-labeling index is a useful technique to distinguish SEM with crowding, an exaggerated physiological condition, from cancer precursors. PMID:24487464

Gurda, Grzegorz T; Baras, Alexander S; Kurman, Robert J

2014-03-01

166

Pituitary hyperplasia: a complication of the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine  

PubMed Central

Objective “The pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine” has been used to describe patients with hypothyroidism who fail to comply with their treatment. We describe a unique case of a 32-year-old with hypothyroidism who developed pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia secondary to the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine. Investigations and treatment After baseline thyroid-function tests were performed, the patient was administered levothyroxine 0.5 mg under the supervision of a registered nurse. Thyroid function testing was repeated at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Arrangements were made for further daily supervised loading of levothyroxine 0.1 mg. Results With the administration of 0.5 mg levothyroxine, free thyroxine levels increased by 120 minutes, and with daily supervised dosing of 0.1 mg there was normalization of the thyroid hormone levels and a reduction of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Maintenance of thyroid-stimulating hormone < 15 mU/L for 2 weeks led to a reduction in prolactin levels and regression in the size of the pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion If left untreated, these patients face significant morbidity and are at risk of developing pituitary hyperplasia, complications from an increase in pituitary size, hyperprolactinemia, and potentially myxedema coma. Recognizing pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia as a complication from the pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine may prevent the potential of a misdiagnosis of a prolactinoma leading to unnecessary investigations and inappropriate treatment. Patient awareness of this serious complication and the rapid, demonstrable resolution with adequate thyroid hormone replacement may provide motivation to comply with supervised dosing of levothyroxine. It has also been suggested that supervised treatment enables the individual to maintain their patient status, which may be in part the motivation behind this disorder. PMID:23766656

Doyle, Mary-Anne; Lochnan, Heather A

2013-01-01

167

Jung Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Matthew Clapp of the University of Georgia, the Jung Index is a collection of more than 300 online resources about and related to the life and work of Carl Jung, the Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist who founded analytic psychology. Resources are indexed into ten major topic areas and include sections such as Research Resources, Jungian Psychology, and Psychoanalysis, among others. A What's New? section, a What's Cool? section, and the JungNet Newsletter keep frequent visitors up to date on the latest and greatest resources in analytic psychology. In addition, the site provides a glossary of Jungian terms, a gallery of Jungian images, and a moderated forum for Jungian discussion.

1999-01-01

168

Morphometric evaluation of vascularization of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Comparative morphometric evaluation of the quantitative characteristics of vessels in hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia tissue was carried out on preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin and by immunohistochemical detection of CD34 and CD105. Analysis of histological preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin allowed the most ample characterization. Immunohistochemical detection of CD34 promoted better visualization of endotheliocytes, but just some sinusoids in the preparations were labeled. Expression of CD105 visualized the active endothelial cells and hence, helped to evaluate neoangiogenesis. PMID:24319765

Shchyogolev, A I; Tumanova, U N; Dubova, E A

2013-12-01

169

Geochemistry Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the index of a book used in a geochemistry course taught by W. M. White at Cornell University. There are 15 chapters and a table of contents available. All of the chapters are large PDF files and take some time to download. Figures and exercises accompany the text.

William M. White

170

Eccrine Squamous Syringometaplasia and Syringomatous Hyperplasia in Association with Linear Scleroderma  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well recognized that syringomatous hyperplasia with squamous syringometaplasia is a type of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia responding to a variety of stimuli. We report a case of linear scleroderma with this process. Histopathology of the lesion showed numerous solid and cystic epithelial structures with squamous metaplasia within typical sclerodermatous skin lesions. Although the pathogenesis of the process remains unclear,

Hiroyuki Sakai; Katsuhiko Satoh; Akira Manabe; Hiroshi Nakane; Akemi Ishida-Yamamoto; Hajime Iizuka

2002-01-01

171

Maspin expression, subcellular localization and clinicopathological correlation in endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Maspin expression in endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas was assessed and its correlation with p53 and Ki67 expressions and clinical outcome, as well as its potential to distinguish typical from atypical endometrial hyperplasia, were assessed in this study. Histological sections from 114 cases of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 75 cases of endometrial hyperplasia (typical and atypical), and 23 normal endometrial tissue samples were examined. The most representative hematoxylin-eosin slides were selected and 2-3 micron-thick sections were cut for immunohistochemical staining with maspin, p53, and Ki67 antibodies. While there was no maspin expression in normal endometrial cells, it was present in 14.5% of the patients with endometrial hyperplasia without atypia. Staining for maspin was positive in atypical hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma in, respectively, 45% and 49.1% of the cases studied. No statistically significant correlations were found between maspin and Ki-67 antibodies or p53 expression. Our findings showed that maspin expression, which generally correlates with a less aggressive behavior, is significantly higher in atypical hyperplasia and in endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Maspin positivity in endometrial hyperplasia could be used to identify pseudo-atypical hyperplasia and could be considered a potentially useful prognostic parameter in those cases in which adenocarcinomas are well differentiated. PMID:24346847

Blandamura, Stella; Alessandrini, Lara; Saccardi, Carlo; Giacomelli, Luciano; Fabris, Alberta; Borghero, Angela; Litta, Pietro

2014-06-01

172

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia: a previously unreported complication of ear piercing.  

PubMed

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a rare, benign vascular lesion characterized by discrete, painful papules. Although the exact etiology is unknown, trauma precedes many cases. We present a case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia in the earlobes of a 15-year-old girl after ear piercing. PMID:25424213

Okman, Jonathan S; Bhatti, Tricia R; Jackson, Oksana A; Rubin, Adam I

2014-01-01

173

Focal nodular hyperplasia in association with spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt.  

PubMed

We report a case of focal nodular hyperplasia in an adolescent with a spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt. Diagnosis was established by duplex and color Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and histology. This association further supports the hypothesis that focal nodular hyperplasia is a response to a preexisting vascular abnormality. PMID:1551514

Lalonde, L; Van Beers, B; Trigaux, J P; Delos, M; Melange, M; Pringot, J

1992-01-01

174

Focal nodular hyperplasia in association with spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of focal nodular hyperplasia in an adolescent with a spontaneous intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt. Diagnosis was established by duplex and color Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and histology. This association further supports the hypothesis that focal nodular hyperplasia is a response to a preexisting vascular abnormality.

Lucie Lalonde; Bernard Van Beers; Jean-Paul Trigaux; Monique Delos; Michel Melange; Jacques Pringot

1992-01-01

175

A New 3-D Automated Computational Method to Evaluate In-Stent Neointimal Hyperplasia in  

E-print Network

A New 3-D Automated Computational Method to Evaluate In-Stent Neointimal Hyperplasia in In gozdeunal@sabanciuniv.edu 2 St Maria hospital, Halle and UZ Brussel, Belgium Abstract. Detection of stent (PCI) and quantification of in-stent neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) are important. In this paper, we

Yanikoglu, Berrin

176

Population Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two excellent bibliographic resources for population studies are the "Population Index" from the Office of Population Research at Princeton University, and "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" from the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Population Index" is a quarterly publication that has been available since 1935. It "covers all fields of interest to demographers, including fertility, mortality, population size and growth, migration, nuptiality and the family, research methodology, projections and predictions, historical demography, and demographic and economic interrelations. Input is derived from original publications including monographs, journal articles, other serial publications, working papers, doctoral dissertations, machine-readable data files, and relevant acquisitions lists and bibliographies." About 3,500 citations are produced annually. Full text for the Index is available at the "Population Index" Web site for 1986-present (Vol. 52-present). Indexes can be searched by author, subject matter, geographical region, or publication year. There is now an experimental free text search capability for the 1994-present issues. "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" is a no frills "practical tool for population professionals who need a single source for the quick location of organizations that publish and distribute or post population or family planning documents." It contains hundreds of citations, providing organization addresses, phone and FAX numbers, and Internet addresses when available. The Guide is updated every six months and is maintained by Ruth Sandor, Director of the Library of the Center for Demography and Ecology. Office of Population Research, Princeton University: http://opr.princeton.edu/ "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide": gopher://cde2.ssc.wisc.edu:70/00/addazlis gopher to: cde2.ssc.wisc.edu select: Population Organizations: Finder's Guide Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/

1986-01-01

177

Lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphoma in KSHV K1 transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Growing evidence supports the involvement of human herpervirus 8, Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), in the pathology of primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma, but the exact mechanism of KSHV contribution to the oncogenic process remains elusive. We studied transgenic mice expressing the ORF K1 of KSHV, whose position in the KSHV genome corresponds to known lymphoproliferative genes of other herpesviruses. K1 protein was previously shown to contain a constitutively active ITAM domain, involved in activation of Akt and pro-survival signaling, and to inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis by interfering with binding of FasL. All this pointed to a possible role of K1 in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated cancers. K1 transgenic mice (80-90%) developed lymphoid hyperplasia and splenomegaly at 8 and 10 months of age, 25% had confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma, and 50% developed abdominal and/or hepatic tumors by 18 months of age. Histological examination showed loss of splenic architecture and increased cellularity. Lymph nodes showed disrupted architecture with effaced follicles and other pathological changes, including signs of angiofollicular lymphoid hyperplasia. One of the livers showed signs of angiosarcoma. In summary, our histology results revealed pathological changes in K1 transgenic mice similar to lymphoma, Castleman's disease, and angiosarcoma, suggesting that K1 may contribute to the development of KSHV-associated cancers. PMID:25301266

Berkova, Zuzana; Wang, Shu; Sehgal, Lalit; Patel, Keyur Pravinchandra; Prakash, Om; Samaniego, Felipe

2014-10-10

178

Perinatal exposure to the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A induces mammary intraductal hyperplasias in adult CD-1 mice  

PubMed Central

Humans are routinely exposed to bisphenol-A (BPA), an estrogenic compound that leaches from consumer products. Given the sensitivity of the developing organism to hormones, exposure of fetuses and infants is a concern. Here, CD-1 mice were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of BPA during gestation and the lactational period (gestational day 8 through postnatal day 16). At 3, 9 and 12–15 months of age, mammary glands from exposed offspring were examined for structural changes. BPA-exposed females demonstrated altered mammary phenotypes including the appearance of alveolar buds. Additionally, intraductal hyperplasias were observed exclusively in BPA–exposed females. These lesions had the appearance of “beaded” ducts, with epithelial cells present inside the ductal lumen and increased proliferation indexes compared to normal ducts. Similar structures have also been observed following exposure to other estrogens. These results are further evidence that perinatal BPA exposure can alter the morphology of the rodent mammary gland in adulthood. PMID:18938238

Vandenberg, Laura N.; Maffini, Maricel V.; Schaeberle, Cheryl M.; Ucci, Angelo A.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Rubin, Beverly S.; Soto, Ana M.

2014-01-01

179

Qianliening capsule treats benign prostatic hyperplasia via suppression of the EGF/STAT3 signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a pathological overgrowth of the human prostate. It may cause increased resistance to urine flow through the urethra and occasionally kidney damage, bladder stones and urinary tract infections, and therefore affect the quality of life. Qianliening capsule (QC) is a traditional Chinese formula that has been used clinically in China to treat BPH for a number of years. However, the mechanism of its anti-BPH effect remains largely unknown. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of QC in a rat model of BPH, established by the injection of testosterone following castration, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of action. We observed that QC treatment significantly and dose-dependently decreased the prostatic volume (PV) and prostatic index (PI; P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ameliorated the histological damage of the prostate tissue in the BPH rats. In addition, treatment with QC inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), as well as the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin D1 and Bcl-2. Our results suggest that suppression of the EGF/STAT3 pathway may be one of the mechanisms by which QC treats BPH. PMID:23737867

LIN, JIUMAO; ZHOU, JIANHENG; XU, WEI; ZHONG, XIAOYONG; HONG, ZHENFENG; PENG, JUN

2013-01-01

180

Photochemotherapy of intimal hyperplasia using psoralen activated by uv light in porcine model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psoralen activated by UVA light (PUVA) was investigated as a means of inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation resulting from balloon injury. Twenty kilogram domestic swine were anesthetized and underwent balloon angioplasty to create a 133% overstretch injury. Assignments of treatment and control were randomized between the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex (LCX) coronaries arteries. The animals were given with 5 mg/kg of 8- methoxypsoralen eternally. Treatment vessels received 600 mJ/cm2 of 364 nm light during balloon inflation to activate the psoralen. Control vessels received drug and balloon injury only. Serum was obtained during the light delivery to assess psoralen levels. At 30 days, animals were sacrificed and the coronary arteries perfusion fixed. Five sections per vessel were analyzed morphometrically to determine percent intimal area and extent of injury. The restenosis injury index was 0.21 plus or minus .02 in treatment vessels and 0.14 plus or minus .01 in the controls with a p-value less than .02. In this large animal model of balloon angioplasty injury, psoralen activated by ultraviolet light increased intimal hyperplasia.

Buckley, Lisa A.; Gregory, Kenton W.; Bahlman, Deborah T.; Shangguan, HanQun; Fahrenbach, Henner; Rosenthal, Eli; Block, Peter C.

1996-05-01

181

Thyroid hormone-responsive pituitary hyperplasia independent of somatostatin receptor 2.  

PubMed

Mice homozygous for the targeted disruption of the glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (alphaGsu) display hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the anterior pituitary thyrotropes. Thyrotrope hyperplasia results in tumors in aged alphaGsu(-/-) mice. These adenomatous pituitaries can grow independently as intrascapular transplants in hypothyroid mice, suggesting that they have progressed beyond simple hyperplasia. We used magnetic resonance imaging to follow the growth and regression of thyrotrope adenomatous hyperplasia in response to thyroid hormone treatment and discovered that the tumors retain thyroid hormone responsiveness. Somatostatin (SMST) and its diverse receptors have been implicated in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. To test the involvement of SMST receptor 2 (SMSTR2) in pituitary tumor progression and thyroid hormone responsiveness in alphaGsu(-/-) mutants, we generated Smstr2(-/-), alphaGsu(-/-) mice. Smstr2(-/-), alphaGsu(-/-) mice develop hyperplasia of thyrotropes, similar to alphaGsu(-/-) mutants, demonstrating that SMSTR2 is dispensable for the development of pituitary adenomatous hyperplasia. Thyrotrope hyperplasia in Smstr2(-/-), alphaGsu(-/-) mice regresses in response to T4 treatment, suggesting that SMSTR2 is not required in the T4 feedback loop regulating TSH secretion. PMID:11731614

Brinkmeier, M L; Stahl, J H; Gordon, D F; Ross, B D; Sarapura, V D; Dowding, J M; Kendall, S K; Lloyd, R V; Ridgway, E C; Camper, S A

2001-12-01

182

Pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia: identification, diagnostic criteria and incidence in untreated ageing rats of different strains.  

PubMed

Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cells (PNEC) are found as clusters called neuroepithelial bodies (NEB) or as single cells scattered in the respiratory epithelium. Pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia is recorded in humans and experimentally manipulated rodents. The objectives of this work were to identify the optimal immunohistochemical markers for PNEC in the rat for use on paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed material and to provide the first comparative incidence of PNEC hyperplasia in untreated 2-year-old rats of different strains. Calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) and protein G product 9.5 (PGP9.5) antibodies identified PNEC consistently and selectively. In contrast, PNEC did not express chromogranin-A or S-100. PNEC hyperplasia was defined as foci of PNEC with greater than 40 nuclei, excluding overlying respiratory epithelium and submucosal PNEC. PNEC hyperplasia was observed at low incidence (0-7%) in untreated 2-year-old Sprague-Dawley, Han Wistar and Wistar rats but not Fischer 344 rats. This is the first report of spontaneous PNEC hyperplasia in rats. The cause of this hyperplasia is unknown, but experimental models that induce PNEC hyperplasia by causing bronchiolar cell injury are discussed. PNEC neoplasia in the rat is unreported in the literature and was not observed in animals examined in this study. PMID:17849355

Haworth, Richard; Woodfine, Jennie; McCawley, Sean; Pilling, Andrew M; Lewis, David J; Williams, Tom C

2007-08-01

183

Cumulative Index  

E-print Network

CUMULATIVE INDEX I. Articles (i) By Author Abate, Charles J. "Has Dretske Really Refuted Skepticism?", v.4, n.3 (June, 1977), pp. 169- 175. Abugattas, Juan A. "On the Relation Between Morality and the Notion of God". v.7, n.l (November, 1979...), pp. 47-81. Algeo, Donald. "Why Art?", v.7, n.2 (Spring, 1980), pp. 105-129. Austin, James W. "Rorty's Materialism", v.3, n.l (November, 1975), pp. 20-28. Bell, Gary. "A Characterization of Mathematics". v.8, n.2 (Summer, 1981), pp. 96-104. Bell...

1981-12-01

184

Impacts of including forest understory brightness and foliage clumping information from multiangular measurements on leaf area index mapping over North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new leaf area index (LAI) data set in 10 day intervals with consideration of the understory reflectance and foliage clumping effects over North America for 1 year is developed. The data set brings effectively together measurements from multiple sensors with complementary capabilities (SPOT-VEGETATION, Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, POLDER). First, the temporal consistency analysis indicated the new product is on par

Jan Pisek; Jing M. Chen; Krista Alikas; Feng Deng

2010-01-01

185

Impact of wind erosion on detecting active tectonics from geomorphic indexes in extremely arid areas: a case study from the Hero Range, Qaidam Basin, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphologic analysis has been used widely to detect active tectonics in regions where fluvial incision is the major erosional process. In this paper, however, we assess the feasibility of utilizing these frequently-used geomorphic indexes (e.g., hypsometric curves, longitudinal channel profiles, normalized stream length-gradient (SLK) index) to determine active tectonics in extremely arid areas where wind erosion also plays an important role. The case study is developed on the Hero Range in the western Qaidam Basin, one of the driest regions on Earth with severe wind erosion since late Pliocene. The result shows that in the west and south sectors, as well as the western part of the east sector, of the Hero Range where fluvial incision prevails, these geomorphic indexes are good indicators of active faulting and consistent with the geological result based on study of fault traces, scarps, faulted Holocene fans and historical seismicity within the past four decades. In contrast, along the northeastern margin (the NE and the SE parts of the east sector) of the range where wind erosion is also important, the results from the geomorphic indexes show quite active tectonics, contrary with the geological evidence favoring weakly active tectonics. Moreover, the positive SLK anomaly lies oblique to the fault trace and the anticline axis but parallel to the wind direction. To reconcile the contradiction, we propose that wind erosion caused by northwestern winds has a tendency to make geomorphic indexes exhibit anomalous values that indicate higher activities, by way of (1) lowering the base-level to generate knickpoints on the longitudinal channel profiles and therefore positive SLK anomalies, and (2) lateral erosion of the mountain front making the hypsometric curves and even the longitudinal channel profiles more convex, and producing obvious slope breaks.

Wu, Lei; Xiao, Ancheng; Yang, Shufeng

2014-11-01

186

The role of imaging in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autossomic recessive disorder caused by impaired steroidogenesis. Patients with CAH may present adrenal insufficiency with or without salt-wasting, as well as various degrees of virilization and fertility impairment, carrying a high incidence of testicular adrenal rest tumors and increased incidence of adrenal tumors. The diagnosis of CAH is made based on the adrenocortical profile hormonal evaluation and genotyping, in selected cases. Follow-up is mainly based on hormonal and clinical evaluation. Utility of imaging in this clinical setting may be helpful for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the patients, although recommendations according to most guidelines are weak when present. Thus, the authors aimed to conduct a narrative synthesis of how imaging can help in the management of patients with CAH, especially focused on genitography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25372578

Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias, Paula Condé Lamparelli; Andrade, Marco Túlio Soares; Melo, Andrea Farias; Elias Junior, Jorge

2014-10-01

187

Splicing factor SRSF6 promotes hyperplasia of sensitized skin  

PubMed Central

Summary Many biological processes involve gene-expression regulation by alternative splicing. Here, we identify the splicing factor SRSF6 as a regulator of wound healing and tissue homeostasis in skin. We show that SRSF6 is a proto-oncogene that is frequently overexpressed in human skin cancer. Overexpressing it in transgenic mice induces hyperplasia of sensitized skin and promotes aberrant alternative splicing. We identify 139 target genes of SRSF6 in skin, and show that this SR protein binds to alternative exons of the extracellular-matrix protein tenascin C pre-mRNA, promoting the expression of isoforms characteristic of invasive and metastatic cancer in a cell-type-independent manner. SRSF6 overexpression additionally results in depletion of Lgr6+ stem cells, and excessive keratinocyte proliferation and response to injury. Furthermore, the effects of SRSF6 in wound healing assayed in vitro depend on the TNC isoforms. Thus, abnormal SR-protein expression can perturb tissue homeostasis. PMID:24440982

Jensen, Mads A.; Wilkinson, John E.; Krainer, Adrian R.

2014-01-01

188

Silodosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are highly prevalent in older men. Medical therapy is the first-line treatment for LUTS due to BPH. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers remain one of the mainstays in the treatment of male LUTS and clinical BPH. They exhibit early onset of efficacy with regard to both symptoms and flow rate improvement, and this is clearly demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials with extensions out to five years. These agents have been shown to prevent symptomatic progression of the disease. The aim of this article is to offer a critical review of the current literature on silodosin, formerly known as KMD-3213, a novel alpha-blocker with unprecedented selectivity for ?1A-adrenergic receptors, as compared with both ?1B- and ?1D -adrenoceptors, exceeding the selectivity of all currently used ?1-blockers, and with clinically promising effects. PMID:21116335

Rossi, Maxime; Roumeguère, Thierry

2010-01-01

189

Left ventricular haemangioma with papillary endothelial hyperplasia and liver involvement.  

PubMed

An intracardiac haemangioma with papillary endothelial hyperplasia (PEH) and liver involvement has not been previously reported in the English literature. This report describes a 65 year old man with a left ventricular haemangioma with PEH coexistent with multiple nodular hepatic haemangiomas. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography identified a large tumour in the left ventricular cavity with a pedicle connected to the apex. Abdominal sonography also identified multiple hyperechoic hepatic tumours. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hypervascularity of both the cardiac and hepatic lesions. The left ventricular tumour was totally resected and the liver nodules were biopsied. Tissue pathological study showed that both the left ventricular tumour and liver lesions were haemangiomas with PEH. The patient was discharged without complications postoperatively. PMID:15253991

Kan, C-D; Yae, C-T; Yang, Y-J

2004-08-01

190

[The transurethral microwave thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia].  

PubMed

The authors have treated benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in 50 patients aged 54-89 years (mean age 67.5 years) including 10 patients with cystostoma. The patients were exposed to transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) performed on the prostcare unit. Only 1 session (60 min at 45 degrees C) was conducted. Inflammatory complications of TUMT occurred in 4(8%) patients. A 1.5-year follow-up covered 45 patients. A subjective response was obtained in 86% of patients. An objective response by urination rate and prostatic size 3 months after TUMT was reached in 80 and 90% of patients, respectively; 1.5 years after in 48, 34 and 47%, respectively. TUMT is recommended in uncomplicated BPH as an alternative to chemotherapy or surgical treatment (in patients with cystostoma and serious intercurrent diseases). PMID:9381615

Prokhorov, A V; Karpov, V K; Sivkov, A V; Apolikhin, O I; Ignashin, N S; Churakov, B I

1997-01-01

191

Esophageal intraepithelial invasion of Helicobacter pylori correlates with atypical hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a common pathogen residing in the gastrointestinal tract, has been well characterized in stomach cancer,while its correlation with esophageal cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we aim to assess the relationship between esophageal intraepithelial H. pylori invasion and inflammation as well as atypical hyperplasia in esophageal squamous epithelial tissues. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissue samples from 196 individuals from both southern and northern esophageal carcinoma high-risk areas in China were examined (125 from northern high-risk areas, 71 from southern high-risk area), while additional 30 samples were collected adjacent to the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (A-ESCC). H. pylori infection was identified by Giemsa staining, immuno-histochemical staining, and H. pylori 16S rRNA-based PCR. A significant increase of H. pylori infection was found in tumor tissues (including ESCC and A-ESCC samples) compared to that of non-tumor tissues (p?hyperplasia of esophageal squamous epithelial tissues and contributed to pathological carcinogenesis of ESCC. PMID:24254881

Li, Wen-sheng; Tian, Dong-ping; Guan, Xiao-ying; Yun, Hailong; Wang, Hong-tao; Xiao, Yinping; Bi, Chao; Ying, Songmin; Su, Min

2014-06-01

192

Serenoa repens extract in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

We are experiencing a revival of interest in phytotherapeutic agents, both in Europe and North America, especially as a consequence of patients' dissatisfaction with the adverse effects of the medical alternatives. One of the most frequently prescribed and studied such agents is Serenoa repens extract, derived from the berry of the dwarf palm tree. We aimed to review the most important published data regarding this type of treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. A review of the existing articles regarding the use of Serenoa repens extracts for benign prostatic hyperplasia was performed. The articles were analysed with regard to their relevance, scientific value and the size of the evaluated series. Multiple mechanisms of action have been attributed to this extract, including antiandrogenic action, an anti-inflammatory/anti-oedematous effect, prolactin signal modulation, and an antiproliferative effect exerted through the inhibition of growth factors. Regarding efficacy, European Association of Urology guidelines state that Serenoa repens extracts significantly reduce nocturia in comparison with placebo. However, the guideline committee is unable to make specific recommendations about phytotherapy of male lower urinary tract symptoms owing to the heterogeneity of the products and the methodological problems associated with meta-analyses. Most of the published trials regarding Serenoa repens phytotherapy demonstrate a significant improvement of urinary status and a favourable safety profile. Also, some authors have credited it with giving a significant improvement in erectile function and decreasing complications following transurethral resection of the prostate, especially bleeding. The results of phytotherapy with Serenoa repens extracts are very promising. More high-quality, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required in order to demonstrate without doubt the true therapeutic value of these products. Particular attention must be focused on differentiating between registered preparations, which are regulated as drugs, and those considered to be food supplements. PMID:21969849

Geavlete, Petrisor; Multescu, Razvan; Geavlete, Bogdan

2011-08-01

193

Sodium Ferulate Inhibits Neointimal Hyperplasia in Rat Balloon Injury Model  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim Neointimal formation after vessel injury is a complex process involving multiple cellular and molecular processes. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in preventing proliferative vascular diseases, such as restenosis. In this study, we intended to identify whether sodium ferulate could inhibit neointimal formation and further explore potential mechanisms involved. Methods Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from rat thoracic aorta were pre-treated with 200 µmol/L sodium ferulate for 1 hour and then stimulated with 1 µmol/L angiotensin II (Ang II) for 1 hour or 10% serum for 48 hours. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to balloon catheter insertion were administrated with 200 mg/kg sodium ferulate (or saline) for 7 days before sacrificed. Results In presence of sodium ferulate, VSMCs exhibited decreased proliferation and migration, suppressed intracellular reactive oxidative species production and NADPH oxidase activity, increased SOD activation and down-regulated p38 phosphorylation compared to Ang II-stimulated alone. Meanwhile, VSMCs treated with sodium ferulate showed significantly increased protein expression of smooth muscle ?-actin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain protein. The components of Notch pathway, including nuclear Notch-1 protein, Jagged-1, Hey-1 and Hey-2 mRNA, as well as total ?-catenin protein and Cyclin D1 mRNA of Wnt signaling, were all significantly decreased by sodium ferulate in cells under serum stimulation. The levels of serum 8-iso-PGF2? and arterial collagen formation in vessel wall were decreased, while the expression of contractile markers was increased in sodium ferulate treated rats. A decline of neointimal area, as well as lower ratio of intimal to medial area was observed in sodium ferulate group. Conclusion Sodium ferulate attenuated neointimal hyperplasia through suppressing oxidative stress and phenotypic switching of VSMCs. PMID:24489938

Chen, Jing; Xu, Changwu; Ding, Jiawang; Yang, Jun; Guo, Qing; Hu, Qi; Jiang, Hong

2014-01-01

194

Thymic cystic degeneration, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, and hemorrhage in a dog with brodifacoum toxicosis.  

PubMed

Thymic cysts with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia are described in a 7-month-old female American Eskimo Dog that died of complications from brodifacoum poisoning. Grossly, there was hemothorax with marked cranial mediastinal hemorrhage. Histologically, thymic lobules were expanded and distorted by irregular cysts, lined by single to multiple layers of plump to slightly attenuated polygonal squamous epithelial cells supported by a basement membrane (pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia). The thymus had a paucity of lymphocytes and lacked corticomedullary differentiation. Extensive hemorrhage within the cysts and thymic parenchyma extended into the adjacent adipose tissue. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of cystic thymic degeneration with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in a nonhuman species. PMID:19176509

Rickman, B H; Gurfield, N

2009-05-01

195

Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia refers to a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by a deficiency of an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucocorticoids. The enzyme deficiency generally leads to a deficiency of cortisol and/or aldosterone production within the adrenal cortex. The lack of glucocorticoids generally leads to elevated levels of plasma corticotropin (ACTH), which often results in adrenal hyperplasia. Testicular adrenal rest tumors may develop in males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to overstimulation of aberrant adrenal cells within the testes. Recognition of this disease entity is essential when evaluating young males with testicular masses. PMID:24967019

Olpin, Jeffrey Dee; Witt, Benjamin

2014-01-01

196

Intestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia and extraintestinal lymphoma--a rare association.  

