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Sample records for hyperplasia impact index

  1. Exendin-4 shows no effects on the prostatic index in high-fat-diet-fed rat with benign prostatic hyperplasia by improving insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J-X; Xiao, Y-C; Hu, Y-R; Hao, M; Kuang, H-Y

    2015-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease globally, and accumulating evidence has indicated an association between BPH, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Exendin-4 is widely used in clinics, which could enhance the proliferation of pancreatic ? cells. The ability of exendin-4 to promote tumorigenesis has been of concern, and whether exendin-4 would enhance the propagation of BPH is not fully understood. We aimed to determine whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) were expressed in rat prostate and to determine the effect of exendin-4 on prostate of BPH. Male Wistar rats were used and assigned to six groups: normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD + exendin-4, HFD + BPH, HFD + BPH + exendin-4 and HFD + BPH + rosiglitazone group. After castration, steroids were injected subcutaneously for 4 weeks to induce BPH. Rats were kept on high-fat diet to induce IR. Treatment groups were treated with exendin-4 and rosiglitazone. Prostatic index and HOMA-IR index were used to evaluate the prostatic hyperplasia status and the degree of IR respectively. The expression of GLP-1R was indicated not only by immunohistochemistry, but also by Western blot analysis. The expression of GLP-1R was significantly higher, and HOMA-IR index and body weight significantly decreased after administration of exendin-4. However, no significant differences in the prostatic index were observed between exendin-4 treatment groups and non-exendin-4 treatment groups. Prostatic index was not influenced by exendin-4 maybe by improving IR and weight loss. PMID:24605934

  2. Impact of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Pharmacological Treatment on Transrectal Prostate Biopsy Adverse Effects

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Ciro Eduardo; Amstalden Neto, Arnaldo; Moretti, Tomás Bernardo Costa; Magna, Luis Alberto; Denardi, Fernandes; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Background. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) pharmacological treatment may promote a decrease in prostate vascularization and bladder neck relaxation with theoretical improvement in prostate biopsy morbidity, though never explored in the literature. Methods. Among 242 consecutive unselected patients who underwent prostate biopsy, after excluding those with history of prostate biopsy/surgery or using medications not for BPH, we studied 190 patients. On the 15th day after procedure patients were questioned about symptoms lasting over a week and classified according to pharmacological BPH treatment. Results. Thirty-three patients (17%) were using alpha-blocker exclusively, five (3%) 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor exclusively, twelve (6%) patients used both medications, and 140 (74%) patients used none. There was no difference in regard to age among groups (P = 0.5). Postbiopsy adverse effects occurred as follows: hematuria 96 (50%), hematospermia 53 (28%), hematochezia 22 (12%), urethrorrhagia 19 (10%), fever 5 (3%), and pain 20 (10%). There was a significant negative correlation between postbiopsy hematuria and BPH pharmacological treatment with stronger correlation for combined use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor and alpha-blocker over 6 months (P = 0.0027). Conclusion. BPH pharmacological treatment, mainly combined for at least 6 months seems to protect against prostate biopsy adverse effects. Future studies are necessary to confirm our novel results. PMID:24876834

  3. Impact of benign prostatic hyperplasia pharmacological treatment on transrectal prostate biopsy adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Zamuner, Marina; Falcone, Ciro Eduardo; Amstalden Neto, Arnaldo; Moretti, Tomás Bernardo Costa; Magna, Luis Alberto; Denardi, Fernandes; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Background. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) pharmacological treatment may promote a decrease in prostate vascularization and bladder neck relaxation with theoretical improvement in prostate biopsy morbidity, though never explored in the literature. Methods. Among 242 consecutive unselected patients who underwent prostate biopsy, after excluding those with history of prostate biopsy/surgery or using medications not for BPH, we studied 190 patients. On the 15th day after procedure patients were questioned about symptoms lasting over a week and classified according to pharmacological BPH treatment. Results. Thirty-three patients (17%) were using alpha-blocker exclusively, five (3%) 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor exclusively, twelve (6%) patients used both medications, and 140 (74%) patients used none. There was no difference in regard to age among groups (P = 0.5). Postbiopsy adverse effects occurred as follows: hematuria 96 (50%), hematospermia 53 (28%), hematochezia 22 (12%), urethrorrhagia 19 (10%), fever 5 (3%), and pain 20 (10%). There was a significant negative correlation between postbiopsy hematuria and BPH pharmacological treatment with stronger correlation for combined use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor and alpha-blocker over 6 months (P = 0.0027). Conclusion. BPH pharmacological treatment, mainly combined for at least 6 months seems to protect against prostate biopsy adverse effects. Future studies are necessary to confirm our novel results. PMID:24876834

  4. Impact of Metabolic Syndrome on Response to Medical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cyrus, Ali; Goodarzi, Davood; Talaei, Afsaneh; Moradi, Ali; Rafiee, Mohammad; Moghimi, Mehrdad; Shahbazi, Elham; Farmani, Elaheh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the response to medical therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) after a 3-month period of treatment. Materials and Methods This was a cohort study of 100 patients, 47 with MetS and 53 without MetS, referred to either the primary care unit or referral hospital with BPH who had moderate lower urinary tract symptoms of prostate involvement and were candidates for medical treatment. Our main outcome was response to medical treatment with prazosin 1 mg twice a day and finasteride 5 mg daily in patients with BPH on the basis of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare BPH treatment response in patients with and without MetS before and after receiving treatment. Results The mean volume of the prostate was significantly higher in MetS patients than in patients without MetS (57±32.65 mL compared with 46.00±20.19 mL, p=0.036). The control group demonstrated an 11-unit reduction in IPSS, whereas those with MetS showed a reduction in the symptom score of only 6 units (p<0.001). Regarding the components of MetS separately, triglyceride (p<0.001), fasting blood sugar (p=0.001), and waist circumference (p=0.028) significantly affected the clinical progression of BPH. The observational nature of this study may be a limitation in comparison with an interventional study. Conclusions The results of the present study showed that MetS can negatively affect the response to medical treatment of BPH. Therefore, it is necessary to consider MetS in selecting patients with BPH for drug therapy. PMID:25512816

  5. Impact of Treatment With Statins on Prostate-Specific Antigen and Prostate Volume in Patients With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hun; Park, Tae Ju; Bae, Min Ho; Choi, Sung Ho; Cho, Young Sam; Joo, Kwan Joong; Kwon, Chil Hun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the impact on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume (PV) of statin medication for 1 year in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods We retrospectively investigated 791 patients in whom BPH was diagnosed. For analysis, the patients were divided into four groups according to their medications: group A, ?-blocker; group B, ?-blocker+statin; group C, ?-blocker+dutasteride; group D, ?-blockers+statin+dutasteride. To investigate changes in serum PSA, PV, and total cholesterol, we analyzed the data at the time of initial treatment and after 1 year of medication. Results After 1 year, group A showed a 1.3% increase in PSA and a 1.0% increase in PV. Group B showed a 4.3% decrease in PSA and a 1.8% decrease in PV. The difference in PV reduction between groups A and B was statistically significant (p<0.001). Group C showed a 49.1% reduction in PSA and a 22.9% reduction in PV. Group D showed a 51.6% reduction in PSA and a 24.5% reduction in PV. The difference in PV reduction between groups C and D was not statistically significant (p=0.762). By use of a multivariate logistic regression model, we found that the probability of PV reduction after 1 year was more than 14.8 times in statin users than in statin nonusers (95% confidence interval, 5.8% to 37.6%; p<0.001). Conclusions Statin administration reduced PSA and PV in BPH patients. This finding may imply the improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms and prevention of cardiovascular disease and chemoprevention of prostate cancer with statin treatment. PMID:24255756

  6. Median Citation Index vs Journal Impact Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2015-03-01

    The Journal Impact Factor is an arithmetic mean: It is the average number of citations, in a year, to a journal's articles that were published the previous two years. But for the vast majority of scholarly journals, the distribution of these citations is skewed (non-symmetric). We argue that a more representative member of the skewed distribution of citations is its median, not the mean. We thus introduce the Median Citation Index (MCI) and compare it to the journal Impact Factor (JIF) as a potentially more suitable choice of the ``center'' of the distribution, or its typical value. Unlike the JIF, the MCI is far less sensitive to outlier (very highly cited) papers or to gaming, and does not lend itself to the hype of calculating it to three decimal digits.

  7. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  8. Google Scholar Metrics h5-index correlated with Impact Factor

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Google Scholar Metrics h5-index correlated with Impact Factor Michael O'Neill Complex & Adaptive evaluating the impact of their publications is Google Scholar Metrics [2]. With this tool we can probe Computing amongst others [3], based upon Google Scholar Metrics and journal impact factors. A positive

  9. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  10. Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, K; Letsis, I; Karakasis, D

    1988-08-01

    A case of true hemifacial hyperplasia is described. This is an unusual condition which produces facial asymmetry by a marked, unilateral, localised overgrowth of all the tissues in the affected area, including, the facial soft tissues, bones and teeth. The patient is an eight-year-old Caucasian girl with congenital hemihyperplasia of the right side of her face. PMID:3166970

  11. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Chitrapu, Prathyusha; Patel, Mahir; Readinger, Allison

    2014-01-01

    A patient with multiple erythematous nodules on her posterior scalp presented to our dermatology clinic. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. The etiology of this disorder is unclear. Several cases have been treated in the past with complete surgical excision, although the recurrence rate remains relatively high. PMID:25484503

  12. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children but much shorter ...

  13. Hypertrophy versus hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Goss, R J

    1966-09-30

    Although all tissues and organs of the body are normally subject to the growth-regulating influences of functional demands, some are potentially capable of unlimited growth while others are not. This depends on whether hyperplasia of their functional units ceases prior to maturity or can continue throughout life. In the former case, further growth is limited by the extent to which hypertrophy can enhance physiological efficiency. Some of the body's most vitally essential organs (heart, brain, kidney, lung) lack the ability to make additional structural units in the adult and are therefore handicapped in compensating for the depreciations of advancing age. Theoretically, at least, other organs (glands, renewing tissues) possess unlimited powers of regeneration because they never lose the capacity (latent or expressed) for hyperplasia. There is a strategy in the way growth mechanisms have evolved. It may be significant that the so-called "hypertrophic" organs lose the capability for hyperplasia, because not to do so might jeopardize their growth regulation. If size is determined by functional demands, then the latter must not operate continuously lest growth go on without interruption and lead to overproduction of functional units. Only renewing tissues can tolerate perpetual growth because they get rid of excess structures as fast as they are formed. Endocrine and exocrine glands are in most cases known to function discontinuously and are thus not in danger of being overstimulated. The heart, lungs, and kidneys (and brain?), however, must work incessantly. Were their functional units capable of hyperplasia and at the same time subject to control by functional demand, then overgrowth would seem to be inevitable. By giving up the potential for hyperplasia in favor of the necessity for constant function, these organs have adopted a strategy that enables them to become hypertrophic to a limited extent while doing their jobs efficiently. It is a curious fact that the unrestricted proliferation of biological structures cannot occur at all levels of organization. The counterpart of cancer, which is a cellular phenomenon, does not exist among molecules or cytoplasmic organelles, nor is it known to occur at the histological level of organization. Even in organs made up of histological units of function and having the potential for unlimited hyperplasia (for example, liver, exocrine glands, thyroid, ovary), the population of functional units never exceeds the number needed to fulfil the physiological requirements of the body. Above and below the level of the cell, therefore, structures are not permitted to escape the constraints of functional demands which control their production. The fact that cells can occasionally do so when they become neoplastic may reveal as much as it conceals about the problem of growth regulation. PMID:5917072

  14. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH. PMID:20671993

  15. Hypertrichosis with hereditary gingival hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Winter, G. B.; Simpkiss, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two cases of infantile hypertrichosis who subsequently developed oral abnormalities are described. In one case generalized gingival hyperplasia was associated with retarded eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth and macrodontia. In the second case the mucosal hyperplasia was limited to the palatal surface. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4834021

  16. The Global Health Impact Index: Promoting Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Hassoun, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people cannot access essential medicines they need for deadly diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS. There is good information on the need for drugs for these diseases but until now, no global estimate of the impact drugs are having on this burden. This paper presents a model measuring companies’ key malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS drugs’ consequences for global health (global-health-impact.org). It aggregates drugs’ impacts in several ways–by disease, country and originator-company. The methodology can be extended across diseases as well as drugs to provide a more extensive picture of the impact companies’ drugs are having on the global burden of disease. The study suggests that key malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS drugs are, together, ameliorating about 37% of the global burden of these diseases and Sanofi, Novartis, and Pfizer’s drugs are having the largest effect on this burden. Moreover, drug impacts vary widely across countries. This index provides important information for policy makers, pharmaceutical companies, countries, and other stake-holders that can help increase access to essential medicines. PMID:26657064

  17. Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact

  18. Evaluation of distributed hydrologic impacts of temperature-index and energy-based snow models

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Jeff

    Evaluation of distributed hydrologic impacts of temperature-index and energy-based snow models-index Hydrologic model a b s t r a c t Two commonly used strategies in modeling snowmelt are the energy balance and temperature-index methods. Here we evaluate the distributed hydrologic impacts of these two different snowmelt

  19. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, R J

    1997-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of benign prostatic hyperplasia reflects a complex interplay between benign prostatic enlargement, which will affect almost all men by the age of 80, and the resulting outlet obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms. The disease is now known to adversely affect the quality of life of around one man in three over the age of 50. New medical treatments and new surgical interventions are challenging the previous standard treatment of transurethral resection of prostate, which continues to have a morbidity of 17% and some mortality. Primary care will be increasingly involved in shared care with particular emphasis on monitoring of patients on watchful waiting medical therapy- and following operative intervention. PMID:9196969

  20. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  1. A Neurodegenerative Vascular Burden Index and the Impact on Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Roeben, Benjamin; Nasi-Kordhishti, Isabella; Suenkel, Ulrike; Wurster, Isabel; Brockmann, Kathrin; Fritsche, Andreas; Niebler, Raphael; Metzger, Florian G.; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of vascular burden factors has been identified to impact vascular function and structure as indicated by carotid intima–media thickness (IMT). On the basis of their impact on IMT, vascular factors may be selected and clustered in a vascular burden index (VBI). Since many vascular factors increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a multifactorial neurodegenerative VBI may be related to early pathological processes in AD and cognitive decline in its preclinical stages. We investigated an elderly cohort at risk for neurodegeneration (TREND study, n?=?1102) for the multifactorial influence of vascular burden factors on IMT measured by ultrasound. To create a VBI for this cohort, vascular factors and their definitions (considering medical history, medication, and/or blood marker data) were selected based on their statistical effects on IMT in multiple regressions including age and sex. The impact of the VBI on cognitive performance was assessed using the Trail-Making Test (TMT) and the consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery. IMT was significantly predicted by age (standardized ??=?0.26), sex (0.09; males?>?females) and the factors included in the VBI: obesity (0.18), hypertension (0.14), smoking (0.08), diabetes (0.07), and atherosclerosis (0.05), whereas other cardiovascular diseases or hypercholesterolemia were not significant. Individuals with 2 or more VBI factors compared to individuals without had an odds ratio of 3.17 regarding overly increased IMT ( ??1.0?mm). The VBI showed an impact on executive control [log(TMT B?A), p?=?0.047] and a trend toward decreased global cognitive function (CERAD total score, p?=?0.057) independent of age, sex, and education. A VBI established on the basis of IMT may help to identify individuals with overly increased vascular burden linked to decreased cognitive function indicating neurodegenerative processes. The longitudinal study of this risk cohort will reveal the value of the VBI as prodromal marker for cognitive decline and AD. PMID:25071568

  2. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, Waleed Fouad; Packianathan, Satya; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew; Khan, Majid A.; Baird, Michael C.; Russell, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT {+-} indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: <18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and >30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT {+-} indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: <18.5, (0%) 0/6 patients; 18.5-24.9 (6%), 6 of 105 patients developed HO; 25-29.9 (19%), 22 of 117; >30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06-1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT {+-} indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

  3. Index of Alien Impact: A Method for Evaluating Potential Ecological Impact of Alien Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Teresa K.; Ringold, Paul L.; Bollman, Michael A.; Ernst, Ted L.

    2010-04-01

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact ( IAI) to estimate the collective ecological impact of in situ alien species. IAI summarizes the frequency of occurrence and potential ecological impact ( Invasiveness-Impact Score ( I i )) of individual alien species for all aliens present in a particular location or community type. A component metric, I i , is based on ecological species traits (life history, ecological amplitude, and ability to alter ecosystem processes) that reflect mechanisms, which can increase impact to ecosystem structure and function. While I i is less complex than some other multi-metric rankings of alien impact, it compares well to these metrics and to qualitative judgments. IAI can be adapted for different ecological settings by modifying the set of species traits incorporated in I i to reflect properties likely to breach biotic and abiotic barriers or alter ecosystem function in a particular region or community type of interest. To demonstrate our approach, we created versions of IAI and I i , applicable to the diverse streamside vegetation of a river basin (19,631 km2) spanning low-elevation arid to mesic montane habitats in eastern Oregon, USA. In this demonstration effort, we (1) evaluate relationships of IAI to metrics describing invasion level, and (2) illustrate the potential utility of IAI for prioritizing alien species management activities and informing restoration goals.

  4. The Impact of Term-Indexing Characteristics on a Document Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Dietmar; Zhang, Jin

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the impact of term frequencies, term distributions, and indexing exhaustivity on the representation of document spaces in a visual, vector-based retrieval environment. Compares document-space densities and discusses visualization techniques, term weights, and implications for automatic indexing in information retrieval systems.…

  5. Reversible papillary hyperplasia of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, T.; Cohen, S. M.; Fukushima, S.; Hananouchi, M.; Ito, N.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid reproducible method for the production of ulcers and reversible regenerative hyperplasia of the urinary bladder of rats is described. This method does not involve administration of a toxic chemical or retention of a foreign body. Ulceration was produced by means of applying a steel rod, 5 mm in diameter, frozen at -78 C, to the serosal surface of the bladder for 2 seconds, twice, with a 5-second interval between each application. Sequential histologic observations showed that ulcers were accompanied by necrosis of the entire thickness of the bladder at the site of freezing with extensive acute inflammation. Regenerative hyperplasia was evident at the edge of the ulcer by the second day, with greatest severity at 5 days when papillary and nodular hyperplasia were present. At 15 days the bladders were normal or had only minimal hyperplasia. The labeling index by autoradiography was highest in the mildly hyperplastic area near the ulcer at 2 days and remained relatively high through 5 days. The hyperplastic epithelium surrounding the ulcer observed by scanning electron microscopy had numerous degenerative cells on the surface, and small epithelial cells with numerous short, uniform microvilli on their luminal surface were also observed. The numerous short, uniform microvilli on their luminal surface were also observed. The microvilli had a symmetric luminal membrane, as observed on trasmission electron microscopy. More peripherally the cells had microridges only or microvilli and microridges on their luminal surface. Neither pleomorphic microvili nor a structured glycocalyx fuzz on microvilli was observed during the process of regenerative hyperplasia, distinguishing it from neoplastic bladder proliferations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:645820

  6. Endometrial cancer arising from atypical complex hyperplasia: The significance in an endometrial biopsy and a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Jung Mi; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Kim, Young Nam; Cho, En Bee; Cha, Ju Eun; Sung, Moon Su; Lee, Kyung Bok

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the features of endometrial hyperplasia with concurrent endometrial cancer that had been diagnosed by endometrial sampling. Further, we attempted to identify an accurate differential diagnostic method. Methods We retrospectively studied 125 patients who underwent a diagnostic endometrial biopsy or were diagnosed after the surgical treatment of other gynecological lesions, such as leiomyoma or polyps. Patients were diagnosed between January 2005 and December 2013 at Busan Paik Hospital. Clinical and histopathological characteristics were compared in patients who had atypical endometrial hyperplasia with and without concurrent endometrial cancer. Results The patients were grouped based on the final pathology reports. One hundred seventeen patients were diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia and eight patients were diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from atypical hyperplasia. Of the 26 patients who had been diagnosed with atypical endometrial hyperplasia by office-based endometrial biopsy, eight (30.8%) were subsequently diagnosed with endometrial cancer after they had undergone hysterectomy. The patients with endometrial cancer arising from endometrial hyperplasia were younger (39.1 vs. 47.2 years, P=0.0104) and more obese (body mass index 26.1±9.6 vs. 23.8±2.8 kg/m2, P=0.3560) than the patients with endometrial hyperplasia. The correlation rate between the pathology of the endometrial samples and the final diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia was 67.3%. Conclusion In patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, the detection of endometrial cancer before hysterectomy can decrease the risk of suboptimal treatment. The accuracy of endometrial sampling for the diagnosis of concurrent endometrial carcinoma was much lower than that for atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Therefore, concurrent endometrial carcinoma should be suspected and surgical intervention should be considered in young or obese patients who present with atypical endometrial hyperplasia. PMID:26623410

  7. Paradoxical Adipose Hyperplasia After Cryolipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Jalian, H. Ray; Avram, Mathew M.; Garibyan, Lilit; Mihm, Martin C.; Anderson, R. Rox

    2014-01-01

    Importance Cryolipolysis is the non-invasive reduction of fat with localized cutaneous cooling. Since initial introduction, over 650,000 cryolipolysis treatment cycles have been performed worldwide. We present a previously unreported, rare side effect following cryolipolysis, paradoxical adipose hyperplasia. Observations A 41-year-old man underwent a single cycle of cryolipolysis to his abdomen. Three months following his treatment, a gradual enlargement of the treatment area was noted. This enlargement was a large, well-demarcated subcutaneous mass, slightly tender to palpation. Imaging studies revealed accumulation of adipose tissue with normal signal intensity within the treatment area. Conclusions and Relevance Paradoxical adipose hyperplasia is a rare, previously unreported side effect of cryolipolysis with an incidence of 0.0051%. No single unifying risk factor has been identified. The phenomenon seems to be more common in male patients undergoing cryolipolysis. At this time there is no evidence of spontaneous resolution. Further studies are needed to characterize the pathogenesis and histologic findings of this rare adverse event. PMID:24382640

  8. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B.

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  9. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  10. The Pagerank-Index: Going beyond Citation Counts in Quantifying Scientific Impact of Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Upul; Piraveenan, Mahendra; Zomaya, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying and comparing the scientific output of researchers has become critical for governments, funding agencies and universities. Comparison by reputation and direct assessment of contributions to the field is no longer possible, as the number of scientists increases and traditional definitions about scientific fields become blurred. The h-index is often used for comparing scientists, but has several well-documented shortcomings. In this paper, we introduce a new index for measuring and comparing the publication records of scientists: the pagerank-index (symbolised as ?). The index uses a version of pagerank algorithm and the citation networks of papers in its computation, and is fundamentally different from the existing variants of h-index because it considers not only the number of citations but also the actual impact of each citation. We adapt two approaches to demonstrate the utility of the new index. Firstly, we use a simulation model of a community of authors, whereby we create various ‘groups’ of authors which are different from each other in inherent publication habits, to show that the pagerank-index is fairer than the existing indices in three distinct scenarios: (i) when authors try to ‘massage’ their index by publishing papers in low-quality outlets primarily to self-cite other papers (ii) when authors collaborate in large groups in order to obtain more authorships (iii) when authors spend most of their time in producing genuine but low quality publications that would massage their index. Secondly, we undertake two real world case studies: (i) the evolving author community of quantum game theory, as defined by Google Scholar (ii) a snapshot of the high energy physics (HEP) theory research community in arXiv. In both case studies, we find that the list of top authors vary very significantly when h-index and pagerank-index are used for comparison. We show that in both cases, authors who have collaborated in large groups and/or published less impactful papers tend to be comparatively favoured by the h-index, whereas the pagerank-index highlights authors who have made a relatively small number of definitive contributions, or written papers which served to highlight the link between diverse disciplines, or typically worked in smaller groups. Thus, we argue that the pagerank-index is an inherently fairer and more nuanced metric to quantify the publication records of scientists compared to existing measures. PMID:26288312

  11. Assessing the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami on households: a modified domestic assets index approach.

    PubMed

    Arlikatti, Sudha; Peacock, Walter Gillis; Prater, Carla S; Grover, Himanshu; Sekar, Arul S Gnana

    2010-07-01

    This paper offers a potential measurement solution for assessing disaster impacts and subsequent recovery at the household level by using a modified domestic assets index (MDAI) approach. Assessment of the utility of the domestic assets index first proposed by Bates, Killian and Peacock (1984) has been confined to earthquake areas in the Americas and southern Europe. This paper modifies and extends the approach to the Indian sub-continent and to coastal surge hazards utilizing data collected from 1,000 households impacted by the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) in the Nagapattinam district of south-eastern India. The analyses suggest that the MDAI scale is a reliable and valid measure of household living conditions and is useful in assessing disaster impacts and tracking recovery efforts over time. It can facilitate longitudinal studies, encourage cross-cultural, cross-national comparisons of disaster impacts and inform national and international donors of the itemized monetary losses from disasters at the household level. PMID:20298262

  12. Dutasteride plus Tamsulosin fixed-dose combination first-line therapy versus Tamsulosin Monotherapy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a budget impact analysis in the Greek healthcare setting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the budget impact of dutasteride plus tamsulosin fixed-dose combination (DUT?+?TAM FDC) versus tamsulosin monotherapy, in the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from the perspective of the Greek healthcare insurance system. Methods A Microsoft Excel-based model was developed to estimate the financial consequences of adopting DUT + TAM FDC within the Greek healthcare setting. The model, compared six mutually exclusive health states in two alternative treatment options: current standard of care and the introduction of DUT + TAM FDC in the market. The model used clinical inputs from the CombAT study; data on resource use associated with the management of BPH in Greece were derived from expert panel, and unit cost data were derived from official reimbursement tariffs. A payer perspective was taken into account. As patient distribution data between public and private sectors are not available in Greece two scenarios were investigated, considering the whole eligible population in each scenario. A 4 year time horizon was taken into account and included treatment costs, number of transurethral resections of the prostate (TURPs) and acute urinary retention (AUR) episodes avoided. Results The clinical benefit from the market adoption of DUT?+?TAM FDC in Greece was 1,758 TURPs and 972 episodes of AUR avoided cumulatively in a four year period. The increase in total costs from the gradual introduction of DUT?+?TAM FDC to the Greek healthcare system ranges from €1.3 million in the first year to €5.8 million in the fourth year, for the public sector, and €1.2 million to €4.0 million, for the private sector. This represents an increase of 1.91% to 7.94% for the public sector and 1.10% 3.29% in the private sector, during the 4-year time horizon. Conclusions Budget impact analysis (BIA) results indicated that the gradual introduction of DUT?+?TAM FDC, would increase the overall budget of the disease, however providing better clinical outcomes. DUT?+?TAM FDC drug acquisition cost is partly offset by the reduction in the costs associated with the treatment of the disease. PMID:25255740

  13. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  14. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shorakae, Soulmaz; Teede, Helena

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) secondary to 21-hydroxylase deficiency presented with infertility. She was treated with different steroid replacement regimens together with fludrocortisone. The aim of this case report is to discuss fertility barriers in women with classical CAH, and emphasise the risks and benefits of available steroid treatment options. Clinical considerations covered include preconception health and fertility planning, optimising fertility through suppression of excess hormone production, reducing fetal androgen exposure in utero and limiting maternal and fetal side effects of therapy and limiting chances of CAH in the baby. In this case suppression of androgen and progesterone levels was challenging but eventually was achieved and resulted in a spontaneous pregnancy. However, she miscarried in the first trimester, and fetal biopsy revealed a complete hydatiform mole. She is advised not to conceive while she is under investigation to determine the extent of the disease. PMID:23917362

  15. The H-Index as a Quantitative Indicator of the Relative Impact of Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, K. Marie; Hawkes, Iain; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Morand, Serge; Baylis, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of the relative impact of diseases and pathogens is important for agencies and other organizations charged with providing disease surveillance, management and control. It also helps funders of disease-related research to identify the most important areas for investment. Decisions as to which pathogens or diseases to target are often made using complex risk assessment approaches; however, these usually involve evaluating a large number of hazards as it is rarely feasible to conduct an in-depth appraisal of each. Here we propose the use of the H-index (or Hirsch index) as an alternative rapid, repeatable and objective means of assessing pathogen impact. H-index scores for 1,414 human pathogens were obtained from the Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science (WOS) in July/August 2010. Scores were compared for zoonotic/non-zoonotic, and emerging/non-emerging pathogens, and across taxonomic groups. H-indices for a subset of pathogens were compared with Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) estimates for the diseases they cause. H-indices ranged from 0 to 456, with a median of 11. Emerging pathogens had higher H-indices than non-emerging pathogens. Zoonotic pathogens tended to have higher H-indices than human-only pathogens, although the opposite was observed for viruses. There was a significant correlation between the DALY of a disease and the H-index of the pathogen(s) that cause it. Therefore, scientific interest, as measured by the H-index, appears to be a reflection of the true impact of pathogens. The H-index method can be utilized to set up an objective, repeatable and readily automated system for assessing pathogen or disease impact. PMID:21625581

  16. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  17. Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal. PMID:21738548

  18. A more comprehensive index in the evaluation of scientific research: the single researcher impact factor proposal.

    PubMed

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Limonta, Daniel; Sarmiento, Luis; Molinari, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Good alternatives to the Impact Factor (IF) algorithm are needed. The Thomson IF represents a limited measure of the importance of an individual article because 80% of a journal's IF is determined by only the 20% of the papers published. In the past few years, several new indexes has been created to provide alternatives to the IF algorithm. These include the removal of self citations from the calculation of the IF using the Adjusted IF, Index Copernicus initiative and other modifications such as the Cited Half-Life IF, Median IF, Disciplinary IF, and Prestige Factor. There is also the Euro-Factor, born in Europe to avoid the strong US centrality, and the English language basis of the Thomson database. One possible strategy to avoid "IF supremacy" is to create a new index, the Single Researcher Impact Factor (SRIF), that would move the evaluation from the power of scientific journals to the quality of single researchers. This measure can take into account the number and quality of the traditional publications and other activities usually associated with being a researcher, such as reviewing manuscripts, writing books, and attending scientific meetings. Also, in funding policy, it might be more useful to consider the merits, contributions, and real impact of all the scientific activities of a single researcher instead of adding only the journals' IF numbers. The major aim of this paper is to propose and describe the SRIF index that could represent a novel option to evaluate scientific research and researchers. PMID:21339895

  19. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Paola; Barbalho, Marcella; Lima, Tiago; Quintella, Leonardo; Niemeyer-Corbellini, João Paulo; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a rare disease considered as being a vascular malformation resulting from a subjacent arteriovenous shunt. It affects mostly the head of women between 20 and 40 years old and may present spontaneous involution. PMID:26120306

  20. Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system. The main function of the prostate is to ... shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system. [ Top ] What causes benign prostatic hyperplasia? The cause ...

  1. Gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Rasika Ravindra; Deshpande, Gaurav Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Hemifacial hypertrophy is a rare developmental disorder, characterized by unilateral enlargement of facial tissues. The hemifacial hyperplasia is classified as true hemifacial hypertrophy and partial hemifacial hypertrophy. It is unilateral enlargement of viscerocranial condition in which not all structures are enlarged. We present a rare case of gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia highlighting the clinical and radiological findings with the corrective treatment offered for gingival enlargement. PMID:25624636

  2. Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Marx, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Hyperplasias may progress (5 of 5) to neoplastic stages while predominant oversecretions rarely do (1 of 6; frequencies differ P<0.02). Hyperplasias do not show tumor multiplicity (0 of 5) unlike neoplasias that do (13 of 19; P<0.02). Hyperplasias express mutation of a plasma membrane-bound sensor (5 of 5), while neoplasias rarely do (3 of 14; P<0.002). In conclusion, the multiple distinguishing themes within the hyperplasias establish a robust pathophysiology. It has the shared and novel feature of mutant sensors in the plasma membrane, suggesting that these are major contributors to hyperplasia. PMID:26407873

  3. Enhancing the h index for the objective assessment of healthcare researcher performance and impact

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vanash M; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bornmann, Lutz; Mutz, Rüdiger; Makanjuola, Jonathan; Skapinakis, Petros; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the h index (a bibliometric tool which is increasingly used to assess and appraise an individual's research performance) could be improved to better measure the academic performance and citation profile for individual healthcare researchers. Design Cohort study. Setting Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. Participants Publication lists from 1 January 2000 until 31 December 2009 for 501 academic healthcare researchers from the Faculty of Medicine. Main outcome measures The h index for each researcher was calculated over a nine-year period. The citation count for each researcher was differentiated into high (h2 upper), core (h2 centre) and low (h2 lower) visibility areas. Segmented regression model (sRM) was used to statistically estimate number of high visibility publications (sRM value). Validity of the h index and other proposed adjuncts were analysed against academic rank and conventional bibliometric indicators. Results Construct validity was demonstrated for h index, h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM value (all P < 0.05). Convergent validity of the h index and sRM value was shown by significant correlations with total number of publications (r = 0.89 and 0.86 respectively, P < 0.05) and total number of citations (r = 0.96 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.05). Significant differences in h index and sRM value existed between non-physician and physician researchers (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study supports the construct validity of the h index as a measure of healthcare researcher academic rank. It also identifies the assessment value of our developed indices of h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM. These can be applied in combination with the h index to provide additional objective evidence to appraise the performance and impact of an academic healthcare researcher. PMID:23358276

  4. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Merke, Deborah P; Poppas, Dix P

    2014-01-01

    The management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia involves suppression of adrenal androgen production, in addition to treatment of adrenal insufficiency. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia is especially challenging because changes in the hormonal milieu during puberty can lead to inadequate suppression of adrenal androgens, psychosocial issues often affect adherence to medical therapy, and sexual function plays a major part in adolescence and young adulthood. For these reasons, treatment regimen reassessment is indicated during adolescence. Patients with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia require reassessment regarding the need for glucocorticoid drug treatment. No clinical trials have compared various regimens for classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults, thus therapy is individualised and based on the prevention of adverse outcomes. Extensive patient education is key during transition from paediatric care to adult care and should include education of females with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia regarding their genital anatomy and surgical history. Common issues for these patients include urinary incontinence, vaginal stenosis, clitoral pain, and cosmetic concerns; for males with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia, common issues include testicular adrenal rest tumours. Transition from paediatric to adult care is most successful when phased over many years. Education of health-care providers on how to successfully transition patients is greatly needed. PMID:24622419

  5. Monitoring Crop Yield in USA Using a Satellite-Based Climate-Variability Impact Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Anderson, Bruce; Tan, Bin; Barlow, Mathew; Myneni, Ranga

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative index is applied to monitor crop growth and predict agricultural yield in continental USA. The Climate-Variability Impact Index (CVII), defined as the monthly contribution to overall anomalies in growth during a given year, is derived from 1-km MODIS Leaf Area Index. The growing-season integrated CVII can provide an estimate of the fractional change in overall growth during a given year. In turn these estimates can provide fine-scale and aggregated information on yield for various crops. Trained from historical records of crop production, a statistical model is used to produce crop yield during the growing season based upon the strong positive relationship between crop yield and the CVII. By examining the model prediction as a function of time, it is possible to determine when the in-season predictive capability plateaus and which months provide the greatest predictive capacity.

  6. Impact on enzyme activity as a new quality index of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Balestri, Francesco; Moschini, Roberta; Cappiello, Mario; Del-Corso, Antonella; Mura, Umberto

    2013-03-15

    The aim of this study was to define a new indicator for the quality of wastewaters that are released into the environment. A quality index is proposed for wastewater samples in terms of the inertness of wastewater samples toward enzyme activity. This involves taking advantage of the sensitivity of enzymes to pollutants that may be present in the waste samples. The effect of wastewater samples on the rate of a number of different enzyme-catalyzed reactions was measured, and the results for all the selected enzymes were analyzed in an integrated fashion (multi-enzymatic sensor). This approach enabled us to define an overall quality index, the "Impact on Enzyme Function" (IEF-index), which is composed of three indicators: i) the Synoptic parameter, related to the average effect of the waste sample on each component of the enzymatic sensor; ii) the Peak parameter, related to the maximum effect observed among all the effects exerted by the sample on the sensor components; and, iii) the Interference parameter, related to the number of sensor components that are affected less than a fixed threshold value. A number of water based samples including public potable tap water, fluids from urban sewage systems, wastewater disposal from leather, paper and dye industries were analyzed and the IEF-index was then determined. Although the IEF-index cannot discriminate between different types of wastewater samples, it could be a useful parameter in monitoring the improvement of the quality of a specific sample. However, by analyzing an adequate number of waste samples of the same type, even from different local contexts, the profile of the impact of each component of the multi-enzymatic sensor could be typical for specific types of waste. The IEF-index is proposed as a supplementary qualification score for wastewaters, in addition to the certification of the waste's conformity to legal requirements. PMID:23353880

  7. The Social Media Index: Measuring the Impact of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Websites

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Brent; Sanders, Jason L.; Lin, Michelle; Paterson, Quinten S.; Steeg, Jordon; Chan, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC) that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi) was developed to help address this. Methods We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers) for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw) formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1) temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2) correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. Results The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; p<0.001) and repeated measures through seven months (r=0.929; p<0.001). When applied to EMCC journals, it correlated significantly with all impact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; p<0.001) and Article Influence Score (r=0.608; p<0.001). Conclusion The SMi’s temporal stability and correlation with journal impact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool. PMID:25834664

  8. A comparison of the environmental impact of different AOPs: risk indexes.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Jaime; Bayarri, Bernardí; González, Óscar; Malato, Sixto; Peral, José; Esplugas, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Today, environmental impact associated with pollution treatment is a matter of great concern. A method is proposed for evaluating environmental risk associated with Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) applied to wastewater treatment. The method is based on the type of pollution (wastewater, solids, air or soil) and on materials and energy consumption. An Environmental Risk Index (E), constructed from numerical criteria provided, is presented for environmental comparison of processes and/or operations. The Operation Environmental Risk Index (EOi) for each of the unit operations involved in the process and the Aspects Environmental Risk Index (EAj) for process conditions were also estimated. Relative indexes were calculated to evaluate the risk of each operation (E/NOP) or aspect (E/NAS) involved in the process, and the percentage of the maximum achievable for each operation and aspect was found. A practical application of the method is presented for two AOPs: photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis with suspended TiO2 in Solarbox. The results report the environmental risks associated with each process, so that AOPs tested and the operations involved with them can be compared. PMID:25558859

  9. Generalized gingival hyperplasia occurring during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Güngörmü?, M; Akgül, H M; Yilmaz, A B; Da?istanli, S; Erciyas, K

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we present a case of generalized gingival hyperplasia related to pregnancy causing chewing, speaking, breathing and cosmetic problems. The patient was a 26-year-old woman in the fourth month of her second pregnancy, with generalized gingival hyperplasia affecting both buccal and lingual aspects of the maxilla and mandible. The hyperplastic tissues, together with mobile teeth, were excised completely; no recurrence was observed for the remainder of the pregnancy. Hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy have long been known to be associated with generalized gingival hyperplasia. Pregnancy does not cause the condition, but altered tissue metabolism in pregnancy accentuates the response to local irritants. This case was of clinical interest because of the extent of tissue proliferation, with the teeth in both the upper and lower jaw completely submerged. PMID:12166356

  10. Assessment of the Impacts of Rice Cropping through a Soil Quality Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sione, S. M.; Wilson, M. G.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    In Entre Ríos (Argentina), rice cultivation is carried out mainly in Vertisols. Several factors, such as the use of sodium bicarbonate waters for irrigation, the excessive tillage required, and the lack of proper planning for land use, mainly regarding the crop sequence, cause serious impacts on the soil and have an effect on sustainable agriculture. Thus, the development of methodologies to detect these impacts has become a priority. The aim of this study was to standardize soil quality indicators (SQI) and integrate them into an index to evaluate the impacts of the rice production system on soil, at the farm scale. The study was conducted in farms of the traditional rice cultivation area of Entre Ríos province, Argentina. We evaluated a minimum data set consisting of six indicators: structural stability and percolation, total organic matter content (TOM), exchangeable sodium content (ESC), electrical conductivity of saturation extract (ECe) and reaction of the soil (pH). From a database from 75 production lots, we determined the reference values, i.e. limits to ensure the maintenance of long-term productivity and the allowable thresholds for each indicator. The indicators were standardized and integrated into a soil quality index. Five ranges of soil quality were established: very low, low, moderate, high and very high, depending on the values assigned to each SQI. This index allowed differentiating the impact of different crop sequences and showed that the increased participation of rice crop in the rotation resulted in a deterioration of the soil structure due to the decrease in the TOM and to the cumulative increase in ESC caused by the sodium bicarbonate water used for irrigation. Soil management strategies should aim to increase TOM values and to reduce the input of sodium to the exchange complex. A rotation with 50% to 60% of pasture and 40 to 50% of agriculture with a participation of rice lower than 20 to 25% would allow the sustainability of the production system. The use of the so called SQI, i.e. soil quality index, for rice crop production will allow generating early warning of degradation and thus adopting recovery measures.

  11. The fallacy of using NII in analyzing aircraft operations. [Noise Impact Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, R. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three measures of noise annoyance (Noise Impact Index, Level-Weighted Population, and Annoyed Population Number) are compared, regarding their utility in assessing noise reduction schemes for aircraft operations. While NII is intended to measure the average annoyance per person in a community, it is found that the method of averaging can lead to erroneous conclusions, particularly if the population does not have uniform spatial distribution. Level-Weighted Population and Annoyed Population Number are shown to be better indicators of noise annoyance when rating different strategies for noise reduction in a given community.

  12. Development of spatial water resources vulnerability index considering climate change impacts.

    PubMed

    Jun, Kyung Soo; Chung, Eun-Sung; Sung, Jin-Young; Lee, Kil Seong

    2011-11-15

    This study developed a new framework to quantify spatial vulnerability for sustainable water resources management. Four hydrologic vulnerability indices--potential flood damage (PFDC), potential drought damage (PDDC), potential water quality deterioration (PWQDC), and watershed evaluation index (WEIC)--were modified to quantify flood damage, drought damage, water quality deterioration, and overall watershed risk considering the impact of climate change, respectively. The concept of sustainability in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was applied in selecting all appropriate indicators (criteria) of climate change impacts. In the examination of climate change, future meteorological data was obtained using CGCM3 (Canadian Global Coupled Model) and SDSM (Statistical Downscaling Model), and future stream run-off and water quality were simulated using HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program - Fortran). The four modified indices were then calculated using TOPSIS, a multi-attribute method of decision analysis. As a result, the ranking obtained can be changed in consideration of climate change impacts. This study represents a new attempt to quantify hydrologic vulnerability in a manner that takes into account both climate change impacts and the concept of sustainability. PMID:21940039

  13. Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: A composite environmental impact index approach.

    PubMed

    Sabiha, Noor-E; Salim, Ruhul; Rahman, Sanzidur; Rola-Rubzen, Maria Fay

    2016-01-15

    The present study develops a composite environmental impact index (CEII) to evaluate the extent of environmental degradation in agriculture after successfully validating its flexibility, applicability and relevance as a tool. The CEII tool is then applied to empirically measure the extent of environmental impacts of High Yield Variety (HYV) rice cultivation in three districts of north-western Bangladesh for a single crop year (October, 2012-September, 2013). Results reveal that 27 to 69 per cent of the theoretical maximum level of environmental damage is created due to HYV rice cultivation with significant regional variations in the CEII scores, implying that policy interventions are required in environmentally critical areas in order to sustain agriculture in Bangladesh. PMID:26492465

  14. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in Oral Lesions: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Vaidhehi Narayan; Uma, K; Girish, H C; Murgod, Sanjay; Shyamala, K; Naik, Ranajit B

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH) is a histopathological reaction pattern to various stimuli, which includes trauma, infection, inflammation, neoplasia. It is seen as tongue like epithelial proliferation invading the connective tissue and should not be mistaken for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This review enlists oral lesions which exhibit PEH with a note on how to differentiate SCC from PEH. PMID:26435636

  15. Introducing a conditional 'Willingness to Pay' index as a quantifier for environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Fragiskos; Kopsidas, Odysseas

    2012-12-01

    The optimal concentration Copt of a pollutant in the environment can be determined as an equilibrium point in the trade off between (i) environmental cost, due to impact on man/ecosystem/economy, and (ii) economic cost for environmental protection, as it can be expressed by Pigouvian tax. These two conflict variables are internalized within the same techno-economic objective function of total cost, which is minimized. In this work, the first conflict variable is represented by a Willingness To Pay (WTP) index. A methodology is developed for the estimation of this index by using fuzzy sets to count for uncertainty. Implementation of this methodology is presented, concerning odor pollution of air round an olive pomace oil mill. The ASTM E544-99 (2004) 'Standard Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity' has been modified to serve as a basis for testing, while a network of the quality standards, required for the realization/application of this 'Practice', is also presented. Last, sensitivity analysis of Copt as regards the impact of (i) the increase of environmental information/sensitization and (ii) the decrease of interest rate reveals a shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively; certain positive and negative implications (i.e., shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively) caused by socio-economic parameters are also discussed.

  16. Indexes to anticipate negative impacts of heat waves in urban Mediterranean environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, A. M.; Carvalho, C. V.; Velho, S. V.; Sousa, C. S.

    2012-04-01

    This study intention is to understand what might be the better indexes to anticipate health deterioration during temperature extreme events in a urban Mediterranean environment like Porto. To do this we look to the effects of the July 2006 Heat Wave using the Heat Index on the Mortality (All Causes) and Morbidity (All Causes, Respiratory and Circulatory diseases) in general, and in people over 74 years and by Gender, in Porto. The Poisson Generalized Additive Regression model was used in order to estimate the impact of Apparent Temperature (Heat Index) and Daily Mortality and Morbidity during the July 2006 Heat Wave. Daily Mortality, Morbidity and Heat Index was correlated with lags of Apparent Temperature up to 7 days using Pearson correlation. For a 1°C increase in mean Apparent Temperature we observed a 2.7% (95%CI:1.7-3.6%) increase in Mortality (for All Causes), 1.7% (95%CI:0.6-2.9%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,2% (95%CI:0.4-4.1%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 5,4% (95%CI:1.1-6.6%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity and 7,5% (95%CI:1.3-14.1%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity, for the entire population. For people ? 75 years, our work showed a 3,3% increase (95%CI:1.7-5.0%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,7% (95%CI:0.4-5.1%) in Men Respiratory Morbidity, 3,9% (95%CI:1.6-6.3%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 7.0% (95%CI:1.1-13.2%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and 9.0% (95%CI:0.3-18.5%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We conclude that the use of Heat Index in a Mediterranean Tempered Climate enabled the identification of the effects of the July 2006 Heat Wave in Mortality due to All Causes and in Respiratory Morbidity of the General Population, as well as in Respiratory Morbidity of individuals with more than 74 years of age.

  17. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sabrina; da Silva Fabris, André Luis; Ferreira, Gabriel Ramalho; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Francisconi, Giovanna Barbosa; Souza, Francisley Avila; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel

    2014-05-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a pathologic condition that causes overdevelopment of the condylar head and neck as well as the mandible. Slowly progressive unilateral enlargement of the head and the neck of the condyle causes crossbite malocclusion, facial asymmetry, and shifting of the midpoint of the chin to the unaffected side. The etiology and the pathogenesis of CH remain uncertain. The diagnosis is made by clinical and radiologic examinations and bone scintigraph. A difference in uptake of 10% or more between condyles is regarded as indicative of CH, and the affected condyles had a relative uptake of 55% or more. When the diagnosis of active CH is established, the treatment consists of removal of the growth center by a partial condylectomy. The authors present the case of a 46-year-old male patient with right active type II CH or hemimandibular hyperplasia who underwent a high condylectomy. PMID:24820728

  18. A damage index of indentation sensitivity in low velocity impact conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, V.; Caprino, G.; Leone, C.; Langella, A.

    2014-05-01

    The empirical model recently found [1] for the prediction of the indentation depth was verified for composite laminates different in matrix and fibre subjected to low velocity impact loads. The data obtained in [1] on common glass and carbon fibre laminates made by common epoxy matrix, were here compared to the results obtained on laminates made by glass fibre immersed in phenolic matrix and novel basalt fibre in epoxy resin. The model takes into explicitly account the tup diameter and presents the advantage that only a single material constant to be experimentally determined is necessary for the prediction. The comparison showed that the value of the constant is different for the different material systems analysed so that it can be assumed as an index for the indentation sensitivity.

  19. Impact of fine particulate fluctuation and other variables on Beijing's air quality index.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Lu, Shaowei; Li, Shaoning; Wang, Bing

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed fluctuation in Beijing's air quality over 328 days, based on air quality grades and air quality data from 35 atmospheric monitoring stations. Our results show the air over Beijing is subject to pollution 152 days of the year, or 46.34%. Among all pollutants, fine particulates, solid or liquid, 2.5 ?m or less in size (PM2.5), appeared most frequently as the primary pollutant: 249 days, or 76% of the sample year (328 days). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and coarse particulates (PM10) cause the least pollution, appearing only 7 and 3 days, or 2 and 1% of the sample year, respectively. In Beijing, fine particulates like PM2.5 vary seasonally: 154.54?±?18.60 in winter?>?145.22?±?18.61 in spring?>?140.16?±?20.76 in autumn?>?122.37?±?13.42 in summer. Air quality is best in August and worst in December, while various districts in Beijing experience different air quality. To be specific, from south to north and from west to east, air quality tends to improve. Meteorological elements have a constraining effect on air pollutants, which means there is a linear correlation between the air quality index and humidity, rainfall, wind speed, and temperature. Under a typical pollution scenario, the higher the air quality index (AQI) value, the lower the wind speed and the greater the relative humidity; the lower the AQI value, the higher the wind speed and lower the relative humidity. Analysis of influencing factors reveals that the air pollution is mainly particulate matter produced by burning coal, vehicle emissions, volatile oils and gas, fast development of food services, emissions from the surrounding region, and natural dust clouds formed in arid areas to the northwest. Topography affects the distribution of meteorological conditions, in turn varying air quality over the region from one location to another. Human activities also exercise impact on urban air quality with dual functions. PMID:25563832

  20. The Impact of Body Mass Index on the Surgical Outcomes of Patients With Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai-Ning; Chen, Xin-Zu; Zhang, Wei-Han; Yang, Kun; Chen, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the short-term and long-term results of a large cohort of gastric cancer (GC) patients undergoing gastrectomy. Recently, the “obesity paradox” has been proposed, referring to the paradoxically “better” outcomes of overweight and obese patients compared with nonoverweight patients. The associations between BMI and surgical outcomes among patients with GC remain controversial. A single-institution cohort of 1249 GC patients undergoing gastrectomy between 2000 and 2010 were categorized to low-BMI (<18.49?kg/m2), normal-BMI (18.50–24.99?kg/m2), and high-BMI (?25.00?kg/m2) groups. The postoperative complications were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo system, and their severity was assessed by using the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI). The impact of BMI on the postoperative complications and overall survival was analyzed. There were 908, 158, and 182 patients in the normal-BMI, low-BMI, and high-BMI groups, respectively. The overall morbidity in the high-BMI group (24.7%) was higher than that in either the low-BMI or the normal-BMI group (20.9% and 15.5%, respectively; P?=?0.006), but the mean CCI in the low-BMI group was significantly higher (8.32?±?19.97) than the mean CCI in the normal-BMI and high-BMI groups (3.76?±?11.98 and 5.58?±?13.07, respectively; P?

  1. Impact of Body Mass Index on Outcomes After Conformal Radiotherapy in Patients With Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, Hans; Thamm, Reinhard; Mueller, Tobias; Jess, Kerstin; Zimmermann, Frank B.; Molls, Michael; Nieder, Carsten

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Several retrospective analyses have suggested that obese men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) have outcomes inferior to those of normal-weight men. However, a recently presented analysis for the first time challenged this association between body mass index (BMI) and treatment failure. It is therefore important to provide further data on this issue. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of 564 men treated with risk-adapted conformal EBRT at a single institution. Low-risk patients received EBRT alone, and the other patients received EBRT plus endocrine treatment. In addition, high-risk patients were treated to higher EBRT doses (74 Gy). A rectal balloon catheter for internal immobilization, which can be identified on portal images, was used in 261 patients (46%). Thus, localization did not rely on bony landmarks alone in these cases. Results: The median BMI was 26, and 15% of patients had BMI {>=}30. Neither univariate nor multivariate analyses detected any significant impact of BMI on biochemical relapse, prostate cancer-specific survival, or overall survival. The 5-year biochemical relapse rate was 21% and prostate cancerspecific survival 96%. Conclusions: The present analysis of a large cohort of consecutively treated patients suggests that efforts to reduce prostate movement and geographic miss might result in comparable outcomes in obese and normal-weight patients.

  2. Clinical and Imaging Findings of True Hemifacial Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bhuta, Bansari A.; Desai, Rajiv S.; Bansal, Shivani P.; Chemburkar, Vipul V.; Dev, Prashant V.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia is a rare developmental disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by a marked unilateral facial asymmetry. It involves the hard (bones and teeth) and soft tissues of the face. We report an interesting case of true hemifacial hyperplasia in a 25-year-old male highlighting the clinical and computed tomography imaging findings. PMID:24349801

  3. Nitrendipine-induced gingival hyperplasia. First case report.

    PubMed

    Brown, R S; Sein, P; Corio, R; Bottomley, W K

    1990-11-01

    Drug-induced gingival hyperplasia is well documented within the literature. It has been associated with phenytoin, cyclosporine, and calcium channel blocking agents. Nitrendipine is an experimental calcium channel blocking agent that also appears to cause the side effect of drug-induced gingival hyperplasia. The clinical and histologic presentation of this side effect and possible biochemical mechanisms of pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:2234880

  4. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vishal; Kim, Jong Joo; Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina; Dwivedi, Anila; Rai, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  5. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  6. Prolonged exposure of cholestatic rats to complete dark inhibits biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuyan; Onori, Paolo; Meng, Fanyin; DeMorrow, Sharon; Venter, Julie; Francis, Heather; Franchitto, Antonio; Ray, Debolina; Kennedy, Lindsey; Greene, John; Renzi, Anastasia; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Glaser, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are common features in cholestatic liver disease. Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland as well as the liver. Melatonin inhibits biliary hyperplasia of bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. Since melatonin synthesis (by the enzyme serotonin N-acetyltransferase, AANAT) from the pineal gland increases after dark exposure, we hypothesized that biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are diminished by continuous darkness via increased melatonin synthesis from the pineal gland. Normal or BDL rats (immediately after surgery) were housed with light-dark cycles or complete dark for 1 wk before evaluation of 1) the expression of AANAT in the pineal gland and melatonin levels in pineal gland tissue supernatants and serum; 2) biliary proliferation and intrahepatic bile duct mass, liver histology, and serum chemistry; 3) secretin-stimulated ductal secretion (functional index of biliary growth); 4) collagen deposition, liver fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver, and cholangiocytes; and 5) expression of clock genes in cholangiocytes. In BDL rats exposed to dark there was 1) enhanced AANAT expression/melatonin secretion in pineal gland and melatonin serum levels; 2) improved liver morphology, serum chemistry and decreased biliary proliferation and secretin-stimulated choleresis; and 4) decreased fibrosis and expression of fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver and cholangiocytes and reduced biliary expression of the clock genes PER1, BMAL1, CLOCK, and Cry1. Thus prolonged dark exposure may be a beneficial noninvasive therapeutic approach for the management of biliary disorders. PMID:25214401

  7. Early detection of drought impact on rice paddies in Indonesia by means of Niño 3.4 index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmaini, Elza; Hadi, Tri Wahyu; Subagyono, Kasdi; Puspito, Nanang Tyasbudi

    2015-08-01

    El Niño events have been frequently marked by drought occurrences with severe consequences for agricultural production in Indonesia. Paddy drought occurs almost every year and extends during El Niño phenomena. The Niño 3.4 index is commonly used as an important tool for managing a food security policy. However, there are no details regarding the impact of El Niño on drought-induced paddy damage. We developed the Paddy Drought Impact Index (PDII), which is the ratio of drought-induced paddy damaged area to the total paddy area planted in order to investigate the impact of drought on paddies among 335 districts in Indonesia. Unlike other agricultural drought indices, this index represents real-life percentage of drought-induced paddy damage to indicate each district's relative severity to drought, which can be easily understood by practical users. The connection between the Niño 3.4 index and PDII was assessed using cross correlation analysis. Scatter plots of best lag time Niño 3.4 index against PDII were examined. The findings show that with 2 months lag of Niño 3.4 prior to PDII, March and June Niño 3.4 indices can be used to predict May-July and August-October PDII, respectively. Critical thresholds of the March Niño 3.4 index were found to range from 0.0 to 0.5 °C, which is associated with a 0.57 probability of weak El Niño occurrence during the subsequent 5 months. On the other hand, a higher probability of 0.67 for occurrences of moderate El Niño is associated with the critical thresholds of June Niño 3.4 index, which ranges from 0.5-1.0 °C. This study has found that the potential impact of drought due to the weak and moderate El Niño occurrences in Indonesia is such that yields are reduced by about 40 % in average. We also found that the most drought-prone areas are located in West Java for both May-July and August-October and in South Sulawesi for August-October.

  8. Inhibitory effects of Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside on benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hai-Nan; Xu, Yuan; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Wang, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside (GTW) against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group I, vehicle control group (sham-operated and treated with vehicle); Group II, BPH group; Group III, BPH rats treated with finasteride at a dose of 5 mg·kg(-1); and Groups IV and V, BPH rats treated with GTW at dose levels of 10 and 20 mg·kg(-1), respectively. The drugs were administered orally once a day for 14 days. Prostate weight, prostatic index, and the testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in serum and prostate, and the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were measured; prostate tissues were taken for histopathological examination; and serum biochemical analysis was also performed. The BPH rats displayed an increase in prostate weight, prostatic index with increased testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, and increased serum PSA levels. GTW treatment at both doses resulted in significant reductions in prostate weight, prostatic index, testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, and serum PSA levels, compared with BPH group. Histopathological examination also indicated that GTW treatment at both doses inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Serum biochemical analysis showed that the liver and renal functions were normal. In conclusion, GTW inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats, without host toxicity, providing a basis for the development of GTW as a novel therapy for BPH. PMID:26073338

  9. Indexing Tuition to Cost of Education: The Impact on Students and Institutions. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viehland, Dennis W.; And Others

    The emerging trend in state higher education finance policy to use and index to establish tuition and fee levels at public institutions was studied, based on a 1980 national survey of tuition-setting policies. It was found that, increasingly, states are adopting indexing to cost of education as an established policy for determining tuition: 14…

  10. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical manifestations and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Santos Dias, José

    2012-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a very common condition, related to aging and causing symptoms, called lower urinary tract symptoms. On account of its huge prevalence, it is important for clinicians who are involved in the management of patients with BPH to be aware of the very strict recommendations for BPH evaluation. In this article, we describe the different steps and procedures doctors should follow to evaluate these patients; symptoms and signs of BPH are reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation steps and examinations available. The basic evaluation of the patients with BPH should include, according to the recommendations of the most relevant international guidelines, lower urinary tract symptoms evaluation with appropriate symptom scores, digital rectal examination, voiding charts, prostate-specific antigen and creatinine measurement, urinalysis, and imaging of the urinary tract. PMID:23244722

  11. Microwave Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Raffoul, George

    2005-01-01

    Microwave ablation in the form of microwave energy applied to a heart muscle by a coaxial catheter inserted in a vein in the groin area can be used to heat and kill diseased heart cells. A microwave catheter has been developed to provide deep myocardial ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia by restoring appropriate electrical activity within the heart and eliminating irregular heartbeats. The resulting microwave catheter design, which is now being developed for commercial use in treating ventricular tachycardia, can be modified to treat prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inasmuch as the occurrence of BPH is increasing currently 350,000 operations per year are performed in the United States alone to treat this condition this microwave catheter has significant commercial potential.

  12. Phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A minireview.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Ester; Laudato, Massimiliano; Griffo, Michele; Capasso, Raffaele

    2014-07-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition affecting older men, with an incidence that is age-dependent. Histological BPH, which typically develops after the age of 40 years, ranges in prevalence from >50% at 60 years to as high as 90% by 85 years of age. Typical symptoms include increased frequency of urination, nocturia, urgency, hesitancy, and weak urine stream. Conventional medicines used for the treatment of BPH include alpha blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. This articles review the mode of action, the efficacy, and the safety, including herb-drug interactions of the most common botanicals (Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica, and Cucurbita pepo) and nutraceuticals (isoflavones, lycopene, selenium, and ?-Sitosterol) in controlling the lower urinary tract symptoms associated to BPH. PMID:25165780

  13. Langerhans Cell Hyperplasia From Molluscum Contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Hatter, Alyn D; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis, which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics, which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine whether molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion, demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. Polymerase chain reaction on biopsy-proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion has been performed. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. The authors report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histological lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive "driver" in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  14. Foveolar hyperplasia at the gastric cardia: prevalence and associations

    PubMed Central

    Voutilainen, M; Juhola, M; Färkkilä, M; Sipponen, P

    2002-01-01

    Aims: In the gastric antrum and body, foveolar hyperplasia is a feature of reactive gastritis resulting from—for example, duodenogastric bile reflux and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and clinical relevance of gastric cardiac foveolar hyperplasia. Methods: The study population was drawn from a consecutive series of 1698 patients sent for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Only cases without chronic gastritis or Barrett's oesophagus were included. The final study population consisted of 307 patients. Results: Foveolar hyperplasia was seen in the gastric cardiac mucosa in 31 (10%) patients with histologically normal stomach mucosa, but none had endoscopically noticeable hyperplastic polyps. Compared with patients without gastric cardiac hyperplasia, those with hyperplasia more often had chronic inflammation and complete intestinal metaplasia in the junctional biopsies (48% v 77% and 9% v 26%, respectively). Logistic regression analysis revealed that chronic cardiac inflammation (odds ratio (OR), 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3 to 7.8) and intestinal metaplasia of the complete type (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 7.1) were independent risk factors for cardiac foveolar hyperplasia. In univariate analysis, endoscopic erosive oesophagitis (endoscopy positive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease) and the use of NSAIDs were not related to the presence of foveolar hyperplasia. Conclusions: Foveolar hyperplasia in the gastric cardiac mucosa occurs in patients with histologically normal non-gastritic stomachs and may develop as a consequence of chronic inflammation limited to the gastro-oesophageal junction (“junctitis”). It is not associated directly with endoscopy positive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease or the use of NSAIDs. PMID:11986340

  15. Giant benign prostatic hyperplasia in a young adult male.

    PubMed

    Georgiades, Fanourios; Demosthenous, Sotiris; Antoniades, George; Kouriefs, Chryssanthos

    2014-08-01

    A 27-year-old Caucasian male presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and hemospermia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a prostate of 180 mL. The patient underwent open transvesical prostatic enucleation with preoperative and postoperative histopathologic examinations consistent with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a very rare condition at this age group, with this patient being the youngest non-Asian confirmed case in the literature. PMID:24958475

  16. Delta Cell Hyperplasia in Adult Goto-Kakizaki (GK/MolTac) Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alán, Lukáš; Olejár, Tomáš; Cahová, Monika; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Berková, Zuzana; Sm?táková, Magdalena; Saudek, František; Mat?j, Radoslav; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Reduced beta cell mass in pancreatic islets (PI) of Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats is frequently observed in this diabetic model, but knowledge on delta cells is scarce. Aiming to compare delta cell physiology/pathology of GK to Wistar rats, we found that delta cell number increased over time as did somatostatin mRNA and delta cells distribution in PI is different in GK rats. Subtle changes in 6-week-old GK rats were found. With maturation and aging of GK rats, disturbed cytoarchitecture occurred with irregular beta cells accompanied by delta cell hyperplasia and loss of pancreatic polypeptide (PPY) positivity. Unlike the constant glucose-stimulation index for insulin PI release in Wistar rats, this index declined with GK age, whereas for somatostatin it increased with age. A decrease of GK rat PPY serum levels was found. GK rat body weight decreased with increasing hyperglycemia. Somatostatin analog octreotide completely blocked insulin secretion, impaired proliferation at low autocrine insulin, and decreased PPY secretion and mitochondrial DNA in INS-1E cells. In conclusion, in GK rats PI, significant local delta cell hyperplasia and suspected paracrine effect of somatostatin diminish beta cell viability and contribute to the deterioration of beta cell mass. Altered PPY-secreting cells distribution amends another component of GK PI's pathophysiology. PMID:26236746

  17. Nonclassical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cuhaci, Neslihan; Ayd?n, Cevdet; Yesilyurt, Ahmet; P?narl?, Ferda Alpaslan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency due to mutation of the CYP21A2 gene. Patients with nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH) are usually asymptomatic at birth and typically present in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood with symptoms of excessive androgen secretion. Subfertility is relative in NC-CAH, but the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is higher. Here, we report a previously undiagnosed female who gave birth to a normal male child and is planning to become pregnant again. Case Report. A 32-year-old female was referred to our clinic for obesity. Her medical history revealed that she had had three pregnancies. She was planning to become pregnant again. Her laboratory results revealed that she had NC-CAH. Since her husband is the son of her aunt and she had miscarriages and intrauterin exitus in her history, their genetic analyses were performed. Conclusion. Since most patients with NC-CAH have a severe mutation, these patients may give birth to a child with the classical CAH (C-CAH) if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Females with NC-CAH who desire pregnancy must be aware of the risk of having an infant with C-CAH. PMID:26558116

  18. Neointimal hyperplasia associated with synthetic hemodialysis grafts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Terry, Christi M.; Shiu, Yan-Ting E.; Cheung, Alfred K.

