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Sample records for hyperplasia impact index

  1. Clinical Significance of the Resistive Index of Prostatic Blood Flow According to Prostate Size in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors evaluated the relationships between the clinical factors and resistive indexes (RIs) of prostate and urethral blood flows by using power Doppler transrectal ultrasonography (PDUS) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: The data of 110 patients with BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) treated between January 2015 and July 2015 were prospectively collected. PDUS was used to identify the capsular and urethral arteries of the prostate in order to measure RIs. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximal flow rate (Qmax), total prostate volume (TPV), transition zone volume (TZV), transition zone index (=TZV/TPV), presence of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP), and the RIs of capsular and urethral arteries were evaluated for all of the patients by one urologist. Results: The 110 patients were categorized according to IPSS (mild symptoms, 0–7; moderate symptoms, 8–19; and severe symptoms, 20–35), Qmax (<10 and ≥10 mL/sec), TPV (<30 and ≥30 mL), and presence or absence of IPP. No significant relationship was found between the mean RI of any artery and IPSS or Qmax. The mean RIs of the urethral artery, and left and right capsular arteries were significantly dependent on prostate size and the presence of IPP. Conclusions: RI obtained by using PDUS correlated with the presence of IPP and prostate size. The RI of prostate blood flow can be used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for BPH with LUTS. PMID:27032561

  2. [Impact factor and/or Hirsch index?].

    PubMed

    Gracza, Tünde; Somoskövi, Istvánné

    2007-05-01

    Is the best measure of a scientist's worth the total number of his or her published papers? For many years Institute for Scientific Information has been publishing the lists of impact factors providing quantitative tools for ranking scientists. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated each year by the Institute for Scientific Information for those journals which it indexes, and are published in Journal Citation Reports. These measures apply only to journals, not individual articles or individual scientists. For the impact factor of individual scientists, there exists the h-index or Hirsch number. The Hirsch-index (h-index) has recently been defined by Hirsch as a new method for measuring the scientific activity. If a scientist has published n articles which all have been cited at least n times, then he will have a h-index of n . The h-index seeks to describe the impact of individual researchers, rather than journals. The h-index is the result of the balance between the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. H-index: Impact of Individual Scientists. H-index or/and impact factor - it is the question of the future. PMID:17468068

  3. Relationships between Serum Luteinizing Hormone Level, Endometrial Thickness and Body Mass Index in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients with and without Endometrial Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanali, Fariba; Khalili, Gholamreza; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Bagheri Lankarani, Narges; Moini, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background The endometrial hyperplasia measured by ultrasound in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women is strongly related to pathologic endometrial thickness, but there is no consensus on the relation between serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and either of these factors: pathologic endometrial hyperplasia and body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods In this observational cross-sectional study, three hundred fifty infertile PCOS women were involved in this research. An endometrial biopsy was taken by using a pipelle instrument, regardless of menstrual cycle’s day and all samples were reported by the same pathologist. Basal serum LH level was compared between two subgroups (hyperplasia and non-hyperplasia). The intended population was divided into three groups according to BMI and basal serum LH, later on the comparison was made in three groups. Chi-square test was applied to compare nominal variables between groups. Mann-Whitney U, and one way ANOVA tests were used to compare means on the basis of the result of normality test. Results The frequency of endometrial hyperplasia was 2.6%. Endometrial thickness in the patients with endometrial hyperplasia was significantly higher than that of a normal endometrium (10.78 ± 3.70 vs. 7.90 ± 2.86 respectively, P=0.020). There was no relation between endometrial hyperplasia and serum LH (P=0.600). The ANOVA test showed serum LH levels were not the same among three BMI groups (P=0.007). Post hoc test was also performed. It showed that the LH level in normal BMI group was significantly higher than those of other groups (P=0.005 and P=0.004), but there was no statistical difference between overweight and obese groups (P=0.8). We found no relationship between BMI and endometrial thickness in PCOS patients (P=0.6). Conclusion Sonographic endometrial stripe thickness is predictive for endometrial hyperplasia in PCOS women. We could not find out any relationship between serum LH level and BMI with endometrial thickness in

  4. Impact of medical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia on sexual function.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Francois

    2006-04-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and male sexual dysfunction are highly prevalent in ageing men, and are strongly linked. Various treatment strategies for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)/LUTS may affect sexuality, with differences between drug classes and between drugs within a same class. The 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, finasteride and dutasteride, are associated with a greater risk of erectile dysfunction (ED), ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and decreased libido than is placebo. Alpha1-adrenoceptor blockers (alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, terazosin) show an incidence of decreased libido and ED closely similar to placebo, but differ in their impact on ejaculation, tamsulosin being associated with a higher incidence of EjD (10%) than other alpha1-adrenoceptor blockers (0-1%) and placebo (1%), which is unrelated to retrograde ejaculation or higher efficacy. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study conducted in healthy volunteers showed that tamsulosin 0.8 mg once daily markedly decreased mean ejaculate volume in almost 90% of subjects, with 35% having no ejaculation. By contrast, there was no lack of ejaculation in subjects receiving alfuzosin 10 mg once daily or placebo. Sperm concentrations in urine after ejaculation were similar for the three treatment groups, confirming that the EjD with tamsulosin was unrelated to retrograde ejaculation. It may be related to a peripheral effect on seminal vesicles and/or the vas deferens. A central effect is also plausible, as tamsulosin shows a strong affinity for 5HT1A- and D2-like receptors, both of which are involved in the central command of ejaculation. In conclusion, because treatment options for managing BPH have different effects on sexuality, the sexual dimension should be considered when assessing patients' expectations and the choice of treatment. PMID:16507052

  5. Median Citation Index vs Journal Impact Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2015-03-01

    The Journal Impact Factor is an arithmetic mean: It is the average number of citations, in a year, to a journal's articles that were published the previous two years. But for the vast majority of scholarly journals, the distribution of these citations is skewed (non-symmetric). We argue that a more representative member of the skewed distribution of citations is its median, not the mean. We thus introduce the Median Citation Index (MCI) and compare it to the journal Impact Factor (JIF) as a potentially more suitable choice of the ``center'' of the distribution, or its typical value. Unlike the JIF, the MCI is far less sensitive to outlier (very highly cited) papers or to gaming, and does not lend itself to the hype of calculating it to three decimal digits.

  6. Condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Uma; Chandra, Subhash; Raju, B H V Rama Krishnam; Anitha, G; Srikanth, K Venkata; Laheji, Afshan

    2012-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH), as the name suggests, affects mandibular condyle producing overgrowth of condyle, which is characterized by a slowly progressive, usually unilateral enlargement of the mandible, facial asymmetry and deviation of chin to the unaffected side. The condition is known to be self-limiting, usually begins around puberty, but may not be recognized until later in life. This paper reports a case of severe facial asymmetry secondary to CH, which was successfully treated by high condylectomy only. PMID:23404027

  7. The Economic Impact of Delaying 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitor Therapy in Men Receiving Treatment for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, Michael; Eaddy, Michael T.; Hogue, Susan L.; Kruep, Eric J.; Shah, Manan B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pharmacologic treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia often includes alpha-blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. Many clinicians use alpha-blockers for rapid symptom control, later adding 5-alpha reductase inhibitors to modify long-term disease progression. Delaying the addition of these medications has been shown to result in reduced clinical outcomes. The economic impact of this practice has not been widely studied or reported to date. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of delaying initiation of concomitant 5-alpha reductase inhibitor therapy (≥30 days) in patients receiving alpha-blockers for lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods Using 2 nationally representative databases (Integrated Health Care Information Solutions and PharMetrics), 2 retrospective analyses were conducted involving 2636 and 4260 men, respectively, aged ≥50 years treated for benign prostatic hyperplasia between 2000 and 2007. Economic outcomes (ie, the cost of therapy and the use of healthcare resources) were compared for adding 5-alpha reductase inhibitor therapy early (within <30 days of initiating an alpha-blocker) versus delaying these medications (≥30 days after initiating an alpha-blocker). Results In the Integrated Health Care Information Solutions analysis, patients in the early add-on therapy group (n = 1572) had lower benign prostatic hyperplasia–related medical costs in the posttreatment period than those in the delayed-therapy group (n = 1064), $349 versus $618 (P <.0001). Similar trends were seen in the PharMetrics analysis—the medical costs in the early add-on therapy group (n = 2604) and delayed group (n = 1656) were $344 versus $449, respectively (P <.001). Pharmacy costs were $1068 for the early-treatment cohort and $989 for the delayed-treatment cohort for the Integrated Health Care Information Solutions database, yielding total costs of $1417 and $1606, respectively

  8. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Overview What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia? Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or CAH, is a disorder that affects the adrenal glands. The adrenal ...

  9. Development of a symptom severity index and a symptom impact index for stress incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Black, N; Griffiths, J; Pope, C

    1996-01-01

    Stress incontinence is a common problem among women, yet there is no adequately validated instrument for measuring women's views of its severity (disease-specific health status). The only instrument for measuring the impact or bothersomeness of symptoms (disease-specific quality of life) has poor internal consistency. This paper describes the development and psychometric assessment of two new indexes, a Symptom Severity Index and a Symptom Impact Index. Following several qualitative enquiries, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 442 women undergoing stress incontinence surgery. The face and content validity of the items comprising the indexes was good. The Severity Index (0-20) showed good variability (median 14, interquartile range 6) and adequate internal consistency (alpha 0.76). The Impact Index (0-12) also had good variability (median 5, interquartile range 3.5) and internal consistency (alpha 0.80). Convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated for both indexes. Test-retest reliability was high. While responsiveness is still to be tested, the two indexes are psychometrically strong and can be used to measure the severity and impact of stress incontinence in women. PMID:8916115

  10. Somatotroph Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Thorner, M. O.; Perryman, R. L.; Cronin, M. J.; Rogol, A. D.; Draznin, M.; Johanson, A.; Vale, W.; Horvath, E.; Kovacs, K.

    1982-01-01

    A 21-yr-old woman with Turner's syndrome presented with signs and symptoms of acromegaly. The serum growth hormone (GH) (95±9.4 ng/ml; mean±SEM) and somatomedin C (11 U/ml) levels were elevated, and an increase in GH levels after glucose instead of normal suppression, increase after thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) administration instead of no change, and decrease after dopamine administration instead of stimulation were observed. The pituitary fossa volume was greater than normal (1,440 mm3) and the presence of a pituitary tumor was assumed. After tissue removal at transsphenoidal surgery, histological study revealed somatotroph hyperplasia rather than a discrete adenoma. Postoperatively, she remained clinically acromegalic and continued to show increased GH and somatomedin levels. A search was made for ectopic source of a growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF). Computer tomographic scan revealed a 5-cm Diam tumor in the tail of the pancreas. Following removal of this tumor, serum GH fell from 70 to 3 ng/ml over 2 h, and remained low for the subsequent 5 mo. Serum somatomedin C levels fell from 7.2 to normal by 6 wk postoperatively. There were no longer paradoxical GH responses to glucose, TRH, and dopamine. Both the medium that held the tumor cells at surgery and extracts of the tumor contained a peptide with GRF activity. The GRF contained in the tumor extract coeluted on Sephadex G-50 chromatography with rat hypothalamic GH-releasing activity. Stimulation of GH from rat somatotrophs in vitro was achieved at the nanomolar range, using the tumor extract. The patient's course demonstrates the importance of careful interpretation of pituitary histology. Elevated serum GH and somatomedin C levels in a patient with an enlarged sella turcica and the characteristic responses seen in acromegaly to TRH, dopamine, and glucose do not occur exclusively in patients with discrete pituitary tumors and acromegaly. This condition can also occur with somatotroph hyperplasia

  11. Impact of Treatment With Statins on Prostate-Specific Antigen and Prostate Volume in Patients With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hun; Park, Tae Ju; Bae, Min Ho; Choi, Sung Ho; Cho, Young Sam; Joo, Kwan Joong; Kwon, Chil Hun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the impact on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume (PV) of statin medication for 1 year in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods We retrospectively investigated 791 patients in whom BPH was diagnosed. For analysis, the patients were divided into four groups according to their medications: group A, α-blocker; group B, α-blocker+statin; group C, α-blocker+dutasteride; group D, α-blockers+statin+dutasteride. To investigate changes in serum PSA, PV, and total cholesterol, we analyzed the data at the time of initial treatment and after 1 year of medication. Results After 1 year, group A showed a 1.3% increase in PSA and a 1.0% increase in PV. Group B showed a 4.3% decrease in PSA and a 1.8% decrease in PV. The difference in PV reduction between groups A and B was statistically significant (p<0.001). Group C showed a 49.1% reduction in PSA and a 22.9% reduction in PV. Group D showed a 51.6% reduction in PSA and a 24.5% reduction in PV. The difference in PV reduction between groups C and D was not statistically significant (p=0.762). By use of a multivariate logistic regression model, we found that the probability of PV reduction after 1 year was more than 14.8 times in statin users than in statin nonusers (95% confidence interval, 5.8% to 37.6%; p<0.001). Conclusions Statin administration reduced PSA and PV in BPH patients. This finding may imply the improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms and prevention of cardiovascular disease and chemoprevention of prostate cancer with statin treatment. PMID:24255756

  12. Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treatment with Tamsulosin and Solifenacin Combination Therapy on Erectile Function

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Deok Ha; Kam, Sung Chul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects on erectile function of concomitant treatment with an alpha-blocker (tamsulosin) and an antimuscarinic agent (solifenacin) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods Fifty-seven male patients with LUTS/BPH were assessed for the degree of LUTS and erectile function. In group 1 (tamsulosin) and group 2 (tamsulosin and solifenacin), changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS: total scores, storage symptoms (ST), voiding symptoms (VD), and quality of life (QoL)], prostate-specific antigen, trans-rectal ultrasonography, urine flowmetry, residual urine, and a 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) were assessed after a 3-month treatment period. In both groups, it was determined whether treatment was associated with changes in LUTS and erectile function and whether improvement in the IPSS was correlated with the IIEF-5. Comparative analysis was also done to examine the linear relationship between improved IPSS scores and IIEF-5 scores. Results A comparison of the degree of improvement in all the parameters indicated that both groups showed significant improvement in total IPSS, IPSS-ST, IPSS-VD, and IPSS-QoL (p<0.05). A comparison of the degree of improved sexual function associated with improved LUTS in each patient showed significant improvement in the IIEF-5 score associated with the degree of improvement in the IPSS-ST domain in group 1, but no significant associations were found in group 2. In cases in which tamsulosin was administered, the IIEF-5 score significantly improved as the IPSS-ST domain score improved. In the group in which tamsulosin and solifenacin were concomitantly administered, improvement of the IPSS-ST domain score had no significant effect on the IIEF-5 score. Conclusions In patients with LUTS/BPH, tamsulosin and solifenacin combination therapy was effective for LUTS, but erectile function was not

  13. PR-Index: Using the h-Index and PageRank for Determining True Impact.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Wang, Zhen; Li, Xianghua; Zhang, Zili; Zeng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Several technical indicators have been proposed to assess the impact of authors and institutions. Here, we combine the h-index and the PageRank algorithm to do away with some of the individual limitations of these two indices. Most importantly, we aim to take into account value differences between citations-evaluating the citation sources by defining the h-index using the PageRank score rather than with citations. The resulting PR-index is then constructed by evaluating source popularity as well as the source publication authority. Extensive tests on available collections data (i.e., Microsoft Academic Search and benchmarks on the SIGKDD innovation award) show that the PR-index provides a more balanced impact measure than many existing indices. Due to its simplicity and similarity to the popular h-index, the PR-index may thus become a welcome addition to the technical indices already in use. Moreover, growth dynamics prior to the SIGKDD innovation award indicate that the PR-index might have notable predictive power. PMID:27627767

  14. The impact of surgical treatments for lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia on male erectile function: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Chen, Ping; Wang, Jun; Mao, Qi; Xiang, Han; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Xinghuan; Zhang, Xinhua

    2016-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is common in adult men and can impair erectile function (EF). It was believed surgical treatments for this illness can improve EF due to the relief of LUTS while they were also reported harmed EF as heating or injury effect. Current network meta-analysis aimed to elucidate this discrepancy.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified. Direct comparisons were conducted by STATA and network meta-analysis was conducted by Generate Mixed Treatment Comparison. Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled standard mean difference and 95% confidence intervals and to incorporate variation between studies.Eighteen RCTs with 2433 participants were analyzed. Nine approaches were studied as transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), plasmakinetic resection of the prostate (PKRP), plasmakinetic enucleation of the prostate (PKEP), Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP), Holmium laser resection of the prostate (HoLRP), photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP), Thulium laser, open prostatectomy (OP), and laparoscopic simple prostatectomy (LSP). In direct comparisons, all surgical treatments did not decrease postoperative International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 score except PVP. Moreover, patients who underwent HoLEP, PKEP, Thulium laser, and TURP had their postoperative EF significantly increased. Network analysis including direct and indirect comparisons ranked LSP at the highest position on the variation of postoperative IIEF-5 score, followed by PKRP, HoLEP, TURP, Thulium laser, PKEP, PVP, HoLRP, and OP. In subgroup analysis, only PVP was found lower postoperative EF in the short term and decreased baseline group, whereas TURP increased postoperative IIEF-5 score only for patients with normal baseline EF. However, HoLEP and PKEP showed pro-erectile effect even for patients with decreased baseline EF and short-term follow-up. Our novel data demonstrating