PubMed

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract is characterized by the presence of innumerable small discrete nodules involving a variable segment of the gastrointestinal tract. The association between nodular lymphoid hyperplasia and other benign and malignant diseases has been clearly described, with an increased risk of gastrointestinal tumours, namely gastrointestinal lymphoma. However, the association with extraintestinal lymphoma seems extremely rare. The authors present a clinical case of a patient with nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the small and large intestine that subsequently developed an extraintestinal lymphoma (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). PMID:22870792

Monsanto, P; Lérias, C; Almeida, N; Lopes, S; Cabral, J E; Figueiredo, P; Silva, M; Julião, M; Gouveia, H; Sofia, C

2012-06-01

197

Evaluation of symptoms and quality of life in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common histologic condition among older men, which conveys its morbidity through lower urinary tract symptoms and complications, such as acute urinary retention, obstructive uropathy, and urinary tract infections. The mechanisms linking the histologic process and lower urinary tract symptoms remain uncertain; prostatic enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction are involved. However, measurements of prostate size and the severity of bladder outlet obstruction correlate poorly with the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms. The severity of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH can be measured reliably, from the patient's perspective, with a number of validated questionnaires, including the International Prostate Symptom Score, the Danish Prostate Symptom Score, and the International Continence Society (ICS)male questionnaire. In the clinical setting, these questionnaires can be used (1) to assess the severity of symptoms in men with lower urinary tract symptoms that may be attributable to BPH, based on their age and clinical characteristics; and (2) to follow changes in symptoms over time and with treatment. None of these questionnaires can accurately determine whether a symptomatic patient has underlying bladder outlet obstruction. Additional questionnaires are available to measure the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms on men's lives, as well as associated phenomena, such as continence and sexual function, which may be affected by BPH and its treatments. Men with a severe burden of lower urinary tract symptoms often have measurable decrements in overall health-related quality of life, which can be ameliorated by treatment. PMID:11750246

Barry, M J

2001-12-01

198

Metabolic Syndrome and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Evidence of a Potential Relationship, Hypothesized Etiology, and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is highly prevalent in older men and causes substantial adverse effects on health. The pathogenesis of this disease is not totally clear. Recent reports have suggested a possible relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and BPH. Single components of MetS (obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance) as well as the syndrome itself may predispose patients to a higher risk of BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This may stem from changes in insulin resistance, increased autonomic activity, impaired nitrergic innervation, increased Rho kinase activity, pro-inflammatory status, and changes in sex hormones that occur in association with MetS. However, the exact underlying mechanisms that regulate the potential relationship between MetS and BPH/LUTS still need to be clarified. Increased physical activity and dietary strategies may help in decreasing the incidence of MetS and its impact on BPH/LUTS. However, differences in the definitions used to address the examined predictors and endpoints preclude the possibility of arriving at definitive conclusions. PMID:21927696

Briganti, Alberto; Suardi, Nazareno; Castiglione, Fabio; Gallina, Andrea; Capitanio, Umberto; Montorsi, Francesco

2011-01-01

199

Prostate Tissue Composition and Response to Finasteride in Men With Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe sought to quantify prostate tissue changes induced by finasteride and to identify a predictor of finasteride response in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) via a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

Leonard S. Marks; Alan W. Partin; Glenn J. Gormley; Frederick J. Dorey; Erlinda D. Shery; Joel B. Garris; Eric N. P. Subong; Elizabeth Stoner; Jean B. deKernion

1997-01-01

200

Long-term 6-year experience with finasteride in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo summarize the 6-year clinical trial data with finasteride. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a chronic and progressive disease and therefore assessment of long-term safety and efficacy is important.

Franklin C Lowe; John D McConnell; Perry B Hudson; Nicholas A Romas; Rex Boake; Michael Lieber; Mostafa Elhilali; Jack Geller; Juliane Imperto-McGinely; Gerald L Andriole; Reginald C Bruskewitz; Patrick C Walsh; Georg Bartsch; John N Nacey; Sukrut Shah; Frances Pappas; Amy Ko; Thomas Cook; Elizabeth Stoner; Joanne Waldstreicher

2003-01-01

201

Immunohistochemical characterization of cellular proliferation in small intestinal hyperplasia of rats with hepatic Strobilocercus fasciolaris infection.  

PubMed

Rats infected with the larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis harbour the intermediate stage of the parasite Strobilocercus fasciolaris within the liver. Affected animals also develop gastric and intestinal hyperplasia. The pathogenesis of the gastric hyperplasia has been extensively investigated, but few studies have addressed the nature of the intestinal changes. This study characterizes the proliferation of small intestinal epithelial cells by immunohistochemical labelling for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake. At 6 weeks post-infection (wpi) there was an increase in villous length but crypt depth was normal. At 9 wpi there was evidence of epithelial hyperplasia, increased villous length and crypt depth, and expansion of zones of epithelial proliferation. Immunohistochemical labelling indicated that an increase in the number of proliferating cells produced a greater number of progeny cells. Intestinal hyperplasia during experimental infection with T. taeniaeformis larvae is likely to be related to the associated gastropathy, although the mechanisms underlying both changes remain undefined. PMID:18539293

Lagapa, J T; Oku, Y; Kamiya, M

2008-07-01

202

Contemporary Practice Patterns of Endoscopic Surgical Management for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Among Urologists in the United States  

PubMed Central

Purpose We describe contemporary trends in endoscopic surgical management for benign prostatic hyperplasia. We examined case logs submitted by urologists for American Board of Urology certification or recertification. We compared electrosurgical transurethral resection of the prostate vs laser vaporization or laser enucleation and determined the impact of surgeon age on practice patterns. Materials and Methods We analyzed case logs from 2004 to 2010 for trends and used logistic regression models to assess the impact of surgeon age on endoscopic surgery use. Results A total of 3,955 urologists included at least 1 endoscopic surgical management in the case logs, while 2,334 (59%) exclusively performed electrosurgical transurethral resection of the prostate and 309 (8%) exclusively performed laser vaporization or laser enucleation. We observed a large increase in the number and proportion of laser procedures from 11% in 2004 to 44% in 2010. Although there was no difference in median age between urologists who performed exclusively electrosurgical transurethral resection and those who performed laser procedures, the latter had a substantially higher case volume. Older urologists were significantly less likely to perform laser vaporization or enucleation when undergoing the second recertification (OR 0.56/10 years of age, 95% CI 0.36–0.87, p = 0.009), but not the initial certification. Conclusions There was a substantial increase in laser vaporization or laser enucleation procedures performed by urologists who underwent board certification or recertification in 2004 to 2010. However, of those undergoing the second recertification older age was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of performing laser procedures. These data provide estimates of current practice patterns and further our understanding of evolving surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23219542

Lowrance, William T.; Southwick, Andrew; Maschino, Alexandra C.; Sandhu, Jaspreet S.

2014-01-01

203

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: reliability of amniotic fluid steroid analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of 170H-progesterone was measured in amniotic fluid samples collected from 55 mothers who had previously had a child with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In eight pregnancies the levels of 170H-progesterone were raised; the parents elected to terminate in four and examinations of the fetus confirmed the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In each case, the

I A Hughes; J Dyas; D Riad-Fahmy; K M Laurence

1987-01-01

204

The association between benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic kidney disease in community-dwelling men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic kidney disease in community-dwelling men.BackgroundBenign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic kidney disease are important public health problems in older men. Previous referral-based studies disagree on whether BPH is associated with chronic kidney disease. The objective of this study was to determine the community-based association between clinical measures of BPH and chronic kidney

Andrew D. Rule; Debra J. Jacobson; Rosebud O. Roberts; Cynthia J. Girman; Michaela E. McGree; Michael M. Lieber; Steven J. Jacobsen

2005-01-01

205

Predictive diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia and personalized therapeutic strategy in women of fertile age  

PubMed Central

Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia has a high risk for malignant transformation and relapses; existing mini-invasive treatments may lead to irrevocable endometrium destruction. The aims were to analyze receptor systems in endometrial hyperplasia, to evaluate the capabilities of ultrasonography, sonoelastography for diagnosis and treatment control, and to develop treatment algorithm. Materials and methods We included 313 women (20–45 years), assessed into the following: group 1 (n?=?112) with glandular cystic hyperplasia, group 2 (n?=?98) endometrial polyps, and group 3 (n?=?103) atypical hyperplasia; and 82 controls who have undergone hysteroscopy before in vitro fertilization in tubal origin infertility were also included. Patients underwent clinical examination, transvaginal ultrasound, immunohistochemical study, and hormonal therapy/hysteroresectoscopy. Results In patients with glandular hyperplasia, we registered increase of endometrium estrogen receptors (75.6% in the epithelium and 30.9% in the stroma; in controls, 43.3% and 29.6%, respectively); in polyps, there was a significant estrogen receptor increase in the stroma (48.2% vs 29.6% in controls), and in atypical hyperplasia, progesterone receptors significantly increased in the stroma. Ki-67 increased (40% to 50%) in the epithelium without changes in the stroma. Ultrasound has a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 85% for early detection of endometrial pathology and prediction outcome of intervention, and sonoelastography has a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 83% for polyp diagnosis. Personalized treatment was effective in 88.8%, relapse was diagnosed in 11.2% after 6 months, and conservative treatment of atypical hyperplasia was effective in 45%: in 25.8%, ablative hysteroresectoscopy was performed, while in 22.6% with comorbidities, hystero/oophorectomies were performed. Conclusions The evaluation of receptor status with ultrasound data in patients with endometrial hyperplasia allows for a clear definition of the treatment policy, avoidance of relapse, treatment optimization, and observation of such patients. PMID:24314145

2013-01-01

206

The effects of Toradol on postoperative intimal hyperplasia in a rat carotid endarterectomy model: laboratory research.  

PubMed

Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and more recently carotid artery stenting are the treatments of choice for atherosclerotic disease of the extracranial carotid arteries; however, early restenosis caused by neointimal hyperplasia confounds surgical therapy. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of intimal hyperplasia. The authors hypothesized that ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol), a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug that is a potent cyclooxygenase inhibitor, would decrease oxidative stress and thereby reduce intimal hyperplasia in a rat CEA model. Twenty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent CEA and were divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: (1) control (placebo), (2) 7.5 mg/kg Toradol, and (3) 10 mg/kg Toradol. Toradol treatment began 2 days before CEA and continued for 2 weeks. Two weeks after endarterectomy, carotid arteries were fixed, harvested, and examined for platelet activity (platelet reactive units), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and glutathione), and intimal hyperplasia (measured as percentage of luminal stenosis). Platelet activity, malondialdehyde and glutathione, and intimal hyperplasia were all significantly lowered in both 7.5- and 10-mg/kg doses of Toradol versus control. Toradol given daily beginning 2 days before CEA and ending 2 weeks after the procedure was effective at significantly reducing platelet activity, oxidative stress, and intimal hyperplasia development in the rat without any increase in bleeding. Although the mechanism of action of this reduction is not completely understood, one possible explanation may be through the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production. PMID:17942855

Kalapatapu, Venkat R; Satterfield, Leighton; Brown, Aliza T; Hongjiang Chen; Ercal, Nuran; Price, Tulin O; Jie Gao; Ibrahim, Khalil; Moursi, Mohammed M

2007-01-01

207

Effect of nitric oxide on neointimal hyperplasia based on sex and hormone status.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO)-based therapies decrease neointimal hyperplasia; however, studies have been performed only in male animal models. Thus, we sought to evaluate the effect of NO on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro and neointimal hyperplasia in vivo based on sex and hormone status. In hormone-replete medium, male VSMC proliferated at greater rates than female VSMC. In hormone-depleted medium, female VSMC proliferated at greater rates than male VSMC. However, in both hormone environments, NO inhibited proliferation and migration to a greater extent in male compared to female VSMC. These findings correlated with greater G?/G? cell cycle arrest and changes in cell cycle protein expression in male compared to female VSMC after exposure to NO. Next, the rat carotid artery injury model was used to assess the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Consistent with the in vitro data, NO was significantly more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in hormonally intact males compared to females using weight-based dosing. An increased weight-based dose of NO in females was able to achieve efficacy equal to that in males. Surprisingly, NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in castrated animals of both sexes. In conclusion, these data suggest that NO inhibits neointimal hyperplasia more effectively in males compared to females and in hormonally intact compared to castrated rats, indicating that the effects of NO in the vasculature may be sex- and hormone-dependent. PMID:21256959

Hogg, Melissa E; Varu, Vinit N; Vavra, Ashley K; Popowich, Daniel A; Banerjee, Monisha N; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Saavedra, Joseph E; Keefer, Larry K; Kibbe, Melina R

2011-05-01

208

Effect of Nitric Oxide on Neointimal Hyperplasia based on Sex and Hormone Status  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO)-based therapies decrease neointimal hyperplasia; however, studies have only been performed in male animal models. Thus, we sought to evaluate the effect of NO on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro and neointimal hyperplasia in vivo based on sex and hormone status. In hormone-replete media, male VSMC proliferated at greater rates than female VSMC. In hormone-deplete media, female VSMC proliferated at greater rates than male VSMC. However, in both hormone environments, NO inhibited proliferation and migration to a greater extent in male versus female VSMC. These findings correlated with greater G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and changes in cell cycle protein expression in male versus female VSMC following exposure to NO. Next, the rat carotid artery injury model was performed to assess the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Consistent with the in vitro data, NO was significantly more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in hormonally intact males versus females using weight-based dosing. An increased weight-based dose of NO in females was able to achieve efficacy equal to that in males. Surprisingly, NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both sexes in castrated animals. In conclusion, these data suggest that NO inhibits neointimal hyperplasia more effectively in males than females and in hormonally-intact compared to castrated rats, indicating that the effect of NO in the vasculature may be sex- and hormone-dependent. PMID:21256959

Hogg, Melissa E.; Varu, Vinit N.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Popowich, Daniel A.; Banerjee, Monisha N.; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.; Kibbe, Melina R.

2011-01-01

209

Tuberous sclerosis diagnosed by incidental computed tomography findings of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The majority of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia associated with tuberous sclerosis complex is diagnosed with the classical clinical triad of seizures, mental retardation, and skin lesions. We report a rare case of tuberous sclerosis complex with no classical clinical findings, which was diagnosed through incidental computed tomography findings of multiple nodular lesions of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia. Case presentation A chest computed tomography scan of a 51-year-old Japanese woman showed multiple nodular ground-glass opacities that were not seen on chest X-ray. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed. A histological examination demonstrated type II pneumocyte hyperplasia with thickened fibrotic alveolar septa, which was consistent with multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging displayed multiple cortical tubers, and abdominal computed tomography showed bilateral renal angiomyolipoma. Our patient was finally diagnosed as having tuberous sclerosis complex with multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia, although she had no episodes of epilepsy, no skin lesions, and no family history. Conclusions Multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia with latent tuberous sclerosis complex should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple ground-glass opacities. PMID:23072249

2012-01-01

210

76 FR 37828 - Update to Indian Index Zone Price Points  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indian Index Zone Price Points AGENCY: Office of Natural...Indian index zone price points that will remove certain...Zone calculation. These changes will impact Oklahoma-Zone...and comments on several changes that could affect the...publications and index pricing points for the Index Zones...

2011-06-28

211

Turbulent urinary flow in the urethra could be a causal factor for benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common form of prostate disease in middle-aged and elderly men, and leads to severe impairment later in life. Despite its significant impact on public health, the underlying cause of BPH is yet to be determined. This hypothesis proposes a new causal factor for BPH. Applying concepts of dynamics of fluids to the process of urination it could be stated that a turbulent urinary flow through the passage of the urethra. The turbulent urinary flow in the urethra applies pressure and stretch forces to the surrounding tissue. This stimulus repeated over time and coupled with age-related changes of the urethral tissue could contribute to the development of BPH. In support of this hypothesis, several mechanotransduction studies have shown that vibration and pressure forces applied to different cell tissues can provoke cellular and molecular changes. Another supportive data is the presence of the hyperplasic reaction surrounding the urethra specifically located in the transition zone, the only zone where BPH develops. It is crucial to identify causal factors to understanding the disease and to determine effective primary prevention strategies. Future studies of the dynamics of fluids in the urethra are warranted. The finding of significant forces transmitted to the periurethral tissue from a turbulent urinary flow could give us the clue to the underlying cause of BPH. If this hypothesis proves to be valid there are several primary prevention measures that could be implemented to impede the development of BPH. Educational intervention measures in younger populations to avoid frequent urinary retention and active urination (process of forcing the urine through the urethra at a high velocity) could be considered. Studies of the impact of turbulence in the standing vs. sitting position during urination in men should also be considered. PMID:16764996

Martinez-Borges, Anibal R

2006-01-01

212

The impact of rational and irrational sentiments of individual and institutional investors on DJIA and S&P500 index returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the relative effects of rational and irrational investor sentiments on Dow Jones Industrial Average and S&P500 returns. The impact of rational sentiments on stock market returns is found to be greater than that of irrational sentiments. There are immediate positive responses of stock market returns to irrational sentiments corrected by negative responses in the upcoming periods. There are

Rahul Verma; Hasan Baklaci; Gökçe Soydemir

2008-01-01

213

Oil shale mining, processing, uses and environmental impacts. 1978April, 1980 (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for 1978April 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide research on exploration, mining, retorting, chemistry, thermal studies, environmental impacts, and policies relating to oil shale research is discussed. A few abstracts deal with the production of synthetic fuels from shale oil and the economics of oil shale operations. (This updated bibliography contains 178 abstracts, 65 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Hundemann

1980-01-01

214

Oil shale mining, processing, uses, and environmental impacts (citations from the Engineering Index Data Base). Report for 1970Mar 1976. [231 abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration, mining, retorting, chemistry, thermal studies, environmental impacts, and policies relating to oil shale research are discussed. A few abstracts deal with the production of synthetic fuels from shale oil and the economics of oil shale operations. (Contains 231 abstracts) (GRA)

Hundemann

1976-01-01

215

Oil shale mining, processing, uses, and environmental impacts. volume 2. 1976-1977 (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for 1976-77. [233 citations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide research on exploration, mining, retorting, chemistry, thermal studies, environmental impacts, and policies relating to oil shale research is discussed. A few abstracts deal with the production of synthetic fuels from shale oil and the economics of oil shale operations. (This updated bibliography contains 233 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Hundemann

1979-01-01

216

Oil shale mining, processing, uses, and environmental impacts. Volume 1. 1970--1975 (citations from the Engineering Index Data Base). Report for 1970--1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration, mining, retorting, chemistry, thermal studies, environmental impacts, and policies relating to oil shale research are discussed. A few abstracts deal with the production of synthetic fuels from shale oil and the economics of oil shale operations. (This updated bibliography contains 212 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Hundemann

1977-01-01

217

Oil shale mining, processing, uses, and environmental impacts. Volume 3. 1978April 1979 (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for 1978April 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide research on exploration, mining, retorting, chemistry, thermal studies, environmental impacts, and policies relating to oil shale research is discussed. A few abstracts deal with the production of synthetic fuels from shale oil and the economics of oil shale operations. (This updated bibliography contains 113 abstracts, 74 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Hundemann

1979-01-01

218

Oil shale mining, processing, uses, and environmental impacts. Volume 2. 1976April 1978 (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for 1976April 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide research on exploration, mining, retorting, chemistry, thermal studies, environmental impacts, and policies relating to oil shale research is discussed. A few abstracts deal with the production of synthetic fuels from shale oil and the economics of oil shale operations. (This updated bibliography contains 272 abstracts, 141 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Hundemann

1978-01-01

219

Impact of Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Subsequent Therapy with Ibuprofen on the Release of S-100B and Oxidative Stress Index in Preterm Infants  

PubMed Central

Background Hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) leads to injury in tissues/organs by reducing perfusion of organs and causing oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant status in preterm infants with hsPDA by measuring the total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status and to assess neuronal damage due to oxidant stress related to hsPDA. Material/Methods This prospective study included 37 low-birth-weight infants with echocardiographically diagnosed hsPDA treated with oral ibuprofen and a control group of 40 infants without PDA. Blood samples were taken from all infants, and than the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and S-100B protein levels were assessed and oxidative stress index was calculated before and after therapy. Results The mean pre-therapy TOS level and oxidative stress index (OSI) value of the patients with hsPDA were significantly higher, but TAC level was lower than in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean post-therapy values of TOS, TAC, OSI, and S-100B protein between the two groups. Conclusions hsPDA may cause cellular injury by increasing oxidative stress and damaging tissue perfusion; however the brain can compensate for oxidative stress and impaired tissue perfusion through well-developed autoregulation systems to decrease tissue injury. PMID:25542161

Demir, Nihat; Ece, ?brahim; Peker, Erdal; Kaba, Sultan; Ustyol, Lokman; Balahoro?lu, Ragip; Tuncer, O?uz

2014-01-01

220

Hyperplasia of Pericytes Is One of the Main Characteristics of Microvascular Architecture in Malignant Glioma  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the role of pericytes in constructing the malformed microvessels (MVs) and participating microvascular architecture heterogeneity of glioma. Methods Forty human glioma tissue samples (WHO grade II-IV) were included in present study. Observation of blood vessel patterns, quantitative analysis of endothelial cells (ECs)- and pericyte-labeled MVs and comparison between malignant grades based on single- or double-immunohistochemical staining. The MV number density (MVND), microvascular pericyte number density (MPND), and microvascular pericyte area density (MPAD) were calculated. The expression of PDGF? was also scored after immunostaining. Results In grade II glioma, most of tumor MVs were the thin-wall CD34+ vessels with near normal morphology. In addition to thin-wall CD34+ MVs, more thick-wall MVs were found in grade III glioma, which often showed ?-SMA positive. Most of MVs in grade IV glioma were in the form of plexus, curled cell cords and glomeruloid microvascular proliferation while the ?-SMA+ cells were the main components. The MVs usually showed disordered arrangement, loose connection and active cell proliferation as shown by Ki67 and ?-SMA coexpression. With the increase of glioma grades, the ?-SMA+ MVND, CD34+ MVND and MPND were significantly augmented although the increase of CD34+ MVND but not MPAD was statistically insignificant between grade III and IV. It was interesting that some vessel-like structures only consist of ?-SMA+ cells, assuming the guiding role of pericytes in angiogenesis. The expression level of PDGF? was upregulated and directly correlated with the MPND in different glioma grades. Conclusion Hyperplasia of pericytes was one of the significant characteristics of malignant glioma and locally proliferated pericytes were the main constituent of MVs in high grade glioma. The pathological characteristics of pericytes could be used as indexes of malignant grades of glioma. PMID:25478951

Sun, Huiqin; Guo, Deyu; Su, Yongping; Yu, Dongmei; Wang, Qingliang; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Qing; Ran, Xinze; Zou, Zhongmin

2014-01-01

221

Influence of spironolactone on neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

AIM—To determine if the diuretic spironolactone cross reacts with 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit used for the mass screening of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.?METHODS—Concentrations of 17OHP on a blood filter paper disc were measured using an ELISA kit (kit C-7: ENZAPLATE N-17? -OHP-7; Chiron, Tokyo, Japan). The cross reactivity of spironolactone and its metabolites with 17OHP was determined. The concentrations of spironolactone and its metabolites in blood were measured using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography).?RESULTS—Spironolactone cross reacted with 17OHP using kit C-7 (0.01%), by increasing 17OHP concentration in a dose dependent manner. The blood concentration of spironolactone and its metabolites was nearly 900 ng/ml, high enough to show an additive effect on the 17OHP concentration. About 12% of the false positive cases screened using the kit were due to the administration of spironolactone.?CONCLUSIONS—Spironolactone interferes with 17OHP concentrations, leading to false positive test results for CAH.?? PMID:10525019

Terai, I.; Yamano, K.; Ichihara, N.; Arai, J.; Kobayashi, K.

1999-01-01

222

Benign prostatic hyperplasia: An overview of existing treatment  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common condition in aging men, associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A better understanding of the prostate physiology, function, and pathogenesis has led to the development of promising agents, useful in the management of LUTS in men. The specific approach used to treat BPH depends upon number of factors like age, prostrate size, weight, prostate-specific antigen level, and severity of the symptoms. 5?-reductase inhibitors decrease the production of dihydrotestosterone within the prostate, which results in decreased prostate volume, increased peak urinary flow rate, improvement of symptoms, decreased risk of acute urinary retention, and need for surgical intervention. ?1-adrenergic receptor (?1-AR) antagonists decrease LUTS and increase urinary flow rates in men with symptomatic BPH, but do not reduce the long-term risk of urinary retention or need for surgical intervention. Clinical efficacy of either 5?-reductase inhibitor or ?1-AR antagonist has been further improved by using combination therapy; however, long-term outcomes are still awaited. Many more potential new therapies are under development that may improve the treatment of BPH. This article gives a brief account of rationale and efficacy of different treatment options presently available in the management of BPH. PMID:21455413

Dhingra, Neelima; Bhagwat, Deepak

2011-01-01

223

Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia of the parotid gland.  

PubMed

Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH) is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected. PMID:25580104

Kinoshita, Yuichi; Harada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tadao K; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuri, Takashi; Takasu, Kosho; Tsubura, Airo; Shikata, Nobuaki

2014-09-01

224

Multifocal Adenomatous Oncocytic Hyperplasia of the Parotid Gland  

PubMed Central

Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH) is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected. PMID:25580104

Kinoshita, Yuichi; Harada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tadao K.; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuri, Takashi; Takasu, Kosho; Tsubura, Airo; Shikata, Nobuaki

2014-01-01

225

c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae.  

PubMed

Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I

2014-11-01

226

Morphological Changes of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Culture  

PubMed Central

A technique is described for the culture of slices of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) for periods of a week in organ culture. Under these conditions tissue repair took place, resulting in a covering layer of transitional epithelium which formed around the explant and spread out laterally as a monolayer. Autoradiography and studies with [3H]thymidine uptake suggested that the repair activity, which reached a peak at Day 3 in culture, was the centre of biochemical activity, overshadowing that of the rest of the explant. Necrosis of the explant base tended to develop abruptly during the first day of culture but thereafter remained stable. The epithelium was well preserved morphologically, but explant acid phosphatase activity fell progressively. No morphological response to testosterone (10-5 mol/l) or stilboestrol diphosphate (10-5 mol/l) was seen. Attention is drawn to a possible source of misinterpretation of results offered by the uptake of [3H]thymidine into DNA in organ culture. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:4121823

McMahon, M. J.; Thomas, G. H.

1973-01-01

227

Diagnosis and management of benign prostatic hyperplasia in primary care  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and its clinical manifestation as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), is a major health concern for aging men. There have been significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in recent years. There has been a renewed interest in medical therapies and less invasive surgical techniques. As a consequence, the treatment needs of men with mild to moderate LUTS without evidence of prostate cancer can now be accomplished in a primary care setting. There are differences in the way urologists and primary care physicians approach the evaluation and management of LUTS due to BPH, which is not reflected in Canadian Urological Association (CUA) and American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines. A “shared care” approach involving urologists and primary care physicians represents a reasonable and viable model for the care of men suffering from LUTS. The essence of the model centres around educating and communicating effectively with the patient on BPH. This article provides primary care physicians with an overview of the diagnostic and management strategies outlined in recent CUA and AUA guidelines so that they may be better positioned to effectively deal with this patient population. It is now apparent that we must move away from the urologist as the first-line physician, and allow primary care physicians to accept a new role in the diagnosis and management of BPH. PMID:19543429

Tanguay, Simon; Awde, Murray; Brock, Gerald; Casey, Richard; Kozak, Joseph; Lee, Jay; Nickel, J. Curtis; Saad, Fred

2009-01-01

228

Giant Bilateral Adrenal Myelolipoma with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Myelolipomas are rare and benign neoplasms, predominant of the adrenal glands, consisting of adipose and mature hematopoietic tissue, commonly discovered incidentally with increased use of radiologic imaging. Few cases of giant bilateral adrenal masses are reported, especially in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report the case of a 39-year-old male with a history of CAH secondary to 21-? hydroxylase deficiency on steroids since childhood, self-discontinued during adolescence, presenting with abdominal distension, fatigue, decreased libido, and easy bruising. Imaging revealed giant bilateral adrenal masses. He subsequently underwent bilateral adrenalectomy found to be myelolipomas measuring 30 × 25 × 20?cm on the left and weighing 4.1?kg and 25 × 20 × 13?cm on the right and weighing 2.7?kg. Adrenal myelolipomas are found to coexist with many other conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and CAH. We discuss the association with high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) states and review the studies involving ACTH as proponent leading to myelolipomas. Massive growth of these tumors, as in our case, can produce compression and hemorrhagic symptoms. We believe it is possible that self-discontinuation of steroids, in the setting of CAH, may have resulted in the growth of his adrenal masses. PMID:25140269

Al-Bahri, S.; Tariq, A.; Lowentritt, B.; Nasrallah, D. V.