    2008-01-01

    Stenosis is a major cause of failure of hemodialysis vascular grafts and is primarily caused by neointimal hyperplasia (NH) at the anastomoses. The objective of this article is to provide a scientific review of the biology underlying this disorder and a critical review of the state-of-the-art investigational preventive strategies in order to stimulate further research in this exciting area. The histology of the NH shows myofibroblasts (that are probably derived from adventitial fibroblasts), extracellular matrices, pro-inflammatory cells including foreign-body giant cells, a variety of growth factors and cytokines, and neovasculature. The contributing factors of the pathogenesis of NH include surgical trauma, bioincompatibility of the synthetic graft, and the various mechanical stresses that result from luminal hypertension and compliance mismatch between the vessel wall and graft. These mechanical stimuli are focal in nature and may have a significant influence on the preferential localization of the NH. Novel mechanical graft designs and local drug delivery strategies show promise in animal models in preventing graft NH development. Successful prevention of graft stenosis would provide a superior alternative to the native fistula as hemodialysis vascular access. PMID:18668026

  19. A case of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Ghasemi, Mahmoud; Hovsepian, Silva

    2012-07-01

    Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), a rare disorder of steroid biosynthesis, is the most severe form of CAH. In this disorder the synthesis of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex steroids is impaired which result in adrenal failure, severe salt wasting crisis and hyperpigmentation in phenotypical female infants irrespective of genetic sex. In this report, we presented a 28-day-old phenotypic female infant, which referred with lethargy, failure to thrive and electrolyte abnormalities. Considering the clinical and biochemical findings, lipoid CAH was diagnosed and replacement therapy with standard doses of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid and sodium chloride was initiated. During follow-up, she had good clinical condition, but at 6 years of age, she refers with hypertension and adrenal insufficiency because of arbitrary drug discontinuation by mother. In ultrasonography an abdominal mass (the testicles) was reported. Chromosome study showed 46XY pattern. Orchiectomy was performed. We recommended that in cases with clinical presentation of adrenal insufficiency if there is not the facility to determine the karyotype, repeated ultrasonography perform during follow-up. In addition, investigating the genetic bases of the disorder would help us to determine the pathogenesis of lipoid CAH in our community. It would be helpful in prenatal diagnosis and treatment of the disorder to prevent its related comorbidities. PMID:22891154

  20. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Yau, Mabel; Barhan, Ariella; Zaidi, Mone; Lo, Y M Dennis; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is genital ambiguity noted at birth in affected females, which leads to psychological and psychosexual issues in adult life. Attempts to correct genital ambiguity through surgical intervention have been partially successful. Fetal hyperandrogenemia and genital ambiguity have been shown to be preventable by prenatal administration of low-dose dexamethasone initiated before the 9th week of gestation. In 7 of 8 at-risk pregnancies, the unaffected fetus is unnecessarily exposed to dexamethasone for weeks until the diagnosis of classical CAH is ruled out by invasive procedures. This therapeutic dilemma calls for early prenatal diagnosis so that dexamethasone treatment can be directed to affected female fetuses only. We describe the utilization of cell-free fetal DNA in mothers carrying at-risk fetuses as early as 6 gestational weeks by targeted massively parallel sequencing of the genomic region including and flanking the CYP21A2 gene. Our highly personalized and innovative approach should permit the diagnosis of CAH before genital development begins, therefore restricting the purposeful administration of dexamethasone to mothers carrying affected females. PMID:26683339

  1. Nanog induces hyperplasia without initiating tumors.

    PubMed

    Fischedick, Gerrit; Wu, Guangming; Adachi, Kenjiro; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Greber, Boris; Radstaak, Martina; Köhler, Gabriele; Tapia, Natalia; Iacone, Roberto; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Schöler, Hans R; Zaehres, Holm

    2014-09-01

    Though expression of the homeobox transcription factor Nanog is generally restricted to pluripotent cells and early germ cells, many contradictory reports about Nanog's involvement in tumorigenesis exist. To address this, a modified Tet-On system was utilized to generate Nanog-inducible mice. Following prolonged Nanog expression, phenotypic alterations were found to be restricted to the intestinal tract, leaving other major organs unaffected. Intestinal and colonic epithelium hyperplasia was observed-intestinal villi had doubled in length and hyperplastic epithelium outgrowths were seen after 7days. Increased proliferation of crypt cells and downregulation of the tumor suppressors Cdx2 and Klf4 was detected. ChIP analysis showed physical interaction of Nanog with the Cdx2 and Klf4 promoters, indicating a regulatory conservation from embryonic development. Despite downregulation of tumor suppressors and increased proliferation, ectopic Nanog expression did not lead to tumor formation. We conclude that unlike other pluripotency-related transcription factors, Nanog cannot be considered an oncogene. PMID:25173648

  2. Impact of food processing on the glycemic index (GI) of potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potatoes are one of the most popular carbohydrate foods in industrialized and some developing countries. However, contradicting arguments and misconceptions on potatoes as a high glycemic index (GI) food is directly affecting potato consumption during the past years. Potato varieties, maturity level...

  3. Minimally invasive therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Blute, M L; Larson, T

    2001-12-01

    Currently, 3 categories of treatment are available for men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): (1) medicine, such as alpha-blockers and finasteride; (2) minimally invasive treatment, such as transurethral microwave thermotherapy and interstitial ablation using either radiofrequency or laser; and (3) surgical therapy. The 1990s have seen an explosion of transurethral technology to treat symptoms caused by bladder outlet obstruction secondary to BPH. Unlike surgical debulking procedures, the minimally invasive therapies attempt to treat patients without general or regional anesthesia, and even ambulatory procedures are performed in the office. Because of the demographics of patients with BPH, it is hoped that these minimally invasive options will relieve symptoms without any surgical complications and the side effects and compliance issues associated with medical therapy. It is important that urologists have a clear understanding of the clinical usefulness of these devices, so that the overall role of such treatment may be determined by science rather than marketing. Clinically, the degree of symptom score, peak flow, and quality-of-life improvement seen with all the minimally invasive techniques are similar. The techniques may differ in their ability to reach the maximum number of responders and achieve an acceptable duration of response, and the need for analgesia/sedation associated with each technique. This study will define the minimally invasive therapies and present the differences in catheter design and technique. The pathologic basis for these therapeutic options and the advantages and disadvantages of each will be discussed. Urologists must decide which therapy can be used in their office practice. The maximum numbers of responders and enhanced durability of the treatment can be achieved based on realistic expectations, proper selection of patients, and complete information on the potential of these devices. PMID:11750248

  4. AN IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GLOBAL WATER RESOURCES BY USING A WATER SCARCITY INDEX CONSIDERING SEASONAL WATER VARIABILITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Hanasaki, Naota; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hijioka, Yasuaki

    Several reports have assessed water scarcity globally using a widely accepted index on an annual basis, namely, withdrawal-to-water resources ratio (WWR). Here, we ask whether it is appropriate to use the WWR to assess the impact of climate change. Global warming is projected to increase the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation, decrease snowfall, and change the timing of snowmelt. To assess the impact of climate change on global water resources incorporating sub-annual time-scale phenomena, this study applies a new water scarcity index on a daily basis termed the cumulative withdrawal-to-demand ratio (CWD) . Our results indicated that global warming increased the mean annual runoff in 61% of the total land area globally. However, in 22% of the area where runoff increased, the CWD showed increased water stress. Those regions included India, northern China, and Europe. For India, the increase in water stress was attributed to the seasonal gap between runoff and water demand. The increased runoff was concentrated in a few months, while the high irrigation water demand months differed and were much longer. For Europe, the change was attributed to the shift in the timing of snowmelt, which occurred a few months earlier than at present, causing water shortages in early summer.

  5. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Kaicheng; Gao, Shan; Wu, Hao; Luo, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months). When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation's responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April-October). The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages. PMID:26184243

  6. Tackling climate change impacts in the context of sustainability: the livelihood index as an integrative framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissner, Tabea K.; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Climate change will have consequences for human livelihoods, deriving from multiple direct and indirect impacts. Knowledge on sectoral impacts is increasing, e.g. the water the sector, however this knowledge remains fragmented and an integrative framework to assess the consequences of sectoral climate impacts on human livelihoods is missing. Further, adaptation needs to adapt to the expected climate impacts should be linked to goals of sustainable development. We introduce a modelling framework to quantify relevant livelihood dimensions, based on an extensive, interdisciplinary literature review. The applied fuzzy methodology allows translating the concept of livelihoods into a measurable framework, while retaining relationships and processes along the chain of aggregation. The framework includes a range of aspects including natural, infrastructural as well as societal resources. A quantification of these requirements can provide insights to several important issues in human-environmental systems. On the one hand it allows linking and integrating sectoral climate impacts, enabling cross-sectoral comparison. On the other hand, it paves the way towards addressing issues of sustainability, by focussing on the fulfilment of needs, which is a core component of the sustainability concept. On the basis of several climate change scenarios, we exemplify our approach by calculating the consequences of changes in water availability for human livelihoods over the course of the century. We present results from a global assessment at country-level, as well as more detailed insight from several country case studies at sub-national resolution.

  7. “Venopathy” at Work: Recasting Neointimal Hyperplasia in a New Light

    PubMed Central

    Yevzlin, Alexander S.; Chan, Micah R.; Becker, Yolanda T.; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Lee, Timmy; Becker, Bryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis vascular access is a unique form of vascular anastomosis. Though created in a unique disease state, it has much to offer in terms of insights into venous endothelial and anastomotic biology. The development of neointimal hyperplasia has been identified as a pathologic entity, decreasing the lifespan and effectiveness of hemodialysis vascular access. Subtle hints and new data suggest a contrary idea—that neointimal hyperplasia, to some extent an expected response, if controlled properly, may play a beneficial role in the promotion of maturation to a functional access. This review attempts to recast our understanding of neointimal hyperplasia and redefine research goals for an evolving discipline that focuses on a life-sustaining connection between an artery and vein. PMID:20875897

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus and nodular regenerative hyperplasia of liver: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Archita; Castrejón, Mariana; Saab, Sammy

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnosis, pathogenesis, natural history, and management of nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the medical literature regarding NRH in patients with HIV. Inclusion criteria include reports with biopsy proven NRH. We studied the clinical features of NRH, in particular, related to its presenting manifestation and laboratory values. Combinations of the following keywords were implemented: “nodular regenerative hyperplasia”, “human immunodeficiency virus”, “noncirrhotic portal hypertension”, “idiopathic portal hypertension”, “cryptogenic liver disease”, “highly active antiretroviral therapy” and “didanosine”. The bibliographies of these studies were subsequently searched for any additional relevant publications. RESULTS: The clinical presentation of patients with NRH varies from patients being completely asymptomatic to the development of portal hypertension – namely esophageal variceal bleeding and ascites. Liver associated enzymes are generally normal and synthetic function well preserved. There is a strong association between the occurrence of NRH and the use of antiviral therapies such as didanosine. The management of NRH revolves around treating the manifestations of portal hypertension. The prognosis of NRH is generally good since liver function is preserved. A high index of suspicion is required to make a identify NRH. CONCLUSION: The appropriate management of HIV-infected persons with suspected NRH is yet to be outlined. However, NRH is a clinically subtle condition that is difficult to diagnose, and it is important to be able to manage it according to the best available evidence. PMID:24653794

  9. A STATEWIDE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACTS OF P-INDEX IMPLEMENTATION IN PENNSYLVANIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) based nutrient management regulations may affect the viability of agricultural systems in PA. Identification of areas likely to be impacted by P regulations will allow targeting of state programs and maximum reduction of P losses. A GIS analysis based on a large soils database (1996...

  10. IMPERVIOUS SURFACE AREA AND BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE RESPONSE AS INDEX OF IMPACT FROM URBANIZATION ON FRESHWATER WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of benthic macroinvertebrates to monitor water quality and ecological integrity is not as well established for wetlands as it is for rivers, streams and lakes where this form of biomonitoring is now a formalized procedure. he impact to wetlands from urbanization (as measu...

  11. GIS based water quality indexing of Malad creek, Mumbai (India): an impact of sewage discharges.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Bhattacharyya, Tapas; Joshi, Rucha R; Dhage, S S; Sohony, R A

    2011-04-01

    Malad creek is one of the most heavily polluted water bodies in Mumbai, India. Presently, creek receives wastewater and sewage from open drains and nallahs as well as partially treated wastewater from treatment facilities. The objective of the present study was to assess and classify the water quality zones spatially and temporally based on physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. For this, GIS based methodology was integrated with water quality indexing, according to National Sanitation Foundation. Nine water quality parameters were considered to generate the indices that represent the overall status of creek water quality. Based on field observations and spatial distribution of water quality, various options were suggested for improvement in water quality of the creek. PMID:23033696

  12. Blood Pressure Changes during Pregnancy: Impact of Race, Body Mass Index, and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Magriples, Urania; Boynton, Marcella H.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of race, body mass index (BMI), and weight gain on blood pressure in pregnancy and postpartum. Study Design Secondary analysis of pregnant women aged 14 to 25 who received prenatal care at a university-affiliated public clinic in New Haven, Connecticut and delivered singleton term infants (n = 418). Longitudinal multivariate analysis was used to evaluate blood pressure trajectories from pregnancy through 12 weeks postpartum. Results Obese and overweight women had significantly higher blood pressure readings as compared with women with normal BMI (all p < 0.05). African American women who had high pregnancy weight gain had the greatest increase in mean arterial and diastolic blood pressures in pregnancy and postpartum. Conclusion Blood pressure trajectories in pregnancy and postpartum are significantly affected by race, BMI, and weight gain. Given the young age of this cohort, targeted efforts must be made for postpartum weight reduction to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:23059493

  13. The Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Changes on Disability Transitions and Mortality in Brazilian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Drumond Andrade, Flávia Cristina; Mohd Nazan, Ahmad Iqmer Nashriq; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006), were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages. PMID:23691319

  14. Impact of body mass index on outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vinícius Eduardo Araújo; Ferolla, Silvia Marinho; dos Reis, Tâmara Oliveira; Rabello, Renato Rocha; Rocha, Eduardo Augusto Victor; Couto, Célia Maria Ferreira; Couto, José Carlos Ferreira; Bento, Alduir

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to analyze the impact of body mass index on outcomes of 101 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or combined valve/ coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in a private hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study of patients undergoing cardiac surgery from May 2009 to December 2012. All patients were followed up from the first day of admission until discharge or death. Patients were divided into three groups according to BMI: normal weight, overweight, and obese. The main outcome measure was the association between BMI and postoperative morbidities and mortality. Results Multivariate analysis identified obesity as an independent predictor of increased risk of surgical reintervention (odds ratio [OR] 13.6; 95%CI 1.1 - 162.9; P=0.046) and reduced risk of bleeding (OR 0.05; 95% CI 0.09 - 0.69; P=0.025). Univariate analysis showed that obesity was associated with increased frequency of wound dehiscence (P=0.021). There was no association between BMI and other complications or mortality in univariate analysis. There was also no association between body mass index and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic clamping, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit or hospital stay. Conclusion Obese individuals undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or combined surgery have a higher postoperative risk of surgical reintervention and lower chances of bleeding. PMID:26313724

  15. Global spatial indexing of the human impact on Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn mobilization.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Jason N

    2010-08-01

    With increasing consumption of material by human activity, the extent of human influence relative to nature in the mobilization of metals and other elements on Earth continues to grow. Recognizing people as modern geomorphic agents, I produced global data layers at 1 degreesx1 degrees of human-mediated mass flows (coal combustion, biomass burning, and mining) and nature-mediated mass flows (net primary productivity, sea salt aerosol emission, and denudation to the oceans) for the industrial metals of aluminum, iron, copper, and zinc for the year 2000. The major mobilization processes are denudation (natural) and mining (anthropic), though net primary productivity for Zn and Cu and coal combustion for Al are nearly as significant. All flows are subsequently combined into an index representing human versus nature flow dominance. As the first maps of mobilization flows of metals widely used by modern technology, they reveal that approximately 1-5% (depending upon the metal) of Earth's land surface now has metal flow dominated by human activity. PMID:20666554

  16. Gender Differences in the Impact of Stressful Life Events on Changes in Body-Mass-Index

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Tomoko; Grilo, Carlos M.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The positive association between stress and weight has been consistently demonstrated, particularly in women. The effect of stress on changes in weight, however, is less clear. Methods A total of 33,425 participants in Wave 1 and Wave 2 surveys of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Condition (NESARC) were included in this study. The study examined the relationship between stressful life events during the 12 months prior to the Wave 2 interview and changes in body-mass-index (BMI) between Wave 1 and Wave 2 interviews. Results Women reported significantly greater increases in BMI than men. Stressful life events, particularly job-related changes, legal problems, and death of family or friends, were associated significantly with increases in BMI among women but not men. Conclusions In a nationally representative sample, stressful life events were associated with greater weight gain in women. Prevention of weight gain in women should focus on the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying female-specific effects of stressful life events on weight gain. PMID:25204986

  17. Quantifying the impact of climate change on drought regimes using the Standardised Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Katie; Warren, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    The study presents a methodology to characterise short- or long-term drought events, designed to aid understanding of how climate change may affect future risk. An indicator of drought magnitude, combining parameters of duration, spatial extent and intensity, is presented based on the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). The SPI is applied to observed (1955-2003) and projected (2003-2050) precipitation data from the Community Integrated Assessment System (CIAS). Potential consequences of climate change on drought regimes in Australia, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Spain, Portugal and the USA are quantified. Uncertainty is assessed by emulating a range of global circulation models to project climate change. Further uncertainty is addressed through the use of a high-emission scenario and a low-stabilisation scenario representing a stringent mitigation policy. Climate change was shown to have a larger effect on the duration and magnitude of long-term droughts, and Australia, Brazil, Spain, Portugal and the USA were highlighted as being particularly vulnerable to multi-year drought events, with the potential for drought magnitude to exceed historical experience. The study highlights the characteristics of drought which may be more sensitive under climate change. For example, on average, short-term droughts in the USA do not become more intense but are projected to increase in duration. Importantly, the stringent mitigation scenario had limited effect on drought regimes in the first half of the twenty-first century, showing that adaptation to drought risk will be vital in these regions.

  18. Impact of MR Acquisition Parameters on DTI Scalar Indexes: A Tractography Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Barrio-Arranz, Gonzalo; de Luis-García, Rodrigo; Tristán-Vega, Antonio; Martín-Fernández, Marcos; Aja-Fernández, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition parameters play a crucial role in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), as they have a major impact on the values of scalar measures such as Fractional Anisotropy (FA) or Mean Diffusivity (MD) that are usually the focus of clinical studies based on white matter analysis. This paper presents an analysis on the impact of the variation of several acquisition parameters on these scalar measures with a novel double focus. First, a tractography-based approach is employed, motivated by the significant number of clinical studies that are carried out using this technique. Second, the consequences of simultaneous changes in multiple parameters are analyzed: number of gradient directions, b-value and voxel resolution. Results indicate that the FA is most affected by changes in the number of gradients and voxel resolution, while MD is specially influenced by variations in the b-value. Even if the choice of a tractography algorithm has an effect on the numerical values of the final scalar measures, the evolution of these measures when acquisition parameters are modified is parallel. PMID:26457415

  19. Impact of MR Acquisition Parameters on DTI Scalar Indexes: A Tractography Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Barrio-Arranz, Gonzalo; de Luis-García, Rodrigo; Tristán-Vega, Antonio; Martín-Fernández, Marcos; Aja-Fernández, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition parameters play a crucial role in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), as they have a major impact on the values of scalar measures such as Fractional Anisotropy (FA) or Mean Diffusivity (MD) that are usually the focus of clinical studies based on white matter analysis. This paper presents an analysis on the impact of the variation of several acquisition parameters on these scalar measures with a novel double focus. First, a tractography-based approach is employed, motivated by the significant number of clinical studies that are carried out using this technique. Second, the consequences of simultaneous changes in multiple parameters are analyzed: number of gradient directions, b-value and voxel resolution. Results indicate that the FA is most affected by changes in the number of gradients and voxel resolution, while MD is specially influenced by variations in the b-value. Even if the choice of a tractography algorithm has an effect on the numerical values of the final scalar measures, the evolution of these measures when acquisition parameters are modified is parallel. PMID:26457415

  20. Monoclonal origin of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and some vulvar hyperplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Tate, J. E.; Mutter, G. L.; Boynton, K. A.; Crum, C. P.

    1997-01-01

    Squamous neoplasms of the female genital tract, including vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, presumably are derived from a single cell. This study addressed this hypothesis and determined the clonal status of other squamous epithelial alterations associated with vulvar carcinoma, including hyperplasia and lichen sclerosis. X chromosome inactivation patterns of 22 epithelial lesions and matched normal epithelium were determined using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay targeting the X-linked human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA). Clonality was inferred by comparing matched lesional and control tissues as follows: 1) monoclonal, if intensity of either PCR product was skewed relative to normal reference epithelium (control), 2) polyclonal, if both lesional and control were unskewed, and 3) unknown, if both lesion and control tissues were skewed toward the same allele. Two cases were excluded because of noninformative homozygous HUMARA alleles. Of 8 vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias analyzed, 7 were scored monoclonal and 1 polyclonal. Of 12 hyperplasias, 6 were monoclonal, including one with lichen sclerosis, 2 were polyclonal, and in 4, the clonal status could not be determined. The PCR-based clonal assay supports a monoclonal derivation for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and, in some cases, vulvar hyperplasia, and lichen sclerosis. The finding of monoclonal hyperplasia and lichen sclerosis suggests that clonal expansion may evolve before the development of morphological atypia in these epithelia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9006346

  1. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  2. Aspirin and dipyridamole decrease intimal hyperplasia in experimental vein grafts.

    PubMed Central

    McCann, R L; Hagen, P O; Fuchs, J C

    1980-01-01

    Release from platelets of a factor mitogenic for smooth muscle cells is a postulated mechanism for the pathogenesis of vascular intimal hyperplasia. In this study the effect of antiplatelet therapy was evaluated. Aspirin (165 mg twice daily) and dipyridamole (25 mg twice daily) were administered to six rhesus monkeys and six were given placebo only. Bilateral vein bypass grafts were placed in the iliac arteries. In addition, to evaluate the relative contribution of adventitial dissection and intimal injury, on one side the carotid artery and femoral vein were stripped of adventitia and on the other side the intima of these vessels were injured by the single passage of an inflated balloon tipped catheter. Animals were killed after 16 weeks. In grafts relative luminal area was determined by a photographic gravimetric method at three standard locations. Femoral veins and carotid arteries were classified as histologically normal or as exhibiting hyperplasia. All vessels with adventitial stripping were normal. All vessels with intimal injury in the placebo group except one exhibited intimal hyperplasia compared to the drug treated group in which over half were normal. Relative intimal area was significantly less in grafts from drug treated animals at all three locations and luminal area greater in two. These data suggest that vascular intimal hyperplasia can be reduced by treatment with antiplatelet agents. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2a. Fig. 2b. Fig. 3. PMID:6767450

  3. Role of metabolic environment on nitric oxide mediated inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Monica P; Emond, Zachary M; Wang, Zheng; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Kibbe, Melina R

    2014-01-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is well known to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. Previously, we reported that NO was more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a type 2 diabetic environment than control. We also found that NO was ineffective in an uncontrolled type 1 diabetic environment; however, insulin restored the efficacy of NO. Thus, the goal of this study was to more closely evaluate the effect of insulin and glucose on the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments using different doses of insulin as well as pioglitazone. Type 1 diabetes was induced in male lean Zucker (LZ) rats with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg IP). Groups included control, moderate glucose control, and tight glucose control. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats fed Purina 5008 chow were used as a type 2 diabetic model. Groups included no therapy, insulin therapy, or pioglitazone therapy. After 4 weeks of maintaining group assignments, the carotid artery injury model was performed. Treatment groups included: control, injury and injury plus NO. 2 weeks following arterial injury, in the type 1 diabetic rats, NO most effectively reduced the neointimal area in the moderate and tightly controlled groups (81% and 88% vs. 33%, respectively, p=0.01). In type 2 diabetic rats, the metabolic environment had no impact on the efficacy of NO (81-82% reduction for all groups). Thus, in this study, we show NO is effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments. A greater understanding of how the metabolic environment may impact the efficacy of NO may lead to the development of more effective NO-based therapies for patients with diabetes. PMID:24333562

  4. Role of Metabolic Environment on Nitric Oxide Mediated Inhibition of Neointimal Hyperplasia in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is well known to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. Previously, we reported that NO was more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a type 2 diabetic environment than control. We also found that NO was ineffective in an uncontrolled type 1 diabetic environment; however, insulin restored the efficacy of NO. Thus, the goal of this study was to more closely evaluate the effect of insulin and glucose on the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments using different doses of insulin as well as pioglitazone. Type 1 diabetes was induced in male Lean Zucker (LZ) rats with streptozotocin (60mg/kg IP). Groups included control, moderate glucose control, and tight glucose control. Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats fed Purina 5008 chow were used as a type 2 diabetic model. Groups included no therapy, insulin therapy, or pioglitazone therapy. After 4 weeks of maintaining group assignments, the carotid artery injury model was performed. Treatment groups included: control, injury, and injury plus NO. 2 weeks following arterial injury, in the type 1 diabetic rats, NO most effectively reduced the neointimal area in the moderate and tightly controlled groups (81% and 88% vs. 33%, respectively, p=0.01). In type 2 diabetic rats, the metabolic environment had no impact on the efficacy of NO (81%–82% reduction for all groups). Thus, in this study, we show NO is effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments. A greater understanding of how the metabolic environment may impact the efficacy of NO may lead to the development of more effective NO-based therapies for patients with diabetes. PMID:24333562

  5. The lung clearance index in young infants: impact of tidal volume and dead space.

    PubMed

    Schmalisch, Gerd; Wilitzki, Silke; Bührer, Christoph; Fischer, Hendrik S

    2015-07-01

    Lung clearance index (LCI), measured by multiple breath washout (MBW), is one of the most frequently used measures of ventilation inhomogeneity. This study was designed to investigate the effect of lung volumes on LCI in young infants. The dependence of LCI on dead space volume (VD), tidal volume (VT) and functional residual capacity (FRC) was investigated by mathematical modeling and by MBW measurements using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer gas. MBW was performed in 150 infants, of median postmenstrual age 46.7?weeks, followed up after neonatal intensive care. Wheezing was assessed in 90 of these infants by computerized respiratory sound analysis during quiet sleep. The strongest correlation was observed between LCI and the volume ratios VT/FRC (Spearman rank order correlation coefficient Rs = 0.688, p?

  6. Impact of UV-A radiation on erythemal UV and UV-index estimation over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Seo; Lee, Yun Gon; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Because total UV (TUV) in the UV-A region is 100 times higher than in the UV-B region, UV-A is a considerable component when calculating erythemal UV (EUV) and UV-index. The ratio of EUV to TUV in the UV-A value [EUV(A)/TUV(A)] is investigated to convert the EUV(A) from TUV(A) for broadband observation. The representative value of EUV(A)/TUV(A), from the simulation study, is 6.9×10-4, changing from 6.1×10-4 to 7.0×10-4 as aerosol optical depth, total ozone and solar zenith angle change. By adopting the observational data of EUV(B) and TUV(A) from UV-biometer measurements at Yonsei University [(37.57°N, 126.95°E), 84 m above sea level], the EUV irradiance increases to 15% of EUV(B) due to the consideration of EUV(A) from the data of TUV(A) observation. Compared to the total EUV observed from the Brewer spectrophotometer at the same site, the EUV(B) from the UV-biometer observes only 95% of total EUV, and its underestimation is caused by neglecting the effect of UV-A. However, the sum of EUV(B) and EUV(A) [EUV(A+B)] from two UV-biometers is 10% larger than the EUV from the Brewer spectrophotometer because of the spectral overlap effect in the range 320-340 nm. The correction factor for the overlap effect adjusts 8% of total EUV.

  7. The impact of rare taxa on a fish index of biotic integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wan, H.; Chizinski, C.J.; Dolph, C.L.; Vondracek, B.; Wilson, B.N.

    2010-01-01

    The index of biotic integrity (IBI) is a commonly used bioassessment tool that integrates abundance and richness measures to assess water quality. In developing IBIs that are both responsive to human disturbance and resistant to natural variability and sampling error, water managers must decide how to weigh information about rare and abundant taxa, which in turn requires an understanding of the sensitivity of indices to rare taxa. Herein, we investigated the influence of rare fish taxa (within the lower 5% of rank abundance curves) on IBI metric and total scores for stream sites in two of Minnesota's major river basins, the St. Croix (n = 293 site visits) and Upper Mississippi (n = 210 site visits). We artificially removed rare taxa from biological samples by (1) separately excluding each individual taxon that fell within the lower 5% of rank abundance curves; (2) simultaneously excluding all taxa that had an abundance of one (singletons) or two (doubletons); and (3) simultaneously excluding all taxa that fell within the lower 5% of rank abundance curves. We then compared IBI metric and total scores before and after removal of rare taxa using the normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) and regression analysis. The difference in IBI metric and total scores increased as more taxa were removed. Moreover, when multiple rare taxa were removed, the nRMSE was related to sample abundance and to total taxa richness, with greater nRMSE observed in samples with a larger number of taxa or sample abundance. Metrics based on relative abundance of fish taxa were less sensitive to the loss of rare taxa, whereas those based on taxa richness were more sensitive, because taxa richness metrics give more weight to rare taxa compared to the relative abundance metrics. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. PAX2 loss by immunohistochemistry occurs early and often in endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Kimberly H; Upson, Kristen; Reed, Susan D; Jordan, Carolyn D; Newton, Katherine M; Doherty, Jennifer; Swisher, Elizabeth M; Garcia, Rochelle L

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunohistochemical markers to assist in the diagnosis and classification of hyperplastic endometrial epithelial proliferations would be of diagnostic use. Methods To examine the possible utility of PAX2 as a marker of hyperplastic endometrium, cases of normal endometrium, simple and complex hyperplasia without atypia, atypical hyperplasia and FIGO grade 1 endometrioid carcinomas were stained for PAX2. Results 206 endometrial samples were available for interpretation of PAX2 staining. The percent of cases with complete PAX2 loss (0% of cells staining) increased with increasing severity of hyperplasia: 0% of normal proliferative and secretory endometrium (n=28), 17.4% of simple hyperplasia (n=23), 59.0% of complex hyperplasia (n=83), 74.1% of atypical hyperplasia (n=54) and 73.3% of FIGO grade 1 endometrioid cancers (n=15). Partial loss of PAX2 expression did occur in normal endometrium (17.9%) but occurred in smaller proportions of tissue and was less frequent than in simple hyperplasia (47.8% with partial loss), complex hyperplasia (32.5%), atypical hyperplasia (22.2%) and FIGO grade 1 carcinomas (20.0%). Uniform PAX2 expression was rare in complex (8.4%) and atypical hyperplasia (3.7%) and carcinoma (6.7%). When evaluating loss of PAX2 in histologically normal endometrium adjacent to lesional endometrium in a given case, statistically significant differences in staining were observed for simple hyperplasia (p=0.011), complex hyperplasia (p< 0.001), atypical hyperplasia (p<0.001) and FIGO grade 1 endometrioid cancer (p=0.003). Conclusion In summary, PAX2 loss appears to occur early in the development of endometrial pre-cancers and may prove useful in some settings as a diagnostic marker in determining normal endometrium from complex and atypical hyperplasia and low grade carcinomas. However, it is not useful in distinguishing between these diagnostic categories. PMID:22317873

  9. Genomic Grade Index (GGI): Feasibility in Routine Practice and Impact on Treatment Decisions in Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Metzger-Filho, Otto; Catteau, Aurélie; Michiels, Stefan; Buyse, Marc; Ignatiadis, Michail; Saini, Kamal S.; de Azambuja, Evandro; Fasolo, Virginie; Naji, Sihem; Canon, Jean Luc; Delrée, Paul; Coibion, Michel; Cusumano, Pino; Jossa, Veronique; Kains, Jean Pierre; Larsimont, Denis; Richard, Vincent; Faverly, Daniel; Cornez, Nathalie; Vuylsteke, Peter; Vanderschueren, Brigitte; Peyro-Saint-Paul, Hélène; Piccart, Martine; Sotiriou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Genomic Grade Index (GGI) is a 97-gene signature that improves histologic grade (HG) classification in invasive breast carcinoma. In this prospective study we sought to evaluate the feasibility of performing GGI in routine clinical practice and its impact on treatment recommendations. Methods Patients with pT1pT2 or operable pT3, N0-3 invasive breast carcinoma were recruited from 8 centers in Belgium. Fresh surgical samples were sent at room temperature in the MapQuant Dx™ PathKit for centralized genomic analysis. Genomic profiles were determined using Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 and GGI calculated using the MapQuant Dx® protocol, which defines tumors as low or high Genomic Grade (GG-1 and GG-3 respectively). Results 180 pts were recruited and 155 were eligible. The MapQuant test was performed in 142 cases and GGI was obtained in 78% of cases (n=111). Reasons for failures were 15 samples with <30% of invasive tumor cells (11%), 15 with insufficient RNA quality (10%), and 1 failed hybridization (<1%). For tumors with an available representative sample (? 30% inv. tumor cells) (n=127), the success rate was 87.5%. GGI reclassified 69% of the 54 HG2 tumors as GG-1 (54%) or GG-3 (46%). Changes in treatment recommendations occurred mainly in the subset of HG2 tumors reclassified into GG-3, with increased use of chemotherapy in this subset. Conclusion The use of GGI is feasible in routine clinical practice and impacts treatment decisions in early-stage breast cancer. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01916837, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01916837 PMID:23990869

  10. Weight Loss and Decrease of Body Mass Index during Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Are Common Events with Limited Clinical Impact

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Christina T.; Wischumerski, Isabel; Rust, Christian; Fiegl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Weight loss in cancer patients has been attributed with significant morbidity and mortality. During allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), oral nutrition is often hampered and hence total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is necessary. We therefore investigated the course of weight during stem cell transplantation and the clinical consequences of weight change. Methods 180 consecutive patients who received allogeneic SCT between January 2010 and December 2011 at our center were analyzed for weight loss, laboratory and clinical parameters. Results During SCT, a median decrease of 6.6% of body mass index (BMI) was observed for the whole population (from 25.3 at admission to 23.6 at discharge), and a 1.6fold increase of malnutrition despite use of TPN (28.3% to 45.0%). 55.6% of patients experienced a significant weight loss of ?5% with a median decrease of 9.2% in BMI. Serum levels of albumin, total protein and cholesterol rapidly decreased during conditioning therapy. After a median of 2.4 years, the median BMI was still only 23.4 (not different from discharge). However, we did not observe a meaningful difference in side effects and survival between patients that did or did not lose weight. Conclusion Weight loss is commonly observed during allogeneic SCT despite TPN, but the clinical consequences thereof seem limited: we observed no significant impact on patients with a decrease ? 5% in BMI on transplant outcome, side effects or survival. PMID:26683031

  11. Pictures of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Sempoux, Christine; Balabaud, Charles; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    This practical atlas aims to help liver and non liver pathologists to recognize benign hepatocellular nodules on resected specimen. Macroscopic and microscopic views together with immunohistochemical stains illustrate typical and atypical aspects of focal nodular hyperplasia and of hepatocellular adenoma, including hepatocellular adenomas subtypes with references to clinical and imaging data. Each step is important to make a correct diagnosis. The specimen including the nodule and the non-tumoral liver should be sliced, photographed and all different looking areas adequately sampled for paraffin inclusion. Routine histology includes HE, trichrome and cytokeratin 7. Immunohistochemistry includes glutamine synthase and according to the above results additional markers such as liver fatty acid binding protein, C reactive protein and beta catenin may be realized to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenoma subtypes. Clues for differential diagnosis and pitfalls are explained and illustrated. PMID:25232451

  12. Focal nodular hyperplasia with major sinusoidal dilatation: a misleading entity

    PubMed Central

    Laumonier, Hervé; Frulio, Nora; Laurent, Christophe; Balabaud, Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2010-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign liver lesion thought to be a non-specific response to locally increased blood flow. Although the diagnosis of FNH and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) has made great progress over the last few years using modern imaging techniques, there are still in daily practice some difficulties concerning some atypical nodules. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman with a single liver lesion thought to be, by imaging, an inflammatory HCA with major sinusoidal congestion. This nodule was revealed to be, at the microscopical level and after specific immunostaining and molecular analysis, an FNH with sinusoidal dilatation (so-called telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia). PMID:22798311

  13. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years.

  14. The impact of a high versus a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal on verbal episodic memory in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael A; Foster, Jonathan K

    2008-10-01

    In this study, healthy adolescents consumed either (i) a low glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal or (ii) a high glycaemic index breakfast cereal meal, before completing a test of verbal episodic memory in which the memory materials were encoded under conditions of divided attention. Analysis of remembering/forgetting indices revealed that the high glycaemic index breakfast group remembered significantly more items relative to the low glycaemic index breakfast group after a long delay. The superior performance observed in the high glycaemic index group, relative to the low glycaemic index group, may be due to the additional glucose availability provided by the high glycaemic index meal at the time of memory encoding. This increased glucose availability may be necessary for effective encoding under dual task conditions. PMID:18782482

  15. Condylar hyperplasia: An updated review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, Joseph; Pierce, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare disorder characterized by excessive bone growth that almost always presents unilaterally, resulting in facial asymmetry. Classification of the different types of CH can differ depending on the authors. Correct diagnosis is critical in determining the proper treatments and timing. This paper is a review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and surgical treatments of CH. PMID:26629479

  16. Imaging features of poorly controlled congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults.

    PubMed

    Kok, H K; Sherlock, M; Healy, N A; Doody, O; Govender, P; Torreggiani, W C

    2015-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a genetic autosomal recessive condition most frequently as a result of a mutation in the 21-hydroxylase enzyme gene. Patients with poorly controlled CAH can manifest characteristic imaging findings as a result of adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation or the effects of cortisol precursor excess on various target organs. We present a spectrum of imaging findings encountered in adult patients with poorly treated CAH, with an emphasis on radiological features and their clinical relevance. PMID:26133223

  17. Vaginal hyperplasia in the bitch: Literature review and commentary

    PubMed Central

    Post, Klaas; Van Haaften, Bas; Okkens, Auke C.

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed the incidence, etiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatments and prevention of canine vaginal hyperplasia, and describe a simple surgical technique for its correction as practiced at the Small Animal Clinic, State University of Utrecht, The Netherlands. Many different treatments have been used, and some are novel approaches. In many cases, prevention is accomplished if the bitch is ovariectomized; there is a high incidence of recurrence with medical treatment. PMID:17423719

  18. A mathematical model of venous neointimal hyperplasia formation

    PubMed Central

    Budu-Grajdeanu, Paula; Schugart, Richard C; Friedman, Avner; Valentine, Christopher; Agarwal, Anil K; Rovin, Brad H

    2008-01-01

    Background In hemodialysis patients, the most common cause of vascular access failure is neointimal hyperplasia of vascular smooth muscle cells at the venous anastomosis of arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. The release of growth factors due to surgical injury, oxidative stress and turbulent flow has been suggested as a possible mechanism for neointimal hyperplasia. Results In this work, we construct a mathematical model which analyzes the role that growth factors might play in the stenosis at the venous anastomosis. The model consists of a system of partial differential equations describing the influence of oxidative stress and turbulent flow on growth factors, the interaction among growth factors, smooth muscle cells, and extracellular matrix, and the subsequent effect on the stenosis at the venous anastomosis, which, in turn, affects the level of oxidative stress and degree of turbulent flow. Computer simulations suggest that our model can be used to predict access stenosis as a function of the initial concentration of the growth factors inside the intimal-luminal space. Conclusion The proposed model describes the formation of venous neointimal hyperplasia, based on pathogenic mechanisms. The results suggest that interventions aimed at specific growth factors may be successful in prolonging the life of the vascular access, while reducing the costs of vascular access maintenance. The model may also provide indication of when invasive access surveillance to repair stenosis should be undertaken. PMID:18215280

  19. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia after diode laser oral surgery. An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Juan; González-Mosquera, Antonio; García-Martín, José-Manuel; García-Caballero, Lucía; Varela-Centelles, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine the process of epithelial reparation in a surgical wound caused by diode laser. Material and Methods An experimental study with 27 Sprage-Dawley rats was undertaken. The animals were randomly allocated to two experimental groups, whose individuals underwent glossectomy by means of a diode laser at different wattages, and a control group treated using a number 15 scalpel blade. The animals were slaughtered at the 2nd, 7th, and 14th day after glossectomy. The specimens were independently studied by two pathologists (blinded for the specimens’ group). Results At the 7th day, re-epithelisation was slightly faster for the control group (conventional scalpel) (p=0.011). At the 14th day, complete re-epithelization was observed for all groups. The experimental groups displayed a pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. Conclusions It is concluded that, considering the limitations of this kind of experimental studies, early re-epithelisation occurs slightly faster when a conventional scalpel is used for incision, although re-epithelisation is completed in two weeks no matter the instrument used. In addition, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is a potential event after oral mucosa surgery with diode laser. Knowledge about this phenomenon (not previously described) may prevent diagnostic mistakes and inadequate treatment approaches, particularly when dealing with potentially malignant oral lesions. Key words:Diode laser, animal model, oral biopsy, oral cancer, oral precancer, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. PMID:26116841

  20. Impact of model order and estimation window for indexing TerraSAR-X images using Gauss Markov random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Molina, Daniela; Datcu, Mihai

    2010-10-01

    TerraSAR-X is the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) German satellite which provides a high diversity of information due to its high-resolution. TerraSAR-X acquires daily a volume of up to 100 GB of high complexity, multi-mode SAR images, i.e. SpotLight, StripMap, and ScanSAR data, with dual or quad-polarization, and with different look angles. The high and multiple resolutions of the instrument (1m, 3m or 10m) open perspectives for new applications, that were not possible with past lower resolution sensors (20-30m). Mainly the 1m and 3m modes we expect to support a broad range of new applications related to human activities with relevant structures and objects at the 1m scale. Thus, among the most interesting scenes are: urban, industrial, and rural data. In addition, the global coverage and the relatively frequent repeat pass will definitely help to acquire extremely relevant data sets. To analyze the available TerrrSAR-X data we rely on model based methods for feature extraction and despeckling. The image information content is extracted using model-based methods based on Gauss Markov Random Field (GMRF) and Bayesian inference approach. This approach enhances the local adaptation by using a prior model, which learns the image structure and enables to estimate the local description of the structures, acting as primitive feature extraction method. However, the GMRF model-based method uses as input parameters the Model Order (MO) and the size of Estimation Window (EW). The appropriated selection of these parameters allows us to improve the classification and indexing results due to the number of well separated classes could be determined by them. Our belief is that the selection of the MO depends on the kind of information that the image contains, explaining how well the model can recognize complex structures as objects, and according to the size of EW the accuracy of the estimation is determined. In the following, we present an evaluation of the impact of the model order selection and the estimation windows size using TerraSAR-X data. We determine how many classes can be indexed depending on the Model Order and Estimation Window. The experimental results shows a good choice is model order 3 and 4, and estimation window with radius 15 × 15 pixels size.

  1. Energy Delivery Systems for Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) to conduct a health technology assessment on energy delivery systems for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition BPH is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland and the most common benign tumour in aging men. (1) It is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and is an important cause of diminished quality of life among aging men. (2) The primary goal in the management of BPH for most patients is a subjective improvement in urinary symptoms and quality of life. Until the 1930s, open prostatectomy, though invasive, was the most effective form of surgical treatment for BPH. Today, the benchmark surgical treatment for BPH is transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), which produces significant changes of all subjective and objective outcome parameters. Complications after TURP include hemorrhage during or after the procedure, which often necessitates blood transfusion; transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome; urinary incontinence; bladder neck stricture; and sexual dysfunction. A retrospective review of 4,031 TURP procedures performed by one surgeon between 1979 and 2003 showed that the incidence of complications was 2.4% for blood transfusion, 0.3% for TUR syndrome, 1.5% for hemostatic procedures, 2.8% for bladder neck contracture, and 1% for urinary stricture. However, the incidence of blood transfusion and TUR syndrome decreased as the surgeon’s skills improved. During the 1990s, a variety of endoscopic techniques using a range of energy sources have been developed as alternative treatments for BPH. These techniques include the use of light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser), radiofrequency, microwave, and ultrasound, to heat prostate tissue and cause coagulation or vaporization. In addition, new electrosurgical techniques that use higher amounts of energy to cut, coagulate, and vaporize prostatic tissue have entered the market as competitors to TURP. The driving force behind these new treatment modalities is the potential of producing good hemostasis, thereby reducing catheterization time and length of hospital stay. Some have the potential to be used in an office environment and performed under local anesthesia. Therefore, these new procedures have the potential to rival TURP if their effectiveness is proven over the long term. The Technology Being Reviewed The following energy-based techniques were considered for assessment: transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate (TUVP) transurethral electrovapor resection of the prostate (TUVRP) transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate using bipolar energy (plasmakinetic vaporization of the prostate [PKVP]) visual laser ablation of the prostate (VLAP) transurethral ultrasound guided laser incision prostatectomy (TULIP) contact laser vaporization of the prostate (CLV) interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) holmium laser resection of the prostate (HoLRP) holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) holmium laser ablation of the prostate (HoLAP) potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) transurethral needle ablation (TUNA) Review Strategy A search of electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment [INAHTA] database) was undertaken to identify evidence published from January 1, 2000 to June 21, 2006. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The literature search identified 284 citations, of which 38 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Since the application of high-power (80 W) KTP laser (photoselective vaporization of the prostate [PVP]) has been supported in the United States and has resulted in a rapid diffusion of this technology in the absence of any RCTs, th

  2. Unusual presentation with polymenorrhagia and markedly high 17-hydroxy progesterone levels in a lady with Non-Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Azra; Hayat, Marium

    2015-08-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is generally associated with oligo-amenorrhea, and its presentation with polymenorrhagia is rare. Here we present a case of an Asian female who presented with polymenorrhagia since menarche, increased body hair growth and enlargement of clitoris for 7-8 years. Examination revealed a normal Body Mass Index, moderate hirsutism, Tanner 5 breasts and significant clitoromegaly. Serum testosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were elevated. Ultrasonography revealed normal adrenal glands and polycystic ovaries. adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test uncovered borderline cortisol deficiency. Oral dexamethasone was commenced and six months later, she showed improvement though there was no change in hirsutism or clitoromegaly. The case is unique because it presented with polymenorrhagia. Also, such phenomenally high 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels are not expected in non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia. PMID:26228339

  3. [Terminology and classification of condylar hyperplasia: Two case reports and review].

    PubMed

    Y?lanc?, Hümeyra Özge; Akkaya, Nursel; Özbek, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is characterized by the growth of mandibular condyle. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain controversial. It often occurs unilaterally and leads to facial asymmetry and malocclusion. In the literature, it was also classified according to anomalies accompanied by the growth of other components of the mandible. Differential diagnosis of condylar hyperplasia usually includes tumors of temporomandibular joint. In this article, we discuss the term "condylar hyperplasia" and its classification considering two patients with condylar growth. PMID:26572183

  4. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Schmid Metaphyseal Chondrodysplasia in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Efat; Vakili, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of hereditary diseases, which are autosomal recessive. CAH occurs due to defect in one of the cortisol coding genes and often clinically presents itself with signs of androgen overproduction. In this article, we report a case of CAH and Schmid metaphyseal dysplasia. Our literature review indicated that this report is the first attempt on CYP11B1 and Schmid dysplasia in a child. The specific diagnosis of 11-?-hydroxylase deficiency can be determined using high basal levels of deoxycorticosterone and/or 11-deoxycortisol serums. PMID:26722148

  5. Natal tooth associated with fibrous hyperplasia - a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Harsimran Singh; Munjal, Deepti; Dhingra, Renuka; Malik, Narender Singh; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Eruption of tooth at about 6 months of age is a significant stage in child's life and is an emotional event for parents. However, a tooth present in the oral cavity of newborn can lead to a lot of delusions. Natal and neonatal teeth are of utmost importance not only for a dentist but also for a paediatrician due to parent's anxiety, folklore superstitions and numerous associated complications with it. This paper reports a rare case, wherein a natal tooth has led to the development of a reactive fibrous hyperplasia in an 8-week-old infant. PMID:26023656

  6. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: dietary and metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nandeesha, H

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common nonmalignant condition of the prostate occurring in ageing men. Even though BPH is a major public health problem, causing high morbidity and substantial worsening in men's quality of life, little is known about its risk factors. Several studies revealed that it is a multifactorial disease. Previous studies have documented family history, hormonal imbalance, and growth factors as etiological factors in the development of BPH. This review focuses on the dietary and metabolic risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, as well as dyslipidemia and their mechanisms in the pathogenesis of BPH. PMID:18246440

  7. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. PMID:26421203

  8. Impact of body mass index on complications following pancreatectomy: Ten-year experience at National Cancer Center in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Tai; Deng, Qian; Che, Xu; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Chen, Yu-Heng; Zhao, Dong-Bin; Tian, Yan-Tao; Zhang, Ya-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes following pancreatic resection in the Chinese population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected data was conducted at the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China National Cancer Center. Individuals who underwent pancreatic resection between January 2004 and December 2013 were identified and included in the study. Persons were classified as having a normal weight if their BMI was < 24 kg/m2 and overweight/obese if their BMI was ? 24 kg/m2 as defined by the International Life Sciences Institute Focal Point in China. A ?2 test (for categorical variables) or a t test (for continuous variables) was used to examine the differences in patients’ characteristics between normal weight and overweight/obese groups. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of postoperative complications, operative difficulty, length of hospital stay, and cost with BMI, adjusting for age, sex, and type of surgery procedures. RESULTS: A total of 362 consecutive patients with data available for BMI calculation underwent pancreatic resection for benign or malignant disease from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013. Of the 362 patients, 156 were overweight or obese and 206 were of normal weight. One or more postoperative complications occurred in 35.4% of the patients following pancreatic resection. Among patients who were overweight or obese, 42.9% experienced one or more complications, significantly higher than normal weight (29.6%) individuals (P = 0.0086). Compared with individuals who had normal weight, those with a BMI ? 24.0 kg/m2 had higher delayed gastric emptying (19.9% vs 5.8%, P < 0.0001) and bile leak (7.7% vs 1.9%, P = 0.0068). There were no significant differences seen in pancreatic fistula, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, reoperation, readmission, or other complications. BMI did not show a significant association with intraoperative blood loss, operative time, length of hospital stay, or cost. CONCLUSION: Higher BMI increases the risk for postoperative complications after pancreatectomy in the Chinese population. The findings require replication in future studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:26109808

  9. Impact of a modified data capture period on Liu comorbidity index scores in Medicare enrollees initiating chronic dialysis

    E-print Network

    Rigler, Sally K.; Wetmore, James B.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Dong, Lei; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Shireman, Theresa I.

    2013-01-27

    Background: The Liu Comorbidity Index uses the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) to quantify comorbidity in chronic dialysis patients, capturing baseline comorbidities from days 91 through 270 after dialysis initiation. The 270 day survival...

  10. Aroma-impact compounds in dried spice as a quality index using solid phase microextraction with olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maikhunthod, Bussayarat; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-12-15

    A systematic experimental procedure is used to identify the aroma-impact compounds, leading to a shelf quality index based on head space solid-phase microextraction. Dried (ground) fennel seeds, having shelf life of 6 months (0.5Y) and 5 years (5Y), were used as a spice model for assessment of comparative aroma quality. Aroma-impact odorants were analysed by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) in parallel with comprehensive two-dimensional GC-flame ionisation detection (GC×GC-FID) using a polar/non-polar phase combination for the GC×GC column set. Tentative identification of aroma-impact odorants involved correlating data from the GC-O/FID system with GC×GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis by means of retention indices. Major compounds responsible for aroma perception were limonene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, estragole and trans-anethole, and showed an average decrease of 30-50% NIF from 0.5Y to 5Y. Monoterpenes which represent 'freshness', e.g. ?-pinene and ?-myrcene, exhibited identifiable aroma-impact only for the 0.5Y product. Sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene oxides are suggested as an aging index, being present in increased amounts in 5Y. p-Anisaldehyde odour intensity for both samples remained the same (aroma perception sweet creamy, floral odour and Chinese seasoning powder). PMID:23993622

  11. Hemifacial lipomatosis, a possible subtype of partial hemifacial hyperplasia: CT and MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Bou-Haidar, P; Taub, P; Som, P

    2010-05-01

    We present a case of hemifacial hyperplasia in an infant manifesting predominantly as lipomatosis and hemihypertrophy of the maxilla. To our knowledge, there is only 1 other case report in the literature demonstrating the MR imaging features of this condition. Our case was manifest almost exclusively as lipomatosis, largely lacking muscular hypertrophy/hyperplasia. PMID:19926700

  12. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia of the infra-axillary region: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Nisha V; Sandu, Jasleen; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Saikia, Uma Nahar

    2014-03-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is an uncommon, benign hyperproliferative disorder. Papules and nodules occur predominantly in the head and neck region. Involvement of other sites such as the trunk and mucosae has been rarely reported. We herein report a case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia involving the right infra-axillary region. PMID:24656269

  13. A Rare Case of Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ofikwu, Godwin; Mani, Vishnu R.; Rajabalan, Ajai; Adu, Albert; Ahmed, Leaque; Vega, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare clinical condition with only about 100 cases reported in the literature. It is characterized by primary hyperplasia of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) which are specialized epithelial cells located throughout the entire respiratory tract, from the trachea to the terminal airways. DIPNECH appears in various forms that include diffuse proliferation of scattered neuroendocrine cells, small nodules, or a linear proliferation. It is usually seen in middle-aged, nonsmoking women with symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. We present a 45-year-old, nonsmoking woman who presented with symptoms of DIPNECH associated with bilateral pulmonary nodules and left hilar adenopathy. Of interest, DIPNECH in our patient was associated with metastatic pulmonary carcinoids, papillary carcinoma of the left breast, oncocytoma and angiomyolipoma of her left kidney, and cortical nodules suggestive of tuberous sclerosis. She had video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), modified radical mastectomy with reconstruction, and radical nephrectomy. She is currently symptom-free most of the time with over two years of follow-up. PMID:26609460

  14. Risk of Complex and Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia in Relation to Anthropometric Measures and Reproductive History

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Susan D.; Voigt, Lynda F.; Newton, Katherine M.; Holt, Victoria L.; Weiss, Noel S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors sought to test the hypothesis that characteristics and exposures which influence the balance of estrogen and progesterone bear on the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia (EH), a noninvasive proliferation of the lining of the uterus. Cases included all female members of Group Health (Washington State) who were diagnosed with complex EH or EH with atypia during the period 1985–2003 and whose diagnoses were confirmed in a pathology review (n = 446). Controls were selected randomly from Group Health membership files and were matched to the cases by age and enrollment status at the reference date. An increased risk of EH was associated with increasing body mass index and nulliparity. There was a suggestion of a decreased risk of EH with atypia among current smokers. No association with diabetes or hypertension was found. The risk factors observed to be associated with EH in this study are similar to those associated with endometrial cancer. Whether these risk factors predispose women to cancer simply by increasing EH incidence or continue to augment cancer risk even after EH is present is currently unknown. PMID:18682485

  15. Metformin Attenuates Testosterone-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats: A Pharmacological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mosli, Hala H.; Esmat, Ahmed; Atawia, Reem T.; Shoieb, Sherif M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is uncontrolled proliferation of prostate tissue. Metformin, a widely prescribed anti-diabetic agent, possesses anticancer activity through induction of apoptotic signaling and cell cycle arrest. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of metformin against experimentally-induced BPH in rats. Treatment with 500 and 1000?mg/kg metformin orally for 14 days significantly inhibited testosterone-mediated increase in the prostate weight & prostate index (prostate weight/body weight [mg/g]) and attenuated the pathological alterations induced by testosterone. Mechanistically, metformin significantly protected against testosterone-induced elevation of estrogen receptor-? (ER-?) and decrease of estrogen receptor-? (ER-?) expression, with no significant effect of androgen receptor (AR) and 5?-reductase expression. It decreased mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1R and protein expression ratio of pAkt/total Akt induced by testosterone. Furthermore, it significantly ameliorated testosterone–induced reduction of mRNA expression Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, P21 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and AMPK [PT-172] activity. In conclusion, these findings elucidate the effectiveness of metformin in preventing testosterone-induced BPH in rats. These results could be attributed, at least partly, to its ability to enhance expression ratio of ER-?/ER-?, decrease IGF-1, IGF-1R and pAkt expressions, increase P21, PTEN, Bax/Bcl-2 expressions and activate AMPK with a subsequent inhibition of prostate proliferation. PMID:26492952

  16. Association of the Apolipoprotein E 2 Allele with Concurrent Occurrence of Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Tatiana I.; Krikunova, Ludmila I.; Ryabchenko, Nikolay I.; Mkrtchyan, Liana S.; Khorokhorina, Vera A.; Salnikova, Lyubov E.