  15. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Igor R C; Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho de; Andrade, Pedro Beraldo de; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometric indexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement. PMID:26107458

  16. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Bienert, Igor R C; de Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho; de Andrade, Pedro Beraldo; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometricindexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement. PMID:26107458

  17. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  18. The Global Health Impact Index: Promoting Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Hassoun, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people cannot access essential medicines they need for deadly diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS. There is good information on the need for drugs for these diseases but until now, no global estimate of the impact drugs are having on this burden. This paper presents a model measuring companies’ key malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS drugs’ consequences for global health (global-health-impact.org). It aggregates drugs’ impacts in several ways–by disease, country and originator-company. The methodology can be extended across diseases as well as drugs to provide a more extensive picture of the impact companies’ drugs are having on the global burden of disease. The study suggests that key malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS drugs are, together, ameliorating about 37% of the global burden of these diseases and Sanofi, Novartis, and Pfizer’s drugs are having the largest effect on this burden. Moreover, drug impacts vary widely across countries. This index provides important information for policy makers, pharmaceutical companies, countries, and other stake-holders that can help increase access to essential medicines. PMID:26657064

  19. Is Pederson Index a True Predictive Difficulty Index for Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Surgery? A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bali, Amit; Bali, Deepika; Sharma, Ashutosh; Verma, Gaurav

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to find out the clinical reliability of Pederson index in assessing the difficulty of surgery for impacted mandibular 3rd molar. The relevant articles were selected by Hand search and electronic media (Medline, Pubmed, Embase Cochrane library, ISI web of science) from Jan 2000 to Dec 2010. All the relevant articles were properly screened and findings were extracted from the articles. Pederson index had shown low sensitivity and specificity in predicting the difficulty of surgery for impacted mandibular 3rd molar. Positive and negative likelihood ratio had also shown the unreliability of Pederson index. The meta-analysis of the current literature concluded that Pederson index is not a reliable test to predict the surgical difficulty of impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:24431870

  20. Index of Alien Impact: A method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI...

  1. Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia: A Rare Cause of Idiopathic Gigantomastia

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mélissa; Lee, James; Aldekhayel, Salah

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Gigantomastia remains a rare clinical diagnosis with significant physical and psychological impacts on patients. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with idiopathic breast enlargement. Further histological analysis of the breast tissue revealed pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. This is the first reported case of diffuse breast enlargement resulting from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. PMID:26495214

  2. Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia: A Rare Cause of Idiopathic Gigantomastia.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mélissa; Lee, James; Aldekhayel, Salah; Dionisopoulos, Tassos

    2015-09-01

    Gigantomastia remains a rare clinical diagnosis with significant physical and psychological impacts on patients. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with idiopathic breast enlargement. Further histological analysis of the breast tissue revealed pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. This is the first reported case of diffuse breast enlargement resulting from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. PMID:26495214

  3. The endometrial hyperplasias revisited.

    PubMed

    Sivridis, Efthimios; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2008-09-01

    The proliferating lesions in the endometrium form a morphological continuum extending from benign to malignant, through a transitional pre-invasive stage. Within this spectrum, several classifications of endometrial hyperplasia have been developed over the years in which the precancerous lesions gained a substantial distinction, although not without inconsistencies in definitions and terminology. The revised WHO 1994 classification explicitly recognizes cytological atypia as the defining feature for distinguishing genuine hyperplastic lesions (simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia) from those that are potentially precancerous (simple and complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia) and puts an end to the verbal anarchy by adopting a common language of communication. This taxonomy, however, was criticized for complexity and low level of reproducibility. Thus, in the name of improved reproducibility a new classification was recently proposed which (a) combines simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia within one diagnostic category known as endometrial hyperplasia and (b) defines new criteria for recognising the precancerous lesions: a monoclonal growth, known as endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN), comprising clusters of crowded glands, greater than 1 mm in diameter, having a cytologically altered epithelium. The EIN concept was challenged of not being independently tested and received with great enthusiasm by some scholars and relative skepticism by others. PMID:18726114

  4. A Neurodegenerative Vascular Burden Index and the Impact on Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Roeben, Benjamin; Nasi-Kordhishti, Isabella; Suenkel, Ulrike; Wurster, Isabel; Brockmann, Kathrin; Fritsche, Andreas; Niebler, Raphael; Metzger, Florian G.; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of vascular burden factors has been identified to impact vascular function and structure as indicated by carotid intima–media thickness (IMT). On the basis of their impact on IMT, vascular factors may be selected and clustered in a vascular burden index (VBI). Since many vascular factors increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a multifactorial neurodegenerative VBI may be related to early pathological processes in AD and cognitive decline in its preclinical stages. We investigated an elderly cohort at risk for neurodegeneration (TREND study, n = 1102) for the multifactorial influence of vascular burden factors on IMT measured by ultrasound. To create a VBI for this cohort, vascular factors and their definitions (considering medical history, medication, and/or blood marker data) were selected based on their statistical effects on IMT in multiple regressions including age and sex. The impact of the VBI on cognitive performance was assessed using the Trail-Making Test (TMT) and the consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery. IMT was significantly predicted by age (standardized β = 0.26), sex (0.09; males > females) and the factors included in the VBI: obesity (0.18), hypertension (0.14), smoking (0.08), diabetes (0.07), and atherosclerosis (0.05), whereas other cardiovascular diseases or hypercholesterolemia were not significant. Individuals with 2 or more VBI factors compared to individuals without had an odds ratio of 3.17 regarding overly increased IMT ( ≥ 1.0 mm). The VBI showed an impact on executive control [log(TMT B−A), p = 0.047] and a trend toward decreased global cognitive function (CERAD total score, p = 0.057) independent of age, sex, and education. A VBI established on the basis of IMT may help to identify individuals with overly increased vascular burden linked to decreased cognitive function indicating neurodegenerative processes. The longitudinal

  5. The impact of processing delay on the exposure index value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, M. L.; Brennan, P. C.; Last, J.; Rainford, L.

    2010-04-01

    Digital radiography poses the risk of unnoticed increases in patient dose. Manufacturers responded to this by offering an exposure index (EI) value to clinicians. Use of the EI value in clinical practice is encouraged by the American College of Radiology and American Association of Physicists in Medicine. This study assesses the impact of processing delay on the EI value. An anthropormorphic phantom was used to simulate three radiographic examinations; skull, pelvis and chest. For each examination, the phantom was placed in the optimal position and exposures were chosen in accordance with international guidelines. A Carestream (previously Kodak) computed radiography system was used. The imaging plate was exposed, and processing was delayed in various increments from 30 seconds to 24 hours, representing common delays in clinical practice. The EI value was recorded for each exposure. The EI value decreased considerably with increasing processing delay. The EI value decreased by 100 within 25 minutes delay for the chest, and 20 minutes for the skull and pelvis. Within 1 hour, the EI value had fallen by 180, 160 and 100 for the chest, skull and pelvis respectively. After 24 hours, the value had decreased by 370, 350 and 340 for the chest, skull and pelvis respectively, representing to the clinician more then a halving of exposure to the detector in Carestream systems. The assessment of images using EI values should be approached with caution in clinical practice when delays in processing occur. The use of EI values as a feedback mechanism is questioned.

  6. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  7. Exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    A 60-year-old man had incidental finding of a multilobular 8 × 7 × 7-cm mass identified posterior to the urinary bladder in continuity with the prostate. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 1.87, and he denied any lower urinary tract symptoms. A transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy demonstrated benign prostatic tissue. A computed tomography-guided needle aspiration demonstrated a benign epithelium-lined cyst, likely prostatic in origin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a proliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Although prostatic hyperplasia is usually restricted to the prostate gland, hyperplastic nodules occasionally protrude outside the prostate and rarely form exophytic pelvic masses. PMID:20869104

  8. Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

  9. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, Waleed Fouad; Packianathan, Satya; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew; Khan, Majid A.; Baird, Michael C.; Russell, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT {+-} indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: <18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and >30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT {+-} indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: <18.5, (0%) 0/6 patients; 18.5-24.9 (6%), 6 of 105 patients developed HO; 25-29.9 (19%), 22 of 117; >30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06-1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT {+-} indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

  10. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children, but much shorter ...

  11. Epithelial hyperplasia, airways —

    Cancer.gov

    Number of respiratory epithelial cells is increased diffusely or focally. Frequently luminal protrusions are observed, sometimes forming papillae. Mucous (goblet) cell metaplastic hyperplasia is a variant, in which the respiratory epithelium of conducting airways is replaced by mucous cells either as a single or a pseudostratified layer.

  12. Atypical ductal hyperplasia: interobserver and intraobserver variability.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit K; Mehta, Rutika; Dimitrov, Rosen; Larsson, Lisbeth G; Musto, Paul M; Hodges, Kurt B; Ulbright, Thomas M; Hattab, Eyas M; Agaram, Narasimhan; Idrees, Muhammad T; Badve, Sunil

    2011-07-01

    Interobserver reproducibility in the diagnosis of benign intraductal proliferative lesions has been poor. The aims of the study were to investigate the inter- and intraobserver variability and the impact of the addition of an immunostain for high- and low-molecular weight keratins on the variability. Nine pathologists reviewed 81 cases of breast proliferative lesions in three stages and assigned each of the lesions to one of the following three diagnoses: usual ductal hyperplasia, atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Hematoxylin and eosin slides and corresponding slides stained with ADH-5 cocktail (cytokeratins (CK) 5, 14. 7, 18 and p63) by immunohistochemistry were evaluated. Concordance was evaluated at each stage of the study. The interobserver agreement among the nine pathologists for diagnosing the 81 proliferative breast lesions was fair (κ-value=0.34). The intraobserver κ-value ranged from 0.56 to 0.88 (moderate to strong). Complete agreement among nine pathologists was achieved in only nine (11%) cases, at least eight agreed in 20 (25%) cases and seven or more agreed in 38 (47%) cases. Following immunohistochemical stain, a significant improvement in the interobserver concordance (overall κ-value=0.50) was observed (P=0.015). There was a significant reduction in the total number of atypical ductal hyperplasia diagnosis made by nine pathologists after the use of ADH-5 immunostain. Atypical ductal hyperplasia still remains a diagnostic dilemma with wide variation in both inter- and intraobserver reproducibility among pathologists. The addition of an immunohistochemical stain led to a significant improvement in the concordance rate. More importantly, there was an 8% decrease in the number of lesions classified as atypical ductal hyperplasia in favor of usual hyperplasia; in clinical practice, this could lead to a decrease in the number of surgeries carried out for intraductal proliferative lesions. PMID:21532546

  13. Index of Alien Impact: A Method for Evaluating Potential Ecological Impact of Alien Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Teresa K.; Ringold, Paul L.; Bollman, Michael A.; Ernst, Ted L.

    2010-04-01

    Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact ( IAI) to estimate the collective ecological impact of in situ alien species. IAI summarizes the frequency of occurrence and potential ecological impact ( Invasiveness-Impact Score ( I i )) of individual alien species for all aliens present in a particular location or community type. A component metric, I i , is based on ecological species traits (life history, ecological amplitude, and ability to alter ecosystem processes) that reflect mechanisms, which can increase impact to ecosystem structure and function. While I i is less complex than some other multi-metric rankings of alien impact, it compares well to these metrics and to qualitative judgments. IAI can be adapted for different ecological settings by modifying the set of species traits incorporated in I i to reflect properties likely to breach biotic and abiotic barriers or alter ecosystem function in a particular region or community type of interest. To demonstrate our approach, we created versions of IAI and I i , applicable to the diverse streamside vegetation of a river basin (19,631 km2) spanning low-elevation arid to mesic montane habitats in eastern Oregon, USA. In this demonstration effort, we (1) evaluate relationships of IAI to metrics describing invasion level, and (2) illustrate the potential utility of IAI for prioritizing alien species management activities and informing restoration goals.

  14. Impact of DEM and soils on topographic index, as used in TopoSWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A topographic index (TI), comprised of slope and upstream contributing area, is used in TopoSWAT to help account for variable source runoff and soil moisture. The level of precision in the GIS input data layers can substantially impact the calculations of the topographic index layer and affect the a...

  15. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH. PMID:20671993

  16. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasias.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, A C; Wood, G S

    2000-06-01

    Benign hyperplastic lymphoid infiltrates of the skin (pseudolymphoma, older term) simulate lymphoma clinically and histologically. They can be divided into B-cell predominant (typical cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH), angiolymphoid hyperplasia, Kimura's disease, and Castleman's disease) and T-cell predominant (T-cell CLH, lymphomatoid contact dermatitis, and lymphomatoid drug eruption). Both types may represent exaggerated reactions to diverse external antigens (insect bite, tattoo, zoster, trauma, among others). A composite assessment of clinical presentation and behavior, routine histology, immunophenotyping, and molecular studies is essential for the diagnosis of benign cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. Treatment includes antibiotics, intralesional and systemic corticosteroids, excision, radiotherapy, and immunosuppressants. Treatment depends on the assessment and biologic behavior, which is usually benign. Molecular biologic analysis has shown that a significant proportion of cases harbor occult B- or T-cell clones (clonal CLH). Progression to overt cutaneous lymphoma has been observed in a minority of cases. Patients with clonal populations of B or T cells and persistent lesions should be closely observed for emergence of a lymphoma. PMID:10892716

  17. Metformin for endometrial hyperplasia: a Cochrane protocol

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Naomi S; Oliver, Thomas R W; Shiwani, Hunain; Saner, Juliane R F; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Atiomo, William

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous lesion of the endometrium, commonly presenting with uterine bleeding. If managed expectantly, it frequently progresses to endometrial carcinoma, rates of which are increasing dramatically worldwide. However, the established treatment for endometrial hyperplasia (progestogens) involves multiple side effects and leaves the risk of recurrence. Metformin is the most commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agent in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has also been linked to the reversal of endometrial hyperplasia and may therefore contribute to decreasing the prevalence of endometrial carcinoma without the fertility and side effect consequences of current therapies. However, the efficacy and safety of metformin being used for this therapeutic target is unclear and, therefore, this systematic review will aim to determine this. Methods and analysis We will search the following trials and databases with no language restrictions: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; PubMed; Google Scholar; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO International Trials Registry Platform portal; OpenGrey and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). We will include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of use of metformin compared with a placebo or no treatment, conventional medical treatment (eg, progestogens) or any other active intervention. Two review authors will independently assess the trial eligibility, risk of bias and extract appropriate data points. Trial authors will be contacted for additional data. The primary review outcome is the regression of endometrial hyperplasia histology towards normal histology. Secondary outcomes include hysterectomy rate; abnormal uterine bleeding; quality of life scores and adverse reactions to treatments. Ethics and dissemination

  18. Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Deshingkar, S A; Barpande, S R; Bhavthankar, J D

    2011-07-01

    Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia (CHH) is a rare congenital malformation characterized by marked unilateral overdevelopment of hard and soft tissues of the face. Asymmetry in CHH is usually evident at birth and accentuated with age, especially at puberty. The affected side grows at a rate proportional to the nonaffected side so that the disproportion is maintained thr oughout the life. Multisystem involvement has resulted in etiological heterogeneity including heredity, chromosomal abnormalities, atypical forms of twinning, altered intrauterine environment, and endocrine dysfunctions; however, no single theory explains the etiology adequately. Deformities of all tissues of face, including teeth and their related tissues in the jaw, are key findings for correct diagnosis of CHH. Here an attempt has been made to present a case of CHH with its archetypal features and to supplement existing clinical knowledge. PMID:22090778

  19. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dessinioti, Cleo; Katsambas, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia consists of a heterogenous group of inherited disorders due to enzymatic defects in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone. This results in glucocorticoid deficiency, mineralocorticoid deficiency, and androgen excess. 95% of CAH cases are due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical forms range from the severe, classical CAH associated with complete loss of enzyme function, to milder, non-classical forms (NCAH). Androgen excess affects the pilosebaceous unit, causing cutaneous manifestations such as acne, androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism. Clinical differential diagnosis between NCAH and polycystic ovary syndrome may be difficult. In this review, the evaluation of patients with suspected CAH, the clinical presentation of CAH forms, with emphasis on the cutaneous manifestations of the disease, and available treatment options, will be discussed. PMID:22523607