2014-01-01

229

Role of laser therapy in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in males older than 50 years of age. 75-80% of this population is considered to have some degree of BPH causing clinical symptoms and requiring urological treatment. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) is currently the standard surgical treatment modality for BPH. In an attempt to minimize the need for hospitalization and the associated perioperative and postoperative morbidity, alternatives have been sought. Various types of laser techniques such as interstitial laser coagulation and side-firing technology have been proposed. Numerous studies have shown that laser procedures safely and effectively reduce the volume of the prostate. Intra- and postoperative bleeding are nearly unknown complications for laser procedures, whereas this is the most relevant complication for the TUR-P. Due to significant tissue edema after laser treatment, patients commonly show delayed time to void adequately and, therefore, catheter drainage is often necessary for 3 to 21 days. Retrograde ejaculation is reported to occur less (0- 10%) compared to TUR-P (greater than 60%). Urinary tract infections are very common after interstitial laser coagulation. Although not many long-term clinical data are available, various studies have shown that BPH patients improve in symptom score, flow rate and post-void residual up to 3 years after laser treatment. This paper presents a concise review of efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of the most frequently used laser techniques as well as the long-term clinical data compared to TUR-P.

de Riese, Werner T.; Sharpe, Brent A.; Aronoff, David B.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.

2001-05-01

230

Taenia taeniaeformis: colonic hyperplasia in heavily infected rats.  

PubMed

Only one study previously mentioned the involvement of colon during Taenia taeniaeformis larvae infection in rats with inconsistent occurrence of lesions. Present study aimed to determine the consistency of histopathologic changes in colonic epithelia, and the proliferation of mucosal cells through BrdU and PCNA immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrated that crypt hyperplasia of the colon was found in all infected rats, although variable in degree even in a single tissue section. Cystic cavities were frequently seen in severely hyperplastic mucosa. Proliferative zone lengths were significantly increased and PCNA positive cells were observed throughout the colonic crypt lengths at 9 but not at 6 weeks post infection. Cell proliferation involving the major types of cells in the epithelial colon was also increased in infected rats at 9 weeks post infection, with labeling indices significantly greater than the control rats throughout the BrdU time course labeling. Findings suggested that massive increases in epithelial cells and depth of colonic crypts were due to a remarkable increase in cell proliferation. The study concluded that enteropathy in the colon during T. taeniaeformis infection could be consistently observed in heavily infected rats. PMID:18793638

Lagapa, Jose Trinipil; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kamiya, Masao

2008-12-01

231

Oxidative stress in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is a common health problem in aging male. Free radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are produced in overwhelming quantity with advancement of age. When in oxidative stress, these reactive species cause extensive damage to various organ in the body, may be associated with pathogenesis of BPH also. This study aimed at assessing Malondialdehyde (MDA), the marker of lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidants e.g. alpha-Tocopherol and Ascorbate status in plasma in BPH patients. Forty eight (n=48) cases of BPH and forty six (n = 46) healthy age matched controls were enrolled. Plasma MDA level showed 4.81+/-1.87 nmol/ml in cases compared to 3.69+/-1.56 nmol/ml in healthy controls (p<0.001). There were significant decrease in plasma alpha-Tocopherol and ascorbate level which were 0.85+/-0.12 mg/dl and 0.93 +/- 0.13 mg/dl in cases compared to 1.37+/-0.31 mg/dl and 1.44+/-0.38 mg/dl in healthy controls respectively. Inverse correlation of plasma MDA with alpha-Tocopherol (r = -0.09, p>0.05) and Ascorbate (r =-0.51, p=0.008) was found in BPH patients. There was mild elevation of PSA in BPH patients compared with control but was not statistically significant. Thus, our study showed the evidence of association of oxidative stress in BPH patients. PMID:18274564

Aryal, M; Pandeya, A; Bas, B K; Lamsal, M; Majhi, S; Pandit, R; Agrawal, C S; Gautam, N; Baral, N

2007-01-01

232

TMJ function after partial condylectomy in active mandibular condylar hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Condylar hyperplasia is a frequent pathology that causes severe facial asymmetries. The partial condylectomy generally halts the disease. The aim of this research was to examine post-condylectomy TMJ function; 14 patients were included in this study, 6 male and 8 female. The average age was 21 years old. In all, the partial condylectomy was performed with preauricular or endaural access and the osteotomy were performed with drills, saw or an ultrasonic system. The patients were assessed with 3 or more time after surgery and were considering maximum mouth opening, right and left lateralities, presence of pain, noises, alterations in the facial nerve (VII) and esthetic alteration from the scar. The analysis was performed with the visual analog scale (VAS) and with a 7 cm metallic rule. Data analysis was descriptive plus chi-square test considering p value < 0.05 for statistical differences. With an average of 11 month after surgery, the results showed that the open mouth (over 35 mm) and lateralities (average 9 mm for the both right and left side) were normal and without statistical differences between the right or left side. Noise was observed in 3 patients and pain was observed in two patients with level 2 and 1 (VAS score). Scar was not related to problem with patient and the temporal branch of facial nerve was observed with limitations but without problem for patients. It can be concluded that the condylectomy is a safe and effective procedure with low morbidity for patients. PMID:24753777

Olate, Sergio; Martinez, Felipe; Uribe, Francisca; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; de Moraes, Marcio

2014-01-01

233

Climate change and financial adaptation in Africa. Investigating the impact of climate change on the robustness of index-based microinsurance in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the applicability of crop insurance for the case of Malawi and explores the potential impact of climate\\u000a change on the viability of the Malawi weather insurance program making use of scenarios of climate change-induced variations\\u000a in rainfall patterns. The analysis is important from a methodological and policy perspective. By combining catastrophe insurance\\u000a modeling with climate modeling, the

Stefan Hochrainer; Reinhard Mechler; Georg Pflug

2009-01-01

234

Oil shale mining, processing, uses, and environmental impacts. Volume 2. 1976April, 1977 (citations from the Engineering Index Data Base). Report for 1976Apr 77  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide research on exploration, mining, retorting, chemistry, thermal studies, environmental impacts, and policies relating to oil shale research is discussed. A few abstracts deal with the production of synthetic fuels from shale oil and the economics of oil shale operations. (This updated bibliography contains 131 abstracts, 112 of which are new entries to the previous edition.) See also NTIS\\/PS-77\\/0386, Oil

Hundemann

1977-01-01

235

Impact of glycaemic index and dietary fibre on insulin sensitivity during the refeeding phase of a weight cycle in young healthy men.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that a low-glycaemic index (LGI) diet may improve insulin sensitivity (IS). As IS has been shown to decrease during refeeding, we hypothesised that an LGI- v. high-GI (HGI) diet might have favourable effects during this phase. In a controlled nutritional intervention study, sixteen healthy men (aged 26·8 (SD 4·1) years, BMI 23·0 (SD 1·7) kg/m2) followed 1 week of overfeeding, 3 weeks of energy restriction and of 2 weeks refeeding at ^50% energy requirement (50% carbohydrates, 35% fat and 15% protein). During refeeding, subjects were divided into two matched groups receiving either high-fibre LGI or lower-fibre HGI foods (GI 40 v. 74, fibre intake 65 (SD 6) v. 27 (SD 4) g/d). Body weight was equally regained in both groups with refeeding (mean regain 70·5 (SD 28·0)% of loss). IS was improved by energy restriction and decreased with refeeding. The decreases in IS were greater in the HGI than in the LGIgroup (group £ time interactions for insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR), Matsuda IS index (MatsudaISI);all P,0·05). Mean interstitial glucose profiles during the day were also higher in the HGI group (DAUCHGI-LGI of continuous interstitial glucose monitoring: 6·6 mmol/l per 14 h, P¼0·04). At the end of refeeding, parameters of IS did not differ from baseline values in either diet group (adiponectin, insulin, HOMAIR, Matsuda ISI, M-value; all P.0·05). In conclusion, nutritional stress imposed by dietary restriction and refeeding reveals a GI/fibre effect in healthy non-obese subjects. LGI foods rich in fibre may improve glucose metabolism during the vulnerable refeeding phase of a weight cycle. PMID:23191994

Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Later, Wiebke; Eggeling, Ben; Pape, Detlef; Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

2013-05-01

236

[The impact of load density differences on land subsidence based on build-up index and PS-InSAR technology].  

PubMed

The excessive mining for underground water is the main reason inducing the land subsidence in Beijing, while, increasing of load brought by the urban construction aggravate the local land subsidence in a certain degree. As an international metropolis, the problems of land subsidence that caused by urban construction are becoming increasingly highlights, so revealing the relationship between regional load increase and the response of land subsidence also becomes one of the key problems in the land subsidence research field. In order to analyze the relationship between the load changes in construction and the land subsidence quantitatively, the present study selected the TM remote sensing image covering Beijing plain and used Erdas Modeler tool to invert the index based on building site (IBI), acquired the spatial and temporal change information in research area further; Based on results monitored by PS-InSAR (permanent scatterer interferometry) and IBI index method, and combined with the GIS spatial analysis method in the view of pixels in different scales, this paper analyzes the correlation between typical area load change and land subsidence, The conclusions show that there is a positive correlation between the density of load and the homogeneity of subsidence, especially in area which has a high sedimentation rate. Owing to such characteristics as the complexity and hysteretic nature of soil and geological structure, it is not obvious that the land subsidence caused by the increase of load in a short period. But with the increasing of local land load made by high density buildings and additional settlement of each monomer building superposed with each other, regional land subsidence is still a question that cannot be ignored and needs long-term systematic research and discussion. PMID:24159875

Chen, Bei-Bei; Gong, Hui-Li; Li, Xiao-Juan; Lei, Kun-Chao; Lin, Zhu; Wang, Yan-Bing

2013-08-01

237

Prognostic Impact of Baseline High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Based on Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a marker of inflammation and may lead to the development of atherosclerosis, adversely affecting mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between baseline hs-CRP level and 12-month clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) according to their body mass index (BMI) status. Subjects and Methods Using data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from November 2005 to September 2008, a total of 8174 consecutive AMI patients were studied. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that higher baseline levels of hs-CRP was associated with 12-month all-cause mortality (p=0.045). To further understand this association, patients were divided into 3 groups based on their body mass index: 1) overweight/obese, 2) normal weight, and 3) underweight patients. Then each group was stratified into quartiles based on their hs-CRP. Results In overweight/obese patients, Cox model showed significant association of hs-CRP with 12-month mortality when adjusted for age and gender (p<0.001), however, after adjustment with multiple covariates, mortality was highest in the 4th quartile {HR 2.382, (1.079-5.259), p=0.032} though statistically insignificant (p=0.172). We observed no significant association of serum hs-CRP with 12-month mortality in normal weight (p=0.681) and underweight (p=0.760) patients. Conclusion Higher baseline hs-CRP level (?4.08 mg/dL) in overweight/obese AMI patients showed significant association with 12-month all-cause mortality independent of other prognostic markers. PMID:22493611

Ahmed, Khurshid; Chakraborty, Rabin; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Sim, Doo Sun; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Hachinohe, Daisuke; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo

2012-01-01

238

Periadventitial atRA citrate-based polyester membranes reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis after carotid injury in rats.  

PubMed

Oral all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has been shown to reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia; however, the dose required was 30 times the chemotherapeutic dose, which already has reported side effects. As neointimal formation is a localized process, new approaches to localized delivery are required. This study assessed whether atRA within a citrate-based polyester, poly(1,8 octanediolcitrate) (POC), perivascular membrane would prevent neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. atRA-POC membranes were prepared and characterized for atRA release via high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Rat adventitial fibroblasts (AF) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were exposed to various concentrations of atRA; proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis were assessed in vitro. The rat carotid artery balloon injury model was used to evaluate the impact of the atRA-POC membranes on neointimal formation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, macrophage infiltration, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) expression in vivo. atRA-POC membranes released 12 ?g of atRA over 2 wk, with 92% of the release occurring in the first week. At 24 h, atRA (200 ?mol/l) inhibited [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into AF and VSMC by 78% and 72%, respectively (*P = 0.001), with negligible apoptosis or necrosis. Histomorphometry analysis showed that atRA-POC membranes inhibited neointimal formation after balloon injury, with a 56%, 57%, and 50% decrease in the intimal area, intima-to-media area ratio, and percent stenosis, respectively (P = 0.001). atRA-POC membranes had no appreciable effect on apoptosis or proliferation at 2 wk. Regarding biocompatibility, we found a 76% decrease in macrophage infiltration in the intima layer (P < 0.003) in animals treated with atRA-POC membranes, with a coinciding 53% reduction in VCAM-1 staining (P < 0.001). In conclusion, perivascular delivery of atRA inhibited neointimal formation and restenosis. These data suggest that atRA-POC membranes may be suitable as localized therapy to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia following open cardiovascular procedures. PMID:25239800

Gregory, Elaine K; Webb, Antonio R; Vercammen, Janet M; Flynn, Megan E; Ameer, Guillermo A; Kibbe, Melina R

2014-11-15

239

The predictive impact of body mass index on the efficacy of extended adjuvant endocrine treatment with anastrozole in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer: an analysis of the randomised ABCSG-6a trial  

PubMed Central

Background: We investigated whether body mass index (BMI) can be used as a predictive parameter indicating patients who benefit from extended aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment. Methods: The ABCSG-6a trial re-randomised event-free postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive patients from the ABCSG-6 trial to receive either 3 additional years of endocrine therapy using anastrozole vs nil. In this retrospective analysis, we investigated the prognostic and predictive impact of BMI on disease outcome and safety. Results: In all, 634 patients (177 normal weight, 307 overweight, and 150 obese) patients were included in this analysis. Normal weight patients with additional 3 years of anastrozole halved their risk of disease recurrence (disease-free survival (DFS) HR 0.48; P=0.02) and death (HR 0.45; P=0.06) and had only a fifth of the risk of distant metastases (HR 0.22; P=0.05) compared with normal weight patients without any further treatment. In contrast, overweight+obese patients derived no benefit from additional 3 years of anastrozole (DFS HR 0.93; P=0.68; distant recurrence-free survival HR 0.91; P=0.78; and OS HR 0.9; P=0.68). The possible predictive impact of BMI on extended endocrine treatment could be strengthened by a Cox regression interaction model between BMI and treatment (P=0.07). Conclusion: Body mass index may be used to predict outcome benefit of extended AI treatment in patients with receptor-positive breast cancer. PMID:23868011

Gnant, M; Pfeiler, G; Stöger, H; Mlineritsch, B; Fitzal, F; Balic, M; Kwasny, W; Seifert, M; Stierer, M; Dubsky, P; Greil, R; Steger, G; Samonigg, H; Fesl, C; Jakesz, R

2013-01-01

240

Index des mots-cls Keywords index  

E-print Network

Index des mots-clés Keywords index A Abies, 823 Abies alba, 265 acacia, 93 Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., 335 Acacia mearnsii De Wild., 833 acclimation, 19 AFLP, 627 AFLP, SSR, EST markers, 637 Agrobacterium

Boyer, Edmond

241

Effects of 100 and 300 Units of Onabotulinum Toxin A on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Phase II Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose We conducted a 2-stage, multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase II clinical trial of 100 and 300 unit doses of onabotulinum toxin A to treat the lower urinary tract symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Materials and Methods Men 50 years old or older with clinically diagnosed benign prostatic hyperplasia, American Urological Association symptom index 8 or greater, maximum urinary flow rate less than 15 ml per second, voided volume 125 ml or greater, and post-void residual 350 ml or less were randomized to prostatic transrectal injection of 100 or 300 units of onabotulinum toxin A. The primary outcome was at least 30% improvement from baseline to 3 months in American Urological Association symptom index and/or maximum urinary flow rate and safety. The men were followed for 12 months. Results A total of 134 men were randomized and treated (68 with 100 units, 66 with 300 units), with 131 assessed at 3 months and 108 assessed at 12 months. Each dose met the 3-month primary outcome criteria. In the 100 unit arm the mean baseline American Urological Association symptom index of 18.8 decreased by 7.1 and 6.9 at 3 and 12 months, respectively. In the 300 unit arm the baseline of 19.5 decreased by 8.9 and 7.1, respectively. In the 100 unit arm the mean baseline maximum urinary flow rate of 10.0 ml per second increased by 2.5 and 2.2, respectively, and in the 300 unit arm the baseline of 9.6 increased by 2.6 and 2.3, respectively. Conclusions The intraprostatic injection of 100 or 300 units of onabotulinum toxin A passed predetermined criteria for treatment efficacy and safety, and a randomized trial with either dose is warranted. The 100 unit dose may be preferable due to similar efficacy with reduced costs and adverse effects. PMID:21791356

Crawford, E. David; Hirst, Kathryn; Kusek, John W.; Donnell, Robert F.; Kaplan, Steven A.; McVary, Kevin T.; Mynderse, Lance A.; Roehrborn, Claus G.; Smith, Christopher P.; Bruskewitz, Reginald

2013-01-01

242

Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Early diagnosis and treatment of testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART) is important for gonadal functions and fertility protection in boys with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). In this descriptive study, we investigated the prevalence of TART in boys with 21-hydroxylase deficient (21OHD) CAH followed in our pediatric endocrine clinic. Methods: The study group consisted of 14 male patients with a mean age of 9.6±5.1 (range: 0.8-18.3) years. Six (42.9%) of the 14 patients were diagnosed as having salt-wasting type (SW) and eight (57.1%) patients - as having the simple virilizing (SV) form of 21OHD. Mean age at diagnosis was 2.9±2.7 (range: 0.03-6.3) years. Two different radiologists performed scrotal ultrasonography. Chronological age, bone age, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) and androstenedione levels were also evaluated in all patients during the follow-up period. Results: Scrotal ultrasonography revealed bilateral TART in two patients (14.3%) and testicular microlithiasis (TM) in four patients (28.6%). One patient had both TART and TM bilaterally. During the follow-up period, the mean serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, 17OHP and androstenedione levels in the total group of patients were 130.0±179.1 pg/mL (21.7-726.5), 5.8±3.3 ng/mL (0.8-11.4) and 4.3±4.1 (0.2-11.0) ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Microlithiasis or TART may be frequently encountered during the follow-up of patients with CAH. In order to prevent late complications including infertility, we suggest that ultrasonographic evaluations be performed yearly in all male CAH patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22672867

?entürk Mutlu, Fatma; Eren, Erdal; Pa?a, Aliye Özlem; Sa?lam, Halil; Tar?m, Ömer

2012-01-01

243

The overlooked cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia: prostatic urethral angulation.  

PubMed

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common problems faced by aging men and can be associated with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms that affect quality of life by interfering with normal daily activities and sleep patterns. Despite the clinical importance of BPH, its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Previously, our understanding of BPH was centered on bladder outlet obstruction being secondary to benign prostatic enlargement. However, prostate size itself is not correlated with the urine flow rate and symptomatology. The prostatic urethra is a bend tube and the increased prostatic urethral angulation shows a higher bladder neck on cystoscopic examination. Although some urologists suspected that the higher bladder neck might be a causal factor for BPH, the clinical significance of prostatic urethral angulation was previously underestimated. In this study, we propose a new hypothesis that prostatic urethral angulation is a causal factor for BPH. By applying the concept of fluid dynamics to the process of urination in the prostatic urethra, we show that the energy loss in this bending tube (the prostatic urethra) can occur during micturition and it increases proportionally to prostatic urethral angulation; this energy loss results in a decrease of the urine velocity and accordingly, the urine flow rate is inversely associated with prostatic urethral angulation. We also propose that BPH involves prostatic urethral angulation as well as the classical BPH triad of prostatic enlargement, bladder outlet obstruction, and symptomatology. Our hypothesis suggests that prostatic urethral angulation is an overlooked cause of bladder outlet obstruction and is a causal factor of BPH, and provides novel insight into the pathogenesis of BPH. Ultimately, the relationship between prostatic urethral angulation and urine flow rate, and other clinical factors including urodynamic parameters, the symptomatology, the response to treatment, and disease progression, need to be investigated in a clinical setting. PMID:17761390

Cho, Kang Su; Kim, Joohan; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Jang Hwan; Hong, Sung Joon

2008-01-01

244

Long segmental hyperplasia of interstitial cells of Cajal with giant diverticulum formation  

PubMed Central

Sporadic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) usually form a well-circumscribed mass. In contrast, diffuse interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) hyperplasia along the Auerbach plexus without a discrete mass may occur in patients with germline mutations in the NF1, c-KIT or PDGFRA genes. However, sporadic, diffuse ICC hyperplasia without c-KIT or PDGFRA mutations has not been reported. We describe herein one such case, forming a giant diverticulum. A 63-year-old woman with no features of Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) presented with increasing abdominal pain for more than 30 years. A large, diverticulum-like mass in the ileum was resected. Microscopically, a diffuse proliferation of bland spindle cells was seen extending for 12 cm, replacing the muscularis propria and lined by intact mucosa. The spindle cells were CD117+/CD34+/DOG1+/SMA+/Desmin-/S100-. Mutation analyses did not reveal any mutations in c-KIT or PDGFRA. The lesion had two silent mutations in the NF1 gene. It is rare of the diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia showing diffuse longitudinal microscopic growth completely replacing the muscularis propria, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes, but without solid components and no c-KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations. This peculiar form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia may be related to intestinal dysmotility in this ileal segment and giant diverticulum formation. PMID:24294389

Xue, Liyan; Qiu, Tian; Song, Ying; Shan, Ling; Liu, Xiuyun; Guo, Lei; Ying, Jianming; Zou, Shuangmei; Shi, Susheng; Polydorides, Alexandros D; Zhao, Xinming; Lu, Ning; Lin, Dongmei

2013-01-01

245

Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands on the buccal mucosa: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is a hyperplastic oral lesion which may be seen on minor salivary gland bearing areas on all oral mucosa, especially on soft and hard palate. This study reports a rare case of buccal adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands and discusses the clinical significance. PRESENTATION OF CASE 48 year old male patient presented with a complaint of a swelling on his left cheek. Clinical examination revealed a bluish mass on the buccal mucosa. A provisional diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasm was made and the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The histological diagnosis was adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. DISCUSSION Buccal localization of the adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is quite uncommon in the literature. There are two cases in the English literature for our knowledge. In the clinical examination, the nodular and protuberated appearance of the lesion resembles buccal minor salivary gland tumors and vascular lesions. Histological analysis is fundamental to achieve correct diagnosis. CONCLUSION The differential diagnosis of buccal nodular, exophytic and colored mucosal lesions should include adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. PMID:24727208

Dereci, Ömür; Çimen, Emre

2014-01-01

246

Intimal hyperplasia in loop-injured carotid arteries is attenuated in transglutaminase 2-null mice.  

PubMed

Arterial restenosis frequently develops after open or endovascular surgery due to intimal hyperplasia. Since tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is known to involve in fibrosis, wound healing, and extracellular matrix remodeling, we examined the role of TG2 in the process of intimal hyperplasia using TG2-null mice. The neointimal formation was compared between TG2-null and wild-type (C57BL/6) mice by two different injury models; carotid ligation and carotid loop injury. In ligation model, there was no difference in intimal thickness between two groups. In loop injury model, intimal hyperplasia developed in both groups and the intimal/medial area ratio was significantly reduced in TG2-null mice (P = 0.007). TG2 was intensely stained in neointimal cells in 2 weeks. In situ activity of TG2 in the injured arteries steadily increased until 4 weeks compared to uninjured arteries. Taken together, intimal hyperplasia was significantly reduced in TG2-null mice, indicating that TG2 has an important role in the development of intimal hyperplasia. This suggests that TG2 may be a novel target to prevent the arterial restenosis after vascular surgery. PMID:24616585

Min, Seung-Kee; Min, Sang-Il; Jeong, Eui Man; Cho, Sung-Yup; Ha, Jongwon; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, In-Gyu

2014-03-01

247

Evaluation of silodosin in comparison to tamsulosin in benign prostatic hyperplasia: A randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men. Selective alfa1-adrenergic antagonists are now first-line drugs in the medical management of BPH. We conducted a single-blind, parallel group, randomized, controlled trial to compare the effectiveness and safety of the new alfa1-blocker silodosin versus the established drug tamsulosin in symptomatic BPH. Materials and Methods: Ambulatory male BPH patients, aged above 50 years, were recruited on the basis of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Subjects were randomized in 1:1 ratio to receive either tamsulosin 0.4 mg controlled release or silodosin 8 mg once daily after dinner for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure was reduction in IPSS. Proportion of subjects who achieved IPSS <8, change in prostate size as assessed by ultrasonography and changes in peak urine flow rate and allied uroflowmetry parameters, were secondary effectiveness variables. Treatment emergent adverse events were recorded. Results: Data of 53 subjects – 26 on silodosin and 27 on tamsulosin were analyzed. Final IPSS at 12-week was significantly less than baseline for both groups. However, groups remained comparable in terms of IPSS at all visits. There was a significant impact on sexual function (assessed by IPSS sexual function score) in silodosin arm compared with tamsulosin. Prostate size and uroflowmetry parameters did not change. Both treatments were well-tolerated. Retrograde ejaculation was encountered only with silodosin and postural hypotension only with tamsulosin. Conclusions: Silodosin is comparable to tamsulosin in the treatment of BPH in Indian men. However, retrograde ejaculation may be troublesome for sexually active patients. PMID:25538330

Pande, Satabdi; Hazra, Avijit; Kundu, Anup Kumar

2014-01-01

248

Influence of ischemia before vein grafting on early hyperplasia of the graft and the dynamic changes of the intima after grafting  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate both the influence of ischemia before grafting on early hyperplasia of the vein grafts, and the dynamic changes of the intima after grafting in a rabbit model of vein graft disease. Methods We performed paired vein graft experiments under different ischemic conditions (15 vs. 60 min; 15 vs. 90 min) in the neck of the rabbits and compared the differences between the grafts. Clopidogrel, an anti-platelet agent, was administered before and after surgery. Twenty-eight days after the grafting procedure, the veins were evaluated microscopically. The dynamic changes of the intima after grafting were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy over time. Results The vein grafts subjected to 60- or 90-min ischemia exhibited no differences compared to those subjected to 15-min ischemia in terms of the mean thickness of the intimal, medial, and adventitial layers of the graft. Similarly, there was no difference in the Ki-67 labeling index (proliferation marker) between the vein grafts. Vein grafts with 15-min ischemia lost endothelial cells (ECs) but healed by 3 days post graft, whereas vein grafts with 90-min ischemia suffered serious EC loss, which was restored with new ECs during days 2 to 14 post graft. Conclusions Ninety-minute ischemia before vein grafting can cause serious EC loss, but does not increase early intimal hyperplasia when clopidogrel is administered. Protecting the vein from ischemia and reperfusion injury preserves ECs. PMID:23006637

2012-01-01

249

Offshore wind farms as productive sites or ecological traps for gadoid fishes?--impact on growth, condition index and diet composition.  

PubMed

With the construction of wind farms all across the North Sea, numerous artificial reefs are created. These windmill artificial reefs (WARs) harbour high abundances of fish species which can be attracted from elsewhere or can be the result of extra production induced by these wind farms. To resolve the attraction-production debate in suddenly altered ecosystems (cf. wind farms), the possible consequences of attraction should be assessed; thereby bearing in mind that ecological traps may arise. In this paper we investigated whether the wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea act as ecological traps for pouting and Atlantic cod. Length-at-age, condition and diet composition of fish present at the windmill artificial reefs was compared to local and regional sandy areas. Fish data from the period 2009-2012 were evaluated. Mainly I- and II-group Atlantic cod were present around the WARs; while the 0- and I-group dominated for pouting. For Atlantic cod, no differences in length were observed between sites, indicating that fitness was comparable at the WARs and in sandy areas. No significant differences in condition index were observed for pouting. At the WARs, they were slightly larger and stomach fullness was enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. Also diet differed considerably among the sites. The outcome of the proxies indicate that fitness of pouting was slightly enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. No evidence was obtained supporting the hypothesis that the WARs act as an ecological trap for Atlantic cod and pouting. PMID:23800713

Reubens, Jan T; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Zenner, Annemie N; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

2013-09-01

250

September Consumer Price Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Tuesday October 19, 1999, the US Department of Labor released its September 1999 Consumer Price Index (CPI), which showed a rise of 0.4 percent, the third monthly rise in a row. Wall Street breathed a sigh of relief at the news of the report as recent anxiety over the rising CPI and the threat of interest rates had sent the Nasdaq plunging. Tuesday, after the release of the report, stocks jumped over 200 points. The higher prices of tobacco and apparel boosted the CPI, and industries such as transportation, food, and lodging also showed the effects of inflation. The following nine resources include news briefs, commentary, and documents examining the impact of the September CPI as well as some of the unease about the US economy and inflation.