    2015-01-01

    Genes encoding proteins with antioxidant properties may influence susceptibility to endometrial hyperplasia (EH) and endometrial carcinoma (ECa). Patients with EH (n = 89), EH concurrent with ECa (n = 76), ECa (n = 186), and healthy controls (n = 1110) were genotyped for five polymorphic variants in the genes involved in metabolism of lipoproteins (APOE Cys112Arg and Arg158Cys), iron (HFE Cys282Tyr and His63Asp), and catecholamines (COMT Val158Met). Patients and controls were matched by ethnicity (all Caucasians), age, body mass index (BMI), and incidence of hypertension and diabetes. The frequency of the APOE E 2 allele (158Cys) was higher in patients with EH + ECa than in controls (P = 0.0012, PBonferroni = 0.018, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.49–4.45). The APOE E 4 allele (112Arg) was more frequently found in patients with EH than in controls and HFE minor allele G (63Asp) had a protective effect in the ECa group, though these results appeared to be nonsignificant after correction for multiple comparisons. The results of the study indicate that E 2 allele might be associated with concurrent occurrence of EH and ECa. PMID:25741405

  17. The Occupational Mix Adjustment to the Medicare Hospital Wage Index: Why the Rural Impact Is Less than Expected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Kristin L.; Slifkin, Rebecca; Holmes, George M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural hospitals are heavily dependent on Medicare for their long-term financial solvency. A recent change to Medicare prospective payment system reimbursement--the occupational mix adjustment (OMA) to the wage index--has attracted a great deal of attention in rural policy circles. Purpose: This paper explores variation in the OMA across…

  18. HUMAN USE INDEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  19. HUMAN USE INDEX (FUTURE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  20. Pseudolymphoma (reactive lymphoid hyperplasia) of the liver: A clinical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Kyong; Jha, Reena C; Etesami, Kambiz; Fishbein, Thomas M; Ozdemirli, Metin; Desai, Chirag S

    2015-01-01

    Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH), also known as pseudolymphoma or nodular lymphoid lesion of the liver is an extremely rare condition, and only 51 hepatic RLH cases have been described in the literature since the first case was described in 1981. The majority of these cases were asymptomatic and incidentally found through radiological imaging. The precise etiology of hepatic RLH is still unknown, but relative high prevalence of autoimmune disorder in these cases suggests an immune-based liver disorder. Imaging features of hepatic RLH often suggest malignant lesions such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. In this report, we discuss two cases of hepatic RLH in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. We also present pathologic and magnetic resonance imaging findings, including one case utilizing a hepatocellular contrast agent, Eovist. Definitive diagnosis of hepatic RLH often requires surgical excision. PMID:26609347

  1. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Longchamp, Alban; Allagnat, Florent; Alonso, Florian; Kuppler, Christopher; Dubuis, Céline; Ozaki, Charles-Keith; Mitchell, James R.; Berceli, Scott; Corpataux, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH). Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx) regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS) confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment. PMID:26398895

  2. Management of the Adult with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Auchus, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), most commonly due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD), has been studied by pediatric endocrinologists for decades. Advances in the care of these patients have enabled many of these children to reach adulthood. In contrast to the course and management of the disease in childhood, little is known about CAH in adults. In many patients, the proclivity to salt-wasting crises decreases. Linear growth ceases, and reproductive function becomes an issue. Most importantly, management must minimize the potential for long-term consequences of conventional therapies. Here we review the existing literature regarding comorbidities of adults with 21OHD, goals of treatment, and approaches to therapy, with an emphasis on need for improved management strategies. PMID:20613954

  3. T-cell-predominant lymphoid hyperplasia in a tattoo*

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Erica Sales; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Batista, Everton da Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ferreira; Farre, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achilea Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) can be idiopathic or secondary to external stimuli, and is considered rare in tattoos. The infiltrate can be predominantly of B or T-cells, the latter being seldom reported in tattoos. We present a case of a predominantly T CLH, secondary to the black pigment of tattooing in a 35-year-old patient, with a dense infiltrate of small, medium and scarce large T-cells. Analysis of the rearrangement of T-cells receptor revealed a polyclonal proliferation. Since the infiltrate of CLH can simulate a T lymphoma, it is important to show that lesions from tattoos can have a predominance of T-cells. PMID:25387518

  4. Hypertrophy and/or Hyperplasia: Dynamics of Adipose Tissue Growth

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Junghyo; Gavrilova, Oksana; Pack, Stephanie; Jou, William; Mullen, Shawn; Sumner, Anne E.; Cushman, Samuel W.; Periwal, Vipul

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue grows by two mechanisms: hyperplasia (cell number increase) and hypertrophy (cell size increase). Genetics and diet affect the relative contributions of these two mechanisms to the growth of adipose tissue in obesity. In this study, the size distributions of epididymal adipose cells from two mouse strains, obesity-resistant FVB/N and obesity-prone C57BL/6, were measured after 2, 4, and 12 weeks under regular and high-fat feeding conditions. The total cell number in the epididymal fat pad was estimated from the fat pad mass and the normalized cell-size distribution. The cell number and volume-weighted mean cell size increase as a function of fat pad mass. To address adipose tissue growth precisely, we developed a mathematical model describing the evolution of the adipose cell-size distributions as a function of the increasing fat pad mass, instead of the increasing chronological time. Our model describes the recruitment of new adipose cells and their subsequent development in different strains, and with different diet regimens, with common mechanisms, but with diet- and genetics-dependent model parameters. Compared to the FVB/N strain, the C57BL/6 strain has greater recruitment of small adipose cells. Hyperplasia is enhanced by high-fat diet in a strain-dependent way, suggesting a synergistic interaction between genetics and diet. Moreover, high-fat feeding increases the rate of adipose cell size growth, independent of strain, reflecting the increase in calories requiring storage. Additionally, high-fat diet leads to a dramatic spreading of the size distribution of adipose cells in both strains; this implies an increase in size fluctuations of adipose cells through lipid turnover. PMID:19325873

  5. Effect of Boerhaavia diffusa in experimental prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Bhavin A.; Desai, Niket Y.; Patel, Paras K.; Joshi, Shrikant V.; Shah, Dinesh R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Present investigation was undertaken to study the effectiveness of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa in experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats using various animal models. Materials and Methods: BPH in rats was induced by subcutaneous injection of testosterone (5 mg/kg) daily for 28 days. Rats were divided in to five groups (six rats each). A negative control group received arachis oil (1 ml/kg s.c.) and four groups were injected testosterone. These four groups were further divided into reference group (finasteride 1 mg/kg), model group (testosterone), study group A (B. diffusa 100 mg/kg), and study group B (B. diffusa 250 mg/kg). On the 29th day, rats were sacrificed and body weight, prostate weight, bladder weight, and serum testosterone level were measured and histological studies were carried out. Further in vitro analysis of B. diffusa extract on contractility of isolated rat vas deferens and prostate gland, produced by exogenously administered agonists were carried out. All results were expressed as mean ± SEM. 0 Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. Results: B. diffusa (100 mg/kg) treatment for 28 days resulted in significant inhibition of prostate growth (P < 0.05). Drug extract did not have significant change on serum testosterone level. Histopathological analysis of prostate gland supported above results. Results of in vitro experiment suggest that extracts had attenuated the contractile responses of isolated vas deferens and prostate gland to exogenously applied agonists. Conclusion: The results suggested that treatment with B. diffusa may improve symptoms of disease and inhibit the increased prostate size. In vitro study implies that herbal extracts has the machinery to produce beneficial effect on prostatic smooth muscle, which would relieve the urinary symptoms of disease. B. diffusa could be a potential source of new treatment of prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23833370

  6. Sexual outcome of patients undergoing thulium laser enucleation of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Carmignani, Luca; Bozzini, Giorgio; Macchi, Alberto; Maruccia, Serena; Picozzi, Stefano; Casellato, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may affect the quality of sexual function and ejaculation. The effect of new surgical procedures, which are currently available to treat BPH, on erection and ejaculation, has been poorly studied. This study aimed to assess the effect of thulium laser enucleation of the prostate (ThuLEP) on sexual function and retrograde ejaculation in patients with LUTS secondary to BPH. We performed a prospective study in 110 consecutive patients who had undergone ThuLEP to analyze changes in sexual function and urinary symptoms. To evaluate changes in erection and ejaculation, and the effect of urinary symptoms on the quality of life (QoL), five validated questionnaires were used: the ICIQ-MLUTSsex, MSHQ-EjD, International Index of Erectile Function 5, International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) questionnaire, and QoL index of the intraclass correlation coefficients. Patients also underwent IPSS and flowmetry to assess the outcome of flow. Patients were evaluated before surgery and 3–6 months after ThuLEP, whereas those with previous abdominal surgery were excluded. The patients’ mean age was 67.83 years. Postoperative urinary symptoms improved after surgery. No significant differences in erectile function before and after surgery were observed. As compared with other techniques described in the literature, the percentage of patients with conserved ejaculation increased by 52.7% after ThuLEP. ThuLEP positively affects urinary symptoms and their effect on the QoL of patients as assessed by questionnaire scores. While endoscopic management of BPH (e.g. transurethral resection of the prostate) causes retrograde ejaculation in most patients, those who undergo ThuLEP have conserved ejaculation and erectile function. PMID:25652616

  7. Sexual outcome of patients undergoing thulium laser enucleation of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Carmignani, Luca; Bozzini, Giorgio; Macchi, Alberto; Maruccia, Serena; Picozzi, Stefano; Casellato, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may affect the quality of sexual function and ejaculation. The effect of new surgical procedures, which are currently available to treat BPH, on erection and ejaculation, has been poorly studied. This study aimed to assess the effect of thulium laser enucleation of the prostate (ThuLEP) on sexual function and retrograde ejaculation in patients with LUTS secondary to BPH. We performed a prospective study in 110 consecutive patients who had undergone ThuLEP to analyze changes in sexual function and urinary symptoms. To evaluate changes in erection and ejaculation, and the effect of urinary symptoms on the quality of life (QoL), five validated questionnaires were used: the ICIQ-MLUTSsex, MSHQ-EjD, International Index of Erectile Function 5, International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) questionnaire, and QoL index of the intraclass correlation coefficients. Patients also underwent IPSS and flowmetry to assess the outcome of flow. Patients were evaluated before surgery and 3-6 months after ThuLEP, whereas those with previous abdominal surgery were excluded. The patients' mean age was 67.83 years. Postoperative urinary symptoms improved after surgery. No significant differences in erectile function before and after surgery were observed. As compared with other techniques described in the literature, the percentage of patients with conserved ejaculation increased by 52.7% after ThuLEP. ThuLEP positively affects urinary symptoms and their effect on the QoL of patients as assessed by questionnaire scores. While endoscopic management of BPH (e.g. transurethral resection of the prostate) causes retrograde ejaculation in most patients, those who undergo ThuLEP have conserved ejaculation and erectile function. PMID:25652616

  8. Genetics of primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia: a model for early diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome?

    PubMed

    Drougat, Ludivine; Espiard, Stéphanie; Bertherat, Jerôme

    2015-10-01

    Long-term consequences of cortisol excess are frequent despite appropriate treatment after cure of Cushing's syndrome. This might be due to diagnostic delay, often difficult to reduce in rare diseases. The identification of a genetic predisposing factor might help to improve early diagnosis by familial screening. Primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH) is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. Hypercortisolism in PBMAH is most often diagnosed between the fifth and sixth decades of life. The bilateral nature of the adrenocortical tumors and the occurrence of rare clear familial forms suggest a genetic origin. Indeed, a limited subset of PBMAH can be observed as part of multiple tumors syndromes due to alterations of the APC, Menin or Fumarate Hydratase genes. Rare variants of the phosphodiesterases PDE11A have been associated with PBMAH. The recent identification of ARMC5 germline alterations in 25-50% of PBMAH patients without obvious familial history or associated tumors opens new perspectives. ARMC5 alterations follow the model of a tumor suppressor gene: a first germline inactivating mutation of this 16p located gene is followed by a somatic secondary hit on the other allele (inactivating mutation or allelic loss). Functional studies demonstrate that ARMC5 controls apoptosis and steroid synthesis. The phenotype of index cases patients with the mutation seems more severe than the one of WT index cases. However, phenotype variability within a family is often observed. This review summarizes the genetics of PBMAH, focusing on ARMC5, which offer new perspectives for early diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. PMID:26264719

  9. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in an Elite Female Soccer Player; What Sports Medicine Clinicians Should Know about This?

    PubMed Central

    Angoorani, Hooman; Haratian, Zohreh; Halabchi, Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) refers to a group of congenital conditions characterized by disordered cortisol synthesis. The correlation between CAH and sports performance has been less studied before and there is very limited information regarding the impacts of this congenital disease on sports performance. Probably, there are some limitations for patients who suffer from CAH in sports, but at the same time, they may enjoy some advantage due to the probable effect of endogenous hyperandrogenism on their exercise performance. Case Presentation The case is a 14 - year old girl with male phenotype who is a known case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. She plays in the women's national soccer team of under 16. She has been in the first division league of indoor soccer for 4 years and was also selected in the preparation training camp of women's football team for Singapore's youth Olympic Games. Her illness and dependence on corticosteroid have caused some concerns for her participation in the international competitions of women. However, following consultations with the Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) Committee of games organization, she received TUE to use corticosteroid only within the games period. Despite all her problems, she is now playing in the Second Division League of indoor soccer. Conclusions A female adolescent with CAH may compete at the high level of outdoor and indoor soccer. However, there are many questions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of this congenital disorder and its treatment on sports related issues. PMID:23012642

  10. Gastric foveolar hyperplasia in patients with cancer of the intact stomach.

    PubMed

    Rakic, S; Bandovic, J; Dunjic, M; Randjelovic, T

    1994-06-01

    The incidence of gastric foveolar hyperplasia, a reliable histological marker of bile reflux into the stomach, was evaluated in patients with cancer of the intact stomach. Lesions classified as foveolar hyperplasia were found in 17 of 32 gastric cancer patients and in seven of 30 controls. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.02). Differences in the incidence of foveolar hyperplasia according to sex, tumor site, attendant chronic atrophic gastritis, and alcohol consumption were not significant, which lends support to the association of gastric cancer with duodenogastric reflux. PMID:8044362

  11. Prevalence and Difficulty Index Associated with the 3rd Mandibular Molar Impaction among Malaysian Ethnicities: A Clinico-Radiographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahdey, Haydar Majeed; Wei, Myint

    2015-01-01

    Background The mandibular third molars (3Mms) are the most common impacted teeth in the human dentition and their prevalence ranges from 27-68.8% in various parts of the world. The assessment of surgical difficulty of 3Mms extraction helps in better formulation of treatment plan by minimizing postoperative complications. Objectives The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of 3Mm impaction in patients between 20-44-year-old among Malaysian’s ethnicities attending Oral Health Center/ SEGi University, Faculty of dentistry. Materials and Methods This study reviewed 1249 orthopantomograms (OPGs) of subjects aged 20 to 44 years of three Malaysian ethnic groups. Of the study population 918 OPGs were considered for the study. Patient’s details include age, gender and ethnicity were extracted from the patient’s clinical record and all details related to impaction were obtained from patient’s panoramic radiograph that was individually examined by two investigators. The data collected was statistically analysed using SPSS 16. Results This study found that Chinese female recorded the highest number of patients with “very difficult” category of impacted mandibular third molars. The most common age group involved was 20-24 years, mesioangular impaction, deep occlusal level and no ramus space for impacted mandibular third molars (3ms) were the most common findings observed. Conclusion The present study suggests that predicting the level of difficulty preoperatively for impacted 3m surgery will help in formulating the better treatment plan, thereby minimizing the postoperative complication for the ultimate benefit of the patient. PMID:26501016

  12. Dust evolution in the transition towards the denser ISM: impact on dust temperature, opacity, and spectral index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, M.; Ysard, N.; Jones, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Variations in the observed dust emission and extinction indicate a systematic evolution of grain properties in the transition from the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) to denser molecular clouds. Aims: The differences in the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) observed from the diffuse ISM to denser regions, namely an increase in the spectral index at long wavelengths, an increase in the FIR opacity, and a decrease in temperature, are usually assumed to be the result of changes in dust properties. We investigate if evolutionary processes, such as coagulation and accretion, are able to change the dust properties of grains in a way that is consistent with observations. Methods: We use a core-mantle grain model to describe diffuse ISM-type grains, and using a discrete-dipole approximation, we calculate how the accretion of mantles and coagulation into aggregates vary the grain optical properties. We calculate the dust SED and extinction using DustEM and the radiative transfer code CRT. Results: We show that the accretion of an aliphatic carbon mantle on diffuse ISM-type dust leads to an increase in the FIR opacity by a factor of about 2 and in the FIR/submm spectral index from 1.5 to 1.8, and to a decrease in the temperature by about 2 K. We also show that the coagulation of these grains into aggregates further decreases the temperature by 3 K and increases the spectral index up to a value of ~2. The FIR opacity is increased by a factor of 3 (7) for these aggregates (with an additional ice-mantle) compared to the diffuse ISM-dust. Conclusions: Dust evolution in the ISM resulting from coagulation and accretion, leads to significant changes in the optical properties of the grains that can explain the observed variations in the dust SED in the transition from the diffuse ISM to denser regions.

  13. High condylectomy procedure: a valuable resource for surgical management of the mandibular condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Santos, Darklilson; De Melo, Willian Morais; Souza, Francisley Avila; de Moura, Walter Leal; Cravinhos, Julio César de Paulo

    2013-07-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is an overdevelopment of the condyle, which may manifest unilaterally or bilaterally. This pathological condition can lead to facial asymmetry, malocclusion, and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology and pathogenesis of condylar hyperplasia remain uncertain, but it has been suggested that its etiology may be associated with hormonal factors, trauma, and hereditary hypervascularity, affecting both genders. The diagnosis is made by clinical examination, and radiological imaging, and additionally, bone scintigraphy, is a fundamental resource for determining whether the affected condyle shows active growth. Patients with active condylar hyperplasia management have better results when they are subjected to the high condylectomy procedure. The authors report a case in a 20-year-old female subject with unilateral active condylar hyperplasia who was treated by high condylectomy. The patient has been followed up for 4 years without signs of recurrence and with good functional stability of the occlusion. PMID:23851829

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... older, they may develop excessive body hair growth (hirsutism) and irregular menstruation. Males with the non-classic ... autosomal recessive ; cell ; congenital ; deficiency ; enzyme ; gene ; genitalia ; hirsutism ; hormone ; hyperplasia ; hypertension ; inflammation ; inherited ; menstruation ; newborn screening ; ...

  15. Impact of consumption of vegetable, fruit, grain, and high glycemic index foods on aggressive prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Jill; Cheng, Iona; Witte, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common but complex disease, and distinguishing modifiable risk factors such as diet for more aggressive disease is extremely important. Previous work has detected intriguing associations between vegetable, fruit, and grains and more aggressive prostate cancer, although these remain somewhat unclear. Here we further investigate such potential relationships with a case-control study of 982 men (470 more aggressive prostate cancer cases and 512 control subjects). Comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of intake, we found that increasing intakes of leafy vegetables were inversely associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR) =0.66, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.96, P-trend=0.02), as was higher consumption of high carotenoid vegetables (OR=0.71, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.04; P-trend=0.04). Conversely, increased consumption of high glycemic index foods were positively associated with risk of aggressive disease (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.57; P-trend=0.02). These results were driven by a number of specific foods within the food groups. Our findings support the hypothesis that diets high in vegetables and low in high glycemic index foods decrease risk of aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:21774611

  16. The impact of thickness and thermal annealing on refractive index for aluminum oxide thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Lu, Hong-Liang; Chen, Xin; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Yan-Feng; Xu, Ji-Ping; Wang, Song-You; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2015-02-01

    The aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films with various thicknesses under 50 nm were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on silicon substrate. The surface topography investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the samples were smooth and crack-free. The ellipsometric spectra of Al2O3 thin films were measured and analyzed before and after annealing in nitrogen condition in the wavelength range from 250 to 1,000 nm, respectively. The refractive index of Al2O3 thin films was described by Cauchy model and the ellipsometric spectra data were fitted to a five-medium model consisting of Si substrate/SiO2 layer/Al2O3 layer/surface roughness/air ambient structure. It is found that the refractive index of Al2O3 thin films decrease with increasing film thickness and the changing trend revised after annealing. The phenomenon is believed to arise from the mechanical stress in ALD-Al2O3 thin films. A thickness transition is also found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SE after 900°C annealing.

  17. The impact of thickness and thermal annealing on refractive index for aluminum oxide thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Lu, Hong-Liang; Chen, Xin; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Yan-Feng; Xu, Ji-Ping; Wang, Song-You; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2015-01-01

    The aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films with various thicknesses under 50 nm were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on silicon substrate. The surface topography investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the samples were smooth and crack-free. The ellipsometric spectra of Al2O3 thin films were measured and analyzed before and after annealing in nitrogen condition in the wavelength range from 250 to 1,000 nm, respectively. The refractive index of Al2O3 thin films was described by Cauchy model and the ellipsometric spectra data were fitted to a five-medium model consisting of Si substrate/SiO2 layer/Al2O3 layer/surface roughness/air ambient structure. It is found that the refractive index of Al2O3 thin films decrease with increasing film thickness and the changing trend revised after annealing. The phenomenon is believed to arise from the mechanical stress in ALD-Al2O3 thin films. A thickness transition is also found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SE after 900°C annealing. PMID:25852343

  18. Diffuse Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia with Obliterative Bronchiolitis and Usual Interstitial Pneumonia: An Unusual "Headcheese Pattern" with Nodules.

    PubMed

    Pietrangeli, V; Piciucchi, S; Tomassetti, S; Ravaglia, C; Gurioli, C; Gurioli, Ch; Cavazza, A; Dubini, A; Poletti, V

    2015-12-01

    A 74-year-old non-smoker female presented to our attention with a history of dyspnea and cough. CT scan revealed multiple areas of patchy ground glass attenuation associated to a diffuse mosaic oligoemia. Scattered bilateral subcentimetric pulmonary nodules were also present. Patient underwent a surgical lung biopsy. Specimens showed features of diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia, microhoneycombing, fibroblast foci. A final diagnosis of diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia with obliterative bronchiolitis and UIP was rendered. PMID:26446675

  19. Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kin Hang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

  20. Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kin Hang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

  1. Effect of Nitric Oxide on Neointimal Hyperplasia based on Sex and Hormone Status

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Melissa E.; Varu, Vinit N.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Popowich, Daniel A.; Banerjee, Monisha N.; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-based therapies decrease neointimal hyperplasia; however, studies have only been performed in male animal models. Thus, we sought to evaluate the effect of NO on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro and neointimal hyperplasia in vivo based on sex and hormone status. In hormone-replete media, male VSMC proliferated at greater rates than female VSMC. In hormone-deplete media, female VSMC proliferated at greater rates than male VSMC. However, in both hormone environments, NO inhibited proliferation and migration to a greater extent in male versus female VSMC. These findings correlated with greater G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and changes in cell cycle protein expression in male versus female VSMC following exposure to NO. Next, the rat carotid artery injury model was performed to assess the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. Consistent with the in vitro data, NO was significantly more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in hormonally intact males versus females using weight-based dosing. An increased weight-based dose of NO in females was able to achieve efficacy equal to that in males. Surprisingly, NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both sexes in castrated animals. In conclusion, these data suggest that NO inhibits neointimal hyperplasia more effectively in males than females and in hormonally-intact compared to castrated rats, indicating that the effect of NO in the vasculature may be sex- and hormone-dependent. PMID:21256959

  2. Prognostic impact of progesterone receptor status combined with body mass index in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    OHARA, MASAHIRO; AKIMOTO, ETSUSHI; NOMA, MIDORI; MATSUURA, KAZUO; DOI, MIHOKO; KAGAWA, NAOKI; ITAMOTO, TOSHIYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have played a central role in endocrine therapy for the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. However, prognostic factors for recurrence following such treatment have not been identified. The current study aimed to validate the prognostic value of endocrine-related progesterone receptor (PgR) status combined with body mass index (BMI). Among 659 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent curative surgery between 2002 and 2012, 184 postmenopausal patients with ER-positive (ER+) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative (HER2-) breast cancer who were treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy were assessed. The patients were assigned to groups based on BMI, according to the WHO cut-off value: ?25 kg/m2 (high, H) or <25 kg/m2 (low, L). Positive nodal status, negative PgR status, BMI-H and a high Ki-67 labeling index (?20%) were found to be significantly associated with a short recurrence-free interval (RFI) upon univariate analysis (P=0.048, 0.007, 0.027, and 0.012, respectively). The patients were further grouped based on their combined PgR/BMI status. The RFI was significantly shorter in the PgR- and/or BMI-H group compared with that of the PgR+/BMI-L group (P=0.012). Multivariate analysis revealed PgR- tumors and/or BMI-H and positive nodal status to be independent prognostic factors (P=0.012 and 0.020, respectively). The present findings indicate that PgR/BMI status may serve as a practical tool in the management of ER+ and HER2- breast cancer in patients treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitors. PMID:26722327

  3. Impact of temperature-humidity index on egg-laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) level on productive parameters, welfare, and immunity in Japanese quails. One hundred and eighty (180) birds of Japanese quail, 14 weeks old, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, less than 70), H1 (at moderate THI, 70-75), and H2 (at high THI, 76-80). Birds in the control group had higher body weight (281.2 g, p = 0.001), egg mass (745 g, p = 0.001), fertility (85.4 %, p = 0.039), hatchability (80.4 %, p = 0.001), and immune response titer to Newcastle disease virus (p = 0.031), compared with H2 group. Furthermore, the thermoneutral group had higher internal egg quality score [albumen height (5.14 mm, p = 0.001), yolk height (10.88 mm, p = 0.015), yolk index (42.32 %, p = 0.039), and Haugh unit (92.67, p = 0.001)]. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in fertility percentage, immune response, and corticosterone concentration between control and H1 group. Birds in the H2 group had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte percentage (p = 0.001 and 0.020, respectively) but the highest H/L ratio (0.83, p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in control and H1 groups (5.49 and 6.41 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.024) than that in H2 group. Japanese quail exposed to heat stress revealed drop in production and immunological parameters, as well as a detrimental effects on welfare. Thus, practical approaches might be used to reduce the detrimental effects of greater THI level.

  4. Giant Bilateral Adrenal Myelolipoma with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bahri, S.; Tariq, A.; Lowentritt, B.; Nasrallah, D. V.

    2014-01-01

    Myelolipomas are rare and benign neoplasms, predominant of the adrenal glands, consisting of adipose and mature hematopoietic tissue, commonly discovered incidentally with increased use of radiologic imaging. Few cases of giant bilateral adrenal masses are reported, especially in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report the case of a 39-year-old male with a history of CAH secondary to 21-? hydroxylase deficiency on steroids since childhood, self-discontinued during adolescence, presenting with abdominal distension, fatigue, decreased libido, and easy bruising. Imaging revealed giant bilateral adrenal masses. He subsequently underwent bilateral adrenalectomy found to be myelolipomas measuring 30 × 25 × 20?cm on the left and weighing 4.1?kg and 25 × 20 × 13?cm on the right and weighing 2.7?kg. Adrenal myelolipomas are found to coexist with many other conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and CAH. We discuss the association with high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) states and review the studies involving ACTH as proponent leading to myelolipomas. Massive growth of these tumors, as in our case, can produce compression and hemorrhagic symptoms. We believe it is possible that self-discontinuation of steroids, in the setting of CAH, may have resulted in the growth of his adrenal masses. PMID:25140269

  5. Therapy monitoring in congenital adrenal hyperplasia by dried blood samples.

    PubMed

    Wieacker, Isabelle; Peter, Michael; Borucki, Katrin; Empting, Susann; Roehl, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Mohnike, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    Careful monitoring of the therapy is crucial for patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in order to prevent the effects of increased androgen production as well as life-threatening salt-wasting crisis. The key metabolite, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) can be detected in serum, saliva or dried blood. In clinical practice there are challenges due to discomfort of venous blood sampling and complicated retrieval of saliva during infancy. Furthermore, the immunoassay method is limited in its specificity due to cross-reactions. In this observational study we prospectively examined over a period of 5 years, 20 patients with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency using standard immunoassays for serum samples (radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in dried blood spots. Bland-Altman plots show goodness of agreement between both the methods for the desirable therapeutic concentration range of 17-OHP. LC-MS/MS is characterized by a high accuracy in the therapeutic concentration range of 17-OHP <100 nmol/L (r=0.91). Dried blood samples are convenient and reliable specimen for 17-OHP measured by LC-MS/MS. This method could be used for home monitoring of hydrocortisone replacement therapy both in salt-waster and simple virilizer CAH. PMID:25781526

  6. Approach to the Patient: The Adult With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). When the nonclassical (mild) form is included, 21OHD is the most common genetic disease in human beings. With the advent of pharmaceutical preparation of glucocorticoids starting in the 1960s and newborn screening starting in the 1990s, the majority of children with 21OHD are reaching adulthood, which has yielded a cohort of patients with, in essence, a new disease. Only recently have some data emerged from cohorts of adults with 21OHD, and in some centers, experience with the management of these patients is growing. These patients suffer from poor health, infertility, characteristic tumors in the adrenal glands and gonads, and consequences of chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Their care is fragmented and inconsistent, and many stop taking their medications out of frustration. Internal medicine residents and endocrinology fellows receive little training in their care, which further discourages their seeking medical attention. Adults with 21OHD have a different physiology from patients with Addison's disease or other androgen excess states, and their needs are different than those of young children with 21OHD. Consequently, their care requires unorthodox treatment and monitoring strategies foreign to most endocrine practitioners. Our goal for this article is to review their physiology, complications, and needs in order to develop rational and effective treatment and monitoring strategies. PMID:23837188

  7. Assessing endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma treated with progestin therapy.

    PubMed

    Mentrikoski, Mark J; Shah, Akeesha A; Hanley, Krisztina Z; Atkins, Kristen A

    2012-10-01

    The effects of increased amounts of progesterone on the endometrium, including such features as eosinophilic cytoplasmic metaplasia, glandular atrophy, and decidualized stroma, are well-known among surgical pathologists. These changes are typically seen as secondary effects of pregnancy or exogenous hormone therapy for birth control purposes or abnormal bleeding. Treatment with progesterone has become a viable alternative to hysterectomy in some patients with complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) and well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma (WDC), especially those who are poor surgical candidates or those wishing to preserve fertility. To date, only 1 study has specifically examined the effects of progestin therapy on patients with a previous diagnosis of CAH or WDC. That study proposed a classification scheme for the assessment of treated CAH and WDC. The authors concluded that after 6 months of treatment, endometrial biopsy findings of persistent cytologic atypia and architectural abnormalities were associated with treatment failure. This current study aims to assess the previously proposed criteria in a cohort of 30 patients (18 with a diagnosis of CAH and 12 with a diagnosis of WDC), and determine the usefulness of these criteria in clinical practice. Our study confirms that cytologic atypia after 6 months of therapy is strongly associated with treatment failure, and should be an indication to pursue definitive surgical treatment in these patients. PMID:23010707

  8. Clinical and molecular review of atypical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders. It comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by the mutations in the genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes that involved cortisol synthesis. More than 90% of cases are caused by a defect in the enzyme 21-hydroxylase. Four other enzyme deficiencies (cholesterol side-chain cleavage, 17?-hydroxylase [P450c17], 11?-hydroxylase [P450c11?], 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in the steroid biosynthesis pathway, along with one cholesterol transport protein defect (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), and one electrontransfer protein (P450 oxidoreductase) account for the remaining cases. The clinical symptoms of the different forms of CAH result from the particular hormones that are deficient and those that are produced in excess. A characteristic feature of CAH is genital ambiguity or disordered sex development, and most variants are associated with glucocorticoid deficiency. However, in the rare forms of CAH other than 21-hydroxylase deficiency so-called "atypical CAH", the clinical and hormonal phenotypes can be more complicated, and are not well recognized. This review will focus on the atypical forms of CAH, including the genetic analyses, and phenotypic correlates. PMID:25883920

  9. Intestinal lymphonodular hyperplasia of childhood: patterns of presentation.

    PubMed

    Colón, A R; DiPalma, J S; Leftridge, C A

    1991-04-01

    In this retrospective analysis we searched for a constellation of signs or symptoms attributable to childhood lymphonodular hyperplasia (LNH). Of 147 children with documented LNH reviewed, 43% had lesions in the small bowel, and 57% in the large bowel. Children in this study presented with complaints of abdominal pain (58%) and bright red blood per rectum (32%). Physical examination revealed little except right lower quadrant (RLQ) abdominal tenderness and "fullness" in 35%. The pain was periumbilical, dull-cramping, rarely acute, and nonradiating. The hematochezia was most commonly streaky red in mucoid strands adhering to the stools, with no associated tenesmus. Three clinical patterns emerged: (a) Under 1 year of age most patients were male, with painless bleeding and pancolonic LNH. (b) Between 2 and 6 years, although the LNH was predominantly colonic, pain and bleeding occurred equally. (c) From 7 years old on, the main symptom was abdominal pain, but LNH distribution was nearly equal between the small bowel and the colon. To date, our long-term follow-up of the children with isolated LNH has revealed no sequelae. PMID:2033223

  10. The Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype Promotes Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Paz; Castro, Patricia; Tsang, Susan; Ittmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by increased tissue mass in the transition zone of the prostate, which leads to obstruction of urine outflow and considerable morbidity in a majority of older men. Senescent cells accumulate in human tissues, including the prostate, with increasing age. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines is increased in these senescent cells, a manifestation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Multiplex analysis revealed that multiple cytokines are increased in BPH, including GM-CSF, IL-1?, and IL-4, and that these are also increased in senescent prostatic epithelial cells in vitro. Tissue levels of these cytokines were correlated with a marker of senescence (cathepsin D), which was also strongly correlated with prostate weight. IHC analysis revealed the multifocal epithelial expression of cathepsin D and coexpression with IL-1? in BPH tissues. In tissue recombination studies in nude mice with immortalized prostatic epithelial cells expressing IL-1? and prostatic stromal cells, both epithelial and stromal cells exhibited increased growth. Expression of IL-1? in prostatic epithelial cells in a transgenic mouse model resulted in increased prostate size and bladder obstruction. In summary, both correlative and functional evidence support the hypothesis that the senescence-associated secretory phenotype can promote the development of BPH, which is the single most common age-related pathology in older men. PMID:24434012

  11. Role of laser therapy in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Werner T.; Sharpe, Brent A.; Aronoff, David B.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.

    2001-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in males older than 50 years of age. 75-80% of this population is considered to have some degree of BPH causing clinical symptoms and requiring urological treatment. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) is currently the standard surgical treatment modality for BPH. In an attempt to minimize the need for hospitalization and the associated perioperative and postoperative morbidity, alternatives have been sought. Various types of laser techniques such as interstitial laser coagulation and side-firing technology have been proposed. Numerous studies have shown that laser procedures safely and effectively reduce the volume of the prostate. Intra- and postoperative bleeding are nearly unknown complications for laser procedures, whereas this is the most relevant complication for the TUR-P. Due to significant tissue edema after laser treatment, patients commonly show delayed time to void adequately and, therefore, catheter drainage is often necessary for 3 to 21 days. Retrograde ejaculation is reported to occur less (0- 10%) compared to TUR-P (greater than 60%). Urinary tract infections are very common after interstitial laser coagulation. Although not many long-term clinical data are available, various studies have shown that BPH patients improve in symptom score, flow rate and post-void residual up to 3 years after laser treatment. This paper presents a concise review of efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of the most frequently used laser techniques as well as the long-term clinical data compared to TUR-P.

  12. Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahri, S; Tariq, A; Lowentritt, B; Nasrallah, D V

    2014-01-01

    Myelolipomas are rare and benign neoplasms, predominant of the adrenal glands, consisting of adipose and mature hematopoietic tissue, commonly discovered incidentally with increased use of radiologic imaging. Few cases of giant bilateral adrenal masses are reported, especially in the setting of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report the case of a 39-year-old male with a history of CAH secondary to 21-? hydroxylase deficiency on steroids since childhood, self-discontinued during adolescence, presenting with abdominal distension, fatigue, decreased libido, and easy bruising. Imaging revealed giant bilateral adrenal masses. He subsequently underwent bilateral adrenalectomy found to be myelolipomas measuring 30 × 25 × 20?cm on the left and weighing 4.1?kg and 25 × 20 × 13?cm on the right and weighing 2.7?kg. Adrenal myelolipomas are found to coexist with many other conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and CAH. We discuss the association with high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) states and review the studies involving ACTH as proponent leading to myelolipomas. Massive growth of these tumors, as in our case, can produce compression and hemorrhagic symptoms. We believe it is possible that self-discontinuation of steroids, in the setting of CAH, may have resulted in the growth of his adrenal masses. PMID:25140269

  13. What do we know about phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Allkanjari, Olta; Vitalone, Annabella

    2015-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common urological diseases in aging men. Because of its long latency, BPH is a good target for prevention. The aim of the study has been to review the various options of treatment, currently available, in the field of phytotherapy. Watchful waiting, pharmacological therapy, and surgery are also helpful, depending on the severity of the disease. Although drug therapy (alpha1-blockers, 5alpha-reductase inhibitors) and surgery (prostatectomy, transurethral resection, etc.) seem to be most effective for patients with moderate-severe BPH, herbal medicines (i.e., Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica) are also commonly used in patients with mild-moderate symptoms. On the basis of preclinical studies several mechanisms of action have been postulated, including 5alpha-reductase inhibition, alpha-adrenergic antagonism, dihydrotestosterone and estrogen receptor inhibition. Randomized clinical trials indicate significant efficacy in improving urinary symptoms and mild adverse effects for some phytotherapeutic agents, while further clinical evidence is needed for others (e.g., Epilobium spp., Secale cereale, Roystonea regia). Healthcare professionals should be constantly informed about BPH phytotherapy, taking into account the risk/benefit profile of the use of medicinal plants in the management of BPH. PMID:25703069

  14. Effects of Tamsulosin on Premature Ejaculation in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Hwi; Hwa, Jung Seog; Kam, Sung Chul; Jeh, Seong Uk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have revealed that tamsulosin is effective in improving lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile functioning but has some inhibitory effects on ejaculation, including decreased ejaculatory volume. However, these inhibitory effects on ejaculation can be beneficial to patients with premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the effect of tamsulosin on PE in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine patients who visited with LUTS were categorized into 2 groups of LUTS-only patients (n=12) and LUTS combined with PE (LUTS+PE) patients (n=17), and 0.4 mg of tamsulosin was administered to the patients of both groups for 12 weeks. Comparative analyses of before and after the treatment were conducted for calculating the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5), intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT), and premature ejaculation profile (PEP). The patients with an IPSS score of 8 or higher were determined as LUTS patients, and the patients with IELT of less than 2 minutess and a PEDT score of 9 or higher were determined as PE patients. Results After treatment, the IPSS score significantly decreased in both groups. There was no statistically significant change in the PEDT for the LUTS group, but there was a significant decrease in PEDT (p=0.012; from 12.1±3.31 to 8.4±4.49) in the LUTS+PE group. Conclusions Tamsulosin not only has a treatment effect for LUTS but also improves the PE of LUTS+PE patients. Therefore, further studies are needed to confirm the effects of tamsulosin on PE. PMID:25237660

  15. Anti-proliferative effects of qianliening capsules on prostatic hyperplasia in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, XIAOYONG; LIN, JIUMAO; ZHOU, JIANHENG; XU, WEI; HONG, ZHENFENG

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies by our group showed that Qianliening capsules (QC), a clinically proven effective traditional Chinese formulation that has long been used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is capable of inhibiting BPH in vivo and in vitro via the promotion of apoptosis, suppression of the EGFR/STAT3 signaling pathway and regulating the expression of sex hormones as well as their receptors. However, the mechanism of its anti-BPH activity has remained to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effect of QC in vivo and in vitro. Castrated male Sprage-Dawley (SD) rats where subcutaneously injected with testosterone propionate and the WPMY-1 cell line was stimulated with basic fibroblast growth factor in order to generate BPH in vivo and in vitro separately, both of which were then subjected to QC treatment. Finasteride was used as a positive control drug for the in vivo study. In the present study, it was found that treatment with QC or finasteride significantly reduced the prostatic index (PI=prostate wet weight/body weight × 100) in a rat model of BPH (P<0.05). In addition, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses showed that QC or finasteride treatment significantly inhibited model construction-induced upregulation of expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in prostatic tissues of rats with BPH (P<0.05). The in vitro study further proved that QC exhibited anti-proliferative properties via G1/S cell cycle arrest in the WPMY-1 cell line, as evidenced by colony formation, flow cytometric cell cycle, immunoblot and RT-PCR analyses. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that inhibition of cell proliferation via G1/S cell cycle arrest may be one of the underlying mechanisms of the effect of QC on BPH. PMID:25825141

  16. Anti-proliferative effects of qianliening capsules on prostatic hyperplasia in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaoyong; Lin, Jiumao; Zhou, Jianheng; Xu, Wei; Hong, Zhenfeng

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies by our group showed that Qianliening capsules (QC), a clinically proven effective traditional Chinese formulation that has long been used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is capable of inhibiting BPH in vivo and in vitro via the promotion of apoptosis, suppression of the EGFR/STAT3 signaling pathway and regulating the expression of sex hormones as well as their receptors. However, the mechanism of its anti-BPH activity has remained to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effect of QC in vivo and in vitro. Castrated male Sprage-Dawley (SD) rats where subcutaneously injected with testosterone propionate and the WPMY-1 cell line was stimulated with basic fibroblast growth factor in order to generate BPH in vivo and in vitro separately, both of which were then subjected to QC treatment. Finasteride was used as a positive control drug for the in vivo study. In the present study, it was found that treatment with QC or finasteride significantly reduced the prostatic index (PI=prostate wet weight/body weight x 100) in a rat model of BPH (P<0.05). In addition, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses showed that QC or finasteride treatment significantly inhibited model construction-induced upregulation of expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in prostatic tissues of rats with BPH (P<0.05). The in vitro study further proved that QC exhibited anti-proliferative properties via G1/S cell cycle arrest in the WPMY-1 cell line, as evidenced by colony formation, flow cytometric cell cycle, immunoblot and RT-PCR analyses. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that inhibition of cell proliferation via G1/S cell cycle arrest may be one of the underlying mechanisms of the effect of QC on BPH. PMID:25825141

  17. Impact of Pretreatment Body Mass Index on Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Ping-Ching; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chang, Kai-Ping; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ji-Hong; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of pretreatment body mass index (preT BMI) with outcomes of head-and-neck cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: All 1,562 patients diagnosed with head-and-neck cancer and treated with curative-intent RT to a dose of 60 Gy or higher were retrospectively studied. Body weight was measured both at entry and at the end of RT. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis (DM) were analyzed by preT BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2} vs. {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}). The median follow-up was 8.6 years. Results: Patients with lower preT BMI were statistically significantly associated with poorer CSS and OS than those with higher preT BMI. There was no significant difference between preT BMI groups in terms of LRC and DM. Body weight loss (BWL) during radiation did not influence survival outcomes. However, in the group with higher preT BMI, CSS, OS, and DM-free survival of patients with less BWL during radiation were statistically longer when compared with greater BWL. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that higher preT BMI positively influenced survival outcomes for patients with head-and-neck cancer. Patients with higher preT BMI who were able to maintain their weight during radiation had significantly better survival than patients with greater BWL.

  18. Impact of ?-amylase during breadmaking on in vitro kinetics of starch hydrolysis and glycaemic index of enriched bread with bran.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Penella, Juan Mario; Laparra, José Moisés; Haros, Monika

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, the use of enzymes has become a common practice in the bakery industry, as they can improve dough quality and texture of final product. However, the use of ?-amylases could have a negative effect in the glycaemic load of product, due to the released sugars from the starch hydrolysis that are not used by yeasts during the fermentation process. This study evaluated the effect of the addition of ?-amylase in bakery products with bran on in vitro kinetics of starch hydrolysis. The use of flour with a high degree of extraction or high bran amount could decrease the GI even with the inclusion of ?-amylase in the formulation. It should be taken into account the amount of bran and ?-amylase when formulating breads in order to obtain products with lower GI than white bread. However, the fact that kinetics of starch hydrolysis remained unaltered indicates that the use of ?-amylase in bread-making processes could provide technological advantages improving quality of breads without markedly changes in their glycaemic index. PMID:25074672

  19. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden.

  20. Tomotherapy treatment plan quality assurance: The impact of applied criteria on passing rate in gamma index method

    SciTech Connect

    Bresciani, Sara; Di Dia, Amalia; Maggio, Angelo; Cutaia, Claudia; Miranti, Anna; Infusino, Erminia; Stasi, Michele

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Pretreatment patient plan verification with gamma index (GI) metric analysis is standard procedure for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the variability of the local and global gamma index obtained during standard pretreatment quality assurance (QA) measurements for plans performed with Tomotherapy unit. The QA measurements were performed with a 3D diode array, using variable passing criteria: 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm, each with both local and global normalization.Methods: The authors analyzed the pretreatment QA results for 73 verifications; 37 were prostate cancer plans, 16 were head and neck plans, and 20 were other clinical sites. All plans were treated using the Tomotherapy Hi-Art System. Pretreatment QA plans were performed with the commercially available 3D diode array ArcCHECK™. This device has 1386 diodes arranged in a helical geometry spaced 1 cm apart. The dose measurements were acquired on the ArcCHECK™ and then compared with the calculated dose using the standard gamma analysis method. The gamma passing rate (%GP), defined as the percentage of points satisfying the condition GI < 1, was calculated for different criteria (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm) and for both global and local normalization. In the case of local normalization method, the authors set three dose difference threshold (DDT) values of 2, 3, and 5 cGy. Dose difference threshold is defined as the minimum absolute dose error considered in the analysis when using local normalization. Low-dose thresholds (TH) of 5% and 10% were also applied and analyzed.Results: Performing a paired-t-test, the authors determined that the gamma passing rate is independent of the threshold values for all of the adopted criteria (5%TH vs 10%TH, p > 0.1). Our findings showed that mean %GPs for local (or global) normalization for the entire study group were 93% (98%), 84% (92%), and 66% (61%) for 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm criteria, respectively. DDT was equal to 2 cGy for the local normalization analysis cases. The authors observed great variability in the resulting %GP. With 3%/3 mm gamma criteria, the overall passing rate with local normalization was 4.6% less on the average than with global one, as expected. The wide difference between %GP calculated with global or local approach is also confirmed by an unpaired t-test statistical analysis.Conclusions: The variability of %GP obtained confirmed the necessity to establish defined agreement criteria that could be universal and comparable between institutions. In particular, while the gamma passing rate does not depend on the choice of threshold, the choice of DDT strongly influences the gamma passing rate for local calculations. The difference between global and local %GP was statistically significant for prostate and other treatment sites when DDT was changed from 2 to 3 cGy.

  1. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - progress in pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Dobrek, ?ukasz; Thor, Piotr Jan

    2015-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of the aging male population, in affected individuals often accompanied by metabolic syndrome. BPH is manifested by a complex range of symptoms originating from the lower urinary tract (LUTS - lower urinary tract symptoms), including disturbances resulting from impaired bladder compliance and bladder overactivity (e.g. frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, dysuria) and symptoms associated with the bladder outlet obstruction (e.g. the difficulty in voiding initiating, intermittency, involuntary interruption of voiding, weak urinary stream, straining to void). Despite numerous studies, the pathogenesis of BPH remains not completely understood, and the condition awaits a comprehensive description. The current pathophysiological view emphasizes the role of hormonal dysregulation, locally released in the prostate growth factors action and a complex inflammatory, BPH-associated process with the release of a number of pro-proliferative mediators. The current BPH pharmacotherapy involves administration of ?-1-blockers, 5-?-reductase inhibitors, antimuscarinic drugs (cholinolytics) and phosphodiesterase- 5-inhibitors. Progress in the BPH pathophysiology allows the disclosure of additional, potential targets of pharmacological intervention, such as ?-3 adrenoreceptor or CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists, P2X1 purinergic or ETA endothelin receptors antagonists, RhoA/Rho kinase system inhibitors, nitric oxide donors, drugs indirectly (luteinizing hormone - releasing hormone antagonists) or directly (antiandrogens) abolishing the effect of testosterone and its derivatives or agents blocking the action of proinflammatory cytokines. The article briefly discusses the pathophysiology of the aforementioned issues and the current BPH management along with the future, potential opportunities for pharmacotherapy of the. PMID:26637089

  2. Update in minimal invasive therapy in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Van Hest, P; D'Ancona, F

    2009-09-01

    Last decade several new treatment modalities for minimal invasive therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia have been developed, both ablative and non-ablative. In this review the authors describe the different techniques and clinical studies of bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), transurethral resection in saline (TURis), the different laser therapies for the prostate, transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT), high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), transurethral needle ablation (TUNA), hot water induced thermotherapy (WIT), prostatic stents, intraprostatic ethanol injections and botulinum toxin A injections. The different bipolar systems and photoselective vaporisation might replace the ''gold standard'', monopolar TURP, in the near future. The holmium laser enucleation of the prostate is also a real challenger of the ''gold standard'', but the technique is difficult to learn. The TUMT definitively found its place as alternative to TURP, especially because it can be performed in an outpatient setting without the need of anaesthesia. Therefore it is also suitable in patients at high risk. The long-term data on TUNA and HIFU is disappointing and therefore these treatment modalities did not stand the test of time. WIT seemed to be a promising therapy, but durability is questionable. Intraprostatic ethanol injections are safe and effective in small series, but larger series are needed to confirm its efficacy. Intraprostatic botulinum toxin A injections are the first treatment of BPH to target both the increase in smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) and the excessive growth (static component) of BPH. This approach of BPH is very promising but more studies with long-term follow up are needed. PMID:19773727

  3. Periadventitial atRA citrate-based polyester membranes reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis after carotid injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Elaine K; Webb, Antonio R; Vercammen, Janet M; Flynn, Megan E; Ameer, Guillermo A; Kibbe, Melina R

    2014-11-15

    Oral all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has been shown to reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia; however, the dose required was 30 times the chemotherapeutic dose, which already has reported side effects. As neointimal formation is a localized process, new approaches to localized delivery are required. This study assessed whether atRA within a citrate-based polyester, poly(1,8 octanediolcitrate) (POC), perivascular membrane would prevent neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. atRA-POC membranes were prepared and characterized for atRA release via high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Rat adventitial fibroblasts (AF) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were exposed to various concentrations of atRA; proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis were assessed in vitro. The rat carotid artery balloon injury model was used to evaluate the impact of the atRA-POC membranes on neointimal formation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, macrophage infiltration, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) expression in vivo. atRA-POC membranes released 12 ?g of atRA over 2 wk, with 92% of the release occurring in the first week. At 24 h, atRA (200 ?mol/l) inhibited [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into AF and VSMC by 78% and 72%, respectively (*P = 0.001), with negligible apoptosis or necrosis. Histomorphometry analysis showed that atRA-POC membranes inhibited neointimal formation after balloon injury, with a 56%, 57%, and 50% decrease in the intimal area, intima-to-media area ratio, and percent stenosis, respectively (P = 0.001). atRA-POC membranes had no appreciable effect on apoptosis or proliferation at 2 wk. Regarding biocompatibility, we found a 76% decrease in macrophage infiltration in the intima layer (P < 0.003) in animals treated with atRA-POC membranes, with a coinciding 53% reduction in VCAM-1 staining (P < 0.001). In conclusion, perivascular delivery of atRA inhibited neointimal formation and restenosis. These data suggest that atRA-POC membranes may be suitable as localized therapy to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia following open cardiovascular procedures. PMID:25239800

  4. Periadventitial atRA citrate-based polyester membranes reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis after carotid injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Elaine K.; Webb, Antonio R.; Vercammen, Janet M.; Flynn, Megan E.; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2014-01-01

    Oral all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has been shown to reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia; however, the dose required was 30 times the chemotherapeutic dose, which already has reported side effects. As neointimal formation is a localized process, new approaches to localized delivery are required. This study assessed whether atRA within a citrate-based polyester, poly(1,8 octanediolcitrate) (POC), perivascular membrane would prevent neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. atRA-POC membranes were prepared and characterized for atRA release via high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Rat adventitial fibroblasts (AF) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were exposed to various concentrations of atRA; proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis were assessed in vitro. The rat carotid artery balloon injury model was used to evaluate the impact of the atRA-POC membranes on neointimal formation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, macrophage infiltration, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) expression in vivo. atRA-POC membranes released 12 ?g of atRA over 2 wk, with 92% of the release occurring in the first week. At 24 h, atRA (200 ?mol/l) inhibited [3H]-thymidine incorporation into AF and VSMC by 78% and 72%, respectively (*P = 0.001), with negligible apoptosis or necrosis. Histomorphometry analysis showed that atRA-POC membranes inhibited neointimal formation after balloon injury, with a 56%, 57%, and 50% decrease in the intimal area, intima-to-media area ratio, and percent stenosis, respectively (P = 0.001). atRA-POC membranes had no appreciable effect on apoptosis or proliferation at 2 wk. Regarding biocompatibility, we found a 76% decrease in macrophage infiltration in the intima layer (P < 0.003) in animals treated with atRA-POC membranes, with a coinciding 53% reduction in VCAM-1 staining (P < 0.001). In conclusion, perivascular delivery of atRA inhibited neointimal formation and restenosis. These data suggest that atRA-POC membranes may be suitable as localized therapy to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia following open cardiovascular procedures. PMID:25239800

  5. IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M; Fick, Lizette CE; Leeto, Mosiuoa; Dewals, Benjamin; Horsnell, William GC; Brombacher, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. Results As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4R? expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4R?-/- mice. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections. PMID:18373844

  6. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-06

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  7. Linking Pre-Diabetes with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. IGFBP-3: A Conductor of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Development Orchestra?

    PubMed Central

    Protopsaltis, Ioannis; Ploumidis, Achilles; Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Constantoulakis, Padelis; Tzirogiannis, Kostantinos; Kyprianidou, Chrysoula; Papazafiropoulou, Athanasia K.; Melidonis, Andreas; Delakas, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents a pattern of non-malignant growth of prostatic fibromuscular stroma. Metabolic disturbances such us pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome may have a role in BPH pathophysiology. A potential explanation for the above relationship involves the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis as well as IGF binding proteins, (IGFBPs) of which the most abundant form is IGFBP-3. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between intra-prostatic levels of IGF-1, IGF-2 as well as to evaluate the role of locally expressed IGFBP-3 in BPH development in pre-diabetes. A total of 49 patients admitted to the Urology department of a tertiary urban Greek hospital, for transurethral prostate resection, or prostatectomy and with pre-diabetes [impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or both] were finally included. The majority of the sample consisted of subjects with IGT (51.0%), followed by IFG and IGT (32.7%) and isolated IFG (16.3%). For all participants a clinical examination was performed and blood samples were collected. In addition, total prostate (TP) volume or transitional zone (TZ) volume were estimated by transrectal ultrasonography. The results of the multivariate analysis regarding TP volume showed that higher PSA (p<0.001), larger waist circumference (p=0.007) and higher IGFBP-3 expression levels (p<0.001) independently predicted higher TP volume. The results regarding the volume of the TZ showed that higher PSA (p<0.001), larger waist circumference (p<0.001) and higher IGFBP-3 expression levels (p=0.024) were independently associated with higher TZ volume. Our findings show that intra-prostatic levels of IGFBP-3, PSA and waist circumference, but not overall obesity, are positively associated with prostate volume. IGFBP-3 seems to be a multifunctional protein, which can potentiate or inhibit IGF activity. PMID:24367483

  8. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra in three captive African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Langan, Jennifer N; Haskins, Samantha; Landolfi, Jamie

    2012-03-01

    Pyometra and cystic endometrial hyperplasia are common in domestic canids and are suspected to develop as a consequence of elevated progesterone levels. Reports of uterine pathology in exotic canids are limited, with some speculating of association with contraception. This report describes pyometra, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, and ovariohysterectomy in three African hunting dogs (Lycaon pictus). Ovarian corpora lutea were detected in two of the dogs, suggesting endogenous progesterone production. One dog had a uterine adenocarcinoma and two had ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, vulvar discharge, polyuria, polydipsia, and abdominal distention. Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, physical examination, bloodwork, radiography, and ultrasonography, with confirmation through histopathologic evaluation of tissues. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia, pyometra, and uterine neoplasia have rarely been diagnosed in exotic canids; however, they should be considered as differential diagnoses in intact bitches that present with suspected reproductive disease. PMID:22448515

  9. Nitric Oxide is Less Effective at Inhibiting Neointimal Hyperplasia in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsihlis, Nick D.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Martinez, Janet; Lee, Vanessa R.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous administration of nitric oxide (NO) markedly decreases neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury in several animal models. However, the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in hypertension remains unknown. Here, we employ the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain, inbred from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and the carotid artery balloon injury model to assess the effects of NO on neointimal hyperplasia development. Two weeks after arterial injury, we showed that both rat strains developed similar levels of neointimal hyperplasia, but local administration of NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR compared to WKY rats (58% vs. 79%, P<0.001). Interestingly, local administration of NO did not affect systemic blood pressure in either rat strain. Compared to WKY, the SHR displayed more proliferation in the media and adventitia following balloon injury, as measured by BrdU incorporation. The SHR also showed more inflammation in the adventitia after injury, as well as more vasa vasorum, than WKY rats. NO treatment reduced the vasa vasorum in the SHR but not WKY rats. Finally, while NO decreased both injury-induced proliferation and inflammation in the SHR, it did not return these parameters to levels seen in WKY rats. We conclude that NO is less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR than WKY rats. This may be due to increased scavenging of NO in the SHR, leading to diminished bioavailability of NO. These data will help to develop novel NO-based therapies that will be equally effective in both normotensive and hypertensive patient populations. PMID:24149190

  10. Nitric oxide is less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tsihlis, Nick D; Vavra, Ashley K; Martinez, Janet; Lee, Vanessa R; Kibbe, Melina R

    2013-11-30

    Exogenous administration of nitric oxide (NO) markedly decreases neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury in several animal models. However, the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in hypertension remains unknown. Here, we employ the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain, inbred from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and the carotid artery balloon injury model to assess the effects of NO on neointimal hyperplasia development. 2weeks after arterial injury, we showed that both rat strains developed similar levels of neointimal hyperplasia, but local administration of NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR compared to WKY rats (58% vs. 79%, P<0.001). Interestingly, local administration of NO did not affect systemic blood pressure in either rat strain. Compared to WKY, the SHR displayed more proliferation in the media and adventitia following balloon injury, as measured by BrdU incorporation. The SHR also showed more inflammation in the adventitia after injury, as well as more vasa vasorum, than WKY rats. NO treatment reduced the vasa vasorum in the SHR but not WKY rats. Finally, while NO decreased both injury-induced proliferation and inflammation in the SHR, it did not return these parameters to levels seen in WKY rats. We conclude that NO is less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR than WKY rats. This may be due to increased scavenging of NO in the SHR, leading to diminished bioavailability of NO. These data will help to develop novel NO-based therapies that will be equally effective in both normotensive and hypertensive patient populations. PMID:24149190

  11. Local hyperthermia in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Assessment of 100 patients.

    PubMed

    Serrate Aguilera, R; Ruis Espina, G; Regié Aldosa, R; Prats López, J; Franco de Castro, A

    1991-01-01

    This study includes our first 100 patients who received local prostatic hyperthermia treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Subjective symptoms such as nycturia, stream, urgency, and objective facts like urine flow and postmicturition residue were monitored before treatment and 3 months after. The clinical (subjective) symptoms improved in 76 patients. Urinary flow increased in 63 patients, and the postmicturition urinary residue decreased in 32 patients. We were able to show that local prostatic hyperthermia is a valid option for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia although it is still too early to assess the long-term results. PMID:1720737

  12. Focal nodular hyperplasia in a child with hemihypertrophy and multiple cutaneous vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, M; Verma, R; Shannon, R S; McKeever, P A; Rickett, A

    2004-03-01

    A case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver occurring in a 9-year-old girl with musculoskeletal hemihypertrophy and multiple cutaneous capillary haemangiomata is described. The child presented because of limb length discrepancy and was found to have a large mass in the liver. Imaging showed a mass of similar characteristics to normal liver tissue. Prominent vascular supply to the liver was also seen. We present this case to emphasize the important diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia, which may occur in syndromic form in children with typical cutaneous and skeletal manifestations. PMID:15027928

  13. Therapeutic efficacy of Cernilton in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with histological prostatitis after transurethral resection of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaoqiang; Kong, Xiangjie; Qian, Yu; Xu, Ding; Liu, Hailong; Zhu, Yunkai; Guan, Wenbing; Zheng, Junhua; Wang, Zhong; Qi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was to prospectively evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Cernilton in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with histological prostatitis after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Materials and methods: One hundred patients with histological prostatitis were recruited from January 2007 to January 2013. All patients were divided into groups A (mild), B (moderate), and C (severe) based on symptom severity, and then randomly subgrouped into Cernilton group and control group. Patients in Cernilton group were treated with Cernilton for 3 months after TURP, while patients in control group received placebo. A series of patient indicators were evaluated before, perioperatively (peri), and after TURP. Results: The assessed indicators remained unchanged peri-TURP as compared to those before surgery. 6 months after TURP, indicators remained stable in group A, and significant differences were observed in the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) in group B and in the storage symptom score (Ss), quality of life (QoL) and IEFF-5 in group C. In addition, there were significant differences in Ss, QoL and IEFF-5 between Cernilton group and control group. Conclusion: In BPH patients with histological prostatitis after TURP, Cernilton can improve the lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction depending on the grade of prostatitis. PMID:26379934

  14. Attenuation fluctuations and local dermal reflectivity are indicators of immune cell infiltrate and epidermal hyperplasia in skin inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Choudhury, Niloy; Levitz, David; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses responsible for skin homeostasis. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of psoriasis remains under investigated. To elucidate the spatial-temporal morphological evolution of psoriasis we undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to non-invasively document dermal alterations due to immune cell infiltration and epidermal hyperplasia in an Imiquimod (IMQ) induced model of psoriasis-like inflammation in DBA2/C57Bl6 hybrid mice. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a three parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(z) = ? exp(-mu;z +?(z)). Ensemble averaging of the fit parameters over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed that the local dermal reflectivity ?, decreased significantly in response to 6 day IMQ treatment (p = 0.0001), as did the standard deviation of the attenuation fluctuation std(?(z)), (p = 0.04), in comparison to cream controls and day 1 treatments. No significant changes were observed in the average dermal attenuation rate, ?. Our results suggest these label-free OCT-based metrics can be deployed to investigate new therapeutic targets in animal models as well as aid in clinical staging of psoriasis in conjunction with the psoriasis area and severity index.

  15. Combination of tadalafil and finasteride for improving the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia: critical appraisal and patient focus

    PubMed Central

    Elkelany, Osama O; Owen, Ryan C; Kim, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    The evidence suggests that combination therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) using an ?-blocker and a 5?-reductase inhibitor has become well accepted. The combination of daily tadalafil and an ?-blocker has also demonstrated benefit. This paper addresses combination therapy with daily tadalafil and finasteride for the treatment of BPH-LUTS. Our results demonstrate that use of tadalafil and finasteride represents a logical extension of combination therapies. We analyze a landmark study by Casabé et al that demonstrates improved voiding symptoms as assessed by International Prostate Symptom Scores with a combination of tadalafil and finasteride compared with finasteride and placebo. Study patients had moderate to severe LUTS and prostate volumes >30 g. The additional benefit of improved erectile function as assessed by International Index of Erectile Function-erectile function domain scores with the addition of tadalafil was a secondary benefit. We propose that the ideal patient for combination therapy with tadalafil and finasteride has a prostate volume >30 g and desires additional benefit over monotherapy. For these men, improved erectile function without sexual side effects was a secondary benefit. PMID:25848297

  16. Relative Path Impact Index (RPII): a morphometric approach to quantify the effect of anthropogenic features on surface flow processes in agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, P.; Prosdocimi, M.; Sofia, G.; Preti, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2014-12-01

    Soil erosion in cultivated land is one of the main critical issue because of its significant economic consequences, especially whether it occurs in hilly and mountainous environments. Among the cultivated lands, vineyards deserve a particular attention. In fact, they not only represent one of the most important crop in terms of income and employment, but they also constitute the form of agricultural land use that causes the highest soil loss. In these cultivated lands, the construction of terraces is one of the most widely used system for soil and water conservation measures. However, while favoring agricultural activities, terraces may cause local instabilities as well, if they are not properly maintained. Terraced fields are also served by agricultural roads and the construction of these anthropogenic features can have deep effects on water flows and instabilities. In fact, the plane surface of roads can intercept the overland and the subsurface flow and can modify the natural flow directions expanding the drainage network. The main objective of this work is to use high-resolution topography derived from lidar technology for a hydro-geomorphological analysis of terraced vineyards. We considered few case studies located in Italy. At first, the Relative Path Impact Index (RPII) is used to identify likely sections of terraces and agricultural roads subject to potential landsliding or erosion. Statistical thresholds of RPII are then defined to label the most critical areas. Afterwards, using the index and the defined thresholds, different scenarios of soil conservation measures are simulated, to establish the optimal solution for erosion reduction. The results prove the effectiveness of high-resolution topography in the analysis of surface erosion in terraced vineyards, when the surface water flow is the main factor triggering the instabilities. This preliminary analysis can help in scheduling a suitable planning to mitigate the consequences of the anthropogenic alterations induced by the terraces and agricultural roads. Tarolli, P., Sofia, G., Calligaro, S., Prosdocimi, M., Preti, F., Dalla Fontana, G. (2014). Vineyards in terraced landscapes: new opportunities from lidar data, Land Degradation & Development, doi:10.1002/ldr.2311.

  17. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma: incidental finding of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ang; Liu, Wendy; Qian, Hong-Gang; Leng, Jia-Hua; Hao, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is a rare disease that forms a mass-like lesion and is characterized by the proliferation of non-neoplastic, polyclonal lymphocytes forming follicles. We recently encountered 2 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of liver, both of which were asymptomatic and mimicked hepatocellular carcinoma by various imaging modalities. Based on the clinical impression of hepatocellular carcinoma, surgical resections were performed. Microscopic findings revealed that both lesions consisted of an aggregation of lymphocytes consisting of predominantly B-cells, with multiple lymphoid follicles positive for CD10 and negative for bcl-2, consistent with the diagnosis of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Polyclonality of both lesions was further confirmed by B cell receptor gene rearrangement study. The incidence of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the liver is exceedingly rare, and it is difficult to differentiate such lesions from hepatic malignancies based upon clinical grounds. The clinicopathological findings and literature review of this report may be helpful to improve the clinical decision-making. PMID:26191310

  18. Adjunctive arterial injury and photodynamic therapy with aluminium disulphonated phthalocyanine inhibits intimal hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamekye, Isaac; McEwan, Jean R.; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Bishop, Christopher C. R.; Bown, Stephen G.