  20. The Pagerank-Index: Going beyond Citation Counts in Quantifying Scientific Impact of Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Upul; Piraveenan, Mahendra; Zomaya, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying and comparing the scientific output of researchers has become critical for governments, funding agencies and universities. Comparison by reputation and direct assessment of contributions to the field is no longer possible, as the number of scientists increases and traditional definitions about scientific fields become blurred. The h-index is often used for comparing scientists, but has several well-documented shortcomings. In this paper, we introduce a new index for measuring and comparing the publication records of scientists: the pagerank-index (symbolised as π). The index uses a version of pagerank algorithm and the citation networks of papers in its computation, and is fundamentally different from the existing variants of h-index because it considers not only the number of citations but also the actual impact of each citation. We adapt two approaches to demonstrate the utility of the new index. Firstly, we use a simulation model of a community of authors, whereby we create various ‘groups’ of authors which are different from each other in inherent publication habits, to show that the pagerank-index is fairer than the existing indices in three distinct scenarios: (i) when authors try to ‘massage’ their index by publishing papers in low-quality outlets primarily to self-cite other papers (ii) when authors collaborate in large groups in order to obtain more authorships (iii) when authors spend most of their time in producing genuine but low quality publications that would massage their index. Secondly, we undertake two real world case studies: (i) the evolving author community of quantum game theory, as defined by Google Scholar (ii) a snapshot of the high energy physics (HEP) theory research community in arXiv. In both case studies, we find that the list of top authors vary very significantly when h-index and pagerank-index are used for comparison. We show that in both cases, authors who have collaborated in large groups and/or published less

  1. The Pagerank-Index: Going beyond Citation Counts in Quantifying Scientific Impact of Researchers.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Upul; Piraveenan, Mahendra; Zomaya, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying and comparing the scientific output of researchers has become critical for governments, funding agencies and universities. Comparison by reputation and direct assessment of contributions to the field is no longer possible, as the number of scientists increases and traditional definitions about scientific fields become blurred. The h-index is often used for comparing scientists, but has several well-documented shortcomings. In this paper, we introduce a new index for measuring and comparing the publication records of scientists: the pagerank-index (symbolised as π). The index uses a version of pagerank algorithm and the citation networks of papers in its computation, and is fundamentally different from the existing variants of h-index because it considers not only the number of citations but also the actual impact of each citation. We adapt two approaches to demonstrate the utility of the new index. Firstly, we use a simulation model of a community of authors, whereby we create various 'groups' of authors which are different from each other in inherent publication habits, to show that the pagerank-index is fairer than the existing indices in three distinct scenarios: (i) when authors try to 'massage' their index by publishing papers in low-quality outlets primarily to self-cite other papers (ii) when authors collaborate in large groups in order to obtain more authorships (iii) when authors spend most of their time in producing genuine but low quality publications that would massage their index. Secondly, we undertake two real world case studies: (i) the evolving author community of quantum game theory, as defined by Google Scholar (ii) a snapshot of the high energy physics (HEP) theory research community in arXiv. In both case studies, we find that the list of top authors vary very significantly when h-index and pagerank-index are used for comparison. We show that in both cases, authors who have collaborated in large groups and/or published less

  2. Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal. PMID:21738548

  3. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Forde, James C; Thomas, Dominique Dana Marie; Laor, Leanna; Hossack, Tania; Woo, Henry H; Te, Alexis E; Kaplan, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which causes lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), is a common diagnosis among the ageing male population with increasing prevalence. Many risks factors, both modifiable and non-modifiable, can increase the risk of development and progression of BPH and LUTS. The symptoms can be obstructive (resulting in urinary hesitancy, weak stream, straining or prolonged voiding) or irritative (resulting in increased urinary frequency and urgency, nocturia, urge incontinence and reduced voiding volumes), or can affect the patient after micturition (for example, postvoid dribble or incomplete emptying). BPH occurs when both stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate in the transitional zone proliferate by processes that are thought to be influenced by inflammation and sex hormones, causing prostate enlargement. Patients with LUTS undergo several key diagnostic investigations before being diagnosed with BPH. Treatment options for men with BPH start at watchful waiting and progress through medical to surgical interventions. For the majority of patients, the starting point on the treatment pathway will be dictated by their symptoms and degree of bother. PMID:27147135

  4. Assessing the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami on households: a modified domestic assets index approach.

    PubMed

    Arlikatti, Sudha; Peacock, Walter Gillis; Prater, Carla S; Grover, Himanshu; Sekar, Arul S Gnana

    2010-07-01

    This paper offers a potential measurement solution for assessing disaster impacts and subsequent recovery at the household level by using a modified domestic assets index (MDAI) approach. Assessment of the utility of the domestic assets index first proposed by Bates, Killian and Peacock (1984) has been confined to earthquake areas in the Americas and southern Europe. This paper modifies and extends the approach to the Indian sub-continent and to coastal surge hazards utilizing data collected from 1,000 households impacted by the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) in the Nagapattinam district of south-eastern India. The analyses suggest that the MDAI scale is a reliable and valid measure of household living conditions and is useful in assessing disaster impacts and tracking recovery efforts over time. It can facilitate longitudinal studies, encourage cross-cultural, cross-national comparisons of disaster impacts and inform national and international donors of the itemized monetary losses from disasters at the household level. PMID:20298262

  5. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  6. Enhancing the h index for the objective assessment of healthcare researcher performance and impact

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vanash M; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bornmann, Lutz; Mutz, Rüdiger; Makanjuola, Jonathan; Skapinakis, Petros; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the h index (a bibliometric tool which is increasingly used to assess and appraise an individual's research performance) could be improved to better measure the academic performance and citation profile for individual healthcare researchers. Design Cohort study. Setting Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. Participants Publication lists from 1 January 2000 until 31 December 2009 for 501 academic healthcare researchers from the Faculty of Medicine. Main outcome measures The h index for each researcher was calculated over a nine-year period. The citation count for each researcher was differentiated into high (h2 upper), core (h2 centre) and low (h2 lower) visibility areas. Segmented regression model (sRM) was used to statistically estimate number of high visibility publications (sRM value). Validity of the h index and other proposed adjuncts were analysed against academic rank and conventional bibliometric indicators. Results Construct validity was demonstrated for h index, h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM value (all P < 0.05). Convergent validity of the h index and sRM value was shown by significant correlations with total number of publications (r = 0.89 and 0.86 respectively, P < 0.05) and total number of citations (r = 0.96 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.05). Significant differences in h index and sRM value existed between non-physician and physician researchers (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study supports the construct validity of the h index as a measure of healthcare researcher academic rank. It also identifies the assessment value of our developed indices of h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM. These can be applied in combination with the h index to provide additional objective evidence to appraise the performance and impact of an academic healthcare researcher. PMID:23358276

  7. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of lower lip.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaganjot Kaur; Sharma, Manish; Vanaki, Srinivas S

    2011-10-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia (AH) is an uncommon, non-neoplastic swelling on the palate caused due to hyperplasia of the mucinous acini. The lesion clinically presents as a sessile tumor-like nodule resembling pleomorphic adenoma. Histopathologic findings include lobules of enlarged mucinous acini which are filled with secretory granules. The nuclei are squeezed to the basal portions, associated with focal inflammation and ductal dilatation, and a history of trauma is often elicited. Here, we report a rare case of AH of the lower lip in a 20-year-old male patient, which mimics a mucous retention cyst or mucocele. PMID:22135695

  8. Monitoring Crop Yield in USA Using a Satellite-Based Climate-Variability Impact Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Anderson, Bruce; Tan, Bin; Barlow, Mathew; Myneni, Ranga

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative index is applied to monitor crop growth and predict agricultural yield in continental USA. The Climate-Variability Impact Index (CVII), defined as the monthly contribution to overall anomalies in growth during a given year, is derived from 1-km MODIS Leaf Area Index. The growing-season integrated CVII can provide an estimate of the fractional change in overall growth during a given year. In turn these estimates can provide fine-scale and aggregated information on yield for various crops. Trained from historical records of crop production, a statistical model is used to produce crop yield during the growing season based upon the strong positive relationship between crop yield and the CVII. By examining the model prediction as a function of time, it is possible to determine when the in-season predictive capability plateaus and which months provide the greatest predictive capacity.

  9. Mirror image condylar hyperplasia in two siblings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lignelli, John L; Ruprecht, Axel

    2004-02-01

    A Hispanic family with an unusual clinical and radiological pattern of condylar hyperplasia is presented. Mirror images of condylar hyperplasia, malocclusion of teeth, and shift of midline of the mandible were seen in two brothers. The father had a similar abnormality of his left mandibular condyle. The condylar hyperplasia in this family indicates that mandibular condylar hyperplasias could be genetic in origin, possibly Y-linked or autosomal dominant. PMID:14970789

  10. The Social Media Index: Measuring the Impact of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Websites

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Brent; Sanders, Jason L.; Lin, Michelle; Paterson, Quinten S.; Steeg, Jordon; Chan, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC) that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi) was developed to help address this. Methods We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers) for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw) formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1) temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2) correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. Results The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; p<0.001) and repeated measures through seven months (r=0.929; p<0.001). When applied to EMCC journals, it correlated significantly with all impact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; p<0.001) and Article Influence Score (r=0.608; p<0.001). Conclusion The SMi’s temporal stability and correlation with journal impact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool. PMID:25834664

  11. The Aftershock Risk Index - quantification of aftershock impacts during ongoing strong-seismic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Khazai, Bijan; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence and impact of strong earthquakes often triggers the long-lasting impact of a seismic sequence. Strong earthquakes are generally followed by many aftershocks or even strong subsequently triggered ruptures. The Nepal 2015 earthquake sequence is one of the most recent examples where aftershocks significantly contributed to human and economic losses. In addition, rumours about upcoming mega-earthquakes, false predictions and on-going cycles of aftershocks induced a psychological burden on the society, which caused panic, additional casualties and prevented people from returning to normal life. This study shows the current phase of development of an operationalised aftershock intensity index, which will contribute to the mitigation of aftershock hazard. Hereby, various methods of earthquake forecasting and seismic risk assessments are utilised and an integration of the inherent aftershock intensity is performed. A spatio-temporal analysis of past earthquake clustering provides first-hand data about the nature of aftershock occurrence. Epidemic methods can additionally provide time-dependent variation indices of the cascading effects of aftershock generation. The aftershock hazard is often combined with the potential for significant losses through the vulnerability of structural systems and population. A historical database of aftershock socioeconomic effects from CATDAT has been used in order to calibrate the index based on observed impacts of historical events and their aftershocks. In addition, analytical analysis of cyclic behaviour and fragility functions of various building typologies are explored. The integration of many different probabilistic computation methods will provide a combined index parameter which can then be transformed into an easy-to-read spatio-temporal intensity index. The index provides daily updated information about the probability of the inherent seismic risk of aftershocks by providing a scalable scheme fordifferent aftershock

  12. A comparison of the environmental impact of different AOPs: risk indexes.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Jaime; Bayarri, Bernardí; González, Óscar; Malato, Sixto; Peral, José; Esplugas, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Today, environmental impact associated with pollution treatment is a matter of great concern. A method is proposed for evaluating environmental risk associated with Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) applied to wastewater treatment. The method is based on the type of pollution (wastewater, solids, air or soil) and on materials and energy consumption. An Environmental Risk Index (E), constructed from numerical criteria provided, is presented for environmental comparison of processes and/or operations. The Operation Environmental Risk Index (EOi) for each of the unit operations involved in the process and the Aspects Environmental Risk Index (EAj) for process conditions were also estimated. Relative indexes were calculated to evaluate the risk of each operation (E/NOP) or aspect (E/NAS) involved in the process, and the percentage of the maximum achievable for each operation and aspect was found. A practical application of the method is presented for two AOPs: photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis with suspended TiO2 in Solarbox. The results report the environmental risks associated with each process, so that AOPs tested and the operations involved with them can be compared. PMID:25558859

  13. Modeling Key Malaria Drugs' Impact on Global Health: A Reason to Invest in the Global Health Impact Index.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    Millions of people cannot access good quality essential medicines they need for some of the world's worst diseases like malaria. The World Health Organization estimates that, in 2013, 198 million people became sick with malaria and 584,000 people died of the disease, while the Institute for Health Metrics Evaluation estimates that there were 164,929,872 cases of malaria in 2013 and 854,568 deaths in 2013. There are many attempts to model different aspects of the global burden of tropical diseases like malaria, but it is also important to measure success in averting malaria-related death and disability. This perspective proposes investing in a systematic effort to measure the benefits of health interventions for malaria along the lines of a model embodied in the Global Health Impact Index (global-health-impact.org). PMID:26856915

  14. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Virk, Renu K; Khan, Ashraf

    2010-07-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign, proliferative mesenchymal lesion with possible hormonal etiology. It typically affects women in the reproductive age group. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is frequently an incidental histologic finding in breast biopsies performed for other benign or malignant lesions. Rarely, it can present as a firm, painless breast mass, which has been referred to as nodular or tumorous PASH. Grossly, tumorous PASH is a well-circumscribed, firm, rubbery mass with solid, homogenous, gray-white cut surface. On histologic examination, it is characterized by the presence of open slitlike spaces in dense collagenous stroma. The spaces are lined by a discontinuous layer of flat, spindle-shaped myofibroblasts with bland nuclei. The spindle cells express progesterone receptors and are positive for vimentin, actin, and CD34. The most important differential diagnosis on histopathology is angiosarcoma. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia discovered incidentally does not require any additional specific treatment. Tumorous PASH is treated by local surgical excision with clear margins and the prognosis is excellent, with minimal risk of recurrence after adequate surgical excision. PMID:20586640

  15. The fallacy of using NII in analyzing aircraft operations. [Noise Impact Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, R. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three measures of noise annoyance (Noise Impact Index, Level-Weighted Population, and Annoyed Population Number) are compared, regarding their utility in assessing noise reduction schemes for aircraft operations. While NII is intended to measure the average annoyance per person in a community, it is found that the method of averaging can lead to erroneous conclusions, particularly if the population does not have uniform spatial distribution. Level-Weighted Population and Annoyed Population Number are shown to be better indicators of noise annoyance when rating different strategies for noise reduction in a given community.

  16. Assessment of the Impacts of Rice Cropping through a Soil Quality Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sione, S. M.; Wilson, M. G.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    In Entre Ríos (Argentina), rice cultivation is carried out mainly in Vertisols. Several factors, such as the use of sodium bicarbonate waters for irrigation, the excessive tillage required, and the lack of proper planning for land use, mainly regarding the crop sequence, cause serious impacts on the soil and have an effect on sustainable agriculture. Thus, the development of methodologies to detect these impacts has become a priority. The aim of this study was to standardize soil quality indicators (SQI) and integrate them into an index to evaluate the impacts of the rice production system on soil, at the farm scale. The study was conducted in farms of the traditional rice cultivation area of Entre Ríos province, Argentina. We evaluated a minimum data set consisting of six indicators: structural stability and percolation, total organic matter content (TOM), exchangeable sodium content (ESC), electrical conductivity of saturation extract (ECe) and reaction of the soil (pH). From a database from 75 production lots, we determined the reference values, i.e. limits to ensure the maintenance of long-term productivity and the allowable thresholds for each indicator. The indicators were standardized and integrated into a soil quality index. Five ranges of soil quality were established: very low, low, moderate, high and very high, depending on the values assigned to each SQI. This index allowed differentiating the impact of different crop sequences and showed that the increased participation of rice crop in the rotation resulted in a deterioration of the soil structure due to the decrease in the TOM and to the cumulative increase in ESC caused by the sodium bicarbonate water used for irrigation. Soil management strategies should aim to increase TOM values and to reduce the input of sodium to the exchange complex. A rotation with 50% to 60% of pasture and 40 to 50% of agriculture with a participation of rice lower than 20 to 25% would allow the sustainability of the

  17. A new index for the prediction of the indentation of composites under low velocity impact loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, V.; Caprino, G.; Leone, C.

    2012-07-01

    The effectiveness of a new empirical model for the prediction of the indentation depth resulting in a glass fibre laminates subjected to a low velocity impact, was verified. CFRP indentation data, drawn from a database, were considered to validate the new model. The advantage of the new model is that the effect of the tup diameter is explicitly accounted for. Furthermore, a single material constant has to be experimentally determined and it can be assumed as an index for the indentation sensitivity. The constant was found similar for GFRP and CFRP laminates denoting independence of constraint conditions, laminate type or laminae orientation and stacking sequence.