Missner, Emily D.

251

Index Funds Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Matthew Roberts recently released Index Funds Online in response to the lack of index investment fund information on the Internet. Site features include the market performance newsletter Indexing Quarterly, background and definitional information on major US Indexes such as the S&P 500, and a library of new and interesting financial Websites, articles, and book reviews. Links to current index performance figures are also provided as well as a simple site search system and index fund discussion board.

252

Journal Information Journal Impact Factor  

E-print Network

Journal Information Journal Impact Factor 5-Year Journal Impact Factor Journal Self Cites Journal Immediacy Index Journal Cited Half-Life 2012 JCR Science Edition Journal: CZECHOSLOVAK MATHEMATICAL JOURNAL Mark Journal Title ISSN Total Cites Impact Factor 5-Year Impact Factor Immediacy Index Citable Items

Krejcí, Pavel

253

Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung: a clinicopathological study of 118 cases including cases with multiple atypical adenomatous hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) of the lung is a putative precursor lesion of adenocarcinoma, according to many immunohistochemical and genetical studies, but few clinicopathological studies on a large number of cases have been reported. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer patients with AAH lesions.?METHODS—A retrospective study was carried out on 508 consecutive primary lung cancer patients operated on at National Cancer Center Hospital East. The relationship between the number and location of AAH lesions and the clinicopathological features of the lung cancer patients was analysed statistically.?RESULTS—A total of 311 AAH lesions were found in 118 (23.2%) of the 508 cases. AAH lesions were detected in 121 of 572 lobes examined, usually in both upper lobes, and occurred most frequently in patients with adenocarcinoma (OR 2.97; 95% CI 1.82 to 4.85). AAH lesions were more frequently detected in patients with multiple primary carcinomas than in those with a single carcinoma (OR 3.06; 95% CI 1.56 to 6.00). The presence of AAH lesions was not significantly correlated with sex, age, smoking status, familial history of malignancy, or preceding malignancy. Patients with multiple AAH lesions were found to have a significantly higher frequency of preceding malignancies.?CONCLUSIONS—The present study highlights the clinicopathological characteristics of AAH lesions, showing them to be significantly associated with both adenocarcinoma and multiple primary carcinoma of the lung and suggesting common factors in the histogenesis of multiple AAH lesions and preceding malignancy.?? PMID:11254822

Nakahara, R; Yokose, T; Nagai, K; Nishiwaki, Y; Ochiai, A

2001-01-01

254

Lymphoid hyperplasia detected as a single mass in the gallbladder: report of a case.  

PubMed

We herein report a case of lymphoid hyperplasia of the gallbladder that showed unique images on computed tomography and ultrasonography. A 42-year-old female was referred to our hospital for evaluation and treatment of a gallbladder tumor. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a mass in the wall of the gallbladder neck, without typical findings of benign or malignant tumors. The serum levels of tumor markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein, and cytokeratin 19 fragment, were all within normal limits. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was therefore performed. There were no stones in the gallbladder. Macroscopically, the submural tumor had a clear border without a capsule and a cystic portion. Its cut surface was grayish white. Microscopically, many lymph follicles with germinal centers were recognized in the subserosal layer. The lymphocytes were morphologically normal. We diagnosed lymphoid hyperplasia with chronic cholecystitis. Lymphoid hyperplasia of the gallbladder is extremely rare. PMID:22699402

Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Tadashi; Kanazawa, Akishige; Shimizu, Sadatoshi; Mikamori, Manabu; Fujiwara, Yushi; Nagahara, Hisashi; Xiang, Zhang; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Inoue, Ken

2012-12-01

255

Mammary diffuse fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): three cases.  

PubMed

The current report describes 3 rare cases of mammary diffuse fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). All of the animals were between 10 and 12 months of age. Grossly, the lesions consisted of severe diffuse swelling with homogeneous large masses in the udder. Surgical removal of the masses was curative. Microscopically, there was severe hyperplasia of the mammary epithelium and numerous well-differentiated and mildly pleomorphic acini and their associated ducts. Moderate proliferation of the fibrous connective tissue and the myoepithelial cells near the proliferating acini was also evident. The hyperplastic epithelial cells exhibited positive immunostaining for cytokeratin, estrogen receptors, and progesterone receptors. In addition, the myoepithelial cells displayed moderate positivity for alpha smooth muscle actin. Based on the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of mammary diffuse fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia with probable hormonal influence was made. PMID:24621849

de Sant'Ana, Fabiano J F; Carvalho, Fausto C; de O Gamba, Conrado; Cassali, Geovanni D; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Schild, Ana L

2014-03-12

256

Mouth opening limitation caused by coronoid hyperplasia: a report of four cases  

PubMed Central

Coronoid process hyperplasia is a rare condition that causes mouth opening limitation, otherwise known as trismus. The elongated coronoid processes impinge on the medial surfaces of the zygomatic arches when opening the mouth, which limits movement of the mandible and leads to trismus. Patients with trismus due to coronoid process hyperplasia do not have any definite symptoms such as temporomandibular joint pain or sounds upon clinical examination, and no significant abnormal signs are observed on panoramic radiographs or magnetic resonance images of the temporomandibular joint. Thus, the diagnosis of trismus is usually very difficult. However, computed tomography can help with the diagnosis, and the condition can be treated by surgery and postoperative physical therapy. This paper describes four cases of patients who visited our clinic for trismus and were subsequently diagnosed with coronoid process hyperplasia. Three were successfully treated with a coronoidectomy and postoperative physical therapy.

Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Hak-Jin

2014-01-01

257

[The impact of substitution treatment by methadone among opiate-dependent subjects evaluated by Addiction Severity Index and by urine tests].  

PubMed

Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been evaluated in the United States and in a few other countries. MMT has been developed in France since 1995, and over 5 000 patients receive this treatment. However no French study has yet been published on the efficacy of MMT as assessed by a validated scale. Retention in treatment for one year has been considered as a threshold to define maintenance of treatment benefits after discharge from a methadone program; determination of retention predictors is important. Over a three year period, we evaluated patients at admission and during treatment using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), and urine drug screening was performed weekly; 95 patients (66 males and 29 females) were evaluated at intake. Their mean age was 30.2 5.5, and they had used opioids for a mean of 10.6 5.7 years. Their ASI severity scores for drugs were over 5, showing a clear need for treatment. Female patients differed from males only in the employment-finances ASI score; 43 patients completed at least one year of treatment, after which their drug and legal composite scores significantly improved. No significant changes in their consumption of cocaine, alcohol, benzodiazepines or cannabis were found, but they smoked fewer cigarettes at 12 months. Demographics, ASI severity scores, and history of suicide attempts did not differentiate one-year completers from dropouts (n=16). However, dropouts had used more buprenorphine and less methadone in the 30 days preceding their admission, and they received a lower dose of methadone during treatment. Our population is comparable to other French MMT populations; they enter treatment after a long history of opioid dependence. The improvement found on the ASI composite scores is also similar to the improvement described in other international studies. Dropouts in our study seem to be more treatment-resistant patients, in the sense that they had used more buprenorphine before intake and were not stabilized with it; and they may have had a more negative attitude towards methadone. PMID:12386547

Trémeau, F; Darreye, A; Khidichian, F; Weibel, H; Kempf, M; Greth, Ph; Schneider, J L; Wantz, C; Weber, B; Stépien, S; Macher, J P

2002-01-01

258

Differential impact of body mass index on absolute and percent breast density: implications regarding their use as breast cancer risk biomarkers.  

PubMed

Percent breast density (PBD), a commonly used biomarker of breast cancer risk (BCR), is confounded by the influence of non-dense breast tissue on its measurement and factors, such as BMI, which have an impact on non-dense tissue. Consequently, BMI, a potent BCR factor, is, paradoxically, negatively correlated with PBD. We propose that absolute breast density (ABD) is a more accurate biomarker of BCR. We used a volumetric method to compare the correlation between PBD and ABD with baseline demographics and dietary and physical activity variables in a group of 169 postmenopausal women enrolled in a clinical trial prior to any intervention. As expected, a strong negative correlation between PBD and BMI was observed (Rho = -0.5, p < 5e(-12)). In contrast, we observed a strong, previously not well established, positive correlation of BMI with ABD (Rho = 0.41, p < 2.5e(-8)), which supports the use of ABD as a more accurate indicator of BCR. Correction of PBD by BMI did not frequently provide the same information as ABD. In addition, because of the strong influence of BMI on ABD, many correlations between dietary variables and ABD did not emerge, until adjustment was made for BMI. ABD corrected by BMI should be the gold standard BD measurement. These findings identify the optimal measurement of BD when testing the influence of an intervention on BD as a biomarker of BCR. PMID:24951269

Schetter, Susann E; Hartman, Terryl J; Liao, Jason; Richie, John P; Prokopczyk, Bogdan; DuBrock, Cindy; Signori, Carina; Hamilton, Christopher; Demers, Laurence M; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Manni, Andrea

2014-07-01

259

Accelerated intimal hyperplasia in aortocoronary internal mammary vein grafts in minipigs  

PubMed Central

Background More than 50% of aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts are occluded 10 years after surgery. Intimal hyperplasia is the initial critical step in the progression toward occlusion. Internal mammary veins, which are physiologically prone to less hydrostatic pressure, may undergo an accelerated progression to intimal hyperplasia and thus be suitable for investigation of the mechanisms of aortocoronary vein graft disease. Methods Six minipigs underwent aortocoronary bypass grafting using standard cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. Mammary vein were grafted in a reversed manner from ascending aorta to left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The proximal LAD was ligated, rendering the anterior left ventricle vein graft-dependent. Minipigs were killed after 4 weeks, and vein grafts were harvested. Histological and immunohistological investigation were performed with respect to morphometric analysis, endothelial damage/dysfunction (v-Willebrand-factor (vWF)), smooth muscle cells (?-smooth actin) and proliferation rate (proliferation marker Ki 67). Results Mean intimal area of vein grafts was increased compared to ungrafted mammary veins. Intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts was characterized by massive accumulation of smooth muscle cells with a high proliferation rate and endothelial perturbation. Significant (p = 0.001) intimal hyperplasia of the grafted mammary vein compared to the ungrafted mammary vein was found. These changes were absent in ungrafted mammary veins. Conclusion The present study demonstrates a pig model of aortocoronary vein graft intimal hyperplasia which is characterized by an accelerated progression within internal mammary veins. The model is suitable to investigate the pathophysiology of aortocoronary vein graft intimal hyperplasia as well as therapeutic approaches. PMID:18445288

Popov, Aron Frederik; Dorge, Hilmar; Hinz, Jose; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Stojanovic, Tomislav; Seipelt, Ralf; Didilis, Vassilios; Schoendube, Friedrich Albert

2008-01-01

260

Nitric oxide is less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Exogenous administration of nitric oxide (NO) markedly decreases neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury in several animal models. However, the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in hypertension remains unknown. Here, we employ the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain, inbred from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and the carotid artery balloon injury model to assess the effects of NO on neointimal hyperplasia development. 2weeks after arterial injury, we showed that both rat strains developed similar levels of neointimal hyperplasia, but local administration of NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR compared to WKY rats (58% vs. 79%, P<0.001). Interestingly, local administration of NO did not affect systemic blood pressure in either rat strain. Compared to WKY, the SHR displayed more proliferation in the media and adventitia following balloon injury, as measured by BrdU incorporation. The SHR also showed more inflammation in the adventitia after injury, as well as more vasa vasorum, than WKY rats. NO treatment reduced the vasa vasorum in the SHR but not WKY rats. Finally, while NO decreased both injury-induced proliferation and inflammation in the SHR, it did not return these parameters to levels seen in WKY rats. We conclude that NO is less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR than WKY rats. This may be due to increased scavenging of NO in the SHR, leading to diminished bioavailability of NO. These data will help to develop novel NO-based therapies that will be equally effective in both normotensive and hypertensive patient populations. PMID:24149190

Tsihlis, Nick D; Vavra, Ashley K; Martinez, Janet; Lee, Vanessa R; Kibbe, Melina R

2013-11-30

261

Nitric Oxide is Less Effective at Inhibiting Neointimal Hyperplasia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

Exogenous administration of nitric oxide (NO) markedly decreases neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury in several animal models. However, the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in hypertension remains unknown. Here, we employ the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain, inbred from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and the carotid artery balloon injury model to assess the effects of NO on neointimal hyperplasia development. Two weeks after arterial injury, we showed that both rat strains developed similar levels of neointimal hyperplasia, but local administration of NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR compared to WKY rats (58% vs. 79%, P<0.001). Interestingly, local administration of NO did not affect systemic blood pressure in either rat strain. Compared to WKY, the SHR displayed more proliferation in the media and adventitia following balloon injury, as measured by BrdU incorporation. The SHR also showed more inflammation in the adventitia after injury, as well as more vasa vasorum, than WKY rats. NO treatment reduced the vasa vasorum in the SHR but not WKY rats. Finally, while NO decreased both injury-induced proliferation and inflammation in the SHR, it did not return these parameters to levels seen in WKY rats. We conclude that NO is less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR than WKY rats. This may be due to increased scavenging of NO in the SHR, leading to diminished bioavailability of NO. These data will help to develop novel NO-based therapies that will be equally effective in both normotensive and hypertensive patient populations. PMID:24149190

Tsihlis, Nick D.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Martinez, Janet; Lee, Vanessa R.; Kibbe, Melina R.

2013-01-01

262

[Antiproliferative effect of polar lipids of maral antlers and peat in prostate benign hyperplasia model].  

PubMed

Lipids isolated from maral antlers and peat decreased the prostate posterior and lateral lobule mass and normalized its acinar and stromal histological structure, reduced protein content, decreased formation of lipid peroxidation products, and intensified antioxidant protection in homogenates, decreased prolactine and 5a-dihydrotestosterone blood level, and increased testosterone blood content in male rats of late reproductive age with prostate benign hyperplasia model caused by sulpiride injections. Polar lipids of maral antlers and peat more effectively suppress prostate hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia development in comparison to the action of Serenoa repens extract (permixon). PMID:23901466

Vengerovski?, A I; Burkova, V N; Iudina, N V; Iatsenkov, A I

2013-01-01

263

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pronghorn  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

Allen, Arthur W.; Cook, John G.; Armbruster, Michael J.

1984-01-01

264

Effects of silodosin and tamsulosin on the urethra and cardiovascular system in young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

We examined whether the effects (efficacy on the urethra and hypotension) of silodosin (alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor antagonist) and tamsulosin (alpha(1A+1D)-adrenoceptor antagonist) in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia altered with age. We used young and old dogs, diagnosed as having benign prostatic hyperplasia by veterinarian's palpation. Under anesthesia, the increase in intraurethral pressure evoked by hypogastric nerve stimulation was measured, together with the level of systemic mean blood pressure. Each drug was administered intravenously in progressively increasing doses. At the end of the experiment, the prostate was isolated from each dog, then weighed and investigated pathologically to confirm benign prostatic hyperplasia. The wet weight of the prostate was greater in old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia than in young dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia. By light microscopy, hyperplasia in the prostatic epithelium was confirmed in both groups. Silodosin (0.3-300 microg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the hypogastric nerve stimulation-induced increase in intraurethral pressure (without significant hypotensive effects) in both young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tamsulosin (0.3-300 microg/kg) also dose-dependently inhibited the intraurethral pressure increase in both groups, but it had a hypotensive effect that was significantly greater in old than in young dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In conclusion, as regards the effect of silodosin on intraurethral pressure, potency was similar between young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and it was without significant hypotensive effects. We therefore suggest that silodosin might be a good medication for lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in all age groups. PMID:19389393

Kobayashi, Shinya; Tomiyama, Yoshitaka; Tatemichi, Satoshi; Hoyano, Yuji; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Yamazaki, Yoshinobu

2009-06-24

265

Tools for Printing Indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper describes a set of programs for processing and printing the index for a book or a manual. The input consists of lines containing index terms and page numbers. The programs collect multiple occurrences of the same terms, compress runs of page numbers, create permutations (e.g., 'index, book' from 'book index'), and sort them into proper alphabetic order.

Jon Louis Bentley; Brian W. Kernighan

1988-01-01

266

KSC Construction Cost Index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kennedy Space Center cost Index aids in conceptual design cost estimates. Report discusses development of KSC Cost Index since January 1974. Index since January 1974. Index provides management, design engineers, and estimators an up-to-data reference for local labor and material process. Also provides mount and rate of change in these costs used to predict future construction costs.

Brown, J. A.

1983-01-01

267

Nucleic acid indexing  

DOEpatents

A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)

1999-01-01

268

Nucleic acid indexing  

DOEpatents

A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)

2001-01-01

269

Quaker Resources Online Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Quaker Resources Online Index is a World Wide Web-based index, including author, title, subject, and meeting indexes, that provides access to Quaker materials available on the Web. Given the current failings and shortcomings of search engines and automated key word searches, this index brings together information from a variety of sources and…

Beke-Harrigan, Heidi

270

Arylpiperazines for management of benign prostatic hyperplasia: design, synthesis, quantitative structure-activity relationships, and pharmacokinetic studies.  

PubMed

A series of 27 aryl/heteroaryl/aralkyl/aroyl piperazines were synthesized, and most of these compounds reduced prostate weight of mature rats by 15-47%. Three compounds, 10, 12, and 18, had better activity profile (reduced prostate weight by 47%, 43%, and 39%, respectively) than the standard drug flutamide (24% reduction). QSAR suggested structures with more cyclic and branched moieties, increased topological separation of O and N therein, and reduced solvation connectivity index for better activity. Pharmacokinetic study with compound 10 at an oral dose of 10.0 mg/kg indicated good absorption, negligible extrahepatic elimination, and rapid distribution to the target organ (prostate) but restricted entry through the blood-brain barrier. A 10-fold decrease in PSA and 15-fold increase in ER-? gene expressions of human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) by compound 10 in vitro indicated AR and ER-? mediated actions. The findings may stimulate further explorations of identified lead for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:21128595

Sarswat, Amit; Kumar, Rajeev; Kumar, Lalit; Lal, Nand; Sharma, Smriti; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S; Pandey, Shailendra K; Lal, Jawahar; Verma, Vikas; Jain, Ashish; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Dalela, Diwakar; Kirti; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

2011-01-13

271

Attenuation fluctuations and local dermal reflectivity are indicators of immune cell infiltrate and epidermal hyperplasia in skin inflammation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses responsible for skin homeostasis. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of psoriasis remains under investigated. To elucidate the spatial-temporal morphological evolution of psoriasis we undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to non-invasively document dermal alterations due to immune cell infiltration and epidermal hyperplasia in an Imiquimod (IMQ) induced model of psoriasis-like inflammation in DBA2/C57Bl6 hybrid mice. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a three parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(z) = ? exp(-mu;z +?(z)). Ensemble averaging of the fit parameters over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed that the local dermal reflectivity ?, decreased significantly in response to 6 day IMQ treatment (p = 0.0001), as did the standard deviation of the attenuation fluctuation std(?(z)), (p = 0.04), in comparison to cream controls and day 1 treatments. No significant changes were observed in the average dermal attenuation rate, ?. Our results suggest these label-free OCT-based metrics can be deployed to investigate new therapeutic targets in animal models as well as aid in clinical staging of psoriasis in conjunction with the psoriasis area and severity index.

Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Choudhury, Niloy; Levitz, David; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven

2012-02-01

272

Cyclin D2 Overexpression in Transgenic Mice Induces Thymic and Epidermal Hyperplasia whereas Cyclin D3 Expression Results Only in Epidermal Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

In a previous report, we described the effects of cyclin D1 expression in epithelial tissues of transgenic mice. To study the involvement of D-type cyclins (D1, D2, and D3) in epithelial growth and differentiation and their putative role as oncogenes in skin, transgenic mice were developed which carry cyclin D2 or D3 genes driven by a keratin 5 promoter. As expected, both transgenic lines showed expression of these proteins in most of the squamous tissues analyzed. Epidermal proliferation increased in transgenic animals and basal cell hyperplasia was observed. All of the animals also had a minor thickening of the epidermis. The pattern of expression of keratin 1 and keratin 5 indicated that epidermal differentiation was not affected. Transgenic K5D2 mice developed mild thymic hyperplasia that reversed at 4 months of age. On the other hand, high expression of cyclin D3 in the thymus did not produce hyperplasia. This model provides in vivo evidence of the action of cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 as mediators of proliferation in squamous epithelial cells. A direct comparison among the three D-type cyclin transgenic mice suggests that cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 have similar roles in epithelial thymus cells. However, overexpression of each D-type cyclin produces a distinct phenotype in thymic epithelial cells. PMID:10980142

Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.; LaCava, Margaret; Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; Jorcano, Jose L.; Richie, Ellen R.; Conti, Claudio J.

2000-01-01

273

What the Index Medicus Indexes, and Why *  

PubMed Central

The main criterion for selecting journals for indexing in Index Medicus, and thereby largely in MEDLARS, is quality. Subject scope varies with the voiced needs of the biomedical community. The Index aims to cover the best journals in all relevant subject fields, but the percentage of journals on a subject indexed depends on the quality of each journal. Country and language coverage depends on quality, even in the case of the best journals of each, although American biases may affect such selection. While a number of guidelines exist for identifying quality journals, information necessary to apply them confidently is often difficult to obtain. The National Library of Medicine is advised by an Ad Hoc Panel on the Selection of Journals for Index Medicus, composed both of NLM officers and extramural members. Criticism has been voiced that too many titles are indexed, compared with titles actually used, but no meaningful statistics of use exist which can identify titles which should be excluded from indexing. Continuing suggestions from users regarding titles indexed would benefit everyone. PMID:5922258

Truelson, Stanley D.

1966-01-01

274

A New Animal Model to Study Intimal Hyperplasia in Arteriovenous Fistulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Intimal hyperplasia (IH) plays a key role in the failure of arteriovenous (AV) fistulas. The animal models available to study IH in AV fistulas are expensive and do not mimic the development of truly stenotic IH. In this study we examined whether goats are a more suitable model to study IH in AV fistulas.Materials and Methods. Thirteen direct and

M. S. Lemson; M. J. A. P. Daemen; J. H. M. Tordoir

1999-01-01

275

Gender Change from Female to Male in Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychoendocrinology of the development of normal gender identity and its variations is poorly understood. Studies of gender development in individuals born with endocrinologically well-characterized intersex conditions are heuristically valuable for the disaggregation of factors that are acting in concert during normal development. Four 46,XX individuals with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and atypical gender identity entered a comprehensive research

Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg; Rhoda S. Gruen; Maria I. New; Jennifer J. Bell; Akira Morishima; Mona Shimshi; Yvette Bueno; Ileana Vargas; Susan W. Baker

1996-01-01

276

Multiplex Minisequencing of the 21Hydroxylase Gene as a Rapid Strategy to Confirm Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a frequent autosomal recessive disease, with a wide range of clinical manifestations, most commonly attributable to mutations in the 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21). Large gene deletions, large gene conversions, a small 8-base- pair deletion, and eight point mutations in CYP21 ac- count for 95% of all enzyme deficiencies. We devel- oped a new strategy for

Nils Krone; Andreas Braun; Stefanie Weinert; Michael Peter; Adelbert A. Roscher; Carl-Joachim Partsch; Wolfgang G. Sippell

2002-01-01

277

The role of phytotherapy in treating lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their traditional popularity in many European countries and their increasing use as dietary supplements in the United States, the role of phytotherapeutic agents in treating lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is continuously debated. If strict criteria of evidence-based medicine are applied, the available data have not yet provided clear evidence of efficacy for most

Kurt Dreikorn

2002-01-01

278

Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's hemangioma) presenting as a lateral neck mass.  

PubMed

Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's hemangioma) is a benign disease of vascular origin characterized by exuberant endothelial proliferation in normal blood vessels.The most important feature of the disease is its resemblance to hemangiosarcoma and the resulting possible radiologic misinterpretation. We present the radiologic findings in a 45-year-old woman presenting a neck mass extending to the thoracic cavity. PMID:19358481

Yücesoy, C; Coban, G; Yilmazer, D; Oztürk, E; Hekimo?lu, B

2009-01-01

279

Villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia in malignant histiocytosis of the nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal changes, mainly in the jejunum, were investigated in 13 cases of malignant histiocytosis at necropsy and who had presented as lethal midline granuloma. Villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia was observed in all cases, and a proliferation of atypical histiocytes was observed in seven cases. In the remaining cases, histiocytes with normal morphology increased in number. These findings showed that

K Aozasa

1982-01-01

280

IL-17 suppresses immune effector functions in human papillomavirus-associated epithelial hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) causes epithelial hyperplasia that can progress to cancer and is thought to depend on immunosuppressive mechanisms that prevent viral clearance by the host. IL-17 is a cytokine with diverse functions in host defense and in the pathology of autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. We analyzed biopsies from patients with HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and murine skin displaying HPV16 E7 protein-induced epithelial hyperplasia, which closely models hyperplasia in chronic HPV lesions. Expression of IL-17 and IL-23, a major inducer of IL-17, was elevated in both human HPV-infected and murine E7-expressing lesions. Using a skin-grafting model, we demonstrated that IL-17 in HPV16 E7 transgenic skin grafts inhibited effective host immune responses against the graft. IL-17 was produced by CD3(+) T cells, predominantly CD4(+) T cells in human, and CD4(+) and ?? T cells in mouse hyperplastic lesions. IL-23 and IL-1?, but not IL-18, induced IL-17 production in E7 transgenic skin. Together, these findings demonstrate an immunosuppressive role for IL-17 in HPV-associated epithelial hyperplasia and suggest that blocking IL-17 in persistent viral infection may promote antiviral immunity and prevent progression to cancer. PMID:25063870

Gosmann, Christina; Mattarollo, Stephen R; Bridge, Jennifer A; Frazer, Ian H; Blumenthal, Antje

2014-09-01

281

Cystinosis and gingival hyperplasia: demonstration of cystine crystals in gingival tissue and unusual aspects of management.  

PubMed

A patient with nephropathic cystinosis developed gingival hyperplasia secondary to cyclosporine-A therapy for his renal allograft. The typical crystals described on electron microscopic examination of other organs of patients with cystinosis were seen in the resected gingiva of this patient. These crystals have not been previously described in this location. Unusual aspects of the management of this patient are discussed. PMID:7877086

Heller, A N; Heller, D S; Schwimmer, A; Gordon, R E; Cambria, R J

1994-12-01

282

Regeneration in pig livers by compensatory hyperplasia induces high levels of telomerase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several highly proliferative human cells transiently activate telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein with reverse transcriptase activity, to counterbalance replication-associated telomere erosion and to increase stress resistance. Quiescent human hepatocytes exhibit very low or undetectable levels of telomerase activity. However, hepatocytes display a remarkable proliferative capability following liver injury. To investigate whether liver regeneration by compensatory hyperplasia is associated with telomerase activation,

Henning Wege; Anett Müller; Lars Müller; Susan Petri; Jörg Petersen; Christian Hillert

2007-01-01

283

Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan Prevents Neointimal Hyperplasia in Rabbit Iliac Artery In-Stent Restenosis Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation within the intima is regulated by heparan sulfates. We studied a low molecular weight (LMW) fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide from brown seaweed) on SMC proliferation in vitro and intimal hyperplasia in vivo. Methods and Results—In vitro study revealed that LMW fucoidan reduces rabbit SMC proliferation and is internalized in SMC perinuclear vesicles. On rabbit iliac arteries

Jean-François Deux; Anne Meddahi-Pellé; Alain F. Le Blanche; Laurent J. Feldman; Sylvia Colliec-Jouault; Françoise Brée; Frank Boudghène; Jean-Baptiste Michel; Didier Letourneur

284

Decision Aids for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Applicability across Race and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Method. Decision aids have not been widely tested in diverse audiences. The authors conducted inter- views in a 2 2 race by education design with participants who were 50 years old (n = 188). The decision aid was a be- nign prostatic hyperplasia videotape. Results. There was an increase in knowledge equal in all groups, with baseline knowledge higher in

David R. Rovner; Celia E. Wills; Vence Bonham; Gilbert Williams; Janet Lillie; Karen Kelly-Blake; Mark V. Williams; Margaret Holmes-Rovner

2004-01-01

285

Treatment preference patterns during a videotape decision aid for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAs part of a study of men's responses to a videotape decision aid [Rovner DR, Wills CE, Bonham V, Williams G, Lillie J, Kelly-Blake K, Williams MV, Holmes-Rovner M. Decision aids for benign prostatic hyperplasia: applicability across race and education. Med Decis Making 2004;24:359–66], preferences for BPH treatment options were assessed.