    1994-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) reduces intimal hyperplasia (FCIH). We assess the effects of adjunctive balloon injury and immediate PDT on contractile SMC, using aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc) sensitization, on intimal hyperplasia. Groups of 5 Wistar rats underwent tail vein injection with 2.5 mg/kg of aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc). Standard carotid artery balloon injury was performed with a 2FG Fogarty embolectomy catheter and the artery irradiated with 50 J/cm2. Control groups were also studied. Rats were killed at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment and perfusion fixed H&E stained cross-sections assessed by computerized morphometric measurements. Three sections per rat were analyzed. PDT treated arteries were free of FCIH formation in all cases. Laser alone (and to a lesser extent sensitizer alone) produced some reduction in the levels of FCIH compared to untreated but balloon injured vessels. The ratio of the area of intimal hyperplasia in treated vessels to the area of intimal hyperplasia in untreated (balloon only) rats were sensitizer only 98%, laser only 68% and PDT 0% at 4 weeks. PDT given at the time of angioplasty may be affective in the management of restenosis.

  19. A unilocular thymic cyst associated with true thymic hyperplasia: a challenging diagnosis especially in a child

    PubMed Central

    Mlika, Mona; Gattoufi, Walid; Zribi, Hazem; Braham, Emna; Marghli, Adel; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of a mediastinal mass in a 19-year-old patient corresponding microscopically to an association of unilocular thymic cyst and true thymic hyperplasia. Our aim is to highlight the absence of specificity of clinical and radiological findings and the necessity of a thorough sampling of the tumor in order to establish the diagnosis. PMID:26445562

  20. PTEN Sequence Analysis in Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Carcinoma in Slovak Women

    PubMed Central

    Gbelcová, H.; Bakeš, P.; Priš?áková, P.; Šišovský, V.; Hojsíková, I.; Straka, ?.; Kone?ný, M.; Markus, J.; D'Acunto, C. W.; Ruml, T.; Böhmer, D.; Danihel, ?.; Repiská, V.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Loss of PTEN function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different tumors, particularly endometrial carcinoma (ECa). ECa is the most common neoplasia of the female genital tract. Our study evaluates an association between the morphological appearance of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma and the degree of PTEN alterations. A total of 45 endometrial biopsies from Slovak women were included in present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples with simple hyperplasia (3), complex hyperplasia (5), atypical complex hyperplasia (7), endometrioid carcinomas G1 (20) and G3 (5), and serous carcinoma (5) were evaluated for the presence of mutations in coding regions of PTEN gene, the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in endometrial carcinoma. 75% of the detected mutations were clustered in exons 5 and 8. Out of the 39 mutations detected in 24 cases, 20 were frameshifts and 19 were nonsense, missense, or silent mutations. Some specimens harboured more than one mutation. The results of current study on Slovak women were compared to a previous study performed on Polish population. The two sets of results were similar. PMID:26114084

  1. Unilateral hypoplastic kidney and ureter associated with diverse mesonephric remnant hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Jerome, Jean-Gilles; Wu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Mesonephric remnants have been rarely reported in the genitourinary system and sometimes impose a diagnostic challenge both clinically and pathologically. We reported a case of mesonephric remnant hyperplasia with mixed acinar/tubular and epididymis/vas deferens-like morphologies occurring in the renal parenchyma of a unilateral hypoplastic kidney, which has not been previously described. PMID:26309900

  2. Effects of salivary gland hyperplasia virus on reproductive behavior of the house fly, Musca domestica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathological studies demonstrated that the salivary gland hyperplasia virus of house flies (MdSGHV) shuts down reproduction in infected females. The mechanism that underlies the disruption of reproduction functioned onat several levels. Females infected at the pre-vitellogenic stage did not produc...

  3. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumor in 11-Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency Driven Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Ünlü, Ya?ar; Karata?, Tuna; Tekinarslan, Erdem; Sümer, Alpay

    2014-01-01

    Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART) occur often as asymptomatic nodules in corticotropin-dependent lesions aberrant adrenal tissue in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients. The present manuscript is about an unusual case of a 16-year-old CAH patient due to 11?-hydroxylase deficiency. He underwent testicle biopsy because of testicle tumor suspicion and diagnosed with TART. PMID:24741421

  4. IL-17 suppresses immune effector functions in HPV-associated epithelial hyperplasia1,2

    PubMed Central

    Gosmann, Christina; Mattarollo, Stephen R.; Bridge, Jennifer A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Blumenthal, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) causes epithelial hyperplasia that can progress to cancer, and is thought to depend on immunosuppressive mechanisms that prevent viral clearance by the host. IL-17 is a cytokine with diverse functions in host defense and in the pathology of autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. We analyzed biopsies from patients with HPV- associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2/3 and murine skin displaying HPV16 E7 protein-induced epithelial hyperplasia, which closely models hyperplasia in chronic HPV lesions. Expression of IL-17 and IL-23, a major inducer of IL-17, was elevated in both human HPV-infected and murine E7-expressing lesions. Using a skin grafting model, we demonstrated that IL-17 in HPV16 E7 transgenic skin grafts inhibited effective host immune responses against the graft. IL-17 was produced by CD3+ T cells, predominantly CD4+ T cells in human, and CD4+ and ?? T cells in mouse hyperplastic lesions. IL-23 and IL-1?, but not IL-18, induced IL-17 production in E7 transgenic skin. Together, these findings demonstrate an immunosuppressive role for IL-17 in HPV-associated epithelial hyperplasia and suggest that blocking IL-17 in persistent viral infection may promote antiviral immunity and prevent progression to cancer. PMID:25063870

  5. Nodular Epithelial Hyperplasia after Photorefractive Keratectomy Followed by Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Liberdade Cezaro; Ghanem, Vinícius Coral; Ghanem, Ramon Coral

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a case of nodular epithelial hyperplasia and stromal alterations in a patient with keratoconus who was submitted to topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) followed by corneal collagen cross-linking. Debridement of the epithelial nodule was performed. After a 2-year followup, a new topography-guided PRK was indicated. PMID:23691390

  6. Impact

    Cancer.gov

    Published on Office of Cancer Genomics (https://ocg.cancer.gov) Home > Impact Impact [1] OCG continues to contribute valuable assets, including data, technology, and resources, to the cancer research community. Through its programs, OCG: Expands the

  7. Impact

    Cancer.gov

    Published on Office of Cancer Genomics (http://ocg.cancer.gov) Home > Impact Impact [1] OCG continues to contribute valuable assets, including data, technology, and resources, to the cancer research community. Through its programs, OCG: Expands the pool

  8. The Pain and Sleep Questionnaire three-item index (PSQ-3): A reliable and valid measure of the impact of pain on sleep in chronic nonmalignant pain of various etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Ayearst, Lindsay E; Harsanyi, Zoltan; Michalko, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is among the more common complaints reported by chronic pain patients. Because pain-related sleep disturbance may serve as a marker for the assessment of responses to treatment for chronic pain, inclusion of a measure designed to assess the impact of pain on sleep in clinical trial protocols is important, if not necessary. Measures typically used for this purpose lack scales specifically designed for the assessment of the impact of pain on sleep or are based on a single item. Single-item scales lack reliability and, therefore, validity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the psychometric properties of the five-item Pain and Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) Index, which is embedded in the eight-item inventory, by applying an accepted methodology using retrospective analyses in controlled clinical trials in which the measure had been administered among patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. METHODS: Data were pooled from nine independent, single-site, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials conducted over a period of approximately 10 years, the majority of which were cross-over designs. A cross-validation approach was adopted with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted to evaluate the underlying structure and dimensionality of the measure. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Mean score differences were used to assess the ability of the index to detect important treatment changes. Correlation coefficients were calculated between index scores and scores from other health-related outcome measures to evaluate the criterion validity of the index. Finally, predictive validity was assessed using multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Pooling the data resulted in a sample of 605 patients (65.5% female; mean age 55.7 years). Findings suggested a revised three-item PSQ Index (PSQ-3). The PSQ-3 demonstrated high internal consistency across samples (ranging from 0.82 to 0.93) and was sensitive to detecting meaningful treatment effects within different chronic pain categories. Moderate to strong correlations (r>0.40) between the PSQ-3 and other health-related outcome measures provided preliminary evidence for criterion-related validity. Results of multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the PSQ-3 accounted for between 29% and 40% of the variance in scores from other health-related outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: Results support the scoring of a revised three-item index for the assessment of the impact of pain on sleep. The revised index demonstrated acceptable levels of internal consistency and preliminary support for the structural, criterion-related and predictive validity of the index was achieved. PMID:22891194

  9. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Mafalda Costa; Stamp, Gordon; Mudan, Satvinder

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are thought to derive from or differentiate towards the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) as most demonstrate a similar immunoprofile: CD117+, CD34+ and DOG1+. ICC hyperplasia refers to KIT-expressing microscopic spindle cell proliferations involving the myenteric plexus. Case report 74 year-old male presented with a 5-year history of heartburn and dysphagia. Imaging revealed a 4 cm GIST in the gastric fundus. Pathology of the resected specimen revealed diffuse segmental ICC hyperplasia harbouring two macroscopic GISTs and a ‘tumorlet’. A mutation in c-KIT exon 11 was detected in both the solid and the diffuse components. Discussion ICC hyperplasia can occur either as a sporadic focal lesion or in a syndromic setting, known to predispose to multiple GIST tumours at different sites. The majority of cases of sporadic ICC hyperplasia previously reported were of localised type. The hereditary form is mostly caused by germline mutations in c-KIT and PDGFRA or in patients with NF-1 andpresents as a diffuse hyperplasia, usually with a confluent, nodular or multifocal growth pattern. Conclusion We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder. PMID:26521201

  10. Body Mass Index and Mortality Risk in Asian Peritoneal Dialysis Patients in Hong Kong—Impact of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Status

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Verukonda Ravi; Zhu, Tong Ying; Yip, Terence; Lui, Sing Leung; Lo, Wai Kei

    2014-01-01

    ? Background: Obesity increases mortality in the general population, but improves survival in hemodialysis patients. In peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, the reported effect is controversial. We investigated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on patient survival in Asian PD patients. ? Methods: The survival of incident Asian PD patients from 2001 to 2008 in a single center in Hong Kong was analyzed retrospectively. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected from patient records. Patients who had a total Kt/V below 1.7 or who died within 6 months were excluded. The BMI was categorized using the World Health Organization recommendation for Asian populations. ? Results: In the 274 study patients [154 men (56%); 138 with diabetes (50.4%); mean age: 63.4 ± 14.6 years; mean BMI: 21.97 ± 3.23 kg/m2; 37 underweight (13.5%); 35 obese (12.8%)], the relative risk (RR) for mortality [adjusted for age, diabetes status, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)] was similar for the normal and overweight groups, but higher for the underweight (RR: 1.909; p = 0.028) and obese groups (RR: 1.799; p = 0.048). The increased mortality in obese patients was more prominent in patients with diabetes (RR: 1.9 vs 1.19 in patients without diabetes; p = 0.074 and 0.76 respectively), and in patients with CVD (RR: 8.895 vs 1.642 in patients without CVD; p = 0.012 and 0.122 respectively). ? Conclusions: In Asian PD patients, the relationship between BMI and mortality was U-shaped, with higher mortality in the underweight and obese patients. The negative impact of obesity was more prominent in patients with diabetes and CVD. PMID:24497598

  11. Serial assessment of the index of microcirculatory resistance during primary percutaneous coronary intervention comparing manual aspiration catheter thrombectomy with balloon angioplasty (IMPACT study): a randomised controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hoole, Stephen P; Jaworski, Catherine; Brown, Adam J; McCormick, Liam M; Agrawal, Bobby; Clarke, Sarah C; West, Nick E J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Utilising a novel study design, we evaluated serial measurements of the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to assess the impact of device therapy on microvascular function, and determine what proportion of microvascular injury is related to the PPCI procedure, and what is an inevitable consequence of STEMI. Design 41 patients undergoing PPCI for STEMI were randomised to balloon angioplasty (BA, n=20) or manual thrombectomy (MT, n=21) prior to stenting. Serial IMR measurements, corrected for collaterals, were recorded at baseline and at each stage of the procedure. Microvascular obstruction (MVO) and infarct size at 24?h and 3?months were measured by troponin and cardiac MRI (CMR). Results IMR did not change significantly following PPCI, but patients with lower IMR values (<32, n=30) at baseline had a significant increase in IMR following PPCI (baseline: 21.2±7.9 vs post-stent: 33.0±23.7, p=0.01) attributable to prestent IRA instrumentation (baseline: 21.7±8.0 vs post-BA or MT: 36.9±25.9, p=0.006). Post-stent IMR correlated with early MVO on CMR (p=0.01). There was no significant difference in post-stent IMR, presence of early MVO or final infarct size between patients with BA and patients treated with MT. Conclusions Patients with STEMI and less microcirculatory dysfunction may be susceptible to acute iatrogenic microcirculatory injury from prestent coronary devices. MT did not appear to be superior to BA in maintaining microcirculatory integrity when the guide wire partially restores IRA flow during PPCI. Trial registration number ISRCTN31767278. PMID:26019882

  12. An Analysis of the Entropy Index Diversity Scores of Selected North Carolina Urban High Schools and the Impact on Teacher Quality, Student Achievement, and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert Pernell

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the differences in teacher quality, student achievement, and graduation rates among select North Carolina urban high schools based on their racial segregation when measured by the entropy index. The entropy index is a measure of evenness among racial groups used to determine the level of segregation…

  13. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver and elevated alpha fetoprotein level in an infant with isolated hemihyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Demir, Hac Ahmet; Varan, Ali; Akçören, Zuhal; Haliloglu, Mithat; Büyükpamukcu, Münevver

    2008-10-01

    A case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in a 43-day-old baby girl with isolated hemihyperplasia and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein is presented. The child referred to our hospital with bilateral renal masses detected by prenatal and postnatal ultrasonography. A mass lesion was detected in segment 6 of liver and was diagnosed as focal nodular hyperplasia. We present this case to emphasize the presence of focal nodular hyperplasia in a patient with isolated hemihypertrophy and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level. PMID:19011479

  14. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo: A Separate Entity or Hypertrophic Lichen Planus-like Reaction?

    PubMed

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline M

    2015-12-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as "lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia" or "hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction." Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  15. Sebaceous hyperplasia of the vulva: a series of cases reporting no association with the Muir-Torre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Barry, Jessica; Pai, Rish K; Billings, Steven D

    2014-07-01

    Sebaceous gland hyperplasia is a common skin condition, very rarely reported in the female genital region. We present 13 cases from 12 patients, the first case series of sebaceous gland hyperplasia of the vulva. Differences in age at presentation and clinical presentation compared with classic sebaceous gland hyperplasia from the head and neck region were noted. Also, it was rarely included in the clinical differential diagnosis. Immunohistochemical studies to determine any possible association with the Muir-Torre syndrome were performed and mismatch repair protein loss was not identified. PMID:24901406

  16. Impact of body mass index on incident hypertension and diabetes in Chinese Asians, American Whites, and American Blacks: the People's Republic of China Study and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, June; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Katz, Eva G; Cai, Jianwen

    2008-06-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that the impact of body mass index on chronic disease may be greater in Asians than in Whites; however, most studies are cross-sectional and have no White comparison group. The authors compared the associations with body mass index in Chinese Asians (n = 5,980), American Whites (n = 10,776), and American Blacks (n = 3,582) using prospective data from the People's Republic of China Study (1983-1994) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1987-1998). Slopes of risk differences over body mass index levels were compared among the three ethnic groups in adjusted analyses. The authors found larger associations with body mass index in Chinese Asians compared with American Whites and Blacks for hypertension (p < 0.05). The increase in the incidence of hypertension associated with a one-unit increase in body mass index over approximately 8 years of follow-up was 2.5, 1.7, and 1.8 percentage points for Chinese Asians, American Whites, and American Blacks, respectively. For diabetes, the estimates were 1.7, 1.1, and 1.6 percentage points for the same groups- higher in Chinese Asians than in American Whites (p < 0.05) but similar between Chinese Asians and American Blacks. Given the ethnic differences in associations, the results support advocacy of public health and medical actions toward obesity prevention and treatment in China. PMID:18375949

  17. Metformin Hydrochloride in Patients With Atypical Hyperplasia or In Situ Breast Cancer to Placebo in Decreasing Atypical Cells in Patients With Atypical Hyperplasia or in Situ Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies metformin hydrochloride to see how well it works compared to placebo in decreasing atypical cells in patients with atypical hyperplasia or in situ breast cancer.

  18. Nitric oxide may inhibit neointimal hyperplasia by decreasing isopeptidase T levels and activity in the vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Tsihlis, Nick D.; Kapadia, Muneera R.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Flannery, Walker D.; Oustwani, Christopher S.; Jiang, Qun; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Isopeptidase T is a cysteine protease deubiquitinating enzyme that hydrolyzes unanchored polyubiquitin chains to free monoubiquitin. Nitric oxide (NO) decreases 26S proteasome activity in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in animal models. As NO can cause S-nitrosylation of active-site cysteines, we hypothesize that NO inhibits isopeptidase T activity through S-nitrosylation. Because accumulation of polyubiquitin chains inhibits the 26S proteasome, this may be one mechanism through which NO prevents neointimal hyperplasia. Methods To investigate our hypothesis, we examined the effect of NO on isopeptidase T activity, levels, and localization in VSMCs in vitro and in a rat carotid balloon injury model in vivo. Results NO inhibited recombinant isopeptidase T activity by 82.8% (t = 60 minutes, P < .001 vs control). Dithiothreitol and glutathione (5 mmol/L) both significantly reversed NO-mediated inhibition of isopeptidase T activity (P < .001). NO caused a time-dependent increase in S-nitrosylated isopeptidase T levels in VSMCs, which was reversible with dithiothreitol, indicating that isopeptidase T undergoes reversible S-nitrosylation on exposure to NO in vitro. Although NO did not affect isopeptidase T levels or subcellular localization in VSMCs in vitro, it decreased isopeptidase T levels and increased ubiquitinated proteins after balloon injury in vivo. Conclusions Local administration of NO may prevent neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting isopeptidase T levels and activity in the vasculature, thereby inhibiting the 26S proteasome in VSMCs. These data provide additional mechanistic insights into the ability of NO to prevent neointimal hyperplasia after vascular interventions. (J Vasc Surg 2013;?:1-8.) Clinical Relevance The 26S proteasome is responsible for degrading polyubiquitinated proteins. Isopeptidase T is a deubiquitinating enzyme that recycles polyubiquitin chains to monoubiquitin. Nitric oxide (NO) decreases formation of neointimal hyperplasia in animal models and decreases 26S proteasome activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. We investigated the effects of NO on isopeptidase T and showed that NO inhibits recombinant isopeptidase T activity, increases S-nitrosylated isopeptidase T levels in vascular smooth muscle cells, and, after balloon injury in vivo, decreases isopeptidase T levels and increases ubiquitinated proteins. Local administration of NO may prevent neointimal hyperplasia by targeting isopeptidase T and inhibiting the 26S proteasome. PMID:23375434

  19. Modelling ultrasound-induced mild hyperthermia of hyperplasia in vascular grafts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts frequently develop occlusive neointimal hyperplasia as a result of myofibroblast over-growth, leading to graft failure. ePTFE exhibits higher ultrasound attenuation than native soft tissues. We modelled the selective absorption of ultrasound by ePTFE, and explored the feasibility of preventing hyperplasia in ePTFE grafts by ultrasound heating. Specifically, we simulated the temperature profiles of implanted grafts and nearby soft tissues and blood under ultrasound exposure. The goal was to determine whether ultrasound exposure of an ePTFE graft can generate temperatures sufficient to prevent cell growth on the graft without damaging nearby soft tissues and blood. Methods Ultrasound beams from two transducers (1.5 and 3.2 MHz) were simulated in two graft/tissue models, with and without an intra-graft cellular layer mimicking hyperplasia, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The resulting power deposition patterns were used as a heat source for the Pennes bioheat equation in a COMSOL® Multiphysics heat transfer model. 50°C is known to cause cell death and therefore the transducer powers were adjusted to produce a 13°C temperature rise from 37°C in the ePTFE. Results Simulations showed that both the frequency of the transducers and the presence of hyperplasia significantly affect the power deposition patterns and subsequent temperature profiles on the grafts and nearby tissues. While neither transducer significantly raised the temperature of the blood, the 1.5-MHz transducer was less focused and heated larger volumes of the graft and nearby soft tissues than the 3.2-MHz transducer. The presence of hyperplasia had little effect on the blood's temperature, but further increased the temperature of the graft and nearby soft tissues in response to either transducer. Skin cooling and blood flow play a significant role in preventing overheating of the native tissues. Conclusions Modelling shows that ultrasound can selectively heat ePTFE grafts and produce temperatures that cause cell death on the graft. The temperature increase in blood is negligible and that in the adjacent soft tissues may be minimized by skin cooling and using appropriate transducers. Therefore, ultrasound heating may have the potential to reduce neointimal hyperplasia and failure of ePTFE vascular grafts. PMID:22054016

  20. Megestrol Acetate or Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System in Treating Patients With Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia or Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-09

    Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVB Endometrial Carcinoma

  1. The impact of body mass index on complication and survival in resected oesophageal cancer: a clinical-based cohort and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S S; Yang, H; Luo, K J; Huang, Q Y; Chen, J Y; Yang, F; Cai, X L; Xie, X; Liu, Q W; Bella, A E; Hu, R G; Wen, J; Hu, Y; Fu, J H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) has been associated with the risk of oesophageal cancer. But the influence of BMI on postoperative complication and prognosis has always been controversial. Methods: In total, 2031 consecutive patients who underwent oesophagectomy between 1998 and 2008 were classified according to Asian-specific BMI (kg?m?2) cutoff values. The impact of BMI on overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. We performed a meta-analysis to examine the association of BMI with OS and postoperative complication. Results: Patients with higher BMI had more postoperative complication (P=0.002), such as anastomotic leakage (P=0.016) and cardiovascular diseases (P<0.001), but less incidence of chylous leakage (P=0.010). Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI (P=0.005) was a confounding factor associated with postoperative complication. Multivariate analysis showed that overweight and obese patients had a more favourable survival than normal weight patients (HR (hazard ratio) = 0.80, 95% CI (confidence interval): 0.70–0.92, P=0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that the association with higher BMI and increased OS was observed in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) (P<0.001), oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) (P=0.034), never-smoking (P=0.035), ever-smoking (P=0.035), never alcohol consumption (P=0.005), weight loss (P=0.003) and advanced pathological stage (P<0.001). The meta-analysis further corroborated that higher BMI was associated with increased complication of anastomotic leakage (RR (risk ratio)=1.04, 95% CI: 1.02–1.06, P=0.001), wound infection (RR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.00–1.05, P=0.031) and cardiovascular diseases (RR=1.02, 95% CI: 1.00–1.05, P=0.039), but decreased incidence of chylous leakage (RR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.96–0.99, P<0.001). In addition, high BMI could significantly improved OS (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.71–0.85, P<0.001). Conclusion: Preoperative BMI was an independent prognostic factor for survival, and strongly associated with postoperative complications in oesophageal cancer. PMID:24201750

  2. Prostatic urethral lift: A minimally invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cindy; Chin, Peter; Rashid, Prem; Woo, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The procedure may be performed under local, spinal, or general anesthesia. The PUL procedure involves the delivery of implants that retract obstructing prostate lobes. Unlike other benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment options including pharmacological therapy, and the current invasive gold-standard transurethral resection of the prostate, the PUL procedure achieves quantifiable improvements in functional outcomes and quality of life, in the absence of major adverse events. Furthermore, improvement in LUTS may be attained while preserving erectile and ejaculatory function. Adverse effects associated with the PUL procedure are mild to moderate, and are transient in nature. The PUL procedure provides an alternative for men seeking treatment for bothersome LUTS, with fewer side-effects. PMID:26157759

  3. Intrauterine growth retardation associated with precocious puberty and Sertoli cell hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, Maya B.; Gartner, Lou Ann; Albini, Paul; Brodie, Angela; Meck, Jeanne M.; Meloni-Ehrig, Aurelia M; Hill, Suvimol; Tsilou, Ekaterini; Carney, J. Aidan; Valera, Vladimir A.; Walter, Beatriz A.; Merino, Maria J.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2012-01-01

    The original description of patients with Russell-Silver syndrome included precocious puberty, the mechanism of which was unclear. We describe a child with a Russell-Silver syndrome-like phenotype who presented with precocious puberty that was associated with hyperplasia of the Sertoli cells. The patient was found to have an immature cryptorchid testicle; hyperplastic Sertoli cells were also aneuploid carrying trisomy 8. This chromosomal abnormality was present in Sertoli cells only and could not be detected in peripheral lymphocytes, tunica vaginalis, or other, normal, testicular tissue. Sertoli cells in culture showed excess aromatization providing an explanation for the rapid advancement of the patient’s bone age. We conclude that in a patient with a Russell-Silver syndrome-like phenotype, Sertoli cell hyperplasia was associated with somatic trisomy 8, increased aromatization and gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty. PMID:20411478

  4. Anoctamin 1 (TMEM16A) is essential for testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Joo Young; Wee, Jungwon; Jung, Jooyoung; Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Byeongjun; Hong, Gyu-Sang; Chang, Beom Chul; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee; Min, Hye-Young; Lee, Ho-Young; Na, Tae-Young; Lee, Mi-Ock; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by an enlargement of the prostate, causing lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that mediates various physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate that it is essential for testosterone-induced BPH. ANO1 was highly amplified in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated prostate epithelial cells, whereas the selective knockdown of ANO1 inhibited DHT-induced cell proliferation. Three androgen-response elements were found in the ANO1 promoter region, which is relevant for the DHT-dependent induction of ANO1. Administration of the ANO1 blocker or Ano1 small interfering RNA, inhibited prostate enlargement and reduced histological abnormalities in vivo. We therefore concluded that ANO1 is essential for the development of prostate hyperplasia and is a potential target for the treatment of BPH. PMID:26153424

  5. Rapatar, a nanoformulation of rapamycin, decreases chemically-induced benign prostate hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Antoshina, Elena E.; Trukhanova, Lubov S.; Gorkova, Tatiana G.; Shipaeva, Elena V.; Salimov, Ramiz M.; Belitsky, Gennady A.; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.; Yakubovskaya, Marianna G.; Chernova, Olga B.

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common age-related disease in men. Here we tested the efficacy of Rapatar, a micellar nanoformulation of rapamycin, in two rat models of BPH: testosterone-induced and sulpiride-induced hyperplasia in ventral lobes and lateral/dorsal lobes, respectively. We found that Rapatar prevented hypertrophic and hyperplastic abnormalities and degenerative alterations in both BPH models. Rapatar normalized weight of the lateral lobes in sulpiride-induced BPH, the most relevant animal model of human BPH. Unlike Finasteride, a standard therapy of BPH, Rapatar reduced inflammation caused by sulpiride. No obvious side effects of Rapatar were detected. Our data provide a rationale for clinical trials of Rapatar in patients suffering from BPH. PMID:25991667

  6. Testicular leydig cell hyperplasia as a cause of familial sexual precocity.

    PubMed

    Schedewie, H K; Reiter, E O; Beitins, I Z; Seyed, S; Wooten, V D; Jimenez, J F; Aiman, E J; DeVane, G W; Redman, J F; Elders, M J

    1981-02-01

    Testicular Leydig cell hyperplasia was observed in two brothers presenting with progressive sexual precocity at 2 yr of age. Virilization was shown to result from increased secretion rather than decreased clearance of gonadal testosterone. Testosterone hypersecretion appeared to be gonadotropin independent, as basal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced serum LH concentrations were low by both RIA and bioassay. Adrenal steroidogenesis was demonstrated to be normal by ACTH stimulation, dexamethasone suppression, and split adrenal venous function tests. Testicular histology revealed immature reproductive structures in the 2 yr old, but advanced spermatogenesis in the 3 yr-old brother. The etiology of both Leydig cell hyperplasia and reproductive testicular maturation in the absence of significant gonadotropin secretion remains to be established. PMID:6780588

  7. Rapatar, a nanoformulation of rapamycin, decreases chemically-induced benign prostate hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Lesovaya, Ekaterina A; Kirsanov, Kirill I; Antoshina, Elena E; Trukhanova, Lubov S; Gorkova, Tatiana G; Shipaeva, Elena V; Salimov, Ramiz M; Belitsky, Gennady A; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V; Yakubovskaya, Marianna G; Chernova, Olga B

    2015-04-30

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common age-related disease in men. Here we tested the efficacy of Rapatar, a micellar nanoformulation of rapamycin, in two rat models of BPH: testosterone-induced and sulpiride-induced hyperplasia in ventral lobes and lateral/dorsal lobes, respectively. We found that Rapatar prevented hypertrophic and hyperplastic abnormalities and degenerative alterations in both BPH models. Rapatar normalized weight of the lateral lobes in sulpiride-induced BPH, the most relevant animal model of human BPH. Unlike Finasteride, a standard therapy of BPH, Rapatar reduced inflammation caused by sulpiride. No obvious side effects of Rapatar were detected. Our data provide a rationale for clinical trials of Rapatar in patients suffering from BPH. PMID:25991667

  8. Mediastinal hemorrhage due to ectopic parathyroid hyperplasia with long-term hemodialysis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Masafumi; Dejima, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Yusuke

    2015-12-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism can sometimes occur among long-term hemodialysis patients. We herein present the case of a 48-year-old female who underwent surgical resection to treat a mediastinal hemorrhage from an ectopic parathyroid. She had been receiving dialysis for the past 16 years due to renal failure. She visited the hospital due to chest pain, and a CT scan revealed a tumorous lesion in the anterior mediastinum. An increase in size of the tumorous lesion, accompanied by bilateral pleural fluid, was observed. Emergency surgery was performed due to a diagnosis of a mediastinal hemorrhage from the tumorous lesion, accompanied by a decrease in the Hb value. The pathological findings of the hematoma revealed parathyroid hyperplasia. This is a rare case report of an ectopic parathyroid developing hyperplasia which caused a mediastinal hemorrhage due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:25663073

  9. Facial Asymmetry in Young Adults with Condylar Hyperplasia-Unusual Changes in the Facial Bones

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; JK, Dayashankar Rao; Goel, Sumit; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Facial asymmetry can be caused by various pathological conditions, condylar hyperplasia (CH) is one of such condition, characterized by unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar overgrowth, causing facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and functional impairment. Advanced imaging and scintigraphic methods, helps the clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring its macroscopic aspects. Here we report three interesting and illustrative cases of facial asymmetry with unilateral CH discussing the unusual changes in the facial bones. PMID:25738093

  10. Simultaneous open preperitoneal repair of inguinal hernia with open prostatectomy for benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, O Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Where surgical resources are slim, patients may suffer the obstructive symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia until they present with frank urinary retention and they may have unattended inguinal hernia. The best strategy to take care of patients who have both problems at once has remained elusive. We report a small case series of 10 patients in whom open preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair was done together with suprapubic prostatectomy over a 10-year period in the district hospital. PMID:25406258

  11. In vitro gene amplification for prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Rumsby, G; Honour, J W

    1990-01-01

    A simple, rapid, non-radioactive method for detecting homozygous deletions/conversions of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene is described. In our experience this method will be useful for first trimester prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 17% of families of a child with the salt losing form. This test includes an internal control to monitor the success of amplification. Images PMID:2277381

  12. Neuropilins 1 and 2 mediate neointimal hyperplasia and re-endothelialization following arterial injury

    PubMed Central

    Pellet-Many, Caroline; Mehta, Vedanta; Fields, Laura; Mahmoud, Marwa; Lowe, Vanessa; Evans, Ian; Ruivo, Jorge; Zachary, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Aims Neuropilins 1 and 2 (NRP1 and NRP2) play crucial roles in endothelial cell migration contributing to angiogenesis and vascular development. Both NRPs are also expressed by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and are implicated in VSMC migration stimulated by PDGF-BB, but it is unknown whether NRPs are relevant for VSMC function in vivo. We investigated the role of NRPs in the rat carotid balloon injury model, in which endothelial denudation and arterial stretch induce neointimal hyperplasia involving VSMC migration and proliferation. Methods and results NRP1 and NRP2 mRNAs and proteins increased significantly following arterial injury, and immunofluorescent staining revealed neointimal NRP expression. Down-regulation of NRP1 and NRP2 using shRNA significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia following injury. Furthermore, inhibition of NRP1 by adenovirally overexpressing a loss-of-function NRP1 mutant lacking the cytoplasmic domain (?C) reduced neointimal hyperplasia, whereas wild-type (WT) NRP1 had no effect. NRP-targeted shRNAs impaired, while overexpression of NRP1 WT and NRP1 ?C enhanced, arterial re-endothelialization 14 days after injury. Knockdown of either NRP1 or NRP2 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced rat VSMC migration, whereas knockdown of NRP2, but not NRP1, reduced proliferation of cultured rat VSMC and neointimal VSMC in vivo. NRP knockdown also reduced the phosphorylation of PDGF? and PDGF? receptors in rat VSMC, which mediate VSMC migration and proliferation. Conclusion NRP1 and NRP2 play important roles in the regulation of neointimal hyperplasia in vivo by modulating VSMC migration (via NRP1 and NRP2) and proliferation (via NRP2), independently of the role of NRPs in re-endothelialization. PMID:26410366

  13. Suitable reference genes for the analysis of direct hyperplasia in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Soichi; Ohashi, Kazuo Utoh, Rie; Tatsumi, Kohei; Shima, Midori; Okano, Teruo

    2008-12-26

    The liver is capable of undergoing a proliferative growth, known as direct hyperplasia, in which the naive liver increases in size due to stimulation with primary mitogens. To produce accurate gene expression data, housekeeping genes (HKGs) that are stably expressed need to be determined. In the present study, liver regeneration was promoted via the direct hyperplasia mode by inducing mice with 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene. Gene expression levels of nine commonly used HKGs were analyzed in the liver of different timing during the regeneration. The stability of gene expression was assessed using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder. Using these analyses, we identified that PPIA and RPL4 showed the most stable expression regardless of the status of the liver regeneration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the use of PPIA and RPL4 were the most optimal in providing reliable normalization of gene expression when assessing liver regeneration attributed to direct hyperplasia.

  14. Upregulation of aquaporin-3 is involved in keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nakahigashi, Kyoko; Kabashima, Kenji; Ikoma, Akihiko; Verkman, Alan S; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Hara-Chikuma, Mariko

    2011-04-01

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is a water/glycerol-transporting protein expressed in keratinocytes of the epidermis. We previously showed that AQP3-mediated transport of water and glycerol is involved in keratinocyte migration and proliferation, respectively. However, the involvement of AQP3 in epidermal hyperplasia in skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD), is unknown. In this study, we found significantly increased AQP3 transcript and protein expression in the epidermis of human AD lesions. The upregulation of AQP3 expression in human keratinocytes by transfection with human AQP3 DNA plasmid was associated with increased cellular glycerol and ATP, as well as increased cell proliferation. Among several cytokines and chemokines produced in the skin, CCL17, which is highly expressed in AD, was found to be a strong inducer of AQP3 expression and enhanced keratinocyte proliferation. In mouse AD models, AQP3 was strongly overexpressed in the epidermis in wild-type mice. Epidermal hyperplasia was reduced in AQP3-deficient mice, with a decreased number of proliferating keratinocytes. These results suggest the involvement of AQP3 in epidermal hyperplasia by a mechanism involving upregulated AQP3 expression and consequent enhancement of keratinocyte proliferation. PMID:21191421

  15. Pulmonary Peripheral Carcinoids after Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia and Tumorlets: Report of 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Abrantes, Carlos; Oliveira, Rui Caetano; Saraiva, Joana; Bernardo, João; Carvalho, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) and tumorlets are neuroendocrine cells proliferations smaller than 5?mm. The former confines to bronchial/bronchiolar wall, while the latter broke through epithelial basement membrane. The authors present 3 cases of DIPNECH and tumorlets associated with a typical peripheral carcinoid tumor without underlying lung disease. The patients presented with nonspecific pulmonary symptoms: 3 females, 60, 72, and 84 years old, whose CT-scans showed well-defined pulmonary nodules, 2.2, 1.6, and 1.4?cm, respectively; first patient was submitted to lobectomy and the others underwent surgical biopsy. Whitish/brownish lobulated tumors corresponded to typical carcinoids (less than 2?mitoses/2?mm2 and without necrosis); polygonal/elongated cells under lobular pattern expressed CD56, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CK7; Ki-67 positivity was between 1 and 3%. Bronchial/bronchiolar wall neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and several neuroendocrine nodules under 5?mm, with identical morphologic and immunoexpression, were observed, without lung disease. Typical carcinoid associated with DIPNECH and tumorlets without other pulmonary diseases is rare. Sporadic cases may recall embryonal neuroendocrine differentiation potentiality to develop peripheral hyperplasia, most commonly in underoxygenated parenchyma. The described cases are elucidative of peripheral spectrum of neuroendocrine cell tumour evolution, reinforcing higher female incidence as in central carcinoids, still without a clear preneoplastic lesion. PMID:26613062

  16. Folate receptor ? expression and significance in endometrioid endometrium carcinoma and endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Senol, Serkan; Ceyran, Ayse Bahar; Aydin, Abdullah; Zemheri, Ebru; Ozkanli, Seyma; Kösemetin, Duygu; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Akalin, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma (EEC) developing on the ground of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) is amongst the most commonly observed type of cancer in the world. Folate receptor ? (FR?) is a vitamin molecule that has a role in cell proliferation. The fact that FR?, which is known to be needed extremely by the cells of malignancies that proliferate rapidly, is present in limited amounts in normal tissues while it is overexpressed in malignant cells of the same tissues makes folate a candidate for target molecular therapy. In our study, FR? expression in 214 cases, with 95 diagnosed within EEC and 119 with EH, was studied immunohistochemically. FR? expression in EEC was found significantly high compared to EH and normal endometrium (P<0.01). Similarly, FR? expression in EH cases with complex atypia were significantly high compared to other hyperplasia subgroups (P<0.01). The findings of our results make us think that FR? overexpression may play a role in the EEC carcinogenesis and carcinoma progression from EH. Furthermore, we suggest that it can be helpful in the treatment of EEC and/or transition from hyperplasia stage to EEC as a molecular therapy targeting receptors labeled with antibody-based props containing FR?. Finally, we suggest that FR? may be used, based on the expression intensity, as a supplemental option to determine the patients that shall be directed to radical therapy amongst patients with complex atypical EH. PMID:26191275

  17. Reduction of intimal hyperplasia and enhanced reactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts with verapamil treatment.

    PubMed Central

    el-Sanadiki, M N; Cross, K S; Murray, J J; Schuman, R W; Mikat, E; McCann, R L; Hagen, P O

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that calcium antagonists exert an antiatherogenic effect in animals fed cholesterol. Vein graft intimal hyperplasia is believed to be an early event in atherosclerotic lesion formation, which is a significant cause of graft failure. Altered vasoreactivity has also been postulated in the etiology of vein graft failure. Therefore this study examined the effect of verapamil treatment on the development of intimal hyperplasia and the vasoreactivity of experimental vein bypass grafts. The right external jugular vein was grafted into the right carotid artery of 30 male New Zealand white rabbits fed normal rabbit chow. The left external jugular vein was used as the control vein. Fifteen animals received verapamil (1.25 mg/day for 28 days) via the femoral vein by means of an osmotic pump. In 15 control animals the pump contained saline. Plasma verapamil concentration was 50.9 +/- 13.2 ng/mL (x +/- SEM), a dose that showed no effect on either blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, or in vitro platelet aggregation to ADP. Fourteen of fifteen grafts were patent in each group, for a patency rate of 93%. Histologic examination using computer morphometry showed significant reduction of intimal hyperplasia at the proximal, middle, and distal graft segments (p less than 0.05). In addition in vitro isometric tension studies of the vein grafts and control veins showed that verapamil causes enhanced reactivity of both vein grafts and control veins in response to norepinephrine and histamine (p less than 0.05). Reactivity of vein grafts to serotonin was unaltered. While none of the normal veins in the control group responded to serotonin, normal veins treated with verapamil contracted readily in response to serotonin. Endothelial-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was absent in both control and verapamil-treated vein grafts, while normal veins from both groups responded to the same extent to acetylcholine. Because we could not demonstrate any difference in platelet or endothelium function between untreated and verapamil-treated animals, we examined the direct effect of verapamil on smooth muscle. Verapamil significantly inhibited [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA in vascular smooth muscle cells in culture in a dose-dependent manner. Verapamil treatment significantly reduces intimal hyperplasia in experimental vein grafts and inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation in culture. Furthermore the enhanced reactivity to norepinephrine and histamine in the verapamil-treated vessels has no detrimental effect on the patency rate at 4 weeks. Thus by inhibiting intimal hyperplasia, calcium antagonists may improve the long-term patency of vein bypass grafts. Images Figs. 1A-C. PMID:2363608

  18. The Effectiveness of Silodosin for Nocturnal Polyuria in Elderly Men With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Won; Park, Jinsung; Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong-Wook; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jung, Jae Hung; Kim, Won Tae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate improvement in nocturia and nocturnal polyuria in nocturnal polyuria patients after silodosin administration by using a 3-day frequency volume chart. Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study. We enrolled nocturnal polyuria patients (nocturnal polyuria index [NPi]>0.33), aged ?60 years, diagnosed with the 3-day frequency volume charts of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia taking ?-blockers. Of the 54 patients, 30 (55.6%) completed the study according to the study protocol (per-protocol group), and 24 dropped out (dropout group). Results: Of the 24 patients in the dropout group, 5 withdrew consent due to side effects or lack of efficacy, 7 were lost to follow-up at 4 weeks, 8 were lost to follow-up at 12 weeks, and 4 dropped out due to failure to complete 3-day frequency volume charts at 12 weeks. In the per-protocol group, there was significant improvement in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), especially question numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and the quality of life question (P=0.001, P=0.007, P<0.001, P=0.003, P=0.049, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively). The Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) score for the sleep question improved from 64.36 to 70.43 (P=0.039). The NPi reduced from 0.4005 to 0.3573 (P=0.027); however, in many cases, there was no improvement in nocturnal polyuria itself. In intention-to-treat analysis, there were significant improvements in IPSS and LSEQ in 45 patients. Conclusions: In elderly nocturnal polyuria patients, silodosin monotherapy exhibits good efficacy in improving nocturia and nocturnal polyuria; however, the mean NPi was still >0.33. Considering the high dropout rate of our study due to no implementation of 3-day frequency volume charts, prospective and large-scale studies are needed to confirm our results. PMID:26620902

  19. Inhibitory effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    YANG, BI-CHENG; JIN, LI-LI; YANG, YI-FANG; LI, KUN; PENG, DAN-MING

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. Rape pollen is an apicultural product that is composed of nutritionally valuable and biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract (SFE-CO2) in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in the experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone for a period of 30 days. Rape pollen SFE-CO2 was administered daily by oral gavage concurrently with the testosterone injections. Animals were sacrificed at the scheduled termination and the prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5?-reductase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were also measured. BPH-induced animals exhibited an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone, DHT, 5?-reductase and COX-2 expression levels. However, rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment resulted in significant reductions in the prostate index and testosterone, DHT, 5?-reductase and COX-2 levels compared with those in BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also demonstrated that rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment suppressed testosterone-induced BPH. These observations indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 inhibits the development of BPH in rats and these effects are closely associated with reductions in DHT, 5?-reductase and COX-2 levels. Therefore, the results of the present study clearly indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 extract may be a useful agent in BPH treatment. PMID:24944593

  20. Beta-catenin is elevated in human benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens compared to histologically normal prostate tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Tyler M; Vezina, Chad M; Huang, Wei; Marker, Paul C; Peterson, Richard E; Ricke, William A

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is linked to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as incomplete bladder emptying, urinary frequency and urgency. Mechanisms responsible for BPH are not fully known. Here, we tested whether beta-catenin (CTNNB1) immunostaining intensity and distribution differ in human glandular BPH tissue specimens compared to normal prostate tissue. Multiplex immunostaining of CTNNB1, its putative transcriptional target gene lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1), and the epithelial marker E-cadherin were examined in clinical human prostate specimens with or without histological BPH (pure epithelial or mixed stromal-epithelial nodules). BPH specimens were obtained from 24 men who experienced LUTS and underwent transurethral resection of the prostate surgery. Control specimens were tumor-adjacent histologically normal prostate tissue from 48 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. The resulting multispectral images were unmixed and optical densities recorded to quantify staining abundance, cellular (membranous, cytoplasmic, and nuclear) and tissue localization (stromal versus epithelial), and determination of percentage of CTNNB1-positive cells. The following CTNNB1 indices were significantly higher in BPH compared to normal prostate tissue: overall staining intensity, staining intensity in prostate stromal cell membranes, cytoplasm and nuclei, and prostate epithelial cell nuclei. The following LEF1 indices were significantly lower in BPH compared to tumor-adjacent normal prostate tissue: stromal LEF1 staining intensity, percentage of LEF1-positive stromal cells, and intensity of LEF1 staining in stromal cell membranes, cytoplasm, and nuclei. The percentage of stromal cells with CTNNB1+/LEF1- nuclei was higher and percentage of stromal cells with CTNNB1-/LEF1+ nuclei was lower in BPH compared to tumor-adjacent normal prostate tissues. These results support the hypothesis that CTNNB1 expression increases in specific BPH tissue compartments. Further, since nuclear LEF1 staining does not coincide with cytoplasmic or nuclear CTNNB1 staining, it does not appear to be a reliable index of CTNNB1 activity in adult human prostate. PMID:25606577

  1. College of Computer & Information Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh KSA | May 15,2010 1 ISI INDEXED JOURNAL'S LIST WITH IMPACT FACTORS

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Emilio

    College of Computer & Information Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh KSA | May 15,2010 1 ISI, King Saud University, Riyadh KSA. ISI-INDEXED JOURNALS PUBLISHING PAPERS IN INFORMATION SECURITY.844 10 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY 1051-8215 2.951 11 IEEE

  2. Cumulative Index

    E-print Network

    stream_size 22105 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Auslegung.v08.n03.317-332.pdf.txt stream_source_info Auslegung.v08.n03.317-332.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 CUMULATIVE... INDEX I. Articles (i) By Author Abate, Charles J. "Has Dretske Really Refuted Skepticism?", v.4, n.3 (June, 1977), pp. 169- 175. Abugattas, Juan A. "On the Relation Between Morality and the Notion of God". v.7, n.l (November, 1979), pp. 47...

  3. Retrieval Results of Unassisted Searches of Two General Periodical Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Jennifer O.

    A survey of public library users was conducted regarding retrieval results of unassisted user searches in general periodical indexes. The data were analyzed to evaluate the impact or lack of impact of searching a CD-ROM index with loosely-controlled vocabulary and expanded-search capabilities (i.e., InfoTrac-General Periodicals Index) versus a…

  4. Inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of sprague-dawley rats by pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Gossell-Williams, M; Davis, A; O'Connor, N

    2006-01-01

    The oil from the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed is claimed to be useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This investigation seeks to examine the effect of pumpkin seed oil on testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of rats. Hyperplasia was induced by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (0.3 mg/100 g of body weight) for 20 days. Simultaneous oral administration of either pumpkin seed oil (2.0 and 4.0 mg/100 g of body weight) or corn oil (vehicle) was also given for 20 days. The weights of the rats were recorded weekly, and the influence of testosterone and pumpkin seed oil on the weight gain of the rats was examined. On day 21, rats were sacrificed, and the prostate was removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. Neither testosterone nor pumpkin seed oil had any significant influence on the weight gain of the rats. Testosterone significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .05), and this induced increase was inhibited in rats fed with pumpkin seed oil at 2.0 mg/100 g of body weight. The protective effect of pumpkin seed oil was significant at the higher pumpkin seed oil dose (P < .02). We conclude pumpkin seed oil can inhibit testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate and therefore may be beneficial in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:16822218

  5. Improving arteriovenous fistula patency: Transdermal delivery of diclofenac reduces cannulation-dependent neointimal hyperplasia via AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    MacAskill, Mark G.; Watson, David G.; Ewart, Marie-Ann; Wadsworth, Roger; Jackson, Andrew; Aitken, Emma; MacKenzie, Graeme; Kingsmore, David; Currie, Susan; Coats, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Creation of an autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for vascular access in haemodialysis is the modality of choice. However neointimal hyperplasia and loss of the luminal compartment result in AVF patency rates of ~ 60% at 12 months. The exact cause of neointimal hyperplasia in the AVF is poorly understood. Vascular trauma has long been associated with hyperplasia. With this in mind in our rabbit model of AVF we simulated cannulation autologous to that undertaken in vascular access procedures and observed significant neointimal hyperplasia as a direct consequence of cannulation. The neointimal hyperplasia was completely inhibited by topical transdermal delivery of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) diclofenac. In addition to the well documented anti-inflammatory properties we have identified novel anti-proliferative mechanisms demonstrating diclofenac increases AMPK-dependent signalling and reduced expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1. In summary prophylactic transdermal delivery of diclofenac to the sight of AVF cannulation prevents adverse neointimal hyperplasic remodelling and potentially offers a novel treatment option that may help prolong AVF patency and flow rates. PMID:25866325

  6. Characterization of Acute Biliary Hyperplasia in Fisher 344 Rats Administered the Indole-3-Carbinol Analog, NSC-743380

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Sandy R.; Covey, Joseph; Morris, Joel; Fang, Bingliang; Horn, Thomas L.; Elsass, Karen E.; Hamre, John R.; McCormick, David L.; Davis, Myrtle A.

    2014-01-01

    NSC-743380 (1-[(3-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-1H-indole-3-carbinol) is in early stages of development as an anticancer agent. Two metabolites reflect sequential conversion of the carbinol functionality to a carboxaldehyde and the major metabolite, 1-[(3-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-1H-indole-3- carboxylic acid. In an exploratory toxicity study in rats, NSC-743380 induced elevations in liver-associated serum enzymes and biliary hyperplasia. Biliary hyperplasia was observed 2 days after dosing orally for 2 consecutive days at 100 mg/kg/day. Notably, hepatotoxicity and biliary hyperplasia were observed after oral administration of the parent compound, but not when major metabolites were administered. The toxicities of a structurally similar but pharmacologically inactive molecule and a structurally diverse molecule with a similar efficacy profile in killing cancer cells in vitro were compared to NSC-743380 to explore scaffold versus target-mediated toxicity. Following two oral doses of 100 mg/kg/day given once daily on two consecutive days, the structurally unrelated active compound produced hepatic toxicity similar to NSC-743380. Thee structurally similar inactive compound did not, but, lower exposures were achieved. The weight if evidence implies that the hepatotoxicity associated with NSC-743380 is related to the anticancer activity of the parent molecule. Furthermore, because biliary hyperplasia represents an unmanageable and non-monitorable adverse effect in clinical settings, this model may provide an opportunity for investigators to use a short-duration study design to explore biomarkers of biliary hyperplasia. PMID:25448049

  7. Improving arteriovenous fistula patency: Transdermal delivery of diclofenac reduces cannulation-dependent neointimal hyperplasia via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    MacAskill, Mark G; Watson, David G; Ewart, Marie-Ann; Wadsworth, Roger; Jackson, Andrew; Aitken, Emma; MacKenzie, Graeme; Kingsmore, David; Currie, Susan; Coats, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Creation of an autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for vascular access in haemodialysis is the modality of choice. However neointimal hyperplasia and loss of the luminal compartment result in AVF patency rates of ~60% at 12months. The exact cause of neointimal hyperplasia in the AVF is poorly understood. Vascular trauma has long been associated with hyperplasia. With this in mind in our rabbit model of AVF we simulated cannulation autologous to that undertaken in vascular access procedures and observed significant neointimal hyperplasia as a direct consequence of cannulation. The neointimal hyperplasia was completely inhibited by topical transdermal delivery of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) diclofenac. In addition to the well documented anti-inflammatory properties we have identified novel anti-proliferative mechanisms demonstrating diclofenac increases AMPK-dependent signalling and reduced expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1. In summary prophylactic transdermal delivery of diclofenac to the sight of AVF cannulation prevents adverse neointimal hyperplasic remodelling and potentially offers a novel treatment option that may help prolong AVF patency and flow rates. PMID:25866325

  8. Tocopherols inhibit oxidative and nitrosative stress in estrogen-induced early mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, Soumyasri; So, Jae Young; Wall, Brian; Wahler, Joseph; Smolarek, Amanda K; Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Soewono, Kelvin Y; Yu, Haixiang; Lee, Mao-Jung; Thomas, Paul E; Yang, Chung S; Suh, Nanjoo

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress is known to play a key role in estrogen-induced breast cancer. This study assessed the chemopreventive activity of the naturally occurring ?-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (?-TmT) in early stages of estrogen-induced mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats. ACI rats provide an established model of rodent mammary carcinogenesis due to their high sensitivity to estrogen. Female rats were implanted with 9?mg of 17?-estradiol (E2) in silastic tubings and fed with control or 0.3% ?-TmT diet for 1, 3, 7, and 14 d. ?-TmT increased the levels of tocopherols and their metabolites in the serum and mammary glands of the rats. Histological analysis revealed mammary hyperplasia in the E2 treated rats fed with control or ?-TmT diet. ?-TmT decreased the levels of E2-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress markers, nitrotyrosine, and 8-oxo-dG, respectively, in the hyperplastic mammary tissues. 8-Isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress in the serum, was also reduced by ?-TmT. Noticeably, ?-TmT stimulated Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in the mammary glands of E2 treated rats, evident from the induced mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Therefore, inhibition of nitrosative/oxidative stress through induction of antioxidant response is the primary effect of ?-TmT in early stages of E2-induced mammary hyperplasia. Due to its cytoprotective activity, ?-TmT could be a potential natural agent for the chemoprevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer. PMID:24782330

  9. E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on neointimal hyperplasia in canine vein graft.

    PubMed

    Cho, W H; Lee, S O; Kim, H T; Ahn, J D; Lee, I K

    2005-01-01

    Double-stranded DNA with high affinity to E2F as a decoy cis-element blocks the activation of genes mediating the cell cycle, resulting in effective suppression of the smooth muscle cell proliferation that causes intimal hyperplasia. To evaluate the effect of the E2F decoy to suppress neointimal hyperplasia autogenous venous bypass grafts were performed in dogs after incubation with heparin (group 1), with E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) (groups 2 and 3), or with a random ODN (group 4) using a Japan-liposomeal method based on a hemagglutinating virus. The intimal and medial cross-sectional surface area of the anastomotic site was measured at 4 months after bypass surgery in groups 1, 3, and 4 by computerized planimetry and at 4 weeks in group 2 to compare the intimal/medial (I/M) area ratios. Autogenous vein grafts treated with E2F decoy showed a significant reduction in I/M area ratio (0.26 +/- 0.11) compared with the heparin-treated control group (1.49 +/- 0.29) or the mismatched ODN-treated group (1.61 +/- 0.28; P = .000). There was no difference in the I/M area ratio according to experimental periods (groups 2 vs 3: 0.26 +/- 0.11 vs 0.37 +/- 0.32; P = .446) or the anastomotic sites (proximal vs distal; P = .934). In conclusion, an E2F decoy can suppress neointimal hyperplasia in autogenous vein grafts, which may prolong patency by reducing graft stenosis. PMID:15808553

  10. Pituitary hyperplasia: case series and literature review of an under-recognised and heterogeneous condition

    PubMed Central

    Earls, Peter; McCormack, Ann I

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pituitary hyperplasia (PH) occurs in heterogeneous settings and remains under-recognised. Increased awareness of this condition and its natural history should circumvent unnecessary trans-sphenoidal surgery. We performed an observational case series of patients referred to a single endocrinologist over a 3-year period. Four young women were identified with PH manifesting as diffuse, symmetrical pituitary enlargement near or touching the optic apparatus on MRI. The first woman presented with primary hypothyroidism and likely had thyrotroph hyperplasia given prompt resolution with thyroxine. The second and third women were diagnosed with pathological gonadotroph hyperplasia due to primary gonadal insufficiency, with histopathological confirmation including gonadal-deficiency cells in the third case where surgery could have been avoided. The fourth woman likely had idiopathic PH, though she had concomitant polycystic ovary syndrome which is a debated cause of PH. Patients suspected of PH should undergo comprehensive hormonal, radiological and sometimes ophthalmological evaluation. This is best conducted by a specialised multidisciplinary team with preference for treatment of underlying conditions and close monitoring over surgical intervention. Learning points Normal pituitary dimensions are influenced by age and gender with the greatest pituitary heights seen in young adults and perimenopausal women.Pituitary enlargement may be seen in the settings of pregnancy, end-organ insufficiency with loss of negative feedback, and excess trophic hormone from the hypothalamus or neuroendocrine tumours.PH may be caused or exacerbated by medications including oestrogen, GNRH analogues and antipsychotics.Management involves identification of cases of idiopathic PH suitable for simple surveillance and reversal of pathological or iatrogenic causes where they exist.Surgery should be avoided in PH as it rarely progresses. PMID:26124954

  11. A minimal form of Proteus syndrome presenting with macrodactyly and hand hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Federica; Feliciani, Claudio; Toto, Paola; De Benedetto, Anna; Tulli, Antonello

    2003-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by progressive course and great variability of clinical presentation with partial gigantism of extremities, hemihyperplasia with macrocephaly, epidermal nevus, mesodermal hamartomas and the presence of peculiar cerebriform masses on the palms/soles. Many atypical cases have been reported and this is probably due to the mosaicism of the genetic disorder displaying different clinical features. We describe a patient with an extremely mild form of Proteus syndrome presenting macrodactyly and hyperplasia of one hand which was misdiagnosed until the age of 33 years. PMID:12695139

  12. Spontaneous Ruptured Uterus in an Adolescent With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Endometrial Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Baquing, Mary Anne; Brotherton, Joy

    2015-01-01

    Uterine diverticula and rudimentary horns are rare forms of uterine anomalies that occur during embryogenesis. They can communicate with the endometrial cavity and may have the potential to develop pathology. This case report presents an obese, anovulatory adolescent with polycystic ovarian syndrome who was admitted with acute abdominal pain and found to have radiological findings that were concerning for a ruptured mass contiguous with the uterine cavity, which was likely a uterine horn or diverticulum. Further evaluation revealed simple hyperplasia without atypia on endometrial sampling, supporting the surgical resection and subsequent medical management of this young patient. PMID:26025488

  13. Woman with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Leydig cell tumor of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García Salazar, Rosario; Muñoz-Darias, Carmen; Haro-Mora, Juan Jesús; Almaraz, M Cruz; Audí, Laura; Martínez-Tudela, Juana; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Esteva, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, and corticosteroid replacement therapy since birth. She manifested persistent virilization and high testosterone levels that were attributed to nonadherence to medical treatment. The patient was referred to our gender unit for genitoplastic surgery. We recommended the patient for left oophorectomy after detecting an ovarian mass. Pathologic findings confirmed an ovarian hilus cell tumor. Testosterone levels fell back to normal and masculinization disappeared but ACTH remained elevated. This case represents a very rare type of primary ovarian tumor that must be considered in persistent virilizing symptoms in women with CAH. PMID:24702195

  14. Bilateral spontaneous urinary extravasation shown by computed tomography urography in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pang, Haopeng; Dang, Xuefei; Yao, Zhenwei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Guangyao

    2015-12-01

    Spontaneous extravasation of urine (SUE) is a rare urologic manifestation. Predisposing conditions of SUE include ureteric calculus, retrograde pyelography, pregnancy, abdominal aorta aneurysm, tumors, or enlargement of the prostate gland. Usually, SUE is a self-limiting condition that mandates differentiaton from other catastrophic conditions of pelviureteric ruptures. Most reported cases of SUE based on urograms are unilateral in presentation. Herein, we report a case of bilateral SUE evident on computed tomography urography in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We also review the literature briefly. PMID:26649120

  15. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast: a case report of a 12-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Almohawes, Eman; Khoumais, Nuha; Arafah, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign lesion, characterized by a dense proliferation of stromal mesenchymal cells of myofibroblastic origin forming empty, slit-like channels. We report PASH in a 12-year-old girl with a huge rapidly enlarged right breast. Biopsy of the mass showed histopathologic features characteristic of PASH. Immunohistochemical studies revealed diffuse positive membranous immunoreactivity to CD34. Although it is a benign lesion, lumpectomy was performed to minimize the damage from developing breast tissue. PMID:26649107

  16. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia: Diagnostic Sequence and Literature Review of an Orofacial Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Guledgud, Mahima V.; Patil, Karthikeya; Saikrishna, Degala; Yelamali, Tejesh

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia or Masson's tumor is a rare reactive disease of vascular origin characterized by exuberant proliferation of endothelial cells notably occurring within blood vessels of head, neck, and extremities. The importance of this entity is its ability to mimic a variety of diseases both benign and malignant in the orofacial region. Here, we present a case of Masson's tumor within the masseter muscle in a 40-year-old female with emphasis on the sequential investigative procedures performed to diagnose this entity. PMID:24891960

  17. Hypoxis hemerocallidea--not merely a cure for benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Drewes, S E; Elliot, E; Khan, F; Dhlamini, J T B; Gcumisa, M S S

    2008-10-28

    The use of Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. and C.A. Mey. (Hypoxidaceae) extracts for ailments other than benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is now a reality. The whole extract, the phytosterols, as well as the major constituents it contains (hypoxoside, and its active derivative rooperol) are now finding new applications in the area of anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatories, anti-diabetics, anti-convulsants, inhibitors of drug marker substances and new evidence is presented of activity against cancerous and premalignant cancer cells. In addition, the over-the-counter (OTC) trade has undergone enormous expansion. PMID:18602776

  18. Bilateral spontaneous urinary extravasation shown by computed tomography urography in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Haopeng; Dang, Xuefei; Yao, Zhenwei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Guangyao

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous extravasation of urine (SUE) is a rare urologic manifestation. Predisposing conditions of SUE include ureteric calculus, retrograde pyelography, pregnancy, abdominal aorta aneurysm, tumors, or enlargement of the prostate gland. Usually, SUE is a self-limiting condition that mandates differentiaton from other catastrophic conditions of pelviureteric ruptures. Most reported cases of SUE based on urograms are unilateral in presentation. Herein, we report a case of bilateral SUE evident on computed tomography urography in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We also review the literature briefly.