  18. Development of spatial water resources vulnerability index considering climate change impacts.

    PubMed

    Jun, Kyung Soo; Chung, Eun-Sung; Sung, Jin-Young; Lee, Kil Seong

    2011-11-15

    This study developed a new framework to quantify spatial vulnerability for sustainable water resources management. Four hydrologic vulnerability indices--potential flood damage (PFDC), potential drought damage (PDDC), potential water quality deterioration (PWQDC), and watershed evaluation index (WEIC)--were modified to quantify flood damage, drought damage, water quality deterioration, and overall watershed risk considering the impact of climate change, respectively. The concept of sustainability in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was applied in selecting all appropriate indicators (criteria) of climate change impacts. In the examination of climate change, future meteorological data was obtained using CGCM3 (Canadian Global Coupled Model) and SDSM (Statistical Downscaling Model), and future stream run-off and water quality were simulated using HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program - Fortran). The four modified indices were then calculated using TOPSIS, a multi-attribute method of decision analysis. As a result, the ranking obtained can be changed in consideration of climate change impacts. This study represents a new attempt to quantify hydrologic vulnerability in a manner that takes into account both climate change impacts and the concept of sustainability. PMID:21940039

  19. Clinical Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major factor impacting male health. Clinical evaluation to assess the presence and degree of voiding dysfunction and/or the role of BPH in its presence has an increasingly broad spectrum of treatment goals. The goals of the evaluation of such men are to identify the patient’s voiding or, more appropriately, urinary tract problems, both symptomatic and physiologic; to establish the etiologic role of BPH in these problems; to evaluate the necessity for and probability of success and risks of various therapeutic approaches; and to present the results of these assessments to the patient so he can make an informed decision about management recommendations and available alternatives. PMID:16985961

  20. Clinical Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major factor impacting male health. Clinical evaluation to assess the presence and degree of voiding dysfunction and/or the role of BPH in its presence has an increasingly broad spectrum of treatment goals. The goals of the evaluation of such men are to identify the patient’s voiding or, more appropriately, urinary tract problems, both symptomatic and physiologic; to establish the etiologic role of BPH in these problems; to evaluate the necessity for and probability of success and risks of various therapeutic approaches; and to present the results of these assessments to the patient so he can make an informed decision about management recommendations and available alternatives. PMID:16985968

  1. Prediction of Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury: Comparison of Disease State Index and IMPACT Calculator.

    PubMed

    Liedes, Hilkka; Mattila, Jussi; Lingsma, Hester; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Menon, David; Tenovuo, Olli; van Gils, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, especially in young adults. A reliable prediction of outcome after TBI is of great importance in clinical practice and research. We aimed to compare performance of the well-established IMPACT calculator and an alternative method, Disease State Index (DSI), in the prediction of six-month outcome after TBI. Performance of the models was evaluated using 2036 patients with moderate or severe TBI from the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) database. Prediction performance of both models was similar. The models with more variables provided better performance than the simpler models. This study showed that the DSI is a valid tool with efficient visualizations that can help clinicians with their decision making process in clinical practice. PMID:27225575

  2. Introducing a conditional 'Willingness to Pay' index as a quantifier for environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Fragiskos; Kopsidas, Odysseas

    2012-12-01

    The optimal concentration Copt of a pollutant in the environment can be determined as an equilibrium point in the trade off between (i) environmental cost, due to impact on man/ecosystem/economy, and (ii) economic cost for environmental protection, as it can be expressed by Pigouvian tax. These two conflict variables are internalized within the same techno-economic objective function of total cost, which is minimized. In this work, the first conflict variable is represented by a Willingness To Pay (WTP) index. A methodology is developed for the estimation of this index by using fuzzy sets to count for uncertainty. Implementation of this methodology is presented, concerning odor pollution of air round an olive pomace oil mill. The ASTM E544-99 (2004) 'Standard Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity' has been modified to serve as a basis for testing, while a network of the quality standards, required for the realization/application of this 'Practice', is also presented. Last, sensitivity analysis of Copt as regards the impact of (i) the increase of environmental information/sensitization and (ii) the decrease of interest rate reveals a shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively; certain positive and negative implications (i.e., shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively) caused by socio-economic parameters are also discussed.

  3. [Nodular regenerative hyperplasia following liver tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Boursier, Jérôme; Foulet, Armelle; Pilette, Christophe

    2005-10-01

    We reported a case of nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealed by hemorrhage from portal hypertention and ascites in a 81 years old patient. This patient presented two years ago hepatic tuberculosis well documented by liver biopsy. If this patient do not have exhaustive etiologic research of nodular regenerative hyperplasia, the relationship between the tuberculosis infection and the developpement of this nodular regenerative hyperplasia appears highly probable and must be researched. PMID:16435515

  4. Monitoring of Crop Production Using a new Satellite-Based Climate-Variability Impact Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Anderson, B.; Tan, B.; Huang, D.; Myneni, R.

    2005-12-01

    The capabilities of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) present some exciting possibilities for improved and timely monitoring of crop production. A quantitative index is introduced in this paper to study the relationship between remotely-sensed leaf area index (LAI) and crop production. The Climate-Variability Impact Index (CVII), defined as the monthly contribution to anomalies in annual growth, quantifies the percentage of the climatological production either gained or lost due to climatic variability during a given month. By examining the integrated CVII over the growing season, this LAI-based index can provide both fine-scale and aggregated information on vegetation productivity for various crop types. Once the relationship between the CVII and crop production is developed based on the historical record, a trained statistical model can be applied to produce homogeneous production forecasts (in which the model is trained and tested for a particular region), as well as heterogeneous forecasts (in which the model is trained in a particular region and applied to a different region). Both the homogeneous and the heterogeneous model predictions are consistent with USDA/FAO estimates at regional scales. Finally, by determining the estimated production as a function of the growing-season months the CVII can provide significant in-season predictions for end-of-year production. Overall, the high temporal and spatial resolution of the satellite LAI products makes the CVII a useful tool in near-real time crop monitoring and production estimation. Case-studies from recent droughts in Niger and the U.S. Midwest Corn Belt will be presented.

  5. Are phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors effective for the management of lower urinary symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li Tao; Park, Jong Kwan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review the efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostate hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). METHODS: A comprehensive research was conducted to identify all publications relating to benign prostate hyperplasia and treatment with sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil. To assess the efficacy, the changes in total international prostate symptom score (IPSS), IPSS subscore including voiding, storage and quality of life (QoL), Benign prostatic hyperplasia Impact Index (BII), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) were extracted. A meta-analytical technique was used for the analysis of integrated data from the included studies to evaluate the mean difference in the results. RESULTS: Total IPSS score, IIEF and BII showed a significant improvement in trials in which LUTS/BPH with or without erectile dysfunction (ED) were compared with the placebo. For LUTS/BPH, the mean differences of total IPSS score, IIEF and BII are -2.17, 4.88 and -0.43, P < 0.00001, respectively. For LUTS/BPH with comorbid ED, the mean difference are -1.97, 4.54 and -0.52, P < 0.00001, respectively. PDE5-Is appear to improve IPSS storage, voiding and QoL subscore (mean difference = -0.71, -1.23 and -0.33, P < 0.00001, respectively). Although four doses of tadalafil (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg) failed to reach significance in Qmax (mean difference = 0.22, P = 0.10), the 5 mg dose of tadalafil significantly improved the Qmax (mean difference = 0.33, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: PED5-Is demonstrated efficacy for improving LUTS in BPH patients with or without ED and could be considered to be the first line treatment for LUTS/BPH. PMID:25664256

  6. Endometrial cancer arising from atypical complex hyperplasia: The significance in an endometrial biopsy and a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Jung Mi; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Kim, Young Nam; Cho, En Bee; Cha, Ju Eun; Sung, Moon Su; Lee, Kyung Bok

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the features of endometrial hyperplasia with concurrent endometrial cancer that had been diagnosed by endometrial sampling. Further, we attempted to identify an accurate differential diagnostic method. Methods We retrospectively studied 125 patients who underwent a diagnostic endometrial biopsy or were diagnosed after the surgical treatment of other gynecological lesions, such as leiomyoma or polyps. Patients were diagnosed between January 2005 and December 2013 at Busan Paik Hospital. Clinical and histopathological characteristics were compared in patients who had atypical endometrial hyperplasia with and without concurrent endometrial cancer. Results The patients were grouped based on the final pathology reports. One hundred seventeen patients were diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia and eight patients were diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from atypical hyperplasia. Of the 26 patients who had been diagnosed with atypical endometrial hyperplasia by office-based endometrial biopsy, eight (30.8%) were subsequently diagnosed with endometrial cancer after they had undergone hysterectomy. The patients with endometrial cancer arising from endometrial hyperplasia were younger (39.1 vs. 47.2 years, P=0.0104) and more obese (body mass index 26.1±9.6 vs. 23.8±2.8 kg/m2, P=0.3560) than the patients with endometrial hyperplasia. The correlation rate between the pathology of the endometrial samples and the final diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia was 67.3%. Conclusion In patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, the detection of endometrial cancer before hysterectomy can decrease the risk of suboptimal treatment. The accuracy of endometrial sampling for the diagnosis of concurrent endometrial carcinoma was much lower than that for atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Therefore, concurrent endometrial carcinoma should be suspected and surgical intervention should be considered in young or obese patients who present with

  7. Indexes to anticipate negative impacts of heat waves in urban Mediterranean environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, A. M.; Carvalho, C. V.; Velho, S. V.; Sousa, C. S.

    2012-04-01

    This study intention is to understand what might be the better indexes to anticipate health deterioration during temperature extreme events in a urban Mediterranean environment like Porto. To do this we look to the effects of the July 2006 Heat Wave using the Heat Index on the Mortality (All Causes) and Morbidity (All Causes, Respiratory and Circulatory diseases) in general, and in people over 74 years and by Gender, in Porto. The Poisson Generalized Additive Regression model was used in order to estimate the impact of Apparent Temperature (Heat Index) and Daily Mortality and Morbidity during the July 2006 Heat Wave. Daily Mortality, Morbidity and Heat Index was correlated with lags of Apparent Temperature up to 7 days using Pearson correlation. For a 1°C increase in mean Apparent Temperature we observed a 2.7% (95%CI:1.7-3.6%) increase in Mortality (for All Causes), 1.7% (95%CI:0.6-2.9%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,2% (95%CI:0.4-4.1%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 5,4% (95%CI:1.1-6.6%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity and 7,5% (95%CI:1.3-14.1%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity, for the entire population. For people ≥ 75 years, our work showed a 3,3% increase (95%CI:1.7-5.0%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,7% (95%CI:0.4-5.1%) in Men Respiratory Morbidity, 3,9% (95%CI:1.6-6.3%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 7.0% (95%CI:1.1-13.2%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and 9.0% (95%CI:0.3-18.5%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We conclude that the use of Heat Index in a Mediterranean Tempered Climate enabled the identification of the effects of the July 2006 Heat Wave in Mortality due to All Causes and in Respiratory Morbidity of the General Population, as well as in Respiratory Morbidity of individuals with more than 74 years of age.

  8. Relative impacts of vegetation coverage and leaf area index on climate change in a greener north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Walsh, John E.

    2007-08-01

    To identify relative impacts of vegetation coverage and leaf area index (LAI) on climate in a greener north, a set of climate model sensitivity experiments was conducted in which vegetation coverage and/or LAI were increased over the land poleward of 60°N. The simulation results indicate that an increase in vegetation coverage makes a significant contribution to surface warming, while increasing LAI does not. The increased vegetation coverage reduces both background (snow-free) and snow-covered surface albedos and results in a maximum surface warming (>2°C) during spring and early summer. The increase in vegetation coverage also alters the partitioning between soil evaporation and vegetation evapotranspiration, and consequently reduces soil moisture loss from surface soil. Increased LAI leads to an enhancement of both convective and large scale components of precipitation, while the increase in vegetation coverage primarily increases the ratio of convective to large-scale precipitation.

  9. Dutasteride plus Tamsulosin fixed-dose combination first-line therapy versus Tamsulosin Monotherapy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a budget impact analysis in the Greek healthcare setting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the budget impact of dutasteride plus tamsulosin fixed-dose combination (DUT + TAM FDC) versus tamsulosin monotherapy, in the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from the perspective of the Greek healthcare insurance system. Methods A Microsoft Excel-based model was developed to estimate the financial consequences of adopting DUT + TAM FDC within the Greek healthcare setting. The model, compared six mutually exclusive health states in two alternative treatment options: current standard of care and the introduction of DUT + TAM FDC in the market. The model used clinical inputs from the CombAT study; data on resource use associated with the management of BPH in Greece were derived from expert panel, and unit cost data were derived from official reimbursement tariffs. A payer perspective was taken into account. As patient distribution data between public and private sectors are not available in Greece two scenarios were investigated, considering the whole eligible population in each scenario. A 4 year time horizon was taken into account and included treatment costs, number of transurethral resections of the prostate (TURPs) and acute urinary retention (AUR) episodes avoided. Results The clinical benefit from the market adoption of DUT + TAM FDC in Greece was 1,758 TURPs and 972 episodes of AUR avoided cumulatively in a four year period. The increase in total costs from the gradual introduction of DUT + TAM FDC to the Greek healthcare system ranges from €1.3 million in the first year to €5.8 million in the fourth year, for the public sector, and €1.2 million to €4.0 million, for the private sector. This represents an increase of 1.91% to 7.94% for the public sector and 1.10% 3.29% in the private sector, during the 4-year time horizon. Conclusions Budget impact analysis (BIA) results indicated that the gradual introduction of DUT + TAM FDC, would increase the overall

  10. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B.

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  11. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  12. The influence of body mass index and gender on the impact attenuation properties of flooring systems.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris; Laing, Andrew C

    2013-12-01

    The biomechanical effectiveness of safety floors has never been assessed during sideways falls with human volunteers. Furthermore, the influence of body mass index (BMI) and gender on the protective capacity of safety floors is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test whether safety floors provide greater impact attenuation compared with traditional flooring, and whether BMI and gender modify their impact attenuation properties. Thirty participants (7 men and 7 women of low BMI; 7 men and 9 women of high BMI) underwent lateral pelvis release trials on 2 common floors and 4 safety floors. As a group, the safety floors reduced peak force (by up to 11.7%), and increased the time to peak force (by up to 25.5%) compared with a traditional institutional grade floor. Force attenuation was significantly higher for the low BMI group, and for males. Force attenuation was greatest for the low BMI males, averaging 26.5% (SD = 3.0) across the safety floors. These findings demonstrate an overall protective effect of safety floors during lateral falls on the pelvis, but also suggest augmented benefits for frail older adults (often with low body mass) who are at an increased risk of hip fracture. PMID:23429161

  13. Impact of body mass index, age and varicocele on reproductive hormone profile from elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Yamaçake, K. G. R.; Cocuzza, M.; Torricelli, F. C. M.; Tiseo, B. C.; Frati, R.; Freire, G. C.; Antunes, A. A.; Srougi, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To study the impact of obesity, age and varicocele on sexual hormones fof adult and elderly men. Materials and Methods: 875 men who were screened for prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Data recorded comprised age, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). Patients were divided in groups according to their BMI in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese grades 1, 2 or 3. First, it was studied the association between age, BMI, and hormone profile. Then, clinical varicocele was evaluated in 298 patients to assess its correlation to the others parameters. Results: Obese patients had lower levels of TT, FT and SHBG (p<0.001) compared to underweight or normal weight patients. There were no differences in age (p=0.113), FSH serum levels (p=0.863) and LH serum levels (p=0.218) between obese and non-obese patients. Obese grade 3 had lower levels of TT and FT compared to obese grade 1 and 2 (p<0.05). There was no difference in the SHBG levels (p=0.120) among obese patients. There was no association between varicocele and BMI; and varicocele did not impact on testosterone or SHBG levels. Conclusions: Men with higher BMI have a lower serum level of TT, FT and SHBG. The presence of clinical varicocele as well as its grade has no impact on hormone profile in elderly men.

  14. Impact of Missing Data for Body Mass Index in an Epidemiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Tinker, Sarah C; Herring, Amy H; Howards, Penelope P; Waller, D Kim; Johnson, Candice Y

    2016-07-01

    Objective To assess the potential impact of missing data on body mass index (BMI) on the association between prepregnancy obesity and specific birth defects. Methods Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) were analyzed. We assessed the factors associated with missing BMI data among mothers of infants without birth defects. Four analytic methods were then used to assess the impact of missing BMI data on the association between maternal prepregnancy obesity and three birth defects; spina bifida, gastroschisis, and cleft lip with/without cleft palate. The analytic methods were: (1) complete case analysis; (2) assignment of missing values to either obese or normal BMI; (3) multiple imputation; and (4) probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Results Of NBDPS control mothers 4.6 % were missing BMI data, and most of the missing values were attributable to missing height (~90 %). Missing BMI data was associated with birth outside of the US (aOR 8.6; 95 % CI 5.5, 13.4), interview in Spanish (aOR 2.4; 95 % CI 1.8, 3.2), Hispanic ethnicity (aOR 2.0; 95 % CI 1.2, 3.4), and <12 years education (aOR 2.3; 95 % CI 1.7, 3.1). Overall the results of the multiple imputation and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were similar to the complete case analysis. Conclusions Although in some scenarios missing BMI data can bias the magnitude of association, it does not appear likely to have impacted conclusions from a traditional complete case analysis of these data. PMID:27029540

  15. Fire Weather Index : from high resolution climatology to Climate change impact study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloppet, E.; Regimbeau, M.