Celia E. Wills; Margaret Holmes-Rovner; David Rovner; Janet Lillie; Karen Kelly-Blake; Vence Bonham; Gilbert Williams

2006-01-01

286

Clinical study of the efficiency and safety of afala in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

The use of afala in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and moderate urination disturbances reduced the symptoms of the disease, improved urodynamic parameters, and increased quality of life. Clinical efficiency of afala was comparable with the efficiency of Serenoa repens extract (reference preparation). PMID:20027354

Savel'eva, K V; Kachanova, M V; Pavlov, V N; Kazikhinurov, R A; Frolov, M Yu; Mukhin, A B; Udut, V V; Yurmazov, Z A; Dugina, Yu L; Sergeeva, S A; Epshtein, O I

2009-08-01

287

Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumor in 11-Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency Driven Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART) occur often as asymptomatic nodules in corticotropin-dependent lesions aberrant adrenal tissue in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients. The present manuscript is about an unusual case of a 16-year-old CAH patient due to 11?-hydroxylase deficiency. He underwent testicle biopsy because of testicle tumor suspicion and diagnosed with TART. PMID:24741421

Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Ünlü, Ya?ar; Karata?, Tuna; Tekinarslan, Erdem; Sümer, Alpay

2014-01-01

288

Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver with the lumbo-costovertebral syndrome.  

PubMed

Congenital lumbar hernia is uncommon in children; only 42 cases have been reported. A newborn girl with congenital superior lumbar hernia associated with lumbo-costovertebral syndrome is described. Associated features include focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, absent right kidney and hydrocephalus. PMID:8887102

al-Salem, A H; Abu-Srair, H; Qaissaruddin, S

1996-09-01

289

Carrier Frequency of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (21Hydroxylase Deficiency) in a Middle European Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on newborn screening data, the carrier frequency of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in the general popula- tion has been estimated to be 1:55. The higher CAH frequency (particularly of milder forms of the disease) reported for cer- tain populations including Yugoslavs (1.6%) relates to popu- lation genetic and hormonal data. However, so far, true car- rier frequency for CAH

S. M. Baumgartner-Parzer; P. Nowotny; G. Heinze; W. Waldhausl; H. Vierhapper

2004-01-01

290

Timing and Type of Glucocorticoid Replacement in Adult Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the commonest inherited diseases. Treatment during childhood is directed towards obtaining normal growth. There is an extensive literature on management of CAH during childhood but little published on how patients should be treated as adults. CAH results in increased adrenocorticotropic hormone levels driving the adrenal to produce cortisol and thereby excessive cortisol precursors

R. J. M. Ross; A. Rostami-Hodjegan

2005-01-01

291

AGU index terms updated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU has just completed a major revision of its Index Terms. The last major revision of the Index Terms was conducted in 1995. AGU Index Terms are used for classification of both AGU publications and meetings programs. The new Index Terms will be available for use by the AGU community on 17 December (http://www.agu.org/pubs/indexterms).A 15-person working group, representing various disciplinary groups across the AGU, was established by, and reports to, the Publications Committee. The Index Committee members consulted with their constituencies and considered term-by-term usage of the old Index Term list in creating the new list.

Kodama, Kenneth P.

2004-12-01

292

Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water inhibits intimal hyperplasia in arterialized vein grafts in rats  

PubMed Central

Aims Arterialized vein grafts often fail due to intimal hyperplasia. Hydrogen potently protects organs and cells from many insults via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the efficacy of oral administration of hydrogen-rich water (HW) for prevention of intimal hyperplasia. Methods and results The inferior vena cava was excised, stored in cold Ringer solution for 2 h, and placed as an interposition graft in the abdominal aorta of syngeneic Lewis rats. HW was generated by immersing a magnesium stick in tap water (Mg + 2H2O ? Mg (OH)2 + H2). Beginning on the day of graft implantation, recipients were given tap water [regular water (RW)], HW or HW that had been subsequently degassed water (DW). Six weeks after grafting, the grafts in the rats given RW or DW had developed intimal hyperplasia, accompanied by increased oxidative injury. HW significantly suppressed intimal hyperplasia. One week after grafting, the grafts in HW-treated rats exhibited improved endothelial integrity with less platelet and white blood cell aggregation. Up-regulation of the mRNAs for intracellular adhesion molecules was attenuated in the vein grafts of the rats receiving HW. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 was also significantly inhibited in grafts receiving HW. In rat smooth muscle cell (A7r5) cultures, hydrogen treatment for 24 h reduced smooth muscle cell migration. Conclusion Drinking HW significantly reduced neointima formation after vein grafting in rats. Drinking HW may have therapeutic value as a novel therapy for intimal hyperplasia and could easily be incorporated into daily life. PMID:22287575

Sun, Qiang; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Masutani, Kosuke; Peng, Ximei; Sun, Qing; Stolz, Donna B.; Pribis, John P.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sun, Xuejun; Bermudez, Christian A.; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Nakao, Atsunori

2012-01-01

293

The Study About Physical Activity for Subjects With Prevention of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose The number of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) subjects has been increasing worldwide, and many studies have been conducted to determine the treatment that can delay drug therapy or surgery. Subsequently, most of these studies involved physical activity (PA) and associated factors. Therefore, we aimed to determine factors associated with BPH prevalence based on a review of past and present studies and to investigate the effect of a healthy lifestyle as a protective factor of BPH occurrence. Methods We selected 582 subjects aged ?40 years from an initial 779 subjects recruited from Gyeonggi, Yangpyeong, South Korea, during August 2009 to August 2011. Trained investigators surveyed International Prostate Symptom Score and demographic information, including PA and lifestyle questionnaire during face-to-face interviews; further, they performed digital rectal examination, rectal ultrasonography, and measured prostate-specific antigen levels. The statistical association between PA and BPH was analyzed by logistic regression analysis using multivariable regression models which use categorical variables by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and continuous variables by the general linear model. Results Seven statistically significant variables for PA were selected. Regular exercise, frequency of exercise, sedentary time, nonsedentary time, leisure time PA (metabolic equivalent, hr/wk) were not statistically associated with prostate volume but sedentary time (hr/day) was the only factor that showed a significant association in the multivariable model, including a linear effect relationship. Subjects with lower levels of sedentary time (4.5-7.0 hr/day) had a significantly lower risk of BPH (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-1.67) than those with a higher sedentary time (>7 hr/day) (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.96-3.09) (P for trend=0.05). Conclusions Our study showed that reducing sedentary time could have a protective effect and reduce the prevalence of BPH. Further prospective studies with a larger sample size are needed to assess the impact of reducing sedentary time on BPH risk. PMID:25279244

Lee, Ho Won; Nam, Ji Won; Kim, Mi Kyung; Choi, Bo Youl; Moon, Hong Sang

2014-01-01

294

Intrauterine crowding decreases average birth weight and affects muscle fiber hyperplasia in piglets.  

PubMed

High prolificacy of sows and increased fetal survival lead to greater incidence of intrauterine crowding (IUC), which may then affect pre- and postnatal development of the progeny. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of IUC, using unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized gilts (UHO), on organ and muscle development of their progeny at birth. In the study, 7 UHO and 7 intact control (Con) Swiss Large White gilts were used. At farrowing, if available, 3 male and 3 female progeny with a low (>0.8 and <1.2 kg), medium (>1.2 and <1.4 kg), and high (>1.6 kg) birth weight (BtW) were killed. Internal organs and brain were weighed, and semitendinosus (STN), psoas major (PM), and rhomboideus (RH) muscles were collected. Histological analyses were performed in PM, RH, and STN (dark and light portion) using myofibrillar ATPase staining after preincubation at pH 10.3. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) polymorphism was determined in the PM using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Despite that only one-half of the uterine space was available, litter size was smaller (P < 0.01) only by 35% in UHO compared with Con gilts. However, UHO progeny tended (P = 0.06) to be lighter than Con progeny. The average BtW of the selected piglets did not differ (P = 0.17) between the 2 sow groups, whereas PM and kidneys tended to be lighter (P < 0.07) in UHO than in Con progeny. Compared with Con progeny, the PM and the STN(dark) of UHO progeny had fewer (P ? 0.05) secondary and total myofibers as well as fewer (P = 0.10) primary myofibers in the PM. In the RH, the secondary-to-primary myofiber ratio was smaller (P < 0.01) in UHO than in Con progeny, whereas the total number of myofibers did not (P = 0.96) differ. The relative abundance of fetal MyHC was less (P = 0.02) and that of type I MyHC tended (P = 0.09) to be greater in UHO than in Con offspring. With increasing BtW, organ and brain weights increased (P < 0.01). Muscle cross-sectional area and total number of myofibers in the light portion of the STN were greater (P < 0.05) in high and medium than in low piglets. In conclusion, IUC reduced hyperplasia of secondary and total myofibers in the STN(dark) and PM. These effects were independent of the BtW and sex. PMID:20562364

Bérard, J; Pardo, C E; Béthaz, S; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

2010-10-01

295

The Database Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the characteristics of System Development Corporation's (SDC) online index to its database, "Database Index," and presents the results of various test searches to demonstrate the limitations and benefits of the new online file. (JD)

Antony, Arthur

1979-01-01

296

Dow Jones Internet Indexes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dow Jones Indexes has created the Dow Jones Internet Index (DJII) to bring "an ordered perspective" to "the seeming chaos of Internet stocks." The new index includes companies that generate a minimum of 50 percent of their revenues from the Internet. Complete documentation of DJII components, data, historical values, and news are provided on-site.

297

California Nitrogen Index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The California N Index User Manual is designed to help you become accustomed to the software environment in which the N Index runs. This manual will use an example scenario to demonstrate how to use the N Index to assess nitrogen losses. The objective of this theoretical example is to guide you towa...

298

The Europe 2020 Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

Pasimeni, Paolo

2013-01-01

299

Modelling ultrasound-induced mild hyperthermia of hyperplasia in vascular grafts  

PubMed Central

Background Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts frequently develop occlusive neointimal hyperplasia as a result of myofibroblast over-growth, leading to graft failure. ePTFE exhibits higher ultrasound attenuation than native soft tissues. We modelled the selective absorption of ultrasound by ePTFE, and explored the feasibility of preventing hyperplasia in ePTFE grafts by ultrasound heating. Specifically, we simulated the temperature profiles of implanted grafts and nearby soft tissues and blood under ultrasound exposure. The goal was to determine whether ultrasound exposure of an ePTFE graft can generate temperatures sufficient to prevent cell growth on the graft without damaging nearby soft tissues and blood. Methods Ultrasound beams from two transducers (1.5 and 3.2 MHz) were simulated in two graft/tissue models, with and without an intra-graft cellular layer mimicking hyperplasia, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The resulting power deposition patterns were used as a heat source for the Pennes bioheat equation in a COMSOL® Multiphysics heat transfer model. 50°C is known to cause cell death and therefore the transducer powers were adjusted to produce a 13°C temperature rise from 37°C in the ePTFE. Results Simulations showed that both the frequency of the transducers and the presence of hyperplasia significantly affect the power deposition patterns and subsequent temperature profiles on the grafts and nearby tissues. While neither transducer significantly raised the temperature of the blood, the 1.5-MHz transducer was less focused and heated larger volumes of the graft and nearby soft tissues than the 3.2-MHz transducer. The presence of hyperplasia had little effect on the blood's temperature, but further increased the temperature of the graft and nearby soft tissues in response to either transducer. Skin cooling and blood flow play a significant role in preventing overheating of the native tissues. Conclusions Modelling shows that ultrasound can selectively heat ePTFE grafts and produce temperatures that cause cell death on the graft. The temperature increase in blood is negligible and that in the adjacent soft tissues may be minimized by skin cooling and using appropriate transducers. Therefore, ultrasound heating may have the potential to reduce neointimal hyperplasia and failure of ePTFE vascular grafts. PMID:22054016

2011-01-01

300

Successful treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case series  

PubMed Central

Introduction Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, characterized by bilateral macronodular adrenal hypertrophy and autonomous cortisol production, is a rare cause of Cushing’s syndrome. Bilateral adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia but obliges the patient to receive lifetime steroid replacement therapy subsequently, and may increase the patient’s risk of adrenal insufficiency. These circumstances require surgeons to carefully consider operative strategies on an individual basis. Case presentation We performed successful laparoscopic adrenalectomy on four patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Computed tomography scans showed bilateral adrenal enlargement in all patients. Case 1: a 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with obvious Cushing’s symptoms during treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Case 2: a 37-year-old Japanese man also presented with Cushing’s symptoms during treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. These patients were diagnosed as Cushing’s syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia based on endocrinologic testing, and underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Case 3: an 80-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized due to unusual weight gain and heightened general fatigue, and was diagnosed as Cushing’s syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. She underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy due to high operative risk. Case 4: a 66-year-old Japanese man was discovered to have bilateral adrenal tumors on medical examination. He did not have Cushing’s symptoms and was diagnosed as subclinical Cushing’s syndrome due to suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone serum levels and loss of cortisol circadian rhythm without abnormal levels of serum cortisol. He underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. During follow-up, serum cortisol levels were within the normal range in all cases, and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were not suppressed. Further, cases with Cushing’s syndrome experienced clinical improvement. Conclusions We were able to effectively treat adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia in patients with obvious Cushing’s symptoms by laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy, which promptly improved symptoms. Further, unilateral adrenalectomy was effective for treating an older patient at high operative risk and a patient with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome. PMID:22989371

2012-01-01

301

Nitric oxide may inhibit neointimal hyperplasia by decreasing isopeptidase T levels and activity in the vasculature  

PubMed Central

Objective Isopeptidase T is a cysteine protease deubiquitinating enzyme that hydrolyzes unanchored polyubiquitin chains to free monoubiquitin. Nitric oxide (NO) decreases 26S proteasome activity in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in animal models. As NO can cause S-nitrosylation of active-site cysteines, we hypothesize that NO inhibits isopeptidase T activity through S-nitrosylation. Because accumulation of polyubiquitin chains inhibits the 26S proteasome, this may be one mechanism through which NO prevents neointimal hyperplasia. Methods To investigate our hypothesis, we examined the effect of NO on isopeptidase T activity, levels, and localization in VSMCs in vitro and in a rat carotid balloon injury model in vivo. Results NO inhibited recombinant isopeptidase T activity by 82.8% (t = 60 minutes, P < .001 vs control). Dithiothreitol and glutathione (5 mmol/L) both significantly reversed NO-mediated inhibition of isopeptidase T activity (P < .001). NO caused a time-dependent increase in S-nitrosylated isopeptidase T levels in VSMCs, which was reversible with dithiothreitol, indicating that isopeptidase T undergoes reversible S-nitrosylation on exposure to NO in vitro. Although NO did not affect isopeptidase T levels or subcellular localization in VSMCs in vitro, it decreased isopeptidase T levels and increased ubiquitinated proteins after balloon injury in vivo. Conclusions Local administration of NO may prevent neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting isopeptidase T levels and activity in the vasculature, thereby inhibiting the 26S proteasome in VSMCs. These data provide additional mechanistic insights into the ability of NO to prevent neointimal hyperplasia after vascular interventions. (J Vasc Surg 2013;?:1-8.) Clinical Relevance The 26S proteasome is responsible for degrading polyubiquitinated proteins. Isopeptidase T is a deubiquitinating enzyme that recycles polyubiquitin chains to monoubiquitin. Nitric oxide (NO) decreases formation of neointimal hyperplasia in animal models and decreases 26S proteasome activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. We investigated the effects of NO on isopeptidase T and showed that NO inhibits recombinant isopeptidase T activity, increases S-nitrosylated isopeptidase T levels in vascular smooth muscle cells, and, after balloon injury in vivo, decreases isopeptidase T levels and increases ubiquitinated proteins. Local administration of NO may prevent neointimal hyperplasia by targeting isopeptidase T and inhibiting the 26S proteasome. PMID:23375434

Tsihlis, Nick D.; Kapadia, Muneera R.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Flannery, Walker D.; Oustwani, Christopher S.; Jiang, Qun; Kibbe, Melina R.

2013-01-01

302

The use of a single daily dose of tadalafil to treat signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction  

PubMed Central

A strong and independent association between lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) and erectile dysfunction (ED) has been widely evidenced in several clinical epidemiologic studies. Preclinical animal models have provided a great deal of information on potential common pathogenic mechanisms underlying these two clinical identities. Although the efficacy of the most commonly used treatments for LUTS/BPH is well defined, the negative impact of these treatments on sexual function – in particular, on ED – has triggered the search for new treatment options. In this regard, a new role for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in the treatment of LUTS/BPH and ED has been claimed. Tadalafil is one of the most extensively investigated phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for this new indication. All evidence reported to date suggests that tadalafil 5 mg once daily is a safe and effective treatment option for both LUTS/BPH and ED. PMID:24400241

Gacci, Mauro; Salvi, Matteo; Sebastianelli, Arcangelo; Vignozzi, Linda; Corona, Giovanni; McVary, Kevin T; Kaplan, Steven A; Maggi, Mario; Carini, Marco; Oelke, Matthias

2013-01-01

303

Can finasteride reverse the progress of benign prostatic hyperplasia? a two-year placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo study if placebo-induced improvement in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is maintained over 2 years, and to study the efficacy and safety from intervention with finasteride 5 mg for 24 months.

J. T. Andersen; P. Ekman; H. Wolf; H. O. Beisland; J. E. Johansson; M. Kontturi; T. Lehtonen; K. Tveter

1995-01-01

304

Megestrol Acetate or Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System in Treating Patients With Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia or Endometrial Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVB Endometrial Carcinoma

2014-09-09

305

On noninferior performance index vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noninferior vector index problem of optimal control theory is investigated in an effort to establish some basic properties of the noninferior index surface in the generalN-dimensional index problem. The vector performance index problem is first converted to a family of scalar index problems by forming an auxiliary scalar index as a function of the vector index and a vector

R. W. Reid; S. J. Citron

1971-01-01

306

Antisense oligonucleotide to proto-oncogene c- myb inhibits the formation of intimal hyperplasia in experimental vein grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The development of intimal hyperplasia is a major cause of early vein graft failure. The study examines the effects of locally delivered antisense oligonucleotides to the proto-oncogene c-myb on the development of vein graft intimal hyperplasia.Methods: Common carotid vein bypass grafting procedures were performed on 60 New Zealand White rabbits. Seventeen grafts were controls, 14 had grafts coated with

Gregory J. Fulton; Mark G. Davies; Walter J. Koch; Helge Dalen; Einar Svendsen; Per-Otto Hagen

1997-01-01

307

Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia (CLAH) by Molecular Genetic Testing in Korean Siblings  

E-print Network

? The authors have no financial conflicts of interest. Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is caused by mutations to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene associated with the inability to synthesize all adrenal and gonadal steroids. Inadequate treatment in an infant with this condition may result in sudden death from an adrenal crisis. We report a case in which CLAH developed in Korean siblings; the second child was prenatally diagnosed because the first child was affected and low maternal serum estriol was detected in a prenatal screening test. To our knowledge, this is the first prenatal diagnosis of the Q258X StAR mutation, which is the only consistent genetic cluster identified to date in Japanese and Korean populations. Key Words: ?Lipoid hyperplasia, congenital, prenatal, sibling

Hyun Sun Ko; Seungok Lee; Hyojin Chae; Sae Kyung Choi; Myungshin Kim; In Yang Park; Byung Kyu Suh; Jong Chul Shin

2011-01-01

308

A rare case of idiopathic multiple hyperplasia of inflammatory granulation in the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Cases of idiopathic gingival enlargement are so infrequent that the etiology and treatment are subjects of discussion. The case of a 49-year-old woman who presented with a rapidly diffuse enlargement of gingiva, clusters of patches on the buccal mucosa, and a furry-coated tongue within 2 months is reported. Results of various laboratory investigations and additional tests, such as the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and autoantibody to nuclear antigen (ANA) tests, were all negative. Histopathologic examination showed hyperplasia of inflammatory granulation tissues. Oral steroid therapy was effective. Although cases of multiple hyperplasia of inflammatory granulation in the oral cavity are very rare, clinicians should be aware of such cases and understand the efforts to further delineate the etiology, the management, and the prevention of the recurrence of this condition. PMID:24389562

Lv, Zhe; Yao, Hua; Zhuang, Genying

2014-02-01

309

A case of nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver combined with toxic hepatitis.  

PubMed

Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) is an uncommon liver condition characterized by diffuse transformation of the hepatic parenchyma into regenerative nodules without fibrosis. Portal vasculopathy caused by abnormal hepatic venous flow may induce hepatocyte hyperplasia, which forms regenerative nodules. Underlying diseases or certain drugs may also be the cause of NRH. This condition is often underdiagnosed as the patients remain asymptomatic until development of portal hypertension, and histopathologic confirmation by liver biopsy is the only way of making a definite diagnosis. The management mainly involves prevention and treatment of the complications of portal hypertension. The frequency of diagnosis of NRH has increased rapidly in recent years, however, only a few cases have been reported in Korea. Here, we report on a case of NRH of the liver combined with toxic hepatitis. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2015;65:52-56). PMID:25603855

Jin, Sun Mi; Song, Sang Hee; Cho, Yang Hyun; Shin, Dae Kyu; Shin, Sun Young; Kim, Gwang Il; Park, Hana; Rim, Kyu Sung

2015-01-25

310

Inducing myointimal hyperplasia versus atherosclerosis in mice: an introduction of two valid models.  

PubMed

Various in vivo laboratory rodent models for the induction of artery stenosis have been established to mimic diseases that include arterial plaque formation and stenosis, as observed for example in ischemic heart disease. Two highly reproducible mouse models - both resulting in artery stenosis but each underlying a different pathway of development - are introduced here. The models represent the two most common causes of artery stenosis; namely one mouse model for each myointimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis are shown. To induce myointimal hyperplasia, a balloon catheter injury of the abdominal aorta is performed. For the development of atherosclerotic plaque, the ApoE -/- mouse model in combination with western fatty diet is used. Different model-adapted options for the measurement and evaluation of the results are named and described in this manuscript. The introduction and comparison of these two models provides information for scientists to choose the appropriate artery stenosis model in accordance to the scientific question asked. PMID:24893977

Stubbendorff, Mandy; Hua, Xiaoqin; Deuse, Tobias; Ali, Ziad; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Maegdefessel, Lars; Robbins, Robert C; Schrepfer, Sonja

2014-01-01

311

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach in a patient with multiple submucosal tumors  

PubMed Central

Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. Here, we report a 38-year-old man who presented with multiple submucosal tumors of the stomach. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by multiple discrete submucosal nodules of lymphoid cells. The infiltrates between the lymphoid follicles were composed mainly of medium-sized lymphoid cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, as well as a few large cells with vesicular nuclei. The gastric mucosa exhibited multifocal lymphoid aggregates and some of the epithelial cells were infiltrated by small lymphocytes mimicking lymphoepithelial lesions. Histopathology was consistent with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. However, the infiltrating lymphoid cells were positive for CD2, CD3, CD5, and CD7. In addition, polymerase chain reaction analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements demonstrated polyclonality. This case was diagnosed as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach. PMID:24466554

Jeon, Ja Young; Lim, Sun Gyo; Kim, Jang Hee; Lee, Kee Myung; Cho, Sung Ran

2013-01-01

312

Prevalence of pulmonary atypical alveolar cell hyperplasia in an autopsy population: a study of 100 cases.  

PubMed

A precursor lesion of pulmonary adenocarcinoma has not been clearly defined. Previous studies suggested that atypical alveolar cell hyperplasia (AACH) might represent such a precursor lesion. Most previous studies showed an association between AACH and adenocarcinoma in surgical resection specimens. In this study, we searched for the prevalence of AACH and nonatypical alveolar cell hyperplasia (ACH) in a general autopsy population. Cases in which there was clinical or anatomic evidence of pulmonary neoplasia were excluded from the study. In the 100 consecutive autopsies examined, we found four cases of ACH and two cases of AACH. The two AACH lesions showed cytologic atypia and stained positively for p53 and c-erb-2. These findings suggest a possible role for AACH as a precursor lesion of adenocarcinoma of the lung. PMID:9160312

Sterner, D J; Mori, M; Roggli, V L; Fraire, A E

1997-05-01

313

[Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (pseudolymphoma) on the red dye of a tattoo].  