  19. The Changes of Psychometric Profiles after Medical Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Jun; Lee, Nam Suk; Lee, Yong Seok; Jeong, Woon Jin; Suh, Hong Jin; Kim, Joon Chul; Koh, Jun Sung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of somatization and depression with the degree of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostate hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) and changes in psychometric profiles including somatization and depression after treatment of LUTS/BPH. Methods Subjects were evaluated at baseline and at week 12 following routine treatment for LUTS/BPH using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) to measure the severity of LUTS/BPH, the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) to measure the severity of OAB, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depression, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) to evaluate somatization. The correlation of somatization and depression with the degree of LUTS/BPH symptoms at baseline and changes in somatization and depression after LUTS/BPH treatment were assessed using relevant statistical analyses. Results One hundred and twenty patients agreed to participate in this study, and 101 (84.2%) completed the 12-week trial and responded to the study questionnaires. At baseline, total IPSS score was correlated with PHQ-9 (r=0.475, p=0.005) and PHQ-15 (r=0.596, p<0.001) scores. The results after the 12-week treatment clearly show significant improvement in both PHQ-9 (p <0.001) and PHQ-15 (p=0.019) scores, and the PHQ-9 (r=0.509, p=0.048) and PHQ-15 (r=0.541, p=0.016) scores were positively correlated with total IPSS. Conclusion Our preliminary results indicated that severity of LUTS is correlated with severity of somatization and depression. Further, the improvement of LUTS after treatment may have positive impacts on somatization and depression. PMID:26598585

  20. Insulin enhances the effect of nitric oxide at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a rat model of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Varu, Vinit N.; Ahanchi, Sadie S.; Hogg, Melissa E.; Bhikhapurwala, Hussein A.; Chen, Amy; Popowich, Daniel A.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Hrabie, Joseph A.; Keefer, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes confers greater restenosis from neointimal hyperplasia following vascular interventions. While localized administration of nitric oxide (NO) is known to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia, the effect of NO in type 1 diabetes is unknown. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of NO following arterial injury, with and without exogenous insulin administration. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from lean Zucker (LZ) rats were exposed to the NO donor, DETA/NO, following treatment with different glucose and/or insulin concentrations. DETA/NO inhibited VSMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner to a greater extent in VSMC exposed to normal-glucose vs. high-glucose environments, and even more effectively in normal-glucose/high-insulin and high-glucose/high-insulin environments. G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and cell death were not responsible for the enhanced efficacy of NO in these environments. Next, type 1 diabetes was induced in LZ rats with streptozotocin. The rat carotid artery injury model was performed. Type 1 diabetic rats experienced no significant reduction in neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury and treatment with the NO donor PROLI/NO. However, daily administration of insulin to type 1 diabetic rats restored the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia (60% reduction, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that NO is ineffective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in an uncontrolled rat model of type 1 diabetes; however, insulin administration restores the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia. Thus insulin may play a role in regulating the downstream beneficial effects of NO in the vasculature. PMID:20562340

  1. A GRHL3-regulated repair pathway suppresses immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, William M.; Zeller, Michael D.; Klein, Rachel H.; Swindell, William R.; Ho, Hsiang; Espetia, Francisco; Gudjonsson, Johann E.; Baldi, Pierre F.; Andersen, Bogi

    2014-01-01

    Dermal infiltration of T cells is an important step in the onset and progression of immune-mediated skin diseases such as psoriasis; however, it is not known whether epidermal factors play a primary role in the development of these diseases. Here, we determined that the prodifferentiation transcription factor grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3), which is essential during epidermal development, is dispensable for adult skin homeostasis, but required for barrier repair after adult epidermal injury. Consistent with activation of a GRHL3-regulated repair pathway in psoriasis, we found that GRHL3 is upregulated in lesional skin and binds known epidermal differentiation gene targets. Using an imiquimod-induced model of immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia, we found that mice lacking GRHL3 have an exacerbated epidermal damage response, greater sensitivity to disease induction, delayed resolution of epidermal lesions, and resistance to anti–IL-22 therapy compared with WT animals. ChIP-Seq and gene expression profiling of murine skin revealed that while GRHL3 regulates differentiation pathways both during development and during repair from immune-mediated damage, it targets distinct sets of genes in the 2 processes. In particular, GRHL3 suppressed a number of alarmin and other proinflammatory genes after immune injury. This study identifies a GRHL3-regulated epidermal barrier repair pathway that suppresses disease initiation and helps resolve existing lesions in immune-mediated epidermal hyperplasia. PMID:25347468

  2. Idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins: Rare case of ischemic colitis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Kota; Yamada, Rin; Fujiwara, Takashi; Koizumi, Koichi; Horiguchi, Shin-Ichiro; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro

    2015-11-01

    Idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins (IMHMV) is a rare and poorly understood ischemic colitis that occurs in the rectosigmoid colon of predominantly young, previously healthy, male patients. A 76-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a 1-year history of worsening diarrhea, lower abdominal pain, and weight loss (-6 kg). Laboratory evaluation revealed white blood cell count of 13?200/?L, C-reactive protein level of 2.0?mg/dL (normal range, 0.0-0.3), and negative results for stool culture (including Clostridium difficile). Colonoscopy showed circumferential and edematous narrowing of the sigmoid colon with deep longitude ulceration. Biopsy was done and examination of the specimen demonstrated no specific ischemia. The patient was treated with bowel rest, antibiotics, and i.v. fluids; however, his symptoms worsened. Finally, sigmoidectomy was carried out. Histological examination demonstrated significant myointimal hyperplasia of mesenteric veins leading to thickening and stenosis of the venous lumen. Therefore, the final diagnosis was IMHMV. Three months following sigmoidectomy, he was asymptomatic. PMID:25777655

  3. Dasatinib-related Follicular Hyperplasia: An Underrecognized Entity With Characteristic Morphology.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Michael G; Ewalt, Mark D; Gratzinger, Dita

    2015-10-01

    Dasatinib, a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against BCR-ABL1 and other Src family tyrosine kinases, is approved as a first-line treatment option for Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase. Recently, lymphadenopathy with morphologic features of reactive follicular hyperplasia was described in a cohort of patients with CML on long-term dasatinib therapy. However, the complete morphologic and immunophenotypic features of this previously underappreciated adverse effect have not been fully described. Herein, we report 3 cases of unexplained lymphadenopathy resulting in multiple diagnostic procedures in patients with CML and a history of long-term dasatinib therapy. Morphologic examination demonstrated preserved nodal architecture showing hybrid features of progressive transformation of germinal centers and Castleman-type changes in a background of florid follicular hyperplasia. Large germinal centers were disrupted by complex infolding of IgD mantle zones arranged as cuffs surrounding perforating capillaries. Other abnormalities variably present included decreased CD20 expression among polytypic B cells and increased Epstein-Barr virus reactivity in scattered paracortical cells and/or individual germinal centers. B-cell clonality studies showed no predominant clonal rearrangements. Consideration of dasatinib-related lymphadenopathy may pre-empt unnecessary repeat diagnostic procedures in patients with CML or other dasatinib-susceptible malignancies and persistent lymphadenopathy. PMID:26360368

  4. Scanning electron microscopic examination of reversible hyperplasia of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, S.; Cohen, S. M.; Arai, M.; Jacobs, J. B.; Friedell, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Urinary bladder damage caused by surgical incision, freeze-ulceration, or formalin instillation in male Fischer 344 rats was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The first two methods resulted in focal ulceration of the urinary bladder; the last induced diffuse mucosal damage. With each method, the damage was followed by regenerative hyperplasia and repair, the bladder mucosa returning to normal in 3-4 weeks. Epithelial cells in the hyperplastic areas had ropy microridges and uniform short microvilli on their luminal surfaces as observed by scanning electron microscopy. When the hyperplasia was marked, with nodular and papillary formation, occasional epithelial cells had pleomorphic microvilli on their surfaces. Rats treated either by surgical incision or freeze-ulceration had normal bladders after a 2-year observation period. Combined with results from previous experiments, pleomorphic microvilli are not a marker of neoplasia or irreversibility but appear with marked or prolonged mucosal proliferation even if reversible. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7212020

  5. Preventive effect of Pueraria mirifica on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Masrudin, S S; Mohamad, J

    2015-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM) extract contains phytoestrogen daidzein and genistein. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of PM extract, daidzein and genistein on a testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Testosterone was administered at 3 mg kg(-1) to rats followed by the PM extract, daidzein and genistein for a period of 30 days with finasteride as positive control. The testosterone level was increased, indicating inhibition of 5?-reductase converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. This was confirmed by prostate-specific antigen level that significantly decreased when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein. The PM extract, daidzein and genistein reduced the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio in testosterone-induced rats. This gives indication that PM extract, daidzein and genistein possessed protective activity for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analysis of histoarchitechture of the prostate has also shown that there was a significant improvement in prostatic cells of the testosterone-induced rats when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein. PMID:25600492

  6. Antrodan, a ?-glucan obtained from Antrodia cinnamomea mycelia, is beneficial to benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Lin, Yi-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y

    2015-02-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), one of the most common disease usually occurring in men in their 50s, has now become an atypical direct cause of mortality. Currently, phytotherapeutic agents are emerging and are frequently used as a complementary alternative treatment of BPH. ?-glucan has shown a diversity of bioactivities involving anticancer, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Antrodia cinnamomea exhibits a diversity of biological activities. Only a few literature references have cited the biomedicinal effects of antrodan, which is a unique ?-glucan present in A. cinnamomea mycelia. We hypothesized that antrodan could be beneficial to BPH. Using the Sprague-Dawley rat model, we performed this present experiment. Results indicated that antrodan alleviated most of the pathophysiological manifestations that can be elicited by BPH, by alleviating the prostatic epithelial hyperplasia and collagen deposition, increasing the total cholesterol biosynthesis and conversion into HDL, and suppressing the production of LDL and ROS and the upregulation of IL-1, COX-2 and CD68. Antrodan also effectively suppressed the serum level testosterone and DHT and downregulated aromatase, estradiol and the expression of the androgen receptor. More importantly, antrodan downregulated N-cadherin and vimentin and upregulated E-cadherin, underlying the effective inhibition on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Conclusively, the ?-glucan antrodan present in the A. cinamomea mycelia is beneficial to the BPH therapy. PMID:25537160

  7. Epidemic trichodinosis associated with severe epidermal hyperplasia in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, from North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Huh, Min Do; Thomas, Chad D; Udomkusonsri, Pareeya; Noga, Edward J

    2005-07-01

    An epidemic of trichodinosis associated with severe epidermal hyperplasia occurred in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from the Chowan River drainage, North Carolina (USA) in late winter to early spring 2002. Initial reports by anglers of fish with a "jelly-like slime coat" on the skin prompted an electrofishing survey in which about 10% of sampled largemouth bass had a very thick, bluish-white "mucoid layer" on the body and fins. Moderate to heavy infestations of the ciliate Trichodina were detected in wet mounts of skin from five of five fish having the mucoid layer; these fish also had significant gill infestations. An additional two fish with only mild reddening and four asymptomatic fish (no skin lesions) had mild skin infestations but no gill infestations. Two asymptomatic fish had no skin parasites. Four fish with the mucoid layer were necropsied and had extremely severe epidermal hyperplasia on the body and fins. The hyperplasic epidermis had relatively few mucus cells and typically was about 5-10 times thicker than healthy epidermis. The upper four fifths of the epidermis consisted of finely vacuolated, highly flattened, somewhat disorganized epithelial cells. No other significant clinical or histopathologic abnormalities were detected. No systemic infection by pathogenic bacteria was noted. The environmental cause of the epidemic is uncertain but the lesions suggest that some chronic stressor was involved. PMID:16244080

  8. Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa) oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Crean, Joanne; de Almeida Borges, Vinícius Raphael; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Tajber, Lidia; Boylan, Fabio; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2013-01-01

    The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa) is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS). BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23990721

  9. A case of Schnitzler's syndrome with nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver.

    PubMed

    Lauwers, A; Chouvy, V; Mosnier, J F; Misery, L; Alexandre, C

    1999-05-01

    Schnitzler's syndrome is a rare condition of urticaria, macroglobulinemia, and sclerotic bone lesions. We report a case in a 70-year-old man in whom inflammatory polyarthralgia was followed by a nonpruritic urticarial eruption with a moderate decline in general health. Laboratory tests showed inflammation and a modest isolated peak of monoclonal IgM kappa. There was no evidence of Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Schnitzler's syndrome was considered. However, an ultrasound scan of the abdomen done because of mild gamma-glutamyl-transferase elevation disclosed multiple hepatic lesions. The liver histology showed incipient nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Only about 30 cases of Schnitzler's syndrome have been reported since the seminal description in 1972. Hepatic involvement was a common but nonspecific finding, and we found no cases with nodular regenerative hyperplasia. However, this abnormality is often found in patients with autoimmune or hematological disorders. The pathogenesis of Schnitzler's syndrome remains unknown, but the possibility of progression to a hematological malignancy requires prolonged follow-up. PMID:10380261

  10. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat's prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg(-1) almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly. PMID:25992248

  11. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat’s prostate hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg-1 testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg-1 nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg-1 nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg-1 testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg-1 almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly. PMID:25992248

  12. Neutrophil-lymphocyte and platelet-lymphocyte ratios in endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gulucu, Selim; Aliyev, Nurlan; Ozsoy, Zeki; Nacar, Mehmet; Koseoglu, Dogan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of present study was to evaluate association between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and endometrial hyperplasia (EH). Methods One hundred and ten women with abnormal uterine bleeding were included into the study. Blood samples were drawn from all patients to obtain complete blood cell counts, neutrophil-leukocyte ratio and platelet-leukocyte ratio before endometrial curettage procedure initiated. The patients were divided into three groups due to their pathological results: group 1, patients with EH without atypia (n=40); group 2, patients with EH with atypia (n=15); and group 3, patients with neither hyperplasia nor cancer as control group (n=55). Blood cell counts, NLRs and PLRs were compared among these groups. Results Based on hemoglobin and platelet counts, there was no significant difference among these groups (P>0.05). Leukocyte and neutrophil counts were higher in group 2 (EH with atypia) than group 1 and group 3 (P<0.01). NLR of group 2 was significantly elevated when compared to group 1 and group 3 (P=0.004). PLR was higher in group 1 and group 2 than control group (P=0.024). Conclusion Non-specific inflammatory markers such as NLR and PLR were elevated in women with atypical EH. These markers may be used as a predictor of atypical EH in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. PMID:25798430

  13. Low Growth Hormone Levels in Short-Stature Children with Pituitary Hyperplasia Secondary to Primary Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Minghua; Hu, Yanyan; Li, Guimei; Hu, Wenwen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The follow-up of GH levels in short-stature children with pituitary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism (PPH) is reported in a few cases. We aimed to observe changes in GH secretion in short-stature children with PPH. Methods. A total of 11 short-stature children with PPH accompanied by low GH levels were included. They received levothyroxine therapy after diagnosis. Their thyroid hormones, IGF-1, PRL, and pituitary height were measured at baseline and 3 months after therapy. GH stimulation tests were performed at baseline and after regression of thyroid hormones and pituitary. Results. At baseline, they had decreased GH peak and FT3 and FT4 levels and elevated TSH levels. Decreased IGF-1 levels were found in seven children. Elevated PRL levels and positive thyroid antibodies were found in 10 children. The mean pituitary height was 14.3 ± 3.8?mm. After 3 months, FT3, FT4, and IGF-1 levels were significantly increased (all p < 0.01), and values of TSH, PRL, and pituitary height were significantly decreased (all p < 0.001). After 6 months, pituitary hyperplasia completely regressed. GH levels returned to normal in nine children and were still low in two children. Conclusion. GH secretion can be resolved in most short-stature children with PPH. PMID:26421010

  14. Goblet cell hyperplasia is a feature of the adaptive response to jejunoileal bypass in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Olubuyide, I O; Williamson, R C; Bristol, J B; Read, A E

    1984-01-01

    The role of goblet cells in the adaptive response of the intestine to jejunoileal bypass was studied in rats submitted to an 85% end-to-side jejunoileal bypass or sham bypass. At 36 weeks the length and wet weight of the duodenum and large bowel was 13-48% greater in animals with jejunoileal bypass. Measurements of villous height and crypt depth confirmed mucosal hyperplasia in the residual functioning small bowel and the distal colon. Histochemical studies in both groups of rats showed an overall predominance of sulphomucins throughout the intestinal tract, but jejunoileal bypass caused a disproportionate increase in the number of sialomucin containing goblet cells in functioning segments of small bowel and distal colon. An abundance of sialomucin cells at the site of anastomosis after jejunoileal bypass may have been a protective response to local mechanical trauma. Goblet cell hyperplasia is a feature of compensatory growth of the intestinal tract after surgical shortening. The changes in colonic mucin seen after jejunoileal bypass resemble those observed in ulcerative colitis and mucosal dysplasia. Images Fig. 3 PMID:6690374

  15. Impact of Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Subsequent Therapy with Ibuprofen on the Release of S-100B and Oxidative Stress Index in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Nihat; Ece, ?brahim; Peker, Erdal; Kaba, Sultan; Ustyol, Lokman; Balahoro?lu, Ragip; Tuncer, O?uz

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) leads to injury in tissues/organs by reducing perfusion of organs and causing oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant status in preterm infants with hsPDA by measuring the total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status and to assess neuronal damage due to oxidant stress related to hsPDA. Material/Methods This prospective study included 37 low-birth-weight infants with echocardiographically diagnosed hsPDA treated with oral ibuprofen and a control group of 40 infants without PDA. Blood samples were taken from all infants, and than the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and S-100B protein levels were assessed and oxidative stress index was calculated before and after therapy. Results The mean pre-therapy TOS level and oxidative stress index (OSI) value of the patients with hsPDA were significantly higher, but TAC level was lower than in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean post-therapy values of TOS, TAC, OSI, and S-100B protein between the two groups. Conclusions hsPDA may cause cellular injury by increasing oxidative stress and damaging tissue perfusion; however the brain can compensate for oxidative stress and impaired tissue perfusion through well-developed autoregulation systems to decrease tissue injury. PMID:25542161

  16. Endometrial Hyperplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the first part of the cycle, the hormone estrogen is made by the ovaries. Estrogen causes the lining to grow and thicken to ... a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, estrogen and progesterone levels decrease. The decrease in progesterone ...

  17. Parathyroid hyperplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 11th ed. St. Louis, MO: WB Saunders; 2008:chap 27. Wysolmerski JJ, ... eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 11th ed. St. Louis, MO: WB Saunders; 2008:chap 266.

  18. Endometrial Hyperplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... egg is released from one of the ovaries ( ovulation ). Following ovulation, levels of another hormone called progesterone begin to ... is caused by excess estrogen without progesterone. If ovulation does not occur, progesterone is not made, and ...

  19. The Impact of Multiple Master Patient Index Records on the Business Performance of Health Care Organizations: A Qualitative Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banton, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to explore and examine the factors that led to the creation of multiple record entries, and present a theory on the impact the problem has on the business performance of health care organizations. A sample of 59 health care professionals across the United States participated in an online…

  20. Impact of Radiatively Interactive Dust Aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 Climate Model: Sensitivity to Dust Particle Shape and Refractive Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Nowottnick, Edward Paul; Randles, Cynthia A.; Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Smith, Jamison A.; Bardeen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the radiative effects of dust aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. GEOS-5 is improved with the inclusion of a sectional aerosol and cloud microphysics module, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Into CARMA we introduce treatment of the dust and sea salt aerosol lifecycle, including sources, transport evolution, and sinks. The aerosols are radiatively coupled to GEOS-5, and we perform a series of multi-decade AMIP-style simulations in which dust optical properties (spectral refractive index and particle shape distribution) are varied. Optical properties assuming spherical dust particles are from Mie theory, while those for non-spherical shape distributions are drawn from a recently available database for tri-axial ellipsoids. The climatologies of the various simulations generally compare well to data from the MODIS, MISR, and CALIOP space-based sensors, the ground-based AERONET, and surface measurements of dust deposition and concentration. Focusing on the summertime Saharan dust cycle we show significant variability in our simulations resulting from different choices of dust optical properties. Atmospheric heating due to dust enhances surface winds over important Saharan dust sources, and we find a positive feedback where increased dust absorption leads to increased dust emissions. We further find that increased dust absorption leads to a strengthening of the summertime Hadley cell circulation, increasing dust lofting to higher altitudes and strengthening the African Easterly Jet. This leads to a longer atmospheric residence time, higher altitude, and generally more northward transport of dust in simulations with the most absorbing dust optical properties. We find that particle shape, although important for radiance simulations, is a minor effect compared to choices of refractive index, although total atmospheric forcing is enhanced by greater than 10 percent for simulations incorporating a spheroidal shape distribution versus ellipsoidal or spherical shapes.

  1. Endoscopic Enucleation versus Open Prostatectomy for Treating Large Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qi; Wang, Dejuan; Huang, Wentao; Hu, Cheng; Li, Ke; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the overall efficacy and safety of endoscopic enucleation of the prostate (EP) vs open prostatectomy (OP) for large benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods We conducted an electronic search of PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to detect all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing EP with OP. A meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3. Results Seven RCTs (735 patients) were included. At the 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up, there were no significant differences in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximum flow rate (Qmax), quality of life (QoL) score and post-void residual urine volume (PVR) between EP and OP. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) was higher with EP (weighted mean difference [WMD]: 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21 to 1.78, p=0.01) at the 12-month follow-up. The catheterization time (WMD: 3.80 d, 95%CI: -5.11 to -2.48, P<0.00001) and hospital stay (WMD: 4.93 d, 95%CI: -5.96 to -3.89, P<0.00001) were shorter with EP. The duration of operation was longer for EP compared with OP (WMD: 16.21 min, 95%CI: 3.72 to 28.70, P=0.01). The resected tissue weight (WMD: -9.63 g, 95%CI: -14.46 to -4.81, P<0.0001) and decrease in hemoglobin (WMD: -1.14 g/dL, 95%CI: -1.81 to -0.47, P=0.0008) were less with EP. EP was associated with fewer blood transfusions (risk ratio: 0.22, 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.47, P=0.0001). There were no significant differences between EP and OP when comparing other complications. Conclusions Although only a limited number of RCTs with relatively limited follow-up are available, EP is shown to have a similar postoperative profile and comparable safety to OP. By contrast, EP may have a more desirable perioperative profile. EP appears to be an effective and safe minimally invasive option for treating large prostates that requires only brief convalescence. PMID:25826453

  2. Tadalafil for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia: a review of clinical data in Asian men and an update on the mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Igawa, Yasuhiko; Takeda, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Murakami, Masahiro; Viktrup, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, is approved worldwide for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-LUTS). The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize the clinical data on tadalafil 5 mg once-daily, primarily focusing on Asian men with BPH-LUTS, and to update the current understanding of the mechanism of action underlying PDE5 inhibition. Findings from studies have demonstrated that PDE5 is highly expressed in the lower urinary tract and supporting vasculature, and that PDE5 inhibition potentially decreases smooth muscle cell proliferation in the prostate, relaxes smooth muscle in the prostate, bladder neck and supporting vasculature, increases blood perfusion to the lower urinary tract, and modulates bladder afferent nerve activity. A total of 11 larger, 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of tadalafil, including four Asian studies, have been conducted globally, enrolling >3000 men with BPH-LUTS. In addition, two long-term (42- and 52-week) studies enrolled 394 Japanese and 428 North American men, respectively, with BPH-LUTS. Overall, tadalafil 5 mg once-daily resulted in significant improvements in the change from baseline to endpoint in total International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), IPSS storage and voiding subscores, and IPSS quality of life index compared with placebo. Tadalafil was well tolerated and had a favorable safety profile. These findings support tadalafil 5 mg once-daily for treating men, including Asian men, with BPH-LUTS. PMID:26425140

  3. Tadalafil for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia: a review of clinical data in Asian men and an update on the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Takeda, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Takafumi; Murakami, Masahiro; Viktrup, Lars

    2015-10-01

    Tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, is approved worldwide for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-LUTS). The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize the clinical data on tadalafil 5 mg once-daily, primarily focusing on Asian men with BPH-LUTS, and to update the current understanding of the mechanism of action underlying PDE5 inhibition. Findings from studies have demonstrated that PDE5 is highly expressed in the lower urinary tract and supporting vasculature, and that PDE5 inhibition potentially decreases smooth muscle cell proliferation in the prostate, relaxes smooth muscle in the prostate, bladder neck and supporting vasculature, increases blood perfusion to the lower urinary tract, and modulates bladder afferent nerve activity. A total of 11 larger, 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of tadalafil, including four Asian studies, have been conducted globally, enrolling >3000 men with BPH-LUTS. In addition, two long-term (42- and 52-week) studies enrolled 394 Japanese and 428 North American men, respectively, with BPH-LUTS. Overall, tadalafil 5 mg once-daily resulted in significant improvements in the change from baseline to endpoint in total International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), IPSS storage and voiding subscores, and IPSS quality of life index compared with placebo. Tadalafil was well tolerated and had a favorable safety profile. These findings support tadalafil 5 mg once-daily for treating men, including Asian men, with BPH-LUTS. PMID:26425140

  4. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants’ Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Misir, Vachan; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; O’Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Hwang, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for mental health support services. The ANCOVA results indicate that the intervention resulted in no significant change in BMI or waist circumference from baseline to 24 months. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of factors contributing to overweight, obesity, and high waist circumference in populations who have histories of housing precarity and experience low-income in tandem with other concerns such as mental illness and addictions. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register ISRCTN42520374 PMID:26418677

  5. Modified triaca-style wing osteotomy to correct facial asymmetry in a patient with horizontal growth-type condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wenghoefer, Matthias; Peters, Armin; Reich, Rudolf Hermann

    2013-01-01

    In this short communication, we suggest a slight modification of Albino Triaca's chin-wing osteotomy to vertically correct the inferior border of the mandible in a patient with horizontal growth-type facial asymmetry due to condylar hyperplasia. PMID:24036777

  6. Seasonal prevalence and transmission of salivary gland hyperplasia virus of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera:Muscidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey (2005-2006) of house fly (Musca domestica L.) populations on four Florida dairy farms demonstrated the presence of flies with acute symptoms of infection with salivary gland hyperplasia (SGH) virus on all farms. Disease incidence varied among farms (farm averages, 0.5-10.1%) throughout the...

  7. Prenatal Androgens and Gender-Typed Behavior: A Study of Girls with Mild and Severe Forms of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servin, Anna; Nordenstrom, Anna; Larsson, Agne; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Examined gender-typed behavior and interests in 2- to 10-year-old girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and in unaffected girls matched for age. Found that, compared with unaffected girls, girls with CAH were more interested in masculine toys and less interested in feminine toys and were more likely to report having male playmates and…

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Marten

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  9. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Veery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the veery (Catharus fuscesens) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the habitat requirements of the veery. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of an HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic; word; and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are synthesized into a model designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management.

  10. Insights into the Effect of Nitric Oxide and its Metabolites Nitrite and Nitrate at Inhibiting Neointimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vavra, Ashley K.; Havelka, George E.; Martinez, Janet; Lee, Vanessa R.; Fu, Bo; Jiang, Qun; Keefer, Larry K.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Periadventitial delivery of the nitric oxide (NO) donor PROLI/NO following arterial injury effectively inhibits neointimal hyperplasia. Given the short half-life of NO release from PROLI/NO, our goal was to determine if inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia by PROLI/NO was due to NO, or its metabolites nitrite and nitrate. Methods and Results In vitro, the NO donor DETA/NO inhibited proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (RASMC), but neither nitrite nor nitrate did. In vivo, following rat carotid artery balloon injury or injury plus the molar equivalents of PROLI/NO, nitrite, or nitrate (n=8–11/group), PROLI/NO was found to provide superior inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia (82% inhibition of intimal area, and 44% inhibition of medial area, p<0.001). Only modest inhibition was noted with nitrite or nitrate (45% and 41% inhibition of intimal area, and 31% and 29% inhibition of medial area, respectively, p<0.001). No effects on blood pressure were noted with any treatment groups. In vivo, only PROLI/NO inhibited cellular proliferation and increased arterial lumen area compared to injury alone (p<0.001). However, all three treatments inhibited inflammation (p<0.001). Conclusions PROLI/NO was more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury than nitrite or nitrate. However, modest inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia was observed with nitrite and nitrate, likely secondary to anti-inflammatory actions. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the efficacy of NO donors is primarily due to NO production and not its metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. PMID:21554972

  11. Clinical Outcomes of Myasthenia Gravis with Thymoma and Thymic Hyperplasia Undergoing Extended Transsternal Thymectomy: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Nazarbaghi, Surena; Amiri-Nikpour, Mohammad Reza; Mahmodlou, Rahim; Arjmand, Nasim; Rezaei, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the widespread use of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients, it has remained controversial as to whether this procedure is of a similar efficacy and clinical outcome among MG patients with thymoma and thymic hyperplasia. Aim: We sought to determine the long-term clinical outcomes of MG patients who received extended transsternal thymectomy associated with pyridostigmine and prednisolone postoperatively. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study from January 1999 to December 2013, MG patients who underwent thymectomy were followed up. Out of 41 MG patients admitted in our center, 25 patients had undergone thymectomy adjunctive to pyridostigmine and prednisolone therapy postoperatively. The primary endpoints included improvement in individual diplopia, ptosis, dysphagia, dysarthria, dyspnea, and limb weakness. In addition, according to the MG Foundation of America (MGFA) criteria, response to therapy was defined as complete stable remission (CSR), pharmacologic remission (PR), and minimal manifestation (MM) as secondary endpoints. Results: Majority of the patients were male (60%) and the mean age of the patients was 32.2 ± 13.9 years. Fifteen (60%) and 10 patients (40%) had thymoma and thymic hyperplasia, respectively. All the patients were followed up during a mean period of of 86.9 ± 50.3 months (minimum 10 months and maximum 168 months). The rates of CSR, PR, and MM were comparable between the thymoma and thymic hyperplasia groups (P = 0.584). Based on the Kaplan Meier analysis, the probabilities of CSR, PR, and MM were not significantly different between patients with thymoma and thymic hyperplasia. Conclusion: The extended transsternal thymectomy, along with the postoperative regimen of pyridostigmine and prednisolone was associated with a high rate of clinical improvement among MG patients with thymoma or thymic hyperplasia. PMID:26713298

  12. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age-Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  13. A case of focal nodular hyperplasia with growth progression during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ji; Baek, Yang Hyun; Lee, Sung Wook; Kwon, Hee Jin

    2014-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign solid tumor of the liver and is usually found in young females. In FNH, spontaneous bleeding or rupture rarely occurs and malignant transformation is unlikely. The etiology of FNH is unclear, but because of female predominance and young age at onset, it seems that female hormone has an important role for the development of FNH. Although the development and the complications of hepatocellular adenomas have been related to the use of oral contraceptives and pregnancy, the influence of oral contraceptives and pregnancy on the growth and complications of FNH is controversial. Most FNH are stable in size and rarely complicated during pregnancy. We describe here a case of FNH with growth progression during pregnancy in a 27-year-old female. Her course of pregnancy and delivery was uneventful. Two months after delivery, the size of FNH was decreased. PMID:25548746

  14. Coexistent dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and anticonvulsant-induced cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia: diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Melinda B; Dhandha, Maulik; Guo, Aibing

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old African-American male patient with a history of seizures, developmental delay, long history of behavioural issues with psychotic episodes, heart, liver, thyroid and kidney diseases presented for evaluation of a right neck skin lesion. Physical examination revealed a shiny purplish-red plaque on the right neck and a thin pink plaque on the posterior neck. The lesions were similar in appearance, but different enough to warrant skin biopsy of each. Pathology demonstrated mycosis fungoides (MF) on the right neck and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) on the posterior neck. The identification of two rare conditions made us reconsider our diagnosis. After further review, the right neck skin lesion was thought to be anticonvulsant-induced cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, not MF. This case demonstrates how insufficient skin biopsy can have significant clinical consequences. Biopsy of the right neck only would have overlooked a DFSP and incorrectly given the patient a diagnosis of MF. PMID:24306629

  15. Colonic angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia masquerading as malignancy: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bui, Marilyn M; Draper, Nicole L; Dessureault, Sophie; Nasir, Nelly A; Cooper, Harry; Nasir, Aejaz; Coppola, Domenico

    2010-07-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (AHE) of the colon is a rare entity. Since 1997, to our knowledge only 2 similar cases have been documented in the literature. Here, we report a third case that presented as a transverse colonic mass mimicking cancer both clinically and radiologically. Microscopically classic morphologic criteria of this entity were observed, which consisted of both a vascular proliferation and an inflammatory component rich in eosinophils without any malignant features. Whether AHE is a reactive process or a neoplastic process (either a benign vascular neoplasm or a T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder) is still under debate. However, it is important to recognize this entity as a cause of colonic mass to avoid a misdiagnosis of malignancy. PMID:20643624

  16. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco C.; Antunes, Alberto A.

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

  17. Age-related changes in monocytes exacerbate neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Laisel; Gomez, Camilo; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I.

    2015-01-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is the leading cause of restenosis after endovascular interventions. It is characterized by the accumulation of myofibroblast-like cells and extracellular matrix in the innermost layer of the wall and is exacerbated by inflammation. Monocytes from either young or aged rats were applied perivascularly to injured vascular walls of young recipient animals. Monocytes from aged rats, but not young donors, increased neointima thickness. Accordingly, the gene expression profiles of CD11b+ monocytes from aged rats showed significant up-regulation of genes involved in cellular adhesion, lipid degradation, cytotoxicity, differentiation, and inflammation. These included cadherin 13 (Cdh13), colony stimulating factor 1 (Csf1), chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1 (Cxcl1), endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule (Esam), and interferon gamma (Ifng). In conclusion, our results suggest that the increased inflammatory and adhesive profile of monocytes contributes to pathological wall remodeling in aged-related vascular diseases. PMID:25965835

  18. Pseudoadenomatous Hyperplasia of the Inferior Forniceal Conjunctiva Due To Prosthetic Irritation in an Anophthalmic Socket.

    PubMed

    Jakobiec, Frederick A; Rashid, Alia; Massoud, Vicky; Fay, Aaron

    2014-06-01

    Secondary complications in an anophthalmic socket can include late appearing shrinkage due to scarring and squamous cell carcinoma. This article reports a 51-year-old man who 27 years after an enucleation developed an inability to retain his ocular prosthesis due to an acquired multilobular fleshy mass in his inferior fornix. The patient had worn his prosthesis without removal for years at a time. Microscopic evaluation of the excised lesion disclosed a pseudoadenomatous (pseudoglandular) hyperplasia of the conjunctival epithelium with myriad goblet cells and accompanying chronic inflammation. In cross section, these structures microscopically resembled an adenoma but were found to display multifocal origins from the surface epithelium resembling exaggerated pseudoglands of Henle. Simple excision without recurrence 6 months later has permitted a new prosthesis to be comfortably worn with stability. PMID:24911539

  19. Androgen receptor and immune inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Kouji; Li, Lei; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-01-01

    Both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) are frequent diseases in middle-aged to elderly men worldwide. While both diseases are linked to abnormal growth of the prostate, the epidemiological and pathological features of these two prostate diseases are different. BPH nodules typically arise from the transitional zone, and, in contrast, PCa arises from the peripheral zone. Androgen deprivation therapy alone may not be sufficient to cure these two prostatic diseases due to its undesirable side effects. The alteration of androgen receptor-mediated inflammatory signals from infiltrating immune cells and prostate stromal/epithelial cells may play key roles in those unwanted events. Herein, this review will focus on the roles of androgen/androgen receptor signals in the inflammation-induced progression of BPH and PCa.

  20. Review of Current Laser Therapies for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    The gold standard for symptomatic relief of bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia has traditionally been a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Over the past decade, however, novel laser technologies that rival the conventional TURP have multiplied. As part of the ongoing quest to minimize complications, shorten hospitalization, improve resection time, and most importantly reduce mortality, laser prostatectomy has continually evolved. Today, there are more variations of laser prostatectomy, each with several differing surgical techniques. Although abundant data are available confirming the safety and feasibility of the various laser systems, future randomized-controlled trials will be necessary to verify which technique is superior. In this review, we describe the most common modalities used to perform a laser prostatectomy, mainly, the holmium laser and the potassium-titanyl-phosphate lasers. We also highlight the physical and clinical characteristics of each technology with a review of the most current and highest-quality literature. PMID:23789041

  1. SPINK1 Promoter Variants Are Associated with Prostate Cancer Predisposing Alterations in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Patients

    PubMed Central

    WINCHESTER, DANYELLE; RICKS-SANTI, LUISEL; MASON, TSHELA; ABBAS, MUNEER; COPELAND, ROBERT L.; BEYENE, DESTA; JINGWI, EMMANUEL Y.; DUNSTON, GEORGIA M.; KANAAN, YASMINE M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim Several studies reported that patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) experienced a 10% increased incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) after the first 5 years of diagnosis. We investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter of Serine Protease Inhibitor Kazal Type 1 (SPINK1) and the increased risk of BPH and PCa. Materials and Methods We genotyped three SNPs in a cases-control study, including BPH and PCa cases. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to analyze clinical and genotypic data. Results We found an inverse association between SNP rs10035432 and BPH under the log-additive (p=0.007) model. No association was found between these SNPs and PCa risk. However, we observed a possible association between rs1432982 and lower-grade PCa (p=0.05) under the recessive model. Conclusion SPINK1 promoter variants are likely to be associated with the risk of BPH. PMID:26124326

  2. Management of 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia: A survey of Canadian paediatric endocrinologists

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Robert; Wherrett, Diane; Daneman, Denis

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders. Many issues in the management of CAH in children still remain unresolved. OBJECTIVE To assess how children with CAH are treated in Canada. METHODS Fifty-nine paediatric endocrinologists and postgraduate trainees from across Canada took part in a survey that evaluated four areas of CAH management: type and dose of glucocorticoid therapy, current use of alternative therapies, monitoring of care, and approach/attitude to prenatal diagnosis and treatment of CAH. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The present survey demonstrated that there is general agreement among paediatric endocrinologists in Canada regarding the management of patients with CAH, which includes very little use of newer antiandrogen therapies. The goal remains to be the optimization of currently available therapy to ensure normal growth and sexual maturation without any evidence of glucocorticoid excess or deficiency. Prenatal diagnosis and management is widely, but infrequently, used. PMID:19675839

  3. Elusive liver factor that causes pancreatic ? cell hyperplasia: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Run; Zheng, Yun; Lucas, Matthew B; Tong, Yun-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Tumors and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas are commonly derived from precursor lesions so that understanding the physiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of precursor lesions is critical for the prevention and treatment of those neoplasms. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) can also be derived from precursor lesions. Pancreatic ? cell hyperplasia (ACH), a specific and overwhelming increase in the number of ? cells, is a precursor lesion leading to PNET pathogenesis. One of the 3 subtypes of ACH, reactive ACH is caused by glucagon signaling disruption and invariably evolves into PNETs. In this article, the existing work on the mechanisms underlying reactive ACH pathogenesis is reviewed. It is clear that the liver secretes a humoral factor regulating ? cell numbers but the identity of the liver factor remains elusive. Potential approaches to identify the liver factor are discussed. PMID:26600971

  4. Fertility and pregnancy outcome in a woman with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepti

    2013-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman with 21-hydroxylase deficient classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia, simple virilising form presented with secondary infertility. One year ago she had a spontaneous miscarriage in the second trimester of pregnancy. This time she conceived with prednisolone 5?mg and clomiphene citrate 100?mg. She was then continued with prednisolone during pregnancy. She had a spontaneous preterm delivery at 33?weeks. There was a marginal increase in the dose of prednisolone during pregnancy. There was no worsening of insulin resistance during pregnancy despite prednisolone administration. A normal healthy female infant was born and is being followed up on for ill-effects, if any, of maternal glucocorticoid administration during pregnancy. The baby girl has normal female external genitalia. PMID:24252839

  5. Resection of giant pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: Expectant observation and avoidance of complex breast surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Stephanie G.; Powell, Angela T.; Murray, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign tumor of the breast that can achieve large, or even giant, dimensions. Resection of giant tumors can pose cosmetic challenges. Case presentation We report the prospective cosmetic outcome of a 31-year old female with a 21-cm PASH tumor of the right breast using simple excision through an inframammary approach. The patient was followed for 6 months before final cosmesis was established. Breast cosmesis was considered very good by both patient and physician. Mild external rotation of the nipple and mild contour changes involving the lateral aspect of the breast persisted at 6 months. Discussion Avoidance of more complex alternatives such as reduction mammoplasty and/or mastopexy was achieved by allowing the skin envelope to undergo natural involution over a period of six months. Conclusion Inframammary simple excision of a giant PASH tumor is appropriate in select patients. PMID:26301683

  6. Liver-derived systemic factors drive ?-cell hyperplasia in insulin resistant states

    SciTech Connect

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Kawamori, Dan; Dirice, Ercument; Liew, Chong Wee; Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Hu, Jiang; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Qian, Weijun; Wagers, Amy J.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2013-02-21

    Integrative organ cross-talk regulates key aspects of energy homeostasis and its dysregulation may underlie metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. To test the hypothesis that cross-talk between the liver and pancreatic islets modulates ?-cell growth in response to insulin resistance, we used the Liver-specific Insulin Receptor Knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a unique model that exhibits dramatic islet hyperplasia. Using complementary in vivo parabiosis and transplantation assays, and in vitro islet culture approaches, we demonstrate that humoral, non-neural, non-cell autonomous factor(s) induce ?-cell proliferation in LIRKO mice. Furthermore, we report that a hepatocyte-derived factor(s) stimulates mouse and human ?-cell proliferation in ex vivo assays, independent of ambient glucose and insulin levels. These data implicate the liver as a critical source of ?-cell growth factors in insulin resistant states.

  7. So-called embryonal hyperplasia of Bowman's capsular epithelium: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Ogata, K; Hajikano, H; Sakaguchi, H

    1991-01-01

    The so-called embryonal hyperplasia of Bowman's capsular epithelium (EHBCE) is a rather specific lesion occurring in kidneys of patients maintained on chronic dialysis. It consists of poorly differentiated cells proliferating around sclerosed or obsolescent glomeruli. In this study, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of EHBCE was performed. The poorly differentiated cells in the lesion exhibited a positive reaction for vimentin and a negative one for cytokeratin (PKK 1) and epithelial membrane antigen. On ultrastructural examination, specialized junctions between adjoining cells, microvilli-like structures on their surfaces, and immature basal folds were observed. These observations suggest that the cells of EHBCE may be associated with the anlage of glomerular epithelium. The background in which neoplasms like renal cell carcinoma or atypical epithelium of cyst wall develop in end-stage kidneys of adult patients on long-term dialysis may cause such a proliferation of poorly differentiated cells in young or paediatric age group patients. PMID:1705066

  8. Current siRNA Targets in the Prevention and Treatment of Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan-Nabzdyk, Leena; Huang, Chenyu; LoGerfo, Frank W.; Nabzdyk, Christoph S.

    2014-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) is the leading cause of late vein and prosthetic bypass graft failure. Injury at the time of graft implantation leading to the activation of endothelial cells and dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells to a synthetic phenotype are known causes of IH. Prior attempts to develop therapy to mitigate these cellular changes to prevent IH and graft failure have failed. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated targeted gene silencing is a promising tool to prevent IH. Several studies have been performed in this direction to target genes that are involved in IH. In this review we discuss siRNA targets that are being investigated for prevention and treatment of IH. PMID:25227753

  9. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases identified by newborn screening in one- and two-screen states.

    PubMed

    Held, Patrice K; Shapira, Stuart K; Hinton, Cynthia F; Jones, Elizabeth; Hannon, W Harry; Ojodu, Jelili

    2015-11-01

    There is no clear consensus among state newborn screening programs on whether routine second screening of newborns identifies clinically relevant cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. This retrospective study evaluated laboratory practices, along with biochemical and medical characteristics of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) cases (1) detected on the first newborn screen in one-screen compared to two-screen states, and (2) detected on the first versus the second screen in the two-screen states, to determine the effectiveness of a second screen. A total of 374 confirmed cases of CAH from 2 one-screen states and 5 two-screen states were included in this study. Demographic data and diagnostic information on each reported case were collected and analyzed. Additionally, laboratory data, including screening methodologies and algorithms, were evaluated. The one-screen states reported 99 cases of CAH out of 1,740,586 (1 in 17,500) newborns screened: 88 (89%) identified on the first screen and 5 (5%) identified on the targeted second screen. The two-screen states reported 275 cases of CAH out of 2,629,627 (1 in 9500) newborns screened: 165 (60%) identified on the first screen and 99 (36%) identified on the second screen. Using a multivariate model, the only significant predictor of whether a case was identified on the first or the second screen in the two-screen states was the type of CAH. Compared with classical salt-wasting CAH, classical simple virilizing and non-classical CAH cases were less likely to be detected on the first versus the second screen. The routine second newborn screen is important for identifying children with CAH, particularly simple virilizing and non-classical forms, which might otherwise not be captured through a single screen. PMID:26296712

  10. Perception of professionals in the assessment of coronoid hyperplasia by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Vanda; Freitas, Cláudio F; Fenyo-Pereira, Marlene; Raitz, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    Coronoid Hyperplasia (CH) is a non-neoplastic and relatively rare enlargement of the coronoid process that may limit mandibular movement as a consequence of the close association between the hyperplastic coronoid process and the anterior region of the zygomatic bone. Computed tomography (CT) is extremely useful for the observation of this association and plays an important role in diagnosing and planning surgical treatment. Once the CT scan is performed, the data can be viewed in many different arrangements, including multiplanar (MPR) and 3D rendering, although the resolution of the latter may not be as good as that of the former. Our aim is to analyze the importance of and preference for multiplanar and 3D reconstruction images for diagnosing and interpreting Coronoid Hyperplasia (CH), by comparing the opinions of oral surgeons and oral radiologists who analyzed both temporomandibular joints (TMJ) in 20 patients. Three images of each TMJ comprised the set of scans (MPR, 3D reconstructions with maximum intercuspation and 3D reconstructions with maximum mouth opening). After each analysis, the members of the two groups answered a questionnaire about the usefulness of each examination and classified the association between the head of mandible and mandibular fossa. Hypomotility was present in 55.2%. Both groups stated that both MPR and 3D reconstructions, particularly the latter, were fundamental for diagnosing CH and that they would request them in order to interpret CH correctly. The examiners were found to differ significantly regarding their opinion of MPR; only radiologists considered MPR to be less elucidative for the diagnosis of CH. PMID:25950164

  11. Morphogenetic aspects of biomineralization on the background of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Moskalenko, R; Romanyuk, A; Danilchenko, S; Stanislavov, O; Piddubniy, A; Zakorko, I-?; Tkach, G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the considerable spread of pathological prostate inclusions their nature and significance in the development of gland pathology are not established exactly. The work includes histological research of 628 surgical biopsies of benign prostatic hyperplasia, the sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Congo red, von Kossa methods. Mineral constituent of prostatoliths (5 cases) was studied by infrared spectroscopy (IRS); scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis (REMMA/EDX), transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction (TEM/ED). The average age of the operated patients was 69,5±0,42 years old. In 88,22±1,67% of cases nodular prostatic hyperplasia was combined with diffuse or focal inflammation, engorgements of prostate gland secretion were observed in 81,76±2,97%. In the lumen of the prostate gland corpora amylacea were detected in 64,72±1,13% of cases, in 27,6±3,48% - concreations. There was a significant strong correlation between inflammation and calculi - r = 0.93 (p<0,05), inflammation and secret engorgement - r=0,95 (p<0,05), engorgement and concreations - r = 0,88 (p <0,05). TEM results show the same morphological type of prostatolith crystals and their small size (tens of nanometers), that indicates their preferential formation by direct sedimentation from the liquid phase, rather than the appearance and maturation of corpora amylacea on the surface. Based on the received data, the dominant mechanism of concrements formation is precipitation by direct sedimentation of prostate secretions, but it's not a dystrophic calcification of the corpora amylacea. Mineral component of prostatic concrements is carbonate bioapatite with a minor inclusion of other chemical elements. PMID:23388536

  12. Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy on Prostate Volume and Vascularity in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Pilot Study in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Leoci, Raffaella; Aiudi, Giulio; Silvestre, Fabio; Lissner, Elaine; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a result of urogenital aging. Recent studies suggest that an age-related impairment of the blood supply to the lower urinary tract plays a role in the development of BPH and thus may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of BPH. The canine prostate is a model for understanding abnormal growth of the human prostate gland. We studied the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) in dogs to modify prostate blood flow and evaluated its effect on BPH. METHODS PEMF (5 min, twice a day for 3 weeks) was performed on 20 dogs affected by BPH. Prostatic volume, Doppler assessment by ultrasonography, libido, semen quality, testosterone levels, and seminal plasma volume, composition and pH were evaluated before and after treatment. RESULTS The 3 weeks of PEMF produced a significant reduction in prostatic volume (average 57%) without any interference with semen quality, testosterone levels or libido. Doppler parameters showed a reduction of peripheral resistances and a progressive reduction throughout the trial of the systolic peak velocity, end-diastolic velocity, mean velocity, mean, and peak gradient of the blood flow in the dorsal branch of the prostatic artery. The pulsatility index and the resistance index did not vary significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS The efficacy of PEMF on BPH in dogs, with no side effects, suggests the suitability of this treatment in humans and supports the hypothesis that impairment of blood supply to the lower urinary tract may be a causative factor in the development of BPH. Prostate 74:1132–1141, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. The Prostate published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24913937

  13. The Impact of Clinical Information on the Assessment of Endoscopic Activity: Characteristics of the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index Of Severity [UCEIS

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Dan; Feagan, Brian G.; Abreu, Maria T.; Altman, Douglas G.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Krzeski, Piotr; Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Marteau, Philippe R.; Mary, Jean-Yves; Reinisch, Walter; Sands, Bruce E.; Schnell, Patrick; Yacyshyn, Bruce R.; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Bernhardt, Christian A.; Sandborn, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: To determine whether clinical information influences endoscopic scoring by central readers using the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity [UCEIS; comprising ‘vascular pattern’, ‘bleeding’, ‘erosions and ulcers’]. Methods: Forty central readers performed 28 evaluations, including 2 repeats, from a library of 44 video sigmoidoscopies stratified by Mayo Clinic Score. Following training, readers were randomised to scoring with [‘unblinded’, n = 20, including 4 control videos with misleading information] or without [‘blinded’, n 20] clinical information. A total of 21 virtual Central Reader Groups [CRGs], of three blinded readers, were created. Agreement criteria were pre-specified. Kappa [?] statistics quantified intra- and inter-reader variability. Results: Mean UCEIS scores did not differ between blinded and unblinded readers for any of the 40 main videos. UCEIS standard deviations [SD] were similar [median blinded 0.94, unblinded 0.93; p = 0.97]. Correlation between UCEIS and visual analogue scale [VAS] assessment of overall severity was high [r blinded = 0.90, unblinded = 0.93; p = 0.02]. Scores for control videos were similar [UCEIS: p ? 0.55; VAS: p ? 0.07]. Intra- [? 0.47–0.74] and inter-reader [? 0.40–0.53] variability for items and full UCEIS was ‘moderate’-to-‘substantial’, with no significant differences except for intra-reader variability for erosions and ulcers [? blinded: 0.47 vs unblinded: 0.74; p 0.047]. The SD of CRGs was lower than for individual central readers [0.54 vs 0.95; p < 0.001]. Correlation between blinded UCEIS and patient-reported symptoms was high [stool frequency: 0.76; rectal bleeding: 0.82; both: 0.81]. Conclusions: The UCEIS is minimally affected by knowledge of clinical details, strongly correlates with patient-reported symptoms, and is a suitable instrument for trials. CRGs performed better than individuals. PMID:25956538

  14. Impact of a Standard Rodent Chow Diet on Tissue n-6 Fatty Acids, ?9-Desaturation Index, and Plasmalogen Mass in Rats Fed for One Year.

    PubMed

    Pédrono, F; Boulier-Monthéan, N; Catheline, D; Legrand, P

    2015-11-01

    Although many studies focus on senescence mechanisms, few habitually consider age as a biological parameter. Considering the effect of interactions between food and age on metabolism, here we depict the lipid framework of 12 tissues isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats fed standard rodent chow over 1 year, an age below which animals are commonly studied. The aim is to define relevant markers of lipid metabolism influenced by age in performing a fatty acid (FA) and dimethylacetal profile from total lipids. First, our results confirm impregnation of adipose and muscular tissues with medium-chain FA derived from maternal milk during early infancy. Secondly, when animals were switched to standard croquettes, tissues were remarkably enriched in n-6 FA and especially 18:2n-6. This impregnation over time was coupled with a decrease of the desaturation index and correlated with lower activities of hepatic ?5- and ?6-desaturases. In parallel, we emphasize the singular status of testis, where 22:5n-6, 24:4n-6, and 24:5n-6 were exceptionally accumulated with growth. Thirdly, 18:1n-7, usually found as a discrete FA, greatly accrued over the course of time, mostly in liver and coupled with ?9-desaturase expression. Fourthly, skeletal muscle was characterized by a surprising enrichment of 22:6n-3 in adults, which tended to decline in older rats. Finally, plasmalogen-derived dimethylacetals were specifically abundant in brain, erythrocytes, lung, and heart. Most notably, a shift in the fatty aldehyde moiety was observed, especially in brain and erythrocytes, implying that red blood cell analysis could be a good indicator of brain plasmalogens. PMID:26387025

  15. Offshore wind farms as productive sites or ecological traps for gadoid fishes?--impact on growth, condition index and diet composition.

    PubMed

    Reubens, Jan T; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Zenner, Annemie N; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2013-09-01

    With the construction of wind farms all across the North Sea, numerous artificial reefs are created. These windmill artificial reefs (WARs) harbour high abundances of fish species which can be attracted from elsewhere or can be the result of extra production induced by these wind farms. To resolve the attraction-production debate in suddenly altered ecosystems (cf. wind farms), the possible consequences of attraction should be assessed; thereby bearing in mind that ecological traps may arise. In this paper we investigated whether the wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea act as ecological traps for pouting and Atlantic cod. Length-at-age, condition and diet composition of fish present at the windmill artificial reefs was compared to local and regional sandy areas. Fish data from the period 2009-2012 were evaluated. Mainly I- and II-group Atlantic cod were present around the WARs; while the 0- and I-group dominated for pouting. For Atlantic cod, no differences in length were observed between sites, indicating that fitness was comparable at the WARs and in sandy areas. No significant differences in condition index were observed for pouting. At the WARs, they were slightly larger and stomach fullness was enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. Also diet differed considerably among the sites. The outcome of the proxies indicate that fitness of pouting was slightly enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. No evidence was obtained supporting the hypothesis that the WARs act as an ecological trap for Atlantic cod and pouting. PMID:23800713

  16. Impact of changes in mode of travel to work on changes in body mass index: evidence from the British Household Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam; Panter, Jenna; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Active commuting is associated with various health benefits, but little is known about its causal relationship with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used cohort data from three consecutive annual waves of the British Household Panel Survey, a longitudinal study of nationally representative households, in 2004/2005 (n=15?791), 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. Participants selected for the analyses (n=4056) reported their usual main mode of travel to work at each time point. Self-reported height and weight were used to derive BMI at baseline and after 2?years. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between switching to and from active modes of travel (over 1 and 2?years) and change in BMI (over 2?years) and to assess dose–response relationships. Results After adjustment for socioeconomic and health-related covariates, the first analysis (n=3269) showed that switching from private motor transport to active travel or public transport (n=179) was associated with a significant reduction in BMI compared with continued private motor vehicle use (n=3090; ?0.32?kg/m2, 95% CI ?0.60 to ?0.05). Larger adjusted effect sizes were associated with switching to active travel (n=109; ?0.45?kg/m2, ?0.78 to ?0.11), particularly among those who switched within the first year and those with the longest journeys. The second analysis (n=787) showed that switching from active travel or public transport to private motor transport was associated with a significant increase in BMI (0.34?kg/m2, 0.05 to 0.64). Conclusions Interventions to enable commuters to switch from private motor transport to more active modes of travel could contribute to reducing population mean BMI. PMID:25954024

  17. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  18. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  19. Lobby index in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, A.; Schubert, A.; Telcs, A.

    2009-06-01

    We propose a new node centrality measure in networks, the lobby index, which is inspired by Hirsch’s h-index. It is shown that in scale-free networks with exponent ? the distribution of the l-index has power tail with exponent ?(?+1). Properties of the l-index and extensions are discussed.

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pronghorn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Cook, John G.; Armbruster, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  1. Iatrogenic Cushing's Disease in a Boy after Misdiagnosis of Salt-Losing Virilizing Adrenal Hyperplasia: Impaired Metyrapone Response with Failure of Catch-Up Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendilaharzu, Hernan; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A boy misdiagnosed as having the sodium-losing form of virilizing adrenal hyperplasia was treated with large doses of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids from the newborn period until he was more than 4 years of age. (Author)

  2. Congenital myasthenic syndrome due to mutation in CHRNE gene with clinical worsening and thymic hyperplasia attributed to association with autoimmune-myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ernestina; Moreira, Isabel; Coutinho, Ester; Gonçalves, Guilherme; Lopes, Carlos; Lopes Lima, José; Leite, M Isabel

    2015-12-01

    We report a patient with congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) due to mutation in CHRNE with symptoms since the age of 4; mild to moderate fatigable weakness involved mainly ocular, bulbar and limb muscles; functional impact of the disease in their development and physical activity was modest. By the age of 34, the patient experienced gradual worsening of fatigue with dyspnoea and pronounced limb weakness, requiring significant increase of pyridostigmine. Further, a remarkable and sustained clinical improvement followed thymectomy with hyperplastic thymus. Despite of the absence of detectable antibodies to acetyl-choline receptor (AChR) (including clustered-AChR), muscle-specific kinase and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-4 antibodies in the serum obtained nine years after thymectomy, the clinical, genetic and histological features are in keeping with the extremely rare association of two rare neuromuscular junction disorders - CMS and myasthenia gravis (MG). The inexistence of other conditions that could potentially associate with thymic hyperplasia also supports the diagnosis of MG. PMID:26363966

  3. Nitric oxide inhibits neointimal hyperplasia following vascular injury via differential, cell-specific modulation of SOD-1 in the arterial wall.

    PubMed

    Bahnson, Edward S M; Koo, Nathaniel; Cantu-Medellin, Nadiezhda; Tsui, Aaron Y; Havelka, George E; Vercammen, Janet M; Jiang, Qun; Kelley, Eric E; Kibbe, Melina R

    2015-01-30

    Superoxide (O2(•-)) promotes neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. Conversely, nitric oxide ((•)NO) inhibits neointimal hyperplasia through various cell-specific mechanisms, including redox regulation. What remains unclear is whether (•)NO exerts cell-specific regulation of the vascular redox environment following arterial injury to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether (•)NO exerts cell-specific, differential modulation of O2(•-) levels throughout the arterial wall, establish the mechanism of such modulation, and determine if it regulates (•)NO-dependent inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia. In vivo, (•)NO increased superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) levels following carotid artery balloon injury in a rat model. In vitro, (•)NO increased SOD-1 levels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), but had no effect on SOD-1 in endothelial cells or adventitial fibroblasts. This SOD-1 increase was associated with an increase in sod1 gene expression, increase in SOD-1 activity, and decrease in O2(•-) levels. Lastly, to determine the role of SOD-1 in (•)NO-mediated inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia, we performed the femoral artery wire injury model in wild type and SOD-1 knockout (KO) mice, with and without (•)NO. Interestingly, (•)NO inhibited neointimal hyperplasia only in wild type mice, with no effect in SOD-1 KO mice. In conclusion, these data show the cell-specific modulation of O2(•-) by (•)NO through regulation of SOD-1 in the vasculature, highlighting its importance on the inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia. These results also shed light into the mechanism of (•)NO-dependent redox balance, and suggest a novel VSMC redox target to prevent neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:25460325

  4. Poly(diol-co-citrate)s as Novel Elastomeric Perivascular Wraps for the Reduction of Neointimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, M. Concepcion; Vavra, Ashley K.; Jen, Michele; Hogg, Melissa E.; Murar, Jozef; Martinez, Janet; Keefer, Larry K.; Ameer, Guillermo A.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of poly(diol-co-citrate) elastomers that are biocompatible with vascular cells and can modulate the kinetics of the NO release based on the diol of selection is reported. NO-mediated cytostatic or cytotoxic effects can be controlled depending on the NO dose and the exposure time. When implanted in vivo in a rat carotid artery injury model, these materials demonstrate a significant reduction of neointimal hyperplasia. This is the first report of a NO-releasing polymer fabricated in the form of an elastomeric perivascular wrap for the treatment of neointimal hyperplasia. These elastomers also show promise for other cardiovascular pathologies where NO-based therapies could be beneficial. PMID:21341372

  5. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 1, Pathological Background and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Crisóstomo, Verónica; Báez-Díaz, Claudia; Sánchez, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    Pathological features of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) dictate various responses to prostatic artery embolization (PAE). Typically, BPH originates in the transition zone and periurethral region, where should be considered the primary target area in PAE procedures. Given that histological heterogeneity of components in hyperplasia nodules, epithelial or stromal, identifying the more responsive nodules to PAE will have clinical implications. Since some lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with BPH are usually related to bladder outlet obstruction-induced changes in bladder function rather than to outflow obstruction directly, proper selection of candidate patients prior to PAE is of great clinical importance. BPH is a typical chronic progressive condition, suggesting PAE could aim not only to relieve LUTS but also to delay or prevent the clinical progression. Awareness of the pathological background of BPH is essential for interventional radiologists to improve clinical outcomes and develop new treatment strategies in clinical practice of PAE. PMID:26581418

  6. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair of healthy people, hyperplasia and breast cancer patients with XRF method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmogorov, Yuriy; Kovaleva, Valentina; Gonchar, Alexandr

    2000-06-01

    The possibilities of using the energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXFA) for the control of trace elements (TE) content in the hair of women with mammary hyperplasia and cancer are demonstrated. Ten hair samples were taken from 25- to 60-year-old women who have been operated for mammary cancer and from 23 patients under oncologist's observation on the occasion of hyperplastic process in the mammary gland (fibrocystous mastopathy). The results of the analyses of trace elements content in the hair of 52 practically healthy women were used as control. The results demonstrated that scalp hair of patients with oncological mammary pathology are characterized by the significant decrease of the concentration of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and by the increase of chromium (Cr). The Se deficit was more pronounced in patients with cancer than in those with hyperplasia (fiducial probability p<0.05)

  7. Bone scanning with /sup 99m/Tc phosphate to assess condylar hyperplasia. Report of two cases

    SciTech Connect

    Matteson, S.R.; Proffit, W.R.; Terry, B.C.; Staab, E.V.; Burkes, E.J. Jr.

    1985-10-01

    Condylar hyperplasia poses a problem in planning treatment because it is a self-limiting process for some but not all patients. Continued growth creates a progressive deformity that requires condylectomy, whereas an enlarged condyle can be left in place after hyperplastic growth ceases, even if ramus surgery is needed to correct asymmetry. Bone scan with /sup 99m/Tc phosphate can be used to assist in making the differential diagnosis. In the two patients reported here, abnormal metabolic activity revealed by bone scans supported clinical and historical evidence that the condylar hyperplasia was active and required surgical correction, including condylectomy. The two cases demonstrate different approaches to postsurgical orthodontic treatment, depending on the amount of normal growth expected.