    2010-09-01

    Fire meteo indices provide efficient guidance tools for the prevention, early warning and surveillance of forest fires. These indices are only based on meteorological input data. Fire meteorological danger is estimated by Météo-France at national level through the use of Fire Weather Index. This study deals with the impact of climate change on fire danger in France. It has been motivated by the numerous forest fires during the 2003 drought and it aims at finding whether such events will be more frequent in the future. The first step of this project was to produce a high resolution FWI climatology. Safran model has been used to derive a 50-year hydrometeorological reanalysis, running from 1958 to 2008, on a 8 km regular grid. This reanalysis has been used in order to assess a long-term trend (a statistically significant increase in FWI for France). Then climate change potential impact on forest fire risk has been studied with climate change scenarios (ARPEGE V4 model with 3 emissions scenarios : A1B, A2 and B1) with special focus on downscaling and correction methods. Quantile-quantile normalization approach has been applied in order to calculate daily FWI from 2030 to 2100. Observed climatology (1958-2008 reanalysis on a 8km grid) has been compared to model climatology. Correction method has been applied for each statistical threshold. This method allowed us to produce downscaled FWI data and to study climate change impact at 8 km resolution. Trends are very clear for FWI and in terms of total number of daily FWI above a threshold. We can expect a huge increase in forest fire risk by 2060. All the French territory could face an average fire risk currently observed on Mediterranean area only. According to A2 and A1B scenarios, the year 2003 could become in France the standard in terms of fire risk by 2060.

  16. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric H; Larson, Jeffrey A; Andriole, Gerald L

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) commonly affect older men. Age-related changes associated with metabolic disturbances, changes in hormone balance, and chronic inflammation may cause BPH development. The diagnosis of BPH hinges on a thorough medical history and focused physical examination, with attention to other conditions that may be causing LUTS. Digital rectal examination and urinalysis should be performed. Other testing may be considered depending on presentation of symptoms, including prostate-specific antigen, serum creatinine, urine cytology, imaging, cystourethroscopy, post-void residual, and pressure-flow studies. Many medical and surgical treatment options exist. Surgery should be reserved for patients who either have failed medical management or have complications from BPH, such as recurrent urinary tract infections, refractory urinary retention, bladder stones, or renal insufficiency as a result of obstructive uropathy. PMID:26331999

  17. Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Udensi, Udensi K; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is a common urologic disease that affects mostly elderly men. PH can be classified as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer (PCa) based on its severity. Oxidative stress (OS) is known to influence the activities of inflammatory mediators and other cellular processes involved in the initiation, promotion and progression of human neoplasms including prostate cancer. Scientific evidence also suggests that micronutrient supplementation may restore the antioxidant status and hence improve the clinical outcomes for patients with BPH and PCa. This review highlights the recent studies on prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis, and examines the role of OS on the molecular pathology of prostate cancer progression and treatment. PMID:27609145

  18. Reliability of a novel CBCT-based 3D classification system for maxillary canine impactions in orthodontics: the KPG index.

    PubMed

    Dalessandri, Domenico; Migliorati, Marco; Rubiano, Rachele; Visconti, Luca; Contardo, Luca; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Martin, Conchita

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate both intra- and interoperator reliability of a radiological three-dimensional classification system (KPG index) for the assessment of degree of difficulty for orthodontic treatment of maxillary canine impactions. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of fifty impacted canines, obtained using three different scanners (NewTom, Kodak, and Planmeca), were classified using the KPG index by three independent orthodontists. Measurements were repeated one month later. Based on these two sessions, several recommendations on KPG Index scoring were elaborated. After a joint calibration session, these recommendations were explained to nine orthodontists and the two measurement sessions were repeated. There was a moderate intrarater agreement in the precalibration measurement sessions. After the calibration session, both intra- and interrater agreement were almost perfect. Indexes assessed with Kodak Dental Imaging 3D module software showed a better reliability in z-axis values, whereas indexes assessed with Planmeca Romexis software showed a better reliability in x- and y-axis values. No differences were found between the CBCT scanners used. Taken together, these findings indicate that the application of the instructions elaborated during this study improved KPG index reliability, which was nevertheless variously influenced by the use of different software for images evaluation. PMID:24235889

  19. Impact of body mass index on outcomes of 48281 patients undergoing first time cadaveric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ayloo, Subhashini; Hurton, Scott; Cwinn, Matthew; Molinari, Michele

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate possible disparities in perioperative morbidity and mortality among different body mass index (BMI) groups and to simulate the impact that these differences might have had on the cohort of patients undergoing cadaveric liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: All adult recipients undergoing first time LT for benign conditions and receiving a whole graft from brain-dead donors were selected from the united network of organ sharing registry. From January 1994 to June 2013, 48281 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria and were stratified by their BMI. The hypothesis that abnormal BMIs were independent predictors of inferior outcomes was tested with univariate and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: In comparison to normal weight recipients, underweight and morbidly obese recipients had increased 90-d mortality (adjusted OR = 1.737; 95%CI: 1.185-2.548, P = 0.005) (adjusted OR = 1.956; 95%CI: 1.473-2.597, P = 0.000) respectively and inferior patients’ survivals (adjusted HR = 1.265; 95%CI: 1.096-1.461, P = 0.000) (adjusted HR = 1.157; 95%CI: 1.031-1.299, P = 0.013) respectively. Overall, patients’ 5-year survival were 73.9% for normal-weight, 71.1% for underweight, 74.0% for overweight, 74.4% for class I obese, 75.0% for class II obese and 71.5% for class III obese recipients. Analysis of hypothetical exclusion of underweight and morbidly obese patients from the pool of potential LT candidates would have improved the overall survival of the entire cohort by 2.7% (95%CI: 2.5%-3.6%). CONCLUSION: Selected morbidly obese patients undergoing LT for benign conditions had 5-year survival rates clinically comparable to normal weight recipients. Impact analysis showed that exclusion of high-risk recipients (underweight and morbid obese patients) would not significantly improve the overall survival of the entire cohort of patients requiring LT. PMID:27358781

  20. Impact of Body Mass Index on Outcomes After Conformal Radiotherapy in Patients With Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, Hans; Thamm, Reinhard; Mueller, Tobias; Jess, Kerstin; Zimmermann, Frank B.; Molls, Michael; Nieder, Carsten

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Several retrospective analyses have suggested that obese men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) have outcomes inferior to those of normal-weight men. However, a recently presented analysis for the first time challenged this association between body mass index (BMI) and treatment failure. It is therefore important to provide further data on this issue. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of 564 men treated with risk-adapted conformal EBRT at a single institution. Low-risk patients received EBRT alone, and the other patients received EBRT plus endocrine treatment. In addition, high-risk patients were treated to higher EBRT doses (74 Gy). A rectal balloon catheter for internal immobilization, which can be identified on portal images, was used in 261 patients (46%). Thus, localization did not rely on bony landmarks alone in these cases. Results: The median BMI was 26, and 15% of patients had BMI {>=}30. Neither univariate nor multivariate analyses detected any significant impact of BMI on biochemical relapse, prostate cancer-specific survival, or overall survival. The 5-year biochemical relapse rate was 21% and prostate cancerspecific survival 96%. Conclusions: The present analysis of a large cohort of consecutively treated patients suggests that efforts to reduce prostate movement and geographic miss might result in comparable outcomes in obese and normal-weight patients.

  1. A risk index for multicriterial selection of a logging system with low environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Horodnic, Sergiu Andrei

    2015-02-15

    Setting up the working stages in forest operations is conditioned by environmental protection and forest health requirements. This paper exposes a method for improving the decision-making process by choosing the most environmentally effective logging systems according to terrain configuration and stand characteristics. Such a methodology for selecting machines or logging systems accounting for environment, safety as well as economics, becomes mandatory in the context of sustainable management of forest with multiple functions. Based on analytic hierarchy process analysis the following classification of the environmental performance for four considered alternatives was obtained: skyline system (42.43%), forwarder system (20.22%), skidder system (19.92%) and horse logging system (17.43%). Further, an environmental risk matrix for the most important 28 risk factors specific to any work equipment used in forest operations was produced. In the end, a multicriterial analysis generated a risk index RI ranging between 1.0 and 3.5, which could help choosing the optimal combination of logging system and logging equipment with low environmental impact. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach, a simple application in specific conditions of a harvesting site is presented. - Highlights: • We propose a decision-making algorithm to select eco-friendly logging systems. • Analytic hierarchy process was applied for ranking 4 types of logging systems. • An environmental risk matrix with 28 risk factors in forest operations was made up.

  2. Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia and Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Carr, Laurie L; Kern, Jeffrey A; Deutsch, Gail H

    2016-09-01

    Although incidental reactive pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (PNECH) is seen on biopsy specimens in adults with chronic lung disease, disorders characterized by marked PNECH are rare. Primary hyperplasia of neuroendocrine cells in the lung and obstructive lung disease related to remodeling or physiologic constriction of small airways define diffuse idiopathic neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) in the adult and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) in children. DIPENCH and NEHI share a similar physiology, typical imaging appearance, and increased neuroendocrine cells on biopsy. However, there are important differences related to the underlying disease mechanisms leading to disparate outcomes. PMID:27514602

  3. Sebaceous hyperplasia: systemic treatment with isotretinoin*

    PubMed Central

    Tagliolatto, Sandra; Santos, Octavio de Oliveira; Alchorne, Maurício Mota de Avelar; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to verify the therapeutic action of isotretinoin in the treatment of sebaceous hyperplasia. During two months, 20 patients with sebaceous hyperplasia took isotretinoin at a dosage of 1mg/kg per day. Their skin lesions were counted and photographed before and after treatment and re-evaluated two years later. The average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions before treatment was 24 per patient. At the end of two months of therapy, the number of lesions decreased to 2 per patient. The statistically analyzed data showed a reduction in the number of lesions following isotretinoin use (p < 0.05). Two years after the end of the treatment, the average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions was 4 per patient. There were no severe side effects. Thus, the data analysis suggests that isotretinoin is a safe and effective drug for treating the disease under study. PMID:25830991

  4. Dissecting the mechanisms of Notch induced hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Djiane, Alexandre; Krejci, Alena; Bernard, Frédéric; Fexova, Silvie; Millen, Katherine; Bray, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of the Notch pathway on proliferation depends on cellular context, being growth promotion in some, including several cancers, and growth inhibition in others. Such disparate outcomes are evident in Drosophila wing discs, where Notch overactivation causes hyperplasia despite having localized inhibitory effects on proliferation. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we have used genomic strategies to identify the Notch-CSL target genes directly activated during wing disc hyperplasia. Among them were genes involved in both autonomous and non-autonomous regulation of proliferation, growth and cell death, providing molecular explanations for many characteristics of Notch induced wing disc hyperplasia previously reported. The Notch targets exhibit different response patterns, which are shaped by both positive and negative feed-forward regulation between the Notch targets themselves. We propose, therefore, that both the characteristics of the direct Notch targets and their cross-regulatory relationships are important in coordinating the pattern of hyperplasia. PMID:23232763

  5. Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Marx, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Hyperplasias may progress (5 of 5) to neoplastic stages while predominant oversecretions rarely do (1 of 6; frequencies differ P<0.02). Hyperplasias do not show tumor multiplicity (0 of 5) unlike neoplasias that do (13 of 19; P<0.02). Hyperplasias express mutation of a plasma membrane-bound sensor (5 of 5), while neoplasias rarely do (3 of 14; P<0.002). In conclusion, the multiple distinguishing themes within the hyperplasias establish a robust pathophysiology. It has the shared and novel feature of mutant sensors in the plasma membrane, suggesting that these are major contributors to hyperplasia. PMID:26407873

  6. Isotretinoin as monotherapy for sebaceous hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Clara; Shahsavari, Maryam; Stevens, Gloria; Liskanich, Ronald; Horowitz, David

    2010-06-01

    Sebaceous hyperplasia is a common benign lesion composed of sebaceous glands. It is characterized as yellow or flesh-toned papules with central umbilication. The authors report the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian female with a longstanding history of sebaceous hyperplasia refractory to treatment on her face. Isotretionoin was used as an alternative therapy and was found to be effective. PMID:20645535

  7. Impact of fine particulate fluctuation and other variables on Beijing's air quality index.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Lu, Shaowei; Li, Shaoning; Wang, Bing

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed fluctuation in Beijing's air quality over 328 days, based on air quality grades and air quality data from 35 atmospheric monitoring stations. Our results show the air over Beijing is subject to pollution 152 days of the year, or 46.34%. Among all pollutants, fine particulates, solid or liquid, 2.5 μm or less in size (PM2.5), appeared most frequently as the primary pollutant: 249 days, or 76% of the sample year (328 days). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and coarse particulates (PM10) cause the least pollution, appearing only 7 and 3 days, or 2 and 1% of the sample year, respectively. In Beijing, fine particulates like PM2.5 vary seasonally: 154.54 ± 18.60 in winter > 145.22 ± 18.61 in spring > 140.16 ± 20.76 in autumn > 122.37 ± 13.42 in summer. Air quality is best in August and worst in December, while various districts in Beijing experience different air quality. To be specific, from south to north and from west to east, air quality tends to improve. Meteorological elements have a constraining effect on air pollutants, which means there is a linear correlation between the air quality index and humidity, rainfall, wind speed, and temperature. Under a typical pollution scenario, the higher the air quality index (AQI) value, the lower the wind speed and the greater the relative humidity; the lower the AQI value, the higher the wind speed and lower the relative humidity. Analysis of influencing factors reveals that the air pollution is mainly particulate matter produced by burning coal, vehicle emissions, volatile oils and gas, fast development of food services, emissions from the surrounding region, and natural dust clouds formed in arid areas to the northwest. Topography affects the distribution of meteorological conditions, in turn varying air quality over the region from one location to another. Human activities also exercise impact on urban air quality with dual functions. PMID:25563832

  8. Looking twice at the gender equity index for public health impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been shown that gender equity has a positive impact on the everyday activities of people (decision making, income allocation, application and observance of norms/rules) which affect their health. Gender equity is also a crucial determinant of health inequalities at national level; thus, monitoring is important for surveillance of women’s and men’s health as well as for future health policy initiatives. The Gender Equity Index (GEI) was designed to show inequity solely towards women. Given that the value under scrutiny is equity, in this paper a modified version of the GEI is proposed, the MGEI, which highlights the inequities affecting both sexes. Methods Rather than calculating gender gaps by means of a quotient of proportions, gaps in the MGEI are expressed in absolute terms (differences in proportions). The Spearman’s rank coefficient, calculated from country rankings obtained according to both indexes, was used to evaluate the level of concordance between both classifications. To compare the degree of sensitivity and obtain the inequity by the two methods, the variation coefficient of the GEI and MGEI values was calculated. Results Country rankings according to GEI and MGEI values showed a high correlation (rank coef. = 0.95). The MGEI presented greater dispersion (43.8%) than the GEI (19.27%). Inequity towards men was identified in the education gap (rank coef. = 0.36) when using the MGEI. According to this method, many countries shared the same absolute value for education but with opposite signs, for example Azerbaijan (−0.022) and Belgium (0.022), reflecting inequity towards women and men, respectively. This also occurred in the empowerment gap with the technical and professional job component (Brunei:-0.120 vs. Australia, Canada Iceland and the U.S.A.: 0.120). Conclusion The MGEI identifies and highlights the different areas of inequities between gender groups. It thus overcomes the shortcomings of the GEI related to the

  9. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Merke, Deborah P; Poppas, Dix P

    2014-01-01

    The management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia involves suppression of adrenal androgen production, in addition to treatment of adrenal insufficiency. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia is especially challenging because changes in the hormonal milieu during puberty can lead to inadequate suppression of adrenal androgens, psychosocial issues often affect adherence to medical therapy, and sexual function plays a major part in adolescence and young adulthood. For these reasons, treatment regimen reassessment is indicated during adolescence. Patients with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia require reassessment regarding the need for glucocorticoid drug treatment. No clinical trials have compared various regimens for classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults, thus therapy is individualised and based on the prevention of adverse outcomes. Extensive patient education is key during transition from paediatric care to adult care and should include education of females with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia regarding their genital anatomy and surgical history. Common issues for these patients include urinary incontinence, vaginal stenosis, clitoral pain, and cosmetic concerns; for males with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia, common issues include testicular adrenal rest tumours. Transition from paediatric to adult care is most successful when phased over many years. Education of health-care providers on how to successfully transition patients is greatly needed. PMID:24622419