PubMed

Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (pseudolymphoma) on tattoo is rare. The diagnosis is histological. We report a case of cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia within the red ink of a tattoo found on a 35-year-old man presenting multiple infiltrated nodules confined to the red areas of his tattoo, which he had done 2 months ago. The pathological examination showed a diffuse lympho-histiocytic dermo-hypodermal infiltrate, associated with a lichenoid reaction. Immunohistochemistry displayed T-cell infiltration (CD3+, CD5+, CD8+). The treatment is difficult, knowing that the spontaneous regression seems possible, and the progression into a lymphoma is exceptional in the case of a chronic evolution over a number of years. PMID:23954123

Gardair Bouchy, Charlotte; Kerdraon, Rémy; Kluger, Nicolas; Armingaud, Pierre; Wakosa, Adeline; Estève, Eric

2013-08-01

314

In vitro gene amplification for prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed Central

A simple, rapid, non-radioactive method for detecting homozygous deletions/conversions of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene is described. In our experience this method will be useful for first trimester prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 17% of families of a child with the salt losing form. This test includes an internal control to monitor the success of amplification. Images PMID:2277381

Rumsby, G; Honour, J W

1990-01-01

315

Gender Development in Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia as a Function of Disorder Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal-onset classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in 46,XX individuals is associated with variable masculinization\\/defeminization\\u000a of the genitalia and of behavior, presumably both due to excess prenatal androgen production. The purpose of the current study\\u000a was threefold: (1) to extend the gender-behavioral investigation to the mildest subtype of 46,XX CAH, the non-classical (NC)\\u000a variant, (2) to replicate previous findings on moderate

Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg; Curtis Dolezal; Susan W. Baker; Anke A. Ehrhardt; Maria I. New

2006-01-01

316

Effects of finasteride on hematuria associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To report long-term follow-up in 18 patients with gross hematuria associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) who have been treated with finasteride and to report preliminary follow-up in an additional 10 patients.Methods. The charts of the 18 original patients, and 10 additional patients who had been placed on finasteride (5 mg daily) for intermittent gross hematuria associated with BPH,

Mark I. Miller; Peter J. Puchner

1998-01-01

317

Dietary patterns, supplement use, and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been appreciated that a healthy lifestyle plays a critical role in cardiovascular health. It is now apparent that\\u000a the same is true in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Prospective cohort data originating from recently\\u000a published randomized trials on the medical treatment of BPH and prevention of prostate cancer have been invaluable. A growing\\u000a body of

Kenneth S. Poon; Kevin T. McVary

2009-01-01

318

Simultaneous open preperitoneal repair of inguinal hernia with open prostatectomy for benign prostate hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Where surgical resources are slim, patients may suffer the obstructive symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia until they present with frank urinary retention and they may have unattended inguinal hernia. The best strategy to take care of patients who have both problems at once has remained elusive. We report a small case series of 10 patients in whom open preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair was done together with suprapubic prostatectomy over a 10-year period in the district hospital. PMID:25406258

Johnson, O Kenneth

2015-01-01

319

Combined Low-Frequency Ultrasound and Microbubble Contrast Agent for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background and Purpose Benign prostatic hyperplasia is one of the most common conditions in middle-aged and elderly men. The aim of the study was to investigate the treatment effects of low-frequency ultrasound combined with a microbubbles agent on benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods Eighteen 7-year-old male beagles with prostatic hyperplasia were randomly divided into six groups (n=3): Control group, 21?kHz ultrasound group, 21?kHz ultrasound and microbubble contrast agent group, 1?MHz ultrasound group, 1?MHz ultrasound and microbubble contrast agent group, and microbubble contrast agent group. The histopathologic damage to prostate cells was assessed via transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The protein expressions of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and super oxidase dimutase (SOD) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (Cr) were detected by the Biochemistry Automatic Analyzer. Results Significant tissue injury, mitochondria injury, and cell apoptosis were observed in 21?kHz ultrasound and the microbubble contrast agent group. Compared with the control and microbubbles contrast agent groups, the decrease in levels of PSA or increase in levels of iNOs and SOD in the other four groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). The lowest level of PSA and the highest levels of iNOs and SOD were observed in the 21?kHz ultrasound and microbubbles contrast agent group. No significant changes in levels of AST, ALT, BUN, and Cr were observed between the six groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that lower frequency ultrasound may have a better effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia, and microbubble contrast agent application further strengthens this biological effect. PMID:23607285

Yang, Shao-ling; Tang, Ke-qiang; Bai, Wen-kun; Zhao, Yi-Wen; Shen, E; Tao, Jun-jia

2013-01-01

320

Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of prostatotropic agents of natural origin in experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Comparative evaluation of the efficiency of prostatotropic agents was carried out in rat experiments. Serenoa repens plant preparation and polypeptides isolated from the cattle prostate were used for the treatment of benign hyperplasia. Drugs in parallel with sulpiride similarly led to shrinkage of the acinar epithelial area and to emergence of a trend to an increase of the stromal/epithelial proportion, more so after Serenoa repens treatment. PMID:23667874

Borovskaya, T G; Fomina, T I; Ermolaeva, L A; Vychuzhanina, A V; Pakhomova, A V; Poluektova, M E; Shchemerova, Yu A

2013-05-01

321

Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: detection and characterization with plain and dynamic-enhanced MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We compared nonenhanced and dynamic gadolinium (Gd)–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of hepatic focal\\u000a nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as depicted with breath-hold MR sequences and assessed the detectability of the individual MR sequences\\u000a used. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 48 consecutive patients with FNH. All patients underwent nonenhanced (T1 fast low-angle shot\\u000a [FLASH] and T2 half-Fourier acquisition [HASTE]) and dynamic

K. J. Mortelé; M. Praet; H. Van Vlierberghe; B. de Hemptinne; K. Zou; P. R. Ros

2002-01-01

322

Recent advances in diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is an autosomal-recessive disease causing cortisol\\u000a deficiency, aldosterone deficiency and hyperandrogenism. Diagnosis of 21-OHD is confirmed by steroid analysis in newborn screening\\u000a or later on. Standard medical treatment consists of oral glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid administration in order to suppress\\u000a adrenal androgens and to compensate for adrenal steroid deficiencies. However, available treatment

Felix G. Riepe; Wolfgang G. Sippell

2007-01-01

323

Cellular and molecular abnormalities of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia causing beta-blocker-sensitive Cushing's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cushing's syndrome due to ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) can be associated with abnormal responses of aberrantly expressed adreno- cortical receptors. This study aimed to characterize in vitro the pathophysiology of hypercortisolism in a ?-blocker-sensitive Cushing's syndrome due to AIMAH. Cortisol secretion profile under aberrant receptors stimulation revealed hyperresponsiveness to salbutamol (?2-adrenoceptor agonist), cisapride (5-HT4 receptor agonist), and vaso- pressin

Tânia L. Mazzuco; Michaël Thomas; Monique Martinie; Nadia Cherradi; Nathalie Sturm; Jean-Jacques Feige; Olivier Chabre

2007-01-01

324

Multiple progressive focal nodular hyperplasia lesions of liver in a patient with hemosiderosis  

PubMed Central

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign lesion of the liver. It is a solitary lesion and usually does not enlarge. We present the magnetic resonance imaging findings of multiple progressive FNH lesions in a patient with hemosiderosis using Gadolinium-EOB-DTPA (Eovist) as a hepatobiliary contrast agent. The possible mechanisms underlying the occurrence and progression of FNH lesions and the potential value of Eovist in characterizing the lesions were discussed. PMID:21161026

Kayhan, Arda; Venu, Nanda; Lakadamyal?, Hatice; Jensen, Donald; Oto, Aytekin

2010-01-01

325

Levonorgestrel-impregnated intrauterine device as treatment for endometrial hyperplasia: a national multicentre randomised trial*  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate if the levonorgestrel-impregnated intrauterine device (LNG-IUS, Mirena®) is safe and effective as therapy for low-risk and medium-risk endometrial hyperplasia compared with oral medroxyprogesterone (MPA). Design A multicentre randomised trial. Setting Norway. Population In all, 170 women aged 30–70 years with low- or medium-risk endometrial hyperplasia who met inclusion criteria. Methods Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms: LNG-IUS; oral MPA 10 mg administered for 10 days per cycle, or continuous oral MPA 10 mg daily, for 6 months. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was normalisation or persisting hyperplasia. Results After 6 months all three treatment regimens showed significant effect when the outcome was evaluated as therapy response or not (P < 0.001). Responses were obtained for all the women in the LNG-IUS group (53/53, 95% CI 0.93–1.0) and for 96% of the women in the continuous oral group (46/48, 95% CI 0.86–0.99). Only 69% of the women in the cyclic oral group were responders (36/52, 95% CI 0.55–0.81). Adverse effects were relatively common with minimal differences between therapy groups. Conclusion In the first trial of its kind, women treated with the LNG-IUS showed histologically normal endometrium after 6 months of therapy for endometrial hyperplasia. Cyclical progestogens are found to be less effective compared with continuous oral therapy and LNG-IUS and should not be used for this purpose. PMID:24286192

Ørbo, A; Vereide, AB; Arnes, M; Pettersen, I; Straume, B

2014-01-01

326

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: reliability of amniotic fluid steroid analysis.  

PubMed

The concentration of 170H-progesterone was measured in amniotic fluid samples collected from 55 mothers who had previously had a child with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In eight pregnancies the levels of 170H-progesterone were raised; the parents elected to terminate in four and examinations of the fetus confirmed the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In each case, the affected sib was a salt loser. The remaining four affected pregnancies proceeded to term and each infant had salt losing 21-hydroxylase deficiency. All 47 infants predicted to be unaffected were normal at birth. However, an increased plasma concentration of 170H-progesterone was documented in a male non-salt loser at three months of age. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by amniotic fluid steroid analysis is reliable only for the salt losing variant of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Of the affected sibs in this study, 20% died during infancy in a salt losing crisis. This simple and rapid prenatal test is sufficiently reliable to predict the group of infants most at risk in early infancy. PMID:3612706

Hughes, I A; Dyas, J; Riad-Fahmy, D; Laurence, K M

1987-06-01

327

Mig-6 Gene Knockout Induces Neointimal Hyperplasia in the Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell  

PubMed Central

Although advances in vascular interventions can reduce the mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, neointimal hyperplasia remains a clinically significant obstacle limiting the success of current interventions. Identification of signaling pathways involved in migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is an important approach for the development of modalities to combat this disease. Herein we investigate the role of an immediate early response gene, mitogen-inducible gene-6 (Mig-6), in the development of neointimal hyperplasia using vascular smooth muscle specific Mig-6 knockout mice. We induced endoluminal injury to one side of femoral artery by balloon dilatation in both Mig-6 knockout and control mice. Four weeks following injury, the artery of Mig-6 knockout mice demonstrated a 5.3-fold increase in the neointima/media ratio compared with control mice (P = 0.04). In addition, Mig-6 knockout vascular SMCs displayed an increase in both cell migration and proliferation compared with wild-type SMCs. Taken together, our data suggest that Mig-6 plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. This finding provides new insight into the development of more effective ways to treat and prevent neointimal hyperplasia, particularly in-stent restenosis after percutaneous vascular intervention. PMID:25574067

Lee, Ju Hee; Choung, Sorim; Kim, Ji Min; Lee, Jung Uee; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Ku, Bon Jeong

2014-01-01

328

Direct transfer of transforming growth factor beta 1 gene into arteries stimulates fibrocellular hyperplasia.  

PubMed

The arterial wall responds to thrombosis or mechanical injury through the induction of specific gene products that increase cellular proliferation and connective tissue formation. These changes result in intimal hyperplasia that is observed in restenosis and the early phases of atherosclerosis. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a secreted multi-functional protein that plays an important role in embryonal development and in repair following tissue injury. However, the function of TGF-beta 1 in vascular cell growth in vivo has not been defined. In this report, we have evaluated the role of TGF-beta 1 in the pathophysiology of intimal and medial hyperplasia by gene transfer of an expression plasmid encoding active TGF-beta 1 into porcine arteries. Expression of TGF-beta 1 in normal arteries resulted in substantial extracellular matrix production accompanied by intimal and medial hyperplasia. Increased procollagen, collagen, and proteoglycan synthesis in the neointima was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry relative to control transfected arteries. Expression of TGF-beta 1 induced a distinctly different program of gene expression and biologic response from the platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF B) gene: procollagen synthesis induced by TGF-beta 1 was greater, and cellular proliferation was less prominent. These findings show that TGF-beta 1 differentially modulates extracellular matrix production and cellular proliferation in the arterial wall in vivo and could play a reparative role in the response to arterial injury. PMID:8248168

Nabel, E G; Shum, L; Pompili, V J; Yang, Z Y; San, H; Shu, H B; Liptay, S; Gold, L; Gordon, D; Derynck, R

1993-11-15

329

Direct transfer of transforming growth factor beta 1 gene into arteries stimulates fibrocellular hyperplasia.  

PubMed Central

The arterial wall responds to thrombosis or mechanical injury through the induction of specific gene products that increase cellular proliferation and connective tissue formation. These changes result in intimal hyperplasia that is observed in restenosis and the early phases of atherosclerosis. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a secreted multi-functional protein that plays an important role in embryonal development and in repair following tissue injury. However, the function of TGF-beta 1 in vascular cell growth in vivo has not been defined. In this report, we have evaluated the role of TGF-beta 1 in the pathophysiology of intimal and medial hyperplasia by gene transfer of an expression plasmid encoding active TGF-beta 1 into porcine arteries. Expression of TGF-beta 1 in normal arteries resulted in substantial extracellular matrix production accompanied by intimal and medial hyperplasia. Increased procollagen, collagen, and proteoglycan synthesis in the neointima was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry relative to control transfected arteries. Expression of TGF-beta 1 induced a distinctly different program of gene expression and biologic response from the platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF B) gene: procollagen synthesis induced by TGF-beta 1 was greater, and cellular proliferation was less prominent. These findings show that TGF-beta 1 differentially modulates extracellular matrix production and cellular proliferation in the arterial wall in vivo and could play a reparative role in the response to arterial injury. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8248168

Nabel, E G; Shum, L; Pompili, V J; Yang, Z Y; San, H; Shu, H B; Liptay, S; Gold, L; Gordon, D; Derynck, R

1993-01-01

330

Error-prone translesion replication of damaged DNA suppresses skin carcinogenesis by controlling inflammatory hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

The induction of skin cancer involves both mutagenic and proliferative responses of the epidermis to ultraviolet (UV) light. It is believed that tumor initiation requires the mutagenic replication of damaged DNA by translesion synthesis (TLS) pathways. The mechanistic basis for the induction of proliferation, providing tumor promotion, is poorly understood. Here, we have investigated the role of TLS in the initiation and promotion of skin carcinogenesis, using a sensitive nucleotide excision repair-deficient mouse model that carries a hypomorphic allele of the error-prone TLS gene Rev1. Despite a defect in UV-induced mutagenesis, skin carcinogenesis was accelerated in these mice. This paradoxical phenotype was caused by the induction of inflammatory hyperplasia of the mutant skin that provides strong tumor promotion. The induction of hyperplasia was associated with mild and transient replicational stress of the UV-damaged genome, triggering DNA damage signaling and senescence. The concomitant expression of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is in agreement with an executive role for IL-6 and possibly other cytokines in the autocrine induction of senescence and the paracrine induction of inflammatory hyperplasia. In conclusion, error-prone TLS suppresses tumor-promoting activities of UV light, thereby controlling skin carcinogenesis. PMID:20007784

Tsaalbi-Shtylik, Anastasia; Verspuy, Johan W. A.; Jansen, Jacob G.; Rebel, Heggert; Carlée, Leone M.; van der Valk, Martin A.; Jonkers, Jos; de Gruijl, Frank R.; de Wind, Niels

2009-01-01

331

Leoligin, the major lignan from Edelweiss, inhibits intimal hyperplasia of venous bypass grafts  

PubMed Central

Aims Despite the lower patency of venous compared with arterial coronary artery bypass grafts, ?50% of grafts used are saphenous vein conduits because of their easier accessibility. In a search for ways to increase venous graft patency, we applied the results of a previous pharmacological study screening for non-toxic compounds that inhibit intimal hyperplasia of saphenous vein conduits in organ cultures. Here we analyse the effects and mechanism of action of leoligin [(2S,3R,4R)-4-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran-3-yl]methyl (2Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoat, the major lignan from Edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum Cass.). Methods and results We found that leoligin potently inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G1-phase. Leoligin induced cell death neither in SMCs nor, more importantly, in endothelial cells. In a human saphenous vein organ culture model for graft disease, leoligin potently inhibited intimal hyperplasia, and even reversed graft disease in pre-damaged vessels. Furthermore, in an in vivo mouse model for venous bypass graft disease, leoligin potently inhibited intimal hyperplasia. Conclusion Our data suggest that leoligin might represent a novel non-toxic, non-thrombogenic, endothelial integrity preserving candidate drug for the treatment of vein graft disease. PMID:19228707

Reisinger, Ute; Schwaiger, Stefan; Zeller, Iris; Messner, Barbara; Stigler, Robert; Wiedemann, Dominik; Mayr, Tobias; Seger, Christoph; Schachner, Thomas; Dirsch, Verena M.; Vollmar, Angelika M.; Bonatti, Johannes O.; Stuppner, Hermann; Laufer, Günther; Bernhard, David

2009-01-01

332

Beta-catenin is elevated in human benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens compared to histologically normal prostate tissue  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is linked to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as incomplete bladder emptying, urinary frequency and urgency. Mechanisms responsible for BPH are not fully known. Here, we tested whether beta-catenin (CTNNB1) immunostaining intensity and distribution differ in human glandular BPH tissue specimens compared to normal prostate tissue. Multiplex immunostaining of CTNNB1, its putative transcriptional target gene lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1), and the epithelial marker E-cadherin were examined in clinical human prostate specimens with or without histological BPH (pure epithelial or mixed stromal-epithelial nodules). BPH specimens were obtained from 24 men who experienced LUTS and underwent transurethral resection of the prostate surgery. Control specimens were tumor-adjacent histologically normal prostate tissue from 48 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. The resulting multispectral images were unmixed and optical densities recorded to quantify staining abundance, cellular (membranous, cytoplasmic, and nuclear) and tissue localization (stromal versus epithelial), and determination of percentage of CTNNB1-positive cells. The following CTNNB1 indices were significantly higher in BPH compared to normal prostate tissue: overall staining intensity, staining intensity in prostate stromal cell membranes, cytoplasm and nuclei, and prostate epithelial cell nuclei. The following LEF1 indices were significantly lower in BPH compared to tumor-adjacent normal prostate tissue: stromal LEF1 staining intensity, percentage of LEF1-positive stromal cells, and intensity of LEF1 staining in stromal cell membranes, cytoplasm, and nuclei. The percentage of stromal cells with CTNNB1+/LEF1- nuclei was higher and percentage of stromal cells with CTNNB1-/LEF1+ nuclei was lower in BPH compared to tumor-adjacent normal prostate tissues. These results support the hypothesis that CTNNB1 expression increases in specific BPH tissue compartments. Further, since nuclear LEF1 staining does not coincide with cytoplasmic or nuclear CTNNB1 staining, it does not appear to be a reliable index of CTNNB1 activity in adult human prostate. PMID:25606577

Bauman, Tyler M; Vezina, Chad M; Huang, Wei; Marker, Paul C; Peterson, Richard E; Ricke, William A

2014-01-01

333

Inhibitory effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. Rape pollen is an apicultural product that is composed of nutritionally valuable and biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract (SFE-CO2) in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in the experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone for a period of 30 days. Rape pollen SFE-CO2 was administered daily by oral gavage concurrently with the testosterone injections. Animals were sacrificed at the scheduled termination and the prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5?-reductase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were also measured. BPH-induced animals exhibited an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone, DHT, 5?-reductase and COX-2 expression levels. However, rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment resulted in significant reductions in the prostate index and testosterone, DHT, 5?-reductase and COX-2 levels compared with those in BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also demonstrated that rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment suppressed testosterone-induced BPH. These observations indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 inhibits the development of BPH in rats and these effects are closely associated with reductions in DHT, 5?-reductase and COX-2 levels. Therefore, the results of the present study clearly indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 extract may be a useful agent in BPH treatment. PMID:24944593

YANG, BI-CHENG; JIN, LI-LI; YANG, YI-FANG; LI, KUN; PENG, DAN-MING

2014-01-01

334

Can 80 W KTP Laser Vaporization Effectively Relieve the Obstruction in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia?: A Nonrandomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose There is little data evaluating the changes of severity of bladder outlet obstruction after 80 W-potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) photoselective laser vaporization prostatectomy (PVP) by pressure-flow study. We evaluated the efficacy of PVP to relieve the obstruction in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) compared with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Materials and Methods This is a prospective, non-randomized single center study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: Men suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to BPH, age ?50 years, International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) ?13, maximum flow rate (Qmax) ?15 ml/s, and ability to give fully informed consent. Patients with neurogenic cause or detrusor underactivity were excluded. The IPSS, bother score, Qmax, postvoid residual volume (PVR), detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate (PdetQmax), bladder outlet obstruction index (BOOI), and prostate volume were measured before and 6 months after surgery and compared between PVP and TURP. Results Sixty-seven patients (53 in PVP, 14 in TURP) were evaluable. In both groups, the IPSS, bother score, Qmax, and PVR had significantly improved (p<0.05), and there were no differences between the changes in those parameters. PVP could effectively reduce the PdetQmax, prostate volume, and BOOI from baseline (from 68.7±23.3 to 40.6±11.2 cmH2O, 49.5±16.3 to 31.3±12.1 ml, 49.8±25.6 to 9.8±20.7), similar to TURP. There were no differences in postoperative PdetQmax, prostate volume, or BOOI between the two groups. The percentage of patients with BOOI ?40 was decreased from 64% to 4% in the PVP group and from 86% to 14% in the TURP group. Conclusions PVP could reduce the prostate volume effectively and relieve bladder outlet obstruction similar to TURP by the 6-month follow up in men with BPH. PMID:23596606

Han, Deok Hyun; Choo, Seol Ho; Chung, Jin Woo; Hong, Jeong Hee

2012-01-01

335

Inhibitory effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.  

PubMed

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. Rape pollen is an apicultural product that is composed of nutritionally valuable and biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract (SFE-CO2) in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in the experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone for a period of 30 days. Rape pollen SFE-CO2 was administered daily by oral gavage concurrently with the testosterone injections. Animals were sacrificed at the scheduled termination and the prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5?-reductase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were also measured. BPH-induced animals exhibited an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone, DHT, 5?-reductase and COX-2 expression levels. However, rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment resulted in significant reductions in the prostate index and testosterone, DHT, 5?-reductase and COX-2 levels compared with those in BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also demonstrated that rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment suppressed testosterone-induced BPH. These observations indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 inhibits the development of BPH in rats and these effects are closely associated with reductions in DHT, 5?-reductase and COX-2 levels. Therefore, the results of the present study clearly indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 extract may be a useful agent in BPH treatment. PMID:24944593

Yang, Bi-Cheng; Jin, Li-Li; Yang, Yi-Fang; Li, Kun; Peng, Dan-Ming

2014-07-01

336

Serenoa repens monotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): an updated Cochrane systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the effectiveness and harms of Serenoa repens monotherapy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) consistent with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and other sources through to January 2012 to identify randomised trials. Trials were eligible if they randomised men with symptomatic BPH to receive Serenoa repens extract monotherapy for at least 4 weeks in comparison with placebo, and assessed clinical outcomes and urodynamic measurements. Our primary outcome was improvement in LUTS, based on change in urological symptom-scale scores. Results In all, 17 randomised controlled trials (N = 2008) assessing Serenoa repens monotherapy (typically 320 mg/day) vs placebo met inclusion criteria, although only five reported American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) or International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS). Trial lengths ranged from 4 to 72 weeks. The mean age of all enrolees was 64.3 years and most participants were of White race. The mean baseline total score was 14 points, indicating moderately severe symptoms. In all, 16 trials were double blinded and adequate treatment allocation concealment was reported in six trials. In a meta-analysis of three high quality long-to-moderate term trials (n = 661), Serenoa repens therapy was no better than placebo in reducing LUTS based on the AUASI/IPSS (weighted mean difference [WMD] ?0.16 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] ?1.45 to 1.14) or maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax; WMD 0.40 mL/s, 95% CI ?0.30 to 1.09). Based on mostly short-term studies, Qmax measured at study endpoint were also not significantly different between treatment groups (WMD 1.15 mL/s, 95% CI ?0.23 to 2.53) with evidence of substantial heterogeneity (I2 58%). One long-term dose escalation trial (72 weeks) found double and triple doses of Serenoa repens extract did not improve AUASI compared with placebo and the proportions of clinical responders (? 3 point decrease in the AUASI) were nearly identical (43% vs 44% for Serenoa repens and placebo, respectively) with a corresponding risk ratio of 0.96 (95% CI 0.76–1.22). Long-term, Serenoa repens therapy was no better than placebo in improving nocturia in one high-quality study (P = 0.19). Pooled analysis of nine short-term Permixon® trials showed a reduction in the frequency of nocturia (WMD ?0.79 times/night, 95% CI?1.28 to ?0.29), although there was evidence of heterogeneity (I2 76%) Adverse events of Serenoa repens extracts were few and mild, and incidences were not statistically significantly different vs placebo. Study withdrawals occurred in ?10% and did not differ between Serenoa repens and placebo. Conclusions Serenoa repens therapy does not improve LUTS or Qmax compared with placebo in men with BPH, even at double and triple the usual dose. Adverse events were generally mild and comparable to placebo. PMID:22551330

MacDonald, Roderick; Tacklind, James W.; Rutks, Indulis; Wilt, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

337

Human Development Index Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data set traces the varying patterns of national progress in recent decades, documenting impressive long-term Human Development Index (HDI) gains even in most low-income countries. The data set also includes three innovative new measurements: the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), the Gender Inequality Index (GII) and the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). The data set is available in both CSV and SDMX file formats and contains more than 100 indicators that measure quality of life for all UN member states.

United Nations

338

Index Relativity and Patron Search Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln that compared searches in two different keyword indexes with similar content where search results were dependent on search strategy quality, search engine execution, and content. Results showed search engine execution had an impact on the number of matches and that users ignored search help…

Allison, DeeAnn; Childers Scott

2002-01-01

339

Phosphorus Risk Index Quantitative vs. Qualitative  

E-print Network

Applications Qualitative Mode ­ Demonstrate "relative" impacts from varying management practices at the fieldPhosphorus Risk Index Quantitative vs. Qualitative Which is Appropriate? Which is Best? Biosystems and management parameters have toward risk of phosphorus movement and ... a method for developing management

340

Rare and severe complications of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We report the case of a patient with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency who presented with unusual anatomical and biochemical features, namely massively enlarged adrenal glands, adrenogenital rest tissue and an unexpected endocrine profile. The contribution of the adrenocortical cells in the adrenals and testicles was determined by a cosyntropin stimulation test before and after adrenalectomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of such a case in the literature. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to the emergency room with an Addisonian crisis. He had been diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the neonatal period. He acknowledged poor adherence to treatment and irregular medical assistance. Physical examination revealed marked cutaneous and gingival hyperpigmentation, hypotension, and hard nodules in the upper pole of both testicles. Blood analysis showed mild anemia and hyponatremia and no evidence of acute infection. Endocrine evaluation showed very low cortisol levels, low dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate and elevated corticotropin, 11-deoxycortisol and delta-4-androstenedione. The concentration of 17-hydroxyprogesterone was 20,400ng/dL. After the cosyntropin stimulation test the pattern was similar and there was no significant increase in cortisol or 17-hydroxyprogesterone. The abdominal computed tomography scan revealed grossly enlarged and heterogeneous adrenal glands (left, 12cm; and right, six cm). A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed and pathologic examination revealed adrenal myelolipomas with nodular cortical hyperplasia. The sonogram showed bilateral heterogeneous masses on the upper pole of both testes which corresponded to the nodular hyperplasia of adrenal rest tissues. The genetic study revealed compound heterozigoty (mutations R124H and R356W), suggestive of a phenotypically moderate disease. We performed a cosyntropin stimulation test after adrenalectomy. The steroidogenic profile displayed the same unusual features, indicating an important contribution from the adrenogenital cells. Conclusion This case illustrates that congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency can progress to severe acute and chronic complications. The masses in the patient’s adrenal glands and testicles resulted from chronically elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone and growth of adrenocortical cells. The basal and stimulated steroid profile, before and after adrenalectomy, revealed an unexpected pattern, suggesting significant contribution of the testicular adrenal cells to the steroidogenesis. PMID:23388220

2013-01-01

341

Gradient index retroreflector  

DOEpatents

A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

Layne, Clyde B. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

342

A Computer Calculated Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

Brown, Francis J.

343

Universal Index System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

1993-01-01

344

Consumer Price Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Consumer Price Index for March 2000, the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) rose 0.8 percent in March. This is a 3.7 percent increase since March 1999. After seasonal adjustments, the CPI-U rose 0.7 percent, after a 0.5 percent increase in February 2000.

345

Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

Jones, Dustin L.

2011-01-01

346

The Users of Indexes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems of indexing and index use lie at the heart of information use. They determine maximum possible use of information systems and sources, affect communication with users, influence the use of retrieved documents, and should form a more important field of research than past history indicates. Previous research provides some clues to user…

Beal, Christina

347

EMMSE Media Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

348

AUDIO INDEXING Gal RICHARD  

E-print Network

AUDIO AUDIO INDEXING Gaël RICHARD Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications (ENST) Speech and Image Processing Department 37-39, rue Dareau, 75014 Paris, France #12;Audio Indexing Gaël RICHARD Ecole audio data available nowadays and the spread of its use as a data source in many applications

Richard, Gaël

349

The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs  

E-print Network

The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs Leizhen Cai Department of Computer@math.nsysu.edu.tw May, 1998. y Abstract This paper discusses the game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs. We prove that if a graph G is k-degenerate, then its game coloring index is at most #1;+ 3k 1

Zhu, Xuding

350

Islets of Langerhans from prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice show ?-cell hyperplasia and tumorigenesis with elevated ?-cell neogenesis  

PubMed Central

Antagonism of the effects of glucagon as an adjunct therapy with other glucose-lowering drugs in the chronic treatment of diabetes has been suggested to aggressively control blood glucose levels. Antagonism of glucagon effects, by targeting glucagon secretion or disabling the glucagon receptor, is associated with ?-cell hyperplasia. We evaluated the influence of total glucagon withdrawal on islets of Langerhans using prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice (PC2-ko), in which ?-cell hyperplasia is present from a young age and persists throughout life, in order to understand whether or not sustained glucagon deficit would lead to islet tumorigenesis. PC2-ko and wild-type (WT) mice were maintained drug-free, and cohorts of these groups sampled at 3, 12 and 18?months for plasma biochemical and morphological (histological, immunohistochemical, electron microscopical and image analytical) assessments. WT mice showed no islet tumours up to termination of the study, but PC2-ko animals displayed marked changes in islet morphology from ?-cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia/atypical hyperplasia, to adenomas and carcinomas, these latter being first encountered at 6–8?months. Islet hyperplasias and tumours primarily consisted of ?-cells associated to varying degrees with other islet endocrine cell types. In addition to substantial increases in islet neoplasia, increased ?-cell neogenesis associated primarily with pancreatic duct(ule)s was present. We conclude that absolute blockade of the glucagon signal results in tumorigenesis and that the PC2-ko mouse represents a valuable model for investigation of islet tumours and pancreatic ductal neogenesis. PMID:24456331

Jones, Huw B; Reens, Jaimini; Brocklehurst, Simon R; Betts, Catherine J; Bickerton, Sue; Bigley, Alison L; Jenkins, Richard P; Whalley, Nicky M; Morgan, Derrick; Smith, David M

2014-01-01

351

Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia mimicking squamous cell carcinoma in a case of CD56-positive cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

We present the case of an 84-year-old patient with a cutaneous CD56 positive cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma associated with substantial pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia mimicking squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The patient presented with a 7-month history of several progressive, ulcerated plaques on his right forearm. An initial biopsy showed changes consistent with a diagnosis of SCC for which the patient underwent surgical treatment. Several months later, the patient developed recurrent ulcerated plaques on the right forearm of which several biopsies were performed. The biopsies repeatedly showed marked pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia resembling SCC. Deeper punch biopsies, however, showed a dense superficial and deep infiltrate of markedly atypical lymphocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong positive staining for CD3, CD8, CD56 with negative stains for CD30 and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small non-polyadenylated RNAs (EBER). Staining for beta F1 and gamma-delta T-cell receptor (?? TCR) were both negative. This constellation was most consistent with a diagnosis of cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified in association with marked pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia. Our case adds cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified to the list of conditions associated with pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia (PCH) and illustrates once again the potential pitfalls of distinguishing marked pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia from SCC. PMID:25370871

Ginsberg, David; Hill, Hilary; Wilson, Barbara; Plaza, Jose A; Schieke, Stefan M

2014-11-01

352

B-cell deficiency does not abrogate development of cutaneous hyperplasia in mice inheriting the defective fibrillin-1 gene.  