  8. Influence of BOL on hyaluronic acid, laminin and hyperplasia in hepatofibrotic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Li; Yao, Zhen-Min; Yu, Tao

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the anti-hepatofibrosis mechanism of Bie Jia Jian oral liquid (BOL). METHODS: The model was induced by subcutaneous injection of CCl4. BOL was administered and the change of serum hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) was observed and the degeneration of liver cells and the degree of fibre hyperplasia analyzed. Changes of ultra micro-structure in liver cells were observed in some samples. RESULTS: HA was reduced in both the groups with low and high dosage of BOL, which showed a remarkable difference as compared with that of the model group (low dosage group: 376.15 ?g/L ± 35.48 ?g/L vs 806.07 ?g/L ± 98.49 ?g/L, P < 0.05; high dosage group: 340.14 ?g/L ± 30.18 ?g/L vs 806.07 ?g/L ± 98.49 ?g/L, P < 0.05). The LN content of low and high dosage group of BOL was lower than that of model group (low dosage group: 71.99 ?g/L ± 8.15 ?g/L vs 133.94 ?g/L ± 14.45 ?g/L, P < 0.01; high dosage group: 71.68 ?g/L ± 11.62 ?g/L vs 133.94 ?g/L ± 14.45 ?g/L, P < 0.01) and colchicine group (low dosage group: 71.99 ?g/L ± 8.15 ?g/L vs 118.28 ?g/L ± 16.13 ?g/L, P < 0.05; high dosage group: 71.68 ?g/L ± 11.62 ?g/L vs 118.28 ?g/L ± 16.13 ?g/L, P < 0.05). Examined by Ridit, BOL could reduce the degeneration and necrosis of liver cells (?² = 11. 99 P < 0.05), the degree of fibre hyperplasia (?² = 13.24 P < 0.05) and the pathological change of ultra micro-structure as well. CONCLUSION: The BOL has certain therapeutic effect on the experiment hepatofibrosis. Its mechanisms might include: protecting the function of liver cells, inhibiting excessive synthesis and secretion of extracelluar matrix from hepatic stellate cells, relieving the capillarization of hepatic sinusoid, improving liver micro-circulation, and regulating immune function. PMID:11854920

  9. Outcomes after Subtotal Parathyroidectomy for Primary Hyperparathyroidism due to Hyperplasia: Significance of Whole vs. Partial Gland Remnant

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Mohammad H.; Oltmann, Sarah C.; Schneider, David F.; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to multi-gland hyperplasia is managed by subtotal parathyroidectomy (sPTX), with a partial gland left in situ. However, smaller, hyperplastic glands may be encountered intra-operatively, and it is unclear if leaving an intact gland is an equivalent alternative. This study evaluates the rates of permanent hypoparathyroidism and cure of PHPT patients with 4-gland hyperplasia that were left with either a whole gland remnant (WGR) or partial gland remnant (PGR) after sPTX. Methods We reviewed the outcomes of PHPT patients with hyperplasia who underwent sPTX at an academic institution. Surgeon intra-operative judgment determined remnant size (WGR vs. PGR). Results Between 2002 and 2013, 172 patients underwent sPTX for PHPT. 108 patients (62.8%) had a WGR. 64 (37.2%) had a PGR. Mean age was 60 years ± 14. 82.6% were female. Cases with positive family history for PHPT were more likely to have a PGR (12.5% vs. 3.7%, p=0.03). Patients had similar pre-operative and post- operative labs. Individuals with PGR tended to have larger glands encountered by surgeons intra- operatively (525 mg± 1308 vs. 280 mg± 341, p=0.02). One patient with WGR developed permanent hypocalcemia. Overall cure rate was 97.1%. A mean 29 months± 28.7 follow up revealed a recurrence rate of 5.2%. Disease persistence and recurrence rates were similar in patients. Conclusion PHPT due to hyperplasia is managed by sPTX, leaving WGR without increased rates of disease persistence/recurrence. Patients without family history for hyperparathyroidism and those with smaller glands may be the best candidates for this approach. PMID:25245126

  10. Neointimal Hyperplasia after Silverhawk Atherectomy versus Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) in Femoropopliteal Stent Reobstructions: A Controlled, Randomized Pilot Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Brodmann, Marianne Rief, Peter; Froehlich, Harald; Dorr, Andreas; Gary, Thomas; Eller, Philipp; Hafner, Franz; Deutschmann, Hannes; Seinost, Gerald; Pilger, Ernst

    2013-02-15

    Due to intimal hyperplasia instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment is still an unsolved problem. Different techniques have been discussed in case of reintervention to guarantee longlasting patency rate. We conducted a randomized, controlled, pilot trial comparing Silverhawk atherectomy with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with a first instent reobstruction in the femoropopliteal arterial segment, to evaluate intima media thickness (IMT) within the treated segment, as a parameter of recurrence of intimal hyperplasia. In a total 19 patients were included: 9 patients in the atherectomy device and 10 patients in the PTA arm. IMT within the treated segment was statistically significantly elevated in all patients treated with the Silverhawk device versus the patients treated with PTA. The obvious differentiation in elevation of IMT in nonfavor for patients treated with the Silverhawk device started at month 2 (max IMT SH 0.178 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.1 mm, p = 0.001) with a spike at month 5 (max IMT SH 0.206 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.145 mm, p = 0.003) and a decline once again at month 6 (max IMT SH 0.177 mm vs. IMT PTA 0.121 mm, p = 0.02). The values for mean IMT performed the same way. Although Silverhawk atherectomy provides good results at first sight, in the midterm follow-up of treatment of first instent restenosis it did not perform better than PTA as it showed elevated reoccurrence of intimal media hyperplasia.

  11. Muscle-derived stem cells promote angiogenesis and attenuate intimal hyperplasia in different murine vascular disease models.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Sub; Hahn, Soli; Choi, Geum Hee; Yoo, Young Sun; Lee, Ji Youl; Lee, Taeseung

    2013-03-15

    Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) are known to promote angiogenesis, but have never been studied in vascular diseases. We differentiated MDSCs into endothelial lineage cells in vitro by stimulation with shear stress and vascular endothelial growth factor. Such differentiated MDSCs (diff-MDSC) showed strong angiogenic potential in vitro. When tested in ischemic hindlimbs of mice, diff-MDSCs increased perfusion and decreased necrosis of the ischemic limbs, by promoting new vessel formation and by upregulating genes involved in endothelial expression. Such effects were not observed with native MDSCs (without endothelial stimulation in vitro). Diff-MDSCs were also injected into carotid arteries of rats after balloon denudation of the intima layer to induce intimal hyperplasia. The cell-treated group had significantly reduced intima-to-media thickness ratio compared to control, thus attenuating intimal hyperplasia by early re-endothelialization of the intima layer. Our findings suggest that MDSCs are a potential source of stem cell therapy for treatment of various vascular diseases, by inducing angiogenesis to improve perfusion in sites of ischemia, and by preventing intimal hyperplasia in sites of vessel injury. PMID:23082782

  12. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  13. The prevalence of non-classic adrenal hyperplasia among Turkish women with hyperandrogenism.

    PubMed

    Unluhizarci, Kursad; Kula, Mustafa; Dundar, Munis; Tanriverdi, Fatih; Israel, Shoshana; Colak, Ramis; Dokmetas, Hatice Sebila; Atmaca, Hulusi; Bahceci, Mithat; Balci, Mustafa Kemal; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Bilen, Habip; Akarsu, Ersin; Erem, Cihangir; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2010-02-01

    The prevalence of non-classic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) among Turkish women with hirsutism has not been established so far. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency by ACTH stimulation test among hirsute women. The study population consisted of 285 premenopousal women, aged 16-46 years (mean: 23.2 ± 0.3). All were hirsute and hyperandrogenic. Androgen secreting tumors of the ovaries and the adrenal glands were excluded as well as thyroid dysfunction and hyperprolactinemia. All the patients were evaluated by 0.25 mg (i.v.) ACTH stimulation test and 17-OHP responses were obtained at 30 and 60 min. The diagnosis of NCAH due to 21-OH deficiency was considered in patients with the poststimulation 17-OHP level exceed 10 ng/ml. Six (2.1%) of the patients had NCAH due to 21-OH deficiency confirmed by genotyping. The rest of the patients were polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 166, 58.2%) and idiopathic hyperandrogenemia (n = 113, 39.7%). There were no patients with idiopathic hirsutism because patients with normal serum androgen levels were excluded. This first and most extensive national study investigating NCAH prevalence among Turkish population showed that NCAH is not prevalent in this population. PMID:19718570

  14. Minimally invasive devices for treating lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostate hyperplasia: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Fouad; Marcelis, Quentin; Roumeguère, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents a spectrum of related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The cost of currently recommended medications and the discontinuation rate due to side effects are significant drawbacks limiting their long-term use in clinical practice. Interventional procedures, considered as the definitive treatment for BPH, carry a significant risk of treatment-related complications in frail patients. These issues have contributed to the emergence of new approaches as alternative options to standard therapies. This paper reviews the recent literature regarding the experimental treatments under investigation and presents the currently available experimental devices and techniques used under local anesthesia for the treatment of LUTS/BPH in the vast majority of cases. Devices for delivery of thermal treatment (microwaves, radiofrequency, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and the Rezum system), mechanical devices (prostatic stent and urethral lift), fractionation of prostatic tissue (histotripsy and aquablation), prostate artery embolization, and intraprostatic drugs are discussed. Evidence for the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of these “minimally invasive procedures” is analyzed. PMID:26317083

  15. Influence of Panax ginseng on Alpha-Adrenergic Receptor of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Kang; Chung, Joo-Ho; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Sang Won; Lee, Kang Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common prostate problem in older men. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (P. ginseng) on a rat model of testosterone-induced BPH. Methods The rats were divided into 3 groups (each group, n=10): control, testosterone-induced BPH (20 mg/kg, subcutaneous injection), and P. ginseng (200 mg/kg, orally) groups. After 4 weeks, all animals were sacrificed to examine the blood biochemical profiles, prostate volume, weight, histopathological changes, alpha-1D adrenergic receptor (Adra1d) mRNA expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) protein expression. Results The group treated with P. ginseng showed significantly lesser prostate size and weight than the testosterone-induced BPH group. In addition, P. ginseng decreased the mRNA expression of Adra1d as well as the expression of EGFR and BCL2 in prostate tissue. Conclusions These results suggest that P. ginseng may inhibit the alpha-1-adrenergic receptor to suppress the development of BPH. PMID:25558416

  16. The prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia in mainland China: evidence from epidemiological surveys

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenying; Guo, Yuwen; Zhang, Daoxin; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Xiaonan

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in mainland China are not completely understood. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of BPH from 1989 through 2014. A total of 14 articles and 19 datasets were included. The pooled overall prevalence of BPH among men aged 40 years and older was 36.6% [95% CI, 32.3–44.8]. The occurrence rate of BPH in the age groups 40–49 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years and 80 years and older was 2.9%, 29.0%, 44.7%, 58.1% and 69.2%, respectively. The pooled occurrence rate of BPH was 41.5% [95% CI, 34.5–48.4] in urban areas and 38.6% [95% CI, 22.7–54.6] in rural areas; this difference in prevalence was not statistically significant [OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.97–2.36]. BPH is highly prevalent in mainland China, and its prevalence increased with age. The trend in the prevalence of BPH in mainland China was not steady; the prevalence map based on a geographic information system (GIS) showed an unequal geographic distribution. High-quality surveys on BPH with a larger sample size are needed throughout mainland China to confirm these findings. PMID:26306721

  17. Managing benign prostatic hyperplasia in primary care. Patient-centred approach.

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, J.; Weiss, R.

    2000-01-01

    PROBLEM ADDRESSED: Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is changing from a surgical approach to a medical approach, and the role of primary care physicians is expanding. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To introduce a patient-centred approach to managing BPH in primary care through a continuing medical education (CME) program. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: A practice-based, small group, peer-led CME program focused on application of the International Prostate Symptom Score and Quality of Life Assessment in four case studies on prostatism, including BPH. At 86 workshops held across Canada, 658 physicians participated in discussions with case materials that included videos and a handbook. A before-after practice behaviour questionnaire was administered at each workshop to evaluate "intent to change." CONCLUSIONS: Participating physicians showed willingness to learn new skills for patient-centred management of BPH. These results suggest that peer-led, small group CME can successfully encourage use of new practice guidelines in primary are and teach physicians practical steps for developing therapeutic alliances with their patients. PMID:10690495

  18. Postoperative MRI in patients undergoing interstitial laser coagulation thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Heuck, A.F.; Scheidler, H.J.; Reiser, M.F.

    1996-03-01

    We conducted MRI of the effects of laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Eighteen patients (average age 64 years) were examined with MRI 24-48 h before and after LITT of BPH. Sagittal and axial T2-weighted FSE MR images were evaluated for signs of coagulation necrosis in the prostate gland and the presence of intra- and extraprostatic edema. Coagulation areas showed as a hypointense central core with a hyperintense rim. Intraprostatic edema led to a volume increase of 18-108% both in the central and in the total gland. Periprostatic edema was severe in preprostatic and prevesical tissue as well as lateral to the prostate, moderate in the presacral space, and mild perirectally and dorsal to the prostate. Follow-up examinations 2 weeks to 6 months after LITT in five patients showed decrease of coagulation necrosis volume, prostate size, and edema. MRI appears to be a reliable method to monitor LITT effects in patients with BPH. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Adventitial Contributions of the ERK and Akt Pathways to Neointimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Havelka, George E.; Hogg, Melissa E.; Martinez, Janet; Banjeree, Monisha N.; Jiang, Qun; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Background We recently reported that the efficacy of nitric oxide (NO) appears to be based on both sex and hormone status. The mechanism responsible for this differential efficacy is unknown. The aim of this study is to characterize the effect of sex, hormones, and NO on the ERK and Akt signaling pathways following arterial injury. Methods Male and female Sprague Dawley rats underwent castration or sham surgery. Two weeks later, they underwent carotid artery balloon injury. Treatment groups included: control, injury, and injury+PROLI/NO (n=5/group). Arteries were harvested 2 weeks post-injury and assessed for pERK and pAkt expression. Results Following injury, more pERK and pAkt activity was seen in the adventitia than media in both sexes, regardless of hormone status (P<0.05). In hormonally-intact males, NO further increased pERK (44%) and pAkt (120%) after injury (P<0.001). Castration attenuated the effects of NO. In hormonally-intact females, NO caused the opposite pattern with pERK activity but did not affect pAkt activity. Conclusion Following arterial injury, ERK and Akt activity is significantly greater in the adventitia than the media, and depends on sex, hormone status, and NO. Understanding adventitial regulation of proliferative signaling pathways will allow the development of targeted therapies for neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:21906720

  20. Testosterone metabolism of fibroblasts grown from prostatic carcinoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia and skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikert, H.U.; Hein, H.J.; Romijn, J.C.; Schroeder, F.H.

    1982-02-01

    The metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone was assessed in fibroblast monolayers derived from tissue of 5 prostates with benign hyperplasia (BPH), 4 prostates with carcinoma (PC), and 3 biopsy samples of skin, 2 nongenital skin (NG) and 1 genital skin. The following metabolites could be identified: androstanedione androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, epiandrosterone, androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. Testosterone was metabolized much more rapidly in fibroblasts originating from prostatic tissue than in fibroblasts derived from NG. A significantly higher formation of 5 alpha-androstanes and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroids could be observed in fibroblasts from BPH as compared to PC. 17-ketosteroid formation exceeded 5 alpha-androstane formation in BPH, whereas 5 alpha-reduction was the predominant pathway in fibroblasts grown from PC and NG. Since testosterone metabolism in fibroblasts of prostatic origin therefore resembles in many aspects that in whole prostatic tissue, fibroblasts grown from prostatic tissues might be a valuable tool for further investigation of the pathogenesis of human BPH and PC.

  1. Effect of oral acetylcysteine on tobacco smoke-induced secretory cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, P K; Rogers, D F; Ayers, M M

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation explores whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibits the secretory cell hyperplasia known to occur experimentally in specific pathogen-free (SPF) bronchitic rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: no tobacco smoke (TS), no drug, no TS but NAC (1040 mg/kg body weight), TS but no drug, and TS plus NAC. NAC-treated animals showed no ill effects, TS exposed animals showed an initial fall in weight gain which never fully recovered (P less than 0.01): NAC did not protect. TS caused a significant increase (62-421%) in secretory cell number at all airway levels distal to the upper trachea (P less than 0.01) and NAC significantly inhibited it (P less than 0.01-0.05) in all, mostly in secretory cells containing acidic glycoprotein. TS exposure also induced a significant rise in epithelial cell concentration and of ciliated, mucous and especially basal cell number (P less than 0.001). NAC inhibited the mucous cell increase (P less than 0.001) and had 3 effects on the peak of dividing cells: it was (a) delayed until 3 days (b) greatly reduced in size and (c) prolonged at a lower level until its return to control values at 10 days of TS exposure. PMID:3862604

  2. Pitfalls in molecular diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kolahdouz, Mahsa; Mohammadi, Zahra; Kolahdouz, Parisa; Tajamolian, Masoud; Khanahmad, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a putative error of metabolism with autosomal recessive heredity pattern. The main manifestations of classic form of CAH are salt-wasting, dehydration and simple virilization in both sexes and ambiguous genitalia in female gender. 21-hyroxylase (CYP21A2) impairment with prevalence value of 1 in 10,000–15,000 live births is the most common etiology of CAH. Because of consanguineous marriages, the frequency of the CAH in Iran is very high. A wide range of mutations diversity exists in CYP21A2 gene and a large number of these mutations derived from a highly homologous pseudogene, CYP21A1P, through gene conversion. In addition, new mutations such as small and large deletion and point mutations can also result in enzyme deficiency. Various methods for mutation detection were performed. The main obstacle in molecular diagnosis of CAH is amplification of pseudogene during polymerase chain reaction of CYP21A2. All attempts focus on discrimination of pseudogene from gene; that is why, there is the majority of mutations on pseudogene, and if we have contamination with the pseudogene, the result will be unreliable. Here, we discuss this methods and advantage and disadvantage of those.

  3. The Clinical and Biochemical Spectrum of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Secondary to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tony; McGown, Ivan; Cowley, David; Nyunt, Ohn; Leong, Gary M; Harris, Mark; Cotterill, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    21-Hydroxylase Deficiency (21-OH Deficiency) represents the most common form of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), a complex and heterogenous group of conditions, characterised by defects in one of the five enzymes involved in adrenal steroidogenesis. Defects in this steroidogenic enzyme, the product of the CYP21A2 gene, cause disruption in the pathway involved in cortisol and aldosterone production and consequently, the accumulation of their steroid precursors as well as a resulting adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-driven overproduction of adrenal androgens. Treatment with glucocorticoid, with or without mineralocorticoid and salt replacement, is directed at preventing adrenal crises and ensuring normal childhood growth by alleviating hyperandrogenism. Conventionally, two clinical forms of 21-OH Deficiency are described - the classical form, separated into salt-wasting and simple-virilising phenotypes, and the non-classical form. They are differentiated by their hormonal profile, predominant clinical features and age of presentation. A greater understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation supports the view that 21-OH Deficiency is a continuum of phenotypes as opposed to a number of distinct phenotypical entities. Significant advancements in technologies such as Tandem Mass Spectrometry (TMS) and improvements in gene analysis, such as complete PCR-based sequencing of the involved gene, have resulted in remarkable developments in the areas of diagnosis, treatment and treatment monitoring, neonatal screening, prenatal diagnosis and prenatal therapy. PMID:19565027

  4. New surgical treatment options in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Werner T. W.; Nelius, Thomas; Aronoff, David R.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.

    2003-06-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in males older than 50 years of age. 75-80% of this population is considered to have some degree of BPH causing clinical symptoms and requiring urological treatment. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) is currently the standard surgical treatment modality for BPH. In an attempt to minimize the need for hospitalization and the associated perioperative and postoperative morbidity, alternatives have been sought. Various types of Laser techniques such as interstitial Laser cogaulation and side-firing technology have been proposed. Numerous studies have shown that Laser procedures safely and effectively reduce the volume of the prostate. Intra- and postoperative bleeding are nearly unknown complications for Laser procedures, whereas this is the most relevant complication for the TUR-P. Due to significant tissue edema after Laser treatment, patients commonly show delayed time to void adequately, and therefore, catheter drainage is often necessary for 3 to 21 days. Retrograde ejaculation is reported to occur less (0 - 10%) compared to TUR-P (> 60%). Urinary tract infections are very common after interstitial laser coagulation. Although not many long-term clinical data are available, various studies have shown that BPH patients improve in symptom score, flow rate and post-void residual up to 3 years after Laser treatment. This paper presents a concise review of efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of the most frequently used Laser techniques as well as the long-term clinical data compared to TUR-P.

  5. Celecoxib reduces glucocorticoids in vitro and in a mouse model with adrenocortical hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Berthon, Annabel; Starost, Matthew F.; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Salpea, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Faucz, Fabio R.; Martinez, Antoine; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), whether in the context of Carney complex (CNC) or isolated, leads to adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) - independent Cushing’s syndrome (CS). CNC and PPNAD are caused typically by inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A, a gene coding for the type 1a regulatory subunit (R1?) of cAMP–dependent protein kinase (PKA). Mice lacking Prkar1a, specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO) developed CS caused by bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH), which is formed from the abnormal proliferation of fetal-like adrenocortical cells. Celecoxib is a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor. In bone, Prkar1a inhibition is associated with COX2 activation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production that, in turn, activates proliferation of bone stromal cells. We hypothesized that COX2 inhibition may have an effect in PPNAD. In vitro treatment of human cell lines, including one from a patient with PPNAD, with Celecoxib resulted in decreased cell viability. We then treated AdKO and control mice with 1,500 mg/kg Celecoxib or vehicle. Celecoxib treatment led to decreased PGE2 and corticosterone levels, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of adrenocortical cells, and decreased steroidogenic gene expression. We conclude that, in vitro and in vivo, Celecoxib led to decreased steroidogenesis. In a mouse model of PPNAD, Celecoxib caused histological changes that reversed, at least in part, BAH and this was associated with a reduction of corticosterone levels. PMID:26438728

  6. Pyrithione-zinc Prevents UVB-induced Epidermal Hyperplasia by Inducing HIF-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Jong-Wan

    2010-04-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes overgrow in response to ultraviolet-B (UVB), which may be associated with skin photoaging and cancer development. Recently, we found that HIF-1alpha controls the keratinocyte cell cycle and thereby contributes to epidermal homeostasis. A further study demonstrated that HIF-1alpha is down-regulated by UVB and that this process is involved in UVB-induced skin hyperplasia. Therefore, we hypothesized that the forced expression of HIF-1alpha in keratinocytes would prevent UVB-induced keratinocyte overgrowth. Among several agents known to induce HIF-1alpha, pyrithione-zinc (Py-Zn) overcame the UVB suppression of HIF-1alpha in cultured keratinocytes. Mechanistically, Py-Zn blocked the degradation of HIF-1alpha protein in keratinocytes, while it did not affect the synthesis of HIF-1alpha. Moreover, the p21 cell cycle inhibitor was down-regulated after UVB exposure, but was robustly induced by Py-Zn. In mice repeatedly irradiated with UVB, the epidermis became hyperplastic and HIF-1alpha disappeared from nuclei of epidermal keratinocytes. However, a cream containing Py-Zn effectively prevented the skin thickening and up-regulated HIF-1alpha to the normal level. These results suggest that Py-Zn is a potential agent to prevent UVB-induced photoaging and skin cancer development. This work also provides insight into a molecular target for treatment of UVB-induced skin diseases. PMID:20473380

  7. Carrier frequency of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21-hydroxylase deficiency) in a middle European population.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner-Parzer, S M; Nowotny, P; Heinze, G; Waldhäusl, W; Vierhapper, H

    2005-02-01

    Based on newborn screening data, the carrier frequency of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in the general population has been estimated to be 1:55. The higher CAH frequency (particularly of milder forms of the disease) reported for certain populations including Yugoslavs (1.6%) relates to population genetic and hormonal data. However, so far, true carrier frequency for CAH due to 21-OH deficiency has not been determined by comprehensive mutation analysis of the 21-OH gene (CYP21A2) in an unselected European population. This study used CYP21A2 genotyping (sequence/Southern blot analysis) to determine CAH carrier frequency in a middle European (Austrian) population. The study included 100 migrants from the former Yugoslavia and 100 individuals of non-Yugoslavian origin. None of these individuals showed clinical hyperandrogenism or had a family history of CAH. Genotyping 400 unrelated alleles from 200 clinically unaffected individuals, this study revealed a carrier frequency of 9.5%, including so-called "classic" (5.5%) and "nonclassic" (4%) CYP21A2-gene aberrations. The observed heterozygosity for CAH in Yugoslavs was not different (P = 0.8095) from that in non-Yugoslavs. In conclusion, the observed CAH carrier frequency of 9.5% suggests a higher prevalence of CAH heterozygosity in a middle European population than hitherto estimated independently of the individuals' Yugoslav or non-Yugoslav origin. PMID:15572419

  8. Serotonin transporter overexpression is responsible for pulmonary artery smooth muscle hyperplasia in primary pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Eddahibi, Saadia; Humbert, Marc; Fadel, Elie; Raffestin, Bernadette; Darmon, Michèle; Capron, Frédérique; Simonneau, Gerald; Dartevelle, Philippe; Hamon, Michel; Adnot, Serge

    2001-01-01

    Hyperplasia of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs) is a hallmark pathological feature of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). Here we found that PA-SMCs from patients with PPH grow faster than PA-SMCs from controls when stimulated by serotonin or serum and that these effects are due to increased expression of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), which mediates internalization of indoleamine. In the presence of 5-HTT inhibitors, the growth stimulatory effects of serum and serotonin were markedly reduced and the difference between growth of PA-SMCs from patients and controls was no longer observed. As compared with controls, the expression of 5-HTT was increased in cultured PA-SMCs as well as in platelets and lungs from patients with PPH where it predominated in the media of thickened pulmonary arteries and in onion-bulb lesions. The L-allelic variant of the 5HTT gene promoter, which is associated with 5-HTT overexpression and increased PA-SMC growth, was present in homozygous form in 65% of patients but in only 27% of controls. We conclude that 5-HTT activity plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PA-SMC proliferation in PPH and that a 5HTT polymorphism confers susceptibility to PPH. PMID:11602621

  9. Celecoxib reduces glucocorticoids in vitro and in a mouse model with adrenocortical hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sisi; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Berthon, Annabel; Starost, Matthew F; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Salpea, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Faucz, Fabio R; Martinez, Antoine; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), whether in the context of Carney complex (CNC) or isolated, leads to ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CS). CNC and PPNAD are caused typically by inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A, a gene coding for the type 1a regulatory subunit (R1?) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Mice lacking Prkar1a, specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO) developed CS caused by bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH), which is formed from the abnormal proliferation of fetal-like adrenocortical cells. Celecoxib is a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) inhibitor. In bone, Prkar1a inhibition is associated with COX2 activation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production that, in turn, activates proliferation of bone stromal cells. We hypothesized that COX2 inhibition may have an effect in PPNAD. In vitro treatment of human cell lines, including one from a patient with PPNAD, with celecoxib resulted in decreased cell viability. We then treated AdKO and control mice with 1500?mg/kg celecoxib or vehicle. Celecoxib treatment led to decreased PGE2 and corticosterone levels, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of adrenocortical cells, and decreased steroidogenic gene expression. We conclude that, in vitro and in vivo, celecoxib led to decreased steroidogenesis. In a mouse model of PPNAD, celecoxib caused histological changes that, at least in part, reversed BAH and this was associated with a reduction of corticosterone levels. PMID:26438728

  10. Light and laser therapies for the treatment of sebaceous gland hyperplasia a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Simmons, B J; Griffith, R D; Falto-Aizpurua, L A; Bray, F N; Nouri, K

    2015-11-01

    Sebaceous gland hyperplasia (SGH) is a benign cutaneous condition that presents primarily on the face and increases with UVB exposure and ageing. These lesions are a common cosmetic concern but are difficult to treat, as the entire sebaceous gland needs to be destroyed to prevent recurrence. Traditional methods of treatment include: cryosurgery, electrodessication, curettage, shave excision and topical trichloroacetic acid. These methods have an increased risk of skin discoloration and scarring to the area of treatment that may lead to inferior cosmetic outcomes. Alternatively, oral isotretinoin can treat SGH, but is a known teratogen in pregnancy and has high relapse rates with discontinuation. A systematic review of the literature was performed to look at photodynamic therapy (PDT) and laser treatment for SGH. According to the results of this study, PDT, lasers and combinations of the two treatments were found to offer alternatives to the more conventional techniques with better outcomes. In particular, the use of wavelength-specific laser for the sebaceous gland of 1720 nm were found to have better outcomes and provide minimal damage to surrounding tissues. Additionally, combination PDT with aminolevulinic acid and pre-treatment with carbon dioxide laser ablation or pulse-dyed laser offered higher cure rates over stand-alone laser or PDT treatments in a shorter number of sessions with similar transient side-effects. However, further large-scale prospective studies with adequate follow-up are required to confirm these findings and those for sebaceous gland-specific lasers. PMID:25731611

  11. Management of cyclosporine-induced gingival hyperplasia by use of an argon laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenau, Richard J.; Triolo, P.; Powell, G. L.

    1994-09-01

    This is a report of a case study with interesting laser applications. A 7 year old female was referred to us for treatment of hyperplastic tissue. At age two the patient had successfully undergone a liver transplant. She had undergone two periodontal surgeries under general anesthetic for the same soft tissue problem. Other possible complications were chronic sinusitis and frequent headaches. She has allergies to penicillin and sulfa. Her daily medications are Predisone and Cyclosporin. We consulted with her transplant team and they had no contraindication for the proposed dental surgery. The doctor placed her on prophylactic erythromycin for the procedure, as a preventive measure. The patient desired not to have any more general anesthetics administered. Clinical examination revealed electric pulp tests were normal for all teeth tested. No visible carious lesions were observed and there was no need for radiographs at this time. Soft tissue revealed red inflamed fibrous tissue consistent with gingival hyperplasia. Probing demonstrated 4 - 6 mm pockets around the anterior teeth.

  12. Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia using transurethral split of the prostate with a columnar balloon catheter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiguo; Guo, Yinglu; Xiao, Guofeng; Qin, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Transurethral dilation of the prostate (TUDP) with a spherical balloon catheter is a traditional treatment for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). TUDP, however, has been abandoned in clinical application because of its unsatisfying treatment benefit and severe complications. In this study, we redesigned an improved TUDP surgical procedure-transurethral split of the prostate (TUSP)-by replacing the spherical balloon with a columnar balloon. To evaluate the clinical therapeutic effect, we compared the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) of patients with BPH after TUSP treatment and analyzed the urethra through CT films. Animal experiments were performed on aged dogs to investigate the urine function and electromyography (EMG) changes. Histopathology was used to evaluate the inflammation and injury. In addition, collagen content was detected by Trichrome Masson. TUSP attenuated LUTS and reconstructed the urethra in patients with BPH. The attenuation of LUTS was reflected in terms of LUTS parameters such as peak urine flow rate, postvoid residual urine volume, quality of life score, and International Prostate Symptom Score. TUSP expanded the urethra in experimental dogs by splitting the prostate tissues and decreasing the collagen content, with maintenance of normal urinary function and EMG characteristics. The successful clinical application of TUSP with significant therapeutic effect and limited complications made TUSP an ideal choice for the patients with BPH. PMID:25285775

  13. Bee venom suppresses testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia by regulating the inflammatory response and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; An, Hyo-Jin; Cheon, Se-Yun; Kwon, Ki-Rok; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is a common disorder in aging men, involves inflammation that is associated with an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death. Because current BPH drug treatments have undesirable side effects, the development of well-tolerated and effective alternative medicines to treat BPH is of interest. Bee venom (BV) has been used in traditional medicine to treat conditions, such as arthritis and rheumatism, and pain. Although inflammation has been associated with BPH and BV has strong anti-inflammatory effects, the effects of BV on BPH are not fully understood. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the efficacy of BV against testosterone-induced BPH in rats. BV decreased prostate weight compared to the untreated group. In addition, BV suppressed serum dihydrotestosterone concentration levels and the levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the histological analysis. Furthermore, BV significantly decreased the levels of the apoptotic suppressors, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increased the levels of the proapoptotic factors, Bax and caspase-3 activation. These results suggested that BV suppressed the development of BPH and has good potential as a treatment for BPH. PMID:26085572

  14. Mice with a targeted mutation of patched2 are viable but develop alopecia and epidermal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Erica; Motoyama, Jun; Barnfield, Paul C; Yoshikawa, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Mo, Rong; Crackower, Michael A; Hui, Chi-Chung

    2006-09-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays pivotal roles in tissue patterning and development in Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrates. The Patched1 (Ptc1) gene, encoding the Hh receptor, is mutated in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a human genetic disorder associated with developmental abnormalities and increased incidences of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and medulloblastoma (MB). Ptc1 mutations also occur in sporadic forms of BCC and MB. Mutational studies with mice have verified that Ptc1 is a tumor suppressor. We previously identified a second mammalian Patched gene, Ptc2, and demonstrated its distinct expression pattern during embryogenesis, suggesting a unique role in development. Most notably, Ptc2 is expressed in an overlapping pattern with Shh in the epidermal compartment of developing hair follicles and is highly expressed in the developing limb bud, cerebellum, and testis. Here, we describe the generation and phenotypic analysis of Ptc2(tm1/tm1) mice. Our molecular analysis suggests that Ptc2(tm1) likely represents a hypomorphic allele. Despite the dynamic expression of Ptc2 during embryogenesis, Ptc2(tm1/tm1) mice are viable, fertile, and apparently normal. Interestingly, adult Ptc2(tm1/tm1) male animals develop skin lesions consisting of alopecia, ulceration, and epidermal hyperplasia. While functional compensation by Ptc1 might account for the lack of a strong mutant phenotype in Ptc2-deficient mice, our results suggest that normal Ptc2 function is required for adult skin homeostasis. PMID:16914743

  15. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency: clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Falhammar, Henrik; Nordenström, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) is one of the most frequent autosomal recessive disorders in man with a prevalence ranging from 0.1 % in Caucasians up to a few percent in certain ethnic groups. Most cases are never diagnosed due to very mild symptoms, misdiagnosing as polycystic ovary syndrome, or ignorance. In contrast to classic CAH, patients with NCAH present with mild partial cortisol insufficiency and hyperandrogenism and will survive without any treatment. Undiagnosed NCAH may result in infertility, miscarriages, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, acne, premature pubarche, testicular adrenal rest tumors, adrenal tumors, and voice problems among other symptoms. A baseline measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone can be used for diagnosis, but the ACTH stimulation test with measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone is regarded as the golden standard. The diagnosis can be verified by CYP21A2 mutation analysis. Treatment is symptomatic and usually with glucocorticoids alone. The lowest possible glucocorticoid dose should be used. Long-term treatment with glucocorticoids will improve the symptoms but will also result in iatrogenic cortisol insufficiency and may also lead to long-term complications such as obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, osteoporosis, and fractures. Although the complications seen in NCAH patients have been assumed to be related to the glucocorticoid treatment, some may, in fact, be associated with prolonged hyperandrogenism. Different risk factors and negative consequences should be monitored regularly in an attempt to improve the clinical outcome. More research is needed in this relatively common disorder. PMID:26082286

  16. Biliary hyperplasia and carcinogenesis in chronic liver damage induced in rats by phomopsin.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J E

    1990-10-01

    Phomopsin, a hexapeptide mycotoxin contaminant of lupin plant and seed materials, was administered subcutaneously to adult rats at a daily dose rate of 30 micrograms/kg body weight (approximately 0.005 median lethal dose) for 2, 6 or 17 wks and the development of liver damage was observed during treatment and for up to 2 yr after. All rats injected for 17 wks developed permanent liver damage characterized by nodular cirrhosis and extensive biliary hyperplasia. Cholangiomas developed in 60% of these rats and cholangiocarcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas in 13%. Similar effects were produced in some rats injected for 6 wks, while in others the cessation of treatment was followed by almost complete regression of the liver lesions. Livers damaged by 2 wks of injection had fully recovered within a few wks. The permanence of the liver damage is relevant to the management of stock exposed seasonally to the toxin, while its carcinogenic potential in rats, although not high, indicates the need for monitoring of the phomopsin content of lupin seed or flour prepared for human consumption. PMID:1982562

  17. PDGF-D contributes to neointimal hyperplasia in rat model of vessel injury

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jingzhou; Han Yu; Lin Chunxia; Zhen Yisong; Song Xiaodong; Teng Siyong; Chen Chen; Chen Yu; Zhang Yinhui; Hui Rutai . E-mail: huirutai@sglab.org

    2005-04-15

    In this study, we determined the role of PDGF-D, a new member of the PDGF family, in a rat model of balloon injured artery made with a 2F catheter in Sprague-Dawley male rats. PDGF-D expression was studied in the injured and control segments of abdominal aorta. The function of PDGF-D was evaluated in rat vascular smooth muscle cells stably transfected with PDGF-D gene. We found that in normal abdominal aorta, PDGF-D was highly expressed in adventia, moderate in endothelia, and unidentified in media. Stable transfection of PDGF-D gene into vascular smooth muscle cells increased the cell migration by 2.2-fold, and the proliferation by 2.3-fold, respectively, and MMP-2 production and activity as well. These results support the fact that PDGF-D is involved in the formation of neointimal hyperplasia induced by balloon catheter injury and may serve as a target in preventing vascular restenosis after coronary angioplasty.

  18. The Infrared Radiation Temperature Characteristic of Acupoints of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Zhao, Yi; Wang, Yafang; Hu, Shengfang; Lu, Ping; Shen, Xueyong

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To ascertain pathological information on hyperplasia of mammary glands (HMG) of patients via the infrared radiation temperature of acupoints. Method. Patients with HMG and healthy controls were tested using an infrared thermal imager. Results. In controls, no significant difference in temperature was observed between points with the same name (P > 0.05). The temperature of all tested points was found to be higher in the group with HMG than in that of the healthy controls, except for the left and right Zusanli (ST36). The temperature of the right Rugen (ST18), Guanyuan (CV4), Qihai (CV6), and Hegu (LI4) reached a statistically significant heightened level (P = 0.046~P < 0.001). The temperature of the Zusanli (ST36) and Hegu (LI4) present on the right side was significantly higher than that of the left (P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, resp.), while the temperature of the left Youmen (KI21) was significantly higher than that of the right (P = 0.008). Conclusion. The temperature of the bilateral acupoints in healthy controls was symmetrical, and the raised temperatures observed of the Rugen (ST18), Guanyuan (CV4), Qihai (CV6), and Hegu (LI4) acupoints of HMG patients and the imbalance of the temperature of the bilateral acupoints Zusanli (ST36), Youmen (KI21), and Hegu (LI4) carried special pathological information about HMG disease. PMID:24327822

  19. Cell-To-Cell Communication in Bilateral Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia Causing Hypercortisolism

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Hervé; Duparc, Céline; Prévost, Gaëtan; Bertherat, Jérôme; Louiset, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that, in the human adrenal gland, cortisol secretion is not only controlled by circulating corticotropin but is also influenced by a wide variety of bioactive signals, including conventional neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, released within the cortex by various cell types such as chromaffin cells, neurons, cells of the immune system, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. These different types of cells are present in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH), a rare etiology of primary adrenal Cushing’s syndrome, where they appear intermingled with adrenocortical cells in the hyperplastic cortex. In addition, the genetic events, which cause the disease, favor abnormal adrenal differentiation that results in illicit expression of paracrine regulatory factors and their receptors in adrenocortical cells. All these defects constitute the molecular basis for aberrant autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms, which are likely to play a role in the pathophysiology of BMAH-associated hypercortisolism. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this topic as well as the therapeutic perspectives offered by this new pathophysiological concept. PMID:25941513

  20. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and criminal behavior: A Swedish population based study.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson Gotby, Agnes; Nordenström, Anna; Falhammar, Henrik; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Linden Hirschberg, Angelica; Frisén, Louise; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-10-30

    Both prenatal and circulating testosterone and other androgens have been suggested to influence the individual's propensity to commit crime, but empirical evidence is limited and inconsistent. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) are both hyperandrogenic conditions but with an important difference; whereas subjects with CAH are exposed to high concentrations of androgens in utero, women with PCOS are subjected to high androgens in adulthood. Comparing these groups can therefore yield important insights of androgenic effects on behavior. In the current study, information on medical diagnoses and convicted crimes were gathered from Swedish population-based registers. The associations between diagnoses of CAH or PCOS and any crime, violent crime or sex crime were estimated with conditional logistic regression. Results showed that CAH in women and men did not predict criminality, whereas an increased risk for any crime and violent crime was found in PCOS women. Our findings indicate that female hyperandrogenism in adulthood, but not prenatal hyperandrogenism, is associated with risk for criminal behavior. Further research into hyperandrogenic conditions holds opportunities to deepen our understanding of the etiology of crime and psychopathology. PMID:26254797

  1. Prepubertal exposure to bisphenol-A induces ER? upregulation and hyperplasia in adult gerbil female prostate.

    PubMed

    Campos, Mônica S; Galvão, André L V; Rodríguez, Daniel A O; Biancardi, Manoel F; Marques, Mara R; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-06-01

    Prostate physiology is highly dependent on oestrogenic and androgenic homeostasis. Interferences in this equilibrium, especially in early periods of life, may disrupt the prostate and increase the susceptibility to the development of diseases with ageing. Taking this into account, and considering the increase of environmental chemicals with endocrine-disrupting potential such as bisphenol-A (BPA), this study aimed to evaluate the prostates of adult female gerbils exposed to BPA and BPA plus testosterone from pubertal to adult periods. Morphological, stereological and chemical analyses revealed that long-term BPA exposure, even in environmental dosages, increases the proliferative status of the prostate, increases the number of ER?-positive stromal cells and elicits the development of prostatic hyperplasia in adult female gerbils. Moreover, we also observed that the association with testosterone did not increase the proliferative status of the gland, which shows that low levels of BPA are enough to cause an oestrogenic disruption of the prostate in young adults. This evidence suggests that this oestrogenic endocrine disruptor may increase the susceptibility to prostatic disorders with ageing. PMID:26098999

  2. Correlation of the carcinogenic potential of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) with induced hyperplasia rather than with genotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Smith-Oliver, T; Butterworth, B E

    1987-05-01

    It has been reported that in a long-term feeding study 12,000 ppm of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in the diet produced hepatocellular carcinomas in male and female F-344 rats while 6000 ppm DEHP produced the same tumor type in male and female B6C3F1 mice. In terms of the actual numbers of animals with tumors DEHP produced a greater response in mice than rats. DEHP and its principal hydrolysis product, mono(2-ethylhexyl)phtalate (MEHP) produce multiple effects in the animal such as liver peroxisomal proliferation and hyperplasia. Accordingly, genotoxicity as DNA repair or unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and cell replication as the percentage of cells undergoing scheduled DNA synthesis (SDS or S phase) were determined in mouse hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo in response to DEHP and MEHP. UDS and SDS were determined by autoradiographic quantitation of [3H]-thymidine incorporation in primary hepatocyte cultures treated directly or isolated from B6C3F1 male mice treated in vivo. No DNA repair was observed in mouse hepatocyte cultures treated with up to 1.0 mM DEHP or 0.5 mM MEHP. No DNA repair was observed in cultures from mice treated with up to 500 mg/kg DEHP 12, 24 or 48 h previously or from animals treated up to 28 days with 6000 ppm DEHP in the diet. At 24 h following treatment with 500 mg/kg DEHP, 3.1% of the hepatocytes were in S phase compared to control values of 0.2%. Administration of DEHP in the diet at 6000 ppm produced 9.2% of the cells in S phase at day 7 with the value returning to control levels by day 14. On day 28 of the feeding study the liver to body weight ratios had almost doubled in the group treated with DEHP compared to controls. No increase in the liver-specific enzyme alanine aminotransferase was seen in the serum following treatment with 500 mg/kg DEHP, indicating that the hyperplasia was due to mitogenic stimulation rather than regenerative hyperplasia in response to cytotoxicity. Increases in the endpoints relating to hyperplasia in response to DEHP were greater in the mouse than those that have been reported in the rat. Thus, the carcinogenic response of DEHP correlates better with induced hyperplasia rather than with genotoxicity. PMID:3574334

  3. Clinical, Laboratorial, and Urodynamic Findings of Prostatic Artery Embolization for the Treatment of Urinary Retention Related to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. A Prospective Single-Center Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Antunes, Alberto A.; Carnevale, Francisco C. Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim M. da; Yoshinaga, Eduardo M.; Cerri, Luciana M. O.; Baroni, Ronaldo H.; Marcelino, Antonio S. Z.; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to describe the clinical, laboratorial, and urodynamic findings of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in patients with urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsA prospective study of 11 patients with urinary retention due to BPH was conducted. Patients underwent physical examination, prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement, transrectal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and urodynamic testing were used to assess the outcome before and after 1 year.ResultsClinical success was 91 % (10/11 patients) with a mean follow-up of 22.3 months (range, 12-41 months). At the first year follow-up, the mean IPSS score was 2.8 points (p = 0.04), mean QoL was 0.4 points (p = 0.001), mean PSA decreased from 10.1 to 4.3 ng/mL (p = 0.003), maximum urinary flow (Qmax) improved from 4.2 to 10.8 mL/sec (p = 0.009), and detrusor pressure (Pdet) decreased from 85.7 to 51.5 cm H{sub 2}O (p = 0.007). Before PAE, Bladder Outlet Obstruction Index (BOOI) showed values >40 in 100 % of patients. After PAE, 30 % of patients were >40 (obstructed), 40 % were between 20 and 40 (undetermined), and 30 % were <20 (unobstructed). Patients with a BOOI <20 had higher PSA values at 1-day after PAE.ConclusionsClinical and urodynamic parameters improved significantly after PAE in patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH. Total PSA at day 1 after PAE was higher in patients with unobstructed values in pressure flow studies.

  4. Efficacy and safety of a flaxseed hull extract in the symptomatic management of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study.

    PubMed

    Simons, Rudy; Sonawane, Navneet; Verbruggen, Marian; Chaudhary, Jayesh

    2015-02-01

    This exploratory study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a lignan-rich extract of flaxseed hulls (LinumLife EXTRA(®)) in alleviating symptoms in subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) compared with placebo. Two dosages of extract were compared against placebo in a double-blinded, randomized, parallel, multicenter study. Newly diagnosed cases of BPH in patients aged 45-75 years with an American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) score of ?13 were included. Study treatment consisted of 500 or 1000?mg of extract containing 100?mg (low-dose active [LDA] group, n=26) or 200?mg (high-dose active [HDA] group, n=26) of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), respectively. The placebo (P) group (n=28) received matching maltodextrin capsules. Sixty subjects (LDA [n=19], HDA [n=20], and P [n=21]) completed the study as per the protocol requirements. Change in the AUASI score within a period of 8 weeks, from baseline to end of treatment, was assessed. Significant improvement of obstructive symptoms and management of irritable BPH symptoms was achieved in all groups after treatment. Due to a strong placebo effect, there was no statistical difference between the groups that were treated with flaxseed hull extract as compared with the placebo group. Treatment with flaxseed hull extract did not lead to adverse effects compared with placebo. Supplementation with flaxseed hull extract was found to be safe and well-tolerated and may have improved the quality of life of individuals with BPH. The significant placebo effect as well as the number of subjects per treatment group and the relative short duration of the study may explain the lack of statistical significance between groups. PMID:25546379

  5. Glycemic Index and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A A Listen En Español Glycemic Index and Diabetes The glycemic index, or GI, measures how a ... book-power-of-food-sticky.html More from diabetes.org Learn More: Special Book Promotion: Behind the ...

  6. California Nitrogen Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California N Index User Manual is designed to help you become accustomed to the software environment in which the N Index runs. This manual will use an example scenario to demonstrate how to use the N Index to assess nitrogen losses. The objective of this theoretical example is to guide you towa...

  7. Sperm quality and selected biochemical parameters of seminal fluid in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; W?chocka, A; Brodzki, P; Wrona, Z; Piech, T; Wawron, W; Cha?abis-Mazurek, A

    2015-09-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs is most commonly associated with age and increasing concentrations of dihydrotesterone, a hormone that stimulates growth and secretion of the prostatic epithelial cells. During this process, the biochemical composition of prostatic secretion changes, which can affect the quality of semen and limit the ability of the sperm to contribute to fertilization. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine possible correlation between BPH and biological quality of semen. The study was performed in 11 sexually mature dogs of various breeds. Animals were divided into two groups: healthy dogs (Group I; n = 5; mean age 4.32; SEM = 1.28) and dogs with BPH (Group II n = 6; mean age 6.16; SEM = 0.65). Semen and prostate secretions were collected and evaluated in this study. Standard semen examinations were conducted in the ejaculates collected; moreover, the extent of apoptosis and DNA defragmentation was determined. The selected biochemical parameters were determined in the prostate secretion. According to the examination results, there were no significant differences in standard semen parameters between the two groups of dogs. Nevertheless, morphological tests of semen in dogs with BPH demonstrated elevated percentages of primary defects in spermatozoa. A significant increase (P = 0.01) in DNA defragmentation of sperm was found in dogs with BPH. Moreover, changes in the biochemical composition of prostate secretion were demonstrated. In dogs with BPH, pH of prostate secretions was greater (P = 0.03), concentrations of cholesterol increased while concentrations of Zn and Cu decreased. The study findings reveal that BPH does not change semen quality in dogs. PMID:26275963

  8. Treatment patterns in alpha-blocker therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Michael J; Shortridge, Emily F; Gelwicks, Steven C; Cui, Zhanglin; Wong, David G

    2014-05-01

    This study examined treatment patterns and patient characteristics of men initiating alpha adrenergic blocker therapy (alpha-blocker) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The 2009 Thomson Reuters MarketScan® Database was used to identify the newly initiated alpha-blocker: men ?40 years old with continuous medical and pharmacy coverage for 12 months before and after alpha-blocker initiation, with no alpha-blocker or 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors in the previous year, and with ?1 BPH diagnosis within 1 month before and 6 months after alpha-blocker initiation. This study analyzed patient demographics, clinical characteristics, adherence (percentage of men achieving medication possession ratio [MPR] ? 0.8), restarting the same alpha-blocker after discontinuation, switching to another BPH medication, and type of alpha-blocker (alpha 1 type selective or alpha 1 subtype selective agents). T tests and chi-square tests compared differences at the .05 significance level. A total of 13,474 men met the study criteria (mean age of 63.1 years). Two thirds of the men discontinued alpha-blocker in the 12-month period, among which restarts or switches were statistically different (p = .036) but numerically similar across cohorts. Adherence for alpha 1 type selective agents versus alpha 1 subtype selective agents at 6 months was 43.3% versus 38.1% (p < .01); at 12 months, 34.4% versus 30.5% (p < .01). Alpha-blocker discontinuation rates were high, which confirms low medication adherence reported among medications for several other chronic conditions; therefore, it is necessary to understand the reasons for alpha-blocker discontinuation. PMID:24262787

  9. ATOH7 mutations cause autosomal recessive persistent hyperplasia of the primary vitreous

    PubMed Central

    Prasov, Lev; Masud, Tehmina; Khaliq, Shagufta; Mehdi, S. Qasim; Abid, Aiysha; Oliver, Edward R.; Silva, Eduardo D.; Lewanda, Amy; Brodsky, Michael C.; Borchert, Mark; Kelberman, Daniel; Sowden, Jane C.; Dattani, Mehul T.; Glaser, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The vertebrate basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor ATOH7 (Math5) is specifically expressed in the embryonic neural retina and is required for the genesis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerves. In Atoh7 mutant mice, the absence of trophic factors secreted by RGCs prevents the development of the intrinsic retinal vasculature and the regression of fetal blood vessels, causing persistent hyperplasia of the primary vitreous (PHPV). We therefore screened patients with hereditary PHPV, as well as bilateral optic nerve aplasia (ONA) or hypoplasia (ONH), for mutations in ATOH7. We identified a homozygous ATOH7 mutation (N46H) in a large family with an autosomal recessive PHPV disease trait linked to 10q21, and a heterozygous variant (R65G, p.Arg65Gly) in one of five sporadic ONA patients. High-density single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis also revealed a CNTN4 duplication and an OTX2 deletion in the ONA cohort. Functional analysis of ATOH7 bHLH domain substitutions, by electrophoretic mobility shift and luciferase cotransfection assays, revealed that the N46H variant cannot bind DNA or activate transcription, consistent with structural modeling. The N46H variant also failed to rescue RGC development in mouse Atoh7?/? retinal explants. The R65G variant retains all of these activities, similar to wild-type human ATOH7. Our results strongly suggest that autosomal recessive persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous is caused by N46H and is etiologically related to nonsyndromic congenital retinal nonattachment. The R65G allele, however, cannot explain the ONA phenotype. Our study firmly establishes ATOH7 as a retinal disease gene and provides a functional basis to analyze new coding variants. PMID:22645276

  10. Genotype-Phenotype Analysis in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Krone, Nils; Reisch, Nicole; Idkowiak, Jan; Dhir, Vivek; Ivison, Hannah E.; Hughes, Beverly A.; Rose, Ian T.; O'Neil, Donna M.; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Smith, Matthew J.; MacDonald, Fiona; Cole, Trevor R.; Adolphs, Nicolai; Barton, John S.; Blair, Edward M.; Braddock, Stephen R.; Collins, Felicity; Cragun, Deborah L.; Dattani, Mehul T.; Day, Ruth; Dougan, Shelley; Feist, Miriam; Gottschalk, Michael E.; Gregory, John W.; Haim, Michaela; Harrison, Rachel; Haskins Olney, Ann; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Hindmarsh, Peter C.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Jira, Petr E.; Kempers, Marlies; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Khalifa, Mohamed M.; Köhler, Birgit; Maiter, Dominique; Nielsen, Shelly; O'Riordan, Stephen M.; Roth, Christian L.; Shane, Kate P.; Silink, Martin; Stikkelbroeck, Nike M. M. L.; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Szarras-Czapnik, Maria; Waterson, John R.; Williamson, Lori; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Taylor, Norman F.; Wudy, Stefan A.; Malunowicz, Ewa M.; Shackleton, Cedric H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Context: P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a unique congenital adrenal hyperplasia variant that manifests with glucocorticoid deficiency, disordered sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations. No comprehensive data on genotype-phenotype correlations in Caucasian patients are available. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish genotype-phenotype correlations in a large PORD cohort. Design: The design of the study was the clinical, biochemical, and genetic assessment including multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in 30 PORD patients from 11 countries. Results: We identified 23 P450 oxidoreductase (POR) mutations (14 novel) including an exonic deletion and a partial duplication detected by MLPA. Only 22% of unrelated patients carried homozygous POR mutations. p.A287P was the most common mutation (43% of unrelated alleles); no other hot spot was identified. Urinary steroid profiling showed characteristic PORD metabolomes with variable impairment of 17?-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase. Short cosyntropin testing revealed adrenal insufficiency in 89%. DSD was present in 15 of 18 46,XX and seven of 12 46,XY individuals. Homozygosity for p.A287P was invariably associated with 46,XX DSD but normal genitalia in 46,XY individuals. The majority of patients with mild to moderate skeletal malformations, assessed by a novel scoring system, were compound heterozygous for missense mutations, whereas nearly all patients with severe malformations carried a major loss-of-function defect on one of the affected alleles. Conclusions: We report clinical, biochemical, and genetic findings in a large PORD cohort and show that MLPA is a useful addition to POR mutation analysis. Homozygosity for the most frequent mutation in Caucasians, p.A287P, allows for prediction of genital phenotype and moderate malformations. Adrenal insufficiency is frequent, easily overlooked, but readily detected by cosyntropin testing. PMID:22162478

  11. Paradoxical Adipose Hyperplasia and Cellular Effects After Cryolipolysis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Scott A; Tannan, Shruti C; Cao, Yiqi; Peirce, Shayn M; Gampper, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    : Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive technique for the reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue by controlled, localized cooling, causing adipocyte apoptosis, reportedly without affecting surrounding tissue. Although cryolipolysis has a low incidence of adverse side effects 33 cases of paradoxical adipose hyperplasia (PAH) have been reported and the precise pathogenesis of PAH is poorly understood. This present case study of PAH aims to characterize the pathological changes in the adipose tissue of PAH on a cellular level by using multiple different assays [hematoxy lin and eosin staining, LIVE/DEAD staining, BODIPY(®) 558/568 C12 (4,4-Difluoro-5-(2-Thienyl)-4-Bora-3a,4a-Diaza-s-Indacene-3-dodecanoic acid) staining]. to identify the underlying mechanism of PAH and reduce the prevalence of PAH in the future. Tissue with PAH had fewer viable cells, significantly decreased quantities of interstitial cells (p = 0.04), and fewer vessels per adipose tissue area when compared to the control tissue. Adipocytes from the PAH tissue were on average slightly smaller than the control adipocytes. Adipocytes of PAH tissue had irregularly contoured edges when compared to the smooth, round edges of the control tissue. These findings from a neutral third party are contrary to prior reports from the inventors of this technique regarding effects of cryolipolysis on both the microvasculature and interstitial cells in adipose tissue. Our use of different assays to compare cryolipolysis-treated PAH tissue with untreated adipose tissue in the same patient showed adipose tissue that developed PAH was hypocellular and hypovascular. Contrary to prior reports from the inventors, cryolipolysis may cause vessel loss, which could lead to ischemia and/or hypoxia that further contributes to adipocyte death. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5: Risk. PMID:26590197

  12. Mutation analysis of the CYP21A2 gene in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Forouzanfar, K; Seifi, M; Hashemi-Gorji, F; Karimi, V; Estiar, M A; Karimoei, M; Sakhinia, E; Karimipour, M

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an inherited autosomal recessive enzymatic disorder involving the synthesis of adrenal corticosteroids. 21—Hydroxylase deficiency (21—OHD) is the most common form of the disease which is observed in more than 90% of patients with CAH. Early identification of mutations in the genes involved in this disease is critical. A marker of the disease, errors in the CYP21A2 gene, is thought to be part of the pathophysiology of CAH. Therefore, the identification of gene mutations would be very beneficial in the early detection of CAH. This research was a descriptive epidemiological study conducted on individuals elected by the inclusion criteria whom were referred to the Genetic Diagnosis Center of Tabriz during 2012 to 2013. After sampling and DNA extraction, PCR for the detection of mutations in the CYP21A2 gene was performed followed by sequencing. For data analysis, the results of sequencing were compared with the reference gene by blast, Gene Runner and MEGA—5 software. Obtained changes were compared with NCBI databases. The analysis of the sequencing determined the mutations located in Exons 6, 7, 8 and 10. The most frequent findings were Q318X (53%) and R356W (28%). Exon 6 cluster (7%), E431k (4%), V237E (2%), V281L (2%), E351K (2%), R426C (2%) were also frequent in our patients. The most frequent genotype was compound heterozygote, Q318X/R356W. Three rare mutations in our study were E431K, E351K and R426C. Observed mutation frequencies in this study were much higher than those reported in previous studies in Iranian populations. Thus, it seems that it is necessary to follow—up screening programs and use sequencing methods to better identify mutations in the development of the disease. PMID:26278268

  13. Clinical manifestations of testicular adrenal rest tumor in males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min Kyung; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Kwon, Ah Reum; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) have been reported, however their prevalence and clinical manifestations are not well known. Untreated TARTs may lead to testicular structural damage and infertility. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of TARTs in male patients with CAH, and characterize the manifestations to identify contributing factors to TART. Methods Among 102 CAH patients aged 0-30 years, 24 male patients have been regularly followed up in our outpatient clinic at Severance Children's Hospital from January 2000 to December 2014. In order to reveiw the characteristics of TART patients, we calculated the mean levels of hormones during the 5 years before the time of investigation. Five patients underwent follow-up scrotal ultrasonography (US) after adjusting the dosage of glucocorticoids. Results TARTs were detected in 8 of the 13 patients (61.5%). The median age of TARTs diagnosis was 20.2 years with the youngest case being 15.5 years old. The mean serum level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was higher in the TARTs patient group compared to the non-TARTs group (P<0.05). The tumor size decreased in 3 cases, slightly increased in 1 case, and had no change in another case. Conclusion The serum ACTH level might be associated with the growth promoting factor for TARTs, but the exact mechanism has not been clearly identified. Screening for TARTs using US is important in male patients with CAH for early-detection and prevention of ongoing complications, such as infertility. PMID:26512352

  14. Relationship Between Second to Fourth Digit Ratios and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Aging Men

    PubMed Central

    Sudhakar, Hanumanthaiah Honnamachanahalli; Madhusudhana, Heragu Rangegowda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common prostate disease, characterized by benign enlargement of the prostate gland in aging men. Testosterone is said to be the major factor in development of BPH. The relative length of 2nd and 4th digit (2D:4D) is a marker for prenatal androgen exposure. A low 2D:4D ratio is associated with a high prenatal androgen exposure. The main objective of this study was to assess the causal relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and incidence of BPH. Materials and Methods Thirty five patients with BPH were compared with 35 non BPH subjects and 35 controls recruited from general population for measures of 2D:4D ratio. BPH status was determined by clinical & radiological evaluation. Both hands of all the participants were scanned and their second and fourth digit lengths were measured and the ratio calculated. Results In the present study, 2D:4D ratio was lower in BPH patients compared to non BPH subjects in both hands. Compared with controls, BPH patients had lower 2D:4D ratio in the right hand, but the difference between the groups in left hand 2D:4D ratios was not significant. Compared with controls, non BPH subjects had higher 2D:4D ratio in the left hand, but the difference between the groups in right hand 2D:4D ratios was not significant. Conclusion Results of the present study indicate that individuals with lower 2D:4D ratios are at a higher risk of developing BPH and those with higher 2D:4D ratios are at a lower risk of developing BPH compared to the general population. PMID:26155515

  15. Splicing mutation in CYP21 associated with delayed presentation of salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, B.; Patel, S.V.; Pelczar, J.V.