  10. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Unresolved Issues.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; Poppas, Dix; Ghizzoni, Lucia; New, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a family of disorders that comes from enzymatic deficiencies in cortisol production, with 21-hydroxylase deficiency causing ∼90% of cases. Distinction is made between the severe classical form and milder nonclassical form of CAH. Molecular genetic analysis is used to confirm the hormonal diagnosis. A high rate of genotype-phenotype disconcordance has been found in 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The goal of treatment is to replace with synthetic glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and suppress adrenal androgen production. The treatment of patients affected with nonclassical CAH, particularly males, remains controversial. Variable synthetic glucocorticoids are used and new modes of glucocorticoid delivery are under investigation. To improve height, growth hormone and other adjuvant therapies are employed. Long-term outcomes of genital surgery using modern techniques in females affected with classical CAH continue to be investigated. Prenatal treatment with dexamethasone is available to avoid ambiguous genitalia in these females. Although studies have shown its safety to mother and fetus, prenatal treatment is still regarded as experimental. Currently, prenatal diagnosis of CAH can only be obtained through invasive methods. Recently, the detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has made it possible to make this diagnosis earlier and noninvasively. PMID:27211889

  11. A Simplified Murine Intimal Hyperplasia Model Founded on a Focal Carotid Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Ming; Mauro, Christine R.; Yu, Peng; Favreau, John T.; Nguyen, Binh; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Ozaki, C. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Murine models offer a powerful tool for unraveling the mechanisms of intimal hyperplasia and vascular remodeling, although their technical complexity increases experimental variability and limits widespread application. We describe a simple and clinically relevant mouse model of arterial intimal hyperplasia and remodeling. Focal left carotid artery (LCA) stenosis was created by placing 9-0 nylon suture around the artery using an external 35-gauge mandrel needle (middle or distal location), which was then removed. The effect of adjunctive diet-induced obesity was defined. Flowmetry, wall strain analyses, biomicroscopy, and histology were completed. LCA blood flow sharply decreased by ∼85%, followed by a responsive right carotid artery increase of ∼71%. Circumferential strain decreased by ∼2.1% proximal to the stenosis in both dietary groups. At 28 days, morphologic adaptations included proximal LCA intimal hyperplasia, which was exacerbated by diet-induced obesity. The proximal and distal LCA underwent outward and negative inward remodeling, respectively, in the mid-focal stenosis (remodeling indexes, 1.10 and 0.53). A simple, defined common carotid focal stenosis yields reproducible murine intimal hyperplasia and substantial differentials in arterial wall adaptations. This model offers a tool for investigating mechanisms of hemodynamically driven intimal hyperplasia and arterial wall remodeling. PMID:23159527

  12. Impact of body mass index on diastolic function in patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    AlJaroudi, W; Halley, C; Houghtaling, P; Agarwal, S; Menon, V; Rodriguez, L; Grimm, R A; Thomas, J D; Jaber, W A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major public health epidemic and is associated with increased risk of heart failure and mortality. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (DD). Methods: We reviewed clinical records and echocardiogram of patients with baseline echocardiogram between 1996 and 2005 that showed normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Diastolic function was labeled as normal, stage 1, stage 2 or stage 3/4 dysfunction. Patients were categorized as normal weight (BMI <25 kg m−2), overweight (25–29.9 kg m−2), obese (30–39.9 kg m−2) and morbidly obese (⩾40 kg m−2). Multivariable ordinal and ordinary logistic regression were performed to identify factors associated with DD, and evaluate the independent relationship of BMI with DD. Results: The cohort included 21 666 patients (mean (s.d.) age, 57.1 (15.1); 55.5% female). There were 7352 (33.9%) overweight, 5995 (27.6%) obese and 1616 (7.4%) morbidly obese patients. Abnormal diastolic function was present in 13 414 (61.9%) patients, with stage 1 being the most common. As BMI increased, the prevalence of normal diastolic function decreased (P<0.0001). Furthermore, there were 1733 patients with age <35 years; 460 (26.5%) and 407 (23.5%) were overweight and obese, respectively, and had higher prevalence of DD (P<0.001). Using multivariable logistic regression, BMI remained significant in both ordinal (all stages of diastolic function) and binary (normal versus abnormal). Also, obesity was associated with increased odds of DD in all patients and those aged <35 years. Conclusions: In patients with normal LVEF, higher BMI was independently associated with worsening DD. PMID:23448803

  13. Impact of hospital variables on case mix index as a marker of disease severity.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Carmen M; Harrington, Darrell W; Christenson, Peter; Spellberg, Brad

    2014-02-01

    Case mix index (CMI) has become a standard indicator of hospital disease severity in the United States and internationally. However, CMI was designed to calculate hospital payments, not to track disease severity, and is highly dependent on documentation and coding accuracy. The authors evaluated whether CMI varied by characteristics affecting hospitals' disease severity (eg, trauma center or not). The authors also evaluated whether CMI was lower at public hospitals than private hospitals, given the diminished financial resources to support documentation enhancement at public hospitals. CMI data for a 14-year period from a large public database were analyzed longitudinally and cross-sectionally to define the impact of hospital variables on average CMI within and across hospital groups. Between 1996 and 2007, average CMI declined by 0.4% for public hospitals, while rising significantly for private for-profit (14%) and nonprofit (6%) hospitals. After the introduction of the Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) system in 2007, average CMI increased for all 3 hospital types but remained lowest in public vs. private for-profit or nonprofit hospitals (1.05 vs. 1.25 vs. 1.20; P<0.0001). By multivariate analysis, teaching hospitals, level 1 trauma centers, and larger hospitals had higher average CMI, consistent with a marker of disease severity, but only for private hospitals. Public hospitals had lower CMI across all subgroups. Although CMI had some characteristics of a disease severity marker, it was lower across all strata for public hospitals. Hence, caution is warranted when using CMI to adjust for disease severity across public vs. private hospitals. PMID:23965045

  14. Indexing Tuition to Cost of Education: The Impact on Students and Institutions. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viehland, Dennis W.; And Others

    The emerging trend in state higher education finance policy to use and index to establish tuition and fee levels at public institutions was studied, based on a 1980 national survey of tuition-setting policies. It was found that, increasingly, states are adopting indexing to cost of education as an established policy for determining tuition: 14…

  15. The development of a preliminary rock reef fish multimetric index for assessing thermal and urban impacts in a tropical bay.

    PubMed

    Teixeira-Neves, Tatiana Pires; Neves, Leonardo Mitrano; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2016-08-15

    We developed a multimetric index for assessing ecological conditions in rocky reefs areas to evaluate thermal and urban influences on fish community. Eight metrics were selected to assess thermal influence: (1) total number of species; (2) number of water column species; (3) number of transient species; (4) density of individuals with low resilience; (5) density of omnivores; (6) density of carnivores; (7) number of cryptic species; (8) density of herbivores. For urban influence, six metrics were selected: (1) total density; (2) ratio between the number of rare species and the total number of species; (3) density of individuals with heavy fishing pressure; (4) number of resident species; (5) number of cryptic species; (6) density of herbivores. This preliminary index succeed in discriminating control/impacted sites and proved to be an important tool to assess impacts that alter fish community and have potential to be used in tropical rock reef coastal areas. PMID:27293073

  16. Melanocytic Hyperplasia in the Epidermis Overlying Trichoblastomas in 100 Randomly Selected Cases.

    PubMed

    Al Omoush, Tahseen M M; Michal, Michael; Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Michal, Michal; Kutzner, Heinz; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-04-01

    One hundred cases of trichoblastomas (large nodular, small nodular, cribriform, lymphadenoma, and columnar) were randomly selected and studied for the presence of melanocytic hyperplasia in the epidermis overlying the tumors, which was defined as foci of increased melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis (more than 1 per 4 basal keratinocytes). Focal melanocytic hyperplasia was detected in a total of 22 cases of trichoblastoma (22%), and this phenomenon was most frequently seen in columnar trichoblastoma (7 cases), followed by large nodular trichoblastoma (5 cases). The mechanism of epidermal melanocytic hyperplasia overlying trichoblastoma is unclear. Ultraviolet may be a contributing factor, as focal melanocytic hyperplasia was also detected in one-third of cases in the epidermis overlying uninvolved skin, usually associated with solar elastosis. This is further corroborated by the occurrence of the lesions predominantly on the face. Melanocytic hyperplasia overlying trichoblastoma appears to have no impact on the clinical appearance of the lesion and is recognized only microscopically. In an adequate biopsy specimen containing at least part of trichoblastoma, it should not cause any diagnostic problems. PMID:26885602

  17. [Therapeutic problem. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia].

    PubMed

    Bunse, T; Kuhn, A; Groth, W; Mahrle, G

    1993-04-01

    A 35-year-old female patient suffered from angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia for 9 years, with multiple, exophytic tumours on her left pinna and the surrounding skin. Systemic treatment with gamma interferon and glucocorticoids, intralesional injections of glucocorticoids and argon laser therapy had no effect. After the tumours had been pared away by electrocautery the patient was free of symptoms for 1 year and then developed a small local recurrence. Recurrences are common in angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. Malignant transformation has not been observed. We therefore regard non-radical surgery as the therapy of choice. PMID:8482602

  18. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  19. Scientometrics Study of Impact of Journal Indexing on the Growth of Scientific Productions of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Najari, Abbas; Yousefvand, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This study represents scientific production of Iran in medical sciences field at recent years, and the correlation between scientific productions with the number of indexed journals. Methods Data extracted from SCOPUS database between years 2000 and 2011, and Iran’s performance measured in terms of different Scientometrics indexes including self-citations, percent of cited articles, number of articles with international collaboration and contribution of Iran in medical sciences in Middle East and world. Moreover correlation between the number of articles, citations, self-citations, and H-index and number of indexed journals for 50 countries in all fields is included. Results In 2011 year, Iran contributed 32.77 percent of the Middle East, and accounted for 1.57 percent of the world scientific production. The most frequent document type was original journal article published in English. Retrieved records revealed preferred subject areas, including medicine miscellaneous (14.53 percent of Iran publications in 2011 year). In 2011, according to the number of articles and citations to them, Iran was at 17th and 23th position between 226 countries, respectively. After adjustment for 19708 journals from 50 countries, Iran’s rank based on the number of journals in medical sciences was 24th. Conclusion The number of indexed journals with number of articles, citations, self-citations, and H-index of each country showed significant correlation (P-value<0.01). In recent years, by favoring quality over quantity of researches, the new rules have proven to be more effective for discriminating Iranian scientific productions. PMID:26060621

  20. Genetics Home Reference: primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... germline and somatic mutations are associated with both primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and meningioma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jan;100(1):E119-28. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-2648. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Faucz FR, Zilbermint M, Lodish ...

  1. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH): a brief review.

    PubMed

    Jaunoo, S S; Thrush, S; Dunn, P

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign entity of the breast and typically found incidentally. It warrants thorough investigation in order to exclude more sinister pathology masquerading as this form of benign breast disease and can often be managed expectantly without the need for surgical intervention. We provide a brief review of the literature on PASH, discussing its clinicopathological features and management. PMID:20887819

  2. Condylar hyperplasia following unilateral temporomandibular joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Machon, V; Levorova, J; Hirjak, D; Foltan, R

    2015-06-01

    Total joint replacement of the temporomandibular joint (TJR) can be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications. We report herein the occurrence of a postoperative open bite malocclusion, the result of condylar hyperplasia affecting the non-operated joint at 1 year after unilateral total joint replacement. PMID:25662429

  3. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia. Report of nine cases.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, Constantino; Vega-Memije, Elisa; Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela; Cardiel-Nieves, Maritza; Juárez-Luna, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (MEH) is also known as focal epithelial hyperplasia, Heck's disease or multifocal papillomavirus-induced epithelial hyperplasia. It is characterised by the presence of multiple lesions in the oral mucosa of children and it has been associated with the presence of the human papillomavirus. The aim of this study was to determine the clinico-pathological features of the cases diagnosed as MEH in the Service of Dermatology of the Hospital Manuel Gea González (SDHMGG). The files of the SDHMGG were reviewed and all cases diagnosed as MEH were retrieved. Nine MEH cases were found. Most of the patients were 20 year-old or younger (67%) and females were more commonly affected (78%). All patients presented multiple lesions and always, close relatives with similar lesions were found. Lesions were located most commonly in the buccal mucosa, lower lip and commissures. MEH is a soft tissue intraoral condition that needs treatment solely of the traumatised lesions or those with cosmetic problems. Remaining lesions will disappear with the age of the patients. It is suggested that this entity should be named multifocal epithelial hyperplasia since this name describes better the clinico-pathological and microscopic features of the disease. PMID:16264387

  4. Impact of the FTSE4Good Index on firm price: an event study.

    PubMed

    Martin Curran, M; Moran, Dominic

    2007-03-01

    This paper examines whether corporate financial performance is affected by public endorsement of environmental and social performance. Event study methodology, which relies on the notion of market efficiency, is used to examine the relationship between positive and negative announcements and changes in share prices or daily returns. Inclusion in and deletion from the FTSE4Good UK Index is used as a proxy measure for good (poor) corporate social responsibility. The abnormal or unexpected daily returns associated with an event are calculated and their significance tested. The results show a trend towards positive and negative announcements having the expected effects on daily returns. But these movements are not significant and the data do not suggest that a firm's presence on the index brings it any significant financial return for signalling its corporate social responsibility. PMID:16678334

  5. Impact of a modified data capture period on Liu comorbidity index scores in Medicare enrollees initiating chronic dialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Liu Comorbidity Index uses the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) to quantify comorbidity in chronic dialysis patients, capturing baseline comorbidities from days 91 through 270 after dialysis initiation. The 270 day survival requirement results in sample size reductions and potential survivor bias. An earlier and shorter time-frame for data capture could be beneficial, if sufficiently similar comorbidity information could be ascertained. Methods USRDS data were used in a retrospective observational study of 70,114 Medicare- and Medicaid-eligible persons who initiated chronic dialysis during the years 2000–2005. The Liu index was modified by changing the baseline comorbidity capture period to days 1–90 after dialysis initiation for persons continuously enrolled in Medicare. The scores resulting from the original and the modified comorbidity indices were compared, and the impact on sample size was calculated. Results The original Liu comorbidity index could be calculated for 75% of the sample, but the remaining 25% did not survive to 270 days. Among 52,937 individuals for whom both scores could be calculated, the mean scores for the original and the modified index were 7.4 ± 4.0 and 6.4 ± 3.6 points, respectively, on a 24-point scale. The most commonly calculated difference between scores was zero, occurring in 44% of patients. Greater comorbidity was found in those who died before 270 days. Conclusions A modified version of the Liu comorbidity index captures the majority of comorbidity in persons who are Medicare-enrolled at the time of chronic dialysis initiation. This modification reduces sample size losses and facilitates inclusion of a sicker portion of the population in whom early mortality is common. PMID:23446357

  6. Impact of Longevity Interventions on a Validated Mouse Clinical Frailty Index.

    PubMed

    Kane, Alice E; Hilmer, Sarah N; Boyer, Dawn; Gavin, Kristan; Nines, Dawn; Howlett, Susan E; de Cabo, Rafael; Mitchell, Sarah J

    2016-03-01

    This article investigates the effect on the mouse frailty index (FI), of factors known to influence lifespan and healthspan in mice: strain (short-lived DBA/2J mice vs long-lived C57BL/6J mice), calorie restriction (CR), and resveratrol treatment. The mouse FI, based on deficit accumulation, was recently validated in C57BL/6J mice by Whitehead JC, Hildebrand BA, Sun M, et al. (A clinical frailty index in aging mice: comparisons with frailty index data in humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69:621-632) and shares many characteristics of the human FI. FI scores were measured in male and female aged (18 months) ad-libitum fed and CR DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, as well as male aged (24 months) C57BL/6J mice ad-libitum fed with or without resveratrol (100 mg/kg/day) in the diet for 6 months. Mean scores of two raters were used, and the raters had excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.88, 95% CI [0.80, 0.92]). Furthermore, the interventions of CR and resveratrol were associated with a significant reduction in FI scores in C57BL/6J mice, compared to age-matched controls. The short-lived DBA/2J mice also had slightly higher FI scores than the C57BL/6J mice, for the male calorie-restricted groups (DBA/2J FI = 0.16±0.03, C57BL/6J FI = 0.11±0.03, p = .01). This study uses the mouse FI developed by Whitehead JC, Hildebrand BA, Sun M, et al. (A clinical frailty index in aging mice: comparisons with frailty index data in humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69:621-632) in a different mouse colony and shows that this tool can be applied to quantify the effect of dietary and pharmaceutical interventions on frailty. PMID:25711530

  7. The criteria weight determination of factors impacting the melt flow index of degradable plastics using Lambda-Max method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dom, Rosma Mohd; Saadon, Nurul Adzlyana; Mohamad, Daud

    2013-09-01

    Three common methods of determining criteria weights using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) are extent analysis, logarithmic least square method (LLSM) and Lambda-Max. Lambda-Max criteria weights determination method uses pair wise comparison of criteria considered. Studies have shown that Lambda-Max is a preferred criteria weight determination method since it involves lesser computation with consistent results of precise criteria weights generated. In this paper the criteria weights of four factors impacting the Melt Flow Index of degradable plastics are calculated using Lambda-Max method. The input factors (criteria) are the percentages by mass of polyethylene, oil palm biomass, palm olein and starch used in the formulation of degradable plastics. The criteria weights are calculated using Lambda-Max based on input given by four experts. The finding indicates the feasibility of using Lambda-Max method in criteria weight determination for determining the impact of four factors in the formulation of degradable plastics as reflected by the consistency control index value calculated.