PubMed

Tight-skin (TSK) mouse, the experimental model for scleroderma, develops cutaneous hyperplasia, cardiac hypertrophy, pulmonary emphysema and autoimmunity against scleroderma target autoantigens. The cutaneous hyperplasia is associated with the accumulation of microfibrils and elastic fibers in the middle and deep dermis. Fibrillin-1 (Fbn-1) is a major component of the 10-12 nm microfibrils found in the extracellular matrix. In this study we report the identification of a genetic marker in the Fbn-1 gene that can distinguish the mutant phenotype. TSK mice exhibit an unique polymorphism in the Fbn-1 gene. RNA analysis, PCR analysis and sequence determination of the mutant gene showed that the Fbn-1 gene polymorphism is due to intragenic duplication of a segment of the gene coding for 3.0 Kb of mRNA sequence (10 Kb of the genome). Histological analysis of skin samples from F1 progeny obtained by crossing TSK mice with JH-/-, RAG2-/- or vit/vit showed a significant correlation between the inheritance of the defective Fbn-1 gene and the development of cutaneous hyperplasia. Further, our results also show that in mice deficient in mature B cells inheriting the defective Fbn-1 gene, development of cutaneous hyperplasia is not abrogated. Thus, production of autoantibodies or the presence of mature B lymphocytes do not play an integral role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous hyperplasia. PMID:9451590

Kasturi, K N; Hatakeyama, A; Murai, C; Gordon, R; Phelps, R G; Bona, C A

1997-12-01

353

A new supersymmetric index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that Tr(-1) FFe ?H is an index for N = 2 supersymmetric theories in two dimensions, in the sense that it is independent of almost all deformations of the theory. This index is related to the geometry of the vacua (Berry's curvature) and satisfies an exact differential equation as a function of ?. For integrable theories we can also compute the index thermodynamically, using the exact S-matrix. The equivalence of these two results implies a highly non-trivial equivalence of a set of coupled integral equations with these differential equations, among them Painlevé III and the affine Toda equations.

Cecotti, Sergio; Fendley, Paul; Intriligator, Ken; Vafa, Cumrun

1992-11-01

354

NEO Impact Consequences and Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short overview of main characteristics of the impactor population from which major terrestrial impacts originated is given. This population includes the objects that may hit the Earth in the future (potentially hazardous asteroids, PHAs). An impact frequency (a way of measuring the probability of a given collision) versus impact energy (an index of the impact consequences) relationship is described

Marcello Fulchignoni; M. Antonietta Barucci

2005-01-01

355

Correlation of biochemical markers and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and women with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH)  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of hyperandrogenism in women. Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) is very close to PCOS. The diagnosis of hyperandrogenism is not based on the finding of decreased or increased levels of a single hormone. Objective: In our paper, we are going to test correlation between clinical signs and biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, we calculated free testosterone (cFT), bioavailable testosterone (cBT), free androgen index (FAI), free estrogen index (FEI), total testosterone (TT), sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfat (DHEA-S), 17? -hydroxyprogesterone (17? -OHP), prolactin (P), C-peptid and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (Homa-IR) were measured in two groups of young untreated women with PCOS and NCAH. Results: In our research, we did not find any significant differences between PCOS and NCAH groups by age, hormonal and calculated parameters of androgens. Waist to hip ratio (WHP) and body mass index (BMI) values were higher in the group of patients with PCOS than NCAH group. But in all patients we found positive correlation between hirsutism score and FAI, cFT, cBT, as well as we found negative correlation between hirsutism score and SHBG. We also tested hormonal and calculated parameters of androgens between PCOS patients by upper body and lower body obesity, but we did not find any significant differences. There was not any difference by the hirsutism score in these groups either. Conclusion: In our research we found that the calculated values of cFT, cBT and FAI are helpful for determinate hirsutism score in all hirsute patients, despite of ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenemia. PMID:25246891

Chanukvadze, Diana; Kristesashvili, Jenara; Kvashilava, Nana

2012-01-01

356

Clinical, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization of Macronodular Adrenocortical Hyperplasia of the Zona Reticularis: A New Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Context: Macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia classically presents with progressive hypercortisolemia and Cushing syndrome. We describe a 29-yr-old man with massive macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia without hypercortisolemia but rather markedly elevated and nonsuppressible production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). Objective: To characterize the clinical and molecular features of this case and to determine whether the tissue biochemically resembles the zona reticularis or fetal adrenal. Setting: University clinic, hospital, and laboratories. Design: Static and dynamic blood and urine testing were performed preoperatively. Tissue was studied by light microscopy, immunoblot, RNA microarray, and enzyme assay. Participant: A 29-yr-old man with incidentally discovered bilateral adrenal enlargement. Intervention: Bilateral adrenalectomy. Main Outcome Measures: Molecular studies compared with control samples. Results: Hypercortisolism and 21-hydroxylase deficiency were excluded. DHEA, DHEAS, and 17-hydroxypregnenolone were markedly elevated and did not suppress with dexamethasone 2 mg/d for 4 d. Homogenates of the adrenals demonstrated high 17-hydroxylase, good 17,20-lyase, and low or absent 21-hydroxylase and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. Immunoblots confirmed robust expression of cytochrome P450c17 and AKR1C3 but not P450c21. Microarray analysis demonstrated high CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 expression but low or absent HSD3B1, HSD3B2, and CYP21A2 expression. Expression of mRNA for cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) and AKR1C3, markers of the zona reticularis, were markedly elevated. Conclusion: This is the first case of macronodular hyperplasia of the adrenal zona reticularis confirmed with studies of enzyme activity, mRNA expression, and protein identification. We speculate that this condition can be clinically silent in men but might cause severe hyperandrogenemia in women. PMID:21084398

Ghayee, Hans K.; Rege, Juilee; Watumull, Lori M.; Nwariaku, Fiemu E.; Carrick, Kelley S.; Rainey, William E.; Miller, Walter L.

2011-01-01

357

Transurethral microwave hyperthermia for benign prostatic hyperplasia: the Leuven clinical experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transurethral microwave hyperthermia is a new conservative treatment modality for benign prostatic hyperplasia. From April 1989 until July 1990, 104 patients were treated using this method, with a mean post-treatment follow-up of 6 months. Seventy-four patients were admitted with subjective and objective low outflow obstructive parameters. Thirty were admitted because of acute urinary retention. Five to 10 hyperthermia sessions were administered on an outpatient basis during which 915 MHz microwaves were delivered to the prostate. In the group of patients with a bilobular hyperplasia, an improvement of the total FDA symptom scale with at least 5 points was noted in 60% after 6 months. Major improvement was noted in obstructive symptoms. Those patients with a trilobular hypertrophy showed an improvement in 40%, for a median bar obstruction 28.6% and for medium lobe hyperplasia 41.1%. The most important improvement in the mean average flow and mean peak flow was also noted in the patients with bilobular or trilobular hypertrophy. In both groups a slight decrease of postvoiding residual urine was noted. In those patients with acute urinary retention, 17 out of 23 with a bilobular hypertrophy regained spontaneous micturition. All of those with a median lobe or median bar obstruction required operation. During treatment the patients experienced bladder spasms, perineal pain, and minor urethral bleeding. Approximately 10% of patients had symtomatic urinary infection, which responded well to an appropriate therapy. Post hyperthermia histologic examination of the prostate revealed myonecrosis and thrombosis of the superficial blood vessels with fibrotic reorganization which seemed to be completed three weeks after the end of treatment. This suggests that transurethral microwave hyperthermia induces shrinking of the periurethral prostatic tissue and lowers the static outflow obstruction component.

Baert, Luc; Ameye, Filip; Willemen, Patrick; Petrovich, Zbigniew P.

1991-07-01

358

Allergen-induced resistin-like molecule-? promotes esophageal epithelial cell hyperplasia in eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Resistin-like molecule (Relm)-? is a secreted, cysteine-rich protein belonging to a newly defined family of proteins, including resistin, Relm-?, and Relm-?. Although resistin was initially defined based on its insulin-resistance activity, the family members are highly induced in various inflammatory states. Earlier studies implicated Relm-? in insulin resistance, asthmatic responses, and intestinal inflammation; however, its function still remains an enigma. We now report that Relm-? is strongly induced in the esophagus in an allergen-challenged murine model of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Furthermore, to understand the in vivo role of Relm-?, we generated Relm-? gene-inducible bitransgenic mice by using lung-specific CC-10 promoter (CC10-rtTA-Relm-?). We found Relm-? protein is significantly induced in the esophagus of CC10-rtTA-Relm-? bitransgenic mice exposed to doxycycline food. The most prominent effect observed by the induction of Relm-? is epithelial cell hyperplasia, basal layer thickness, accumulation of activated CD4(+) and CD4(-) T cell subsets, and eosinophilic inflammation in the esophagus. The in vitro experiments further confirm that Relm-? promotes primary epithelial cell proliferation but has no chemotactic activity for eosinophils. Taken together, our studies report for the first time that Relm-? induction in the esophagus has a major role in promoting epithelial cell hyperplasia and basal layer thickness, and the accumulation of activated CD4(+) and CD4(-) T cell subsets may be responsible for partial esophageal eosinophilia in the mouse models of EoE. Notably, the epithelial cell hyperplasia and basal layer thickness are the characteristic features commonly observed in human EoE. PMID:24994859

Mavi, Parm; Niranjan, Rituraj; Dutt, Parmesh; Zaidi, Asifa; Shukla, Jai Shankar; Korfhagen, Thomas; Mishra, Anil

2014-09-01

359

CAD Centre - Index Searcher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A searchable index of the CAD Centre, a postgraduate teaching and research unit in design manufacture and engineering management, with research focused on design methods and computer support of the design process for engineering applications.

2007-10-11

360

Gradient index metamaterials.  

PubMed

Metamaterials--artificially structured materials with tailored electromagnetic response--can be designed to have properties difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional materials fabrication methods. Here we present a structured metamaterial, based on conducting split ring resonators (SRRs), which has an effective index of refraction with a constant spatial gradient. We experimentally confirm the gradient by measuring the deflection of a microwave beam by a planar slab of the composite metamaterial over a range of microwave frequencies. The gradient index metamaterial may prove an advantageous alternative approach to the development of gradient index lenses and similar optics, especially at higher frequencies. In particular, the gradient index metamaterial we propose may be suited for terahertz applications, where the magnetic resonant response of SRRs has recently been demonstrated. PMID:15903607

Smith, D R; Mock, J J; Starr, A F; Schurig, D

2005-03-01

361

The Index of Refraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson plan, students explore the refraction of light at the boundary between materials: they learn about the refractive indices of various materials and measure the index of refraction of plastic or gelatin.

2011-05-02

362

Formulation of resource depletion index  

Microsoft Academic Search

A resource depletion index can serve as a quantitative tool to evaluate the level of depletion for natural resources. This study introduces two types of resource depletion indices, the global resource depletion index and the local resource depletion index. Global resource depletion index mainly concerns global reserves and the annual consumption rate of these resources. The local resource depletion index

C.-H. Lee

1998-01-01

363

Calculating a Biodiversity Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn how scientists calculate a biodiversity index using a page from the phone book as their data source. The printable five-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about biodiversity and how living and non-living things are connected, step-by-step directions for calculating a biodiversity index, and a worksheet that includes brainstorming questions and areas for recording answers.

364

JSC document index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

1988-01-01

365

A Case of Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia of Larger Than 2 cm  

PubMed Central

Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) has been considered to be a precursor lesion of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) and pulmonary adenocarcinoma. It usually coexists with BAC and/or an adenocarcinoma. Chest computed tomography reveals multiple well-defined nodules with ground-glass opacity. Usually, AAH does not exceed 10 mm in size. AAH with extensive involvement on one side of the lung field or one that is larger than 2 cm has not been previously reported. We herein report a case of a 71-year-old nonsmoking female with lung AAH of larger than 2 cm. PMID:23814601

Park, Bo Mi; Cho, Min Ji; Lee, Hyun Seok; Park, Dong Il; Park, Myoung Rin; Kim, Ju Ock; Lee, Jeong Eun; Lee, Choong Sik

2013-01-01

366

Correlations between parameters in uroflowmetry and histological compositions in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether area densities of histological elements within prostatic adenoma affect objective and subjective parameters of patients with prostatic hyperplasia. Modified uroflowmetry parameters including Qmax/T100, TQmax/T100 and voiding efficiency were also measured. The area densities of histological elements did not affect uroflowmetry parameters. In addition, subjective symptom score was not correlated with morphometric findings. Our findings suggest that the degree of infravesical obstruction as measured by uroflowmetry parameters and symptom scores cannot be explained by the tissue compositions of adenomas alone. PMID:8840491

Ishigooka, M; Hayami, S; Hashimoto, T; Suzuki, Y; Sasagawa, I; Nakada, T

1996-01-01

367

Concurrence of Meningomyelocele and Salt-Wasting Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of inherited defects of cortisol biosynthesis. A case of classical CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) with early onset of salt waste and concurrence of meningomyelocele (MMC) was presented here. The management of salt-wasting crisis which is complicated by a postrenal dysfunction due to neurogenic bladder was described. Possible reasons of growth retardation in the one-year follow-up period were discussed. A significant regression of the phallus with proper medical treatment was also mentioned.

K?rm?z?bekmez, Heves; Yesiltepe Mutlu, Rahime Gül; Moral?o?lu, Serdar; Tellio?lu, Ahmet; Cerrah Celayir, Ay?enur

2015-01-01

368

Severe hematometra in a dog with cystic endometrial hyperplasia/pyometra complex.  

PubMed

An 18-month-old, intact female German shepherd dog was presented for evaluation of severe, frank hemorrhage from the vulva. A complete blood count, serum biochemical analysis, and urinalysis supported acute hemorrhage. Abdominal radiographs were unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated that the uterine body and cranial vaginal lumen were fluid-filled and contained hyperechoic, polypoid masses that were suspected to be blood clots. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a mildly enlarged uterus with a diffuse, cystic endometrium; significant amounts of blood and blood clots within the lumen; and several focal accumulations of yellow fluid presumed to be a purulent exudate. Histopathology confirmed severe, cystic, endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra complex. PMID:11804322

Troxel, Mark T; Cornetta, Angelyn M; Pastor, Karen F; Hartzband, Lori E; Besancon, Michael F

2002-01-01

369

[Experience in the use of doxazosin in patients with benign hyperplasia of the prostate].  

PubMed

Selective alpha-1-adrenoblockers are thought promising in current conservative treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The trial of doxazosin (cardura)--a selective alpha-blocker--included 78 BPH patients with obstructive urination. All the patients received a single daily dose of doxazosin 4-8 mg (mean 5.7 mg). 60 patients on placebo served as control. The comparison of the effects observed in the study vs control group has demonstrated that doxazosin has a favourable effect on BPH: it improved quality of life, relieved obstructive symptoms, reduced amount of residual urine. There is objective urodynamic evidence on decreased infravesical obstruction. PMID:9644978

Lopatkin, N A; Loran, O B; Pushkar', D Iu; Perepanova, T S; Tevlin, K P

1998-01-01

370

[The value of self-assessment in management of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia].  

PubMed

Since benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a very common and slowly progressive disease which requires surgical treatment in only one-third of those affected, surveillance of the condition on the basis of subjective symptoms is of considerable importance. For this reason, the WHO developed a prostate symptom score (WHO-PSS or I-PSS), which includes both irritative and obstructive symptoms, and which has become accepted all over the world. This score can be used both in investigative studies as a means of monitoring the efficacy of therapy, and as a very good instrument for patient management in the doctor's office. PMID:7543430

Schneider, H J

1995-06-10

371

Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia Mimicking Multiple Cylindromas: A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a rare and idiopathic vascular disorder. It is characterized by red to brown papules and nodules, typically localized on the head and neck, particularly around the ear as singular or multiple lesions. Although ALHE is a benign disease, lesions are often persistent and difficult to eradicate. Young to middle age women are more commonly affected. The histological examination corresponds to a florid vascular proliferation with atypical endothelial cells surrounded by a lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltrate. We describe an elderly male with multiple nodular lesions over the scalp mimicking cylindromas; the histological examination was consistent with ALHE. PMID:25071286

Ahmad, Sheikh Manzoor; Wani, Gh Mohiuddin; Khursheed, Bilquees; Qayoom, Seema

2014-01-01

372

Bilateral multiple axillary apocrine hidrocystomas accompanied by apocrine hyperplasia: a rare presentation.  

PubMed

Apocrine hidrocystomas (AHC) are uncommon cystic lesions of apocrine glands and are most often solitary. They are usually found in the head and neck region. Multiple AHC have been rarely reported in the literature usually in the eyelids and face. On extensive search of literature, we came across only a single case report of multiple axillary AHC. We report a case of a 31-year-old female who presented with fullness and discomfort in bilateral axillae, so a clinical diagnosis of bilateral accessory breast was made. However on histopathological examination, it turned out to be bilateral multiple AHC associated with apocrine hyperplasia. PMID:24943766

Shukla, Shailaja; Patiri, Karsing; Pujani, Mukta; Komal, Singh Bhawana

2014-01-01

373

AG041R, a novel indoline-2-one derivative, induces systemic cartilage hyperplasia in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AG-041R (3R-1-(2,2-diethoxyethyl)-3-((4 methylphenyl)aminocarbonylmethyl)-3-((4-methylphenyl) ureido)-indoline-2-one) is a novel small compound synthesized as a cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2)\\/gastrin receptor antagonist. In the course of the development of this compound, we discovered unexpectedly that oral administration of a high dose for 4 weeks markedly induced systemic cartilage hyperplasia. This change was histologically observed in the auricles, the trachea, the marginal region of the femoral condyle,

Hidetomo Kitamura; Atsuhiko Kato; Toru Esaki

2001-01-01

374

Technical Aspects of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is a minimally invasive procedure and a size-independent treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with excellent long-term surgical outcome. HoLEP has become an alternative to conventional transurethral resection of the prostate or open prostatectomy owing to its efficacy and safety. Although HoLEP is known to have a steep learning curve, very few articles have addressed the technical aspects of HoLEP. Herein, we described detailed techniques and tips for HoLEP as performed at Seoul National University Hospital in a step-by-step manner with extensive review of the literature. PMID:24044089

Kim, Myong; Lee, Hahn-Ey

2013-01-01

375

Index of Refraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Refraction is an important behavior of light that can be used to explain the operation of lenses, prisms, and optical fiber, as well as natural phenomena such as rainbows and mirages. The index of refraction, or refractive index, is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a material. The index of refraction is an important property of optical materials and one that can be easily measured in the laboratory.This lesson begins with a video that introduces the concept of refraction. Students learn firsthand how when a wave of light travels from one medium to another, the change in the wave's speed leads to a change in its wavelength and the bending of the wave. Next, students investigate index of refraction through an interactive media asset, research, and a class discussion. Following a video about the index of refraction and Snell's law, students work in groups to conduct their own laboratory experiment to measure the index of refraction of gelatin (or plastic).Note: This is the first of two optics lesson plans. You may want to follow this lesson with the Fiber Optics Lesson Plan.

2012-05-24

376

New generic indexing technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

Freeston, Michael

1996-01-01

377

Insulin enhances the effect of nitric oxide at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a rat model of type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetes confers greater restenosis from neointimal hyperplasia following vascular interventions. While localized administration of nitric oxide (NO) is known to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia, the effect of NO in type 1 diabetes is unknown. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of NO following arterial injury, with and without exogenous insulin administration. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from lean Zucker (LZ) rats were exposed to the NO donor, DETA/NO, following treatment with different glucose and/or insulin concentrations. DETA/NO inhibited VSMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner to a greater extent in VSMC exposed to normal-glucose vs. high-glucose environments, and even more effectively in normal-glucose/high-insulin and high-glucose/high-insulin environments. G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest and cell death were not responsible for the enhanced efficacy of NO in these environments. Next, type 1 diabetes was induced in LZ rats with streptozotocin. The rat carotid artery injury model was performed. Type 1 diabetic rats experienced no significant reduction in neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury and treatment with the NO donor PROLI/NO. However, daily administration of insulin to type 1 diabetic rats restored the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia (60% reduction, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that NO is ineffective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in an uncontrolled rat model of type 1 diabetes; however, insulin administration restores the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia. Thus insulin may play a role in regulating the downstream beneficial effects of NO in the vasculature. PMID:20562340

Varu, Vinit N; Ahanchi, Sadie S; Hogg, Melissa E; Bhikhapurwala, Hussein A; Chen, Amy; Popowich, Daniel A; Vavra, Ashley K; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Saavedra, Joseph E; Hrabie, Joseph A; Keefer, Larry K; Kibbe, Melina R

2010-09-01

378

Insulin enhances the effect of nitric oxide at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a rat model of type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Diabetes confers greater restenosis from neointimal hyperplasia following vascular interventions. While localized administration of nitric oxide (NO) is known to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia, the effect of NO in type 1 diabetes is unknown. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of NO following arterial injury, with and without exogenous insulin administration. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from lean Zucker (LZ) rats were exposed to the NO donor, DETA/NO, following treatment with different glucose and/or insulin concentrations. DETA/NO inhibited VSMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner to a greater extent in VSMC exposed to normal-glucose vs. high-glucose environments, and even more effectively in normal-glucose/high-insulin and high-glucose/high-insulin environments. G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and cell death were not responsible for the enhanced efficacy of NO in these environments. Next, type 1 diabetes was induced in LZ rats with streptozotocin. The rat carotid artery injury model was performed. Type 1 diabetic rats experienced no significant reduction in neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury and treatment with the NO donor PROLI/NO. However, daily administration of insulin to type 1 diabetic rats restored the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia (60% reduction, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that NO is ineffective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in an uncontrolled rat model of type 1 diabetes; however, insulin administration restores the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia. Thus insulin may play a role in regulating the downstream beneficial effects of NO in the vasculature. PMID:20562340

Varu, Vinit N.; Ahanchi, Sadie S.; Hogg, Melissa E.; Bhikhapurwala, Hussein A.; Chen, Amy; Popowich, Daniel A.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Hrabie, Joseph A.; Keefer, Larry K.

2010-01-01

379

Low glycaemic-index foods.  

PubMed

Accumulating data indicate that a diet characterized by low glycaemic-index (GI) foods not only improves certain metabolic ramifications of insulin resistance, but also reduces insulin resistance per se. Epidemiological data also suggest a protective role against development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. A major disadvantage in this connection is the shortage of low-GI foods, and many common starchy staple foods, such as bread products, breakfast cereals and potato products, have a high GI. Studies in our laboratory show that it is possible to significantly lower the GI of starchy foods, for example by choice of raw material and/or by optimizing the processing conditions. Such low-GI foods may or may not influence glucose tolerance at a subsequent meal. Consequently, certain low-GI breakfasts capable of maintaining a net increment in blood glucose and insulin at the time of the next meal significantly reduced post-prandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following a standardized lunch meal, whereas others had no 'second-meal' impact. These results imply that certain low-GI foods may be more efficient in modulating metabolism in the long term. Although the literature supports a linear correlation between the GI and insulinaemic index (II) of foods, this is not always the case. Consequently, milk products elicited elevated IIs, indistinguishable from a white bread reference meal, despite GIs in the lower range. This inconsistent behaviour of milk products has not been acknowledged, and potential metabolic consequences remain to be elucidated. PMID:10889806

Björck, I; Liljeberg, H; Ostman, E

2000-03-01

380

The Quilt Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the goal of creating a single, comprehensive index to American quilts, the Quilt Index builds on the work of 4 state quilt documentation and digitization projects: the Michigan Quilt Project, Kentucky Quilt Project, Illinois Quilt Research Project, and Quilts of Tennessee (more information about these projects is at the site). Currently almost 900 quilt images and pieces of information are searchable in the Quilt Index. The project has established standards for data elements to be collected, and forms to facilitate the addition of quilt documentation from other states. Quilts dating from 1800 to 1999 can be searched by pattern name, quilter's name, location made, date, and collection or documentation project. Searches by pattern name (baby blocks, ocean waves, wedding ring) are possible, but the interface is quite picky about singular and plural. Several ways to browse are also available, such as by collection, period, and style/technique, or choose "view the entire index" to display 887 quilts and records. The Quilt Index is hosted by MATRIX, the humanities technology center at Michigan State University that also hosts H-Net, Humanities and Social Sciences OnLine.

381

Focal nodular hyperplasia coexistent with hepatoblastoma in a 36-d-old infant  

PubMed Central

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign hepatic tumor characterized by hepatocyte hyperplasia and a central stellate scar. The association of FNH with other hepatic lesions, such as adenomas, hemangiomas and hepatocellular carcinoma, has been previously reported, but FNH associated with another hepatic tumor is rare in infants. Here we report a case of FNH coexistent with hepatoblastoma in a 36-d-old girl. Computed tomography (CT) imaging showed an ill-delineated, inhomogeneous enhanced mass with a central star-like scar in the right lobe of the liver. The tumor showed early mild enhancement at the arterial phase (from 40HU without contrast to 52HU at the arterial phase), intense enhancement at the portal phase (87.7HU) and 98.1HU in the 3-min delay scan. A central scar in the tumor presented as low density on non-contrast CT and slightly enhanced at delayed contrast-enhanced scanning. This infant underwent surgical resection of the tumor. Histopathology demonstrated typical FNH coexistent with a focal hepatoblastoma, which showed epithelioid tumor cells separated by proliferated fibrous tissue. PMID:25624742

Gong, Ying; Chen, Lian; Qiao, Zhong-Wei; Ma, Yang-Yang

2015-01-01

382

Focal nodular hyperplasia coexistent with hepatoblastoma in a 36-d-old infant.  

PubMed

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign hepatic tumor characterized by hepatocyte hyperplasia and a central stellate scar. The association of FNH with other hepatic lesions, such as adenomas, hemangiomas and hepatocellular carcinoma, has been previously reported, but FNH associated with another hepatic tumor is rare in infants. Here we report a case of FNH coexistent with hepatoblastoma in a 36-d-old girl. Computed tomography (CT) imaging showed an ill-delineated, inhomogeneous enhanced mass with a central star-like scar in the right lobe of the liver. The tumor showed early mild enhancement at the arterial phase (from 40HU without contrast to 52HU at the arterial phase), intense enhancement at the portal phase (87.7HU) and 98.1HU in the 3-min delay scan. A central scar in the tumor presented as low density on non-contrast CT and slightly enhanced at delayed contrast-enhanced scanning. This infant underwent surgical resection of the tumor. Histopathology demonstrated typical FNH coexistent with a focal hepatoblastoma, which showed epithelioid tumor cells separated by proliferated fibrous tissue. PMID:25624742

Gong, Ying; Chen, Lian; Qiao, Zhong-Wei; Ma, Yang-Yang

2015-01-21

383

Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5?-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., ?-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated ?-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. PMID:21806658

Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

2012-05-01

384

Cellular and molecular abnormalities of a macronodular adrenal hyperplasia causing beta-blocker-sensitive Cushing's syndrome.  