    1995-07-03

    Patients with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (SW-CAH) most commonly carry an A-G transition at nucleotide 656 (nt 656 A{r_arrow}G), causing abnormal splicing of exons 2 and 3 in CYP21, the gene encoding active steroid 21-hydroxylase. Affected infants are severely deficient in cortisol and aldosterone, and usually come to medical attention during the neonatal period. We report on 2 affected boys, homozygous for the nt 656 mutation, who thrived in early infancy, but suffered salt-wasting crises unusually late in infancy, at 3.5 and 5.5 months, respectively. Laboratory studies at presentation showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, dehydration, and acidosis; serum aldosterone was low in spite of markedly elevated plasma renin activity. Basal 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were only moderately elevated, yet the stimulated levels were more typical of severe, classic CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Genomic DNA from the patients was analyzed. Southern blot showed no major deletions or rearrangements. CYP21-specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction, coupled with allele-specific hybridization using wild-type and mutant probes at each of 9 sites for recognized disease-causing mutations, revealed a single, homozygous mutation in each patient: nt 656 A{r_arrow}G. These results were confirmed by sequence analysis. We conclude that the common nt 656 A{r_arrow}G mutation is sometimes associated with delayed phenotypic expression of SW-CAH. We speculate that variable splicing of the mutant CYP21 may modify the clinical manifestation of this disease. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Analysis of cell hyperplasia and parietal cell dysfunction induced by Ostertagia ostertagi infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Infections in cattle with the gastric nematode Ostertagia ostertagi are associated with decreased acid secretion and profound physio-morphological changes of the gastric mucosa. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the mechanisms triggering these pathophysiological changes. O. ostertagi infection resulted in a marked cellular hyperplasia, which can be explained by increased transcriptional levels of signaling molecules related to the homeostasis of gastric epithelial cells such as HES1, WNT5A, FGF10, HB-EGF, AREG, ADAM10 and ADAM17. Intriguingly, histological analysis indicated that the rapid rise in the gastric pH, observed following the emergence of adult worms, cannot be explained by a loss of parietal cells, as a decrease in the number of parietal cells was only observed following a long term infection of several weeks, but is likely to be caused by an inhibition of parietal cell activity. To investigate whether this inhibition is caused by a direct effect of the parasites, parietal cells were co-cultured with parasite Excretory/Secretory products (ESP) and subsequently analyzed for acid production. The results indicate that adult ESP inhibited acid secretion, whereas ESP from the L4 larval stages did not alter parietal cell function. In addition, our data show that the inhibition of parietal cell activity could be mediated by a marked upregulation of inflammatory factors, which are partly induced by adult ESP in abomasal epithelial cells. In conclusion, this study shows that the emergence of adult O. ostertagi worms is associated with marked cellular changes that can be partly triggered by the worm’s Excretory/secretory antigens. PMID:24330735

  17. Prostatic Artery Embolization as a Primary Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Preliminary Results in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel; Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim Mauricio da; Oliveira Cerri, Luciana Mendes de; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Marcelino, Antonio Sergio Zafred; Freire, Geraldo Campos; Moreira, Airton Mota; Srougi, Miguel; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2010-04-15

    Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) typically occurs in the sixth and seventh decades, and the most frequent obstructive urinary symptoms are hesitancy, decreased urinary stream, sensation of incomplete emptying, nocturia, frequency, and urgency. Various medications, specifically 5-{alpha}-reductase inhibitors and selective {alpha}-blockers, can decrease the severity of the symptoms secondary to BPH, but prostatectomy is still considered to be the traditional method of management. We report the preliminary results for two patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH, successfully treated by prostate artery embolization (PAE). The patients were investigated using the International Prostate Symptom Score, by digital rectal examination, urodynamic testing, prostate biopsy, transrectal ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Uroflowmetry and postvoid residual urine volume complemented the investigation at 30, 90, and 180 days after PAE. The procedure was performed under local anesthesia; embolization of the prostate arteries was performed with a microcatheter and 300- to 500-{mu}m microspheres using complete stasis as the end point. One patient was subjected to bilateral PAE and the other to unilateral PAE; they urinated spontaneously after removal of the urethral catheter, 15 and 10 days after the procedure, respectively. At 6-month follow-up, US and MRI revealed a prostate reduction of 39.7% and 47.8%, respectively, for the bilateral PAE and 25.5 and 27.8%, respectively, for the patient submitted to unilateral PAE. The early results, at 6-month follow-up, for the two patients with BPH show a promising potential alternative for treatment with PAE.

  18. Adrenal Steroid Metabolites Accumulating in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Lead to Transactivation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor.

    PubMed

    Pijnenburg-Kleizen, K J; Engels, M; Mooij, C F; Griffin, A; Krone, N; Span, P N; van Herwaarden, A E; Sweep, F C G J; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H L

    2015-10-01

    Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are often clinically less severely affected by cortisol deficiency than anticipated from their enzymatic defect. We hypothesize that adrenal steroid hormone precursors that accumulate in untreated or poorly controlled CAH have glucocorticoid activity and partially compensate for cortisol deficiency. We studied the in vitro effects of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), progesterone (P), 21-deoxycortisol (21DF), and androstenedione (?4) on the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR). Competitive binding assays were performed in HeLa cells. Nuclear translocation of the hGR was studied by transfection of COS-7 cells with a GFP-tagged hGR and fluorescence microscopy. Transactivation assays were performed in COS-7 cells and in HEK 293 cells after cotransfection with hGR and luciferase reporter vectors using a dual luciferase assay. 17OHP, P, and 21DF are able to bind to the hGR with binding affinities of 24-43% compared with cortisol. ?4 has a low binding affinity. Incubation with 21DF led to complete nuclear translocation of the hGR, whereas treatment with 17OHP or P resulted in partial nuclear translocation. 21DF transactivated the hGR with an EC50 approximately 6 times the EC50 of cortisol. 17OHP and P transactivated the hGR with EC50s of more than 100 times the EC50 of cortisol. No hGR transactivation was detected after incubation with ?4. 21DF, 17OHP, and P are able to bind, translocate, and transactivate the hGR in vitro and thus may have glucocorticoid activity. 21DF might have a clinically relevant agonistic effect on the hGR and could potentially partially compensate the cortisol deficiency in CAH patients. PMID:26207344

  19. Diagnostic criteria and follow-up in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: a case series*

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Vivianne Calheiros Chaves; Silva, Mara Cristina Coelho; Maia, José Holanda; Daltro, Pedro; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Brody, Alan S.; Marchiori, Edson

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is a form of childhood interstitial lung disease characterized by tachypnea, retractions, crackles, and hypoxia. The aim of this study was to report and discuss the clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings in a series of NEHI cases at a tertiary pediatric hospital, with an emphasis on diagnostic criteria and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Between 2003 and 2011, 12 full-term infants were diagnosed with NEHI, based on clinical and tomographic findings. Those infants were followed for 1-91 months. Four infants were biopsied, and the histopathological specimens were stained with bombesin antibody. RESULTS: In this case series, symptoms appeared at birth in 6 infants and by 3 months of age in the remaining 6. In all of the cases, NEHI was associated with acute respiratory infection. The most common initial chest HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities that were in the middle lobe/lingula in 12 patients and in other medullary areas in 10. Air trapping was the second most common finding, being observed in 7 patients. Follow-up HRCT scans (performed in 10 patients) revealed normal results in 1 patient and improvement in 9. The biopsy findings were nonspecific, and the staining was positive for bombesin in all samples. Confirmation of NEHI was primarily based on clinical and tomographic findings. Symptoms improved during the follow-up period (mean, 41 months). A clinical cure was achieved in 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of patients, the diagnosis of NEHI was made on the basis of the clinical and tomographic findings, independent of the lung biopsy results. Most of the patients showed clinical improvement and persistent tomographic changes during the follow-up period, regardless of the initial severity of the disease or type of treatment. PMID:24310630

  20. An estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia mouse model recapitulating human disease progression and genetic aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chieh-Hsiang; Almomen, Aliyah; Wee, Yin Shen; Jarboe, Elke A; Peterson, C Matthew; Janát-Amsbury, Margit M

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) is a condition originating from uterine endometrial glands undergoing disordered proliferation including the risk to progress to endometrial adenocarcinoma. In recent years, a steady increase in EH cases among younger women of reproductive age accentuates the demand of therapeutic alternatives, which emphasizes that an improved disease model for therapeutic agents evaluation is concurrently desired. Here, a new hormone-induced EH mouse model was developed using a subcutaneous estradiol (E2)-sustained releasing pellet, which elevates the serum E2 level in mice, closely mimicking the effect known as estrogen dominance with underlying, pathological E2 levels in patients. The onset and progression of EH generated within this model recapitulate a clinically relevant, pathological transformation, beginning with disordered proliferation developing to simple EH, advancing to atypical EH, and then progressing to precancerous stages, all following a chronologic manner. Although a general increase in nuclear progesterone receptor (PR) expression occurred after E2 expression, a total loss in PR was noted in some endometrial glands as disease advanced to simple EH. Furthermore, estrogen receptor (ER) expression in the nucleus of endometrial cells was reduced in disordered proliferation and increased when EH progressed to atypical EH and precancerous stages. This EH model also resembles other pathological patterns found in human disease such as leukocytic infiltration, genetic aberrations in ?-catenin, and joint phosphatase and tensin homolog/paired box gene 2 (PTEN/PAX2) silencing. In summary, this new and comprehensively characterized EH model is cost-effective, easily reproducible, and may serve as a tool for preclinical testing of therapeutic agents and facilitate further investigation of EH. PMID:25809780

  1. The ARMC5 gene shows extensive genetic variance in primary macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Ricardo; Zilbermint, Mihail; Berthon, Annabel; Espiard, Stephanie; Batsis, Maria; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Lodish, Maya B.; Bertherat, Jerome; Faucz, Fabio R.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH) is a rare type of Cushing’s syndrome (CS) that results in increased cortisol production and bilateral enlargement of the adrenal glands. Recent work showed that the disease may be caused by germline and somatic mutations in the ARMC5 gene, a likely tumor-suppressor gene (TSG). We investigated 20 different adrenal nodules from one patient with PMAH for ARMC5 somatic sequence changes. Design All of the nodules where obtained from a single patient who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. DNA was extracted by standard protocols and the ARMC5 sequence was determined by the Sanger method. Results Sixteen of 20 adrenocortical nodules harbored, in addition to what appeared to be the germline mutation, a second somatic variant. The p.Trp476* sequence change was present in all 20 nodules, as well as in normal tissue from the adrenal capsule, identifying it as the germline defect; each of the 16 other variants were found in different nodules: 6 were frame shift, 4 were missense, 3 were nonsense, and 1 was a splice site variation. Allelic losses were confirmed in 2 of the nodules. Conclusion This is the most genetic variance of the ARMC5 gene ever described in a single patient with PMAH: each of 16 adrenocortical nodules had a second new, “private”, and -in most cases- completely inactivating ARMC5 defect, in addition to the germline mutation. The data support the notion that ARMC5 is a TSG that needs a second, somatic hit, to mediate tumorigenesis leading to polyclonal nodularity; however, the driver of this extensive genetic variance of the second ARMC5 allele in adrenocortical tissue in the context of a germline defect and PMAH remains a mystery. PMID:26162405

  2. Physical Activity and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia-Related Outcomes and Nocturia

    PubMed Central

    WOLIN, KATHLEEN Y.; GRUBB, ROBERT L.; PAKPAHAN, RATNA; RAGARD, LAWRENCE; MABIE, JEROME; ANDRIOLE, GERALD L.; SUTCLIFFE, SIOBHAN

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and its associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including nocturia, are extremely common among middle- and older-age American men. Although studies on physical activity (PA) and prevalent BPH-related outcomes suggest that PA may protect against the development of this common condition, only a few studies have examined the relation between PA and incident BPH-related outcomes and LUTS with mixed findings. In addition, although nocturia is the most commonly reported and most bothersome LUTS in men with or without evidence of BPH, few studies have examined the association of PA and nocturia independent of BPH. The purpose of this analysis was to examine the association of PA with BPH-related outcomes and nocturia in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial. Methods We examined this association with both prevalent (n = 28,404) and incident (n = 4710) BPH-related outcomes (measured by self-report of physician diagnosis, BPH surgery, finasteride use, and clinical indicators) and nocturia. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate prevalence ratios and relative risks. Results PA was weakly positively associated with several prevalent BPH-related outcomes and was strongly inversely associated with prevalent nocturia. In incident analyses, PA was only associated with nocturia. Men who were active ?1 h·wk?1 were 13% less likely (95% confidence interval, 2%–22%) to report nocturia and 34% less likely (95% confidence interval, 15%–49%) to report severe nocturia as compared with men who reported no PA. The associations were similar for men with and without additional BPH-related outcomes, except for prevalent nocturia, where the association was stronger for men without other BPH-related outcomes. Conclusions Combined with other management strategies, PA may provide a strategy for the management of BPH-related outcomes, particularly nocturia. PMID:25010403

  3. Computed Tomography of the Prostate Gland in Healthy Intact Dogs and Dogs with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pasikowska, J; Hebel, M; Ni?a?ski, W; Nowak, M

    2015-10-01

    To date, there is only scarce data on the evaluation of the prostate gland in dogs using computed tomography (CT). The aims of our study were to describe CT features of BPH in dogs and to determine the size of the prostate gland in healthy male dogs and dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through CT. Additionally, we aimed to compare and establish the most useful parameters for CT measurements of the prostate in patients with BPH. The study population consisted of 20 healthy intact male dogs and 20 male intact dogs with confirmed BPH. Pre- and post-contrast CT studies were evaluated. The most common CT features in dogs with recognized BPH were symmetrical prostatomegaly and heterogeneity of the prostatic parenchyma. The mean prostatic density (D) was 56HU (±4.39) in pre-contrast CT images and 84HU (±8) in post-contrast images in dogs with BPH. The mean prostatic length (L) was 43.87 mm (±11), the mean width (W) amounted to 48.95 mm (±8.76) and the mean height (H) reached 44.9 mm (±9.48) in clinically affected patients. The mean ratios were: rL - 2,12 (±0.5); rW - 2.39 (±0.53) and rH - 2.16 (±0.39) in the BPH group. The prostate should be considered to be enlarged when rL exceeds 3.05; rW exceeds 3.38 and rH exceeds 2.94. Our findings indicated that CT is a useful tool in diagnosing prostate disorders, including BPH. The heterogeneity, density and ratios of prostatic length, width and height can be useful parameters in the diagnosis of BPH. PMID:26303126

  4. Prospective assessment of the decision-making impact of the Breast Cancer Index in recommending extended adjuvant endocrine therapy for patients with early-stage ER-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanft, Tara; Aktas, Bilge; Schroeder, Brock; Bossuyt, Veerle; DiGiovanna, Michael; Abu-Khalaf, Maysa; Chung, Gina; Silber, Andrea; Hofstatter, Erin; Mougalian, Sarah; Epstein, Lianne; Hatzis, Christos; Schnabel, Cathy; Pusztai, Lajos

    2015-12-01

    Extended adjuvant endocrine therapy (10 vs. 5 years) trials have demonstrated improved outcomes in early-stage estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer; however, the absolute benefit is modest, and toxicity and tolerability challenges remain. Predictive and prognostic information from genomic analysis may help inform this clinical decision. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the Breast Cancer Index (BCI) on physician recommendations for extended endocrine therapy and on patient anxiety and decision conflict. Patients with stage I-III, ER-positive breast cancer who completed at least 3.5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy were offered participation. Genomic classification with BCI was performed on archived tumor tissues and the results were reported to the treating physician who discussed results with the patient. Patients and physicians completed pre- and post-test questionnaires regarding preferences for extended endocrine therapy. Patients also completed the validated traditional Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory forms (STAI-Y1) pre- and post-test. 96 patients were enrolled at the Yale Cancer Center [median age 60.5 years (range 45-87), 79 % postmenopausal, 60 % stage I). BCI predicted a low risk of late recurrence in 59 % of patients versus intermediate/high in 24 and 17 %, respectively. Physician recommendations for extended endocrine therapy changed for 26 % of patients after considering BCI results, with a net decrease in recommendations for extended endocrine therapy from 74 to 54 %. After testing, fewer patients wanted to continue extended therapy and decision conflict and anxiety also decreased. Mean STAI and DCS scores were 31.3 versus 29.1 (p = 0.031) and 20.9 versus 10.8 (p < 0.001) pre- and post-test, respectively. Incorporation of BCI into risk/benefit discussions regarding extended endocrine therapy resulted in changes in treatment recommendations and improved patient satisfaction. PMID:26578401

  5. Improved Patency of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: The Efficacy of Cilostazol for the Prevention of Pseudointimal Hyperplasia in Swine TIPS Models

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Woo Cha, In Ho; Kim, Chul Hwan; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Park, Jeong Hee; Hong, Suk Joo; Lee, In Sik

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To investigate the efficacy of oral administration of cilostazol to inhibit pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in swine TIPS models. Methods. Successful TIPS creation was carried out in 11 of 12 healthy young pigs (20-25 kg). In the treatment group (n = 6), both cilostazol and aspirin were administered daily, from the first day of TIPS creation. The control group (n = 5) was administered only aspirin. The animals were followed-up for 2 weeks and then killed. The specimen (including portal vein, hepatic parenchymal tract, hepatic vein, and inferior vena cava) and stents were carefully bisected in a longitudinal fashion. The control group was compared with the treatment group by means of a gross and histologic evaluation of the degree of pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in the shunt. Results. At the gross evaluation, the control group showed considerably more pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia than the treatment group. Using microscopic evaluation, there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mean maximum pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia thickness between the control group (2.97 {+-} 0.33 mm) and treatment group (0.73 {+-} 0.27 mm). Conclusion. Oral administration of cilostazol may have been effective in reducing pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in swine TIPS models.

  6. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy between endometrial curettage and pipelle aspiration biopsy in patients treated with progestin for endometrial hyperplasia: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study (KGOG 2019).

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyoung; Seong, Seok Ju; Lee, Taek Sang; Ki, Kyung-Do; Lim, Myong Cheol; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kim, Kidong; Joo, Won Duk

    2015-10-01

    A prospective multicenter trial has been started in Korea to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of endometrial aspiration biopsy compared with dilatation and curettage in patients treated with progestin for endometrial hyperplasia. For conservative treatment of endometrial hyperplasia, orally administered progestins are most commonly used method with various treatment regimens and more recently, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system also has been used successfully to treat endometrial hyperplasia. However, there is no report about the accuracy of endometrial sampling during hormonal treatment for follow-up evaluation of endometrial hyperplasia. Patients with histologically confirmed endometrial hyperplasia are offered hormonal treatment with any one of the following three options: oral medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg/day for 14 days per cycle, continuous oral medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg/day or insertion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Histological surveillance is performed at 3 months or 6 months following initial treatment. Endometrial tissues are obtained via endometrial aspiration biopsy using a pipelle and dilatation and curettage. In the case of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, endometrial aspiration biopsy will be done with levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in uterus and then, after the removal of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, dilatation and curettage will be done. The biopsy findings will be compared. The primary endpoint is to compare the pathological outcome of endometrial aspiration with dilatation and curettage. The secondary endpoint is the response rate with three types of progestin treatment at 6 months. PMID:26206899

  7. The Roles of Phosphorylation and SHAGGY-Like Protein Kinases in Geminivirus C4 Protein Induced Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mills-Lujan, Katherine; Andrews, David L.; Chou, Chau-wen; Deom, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Even though plant cells are highly plastic, plants only develop hyperplasia under very specific abiotic and biotic stresses, such as when exposed to pathogens like Beet curly top virus (BCTV). The C4 protein of BCTV is sufficient to induce hyperplasia and alter Arabidopsis development. It was previously shown that C4 interacts with two Arabidopsis Shaggy-like protein kinases, AtSK21 and 23, which are negative regulators of brassinosteroid (BR) hormone signaling. Here we show that the C4 protein interacts with five additional AtSK family members. Bikinin, a competitive inhibitor of the seven AtSK family members that interact with C4, induced hyperplasia similar to that induced by the C4 protein. The Ser49 residue of C4 was found to be critical for C4 function, since: 1) mutagenesis of Ser49 to Ala abolished the C4-induced phenotype, abolished C4/AtSK interactions, and resulted in a mutant protein that failed to induce changes in the BR signaling pathway; 2) Ser49 is phosphorylated in planta; and 3) plant-encoded AtSKs must be catalytically active to interact with C4. A C4 N-myristoylation site mutant that does not localize to the plasma membrane and does not induce a phenotype, retained the ability to bind AtSKs. Taken together, these results suggest that plasma membrane associated C4 interacts with and co-opts multiple AtSKs to promote its own phosphorylation and activation to subsequently compromise cell cycle control. PMID:25815729

  8. Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chun-Soo; Maeng, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this purpose, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed over 12 months on 47 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with average age of 53.3 years and international prostate symptom score over 8. Subjects received either sweet potato starch (group A, placebo, 320 mg/day), pumpkin seed oil (group B, 320 mg/day), saw palmetto oil (group C, 320 mg/day) or pumpkin seed oil plus saw palmetto oil (group D, each 320 mg/day). International prostate symptom score, quality of life, serum prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and maximal urinary flow rate were measured. In groups B, C and D, the international prostate symptom score were reduced by 3 months. Quality of life score was improved after 6 months in group D, while those of groups B and C were improved after 3 months, compared to the baseline value. Serum prostate specific antigen was reduced only in group D after 3 months, but no difference was observed in prostate volume in all treatment groups. Maximal urinary flow rate were gradually improved in groups B and C, with statistical significance after 6 months in group B and after 12 months in group C. None of the parameters were significantly improved by combined treatment with pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil. From these results, it is suggested that administrations of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil are clinically safe and may be effective as complementary and alternative medicine treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:20098586

  9. [Changes in prostatic circulation in response to laser therapy and magnetic therapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The results of preoperative preparation were analysed in 59 patients with prostatic benign hyperplasia (PBH) subjected to TUR. Treatment outcomes were assessed by transrectal ultrasound (color Doppler mapping) in two groups of patients. Group 1 received combined therapy including transrectal laser radiation of the prostate, group 2--transrectal magnetotherapy. The analysis showed that laser radiation reduced insignificantly the size of the prostate and adenomatous node, improved microcirculation and circulation in the prostate. This resulted in relief of inflammation and reduction of the number of postoperative inflammatory complications. Transrectal magnetotherapy has a positive effect on vascularization and hemodynamics of the prostate, local immunity, contamination of the tissues with pathogenic flora. PMID:16419474

  10. Effect of Silodosin, an Alpha1A-Adrenoceptor Antagonist, on Ventral Prostatic Hyperplasia in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Tsounapi, Panagiota; Higashi, Youichirou; Martin, Darryl T.; Nakamura, Kumiko; Honda, Masashi; Inoue, Keiji; Saito, Motoaki

    2015-01-01

    Background A decreased prostatic blood flow could be one of the risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia/benign prostatic enlargement. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) shows a chronic prostatic ischemia and hyperplastic morphological abnormalities in the ventral prostate. The effect of silodosin, a selective alpha1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, was investigated in the SHR prostate as a prostatic hyperplasia model focusing on prostatic blood flow. Methods Twelve-week-old male SHRs were administered perorally with silodosin (100 ?g/kg/day) or vehicle once daily for 6 weeks. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as normotensive controls and were treated with the vehicle. The effect of silodosin on blood pressure and prostatic blood flow were estimated and then the prostates were removed and weighed. The tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1/cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CXCL1/CINC1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) were measured. The histological evaluation was also performed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results There was a significant increase in blood pressure, prostate weight, prostate body weight ratio (PBR), tissue levels of MDA, IL-6, CXCL1/CINC1, TNF-?, TGF-?1, bFGF and ?-SMA in the SHR compared to the WKY rat. The ventral prostate in the SHR showed the morphological abnormalities compared to the WKY rat. Prostatic blood flow was decreased in the SHR. However, treatment with silodosin significantly restored the decreased prostatic blood flow in the SHR. Moreover, silodosin normalized tissue levels of MDA, IL-6, CXCL1/CINC1, TNF-?, TGF-?1, bFGF and ?-SMA, and it ameliorated ventral prostatic hyperplasia in the SHR excluding blood pressure. Silodosin decreased PBR but not prostate weight in the SHR. Conclusions Silodosin can inhibit the progression of prostatic hyperplasia through a recovery of prostatic blood flow. PMID:26308715

  11. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver: Perinodular enhancement on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Anami, Shinpei; Takeuchi, Taizo; Nakai, Motoki; Sahara, Shinya; Tanihata, Hirohiko; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Sato, Morio

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) of the liver. She underwent partial hepatectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma; however, histopathological analysis revealed RLH. The liver nodule showed the imaging feature of perinodular enhancement in the arterial dominant phase on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which could be a useful clue for identifying RLH in the liver. Histologically, the perinodular enhancement was compatible with prominent sinusoidal dilatation surrounding the liver nodule. PMID:26074715

  12. Infertility and Reproductive Function in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Pathophysiology, Advances in Management, and Recent Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lekarev, Oksana; Lin-Su, Karen; Vogiatzi, Maria G

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia have reduced fertility. However, reproductive outcomes have improved over the years. This review provides an update on the multiple pathologic processes that contribute to reduced fertility in both sexes, from alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to the direct effect on gonadal function by elevated circulating adrenal androgens. In addition, elevated serum progesterone concentrations may hinder ovulation and embryo implantation in women, whereas in men testicular adrenal rest tumors can be a major cause of infertility. Suppression of adrenal androgen secretion represents the first line of therapy toward spontaneous conception in both sexes. PMID:26568487

  13. Regulation of isoproterenol-induced salivary gland hyperplasia in young and old mice by substances affecting serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dontsov, V.I.

    1986-09-01

    This paper studies the effect of substances modulating serotoninergic and dopaminergic structures on induction of hyperplasia of the salivary glands by isoproterenol in young and old mice. /sup 3/H-thymidine was injected into the gland tissue in the experiments. The effect of serotonin and dopamine on isoproterenol-induced proliferation of salivary gland cells and number of activated splenic lymphocytes in old mice is shown. It is found that excitation of serotoninergic structures inhibits, whereas excitation of dopaminergic structures stimulates the response of mice to isoproterenol.

  14. A woman with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia presenting with a mucinous ovarian cystadenoma during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Yuji; Hayashi, Akinori; Ogawa, Akifumi; Ichikawa, Raishi; Moriya, Tatsumi; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency show reduced fertility, especially with the salt-wasting form. A 27-year-old pregnant woman with this disease underwent laparotomy and oophorectomy to remove a multilocular ovarian tumor at 14 weeks of pregnancy. This proved to be a mucinous cystadenoma. Toward the third trimester, she presented with marked elevations of 17?-hydroxyprogesterone and plasma renin activity. Careful management of endocrine and body fluid homeostasis allowed her to give birth to a healthy female infant with normal external genitalia. This case illustrates endocrinological parameters during pregnancy in a woman with classical salt-wasting CAH. PMID:21921381

  15. Ultrasound-induced thermal therapy of hyperplasia in ringed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (eptfe) access grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Query, Michael Earl

    Hemodialysis vascular access, the interface between a dialysis patient and a dialysis machine, is quite literally the lifeblood of a patient's health. Vascular access dysfunction is the leading cause of hospitalization in hemodialysis patients. The occlusive growth of neointimal hyperplasia (NH) in expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) ringed grafts is the primary cause of failure. To further develop a proposed thermal ultrasound treatment to reduce or prevent NH in arteriovenous vascular grafts, the acoustic properties of ePTFE were studied in water and alcohol solutions. Previous reports of ePTFE acoustic properties are critiqued. It was found that the acoustic transmission and attenuation through ePTFE, and therefore the potential for an ultrasound-based therapy for NH, are heavily dependent on the medium in which the graft is immersed, suggesting that the acoustic properties of implanted grafts will change as grafts mature in vivo. The acoustic impedance and attenuation of water-soaked ePTFE were 0.478 +/- 1.43 x 10-2 MRayl and 1.78 +/- 0.111 Np/cm*MHz, respectively, while the acoustic impedance and attenuation of ePTFE in alcohol were 1.49 +/- 0.149 MRayl and 0.77 +/- 1.1 x 10-2 Np/cm*MHz, respectively. The use of focused ultrasound to heat implanted ringed ePTFE grafts was numerically modeled from 1.35- and 1.443-MHz transducers for in vitro geometries. Power deposition and heating, in turn, differed by an order of magnitude between various graft acoustic properties. Graft rings were predicted to be substantial absorbing and scattering features. In vitro phantom models were constructed: one with and one without thermocouples. At 1 W of acoustic power, the maximum temperature rise was 8? C. The thermocouple model containing a water-soaked graft did not experience heating in the far graft wall. The MRTI model confirmed that the graft rings are an absorbing/scattering feature. Heating was not prevented in the presence of water flow through the graft. Water was not heated significantly. Overall, results suggest ultrasound exposure can be used to generate temperature rises corresponding with the potential prevention or inhibition of NH in ringed ePTFE vascular grafts. A hybrid therapeutic/diagnostic transducer design with a therapeutic semi-annular array surrounding a diagnostic linear array is presented. Compared to a solid transducer of the same dimensions, there were only marginal aberrations in the focal plane. Numerical optimization of the element drive configuration indicated that the least distorted focal plane was produced by uniform phase and magnitude at each element.

  16. Heart and Neural Crest Derivatives Expressed Transcript 2 (HAND2): a novel biomarker for the identification of atypical hyperplasia and Type I endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buell-Gutbrod, Rebecca; Cavallo, Allison; Lee, Nita; Montag, Anthony; Gwin, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone inhibits the proliferative growth effects of estrogen in the endometrium and prevents the development of endometrial hyperplasia and Type I adenocarcinoma. The exact mechanism of this action is unknown. The progesterone-induced helix-loop-helix transcription factor Heart and Neural Crest Derivatives Expressed 2 (Hand2) was recently shown to suppress production of growth factors in the endometrium. In Hand2 knockout mice, continuous proliferation of the endometrium was observed. In this study, archival paraffin-embedded tissue from 56 hysterectomy specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry for the expression and localization of Hand2, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Ki-67. Diagnoses included disordered proliferative endometrium, simple and complex hyperplasia with or without atypia, and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Hand2 expression is localized to endometrial stromal nuclei. In benign endometrium, Hand2 expression was moderate to strong (10/11; 91%), with weak Hand2 expression in only 1 case (1/11; 9%). Similar Hand2 expression patterns were observed in disordered proliferative endometrium and simple hyperplasia without atypia, with moderate to strong expression in 91% of cases (10/11) and weak expression in 9% of cases (1/11). In contrast, simple and complex hyperplasia with atypia exhibited moderate to strong Hand2 expression in 8% of cases (1/12) and a loss of expression or weak expression in 92% of cases (11/12). In endometrioid adenocarcinomas, Hand2 expression was absent in all cases (22/22). Hand2 is expressed in the stroma of benign endometrium, but expression is significantly reduced or lost in atypical hyperplasia and endometrioid carcinoma. Thus, the absence of Hand2 expression may be a useful biomarker for atypical hyperplasia and endometrioid carcinoma. PMID:25473755

  17. Critical roles of Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the regulation of hyperplasia and/or colitis in response to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ishfaq; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Tawfik, Ossama; Xia, Lijun; Anant, Shrikant; Umar, Shahid

    2012-09-01

    Notch and Wnt/?-catenin signals play essential roles in intestinal development and homeostasis. Citrobacter rodentium induces transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia (TMCH) and various degrees of inflammation, depending upon the genetic background. We aimed at delineating the role of the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in the regulation of colonic crypt hyperplasia and/or colitis following C. rodentium infection. During TMCH, relative levels of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) increased significantly, along with increases in Jagged-1 and Hes-1 coinciding with the progression and regression phases of hyperplasia. Blocking of Notch signaling with dibenzazepine (DBZ) for 5 days before the onset of hyperplasia also blocked Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Targeting the Notch pathway for 5 days after the onset of hyperplasia failed to inhibit Wnt/?-catenin-regulated crypt hyperplasia. Chronic DBZ administration for 10 days blocked both Notch and Wnt signaling, disrupted the intestinal barrier, and induced colitis. Core-3(-/-) mice, which are defective in mucin secretion and are susceptible to experimental triggers of colitis, also exhibited significant colitis in response to C. rodentium plus DBZ. Chronic DBZ administration in these mice did not result in depletion of the putative stem cell marker doublecortin-like kinase-1 (DCLK1) in the crypts. Dietary bael (Aegle marmelos) extract (4%) and curcumin (4%) restored signaling via the Notch and Wnt/?-catenin pathways, thereby promoting crypt regeneration, and also replenished the mucus layer, leading to amelioration of C. rodentium- and DBZ-induced colitis in NIH:Swiss mice. Thus, the balancing act between cell proliferation and mucus production to restore barrier integrity seems to depend upon the interplay between the Wnt/?-catenin and Notch pathways in the TMCH model. PMID:22710872

  18. Unusual Thymic Hyperplasia Mimicking Lipomatous Tumor in an Eight-Year-Old Boy with Concomitant Pericardial Lipomatosis and Right Facial Hemihypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo Jin; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Lim, Yun-Jung; Kim, In-One; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Byun, Sun-Ju

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of thymic hyperplasia accompanied by pericardial lipomatosis and right facial hemihypertrophy in an 8-year-old boy. On imaging studies, the hyperplastic thymus had prominent curvilinear and nodular fatty areas simulating a fat-containing anterior mediastinal mass, which is an unusual finding in children. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a child with a combination of thymic hyperplasia, pericardial lipomatosis, and right facial hemihypertrophy. The radiologic findings are presented with a brief discussion. PMID:21603297

  19. Unusual thymic hyperplasia mimicking lipomatous tumor in an eight-year-old boy with concomitant pericardial lipomatosis and right facial hemihypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo Jin; Kim, Woo Sun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Lim, Yun-Jung; Kim, In-One; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Byun, Sun-Ju

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of thymic hyperplasia accompanied by pericardial lipomatosis and right facial hemihypertrophy in an 8-year-old boy. On imaging studies, the hyperplastic thymus had prominent curvilinear and nodular fatty areas simulating a fat-containing anterior mediastinal mass, which is an unusual finding in children. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a child with a combination of thymic hyperplasia, pericardial lipomatosis, and right facial hemihypertrophy. The radiologic findings are presented with a brief discussion. PMID:21603297

  20. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  1. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  2. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. PMID:21762188

  3. Ectopic expression of A-myb in transgenic mice causes follicular hyperplasia and enhanced B?lymphocyte?proliferation

    PubMed Central

    DeRocco, Susan E.; Iozzo, Renato; Ma, XiaoPing; Schwarting, Roland; Peterson, David; Calabretta, Bruno

    1997-01-01

    The A-myb gene is a transcription factor that shares structural and functional similarities with the v-myb oncogene. To date, v-myb is the only myb gene directly implicated in tumorigenesis, a property attributed to its transactivating ability. Recent studies have demonstrated that A-myb, like v-myb, is a potent transcriptional activator, raising the possibility that A-myb may also participate in oncogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we generated fusion constructs that contained the human A-myb cDNA under control of the mouse metallothionein promoter and the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat. These constructs were inserted into the germ line of mice, and the functional consequences of ectopic A-myb expression were examined. Although transgene expression was detected in a wide range of tissues, abnormalities were confined primarily to hematopoietic tissues. After a 9-month latency, A-myb transgenic mice developed hyperplasia of the spleen and lymph nodes. Enlarged tissues contained a polyclonally expanded B lymphocyte population that expressed a germinal center-cell phenotype. Transgenic B lymphocytes showed increased DNA synthesis in response to low dose mitogen stimulation, suggesting that A-myb may contribute to hyperplasia by increasing the rate of B cell proliferation. PMID:9096377

  4. Pancreatic hyperplasia after gastric bypass surgery in a GK rat model of non-obese type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinrong; Qian, Bangguo; Ji, Ning; Lui, Conghui; Liu, Zhiyuan; Li, Bing; Zhou, Huarong; Yan, Caifeng

    2016-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery produces clear antidiabetic effects in a substantial proportion of morbidly obese patients. In view of the recent trend away from 'bariatric' surgery and toward 'metabolic' surgery, it is important to elucidate the enhancing effect of bypass surgery on pancreatic ?-cell mass, which is related to diabetes remission in non-obese patients. We investigated the effects of gastric bypass surgery on glycemic control and other pancreatic changes in a spontaneous non-obese type 2 diabetes Goto-Kakizaki rat model. Significant improvements in postprandial hyperglycemia and plasma c-peptide level were observed when glucose was administered orally post-surgery. Other important events observed after surgery were enhanced first phase insulin secretion in a in site pancreatic perfusion experiment, pancreatic hyperplasia, improved islet structure (revealed by immunohistochemical analysis), striking increase in ?-cell mass, slight increase in ratio of ?-cell area to total pancreas area, and increased number of small islets closely related to exocrine ducts. No notable changes were observed in ratio of ?-cell to non-? endocrine cell area, ?-cell apoptosis, or ?-cell proliferation. These findings demonstrate that gastric bypass surgery in this rat model increases endocrine cells and pancreatic hyperplasia, and reflect the important role of the gastrointestinal system in regulation of metabolism. PMID:26468390

  5. Metachronous Bilateral Testicular Leydig-Like Tumors Leading to the Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Adrenogenital Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Vukina, Josip; Chism, David D.; Sharpless, Julie L.; Raynor, Mathew C.; Milowsky, Matthew I.; Funkhouser, William K.

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old male with a history of left testis Leydig cell tumor (LCT), 3-month status after left radical orchiectomy, presented with a rapidly enlarging (0.6?cm to 3.7?cm) right testicular mass. He underwent a right radical orchiectomy, sections interpreted as showing a similar Leydig cell-like oncocytic proliferation, with a differential diagnosis including metachronous bilateral LCT and metachronous bilateral testicular tumors associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (a.k.a. “testicular adrenal rest tumors” (TARTs) and “testicular tumors of the adrenogenital syndrome” (TTAGS)). Additional workup demonstrated a markedly elevated serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and elevated adrenal precursor steroid levels. He was diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3BHSD) type, and started on treatment. Metachronous bilateral testicular masses in adults should prompt consideration of adult presentation of CAH. Since all untreated CAH patients are expected to have elevated serum ACTH, formal exclusion of CAH prior to surgical resection of a testicular Leydig-like proliferation could be accomplished by screening for elevated serum ACTH. PMID:26351608

  6. Obesity exacerbates imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like epidermal hyperplasia and interleukin-17 and interleukin-22 production in mice.

    PubMed

    Kanemaru, Kaori; Matsuyuki, Ayano; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Fukami, Kiyoko

    2015-06-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that is accompanied by an imbalance between the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. A number of studies have suggested an association between obesity and severe psoriasis; however, it remains to be clarified whether obesity exacerbates psoriasis. To address this unsolved question, we induced psoriasiform dermatitis in mouse models for obesity. We found that obesity exaggerated the severity of psoriasiform dermatitis induced by topical application of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonist, imiquimod. Ear swelling and epidermal hyperplasia were more prominent in the obese mice than in the control mice. When compared to imiquimod-treated control mice, imiquimod-treated obese mice expressed higher levels of psoriasis mediators, interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 in the skin. Food intake restriction partially abrogated enhanced ear swelling and cytokine overproduction in obese mice. Furthermore, the obesity environment and imiquimod treatment synergistically induced an IL-17A downstream molecule, regenerating islet-derived 3? (Reg3?), which is a critical molecule for psoriatic epidermal hyperplasia. Palmitic acid, one of the fatty acids released by subcutaneous adipocytes, increased the expression of REG3A (a human homologue of mouse Reg3?) in both the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line and normal human keratinocytes. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that obesity exacerbates psoriasiform dermatitis in mice by upregulating IL-17A, IL-22 and Reg3?. PMID:25777289

  7. Hepatitis B virus X antigen and aflatoxin B1 synergistically cause hepatitis, steatosis and liver hyperplasia in transgenic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jeng-Wei; Yang, Wan-Yu; Lin, Yueh-Min; Jin, Shiow-Lian Catherine; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the hepatitis B virus X antigen (HBx) are linked to the formation of liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic effects between HBx and AFB1 in causing liver disorders using a transgenic zebrafish animal model. Histopathology, Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, Sirius red staining, TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) were used to examine the livers of the HBx transgenic fish injected with AFB1. We found that HBx and AFB1 synergistically promoted steatosis as indicated by histopathological examinations and the increased expression of lipogenic factors, enzymes, and genes related to lipid metabolism. Moreover, treatment of AFB1 in HBx transgenic fish accelerated the development of liver hyperplasia and enhanced the expression of cell cycle related genes. PCNA was co-localized with active caspase 3 protein expression in HBx zebrafish liver samples and human HBV positive HCC samples by double fluorescence immunostaining. Finally, we found that in human patients with liver disease, significant glycogen accumulated in the inflammation, cirrhosis stage, and all cases of hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinoma showed a moderate cytoplasmic accumulation of glycogen. Our data demonstrated a synergistic effect of AFB1 and HBx on the regulation of lipid metabolism related genes and cell cycle/division-related genes which might contribute to enhanced steatosis and hyperplasia at 5.75months. PMID:23499292

  8. Fraction of Macroporous Resin from Smilax china L. Inhibits Testosterone Propionate–Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Castrated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Xiong, Chao-Mei; Song, Shan-Shan; Han, Pan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a fraction of macroporous resin (FMR), a bioactive component of Smilax china L., on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in castrated rats induced by testosterone propionate. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: the negative control group (sham-operated), the model group, two FMR-treated groups (at doses of 300?mg/kg and 600?mg/kg of body weight), and the positive control group (treated with finasteride at the dose of 3?mg/kg). Drugs were administered once a day for three consecutive weeks by gastric gavage. Prostates were weighed, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in serum were determined, and histopathological examinations were carried out. FMR treatment inhibited prostatic hyperplasia, reducing the DHT level in serum and improving the prostate gland morphology compared with the model group. The overall results of this study suggest that FMR is effective at inhibiting experimentally induced prostate enlargement, and it presents a valuable resource for the treatment of human BPH. PMID:22510101

  9. Upregulation of a Hydrogen Peroxide Responsive pre-mRNA Binding Protein in Atherosclerosis and Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Panchenko, Mikhail P.; Silva, Nilsa; Stone, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple lines of investigation have implicated hydrogen peroxide as an important endogenous mediator of cell proliferation in the vessel wall. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNP-C), a nuclear pre-mRNA binding protein that plays roles in vertebrate cell proliferation and differentiation, has been identified as a component of a vascular cell signaling pathway activated by low physiologic levels of hydrogen peroxide. The expression of hnRNP-C in human arteries has not previously been assessed. Methods Segments of human proximal internal carotid arteries were evaluated for the expression of hnRNP-C by immunohistochemistry. Results In normal proximal internal carotid arteries, hnRNP-C is expressed predominantly by the endothelium, with significantly lower expression by medial smooth muscle. In preatherosclerotic intimal hyperplasia, hnRNP-C is upregulated in the artery wall, due to the robust expression by the intimal smooth muscle cells, without upregulation in the medial smooth muscle cells. In arteries with atherosclerotic lesions, there is strong expression of hnRNP-C not only by intimal cells, but also by medial smooth muscle cells. Conclusions The hydrogen peroxide responsive pre-mRNA binding protein hnRNP-C is upregulated in atherosclerosis and in pre-atherosclerotic intimal hyperplasia in humans, supporting the hypothesis that hydrogen peroxide is a regulator of vascular cell proliferation in these conditions. These data also suggest that hnRNP-C may be useful as a marker of vascular cell activation. PMID:18508286

  10. Untreated Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with 17-? Hydroxylase/17,20-Lyase Deficiency Presenting as Massive Adrenocortical Tumor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Jin; Song, Je Eun; Hwang, Sena; Lee, Ji Yeon; Park, Hye Sun; Han, Seunghee; Rhee, Yumie

    2015-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is usually characterized by hypertension and primary amenorrhea, sexual infantilism in women, and pseudohermaphroditism in men. hypertension, and sexual infantilism in women and pseudohermaphroditism in men. In rare cases, a huge adrenal gland tumor can present as a clinical manifestation in untreated CAH. Adrenal cortical adenoma is an even more rare phenotype in CAH with 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. A 36-year-old female presented with hypertension and abdominal pain caused by a huge adrenal mass. Due to mass size and symptoms, left adrenalectomy was performed. After adrenalectomy, blood pressure remained high. Based on hormonal and genetic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as CAH with 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. The possibility of a tumorous change in the adrenal gland due to untreated CAH should be considered. It is important that untreated CAH not be misdiagnosed as primary adrenal tumor as these conditions require different treatments. Adequate suppression of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in CAH is also important to treat and to prevent the tumorous changes in the adrenal gland. Herein, we report a case of untreated CAH with 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency presenting with large adrenal cortical adenoma and discuss the progression of adrenal gland hyperplasia due to inappropriate suppression of ACTH secretion. PMID:26248854

  11. Combination of Autoantibody Signature with PSA Level Enables a Highly Accurate Blood-Based Differentiation of Prostate Cancer Patients from Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Leidinger, Petra; Keller, Andreas; Milchram, Lisa; Harz, Christian; Hart, Martin; Werth, Angelika; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Keck, Bastian; Wullich, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Although an increased level of the prostate-specific antigen can be an indication for prostate cancer, other reasons often lead to a high rate of false positive results. Therefore, an additional serological screening of autoantibodies in patients’ sera could improve the detection of prostate cancer. We performed protein macroarray screening with sera from 49 prostate cancer patients, 70 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 28 healthy controls and compared the autoimmune response in those groups. We were able to distinguish prostate cancer patients from normal controls with an accuracy of 83.2%, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia from normal controls with an accuracy of 86.0% and prostate cancer patients from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with an accuracy of 70.3%. Combining seroreactivity pattern with a PSA level of higher than 4.0 ng/ml this classification could be improved to an accuracy of 84.1%. For selected proteins we were able to confirm the differential expression by using luminex on 84 samples. We provide a minimally invasive serological method to reduce false positive results in detection of prostate cancer and according to PSA screening to distinguish men with prostate cancer from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:26039628

  12. Androgen and the Development of Human Sex-Typical Behavior: Rough-and-Tumble Play and Sex of Preferred Playmates in Children with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Melissa; Kaufman, Francine R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the rough-and-tumble play and gender of preferred playmates in three- to eight-year olds with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)--hypothesized to masculinize behaviors that show sex differences--and in unaffected three- to eight-year-old relatives. Found that CAH girls did not exhibit increased levels of masculine behavior when compared…

  13. Exovascular application of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate-releasing electrospun poly(L-lactide glycolic acid) fiber sheets to reduce intimal hyperplasia in injured abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-ju; Koo, Min-Ah; Jang, Eui Hwa; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Park, Jong-Chul

    2015-09-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is an excessive ingrowth of tissue resulting in chronic structural lesions commonly found at sites of atherosclerotic lesions, arterial angioplasty, vascular graft anastomoses, and other vascular abnormalities. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was shown to elicit antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-thrombogenic effects. In this study, we used an electrospinning technique to synthesize EGCG-eluting biodegradable poly(L-lactide glycolic acid) (PLGA) fiber sheets for local delivery of EGCG and investigated the effect of their exovascular application on intimal hyperplasia following balloon-induced abdominal aorta injury in a rabbit experimental model. The morphology of the composite sheets was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. EGCG was loaded and dispersed into the PLGA-based electrospun fibers. The EGCG-loaded PLGA sheets exhibited sustained EGCG release following the initial 24?h of burst release in phosphate-buffered saline. In vivo studies demonstrated significant inhibition of intimal hyperplasia following the application of the EGCG-eluting electrospun PLGA fiber sheets, compared with vehicle PLGA controls. In conclusion, our results show that exovascular application of EGCG-eluting PLGA electrospun fiber sheets may provide a useful system for the effective local delivery of drugs for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia. PMID:26391656

  14. Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor density is associated with a more severe form of parathyroid hyperplasia in chronic uremic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, N; Tanaka, H; Tominaga, Y; Fukagawa, M; Kurokawa, K; Seino, Y

    1993-01-01

    The resistance of parathyroid cells to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in uremic hyperparathyroidism is thought to be caused, in part, by a 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR) deficiency in the parathyroids. However, results of biochemical studies addressing VDR numbers in the parathyroids are controversial. Several studies have found VDR content to be decreased in the parathyroids of uremic patients and animals, while others have found no such decrease in the parathyroids of uremic animals. To clarify the role of VDR, we investigated VDR distribution in surgically-excised parathyroids obtained from chronic dialysis patients by immunohistochemistry. We classified the parathyroids as exhibiting nodular or diffuse hyperplasia. Our studies demonstrated a lower density of VDR in the parathyroids showing nodular hyperplasia than in those showing diffuse hyperplasia. Even in the parathyroids showing diffuse hyperplasia, nodule-forming areas were present; these areas were virtually negative for VDR staining. A significant negative correlation was found between VDR density and the weight of the parathyroids. These findings indicate that the conflicting results of biochemical studies may be caused by the heterogeneous distribution of VDR; the decreased VDR density in parathyroids may contribute to the progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism and to the proliferation of parathyroid cells that is seen in uremia. Images PMID:8397225

  15. The Plant Cell, Vol. 15, 7992, January 2003, www.plantcell.org 2002 American Society of Plant Biologists Altered Cell Cycle Distribution, Hyperplasia, and Inhibited

    E-print Network

    Murray, J.A.H.

    The Plant Cell, Vol. 15, 79­92, January 2003, www.plantcell.org © 2002 American Society of Plant Biologists Altered Cell Cycle Distribution, Hyperplasia, and Inhibited Differentiation in Arabidopsis Caused and reduces the proportion of cells in the G1-phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, CYCD3;1 overexpression leads

  16. Enterococcus hirae, an unusual pathogen in humans causing urinary tract infection in a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia: first case report in Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Bourafa, N.; Loucif, L.; Boutefnouchet, N.; Rolain, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus hirae is a zoonotic pathogen rarely isolated from human infections. This case is the first description of E. hirae causing urinary tract infection in a diabetic man with benign prostatic hyperplasia from Algeria. The clinical isolate was identified by MALDI-TOF MS and displayed a multisensitivity antibiotic profile. PMID:26543562

  17. Prenatal Hormones and Postnatal Socialization by Parents as Determinants of Male-Typical Toy Play in Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasterski, Vickie L.; Geffner, Mitchell E.; Brain, Caroline; Hindmarsh, Peter; Brook, Charles; Hines, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Toy choices of 3- to 10-year-old children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and of their unaffected siblings were assessed. Also assessed was parental encouragement of sex-typed toy play. Girls with CAH displayed more male-typical toy choices than did their unaffected sisters, whereas boys with and without CAH did not differ. Mothers and…

  18. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  19. Semantics of Temporal Indexicals 

    E-print Network

    Oberlander, Jon Reid

    1987-01-01

    The thesis investigates the formal semantics of temporal indexical expressions in English. Examples of such expressions include now, tomorrow and last year. In the past, research has concentrated on instances of such ...

  20. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  1. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  2. Lack of association of VDR polymorphisms with Thai prostate cancer as compared with benign prostate hyperplasia and controls.

    PubMed

    Chaimuangraj, Suchart; Thammachoti, Ratdumrong; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong; Thammavit, Witaya

    2006-01-01

    While still relatively low as compared to rates in the Western world, prostate cancer is on the increase in Asia, presumably due to change in dietary and other lifestyle factors. One risk factor is reported to be vitamin D (VD) and therefore the function of its receptor (VDR) could be of importance. In the present study polymorphims with functional significance in the Bsm, Apa 1 and Taq 1 genes were therefore compared in 28 prostate cancer (CaP), 44 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 30 control cases in Thailand. None demonstrated any significant variation in distribution within these three groups and therefore we conclude that vitamin D may not be major risk factor for prostate cancer in this population. However, there is considerable variation in the distribution frequencies from country to country and this, combined with differences in sun exposure, means that the results may not be extrapolated to the general case. PMID:16629532

  3. Urticaria due to polyethylene glycol-3350 and electrolytes for oral solution in a patient with jejunal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongfeng; Henry, Winoah A.; Chen, Lea Ann; Khashab, Mouen A.

    2015-01-01

    Both jejunal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 hypersensitivity are extremely rare. We describe a 30-year-old female who had previously taken a PEG-3350 bowel preparation without adverse effects, and presented for evaluation of chronic diarrhea. An upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, and small bowel series were scheduled. PEG-3350 and electrolytes for oral solution was prescribed for bowel cleansing. During consumption of the bowel preparation she developed urticarial hypersensitivity. An alternative bowel preparation was used. Colonoscopy and upper endoscopy were normal, but small bowel series revealed innumerable sand-like lucencies in the jejunum. NLH was confirmed on biopsy from antegrade enteroscopy. This is the first case report on the pathological jejunal NLH in association with the PEG-3350 urticarial hypersensitivity. The potential pathophysiological etiology of this association is discussed. PMID:25608714

  4. 4-Aminopyridine Improves Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in a Patient With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Downbeat Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Feil, Katharina; Bardins, Stanislavs; Waidelich, Raphaela

    2014-01-01

    Aminopyridines are potassium channel blockers that increase the excitability of nerve cells and axons; therefore, they are widely used to treat different neurological disorders. Here we present a patient with idiopathic downbeat nystagmus and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia who was treated with the sustained-release form of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). During treatment with 4-AP, the LUTS improved. This improvement was monitored by using uroflowmetry and the International Prostate Symptom Score. A significant improvement of symptoms was observed in relation to the voided volume. This included an improved emptying of the bladder without an increase in residual urine. In animal studies, both nonselective K+ channel blockade and selective voltage-sensitive potassium blockade by 4-AP resulted in increased contraction on rat detrusor strips. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical observation of the mode of action of 4-AP in urological symptoms in humans. PMID:25558420

  5. ApcMin, A Mutation in the Murine Apc Gene, Predisposes to Mammary Carcinomas and Focal Alveolar Hyperplasias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Amy Rapaich; Mattes, Ellen M.; Dove, William F.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Haag, Jill D.; Gould, Michael N.

    1993-10-01

    ApcMin (Min, multiple intestinal neoplasia) is a point mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene. Min/+ mice develop multiple intestinal adenomas, as do humans carrying germ-line mutations in APC. Female mice carrying Min are also prone to develop mammary tumors. Min/+ mammary glands are more sensitive to chemical carcinogenesis than are +/+ mammary glands. Transplantation of mammary cells from Min/+ or +/+ donors into +/+ hosts demonstrates that the propensity to develop mammary tumors is intrinsic to the Min/+ mammary cells. Long-term grafts of Min/+ mammary glands also gave rise to focal alveolar hyperplasias, indicating that the presence of the Min mutation also has a role in the development of these lesions.

  6. Treatment of Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breast: Implant-Based Reconstruction with a Vascularized Dermal Sling

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bok Ki; Nahm, Ji Hae; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign mesenchymal lesion with incidental histologic findings. Surgical excision is recommended as the treatment of choice for PASH, although the recurrence rates after excision range from 15% to 22%. A 46-year-old-female presented with a six-month history of bilateral breast enlargement and painful sensation mimicking inflammatory carcinoma. Imaging studies demonstrated innumerable enhancing nodules in both breasts. Due to the growth of the lesions and progressive clinical symptoms, bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy was performed. Grossly, the specimens were round and well-circumscribed, and the histologic examination revealed PASH. After mastectomy, we created a pocket with the pectoralis major muscle and a lower skin flap, which was deepithelized. Anatomical mammary implants were inserted, and the nipple areolar complex was transferred to a new position as a free graft. The aesthetic result was satisfactory after twelve months of follow-up. PMID:26430637

  7. Renal capsule xenografting and subcutaneous pellet implantation for the evaluation of prostate carcinogenesis and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tristan M; Uchtmann, Kristen S; Valdez, Conrad D; Theberge, Ashleigh B; Miralem, Tihomir; Ricke, William A

    2013-01-01

    New therapies for two common prostate diseases, prostate cancer (PrCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), depend critically on experiments evaluating their hormonal regulation. Sex steroid hormones (notably androgens and estrogens) are important in PrCa and BPH; we probe their respective roles in inducing prostate growth and carcinogenesis in mice with experiments using compressed hormone pellets. Hormone and/or drug pellets are easily manufactured with a pellet press, and surgically implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of the male mouse host. We also describe a protocol for the evaluation of hormonal carcinogenesis by combining subcutaneous hormone pellet implantation with xenografting of prostate cell recombinants under the renal capsule of immunocompromised mice. Moreover, subcutaneous hormone pellet implantation, in combination with renal capsule xenografting of BPH tissue, is useful to better understand hormonal regulation of benign prostate growth, and to test new therapies targeting sex steroid hormone pathways. PMID:24022657

  8. Renal Capsule Xenografting and Subcutaneous Pellet Implantation for the Evaluation of Prostate Carcinogenesis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Tristan M.; Uchtmann, Kristen S.; Valdez, Conrad D.; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Miralem, Tihomir; Ricke, William A.

    2013-01-01

    New therapies for two common prostate diseases, prostate cancer (PrCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), depend critically on experiments evaluating their hormonal regulation. Sex steroid hormones (notably androgens and estrogens) are important in PrCa and BPH; we probe their respective roles in inducing prostate growth and carcinogenesis in mice with experiments using compressed hormone pellets. Hormone and/or drug pellets are easily manufactured with a pellet press, and surgically implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of the male mouse host. We also describe a protocol for the evaluation of hormonal carcinogenesis by combining subcutaneous hormone pellet implantation with xenografting of prostate cell recombinants under the renal capsule of immunocompromised mice. Moreover, subcutaneous hormone pellet implantation, in combination with renal capsule xenografting of BPH tissue, is useful to better understand hormonal regulation of benign prostate growth, and to test new therapies targeting sex steroid hormone pathways. PMID:24022657

  9. Smooth muscle hyperplasia due to loss of smooth muscle ?-actin is driven by activation of focal adhesion kinase, altered p53 localization and increased levels of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-?

    PubMed Central

    Papke, Christina L.; Cao, Jiumei; Kwartler, Callie S.; Villamizar, Carlos; Byanova, Katerina L.; Lim, Soon-Mi; Sreenivasappa, Harini; Fischer, Grant; Pham, John; Rees, Meredith; Wang, Miranda; Chaponnier, Christine; Gabbiani, Giulio; Khakoo, Aarif Y.; Chandra, Joya; Trache, Andreea; Zimmer, Warren; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in ACTA2, encoding the smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific isoform of ?-actin (?-SMA), cause thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections and occlusive vascular diseases, including early onset coronary artery disease and stroke. We have shown that occlusive arterial lesions in patients with heterozygous ACTA2 missense mutations show increased numbers of medial or neointimal SMCs. The contribution of SMC hyperplasia to these vascular diseases and the pathways responsible for linking disruption of ?-SMA filaments to hyperplasia are unknown. Here, we show that the loss of Acta2 in mice recapitulates the SMC hyperplasia observed in ACTA2 mutant SMCs and determine the cellular pathways responsible for SMC hyperplasia. Acta2?/? mice showed increased neointimal formation following vascular injury in vivo, and SMCs explanted from these mice demonstrated increased proliferation and migration. Loss of ?-SMA induced hyperplasia through focal adhesion (FA) rearrangement, FA kinase activation, re-localization of p53 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and increased expression and ligand-independent activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (Pdgfr-?). Disruption of ?-SMA in wild-type SMCs also induced similar cellular changes. Imatinib mesylate inhibited Pdgfr-? activation and Acta2?/? SMC proliferation in vitro and neointimal formation with vascular injury in vivo. Loss of ?-SMA leads to SMC hyperplasia in vivo and in vitro through a mechanism involving FAK, p53 and Pdgfr-?, supporting the hypothesis that SMC hyperplasia contributes to occlusive lesions in patients with ACTA2 missense mutations. PMID:23591991

  10. Differential expression of MST4, STK25 and PDCD10 between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heyu; Ma, Xi; Peng, Saihui; Nan, Xu; Zhao, Hongshan

    2014-01-01

    Both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PC) are common diseases for men around the world. Both serine/threonine protein kinase MST4 (MST4) and serine/threonine kinase 25 (STK25) belong to the Ste20-like kinases and interact with programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10) which is closely linked to cancer diseases. To clarify the roles of MST4, STK25 and PDCD10 in prostate carcinogenesis, we examined MST4, STK25 and PDCD10 expression in tissue microarray blocks containing 110 cores of BPH and 160 cores of PC immunohistochemically and evaluated their correlation with clinicopathological findings. MST4 was not expressed in all the BPH cases and expressed in 38.7% of PC cases (P < 0.0001). STK25 expression was found in 77.3% of BPH cases and 93.1% of PC cases (P < 0.0001). PDCD10 staining was considered weak in 82 (74.5%) and strong in 28 (25.5%) of BPH cases. However, in prostate cancer cases, PDCD10 staining was weak in 95 (59.4%) and strong in 65 (40.6%) (P < 0.05). PDCD10 and STK25 immunostaining were associated with age in prostatic hyperplasia cases (P < 0.05). The staining intensity for STK25 was significantly greater in Gleason grades 3-5 (47.1% of such cases staining strongly) compared with other grades of prostate cancer (only 26.5% of these cases staining strongly; P < 0.05). Our results suggest that MST4, STK25 and PDCD10 are unregulated in prostate cancer and may play roles in prostate tumorigenesis. MST4 may be a helpful marker for identifying prostate cancer. PMID:25550858

  11. Prepubertal exposure to elevated manganese results in estradiol regulated mammary gland ductal differentiation and hyperplasia in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Dearth, Robert K; Hiney, Jill K; Srivastava, Vinod K; Hamilton, Alina M; Dees, William L

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that environmental substances regulating estrogenic pathways during puberty may be detrimental to the developing mammary gland (MG). Manganese (Mn) is a trace mineral required for normal physiological processes. Prepubertal exposure to Mn induces precocious puberty in rats, an event associated with early elevations in puberty-related hormones, including estradiol (E2). However, until now the effect of Mn-induced precocious MG development has not been determined. Therefore, we assessed the ability of prepubertal Mn exposure to advance normal MG development and alter E2 driven pathways involved in tumorigenesis. Sprague Dawley female rats were gavaged daily with either 10 mg/kg manganese chloride (MnCl2) or saline (control) from postnatal day (PND) 12 through PND 30. Blood and MGs were collected on PNDs 30 and 120. Compared to controls, serum E2 levels on PND 30 were elevated (p<0.05) in the Mn-treated group. Mn exposure significantly increased differentiated MG terminal ductal structures and the percentage of MG epithelial cells that stained positive for the proliferative marker, Ki67, at PND 30 (p<0.001) and PND 120 (p < 0.001). Levels of Mn (ppm) were not elevated in these MGs. Mn-treated animals (40%) exhibited reactive stroma and intra-luminal focal hyperplasia in hemotoxylin and eosin stained MGs at PND 120. Furthermore, Mn exposure resulted in elevated protein expression levels of estrogen receptor ?, activator protein 2?, phosphorylated (p)-Akt, and p53 in MGs on PND 120, but not on PND 30. Collectively, these data show that exposure to a supplemental dose of Mn causes accelerated pubertal MG growth which can progress to adult hyperplasia; thus, providing evidence that early life Mn exposure may increase susceptibility to breast cancer. PMID:24845367

  12. Dermal reflectivity determined by optical coherence tomography is an indicator of epidermal hyperplasia and dermal edema within inflamed skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Levitz, David; Choudhury, Niloy; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven L.

    2011-04-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of inflammation in psoriasis remain unclear. We undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to noninvasively document cutaneous alterations in mouse skin treated topically with Imiquimod (IMQ), an established model of a psoriasis-like disease. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a two parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(x, y, z) = ?(x, y)exp [ - ?(x, y)z]. Ensemble averaging over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed no significant changes in the average dermal attenuation rate, , however the average local dermal reflectivity , decreased significantly following 1, 3, and 6 days of IMQ treatment (p < 0.001) in comparison to vehicle-treated control mice. In contrast, epidermal and dermal thickness changes were only significant when comparing controls and 6-day IMQ treated mice. This suggests that dermal alterations, attributed to collagen fiber bundle enlargement, occur prior to epidermal thickness changes due to hyperplasia and dermal thickness changes due to edema. Dermal reflectivity positively correlated with epidermal hyperplasia (repi2 = 0.78) and dermal edema (rderm2 = 0.86). Our results suggest that dermal reflectivity as measured by OCT can be utilized to quantify a psoriasis-like disease in mice, and thus has the potential to aid in the quantitative assessment of psoriasis in humans.