  8. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Kaicheng; Gao, Shan; Wu, Hao; Luo, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months). When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation’s responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April–October). The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages. PMID:26184243

  9. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Kaicheng; Gao, Shan; Wu, Hao; Luo, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months). When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation's responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April-October). The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages. PMID:26184243

  10. Innovation in Evaluating the Impact of Integrated Service-Delivery: The Integra Indexes of HIV and Reproductive Health Integration

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, Susannah H.; Ploubidis, George B.; Sloggett, Andy; Church, Kathryn; Obure, Carol D.; Birdthistle, Isolde; Sweeney, Sedona; Warren, Charlotte E.; Watts, Charlotte; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background The body of knowledge on evaluating complex interventions for integrated healthcare lacks both common definitions of ‘integrated service delivery’ and standard measures of impact. Using multiple data sources in combination with statistical modelling the aim of this study is to develop a measure of HIV-reproductive health (HIV-RH) service integration that can be used to assess the degree of service integration, and the degree to which integration may have health benefits to clients, or reduce service costs. Methods and Findings Data were drawn from the Integra Initiative’s client flow (8,263 clients in Swaziland and 25,539 in Kenya) and costing tools implemented between 2008–2012 in 40 clinics providing RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. We used latent variable measurement models to derive dimensions of HIV-RH integration using these data, which quantified the extent and type of integration between HIV and RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. The modelling produced two clear and uncorrelated dimensions of integration at facility level leading to the development of two sub-indexes: a Structural Integration Index (integrated physical and human resource infrastructure) and a Functional Integration Index (integrated delivery of services to clients). The findings highlight the importance of multi-dimensional assessments of integration, suggesting that structural integration is not sufficient to achieve the integrated delivery of care to clients—i.e. “functional integration”. Conclusions These Indexes are an important methodological contribution for evaluating complex multi-service interventions. They help address the need to broaden traditional evaluations of integrated HIV-RH care through the incorporation of a functional integration measure, to avoid misleading conclusions on its ‘impact’ on health outcomes. This is particularly important for decision-makers seeking to promote integration in resource constrained environments. PMID:26800517

  11. Health Impact Index. Development and Validation of a Method for Classifying Comorbid Disease Measured against Self-Reported Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method of classifying comorbid conditions that accounts for both the severity and joint effects of the diseases. The Tromsø Study is a cohort study with a longitudinal design utilizing a survey approach with physical examinations in the Tromsø municipality from 1974 to 2008, where in total 40051 subjects participated. We used Tromsø 4 as reference population and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (FHI) panel as validation population. Ordinal regression was used to assess the effect of comorbid disease on Self-Reported Health (SRH). The model is controlled for interaction between diseases, mental health, age, and gender. The health impact index estimated levels of SRH. The comparison of predicted and observed SRH showed no significant differences. Spearman’s correlation showed that increasing levels of comorbidity were related to lower levels of SRH (RS = -0.36, p <.001). The Charlson Comorbidity Index(CCI) was also associated with SRH (r = -.25, p <.001). When focusing on only individuals with a comorbid disease, the relation between SRH and the Health Impact Index (HII) was strengthened (r = -.42, p <.001), while the association between SRH and CCI was attenuated (r = -.14, p <.001). CCI was designed to control for comorbid conditions when survival/mortality is the outcome of interest but is inaccurate when the outcome is SRH. We conclude that HII should be used when SRH is not available, and well-being or quality of survival/life is the outcome of interest. PMID:26849044

  12. Use of a bait impact index to assess effects of bait application against populations of Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in a large area.

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Yao; Ban, Paul; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2004-12-01

    The effects of bait applications on the overall activity of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, in a town of 1.2 km2 were assessed between 2001 and 2003 by using a bait impact index. The index incorporated the amount of baits applied and the distance between bait application loci and the monitoring stations from which termite activity was measured. Even with the collaboration of only 35% of the residents and incomplete treatment records, the bait impact index demonstrated that more baits applied in proximity to monitoring loci significantly caused the decline of C. formosanus activity. PMID:15666761

  13. Fuzzy Clustering Analysis in Environmental Impact Assessment--A Complement Tool to Environmental Quality Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Hsiang-Te; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In spite of rapid progress achieved in the methodological research underlying environmental impact assessment (EIA), the problem of weighting various parameters has not yet been solved. This paper presents a new approach, fuzzy clustering analysis, which is illustrated with an EIA case study on Baoshan-Wusong District in Shanghai, China. (Author)

  14. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26351501

  15. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sabrina; da Silva Fabris, André Luis; Ferreira, Gabriel Ramalho; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Francisconi, Giovanna Barbosa; Souza, Francisley Avila; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel

    2014-05-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a pathologic condition that causes overdevelopment of the condylar head and neck as well as the mandible. Slowly progressive unilateral enlargement of the head and the neck of the condyle causes crossbite malocclusion, facial asymmetry, and shifting of the midpoint of the chin to the unaffected side. The etiology and the pathogenesis of CH remain uncertain. The diagnosis is made by clinical and radiologic examinations and bone scintigraph. A difference in uptake of 10% or more between condyles is regarded as indicative of CH, and the affected condyles had a relative uptake of 55% or more. When the diagnosis of active CH is established, the treatment consists of removal of the growth center by a partial condylectomy. The authors present the case of a 46-year-old male patient with right active type II CH or hemimandibular hyperplasia who underwent a high condylectomy. PMID:24820728

  16. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Masannat, Yazan A; Whitehead, Stephen; Hawley, Ian; Apthorp, Lesley; Shah, Elizabeth F

    2010-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a rare benign proliferating breast condition. It was first reported in 1986 when Vuitch, Rosen, and Erlandson described nine cases of benign well-circumscribed, breast masses that simulated vascular lesions consisting of mammary stromal proliferations (Vuitch et al. (1986)). Since then there have been few reported cases of PASH in the literature (Taira et al. (2005)). We describe a large PASH, mimicking inflammatory carcinoma in a young lady that was excised with excellent cosmetic results. PMID:21318179

  17. Fibro-epithelial hyperplasia mimicking mucocele.

    PubMed

    Jain, K; Singh, B D; Dubey, A; Avinash, A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chronic local irritation have been seen commonly in the form of fibroma or mucocele in children. We report a ten year old girl with the chief complaint of swelling in the lower right region of labial mucosa which was diagnosed clinically as mucocele and histologically as fibro-epithelial hyperplasia. Surgical excision was done under local anesthesia with no post-operative complication. PMID:25552222

  18. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: A clinical review.

    PubMed

    Skinder, Danielle; Zacharia, Ilana; Studin, Jillian; Covino, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an increasingly common diagnosis seen in men over age 50 years. Primary care providers must be aware of patient presentation, diagnostic tests, appropriate lifestyle modifications, treatment options, and potential complications in order to properly manage and educate patients with BPH. If left untreated, BPH can significantly decrease a man's quality of life; however, many pharmacologic and surgical treatments are available to control the symptoms. PMID:27367595

  19. Evaluating the anthropogenic impact on karst environments: Karst Disturbance Index applied to West-Central Florida and Southeast Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, L. A.; Parise, M.; van Beynen, P. E.

    2009-04-01

    Due to its high fragility, that derives from the intrinsic geological and hydrogeological characteristics, karst is extremely vulnerable to degradation and pollution. Although the carrying capacity of these natural environments is low, a variety of human activities is implemented on karst settings generating impacts at the surface and subsurface. The human-induced effects in karst can be assessed by applying a recently developed Karst Disturbance Index (KDI). The KDI consists of 31 environmental indicators contained within the five broad categories: geomorphology, hydrology, atmosphere, biota, and cultural. The purpose of this research is to apply the KDI to two distinct karst areas, West Florida, USA, and Apulia, Southeast Italy. Through its application, the utility of the index can be validated and other important comparisons can be made, such as differences in the karst legislations implemented in each region and the effect of time exposure to human occupation to each karst terrain. Humans have intensively impacted the karst of southeast Italy for thousands of years compared to only decades in west-central Florida. However, west-central Florida's higher population density allows the region to reach disturbance levels comparable to those reached over a longer period in Apulia. Similarly, Italian karst is more diverse than the karst found in west-central Florida, creating an opportunity to test all the KDI indicators. Overall, major disturbances for southeast Italy karst include quarrying, stone clearing, and the dumping of refuse into caves, while west-central Florida suffers most from the infilling of sinkholes, soil compaction, changes in the water table, and vegetation removal. The application of the KDI allows a benchmark of disturbance to be established and later revisited to determine the changing state of human impact for a region. The highlighting of certain indicators that recorded high levels of disturbance also allows regional planners to allocate

  20. Quantifying the impact of climate change on drought regimes using the Standardised Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Katie; Warren, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    The study presents a methodology to characterise short- or long-term drought events, designed to aid understanding of how climate change may affect future risk. An indicator of drought magnitude, combining parameters of duration, spatial extent and intensity, is presented based on the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). The SPI is applied to observed (1955-2003) and projected (2003-2050) precipitation data from the Community Integrated Assessment System (CIAS). Potential consequences of climate change on drought regimes in Australia, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Spain, Portugal and the USA are quantified. Uncertainty is assessed by emulating a range of global circulation models to project climate change. Further uncertainty is addressed through the use of a high-emission scenario and a low-stabilisation scenario representing a stringent mitigation policy. Climate change was shown to have a larger effect on the duration and magnitude of long-term droughts, and Australia, Brazil, Spain, Portugal and the USA were highlighted as being particularly vulnerable to multi-year drought events, with the potential for drought magnitude to exceed historical experience. The study highlights the characteristics of drought which may be more sensitive under climate change. For example, on average, short-term droughts in the USA do not become more intense but are projected to increase in duration. Importantly, the stringent mitigation scenario had limited effect on drought regimes in the first half of the twenty-first century, showing that adaptation to drought risk will be vital in these regions.

  1. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-01-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km(2) residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers. PMID:27079537

  2. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-01-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km2 residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers. PMID:27079537

  3. Application of 3-D Urbanization Index to Assess Impact of Urbanization on Air Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-04-01

    The lack of appropriate methodologies and indicators to quantify three-dimensional (3-D) building constructions poses challenges to authorities and urban planners when formulating polices to reduce health risks due to heat stress. This study evaluated the applicability of an innovative three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI), based on remote sensing database, with a 5 m spatial resolution of 3-D man-made constructions to representing intra-urban variability of air temperature by assessing correlation of 3DUI with air temperature from a 3-D perspective. The results showed robust high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.83 to 0.85, obtained within the 1,000 m circular buffer around weather stations regardless of season, year, or spatial location. Our findings demonstrated not only the strength of 3DUI in representing intra-urban air-temperature variability, but also its great potential for heat stress assessment within cities. In view of the maximum correlation between building volumes within the 1,000 m circular buffer and ambient air temperature, urban planning should consider setting ceilings for man-made construction volume in each 2 × 2 km2 residential community for thermal environment regulation, especially in Asian metropolis with high population density in city centers.

  4. Gender Differences in the Impact of Stressful Life Events on Changes in Body-Mass-Index

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Tomoko; Grilo, Carlos M.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The positive association between stress and weight has been consistently demonstrated, particularly in women. The effect of stress on changes in weight, however, is less clear. Methods A total of 33,425 participants in Wave 1 and Wave 2 surveys of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Condition (NESARC) were included in this study. The study examined the relationship between stressful life events during the 12 months prior to the Wave 2 interview and changes in body-mass-index (BMI) between Wave 1 and Wave 2 interviews. Results Women reported significantly greater increases in BMI than men. Stressful life events, particularly job-related changes, legal problems, and death of family or friends, were associated significantly with increases in BMI among women but not men. Conclusions In a nationally representative sample, stressful life events were associated with greater weight gain in women. Prevention of weight gain in women should focus on the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying female-specific effects of stressful life events on weight gain. PMID:25204986

  5. Impact factor, H index, peer comparisons, and Retrovirology: is it time to individualize citation metrics?

    PubMed Central

    Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2007-01-01

    There is a natural tendency to judge a gift by the attractiveness of its wrapping. In some respect, this reflects current mores of measuring the gravitas of a scientific paper based on the journal cover in which the work appears. Most journals have an impact factor (IF) which some proudly display on their face page. Although historically journal IF has been a convenient quantitative shorthand, has its (mis)use contributed to inaccurate perceptions of the quality of scientific articles? Is now the time that equally convenient but more individually accurate metrics be adopted? PMID:17577403

  6. Impact of MR Acquisition Parameters on DTI Scalar Indexes: A Tractography Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Barrio-Arranz, Gonzalo; de Luis-García, Rodrigo; Tristán-Vega, Antonio; Martín-Fernández, Marcos; Aja-Fernández, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition parameters play a crucial role in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), as they have a major impact on the values of scalar measures such as Fractional Anisotropy (FA) or Mean Diffusivity (MD) that are usually the focus of clinical studies based on white matter analysis. This paper presents an analysis on the impact of the variation of several acquisition parameters on these scalar measures with a novel double focus. First, a tractography-based approach is employed, motivated by the significant number of clinical studies that are carried out using this technique. Second, the consequences of simultaneous changes in multiple parameters are analyzed: number of gradient directions, b-value and voxel resolution. Results indicate that the FA is most affected by changes in the number of gradients and voxel resolution, while MD is specially influenced by variations in the b-value. Even if the choice of a tractography algorithm has an effect on the numerical values of the final scalar measures, the evolution of these measures when acquisition parameters are modified is parallel. PMID:26457415

  7. Impact of MR Acquisition Parameters on DTI Scalar Indexes: A Tractography Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Barrio-Arranz, Gonzalo; de Luis-García, Rodrigo; Tristán-Vega, Antonio; Martín-Fernández, Marcos; Aja-Fernández, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition parameters play a crucial role in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), as they have a major impact on the values of scalar measures such as Fractional Anisotropy (FA) or Mean Diffusivity (MD) that are usually the focus of clinical studies based on white matter analysis. This paper presents an analysis on the impact of the variation of several acquisition parameters on these scalar measures with a novel double focus. First, a tractography-based approach is employed, motivated by the significant number of clinical studies that are carried out using this technique. Second, the consequences of simultaneous changes in multiple parameters are analyzed: number of gradient directions, b-value and voxel resolution. Results indicate that the FA is most affected by changes in the number of gradients and voxel resolution, while MD is specially influenced by variations in the b-value. Even if the choice of a tractography algorithm has an effect on the numerical values of the final scalar measures, the evolution of these measures when acquisition parameters are modified is parallel. PMID:26457415

  8. The impact of rare taxa on a fish index of biotic integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wan, H.; Chizinski, C.J.; Dolph, C.L.; Vondracek, B.; Wilson, B.N.

    2010-01-01

    The index of biotic integrity (IBI) is a commonly used bioassessment tool that integrates abundance and richness measures to assess water quality. In developing IBIs that are both responsive to human disturbance and resistant to natural variability and sampling error, water managers must decide how to weigh information about rare and abundant taxa, which in turn requires an understanding of the sensitivity of indices to rare taxa. Herein, we investigated the influence of rare fish taxa (within the lower 5% of rank abundance curves) on IBI metric and total scores for stream sites in two of Minnesota's major river basins, the St. Croix (n = 293 site visits) and Upper Mississippi (n = 210 site visits). We artificially removed rare taxa from biological samples by (1) separately excluding each individual taxon that fell within the lower 5% of rank abundance curves; (2) simultaneously excluding all taxa that had an abundance of one (singletons) or two (doubletons); and (3) simultaneously excluding all taxa that fell within the lower 5% of rank abundance curves. We then compared IBI metric and total scores before and after removal of rare taxa using the normalized root mean square error (nRMSE) and regression analysis. The difference in IBI metric and total scores increased as more taxa were removed. Moreover, when multiple rare taxa were removed, the nRMSE was related to sample abundance and to total taxa richness, with greater nRMSE observed in samples with a larger number of taxa or sample abundance. Metrics based on relative abundance of fish taxa were less sensitive to the loss of rare taxa, whereas those based on taxa richness were more sensitive, because taxa richness metrics give more weight to rare taxa compared to the relative abundance metrics. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The lung clearance index in young infants: impact of tidal volume and dead space.