PubMed

Cushing's syndrome due to ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) can be associated with abnormal responses of aberrantly expressed adrenocortical receptors. This study aimed to characterize in vitro the pathophysiology of hypercortisolism in a beta-blocker-sensitive Cushing's syndrome due to AIMAH. Cortisol secretion profile under aberrant receptors stimulation revealed hyperresponsiveness to salbutamol (beta2-adrenoceptor agonist), cisapride (5-HT4 receptor agonist), and vasopressin in AIMAH cultured cells, but not in normal adrenocortical cells. By RT-PCR, AIMAH tissues revealed beta2-adrenoceptor overexpression rather than ectopical expression. MC2R expression was similar in both AIMAH and normal adrenocortical tissues. Curiously, cortisol levels of AIMAH cells under basal condition were 15-fold higher than those of control cells and were not responsive to ACTH. Analysis of culture medium from AIMAH cells could detect the presence of ACTH, which was immunohistochemically confirmed. Finally, the present study of AIMAH cells has identified: a) cortisol hyperresponsiveness to catecholamines, 5-HT4 and vasopressin in vitro, in agreement with clinical screening tests; b) abnormal expression of beta2-adrenoceptors in some areas of the hyperplastic adrenal tissue; c) autocrine loop of ACTH production. Altogether, the demonstration of aberrant responses to hormonal receptors and autocrine hormone production in the same tissue supports the assumption of multiple molecular alterations in adrenal macronodular hyperplasia. PMID:18209887

Mazzuco, Tânia L; Thomas, Michaël; Martinie, Monique; Cherradi, Nadia; Sturm, Nathalie; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Chabre, Olivier

2007-12-01

385

Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa) oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa) is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS). BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23990721

de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Crean, Joanne; de Almeida Borges, Vinícius Raphael; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Tajber, Lidia; Boylan, Fabio; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

2013-01-01

386

Inhibition of Spontaneous Canine Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by an Urtica fissa Polysaccharide Fraction.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the inhibition of spontaneous canine benign prostatic hyperplasia by a crude polysaccharide fraction extracted from Urtica fissa roots and stems. After oral administration of U. fissa polysaccharide fraction for 3 months, the dog prostatic volume reduced significantly when compared to that before treatment using CT examination. The high-dosage U. fissa polysaccharide fraction (120?mg/kg body weight/day) and finasteride (0.5?mg/kg body weight/day) treatments showed both almost 30?% reduction of the initial prostatic volume. At the end of the administration of U. fissa polysaccharide fraction, the prostates were excised, and the volumes were measured by water displacement. The prostatic volume showed significant decrease by 11?%, 15?%, and 21?% for the 30, 60, and 120?mg/kg/day U. fissa polysaccharide fraction treatment groups, respectively, compared to the control group. Histological observation found that U. fissa polysaccharide fraction inhibited the dog prostatic epithelial cells proliferation and enlarged glandular lumen diameter. The crude polysaccharide fraction of U. fissa is a possible new candidate for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:25473922

Xiaocheng, Chen; Shan, He; Yuxing, Lu; Lizhen, Yuan; Linmao, Ding; Shoujun, Yuan; Qinglin, Zhang

2015-01-01

387

Germinal centre protein HGAL promotes lymphoid hyperplasia and amyloidosis via BCR-mediated Syk activation  

PubMed Central

The human germinal centre associated lymphoma (HGAL) gene is specifically expressed in germinal centre B-lymphocytes and germinal centre-derived B-cell lymphomas, but its function is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that HGAL directly binds Syk in B-cells, increases its kinase activity upon B-cell receptor stimulation and leads to enhanced activation of Syk downstream effectors. To further investigate these findings in vivo, HGAL transgenic mice were generated. Starting from 12 months of age these mice developed polyclonal B-cell lymphoid hyperplasia, hypergammaglobulinemia and systemic reactive AA amyloidosis, leading to shortened survival. The lymphoid hyperplasia in the HGAL transgenic mice are likely attributable to enhanced B-cell receptor signalling as shown by increased Syk phosphorylation, ex vivo B-cell proliferation and increased RhoA activation. Overall, our study shows for the first time that the germinal centre protein HGAL regulates B-cell receptor signalling in B-lymphocytes which, without appropriate control, may lead to B-cell lymphoproliferation. PMID:23299888

Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Natkunam, Yasodha; Lu, Xiaoqing; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Gonzalez-Herrero, Ines; Flores, Teresa; Garcia, Juan Luis; McNamara, George; Kunder, Christian; Zhao, Shuchun; Segura, Victor; Fontan, Lorena; Martínez-Climent, Jose A.; García-Criado, Francisco Javier; Theis, Jason D.; Dogan, Ahmet; Campos-Sánchez, Elena; Green, Michael R.; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Lossos, Izidore S.

2012-01-01

388

Taenia taeniaeformis: fate and proliferation of mucosal cells during gastric hyperplasia in larvae infected rats.  

PubMed

Fate and proliferation of gastric mucosal cells during hyperplasia of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs inoculated Wistar rats were investigated using PCNA immunohistochemistry, BrdU labeling and other histopathologic staining techniques. Results revealed marked cell proliferation in gastric corpus and antral mucosa of infected rats as evidenced by increased lengths of proliferative zones and indices of BrdU labeling. The gastropathy in corpus was characterized by massive accumulation of precursors, neck and intermediate cells following significant decreases in numbers of parietal and zymogenic cells. Gastropathy in antrum was described with significant increases in precursors and mucous cells. Our results suggested that T. taeniaeformis-induced gastric hyperplasia was initiated by depletion of parietal cells presumably due to the cestode's ES products. As a result, there was inhibition of zymogenic cell differentiation due to the disruption of normal development pathways of gastric mucosal lineages. These sequences of events were considered to cause the increase in cell proliferation and accumulation of intermediate cells resulting to the hyperplastic lesions. PMID:18226813

Lagapa, J T; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

2008-04-01

389

Reticular cell hyperplasia and amyloidosis in a line of mice with low leukocyte counts.  

PubMed Central

Two pathologic conditions, reticular cell hyperplasia and amyloidosis, were studied in a strain of mice selectively bred for low leukocyte counts (LLC). At the age of 3 to 6 months, 70% of the mice developed reticular cell hyperplasia in the inguinea lymph nodes, and at 11 to 18 months, about 100% of them developed amyloidosis in the spleen and in the kidney, liver, and adrenal glands. Immunofluorescence was revealed in the glomeruli, interstitium of the tubules, and the amyloid skeleton of the papilla when the kidney sections were incubated with fluorescein-labeled antimouse immunoglobulins. Both intracellular and extracellular amyloid fibrils were found in the liver, spleen, and kidney sections by electron microscopy. Distended rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) cisternae and hypertrophy of RER with or without the simultaneous presence of amyloid fibrils in the reticular cells of the spleen and Kupffer cells of the liver were observed. In this light, we believe that the pathologic conditions are manifestations of immunologic events that are characteristic of the LLC mice with immune deficiency or abnormality in the immune system. We conclude that the origin of amyloid protein is at the RER. We discuss processes of amyloid fibril formation and some genetic aspects of amyloid development. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 10 Figure 9 Figure 11 Figure 2C and D Figure 12 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:970442

Chai, C. K.

1976-01-01

390

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Black Crappie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Characteristics and habitat requirements of the black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) are described in a review of Habitat Suitability Index models. This is one in a series of publications to provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Numerous literature sources have been consulted in an effort to consolidate scientific data on species-habitat relationships. These data have subsequently been synthesized into explicit Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The models are based on suitability indices indicating habitat preferences. Indices have been formulated for variables found to affect the life cycle and survival of each species. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models are designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities. The HSI technique is a corollary to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures.

Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Krieger, Douglas A.; Bacteller, Mary; Maughan, O. Eugene

1982-01-01

391

Internet Corruption Perception Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Corruption Perception Index is provided by Transparency International and Goettingen University, Germany. The goal of the site to "rank countries by the extent of corruption in public administration." The ranking can then be used to help assess country risks. The Internet Corruption Perception Index is published annually and is based on "surveys undertaken by Gallup International, the World Competitiveness Yearbook, assessments by Political & Economic Risk Consultancy in Hong Kong, DRI/McGraw Hill Global Risk Service, Political Risk Services in Syracuse, USA, and data gathered from internet sources directly." The index for 1997 covers 52 countries, including both developed and developing countries. Recently added to the site is the report on the bribery propensity of leading exporting nations; this section investigates the "propensity to pay bribes for the acquisition of contracts in international trade." At the site, visitors can provide their own input on a country's bribery propensity.

1997-01-01

392

ResearchIndex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the NEC Research Institute, ResearchIndex was created to improve the dissemination, functionality, usability, and efficiency of online scientific literature by demonstrating and providing "algorithms, techniques, and software that can be used in other digital libraries." The current demonstration database indexes over 150,000 computer science articles containing over 2 million citations. Searchable by keyword only, database returns feature several options. Users can review a list of citations to a given paper with links to the full text articles (Postscript or .pdf format), view related articles, and sign up to have new citations for selected articles emailed to them. In the future, users should also be able to review a dynamically created and continuously updated bibliography. Additional resources at the site include a collection of papers about citation indexing, digital libraries, Web analysis, and neural networks. Users may also submit papers to the database and subscribe to be notified when additional databases become available at the site.

393

Index of endemicity  

PubMed Central

The author discusses the difficulties involved in defining the term “endemicity”, and suggests a new approach to the problem—namely, the establishment of indices of endemicity, based on such data as are usually collected by national health administrations (mortality and morbidity rates, spleen-rates, case incidence in seaports, etc.). Examples are given of the calculation of the endemicity index for a number of diseases from different types of data obtained from various countries. An important advantage of the endemicity index is that it provides an easy means of studying the geographical pattern of endemic foci of disease. PMID:13479767

Swaroop, Satya

1957-01-01

394

TIGR Drosophila Gene Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TIGR, The Institute for Genomic Research, has announced the release of the Drosophila Gene Index (DGI). The Drosophila Gene Index, which may be searched by Nucleotide or Protein Sequence, Identifier (TC, ET, EST, GB) Tissue, cDNA Library Name or cDNA Library Identifier(cat#), or Gene Product Name, contains some 50,500 total sequences (ET, EST, TC, and singletons). Data may be requested free of charge by "researchers at non-profit institutions using it for non-commercial purposes;" instructions are provided on-site.

1999-01-01

395

Schmidt Sting Pain Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Wikipedia page has the cleanest version of the Schmidt Sting Pain Index I've seen online. Justin O. Schmidt created this index after years of work with Hymenoptera, and relates his vast experience with their venom to a scale that can be understood by all. The page has only a few references, but one of those will take you to Christ Starr's four stage sting pain scale. At the top of the scale are bullet ants, and pepsis wasps, at the bottom are sweat bees and fire ants.

0002-11-30

396

GeoIndex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GeoIndex Search Engine, which is continually updated, contains some new features making a regular reviewing of the site worthwhile. GeoIndex is "a powerful Search Engine developed, owned and maintained by Datasurge Company to specifically fill a need for the Geo-Environmental professional" by covering geotechnical, environmental, hydrogeology, geology, mining, and petroleum topics. The highlights of the site include the clear and descriptive search results, and the well-designed and browsable "nested" categories including companies, associations, education, and government Web sites. [JAB

397

New Air Quality Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 23, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the release of a new Air Quality Index, which is used by state and local agencies for reporting on daily air quality to the public, especially in major cities. The new Index has been revised to enhance public understanding of air quality and associated health effects, and it reflects updated health information on several pollutants. In addition to the full text of the new AQI Rule (105 p.), several related documents are offered at the site. These include the AQI fact sheet, Air Quality Guide, Ozone Health Effects Booklet, and Guideline for Reporting of Daily Air Quality.

United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

398

Student Derived KP Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the Kp index, a quantification of fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field due to the relative strength of a magnetic storm. Learners will take a reading from a magnetometer site and make a Kp index estimate to predict whether or not an aurora display will occur near that site. This resource is designed to support student analysis of THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) Magnetometer line-plot data. This activity requires the use of a computer with Internet access. This is activity 18 in Exploring Magnetism: Earthâs Magnetic Personality.

399

Parathyroid hyperplasia  

MedlinePLUS

Patients with a family history of the MEN syndromes may want to have genetic screening to check for the defective gene. Those who have the defective gene may have routine screening tests to detect any early symptoms.

400

Endometrial Hyperplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... If you take estrogen after menopause, you also need to take progestin or progesterone. • If your menstrual periods are irregular, birth control pills (oral contraceptives) may be recommended. They contain estrogen along with ...

401

Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations more socially susceptible to floods, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels, when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

2014-12-01

402

Volcanic loading: The dust veil index  

SciTech Connect

Dust ejected into the high atmosphere during explosive volcanic eruptions has been considered as a possible cause for climatic change. Dust veils created by volcanic eruptions can reduce the amount of light reaching the Earth`s surface and can cause reductions in surface temperatures. These climatic effects can be seen for several years following some eruptions and the magnitude and duration of the effects depend largely on the density or amount of tephra (i.e. dust) ejected, the latitude of injection, and atmospheric circulation patterns. Lamb (1970) formulated the Dust Veil Index (DVI) in an attempt to quantify the impact on the Earth`s energy balance of changes in atmospheric composition due to explosive volcanic eruptions. The DVI is a numerical index that quantifies the impact on the Earth`s energy balance of changes in atmospheric composition due to explosive volcanic eruptions. The DVI is a numerical index that quantifies the impact of a particular volcanic eruptions release of dust and aerosols over the years following the event. The DVI for any volcanic eruptions are available and have been used in estimating Lamb`s dust veil indices.

Lamb, H.H. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Climatic Research Unit

1985-09-01

403

September 2008 TIMBER & FORESTRY INDEX  

E-print Network

are the S&P Emerging Markets Infrastructure Index, the S&P Global Alternative Energy Index, the S&P Global&P Global Alternative Energy Index. Designed to measure investable opportunities in the complete alternative energy space, the S&P Global Alternative Energy Index is the combination of the S&P Global Clean Energy

404

Fiber optic refractive index monitor  

DOEpatents

A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

Weiss, Jonathan David (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

405

Indexing Theory and Retrieval Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes recent attempts to make explicit connections between the indexing process and the use of the index or information retrieval system, particularly the utility-theoretic and automatic indexing models of William Cooper and Stephen Harter. Theory and performance, information storage and retrieval, search stage feedback, and indexing are also…

Robertson, Stephen E.

1978-01-01

406

Indexing Moving Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t; report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t: We first present an

Pankaj K. Agarwal; Lars Arge; Jeff Erickson

2000-01-01

407

GeoIndex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GeoIndex, povided by the Datasurge Company, is a search engine specially geared towards geo-environmental professionals. Specific database topics include geotechnical, environmental, hydrogeology, geology, mining, and petroleum. The website is searched via phrases entered by the user. Searches can be narrowed by entering multiple phrases and limiting the search to one of the four key areas: Companies, Associations, Education, and Government.

1998-01-01

408

Space Photography 1977 Index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

1976-01-01

409

Air Quality Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from Air Quality Index: A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health by the U.S. EPA, learn about common pollutants in the air we breathe, their health effects, and how their levels are reported.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-03-21

410

A Social Capital Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica

2011-09-01

411

Glycemic Index and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Diabetes Forecast® magazine: wcie-carbs, In this section Food What Can I Eat Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index and Diabetes Sugar and Desserts Sugar Alcohols Low-Calorie Sweeteners donate en -- Acknowledge ...

412

Air Quality Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Air Quality Index (AQI) site contains tutorials about the difference between clean and dirty air, what the AQI is and the colors and numbers used to describe it, the effect of air pollution on health, and what people can do about pollution. There are also online games, which test understanding of the tutorials and a section containing teacher materials.

413

Glycemic Index Values Database  

Cancer.gov

NCI has developed a listing of Glycemic Index (GI) values for individual foods. Food codes from the USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII) are used as a reference. This file provides GI values for those foods consumed by adults and queried on the DHQ or other FFQs used at NCI.

414

Internet Intelligence Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by competitive intelligence firm Fuld & Company, the Internet Intelligence Index is a compilation of sites useful in gathering competitor and marketplace information on the Internet. All links are annotated and organized by subjects ranging from legal resources to patents and industry-specific information. Additional information on the field of competitive intelligence in general is available on site.

1998-01-01

415

Indexes of Biographies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website allows the learner to choose an important person who contributed to science, alphabeticallly or chronologically. This index contains many people who not only contributed to astronomy but to the other sciences as well as mathematics. For each person there is an account of his or her life, educational background, and famous works.

Usa

2004-07-16

416

Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy on Prostate Volume and Vascularity in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Pilot Study in a Canine Model  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a result of urogenital aging. Recent studies suggest that an age-related impairment of the blood supply to the lower urinary tract plays a role in the development of BPH and thus may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of BPH. The canine prostate is a model for understanding abnormal growth of the human prostate gland. We studied the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) in dogs to modify prostate blood flow and evaluated its effect on BPH. METHODS PEMF (5 min, twice a day for 3 weeks) was performed on 20 dogs affected by BPH. Prostatic volume, Doppler assessment by ultrasonography, libido, semen quality, testosterone levels, and seminal plasma volume, composition and pH were evaluated before and after treatment. RESULTS The 3 weeks of PEMF produced a significant reduction in prostatic volume (average 57%) without any interference with semen quality, testosterone levels or libido. Doppler parameters showed a reduction of peripheral resistances and a progressive reduction throughout the trial of the systolic peak velocity, end-diastolic velocity, mean velocity, mean, and peak gradient of the blood flow in the dorsal branch of the prostatic artery. The pulsatility index and the resistance index did not vary significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS The efficacy of PEMF on BPH in dogs, with no side effects, suggests the suitability of this treatment in humans and supports the hypothesis that impairment of blood supply to the lower urinary tract may be a causative factor in the development of BPH. Prostate 74:1132–1141, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. The Prostate published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24913937

Leoci, Raffaella; Aiudi, Giulio; Silvestre, Fabio; Lissner, Elaine; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

2014-01-01

417

Prosthetic Arteriovenous Fistulas and Venous Anastomotic Stenosis: Influence of a High Flow Velocity on the Development of Intimal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenotic intimal thickening at the venous end of prosthetic arteriovenous (AV) fistulas for hemodialysis has been associated with perianastomotic mismatch in elastic properties between prosthesis and vein and high flow velocities. In a prospective study, we investigated the role of flow velocity on the occurrence of intimal hyperplasia in prosthetic AV fistulas in hemodialysis patients. In 24 patients, the flow

L. Hofstra; D. C. J. J. Bergmans; K. M. L. Leunissen; A. P. G. Hoeks; J. H. M. Tordoir

1996-01-01

418

A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OF HEMATURIA ASSOCIATED WITH BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA AND THE EFFECT OF FINASTERIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We prospectively studied the effect of finasteride on chronic hematuria associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Materials and Methods: We prospectively evaluated 57 patients with chronic intermittent hematuria who were randomized to a finasteride treated or a control arm. Results: In the untreated control group hematuria recurred in 17 patients (63%) within a year but in only 4 (14%) in

STEPHEN J. FOLEY; LEMKIE Z. SOLOMAN; ANDREW W. WEDDERBURN; KASHIF M. KASHIF; DUNCAN SUMMERTON; VANESSA BASKETTER; SIMON A. V. HOLMES

2000-01-01

419

Consumption of aqueous garlic extract leads to significant improvement in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimInvestigation of possible effects of garlic extract supplementation on disease parameters of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PC). Materials and methods: Twenty seven patients with BPH and 9 patients with prostate cancer participated in the study. Patients consumed aqueous garlic extract at the daily amount of 1 ml\\/kg weight for a month and then, pre- and

lker Durak; Erdal Y?lmaz; Erdinç Devrim; Hakk? Perk; Murat Kaçmaz

2003-01-01

420

Role of progestin-induced mammary-derived growth hormone in the pathogenesis of cystic endometrial hyperplasia in the bitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenous progesterone and synthetic progestins may induce hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) of mammary origin, hyperplastic ductular changes in the mammary gland, and the development of cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in dogs. It was investigated whether progestin-induced mammary GH plays a role in the pathogenesis of CEH in the bitch. During 1 year, bitches with surgically excised mammary glands and

Sofie F. M. Bhatti; Nagesha A. S. Rao; Auke C. Okkens; Jan A. Mol; Luc Duchateau; Richard Ducatelle; Ted S. G. A. M. van den Ingh; Mulenda Tshamala; Luc M. L. Van Ham; Marc Coryn; Ad Rijnberk; Hans S. Kooistra

2007-01-01

421

Normal Bone Mineral Density and Lean Body Mass, but Increased Fat Mass, in Young Adult Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia attributable to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are treated with glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid administration, even in substitution doses, may cause decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine BMD, lean mass, and fat mass in young adult male (M, n 15) and female (F, n 15) patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, who had

NIKE M. M. L. STIKKELBROECK; WIM J. G. OYEN; GERT-JAN VAN DER WILT; R. M. M. HERMUS; BARTO J. OTTEN

422

Emotional Memory in Early Steroid Abnormalities: An fMRI Study of Adolescents With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormonal imbalances during development may have long-lasting effects. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we compared 14 youths with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), a genetic disorder of hormonal dysfunction, with 22 healthy controls on memory encoding of emotional faces. Patients remembered fewer faces than controls, particularly fearful faces. FMRI data to successfully encoded fearful faces revealed that males with CAH

Luigi Mazzone; Sven C. Mueller; Francoise Maheu; Carol VanRyzin; Deborah P. Merke; Monique Ernst

2011-01-01

423

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Population: Increased Frequency of White-Matter Abnormalities and Temporal Lobe Atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia results from an adrenal enzyme deficiency, that causes an underproduction of glucocorticoids and sometimes mineralocorticoids and a resultant overproduction of androgens, until treatment with replacement glucocorticoids is instituted. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency and etiology of white-matter changes and temporal lobe atrophy demonstrable on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a group of

Ruth Nass; Linda Heier; Thomas Moshang; Sharon Oberfield; Ajax George; Maria I. New; Phyllis W. Speiser

1997-01-01

424

Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) in compare to medroxyprogesterone acetate as a therapy for endometrial hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Background: This study was designed to evaluate the comparison of insertion of levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing intrauterine system versus oral medroxyprogesterone acetate on endometrial hyperplasia in a randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 women with the initial histopathological diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia in two groups received LNG or medroxyprogesterone (10 mg/d orally) for 12 days a month for 3 months). Endometrial biopsy was obtained for all patients after 3 months of treatment. Response to treatment was defined based on the histopathology of the post treatment pipelle endometrial specimens in three categories of resolution, persistence and progression. Results: Treatment response rate in patients in the LNG group was 89.3% (25 of 28 patients), versus 70.4% (19 of 27 patients) in patients in the medroxyprogesterone group. The rate of persistence was 10.7% (3 of 28 patients) and 22.2% (6 of 27 patients) in LNG and medroxyprogesterone groups respectively. No progression of endometrial hyperplasia observed in any of the patients in LNG group, but progression of endometrial hyperplasia was observed in 7.4% (2 of 27 patients) in the medroxyprogesterone group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding the response to treatment (P = 0.15). Side effects such as bloating, weight gain, fatigue and hair loss were comparable between the groups (P > 0.05). Hirsutism was significantly more in the medroxyprogesterone group than LNG group (P = 0.013). Conclusion: Results showed that the use of LNG for treating endometrial hyperplasia for 3 months was associated with high-treatment response rate and the low proportion of patients with progression compared to the use of medroxyprogesterone. PMID:25422650

Behnamfar, Fariba; Ghahiri, Attaollah; Tavakoli, Marzieh

2014-01-01

425

Insights into the Effect of Nitric Oxide and its Metabolites Nitrite and Nitrate at Inhibiting Neointimal Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Objective Periadventitial delivery of the nitric oxide (NO) donor PROLI/NO following arterial injury effectively inhibits neointimal hyperplasia. Given the short half-life of NO release from PROLI/NO, our goal was to determine if inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia by PROLI/NO was due to NO, or its metabolites nitrite and nitrate. Methods and Results In vitro, the NO donor DETA/NO inhibited proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (RASMC), but neither nitrite nor nitrate did. In vivo, following rat carotid artery balloon injury or injury plus the molar equivalents of PROLI/NO, nitrite, or nitrate (n=8–11/group), PROLI/NO was found to provide superior inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia (82% inhibition of intimal area, and 44% inhibition of medial area, p<0.001). Only modest inhibition was noted with nitrite or nitrate (45% and 41% inhibition of intimal area, and 31% and 29% inhibition of medial area, respectively, p<0.001). No effects on blood pressure were noted with any treatment groups. In vivo, only PROLI/NO inhibited cellular proliferation and increased arterial lumen area compared to injury alone (p<0.001). However, all three treatments inhibited inflammation (p<0.001). Conclusions PROLI/NO was more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury than nitrite or nitrate. However, modest inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia was observed with nitrite and nitrate, likely secondary to anti-inflammatory actions. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the efficacy of NO donors is primarily due to NO production and not its metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. PMID:21554972

Vavra, Ashley K.; Havelka, George E.; Martinez, Janet; Lee, Vanessa R.; Fu, Bo; Jiang, Qun; Keefer, Larry K.; Kibbe, Melina R.

2011-01-01

426

Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumor) of the scalp with intracranial extension  

PubMed Central

Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) (Masson's tumor) is an unusual benign vascular lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, consisting of papillary formations related to a thrombus and covered by a single layer of plump endothelial cells. The lesion is often mistaken with angiosarcoma and a group of other benign and malignant vascular lesions. The clinical and radiological findings are not specific, and the diagnosis is based on the histological examination. Intracranial lesions are extremely rare with only 32 cases been reported in the literature. Only two cases of IPEH presenting as scalp swelling have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 3-month-old boy with IPEH of scalp in the left parietal region, which was involving the skull bone and extending intracranially.

Shah, Harshil C.; Mittal, Divik H.; Shah, Jaimin K.

2014-01-01

427

PPAR?: A Molecular Link between systemic metabolic disease and benign prostate hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

The emergent epidemic of metabolic syndrome and its complex list of sequelae mandate a more thorough understanding of benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) in the context of systemic metabolic disease. Here we discuss the nature and origins of BPH, examine its role as a component of LUTS and review retrospective clinical studies that have drawn associations between BPH/LUTS and type II diabetes, inflammation and dyslipidemia. PPAR? signaling, which sits at the nexus of systemic metabolic disease and BPH/LUTS through its regulation of inflammation and insulin resistance is proposed as a candidate for molecular manipulation in regard to BPH/LUTS. Finally, we introduce new cell and animal models that are being used to study the consequences of obesity, diabetes and inflammation on benign prostatic growth. PMID:21645960

Jiang, Ming; Strand, Douglas W.; Franco, Omar E.; Clark, Peter E.; Hayward, Simon W.

2011-01-01

428

Review of Current Laser Therapies for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

The gold standard for symptomatic relief of bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia has traditionally been a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Over the past decade, however, novel laser technologies that rival the conventional TURP have multiplied. As part of the ongoing quest to minimize complications, shorten hospitalization, improve resection time, and most importantly reduce mortality, laser prostatectomy has continually evolved. Today, there are more variations of laser prostatectomy, each with several differing surgical techniques. Although abundant data are available confirming the safety and feasibility of the various laser systems, future randomized-controlled trials will be necessary to verify which technique is superior. In this review, we describe the most common modalities used to perform a laser prostatectomy, mainly, the holmium laser and the potassium-titanyl-phosphate lasers. We also highlight the physical and clinical characteristics of each technology with a review of the most current and highest-quality literature. PMID:23789041

Choi, Benjamin B.

2013-01-01

429

Effects of aromatase inhibitor on menopausal hyperplasia in a case of obesity.  

PubMed

The aromatase inhibitor anastrazole proved effective in the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia and postmenopausal bleeding in an obese 65-year-old woman with high operative risk. During anastrazole administration for 12 months, the endometrial thickness decreased from 9.8 mm to 2.4 mm and the control endometrial histology showed an atrophic endometrium. Uterine bleeding did not occur in the post-treatment, 3-year follow-up period. The endometrial thicknesses measured yearly by ultrasonography were 2.9, 3.5 and 3.3 mm. The plasma estradiol levels increased from < 73 pmol/l post-treatment to 112, 98 and 103 pmol/l. This case demonstrates that long-term aromatase inhibitor treatment can result in a refractory status of the endometrium and the estradiol produced in the adipose tissue does not exert a proliferative effect. PMID:22132829

Koloszar, S; Pal, Z; Kereszturi, A; Vajda, G; Pal, A; Daru, J

2012-02-01

430

Prostatic artery embolization for enlarged prostates due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. How I do it.  

PubMed

Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results. PMID:23903785

Carnevale, Francisco C; Antunes, Alberto A

2013-12-01

431

Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It  

SciTech Connect

Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto A., E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

2013-12-15

432

Bacterial Pleuritis with Thickened Mesothelial Hyperplasia in a Young Beagle Dog  

PubMed Central

A five-month-old male beagle dog suddenly became moribund. Bloody fluid accumulated in the thoracic and abdominal cavities, and soft yellow flecks were floating in the thoracic fluid. The mediastinum and pericardium became dark reddish with villous thickening. Other parietal and pulmonary pleurae were rough, and the organs adhered to each other. Histologically, most mediastinal pleura formed papillary projections covered by a single layer of mesothelial cells. Many macrophages and neutrophils infiltrated the submesothelial connective tissue. At the mediastinum adjacent to the pericardium, cuboidal mesothelial cells proliferated solidly and formed a thick surface stratum. The flecks consisted of gram-negative filamentous or small bacillary (coccoid) bacteria. In the right posterior lobe of the lung, neutrophilic infiltration and a large encapsulated abscess including a bacterial colony were present. We diagnosed this case as “bacterial pleuritis with thickened mesothelial hyperplasia”. The cause of the pleuritis might be a chronic pleural infection spread via the lung abscess. PMID:24155565

Yamada, Naoaki; Hashimoto, Satomi; Tomonari, Yuki; Kokoshima, Hiroko; Doi, Takuya; Sato, Junko; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

2013-01-01