  13. Advanced Glycation End Product Receptor-1 Transgenic Mice Are Resistant to Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Post-Injury Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Torreggiani, Massimo; Liu, Huixian; Wu, Jin; Zheng, Feng; Cai, Weijing; Striker, Gary; Vlassara, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The high levels of oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation associated with cardiovascular disease are linked to pro-oxidants such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs interact with multiple receptors, including receptor 1 (AGER1), which promotes AGE removal and blocks OS and inflammation, and RAGE, which enhances inflammation. In this study, we evaluated metabolic and vascular changes in AGER1 transgenic mice (AGER1-tg) subjected to an atherogenic diet and arterial wire-injury. Both baseline and postatherogenic diet serum and tissue AGEs as well as plasma 8-isoprostane levels were lower in AGER1-tg mice than in wild-type mice. The levels of injected 125I-AGE in tissues were decreased as well in AGER1-tg mice. After ingesting a high-fat diet, AGER1-tg mice had a normal glucose tolerance and only 7% were hyperglycemic, whereas 53% of wild-type mice had stable hyperglycemia. After wire-injury, intimal lesions in AGER1-tg mice were small, whereas wild-type mice had diffuse intimal hyperplasia, a high intima/media ratio, and inflammatory cell infiltrates. In addition, AGER1 staining, prominent in AGER1-tg mice, was attenuated in 30 to 40% of wild-type cells, although all cells were strongly positive for AGEs. Thus, AGER1 overexpression in mice reduces basal levels of AGEs and OS, enhances resistance to diet-induced hyperglycemia and OS, and protects against injury-induced arterial intimal hyperplasia and inflammation, providing protection against OS and inflammation induced by AGEs and high-fat diets in vivo. PMID:19779136

  14. The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Xuding

    The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs Leizhen Cai Department of Computer Science and Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin, Hong Kong, China lcai@math.nsysu.edu.tw May, 1998. y Abstract This paper discusses the game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs

  15. 40 CFR 1508.7 - Cumulative impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cumulative impact. 1508.7 Section 1508.7 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.7 Cumulative impact. Cumulative impact is the impact on the environment which results from the incremental impact of the action when added to other...

  16. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations more socially susceptible to floods, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels, when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  17. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2015-08-01

    The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood-related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data, and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is a component of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations less prepared to avoid flood effects or able to cope with them, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  18. Beyond the Kubler index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Velde, B.

    1989-01-01

    The value of peak width at half-height for the illite 001 XRD reflection is known as the Kubler index or the illite "crystallinity' index. This measurement, which has been related to the degree of metamorphism of very low-grade, pelitic rocks, is a function of at least two crystal-chemical factors: 1) illite X-ray scattering domain size; and 2) illite structural distortions (especially swelling). Reynolds' NEWMOD computer program is used to construct a grid with which these two contributions to illite peak width can be determined independently from measurements of the 001 peak width at half-height and the Srodon intensity ratio. This method yields more information about changes undergone by illite during metamorphism than application of the Kubler index method alone. -Authors

  19. Sustainability index for Taipei

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-J. . E-mail: yungjaanlee@pchome.com.tw; Huang Chingming . E-mail: michael@everwin.com.tw

    2007-08-15

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years.

  20. Fiber optic refractive index monitor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan David (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

  1. Advance Indexing July 3, 2014

    E-print Network

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    indexing while serving queries request. #12;4 Main-Memory Off-line indexing List of pairs Merge pairs with same term Documents split merge #12;5 On-line Indexing Techniques Basic Approaches Re-build Re-mergeIn-place Single Partition Single-split Indexing Vertical Partitioning Multi

  2. September 2008 TIMBER & FORESTRY INDEX

    E-print Network

    are the S&P Emerging Markets Infrastructure Index, the S&P Global Alternative Energy Index, the S&P Global&P Global Alternative Energy Index. Designed to measure investable opportunities in the complete alternative energy space, the S&P Global Alternative Energy Index is the combination of the S&P Global Clean Energy

  3. Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms related to uncomplicated benign prostatic hyperplasia in Italy: updated summary from AURO.it

    PubMed Central

    Casarico, Antonio; Fandella, Andrea; Galetti, Caterina; Hurle, Rodolfo; Mazzini, Elisa; Niro, Ciro; Perachino, Massimo; Sanseverino, Roberto; Pappagallo, Giovanni Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The first Italian national guidelines were developed by the Italian Association of Urologists and published in 2007. Since then, a number of new drugs or classes of drugs have emerged for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), new data have emerged on medical therapy (monotherapies and combination therapies), new surgical techniques have come into practice, and our understanding of disease pathogenesis has increased. Consequently, a new update of the guidelines has become necessary. Methods: A structured literature review was conducted to identify relevant papers published between 1 August 2006 and 12 December 2010. Publications before or after this timeframe were considered only if they were recognised as important milestones in the field or if the literature search did not identify publications within this timeframe. The quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were determined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Main findings: Decisions on therapeutic intervention should be based on the impact of symptoms on quality of life (QoL) rather than the severity of symptoms (International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) score). A threshold for intervention was therefore based on the IPSS Q8, with intervention recommended for patients with a score of at least 4. Several differences in clinical recommendations have emerged. For example, combination therapy with a 5?-reductase inhibitor plus ? blocker is now the recommended option for the treatment of patients at risk of BPH progression. Other differences include the warning of potential worsening of cognitive disturbances with use of anticholinergics in older patients, the distinction between Serenoa repens preparations (according to the method of extraction), and the clearly defined threshold of prostate size for performing open surgery (>80 g). While the recommendations included in these guidelines are evidence based, clinical decisions should also be informed by patients’ clinical and physical circumstances, as well as patients’ preferences and actions. Conclusions: These guidelines are intended to assist physicians and patients in the decision-making process regarding the management of LUTS/BPH, and support the process of continuous improvement of the quality of care and services to patients. PMID:23205056

  4. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  5. Periodical Price Index 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Kathryn Hammell; Alexander, Adrian W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents information on 1992 prices for periodical subscriptions including data on average prices by subject category, price percent increases by subject category, annually since 1983, percentage of titles increasing in price by subject category, average prices by Library of Congress Classification Codes, and price increases indexed to the 1977…

  6. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  7. Glycemic Index Values Database

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has developed a listing of Glycemic Index (GI) values for individual foods. Food codes from the USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII) are used as a reference. This file provides GI values for those foods consumed by adults and queried on the DHQ or other FFQs used at NCI.

  8. The Misery Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery Index than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…

  9. The COPD Helplessness Index

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knight, Sara J.; Blanc, Paul D.; Eisner, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Psychologic factors affect how patients with COPD respond to attempts to improve their self-management skills. Learned helplessness may be one such factor, but there is no validated measure of helplessness in COPD. Methods: We administered a new COPD Helplessness Index (CHI) to 1,202 patients with COPD. Concurrent validity was assessed through association of the CHI with established psychosocial measures and COPD severity. The association of helplessness with incident COPD exacerbations was then examined by following subjects over a median 2.1 years, defining COPD exacerbations as COPD-related hospitalizations or ED visits. Results: The CHI demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach ? = 0.75); factor analysis was consistent with the CHI representing a single construct. Greater CHI-measured helplessness correlated with greater COPD severity assessed by the BODE (Body-mass, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise) Index (r = 0.34; P < .001). Higher CHI scores were associated with worse generic (Short Form-12, Physical Component Summary Score) and respiratory-specific (Airways Questionnaire 20) health-related quality of life, greater depressive symptoms, and higher anxiety (all P < .001). Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, helplessness was prospectively associated with incident COPD exacerbations (hazard ratio = 1.31; P < .001). After also controlling for the BODE Index, helplessness remained predictive of COPD exacerbations among subjects with BODE Index ? median (hazard ratio = 1.35; P = .01), but not among subjects with higher BODE Index values (hazard ratio = 0.93; P = .34). Conclusions: The CHI is an internally consistent and valid measure, concurrently associated with health status and predictively associated with COPD exacerbations. The CHI may prove a useful tool in analyzing differential clinical responses mediated by patient-centered attributes. PMID:19837823

  10. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11...TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed written...

  11. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11...TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed written...

  12. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11...TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed written...

  13. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11...TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed written...

  14. 40 CFR 1508.11 - Environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental impact statement. 1508.11 Section 1508.11...TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.11 Environmental impact statement. Environmental impact statement means a detailed written...

  15. A Study of Molecular Signals Deregulating Mismatch Repair Genes in Prostate Cancer Compared to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanmitra; Majumder, Subhadipa; Bhowal, Ankur; Ghosh, Alip; Naskar, Sukla; Nandy, Sumit; Mukherjee, Subhabrata; Sinha, Rajan Kumar; Basu, Keya; Karmakar, Dilip; Banerjee, Soma; Sengupta, Sanghamitra

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality among aging males. There is an unmet requirement of clinically useful biomarkers for early detection of prostate cancer to reduce the liabilities of overtreatment and accompanying morbidity. The present population-based study investigates the factors disrupting expression of multiple functionally related genes of DNA mismatch repair pathway in prostate cancer patients to identify molecular attributes distinguishing adenocarcinoma from benign hyperplasia of prostate. Gene expression was compared between tissue samples from prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia using real-time-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Assessment of genotypes of seven single-nucleotide-polymorphisms of three MMR genes was conducted using PCR-coupled RFLP and sequencing. Promoter methylation was interrogated by methylation-specific-PCR and bisulfite-sequencing. Interaction between microRNAs and MMR genes was verified by 3'UTR-based dual luciferase assays. Concurrent reduction of three MMR genes namely hMLH1, hMSH6 and hMSH2 (34-85%, P<0.05) was observed in prostate cancer tissues. hMSH6 polymorphism rs1800932(Pro92Pro) conferred a borderline protection in cancer patients (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.15-0.75). Relative transcript level of hMLH1 was inversely related (r = -0.59, P<0.05) with methylation quotient of its promoter which showed a significantly higher methylation density (P = 0.008, Z = -2.649) in cancer patients. hsa-miR-155, hsa-miR-141 and hsa-miR-21 gene expressions were significantly elevated (66-85%, P<0.05) in tumor specimens and negatively correlated (r = -0.602 to -0.527, P<0.05) with that of MMR genes. hsa-miR-155 & hsa-miR-141 and hsa-miR-155 & hsa-miR-21 were demonstrated to bind to their putative seed sequences in hMLH1 and hMSH6 3’UTRs respectively. Relatively higher expression of DNA methyl-transferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) and HIF-1? genes (34-50%, P<0.05) were also detected in tumor tissues. This study provides statistical evidence that MMR deficiency is correlated with hypermethylation of hMLH1 promoter and upregulation of hsa-miR-155, hsa-miR-141 and hsa-miR-21 in prostate cancer. This comparative study reflects that microRNA expression level, particularly hsa-miR-155, exhibits predictive signature of prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:25938433

  16. Advanced intimal hyperplasia without luminal narrowing of leptomeningeal arteries in CADASIL

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hairong; Ding, Haixia; Young, Kelly; Blaivas, Mila; Christensen, Paul J.; Wang, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptomeningeal artery abnormalities in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) have not been extensively characterized. We quantified substructure and diameter of leptomeningeal arteries in CADASIL in comparison to age matched controls and the very old; in addition, we characterized intimal thickening in CADASIL using immunohistochemistry. Methods Frontal and temporal cortex of six genetically proven CADASIL brains (average age 66), six controls without symptoms of cerebrovascular disease, and six very old brains (average age 89) were examined for leptomeningeal artery intimal, medial, and adventitial thickness, inner diameter, and sclerotic index (SI) and for smooth muscle markers. Results The intima of CADASIL arteries was thickened five-fold compared to controls and the very aged (p<0.0001). Medial thickness was lower in CADASIL compared to controls and the very old (p<0.01). The adventitia was not significantly increased in CADASIL compared to age-matched controls. Arterial diameters were not smaller in CADASIL compared to controls. SI was significantly increased in CADASIL compared to other groups (p<0.00001). Intimal cells in CADASIL expressed smooth muscle actin, S100A4, and vimentin but not desmin. Conclusions Principle changes of leptomeningeal arteries in CADASIL include intimal thickening and medial thinning, but not luminal narrowing. Smooth muscle-like cells participate in neointimal thickening of CADASIL arteries. PMID:23482599

  17. 29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  18. In vivo evaluation of the delivery and efficacy of a sirolimus-laden polymer gel for inhibition of hyperplasia in a porcine model of arteriovenous hemodialysis graft stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Huan; Zhuplatov, Ilya; Blumenthal, Donald K.; Kim, Seong-Eun; Owen, Shawn C.; Kholmovski, Eugene G.; Fowers, Kirk D.; Rathi, Ramesh; Cheung, Alfred K.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic arteriovenous (AV) hemodialysis grafts are plagued by hyperplasia resulting in occlusion and graft failure yet there are no clinically available preventative treatments. Here the delivery and degradation of a sirolimus-laden polymer gel was monitored in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its efficacy for inhibiting hyperplasia was evaluated in a porcine model of AV graft stenosis. Synthetic grafts were placed between the carotid artery and ipsilateral jugular vein of swine. A biodegradable polymer gel loaded with sirolimus (2.5 mg/mL) was immediately applied perivascularly to the venous anastomosis, and reapplied by ultrasound-guided injections at one, two and three weeks. Control grafts received neither sirolimus nor polymer. The lumen cross-sectional area at the graft-vein anastomosis was assessed in vivo by non-invasive MRI. The explanted tissues also underwent histological analysis. A specifically developed MRI pulse sequence provided a high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the polymer and surrounding tissue that allowed confirmation of gel location after injection. Polymer signal decreased up to 80% at three to four weeks after injection, slightly faster than its degradation kinetics in vitro. The MR image of the polymer was confirmed by visual assessment at necropsy. On histological assessment, the mean hyperplasia surface area of the treated graft was 52% lower than that of the control grafts (0.43 mm2 vs. 0.89 mm2; p < 0.003), while the minimum cross-sectional lumen area, as measured on MRI, was doubled (5.3 mm2 vs 2.5 mm2; p < 0.05). In conclusion, customized MRI allowed non-invasive monitoring of the location and degradation of drug-delivery polymer gels in vivo. Perivascular application of sirolimus-laden polymer yielded a significant decrease in hyperplasia development and an increase in lumen area at the venous anastomosis of AV grafts. PMID:22465391

  19. Scintillation Monitoring Using Asymmetry Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mubasshir; Mahrous, Ayman; Abdallah, Amr; Notarpietro, Riccardo

    Variation in electron density can have significant effect on GNSS signals in terms of propagation delay. Ionospheric scintillation can be caused by rapid change of such delay, specifically, when they last for a longer period of time. Ionospheric irregularities that account for scintillation may vary significantly in spatial range and drift with the background plasma at speeds of 45 to 130 m/sec. These patchy irregularities may occur several times during night, e.g. in equatorial region, with the patches move through the ray paths of the GNSS satellite signals. These irregularities are often characterized as either ‘large scale’ (which can be as large as several hundred km in East-West direction and many times that in the North-South direction) or ‘small scale’ (which can be as small as 1m). These small scale irregularities are regarded as the main cause of scintillation [1,2]. In normal solar activity conditions, the mid-latitude ionosphere is not much disturbed. However, during severe magnetic storms, the aurora oval extends towards the equator and the equator anomaly region may stretched towards poles extending the scintillation phenomena more typically associated with those regions into mid-latitudes. In such stormy conditions, the predicted TEC may deviate largely from the true value of the TEC both at low and mid-latitudes due to which GNSS applications may be strongly degraded. This work is an attempt to analyze ionospheric scintillation (S4 index) using ionospheric asymmetry index [3]. The asymmetry index is based on trans-ionospheric propagation between GPS and LEO satellites in a radio occultation (RO) scenario, using background ionospheric data provided by MIDAS [4]. We attempted to simulate one of the recent geomagnetic storms (NOAA scale G4) occurred over low/mid-latitudes. The storm started on 26 September 2011 at UT 18:00 and lasted until early hours of 27 September 2011. The scintillation data for the storm was taken from an ionospheric station in Cairo, Egypt (lat= 29.8641 °, long= 31.3172 °). It was observed that the level of asymmetry was significantly increased during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm. This was due to the changes in ionization, which in turn produced large gradients along occulted ray path in the ionosphere. A very good correlation was found between the evaluated ionospheric asymmetry index and the S4 scintillation index. Additionally, the correlation between evaluated ionospheric asymmetry and errors related to the RO inversion products such as peak electron density (delta NmF2) and Vertical TEC (delta VTEC) estimates also showed promising results. This work is carried out under the framework of the TRANSMIT project (Training Research and Applications Network to Support the Mitigation of Ionospheric Threats - www.transmit-ionosphere.net). [1]Basu Sa. and Basu Su., (1981), ‘Equatorial Scintillation - A Review’, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 43, p. 473. [2]Davies K., (1990), ‘Ionospheric Radio’, IEEE Electromagnetic Waves Series 31, Peter Peregrinus Ltd. [3]Spencer, P., Mitchell, C.N., (2007) ‘Imaging of fast moving electron-density structures in the polar cap’, Annals of Geophysics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 427-434. [4]Shaikh, M.M., Notarpietro, R., Nava, B., (2013) ‘The Impact of Spherical Symmetry Assumption on Radio Occultation Data Inversion in the Ionosphere: An Assessment Study’, Advances in Space Research, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.10.025.

  20. Conformity index: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Feuvret, Loic . E-mail: loic.feuvret@cpo.curie.net; Noel, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre

    2006-02-01

    We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear.

  1. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  2. De Novo 17q24.2-q24.3 microdeletion presenting with generalized hypertrichosis terminalis, gingival fibromatous hyperplasia, and distinctive facial features.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Hanan H; Fukai, Ryoko; Miyake, Noriko; Gamal El Din, Amina A; Eid, Maha M; Eid, Ola M; Thomas, Manal M; El-Badry, Tarek H; Tosson, Angie M S; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2015-10-01

    Generalized hypertrichosis is a feature of several genetic disorders, and the nosology of these entities is still provisional. Recent studies have implicated chromosome 17q24.2-q24.3 microdeletion and the reciprocal microduplication in a very rare form of congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis (CGHT) with or without gingival hyperplasia. Here, we report on a 5-year-old Egyptian girl born to consanguineous parents. The girl presented with CGHT and gingival hyperplasia for whom we performed detailed clinical, pathological, and molecular studies. The girl had coarse facies characterized by bilateral epicanthic folds, thick and abundant eyelashes, a broad nose, full cheeks, and lips that constituted the distinctive facial features for this syndrome. Biopsy of the gingiva showed epithelial marked acanthosis and hyperkeratosis with hyperplastic thick collagen bundles and dense fibrosis in the underlying tissues. Array analysis indicated a 17q24.2-q24.3 chromosomal microdeletion. We validated this microdeletion by real-time quantitative PCR and confirmed a perfect co-segregation of the disease phenotype within the family. In summary, this study indicates that 17q24.2-q24.3 microdeletion caused CGHT with gingival hyperplasia and distinctive facies, which should be differentiated from the autosomal recessive type that lacks the distinctive facies. PMID:26033841

  3. GPU-based fast gamma index calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xuejun; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

    2011-03-01

    The ?-index dose comparison tool has been widely used to compare dose distributions in cancer radiotherapy. The accurate calculation of ?-index requires an exhaustive search of the closest Euclidean distance in the high-resolution dose-distance space. This is a computational intensive task when dealing with 3D dose distributions. In this work, we combine a geometric method (Ju et al 2008 Med. Phys. 35 879-87) with a radial pre-sorting technique (Wendling et al 2007 Med. Phys. 34 1647-54) and implement them on computer graphics processing units (GPUs). The developed GPU-based ?-index computational tool is evaluated on eight pairs of IMRT dose distributions. The ?-index calculations can be finished within a few seconds for all 3D testing cases on one single NVIDIA Tesla C1060 card, achieving 45-75× speedup compared to CPU computations conducted on an Intel Xeon 2.27 GHz processor. We further investigated the effect of various factors on both CPU and GPU computation time. The strategy of pre-sorting voxels based on their dose difference values speeds up the GPU calculation by about 2.7-5.5 times. For n-dimensional dose distributions, ?-index calculation time on CPU is proportional to the summation of ?n over all voxels, while that on GPU is affected by ?n distributions and is approximately proportional to the ?n summation over all voxels. We found that increasing the resolution of dose distributions leads to a quadratic increase of computation time on CPU, while less-than-quadratic increase on GPU. The values of dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria also have an impact on ?-index calculation time.

  4. Index of cyber integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  5. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  6. Gynecomastia in type-1 neurofibromatosis with features of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with giant cells. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Damiani, S; Eusebi, V

    2001-05-01

    We describe the histological finding in two cases of gynecomastia in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease. The histological and immunohistochemical features of the two cases were reviewed and compared with those of five cases of gynecomastia in men without clinical evidence of neurofibromatosis. In both patients bearing von Recklinghausen's disease, the breast stroma showed features consistent with pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH). It was characterised by anastomosing empty spaces lined by spindle and multinucleated giant cells which were positive with CD34 and anti-vimentin antisera and negative with anti-FVIII and CD31 antisera. In two of five of the control cases without neurofibromatosis, the mammary stroma showed focal areas with features of PASH, but no multinucleated giant cells were present in any case. PASH with giant cells should be recognised as a feature of gynecomastia in von Recklinghausen's disease. The presence of multinucleated giant cells is very unusual and, although more cases have to be studied, these cells seem to be a feature of PASH occurring in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease. PMID:11407482

  7. Association of BID SNPs (rs8190315 and rs2072392) and clinical features of benign prostate hyperplasia in Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Hosik; Kim, Su Kang; Yoo, Koo Han; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Young Ock; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has beneficial effect on cancer apoptosis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID) gene expression is associated with apoptosis or cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the association between BID single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the development, prostate volume, and international prostate symptom score (IPSS) of BPH. In 222 BPH males and 214 controls, two SNPs in BID [rs8190315 (Ser56Gly), and rs2072392 (Asp106Asp)] were genotyped and analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. In the result, the genotype and allele frequencies of rs8190315 and rs2072392 were not associated with BPH development or IPSS, however, the allele frequencies [odd ratio (OR)= 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 1.07–3.41, P= 0.03] and genotype frequencies (in dominant model, OR= 1.94, 95% CI= 1.01–3.74, P= 0.42) of rs8190315, and the genotype frequencies of rs2072392 (in dominant model, OR= 1.94, 95% CI= 1.01–3.74, P= 0.42) were associated with increased prostate volume. We propose that rs8190315 and rs2072392 of BID may contribute to the disease severity of BPH. PMID:25610824

  8. Cross-reactivity of adrenal steroids with aldosterone may prevent the accurate diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Tuhan, Hale Unver; Catli, Gonul; Anik, Ahmet; Onay, Huseyin; Dundar, Bumin; Bober, Ece; Abaci, Ayhan

    2015-05-01

    During the first weeks of life, salt-wasting crisis, hyperkalemia, acidosis, hypoglycemia, and shock are the main findings of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare disease of mineralocorticoid resistance, which is characterized with high aldosterone levels, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia without clinical findings of glucocorticoid deficiency. Patients with PHA1 are often initially diagnosed with CAH; however, it is unusual that a CAH patient is misdiagnosed as PHA1. In this report, we describe two cases with severe salt-losing crisis, hyperkalemia, and mild acidosis, which were initially diagnosed with PHA1, due to the high aldosterone levels along with normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels. However, subsequent investigation and genetic analysis led to the diagnosis of CAH with a homozygous I2 splice mutation in both alleles of the CYP21 gene. With this report, we emphasize that high blood levels of adrenal steroid precursors may cross-react with aldosterone and lead to confusing laboratory results that prevent making the accurate differential diagnosis between CAH and PHA1. PMID:25503463

  9. Management of experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats using a food-based therapy containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Ejike, Chukwunonso E C C; Ezeanyika, Lawrence U S

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of diet containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds, in managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was studied. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups. BPH was induced by sub-cutaneous injection of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate (ratio, 10:1) every other day for 28 days. Rats in the test group were placed on the test diet for 7 days following disease induction. One control group (DC) was fed on a normal diet for 7 days following disease induction. Two other control groups, HC and HDC, were given sub-cutaneous olive oil (vehicle) for the same duration, and placed on the test diet and normal diet, respectively. Markers of BPH, and hormone profile were determined using standard methods. The results show that relative prostate weight and protein content of the prostates were lower [albeit not significantly (p>0.05)] in the test group, relative to the DC group. Serum prostatic acid phosphatase concentrations (U/L) decreased significantly (p<0.05) from 2.9 ± 0.2 in the DC group to 2.1 ± 0.7 in the test group. Histological findings corroborate these data. The testosterone: estradiol ratio (× 10(3)) was increased from 4.0 ± 0.2 in the DC group to 4.6 ± 0.2 in the test group. The test diet reduced the mass and secretory activity of the enlarged prostate and may act by increasing the testosterone: estradiol ratio. PMID:22654217

  10. A novel nonsecosteroidal VDR agonist (CH5036249) exhibits efficacy in a spontaneous benign prostatic hyperplasia beagle model.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, K; Katagiri, K; Kashiwagi, H; Harada, S; Sugimoto, Y; Shimizu, Y; Arakawa, H; Ito, T; Yamazaki, M; Watanabe, T; Kato, A; Hoshino, E; Takahashi, T; Esaki, T; Suzuki, M; Takeda, S; Ichikawa, F; Harada, A; Sekiguchi, N; Ishigai, M; Kawata, H; Yoneya, T; Onuma, E; Sudoh, M; Aoki, Y

    2010-07-01

    To date, there have been no reports showing the efficacy of nonsecosteroidal vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists in a benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) animal model. To examine the efficacy of CH5036249, a novel nonsecosteroidal VDR agonist, we orally administered the compound at 0.03 microg/kg to a beagle model with spontaneous BPH. Prostate volume was checked by rectal ultrasonic probe periodically during 11 months of administration and the prostate tissues histologically examined. CH5036249 inhibited prostate growth in two out of three dogs compared with vehicle-treated dogs. In the prostate specimens, substantial atrophy of the epithelium was observed in all dogs administered CH5036249. At the dose given, serum calcium levels slightly increased in the CH5036249-treated dogs but stayed within a normal range. We next examined the cell growth inhibition of CH5036249 using human prostate stromal cells and found the cell growth inhibitory activity of CH5036249 to be comparable to that of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. The bioavailability from oral administration in rats was 95.1% with a t1/2 of 17.6 h. Both micro-AMES and micronucleus tests were negative. Although the results are still preliminary, we consider the novel nonsecosteroidal VDR agonist CH5036249 to be a possible new drug candidate for the treatment of BPH in humans. PMID:20304062

  11. Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability in breast hyperplasia. No obligate correlation of these genetic alterations with subsequent malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Kasami, M.; Vnencak-Jones, C. L.; Manning, S.; Dupont, W. D.; Page, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability have been often reported in breast cancer and seldom in proliferative breast disease (PBD). DNA samples from microdissected PBD lesions, including papillomas (25 lesions), from 8 women were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability at 10 loci including INT-2 oncogene locus, D17S796 (the p53 gene region), and D17S579 (in the region of the BRCA-1 gene). In a patient, five loci with microsatellite instability and two loci with loss of heterozygosity were identified in one papilloma with florid hyperplasia and atypia, and 10 other PBD lesions were negative for genetic alteration (GA) and atypia. Three loci with microsatellite instability were identified in another PBD lesion without atypia, whereas another lesion from this second patient had minimal atypia without GAs. These two patients have been well for more than 20 years. No other patient, including a woman developing cancer, had GAs. We detected GAs in PBD (25% of women, 8% of lesions). Incomplete correlation between GAs and anatomic atypia was suggested. It seems evident that several GAs in PBD lesions may not indicate clinically meaningful premalignancy for remaining breast. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9176386

  12. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A New Metabolic Disease of the Aging Male and Its Correlation with Sexual Dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Giovanni; Vignozzi, Linda; Lotti, Francesco; Cipriani, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a well-recognized cluster of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycaemia, closely associated with an increased risk of forthcoming cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Emerging evidence indicates that benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and its related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) represent other clinical conditions frequently observed in subjects with MetS. Several modifiable factors involved in MetS determinism, such as inadequate diet, lack of physical exercise, and smoking and drinking behaviours are emerging as main contributors to the development of BPH. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the connection between MetS and BPH have not been completely clarified. MetS and its components, hypogonadism, and prostate inflammation probably play an important role in inducing BPH/LUTS. Although historically considered as a “normal” consequence of the aging process, BPH/LUTS should now be faced proactively, as a preventable disorder of the elderly. Type of diet and level of physical activity are now considered important factors affecting prostate health in the aging male. However, whether physical exercise, weight loss, and modifications of dietary habit can really alter the natural history of BPH/LUTS remains to be determined. Further research is advisable to better clarify these points. PMID:24688539

  13. Retroviral transduction of the human c-Ha-ras-1 oncogene into midgestation mouse embryos promotes rapid epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Compere, S J; Baldacci, P A; Sharpe, A H; Jaenisch, R

    1989-01-01

    Infection of mouse embryos at 8 days of gestation with a replication-defective retrovirus carrying the human c-Ha-ras-1 oncogene led to efficient and rapid induction of hyperplastic lesions. Twenty-four percent of viable off-spring developed abnormal growths after infection with purified virus. The lesions contained a single integrated provirus and produced viral RNA and the Ha-ras oncogene product (p21). The latency period between the time of infection and appearance of the lesions suggested that secondary alterations in addition to activated ras were necessary for neoplasms to develop. The earliest and most abundant growths were cutaneous and appeared from 4 to 36 weeks of age, with a median of 4 weeks of age. A number of subcutaneous lesions also developed over the same time span but at a median of 18 weeks of age. The rapid development of cutaneous lesions in response to transduction of the ras oncogene contrasts with other studies in which adult skin required secondary treatment with promoters prior to ras induction of epithelial hyperplasia. These results demonstrate that infection of midgestation mouse embryos allows rapid analysis of oncogene potency in skin. Images PMID:2648134

  14. Local delivery of photosensitizing drugs in arteries: a novel approach to photodynamic therapy for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adili, Farzin; van Eps, Randolph G.; LaMuraglia, Glenn M.

    1995-05-01

    The long-term benefit of coronary or peripheral vascular interventions is limited by restenosis, due to intimal hyperplasia (IH). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with systematic delivery of the photosensitizing drug, performed either at the time or shortly after vascular injury, has been demonstrated to effectively inhibit the development of experimental IH. However, in order to deliver large quantities of the photosensitizer, but avoid systematic photosensitization, local delivery of the drug appears to be an advantageous option. An experimental model was therefore developed to deliver benzporphyrin derivative (BPD-MA) directly into isolated segments of balloon-injured rat common carotid arteries, and to study the uptake in serum and arterial tissue by means of spectrofluorometry. Furthermore, early effects of local versus systematic drug delivery and subsequent PDT treatment, were investigated with light microscopy and morphometric analysis. Local delivery of BPD lead to effective drug concentrations in the artery with complete depletion of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, already 24 h after PDT. The media appeared compacted and acellular. No thrombosis or occlusion were observed. Serum concentrations of BPD, after local delivery, were at the detection threshold, whereas systematic application resulted in significantly higher serum but equivalent tissue drug concentrations. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that local delivery of BPD results in tissue concentrations, appropriate to perform an efficient vascular PDT treatment of the arterial wall.

  15. Solifenacin/tamsulosin fixed-dose combination therapy to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dimitropoulos, Konstantinos; Gravas, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has traditionally focused on the management of benign prostatic obstruction, but the contribution of bladder dysfunction has been recently recognized. Therefore, it is well understood that LUTS have multifactorial etiology and often occur in clusters and not in isolation. Voiding LUTS are highly prevalent in men, but storage LUTS have been proved to be more bothersome. ?1-Blockers are the most widely used pharmacologic agents for the treatment of symptoms relating to benign prostatic enlargement due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), while antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for overactive bladder symptoms. A combination of the two drug classes would be a reasonable approach to treat men with both storage and voiding symptoms, and several short-term studies have proved the efficacy and safety of different combinations with an ?1-blocker and an antimuscarinic. Following previous studies on the separate administration of solifenacin and tamsulosin, a fixed-dose combination tablet of tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) 0.4 mg and solifenacin succinate 6 mg has been recently introduced, and the current review evaluates the available data on the use of this fixed-dose combination in the treatment of LUTS in men with BPH. PMID:25834406

  16. Surgical Intervention for Masticatory Muscle Tendon-Aponeurosis Hyperplasia Based on the Diagnosis Using the Four-Dimensional Muscle Model

    PubMed Central

    Nakaoka, Kazutoshi; Hamada, Yoshiki; Nakatani, Hayaki; Shigeta, Yuko; Hirai, Shinya; Ikawa, Tomoko; Mishima, Akira; Ogawa, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The surgical target of Masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia (MMTAH) is the masseter or temporal muscle. In our clinic, the 4-dimentional muscle model (4DMM) has been used to decide if we should approach to the masseter or temporal muscle. The aim of this study is validate the clinical usefulness of 4DMM on the basis of the surgical results. Methods: The 4DMM was constructed from the digital data of 3D-CT and 4-dimentional mandibular movements of the patients. It made us to able to visually observe the expansion rate of masticatory muscles at maximum mouth opening comparing to their length at closed mouth position. Fifteen patients were applied the 4DMM before the surgical treatment and 2 healthy volunteers were enrolled as control group. Results: The expansion rate of temporal muscle at the maximum mouth opening in the patient group was significantly less than that in the control group (P?

  17. Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and concurrent musculoskeletal deformities in western Canadian foals: reexamination of a previously described syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, A L; Doige, C E; Fretz, P B; Townsend, H G

    1994-01-01

    A syndrome of neonatal foals characterized by hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and concurrent musculoskeletal deformities (TH-MSD) has been described in western Canada and may be increasing in incidence. In an attempt to improve recognition and understanding of this syndrome, 2946 records of equine abortuses, stillborns, and dead neonatal foals were examined to determine the laboratory involved, the year and month of submission, the breed and sex of the fetus or foal, the type of perinatal loss, the length of gestation, and whether or not the submission had evidence of a lesion of the thyroid gland, the musculoskeletal system, or other abnormal clinical or postmortem findings. One hundred and fifty-four (5.2%) records indicated the presence of an abnormal thyroid gland. Of these, 79 (2.7%) had additional lesions consistent with the TH-MSD syndrome described in the 1980s, while 75 (2.5%) were without these additional lesions. Comparisons among these two groups and a third group of fetuses and foals without lesions of the thyroids glands are described. The results confirm that the TH-MSD syndrome is a specific and unique disease with no breed or sex predilection. It is argued that there may be an "exposure-related" cause, and based on a review of similar disease syndromes of the horse, it is suggested that an examination of the feed is indicated in outbreaks of the TH-MSD syndrome. PMID:8044756

  18. Solifenacin/tamsulosin fixed-dose combination therapy to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Dimitropoulos, Konstantinos; Gravas, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has traditionally focused on the management of benign prostatic obstruction, but the contribution of bladder dysfunction has been recently recognized. Therefore, it is well understood that LUTS have multifactorial etiology and often occur in clusters and not in isolation. Voiding LUTS are highly prevalent in men, but storage LUTS have been proved to be more bothersome. ?1-Blockers are the most widely used pharmacologic agents for the treatment of symptoms relating to benign prostatic enlargement due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), while antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for overactive bladder symptoms. A combination of the two drug classes would be a reasonable approach to treat men with both storage and voiding symptoms, and several short-term studies have proved the efficacy and safety of different combinations with an ?1-blocker and an antimuscarinic. Following previous studies on the separate administration of solifenacin and tamsulosin, a fixed-dose combination tablet of tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) 0.4 mg and solifenacin succinate 6 mg has been recently introduced, and the current review evaluates the available data on the use of this fixed-dose combination in the treatment of LUTS in men with BPH. PMID:25834406

  19. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia and Hepatocellular Adenoma around the World Viewed through the Scope of the Immunopathological Classification

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rabih, Wesal R.; Chen, Pei-Jer; Evason, Kimberley; Ferrell, Linda; Hernandez-Prera, Juan C.; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Longerich, Thomas; Park, Young Nyun; Quaglia, Alberto; Schirmacher, Peter; Sempoux, Christine; Thung, Swan N.; Torbenson, Michael; Wee, Aileen; Yeh, Matthew M.; Yeh, Shiou-Hwei; Le Bail, Brigitte; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2013-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) are benign hepatocellular tumors. The risk of bleeding and malignant transformation of HCA are strong arguments to differentiate HCA from FNH. Despite great progress that has been made in the differential radiological diagnosis of the 2 types of nodules, liver biopsy is sometimes necessary to separate the 2 entities. Identification of HCA subtypes using immunohistochemical techniques, namely, HNF1A-inactivated HCA (35–40%), inflammatory HCA (IHCA), and beta-catenin-mutated inflammatory HCA (b-IHCA) (50–55%), beta-catenin-activated HCA (5–10%), and unclassified HCA (10%) has greatly improved the diagnostic accuracy of benign hepatocellular nodules. If HCA malignant transformation occurs in all HCA subgroups, the risk is by far the highest in the ?-catenin-mutated subgroups (b-HCA, b-IHCA). In the coming decade the management of HCA will be more dependent on the identification of HCA subtypes, particularly for smaller nodules (<5?cm) in terms of imaging, follow-up, and resection. PMID:23691331

  20. Research on quality of life in female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and issues in developing nations.

    PubMed

    Zainuddin, Ani Amelia; Grover, Sonia R; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah

    2013-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the commonest cause of ambiguous genitalia for female newborns and is one of the conditions under the umbrella term of "Disorders of Sex Development" (DSD). Management of these patients require multidisciplinary collaboration and is challenging because there are many aspects of care, such as the most appropriate timing and extent of feminizing surgery required and attention to psychosexual, psychological, and reproductive issues, which still require attention and reconsideration, even in developed nations. In developing nations, however, additional challenges prevail: poverty, lack of education, lack of easily accessible and affordable medical care, traditional beliefs on intersex, religious, and cultural issues, as well as poor community support. There is a paucity of long-term outcome studies on DSD and CAH to inform on best management to achieve optimal outcome. In a survey conducted on 16 patients with CAH and their parents in a Malaysian tertiary center, 31.3% of patients stated poor knowledge of their condition, and 37.5% did not realize that their medications were required for life. This review on the research done on quality of life (QOL) of female patients with CAH aims: to discuss factors affecting QOL of female patients with CAH, especially in the developing population; to summarize the extant literature on the quality of life outcomes of female patients with CAH; and to offer recommendations to improve QOL outcomes in clinical practice and research. PMID:23507003

  1. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with multinucleated stromal giant cells is neither exceptional in gynecomastia nor characteristic of neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Pižem, Jože; Velikonja, Mojca; Matjaši?, Alenka; Jerše, Maja; Glava?, Damjan

    2015-04-01

    Six cases of gynecomastia with pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) and multinucleated stromal giant cells (MSGC) associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have been reported, and finding MSGC within PASH in gynecomastia has been suggested as being a characteristic of NF1. The frequency of PASH with MSGC in gynecomastia and its specificity for NF1 have not, however, been systematically studied. A total of 337 gynecomastia specimens from 215 patients, aged from 8 to 78 years (median, 22 years) were reevaluated for the presence of PASH with MSGC. Breast tissue samples of 25 patients were analyzed for the presence of an NF1 gene mutation using next generation sequencing. Rare MSGC, usually in the background of PASH, were noted at least unilaterally in 27 (13 %) patients; and prominent MSGC, always in the background of PASH, were noted in 8 (4 %) patients. The NF1 gene was mutated in only 1 (an 8-year-old boy with known NF1 and prominent MSGC) of the 25 tested patients, including 6 patients with prominent MSGC and 19 patients with rare MSGC. MSGC, usually in the background of PASH, are not characteristic of NF1. PMID:25586494

  2. Application of mid-infrared (MIR) microscopy imaging for discrimination between follicular hyperplasia and follicular lymphoma in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Woess, C; Drach, M; Villunger, A; Tappert, R; Stalder, R; Pallua, J D

    2015-09-21

    Mid-infrared (MIR) microscopy imaging is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that uses infrared radiation to image molecules of interest in thin tissue sections. A major advantage of this technology is the acquisition of local molecular expression profiles, while maintaining the topographic integrity of the tissue. Therefore, this technology has become an essential tool for the detection and characterization of the molecular components of many biological processes. Using this method, it is possible to investigate the spatial distribution of proteins and small molecules within biological systems by in situ analysis. In this study, we have evaluated the potential of mid-infrared microscopy imaging to study biochemical changes which distinguish between reactive lymphadenopathy and cancer in genetically modified mice with different phenotypes. We were able to demonstrate that MIR microscopy imaging and multivariate image analyses of different mouse genotypes correlated well with the morphological tissue features derived from HE staining. Using principal component analyses, we were also able to distinguish spectral clusters from different phenotype samples, particularly from reactive lymphadenopathy (follicular hyperplasia) and cancer (follicular lymphoma). PMID:26236782

  3. Usefulness of KL-6 in the subtyping of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia of the pancreas, including carcinoma, dysplasia, and hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Yuji; Watanabe, Ryohei; Kimura, Masashi; Nomura, Katsuyoshi; Maeda, Tomoharu; Kito, Katsumi; Takeji, Miyuki; Lee, Gang-Hong; Furihata, Mutsuo

    2015-06-01

    KL-6 is known as a useful serum biomarker of the disease activity in interstitial pneumonias. We investigated its usefulness as a biomarker for subtyping intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas. IPMNs are generally divided into 4 subtypes, namely pancreatobiliary (PB), intestinal (INT), gastric (GS), and oncocytic (ONC). Aside from the KL-6 antibody, the MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and MIB-1 antibodies were also examined. Eighteen IPMN cases were examined, including 12 cases of intraductal papillary mucinous carcinomas (IPMCs) simultaneously associated with dysplasia (IPMDs) and hyperplasia (IPMHs) and 6 IPMD cases with IPMH. KL-6 antibody was positive in the 8 IPMC cases, corresponding to a MUC2-negative PB subtype, but negative in 4 IPMC cases, corresponding to the INT subtype, which is positive for MUC2. IPMD of moderate-to-severe degree positively stained for the KL-6 antibody in the IPMC cases of the PB subtype but not in those of the INT subtype. The IPMH cases were mostly negative for KL-6, similar to the mild IPMD cases. In the 6 cases of mild IPMD and/or IPMH, KL-6 and MUC2 expressions were mostly negative. In conclusion, the KL-6 antibody is immunohistochemically a good biomarker of the PB subtype of IPMC, but not the INT subtype. Identifying IPMN subtypes based on KL-6 stainability would be useful. Clinicopathological studies with more IPMC cases might be needed for further progress in this field of study. PMID:24908068

  4. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into normal rabbit arteries results in prolonged vascular cell activation, inflammation, and neointimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, K D; Dunn, P F; Owens, J W; Schulick, A H; Virmani, R; Sukhova, G; Libby, P; Dichek, D A

    1995-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are capable of high efficiency in vivo arterial gene transfer, and are currently in use as therapeutic agents in animal models of vascular disease. However, despite substantial data on the ability of viruses to cause vascular inflammation and proliferation, and the presence in current adenovirus vectors of viral open reading frames that are translated in vivo, no study has examined the effect of adenovirus vectors alone on the arterial phenotype. In a rabbit model of gene transfer into a normal artery, we examined potential vascular cell activation, inflammation, and neointimal proliferation resulting from exposure to replication-defective adenovirus. Exposure of normal arteries to adenovirus vectors resulted in: (a) pronounced infiltration of T cells throughout the artery wall; (b) upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in arterial smooth muscle cells; (c) neointimal hyperplasia. These findings were present both 10 and 30 d after gene transfer, with no evidence of a decline in severity over time. Adenovirus vectors have pleiotropic effects on the arterial wall and cause significant pathology. Interpretation of experimental protocols that use adenovirus vectors to address either biological or therapeutic issues should take these observations into account. These observations should also prompt the design of more inert gene transfer vectors. Images PMID:8675667

  5. Underestimation of cancer in case of diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) by vacuum assisted core needle biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Polom, Karol; Murawa, Dawid; Kurzawa, Pawe?; Michalak, Micha?; Murawa, Pawe?

    2012-01-01

    Background With the introduction of mammography screening, we are more often dealing with the diagnosis of precancerous and preinvasive breast lesions. An increasing number of patients are observed to show a premalignant change of ADH (atypical ductal hyperplasia). It also involves a wider use of the vacuum assisted core biopsy as a tool for verifying nonpalpable changes identified by mammography. Aim This paper describes our experience of 134 cases of ADH diagnosed at Mammotome® vacuum core needle biopsy. Material and methods Of 4326 mammotomic biopsies performed at our institution in 2000–2006, ADH was diagnosed in 134 patients (3.1%). Patients underwent surgery to remove the suspected lesion. All histopathological blocks were again reviewed by one pathologist. Clinical, radiological and pathological data were collected for statistical evaluation. Results Underestimation of invasive changes occurred in 12 patients (9%). The only clinicopathologic feature of statistical significance radiologically and pathologically was the presence of radial scar in the mammography. Conclusions More frequent diagnosis of precancerous changes in the mammotomic breast biopsy forces us to establish a clear clinical practice. The problem is the underestimation of invasive changes. The occurrence of radial scar on mammography for diagnosis of the presence of ADH increases the risk of invasive changes. PMID:24377013

  6. Recombinant platelet-derived growth factor B gene expression in porcine arteries induce intimal hyperplasia in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Nabel, E G; Yang, Z; Liptay, S; San, H; Gordon, D; Haudenschild, C C; Nabel, G J

    1993-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B chain induces cell proliferation in vitro and is associated with arterial lesions that cause cardiovascular disease. However, it has been difficult to document the biological response to PDGF B gene expression in arteries in vivo. To determine the biologic effects of this growth factor in vivo, we have introduced an eukaryotic expression vector plasmid encoding recombinant PDGF B by direct gene transfer into porcine iliofemoral arteries using DNA liposome complexes. The presence of PDGF B plasmid DNA and expression of recombinant mRNA were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis, and recombinant PDGF protein was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Intimal thickening was observed in porcine arteries 21 days following transfection with the recombinant PDGF B gene compared with arteries transduced with a control gene, E. coli beta-galactosidase. An eightfold increase in intimal to medial ratio was present in PDGF B gene transfected arteries compared with control transfected arteries (P = 0.001). This study suggests that expression of a recombinant PDGF B gene in vivo can play a role in the induction of intimal hyperplasia, which can lead to cardiovascular diseases. Images PMID:8473521

  7. New observations in a child with angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease) originated from the mesenteric root.

    PubMed

    Hung, I J; Kuo, T T; Lin, J N

    1992-08-01

    Localized plasma cell type Castleman's disease (CD) is an unusual pathologic entity. It is frequently associated with clinical and laboratory characteristics and rarely occurs in children. Total surgical excision results in cure in all aspects. To make early diagnosis of mesenteric CD is not easy, especially for children. An 11-year-old Taiwanese boy was recently evaluated for anemia and delayed growth. His clinical findings included a syndrome of severe hypochromic microcytic anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytosis, hypoferremia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and growth failure. Radiological examinations (abdominal ultrasound, small intestinal series, and computerized tomography) identified hepatosplenomegaly, nephromegaly, and huge masses in the middle abdomen with precaval, celiac, and paraaortic lymph nodal enlargement. However, detailed physical examination failed to detect a mass. At laparotomy a double-fist-sized confluent mass was found arising from the mesenteric root. Most masses were discrete and were excised individually. The pathologic diagnosis was plasma-cell type angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease). Seven weeks after surgery, he had an episode of acute hepatitis B. Postoperatively, he exhibited a dramatic growth spurt; the hemoglobin, red blood cell indices, serum iron, and immunoglobulins returned to normal in 2 months. Neutropenia, which has not been previously related to mesenteric CD, was an unexpected finding in our case; however, it resolved spontaneously 3 months after the surgery, suggesting its causal relationship with the tumor. PMID:1510196

  8. Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: Implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lima Sobrinho, Rodrigo; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Abril Abril, Gwenaël; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2013-04-01

    We assessed the effects of hydrodynamical variations on the distributions and sources of branched and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs and isoGDGTs, respectively) transported by the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin. Particulate suspended matter was collected in the Amazonian rivers and floodplain lakes at four different seasons (rising water, high water, falling water, and low water) at 6 stations along the main stem of the Amazon River, 3 tributaries (Negro, Madeira, and Tapajós) and 5 floodplain lakes (Manacapuru, Janauacá, Mirituba, Canaçari and Curuai). The concentration and distribution of brGDGTs of both core lipid (CL) and intact polar lipid (IPL)-derived fractions were investigated applying IPL-derived brGDGTs as an indicator of brGDGTs derived from recently-living cells. The organic carbon (OC)-normalized concentrations of CL brGDGTs mimicked the trend of the hydrological variation with highest concentrations during the high water season. The CL brGDGT distributions were most alike those of lowland Amazon (terra firme) soils during the high water season, indicating that input of soil-derived, allochthonous brGDGTs to the Amazon River was highest at that period. Accordingly, the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and the cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) varied corresponding to the hydrological changes, with the increasing influence of in situ produced brGDGTs in rivers and floodplain lakes during the low water season. The concentrations of CL crenarchaeol were highest during the low water season, due to increased autochthonous production. The concentration changes of both brGDGTs and crenarchaeol lead to a variation of the branched and isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index between 0.4 (low water) and 0.9 (high water). Hence, our study hints at the effect of hydrodynamical variations on the source of brGDGTs and isoGDGTs transported by rivers to the ocean and emphasized the importance of a detailed study of a river basin before applying the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index in the adjacent marine setting.

  9. Lies, Damn Lies, and Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Keith Curry; Cox, Marti A.

    2000-01-01

    Offers a methodological critique of Thomas Hennen's American Public Library Rating Index as well as a response by Hennen. Discusses statistics; indexes; correlations; variables; weighting; and how public libraries should be assessed, and Hennen defends his work and suggests it should be called a scorecard rather than an index. (LRW)

  10. Terahertz metasurfaces with a high refractive index enhanced by the strong nearest neighbor coupling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siyu; Yan, Fengping; Singh, Leena; Cao, Wei; Xu, Ningning; Hu, Xiang; Singh, Ranjan; Wang, Mingwei; Zhang, Weili

    2015-11-01

    The realization of high refractive index is of significant interest in optical imaging with enhanced resolution. Strongly coupled subwavelength resonators were proposed and demonstrated at both optical and terahertz frequencies to enhance the refractive index due to large induced dipole moment in meta-atoms. Here, we report an alternative design for flexible free-standing terahertz metasurface in the strong coupling regime where we experimentally achieve a peak refractive index value of 14.36. We also investigate the impact of the nearest neighbor coupling in the form of frequency tuning and enhancement of the peak refractive index. We provide an analytical circuit model to explain the impact of geometrical parameters and coupling on the effective refractive index of the metasurface. The proposed meta-atom structure enables tailoring of the peak refractive index based on nearest neighbor coupling and this property offers tremendous design flexibility for transformation optics and other index-gradient devices at terahertz frequencies. PMID:26561192

  11. Solar index generation and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

  12. A New Comparison of the "Current Index to Journals in Education" and the "Education Index": A Deep Analysis of Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Suzanne; Edwards, Jana S.; LaSee-Willemssen, Jeneen

    1999-01-01

    This article compares "Current Index to Journals in Education" (CIJE) with "Education Index" by article type and reveals pronounced differences in indexing practices. Implications for educational and interdisciplinary research, reference services, index selection, and library instruction are discussed. (Author)

  13. Prostatic hyperplasia is highly associated with nocturia and excessive sleepiness: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Leger, Damien; Comet, Denis; Haab, François

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to assess the impact of nocturia on sleep in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) (nocturia?2). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting 798 urologists and general practitioners randomly selected from the overall population of urologists and general practitioners of every French region. Participants A total of 2179 LUTS/BPE men (aged 67.5±7.5?years old) were recruited. Primary and secondary outcome measures Validated patients' self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the severity of LUTS/BPE (the International Prostate Symptom Score), sleep characteristics (sleep log) and sleep disorders (the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) and the DSM-IV). Sleepiness was assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The volume of 24?h diuresis (1500?ml) was measured. Results Participants had on average 2.9±0.9 nocturia episodes (three or more episodes in 67%) and the International Prostate Symptom Score of 15.8±5.7; 60.9% complained of insomnia according to the ICSD-2, 7.9% of restless leg syndrome and 6.4% of obstructive sleep apnoea. 32.3% had excessive sleepiness (ESS >10) and 3.1% severe excessive sleepiness (ESS >16). Insomnia was mainly nocturnal awakenings with an average wake after sleep onset of 89±47?min. The number of episodes of nocturia per night correlated significantly with wake after sleep onset and ESS but not with total sleep time and sleep latency. Conclusion Nocturia is significantly associated with sleep maintenance insomnia and sleepiness in men with BPE. PMID:22649170

  14. RECYCLABILITY INDEX FOR AUTOMOBILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project's purpose is to create a rating system for the ecological impacts of vehicles at the end of their life based on recyclability, toxic material content, and ultimate disposal. Each year, 10-11 million vehicles are retired from service in the United States. The vehi...

  15. The effect of immediate surgical bipolar plasmakinetic transurethral resection of the prostate on prostatic hyperplasia with acute urinary retention.

    PubMed

    He, Le-Ye; Zhang, Yi-Chuan; He, Jing-Liang; Li, Liu-Xun; Wang, Yong; Tang, Jin; Tan, Jing; Zhong, Kuangbaio; Tang, Yu-Xin; Long, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of immediate surgical bipolar plasmakinetic transurethral resection of the prostate (PK-TURP) for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with acute urinary retention (AUR). We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical data of BPH patients who received PK-TURP. A total of 1126 BPH patients were divided into AUR (n = 348) and non-AUR groups (n = 778). After the urethral catheters were removed, the urine white blood cell (WBC) count in the AUR group significantly increased compared with the non-AUR group (P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in international prostate symptom score, painful urination, and maximal urinary flow rate. The duration of hospitalization of the AUR group was longer than that of the non-AUR group (P < 0.001). A total of 87.1% (303/348) patients in the AUR group and 84.1% (654/778) patients in the non-AUR group completed all of the postoperative follow-up visits. The incidence of urinary tract infection in the AUR group within 3 months after surgery was significantly higher than that in the non-AUR group (P < 0.01). The incidence of temporary urinary incontinence in the AUR group did not exhibit significant difference. During 3-12 months after surgery, there were no significant differences in major complications between the two groups. Multivariate regression analyses showed that age, postvoid residual, maximal urinary flow rate, diabetes, and hypertension, but not the presence of AUR, were independent predictors of IPSS post-PK-TURP. In conclusion, immediate PK-TURP surgery on patients accompanied by AUR was safe and effective. PMID:26178398

  16. Occupational risk factors for prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia: a case–control study in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fritschi, L; Glass, D C; Tabrizi, J S; Leavy, J E; Ambrosini, G L

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of selected occupational exposures with risk of prostate cancer and with risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods This population?based case–control study recruited 606 men with a diagnosis of confirmed prostate cancer, 400 men who had undergone their first prostatectomy for BPH and 471 male controls randomly selected from the electoral roll between 1 August 2001 and 1 October 2002 in Western Australia. ?2 tests and logistic regressions were used for univariate and multivariate analyses to investigate the association of the two outcomes with occupational exposure to pesticides, fertilisers, metals, wood dust, oils, diesel exhaust and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results Exposure to toxic metals at a non?substantial level increased the risk of BPH (odds ratio (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 1.84) and led to a non?significant excess risk of prostate cancer (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.61). Non?significant excess risks were observed for prostate cancer after exposure to oils other than mineral oil (OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.51) and for BPH after exposure to PAHs (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.58). A non?statistically significant protective effect for prostate cancer was seen after exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OR 0. 69, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.12). No other associations were found for either prostate cancer or BPH and no dose–response relationships were seen for the exposures investigated. Conclusions These results do not provide evidence that any of the occupational factors examined are risk factors for either prostate cancer or BPH. PMID:17018583

  17. Seasonal Variation of Urinary Symptoms in Korean Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ho Chul; Kwon, Jong Kyu; Lee, Joo Yong; Han, Jang Hee; Jung, Hae Do

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine seasonal variations in urinary symptoms in Korean men with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). Materials and Methods Records were obtained from a consecutive database of LUTS/BPH patients from March 2010 to February 2014. A total of 1,185 patients were suitable for analysis. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), uroflowmetric parameters, prostate volume-related parameters, and serum prostate-specific antigen levels were evaluated. Results Based on the month during which they were examined, patients were categorized into cold, hot, or intermediate season groups. The IPSS score was significantly different between the cold and the hot season groups (17.3±6.9 vs. 16.1±7.4, respectively; p=0.020). Storage symptom scores were significantly aggravated in the cold (6.8±3.3; p=0.030) and intermediate groups (6.9±3.5; p=0.032) compared with the hot season group (6.3±3.4), with this observation primarily driven by the individual scores for frequency and urgency. Quality of life (QOL) scores were worse in the cold compared with the hot season group (4.0±1.1 vs. 3.8±1.1, respectively; p=0.012). There were also significant differences between the cold and hot season groups in voided volume (278.7±148.5 vs. 255.9±145.1, respectively; p=0.034) and postvoid residual volume (26.4±37.6 vs. 32.2±41.0, respectively; p=0.039). Conclusions Different urinary symptoms and uroflowmetric parameters were associated with changes in seasons. QOL and IPSS parameters might be worse in cold weather seasons compared with hot weather seasons. PMID:26331124

  18. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency: functional consequences of four CYP11B1 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Menabò, Soara; Polat, Seher; Baldazzi, Lilia; Kulle, Alexandra E; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Grötzinger, Joachim; Fanelli, Flaminia; Balsamo, Antonio; Riepe, Felix G

    2014-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common autosomal recessive inherited endocrine disease. Steroid 11?-hydroxylase deficiency (11?-OHD) is the second most common form of CAH. The aim of the study was to study the functional consequences of three novel and one previously described CYP11B1 gene mutations (p.(Arg143Trp), p.(Ala306Val), p.(Glu310Lys) and p.(Arg332Gln)) detected in patients suffering from classical and non-classical 11?-OHD. Functional analyses were performed by using a HEK293 cell in vitro expression system comparing wild type (WT) with mutant 11?-hydroxylase activity. Mutant proteins were examined in silico to study their effect on the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Two mutations (p.(Ala306Val) and p.(Glu310Lys)) detected in patients with classical 11?-OHD showed a nearly complete loss of 11?-hydroxylase activity. The mutations p.(Arg143Trp) and p.(Arg332Gln) detected in patients with non-classical 11?-OHD showed a partial functional impairment with approximately 8% and 6% of WT activity, respectively. Functional mutation analysis allows the classification of novel CYP11B1 mutations as causes of classical and non-classical 11?-OHD. The detection of patients with non-classical phenotypes underscores the importance to screen patients with a phenotype comparable to non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency for mutations in the CYP11B1 gene in case of a negative analysis of the CYP21A2 gene. As CYP11B1 mutations are most often individual for a family, the in vitro analysis of novel mutations is essential for clinical and genetic counselling. PMID:24022297

  19. Over-expression of Plk4 induces centrosome amplification, loss of primary cilia and associated tissue hyperplasia in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paula A; Bury, Leah; Shahbazi, Marta N; Liakath-Ali, Kifayathullah; Tate, Peri H; Wormald, Sam; Hindley, Christopher J; Huch, Meritxell; Archer, Joy; Skarnes, William C; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena; Glover, David M

    2015-12-01

    To address the long-known relationship between supernumerary centrosomes and cancer, we have generated a transgenic mouse that permits inducible expression of the master regulator of centriole duplication, Polo-like-kinase-4 (Plk4). Over-expression of Plk4 from this transgene advances the onset of tumour formation that occurs in the absence of the tumour suppressor p53. Plk4 over-expression also leads to hyperproliferation of cells in the pancreas and skin that is enhanced in a p53 null background. Pancreatic islets become enlarged following Plk4 over-expression as a result of equal expansion of ?- and ?-cells, which exhibit centrosome amplification. Mice overexpressing Plk4 develop grey hair due to a loss of differentiated melanocytes and bald patches of skin associated with a thickening of the epidermis. This reflects an increase in proliferating cells expressing keratin 5 in the basal epidermal layer and the expansion of these cells into suprabasal layers. Such cells also express keratin 6, a marker for hyperplasia. This is paralleled by a decreased expression of later differentiation markers, involucrin, filaggrin and loricrin. Proliferating cells showed an increase in centrosome number and a loss of primary cilia, events that were mirrored in primary cultures of keratinocytes established from these animals. We discuss how repeated duplication of centrioles appears to prevent the formation of basal bodies leading to loss of primary cilia, disruption of signalling and thereby aberrant differentiation of cells within the epidermis. The absence of p53 permits cells with increased centrosomes to continue dividing, thus setting up a neoplastic state of error prone mitoses, a prerequisite for cancer development. PMID:26701933

  20. Plasmakinetic vaporization versus plasmakinetic resection to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia: A prospective randomized trial with 1 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Karadag, Mert Ali; Cecen, Kursat; Demir, Aslan; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Altunrende, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the efficacy and outcomes of plasma-kinetic vaporization (PKVP) and plasmakinetic resection (PKR) to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: A total of 183 patients with BPH underwent plasma-kinetic prostatic surgery between 2008 and 2012 at Kars State Hospital and Kafkas University Faculty of Medicine, Turkey. After clinical and preoperative evaluation, the patients were randomized to PKRP or PKVP groups sequentially by using computer-generated numbers. Group 1 included 96 patients treated with PKR. Group 2 included 87 patients treated with PKVP. Patients in both groups were compared in terms of hemoglobin drop, operation time, catheter duration, reobstruction, incontinence and recatheterization. Results: When we compared the maximum flow rates (Qmax values) at the 12th month, there was no statistical difference between 2 groups. Group 1 had a mean Qmax value of 17.92 ± 3.819 and Group 2 had a 18.15 ± 3.832 value (p > 0.05). There was a statistical difference between the groups in terms of hemoglobin drop, catheter duration and operation time. The mean catheter duration in Group 1 was 3.74 ± 1.049 days, and in Group 2 it was 2.64 ± 0.849 days (p < 0.05). Operation time was statistically longer in Group 2 (PKVP) and hemoglobin drop was statistically higher in Group 1 (PKR). Conclusion: PKVP for BPH is safe and effective. When compared with PKRP, it provides a significantly shorter catheter duration and less bleeding due to hemostasis control with similar IPSS and Qmax improvements after 1 year. PMID:25295128