    PubMed

    Schmalisch, Gerd; Wilitzki, Silke; Bührer, Christoph; Fischer, Hendrik S

    2015-07-01

    Lung clearance index (LCI), measured by multiple breath washout (MBW), is one of the most frequently used measures of ventilation inhomogeneity. This study was designed to investigate the effect of lung volumes on LCI in young infants. The dependence of LCI on dead space volume (VD), tidal volume (VT) and functional residual capacity (FRC) was investigated by mathematical modeling and by MBW measurements using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer gas. MBW was performed in 150 infants, of median postmenstrual age 46.7 weeks, followed up after neonatal intensive care. Wheezing was assessed in 90 of these infants by computerized respiratory sound analysis during quiet sleep. The strongest correlation was observed between LCI and the volume ratios VT/FRC (Spearman rank order correlation coefficient Rs = 0.688, p < 0.001), VD/VT (Rs = 0.733, p < 0.001) and VD/FRC (Rs = 0.854, p < 0.001). LCI calculated from VD, VT, and FRC was linearly related to measured LCI with a coefficient of determination of 75%. There were no significant differences between wheezers and non-wheezers in postmenstrual age and body weight, but FRC was significantly increased (p < 0.001) and median (interquartile range) LCI significantly decreased (5.83 (5.45-6.51) versus (6.54 (6.03-7.22), p < 0.001) in wheezing compared to non-wheezing infants. Model calculations also showed that LCI was significantly reduced in wheezing infants (5.09 (4.79-5.62) versus 5.43 (5.08-5.82), p < 0.018), indicating that the reduction can be explained by differences in the lung volumes, not by improved ventilation homogeneity. In conclusion, the strong dependence of LCI on lung volumes in young infants can lead to misinterpretations regarding the homogeneity of alveolar ventilation. PMID:26086894

  10. Impact of UV-A radiation on erythemal UV and UV-index estimation over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Seo; Lee, Yun Gon; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Because total UV (TUV) in the UV-A region is 100 times higher than in the UV-B region, UV-A is a considerable component when calculating erythemal UV (EUV) and UV-index. The ratio of EUV to TUV in the UV-A value [EUV(A)/TUV(A)] is investigated to convert the EUV(A) from TUV(A) for broadband observation. The representative value of EUV(A)/TUV(A), from the simulation study, is 6.9×10-4, changing from 6.1×10-4 to 7.0×10-4 as aerosol optical depth, total ozone and solar zenith angle change. By adopting the observational data of EUV(B) and TUV(A) from UV-biometer measurements at Yonsei University [(37.57°N, 126.95°E), 84 m above sea level], the EUV irradiance increases to 15% of EUV(B) due to the consideration of EUV(A) from the data of TUV(A) observation. Compared to the total EUV observed from the Brewer spectrophotometer at the same site, the EUV(B) from the UV-biometer observes only 95% of total EUV, and its underestimation is caused by neglecting the effect of UV-A. However, the sum of EUV(B) and EUV(A) [EUV(A+B)] from two UV-biometers is 10% larger than the EUV from the Brewer spectrophotometer because of the spectral overlap effect in the range 320-340 nm. The correction factor for the overlap effect adjusts 8% of total EUV.

  11. Cellulose crystallinity index: measurement techniques and their impact on interpreting cellulase performance.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunkyu; Baker, John O; Himmel, Michael E; Parilla, Philip A; Johnson, David K

    2010-01-01

    Although measurements of crystallinity index (CI) have a long history, it has been found that CI varies significantly depending on the choice of measurement method. In this study, four different techniques incorporating X-ray diffraction and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were compared using eight different cellulose preparations. We found that the simplest method, which is also the most widely used, and which involves measurement of just two heights in the X-ray diffractogram, produced significantly higher crystallinity values than did the other methods. Data in the literature for the cellulose preparation used (Avicel PH-101) support this observation. We believe that the alternative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR methods presented here, which consider the contributions from amorphous and crystalline cellulose to the entire XRD and NMR spectra, provide a more accurate measure of the crystallinity of cellulose. Although celluloses having a high amorphous content are usually more easily digested by enzymes, it is unclear, based on studies published in the literature, whether CI actually provides a clear indication of the digestibility of a cellulose sample. Cellulose accessibility should be affected by crystallinity, but is also likely to be affected by several other parameters, such as lignin/hemicellulose contents and distribution, porosity, and particle size. Given the methodological dependency of cellulose CI values and the complex nature of cellulase interactions with amorphous and crystalline celluloses, we caution against trying to correlate relatively small changes in CI with changes in cellulose digestibility. In addition, the prediction of cellulase performance based on low levels of cellulose conversion may not include sufficient digestion of the crystalline component to be meaningful. PMID:20497524

  12. The impact of the sexual maturation stage on body mass index in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S S; Kinik, E

    1999-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is used in the clinical assessment of adiposity in children and adolescents. Population-based, race-specific and age-specific curves of BMI for children and adolescents exist, but there are noknown sexual maturation-based BMI curves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pubertal development (assessed according to the Tanner breast stage) on BMI in adolescent girls in a cross-sectional study. The study group comprised 167 healthy girls, between the ages of nine and 16 years, attending school near a hospital in Gerede, Bolu. A significant positive correlation was found between the Tanner stage of breast development and BMI (r = 0.79, p < 0.001). Age also had a significant influence on BMI (r = 0.69, p < 0.001). After controlling the effects of age, BMI was highly correlated with weight (r = 0.82, p < 0.001) and the Tanner breast stage (r = 0.49, p < 0.001), but not with height. The correlation between BMI and the sexual stage was also found to increase with increasing age. But when breast development was taken as a control parameter, BMI was not statistically associated with age or height. As a result, there was a significant variation in BMI with the Tanner breast stage in addition to the well known change with increasing age in adolescent girls. Developmental differences occurring in the same age may require that BMI be evaluated only within the same sexual stages in adolescence. This study indicates that the curves of BMI need to take into account the sexual maturation stage of adolescents. PMID:10770091

  13. The Mass Index and Total Mass of the Geminid Meteoroid Stream as Found with Radar, Optical, and Lunar Impact Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaauw, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Geminid meteor shower was observed in 2015 using the Western Meteor Physics Group’s Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR), Marshall Space Flight Center’s (MSFC) eight wide-field optical cameras, and MSFC’s lunar impact monitoring. These observations allowed Geminid fluxes to be calculated in three unique mass-ranges, from 1.8 (exponent -4) grams to 30 grams. From these fluxes, a mass index of 1.68 plus or minus 0.04 is found, which is in excellent agreement with past Geminid mass indices such as 1.69 found by Blaauw et al using only radar data and 1.7 found by Arlt and Rendtel using visual data. This mass index, however, is found over five orders of magnitude of mass, which allows a higher level of confidence that this mass index holds over a large portion of the stream. Mass indices are an important quantity to be accurately measured for a shower, indicating the distribution of mass in a well-studied stream in which we know the parent body (3200 Phaethon), improving forecasts of the shower activity, and allow fluxes to be scaled to high and low masses. The quantities derived here, along with a profile of the Geminid meteor shower activity in 2015 from CMOR, permit the total Geminid mass the Earth encountered in 2015 to be found, along with a minimum total mass of the Geminid meteoroid stream. Attempts have been made in the past to measure the mass of meteoroid streams using Zenithal Hourly Rate (ZHR) profiles, but here this new and improved treatment uses empirically derived fluxes and measured mass indices for the 2015 encounter with the meteoroid stream. This is to be compared with other meteoroid stream mass estimates including that of the Perseids, caused by comet Swift Tuttle.

  14. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, Saravana C.; Senthilnathan, S.; Kumar, Lokesh D.; Mohan, Anand C. S.; Taranath, M.

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is (CH) an uncommon malformation of the mandible involving change in size and morphology of the condylar neck and head. CH is an anomaly that usually occurs unilaterally and equally affects in both men and women. Hyperplasia of the condyle ‘differentiated into hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and CH. Here, we are presenting a case of 17-year-old male patient with unilateral CH and its review of the literature. PMID:24818099

  15. The Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Changes on Disability Transitions and Mortality in Brazilian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Drumond Andrade, Flávia Cristina; Mohd Nazan, Ahmad Iqmer Nashriq; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006), were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages. PMID:23691319

  16. Watershed Dynamics, with focus on connectivity index and management of water related impacts on road infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In Sweden, spatially explicit approaches have been applied in various disciplines such as landslide modelling based on soil type data and flood risk modelling for large rivers. Regarding flood mapping, most previous studies have focused on complex hydrological modelling on a small scale whereas just a few studies have used a robust GIS-based approach integrating most physical catchment descriptor (PCD) aspects on a larger scale. This study was built on a conceptual framework for looking at SedInConnect model, topography, land use, soil data and other PCDs and climate change in an integrated way to pave the way for more integrated policy making. The aim of the present study was to develop methodology for predicting the spatial probability of flooding on a general large scale. This framework can provide a region with an effective tool to inform a broad range of watershed planning activities within a region. Regional planners, decision-makers, etc. can utilize this tool to identify the most vulnerable points in a watershed and along roads to plan for interventions and actions to alter impacts of high flows and other extreme weather events on roads construction. The application of the model over a large scale can give a realistic spatial characterization of sediment connectivity for the optimal management of debris flow to road structures. The ability of the model to capture flooding probability was determined for different watersheds in central Sweden. Using data from this initial investigation, a method to subtract spatial data for multiple catchments and to produce soft data for statistical analysis was developed. It allowed flood probability to be predicted from spatially sparse data without compromising the significant hydrological features on the landscape. This in turn allowed objective quantification of the probability of floods at the field scale for future model development and watershed management.

  17. Keratinocyte-Derived Chemokine Induces Prostate Epithelial Hyperplasia and Reactive Stroma in a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Isaiah G.; Ressler, Steven J.; Rowley, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is upregulated in fibrotic and malignant diseases and is a key mediator of proliferative responses. Elevated IL-8 was recently correlated with benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelium and a myofibroblast reactive stroma. Thus, we sought to determine whether overexpressed IL-8 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), the functional murine homolog of IL-8, induce prostate epithelial hyperplasia and a reactive phenotype. Methods Transgenic mice that overexpress KC within prostate epithelia and xenograft models with engineered human cells that overexpress IL-8 were developed. Results Overexpression of KC in transgenic mice produced hyperplastic prostate epithelial acini associated with a periacinar reactive stroma. KC induced an altered epithelial/stroma proliferation index ratio, increased acini diameter, epithelial infolding, and expression of prototypical reactive stroma markers. Overexpression of IL-8 in normal human prostate epithelial xenografts correlated with elevated epithelial proliferation index and altered morphology. Elevated human prostate stromal and epithelial cell proliferation, nodule-like morphology and increased xenograft survival were observed in IL-8-overexpressing orthotopic xenografts. Conclusions Together, these data demonstrate that overexpression of IL-8/KC results in a prostate epithelial hyperplasia with an associated reactive stroma phenotype. The novel transgenic mouse and human xenograft models described here may be useful in dissecting key mechanisms of IL-8 induced prostate hyperplasia and reactive stroma. PMID:19021203

  18. Adrenal steroidogenesis and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Turcu, Adina F; Auchus, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids (primarily aldosterone), glucocorticoids (primarily cortisol), and adrenal androgens (primarily dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate) occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal-recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-Hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for more than 90% of CAH cases and, when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. PMID:26038201

  19. OTC tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    Earlier this year, tamsulosin, an alpha blocker previously only available on prescription, became available for sale by pharmacists as a treatment for functional symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men aged 45-75 years (Flomax Relief MR - Boehringer Ingelheim). A television advert for the over-the-counter (OTC) product claims that it is a "simple and effective" treatment that can relieve symptoms within 1 week, allowing the user to "take control of your annoying pee problems".¹ Here we review the evidence on tamsulosin and assess whether its availability as an OTC product confers worthwhile advantages. PMID:20926447

  20. Models for studying benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mahapokai, W; Van Sluijs, F J; Schalken, J A

    2000-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases affecting aging man. Attempts have been made to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis and, to that end, experimental models have been developed. To date, in vitro and in vivo models have been used, depending on the concept of the study. Spontaneous animal models are limited to the chimpanzee and the dog. Ethical and financial factors restrict the applicability of these models. The hormonal-induced canine BPH model is a good alternative that closely resembles human BPH in many aspects. The experimental models currently used for studying BPH are reviewed. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2000) 3, 28-33 PMID:12497158

  1. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. PMID:27241964

  2. Adrenal Steroidogenesis and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for over 90% of CAH cases and when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. This review discusses in detail the epidemiology, genetics, diagnostic, clinical aspects and management of 21OHD. PMID:26038201

  3. One-stage treatment of hemimandibular hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    da Costa Araújo, Fábio Andrey; de Santana Santos, Thiago; de Oliveira E Silva, Emanuel Dias; Filho, José Rodrigues Laureano

    2012-11-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH) is a rare, self-limiting process manifesting between the first and third decades of life. HH causes facial asymmetry and derangement of the occlusion. Management involves resection of the condylar head and orthognathic surgery. This paper describes the case of a 38-year-old woman with spontaneous onset HH over a span of approximately 30 years. The condition was managed with resection of the condyle with simultaneous orthognathic surgery. The patient is currently satisfied with her appearance and function, and there are no signs of recurrence after 2 years. PMID:23172505

  4. Value of an aggregate index in describing the impact of trends in antimicrobial resistance for Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, David M; Chambers, Catharine; Purych, Dale; Chong, Mei; George, Diana; Marra, Fawziah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug resistance indexes (DRIs) quantify the cumulative impact of antimicrobial resistance on the likelihood that a given pathogen will be susceptible to antimicrobial therapy. OBJECTIVE: To derive a DRI for community urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli in British Columbia for the years 2007 to 2010, and to examine trends over time and across patient characteristics. METHODS: Indication-specific utilization data were obtained from BC PharmaNet for outpatient antimicrobial prescriptions linked to diagnostic information from physician payment files. Resistance data for E coli urinary isolates were obtained from BC Biomedical Laboratories (now part of LifeLabs Medical Laboratory Services). DRIs were derived by multiplying the rate of resistance to a specific antimicrobial by the proportional rate of utilization for that drug class and aggregating across drug classes. Higher index values indicate more resistance. RESULTS: Adaptive-use DRIs remained stable over time at approximately 18% (95% CI 17% to 18%) among adults ≥15 years of age and approximately 28% (95% CI 26% to 31%) among children <15 years of age. Similar results were observed when proportional drug use was restricted to the baseline year (ie, a static-use model). Trends according to age group suggest a U-shaped distribution, with the highest DRIs occurring among children <10 years of age and adults ≥65 years of age. Males had consistently higher DRIs than females for all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The stable trend in adaptive-use DRIs over time suggests that clinicians are adapting their prescribing practices for urinary tract infections to local resistance patterns. Results according to age group reveal a higher probability of resistance to initial therapy among young children and elderly individuals. PMID:25798152

  5. Performance of the Enhanced Vegetation Index to Detect Inner-annual Dry Season and Drought Impacts on Amazon Forest Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brede, B.; Verbesselt, J.; Dutrieux, L.; Herold, M.

    2015-04-01

    The Amazon rainforests represent the largest connected forested area in the tropics and play an integral role in the global carbon cycle. In the last years the discussion about their phenology and response to drought has intensified. A recent study argued that seasonality in greenness expressed as Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) is an artifact of variations in sun-sensor geometry throughout the year. We aimed to reproduce these results with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MCD43 product suite, which allows modeling the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and keeping sun-sensor geometry constant. The derived BRDF-adjusted EVI was spatially aggregated over large areas of central Amazon forests. The resulting time series of EVI spanning the 2000-2013 period contained distinct seasonal patterns with peak values at the onset of the dry season, but also followed the same pattern of sun geometry expressed as Solar Zenith Angle (SZA). Additionally, we assessed EVI's sensitivity to precipitation anomalies. For that we compared BRDF-adjusted EVI dry season anomalies to two drought indices (Maximum Cumulative Water Deficit, Standardized Precipitation Index). This analysis covered the whole of Amazonia and data from the years 2000 to 2013. The results showed no meaningful connection between EVI anomalies and drought. This is in contrast to other studies that investigate the drought impact on EVI and forest photosynthetic capacity. The results from both sub-analyses question the predictive power of EVI for large scale assessments of forest ecosystem functioning in Amazonia. Based on the presented results, we recommend a careful evaluation of the EVI for applications in tropical forests, including rigorous validation supported by ground plots.

  6. What Are the Treatments for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Treatments for CAH ... pepubs/cah.pdf (PDF - 751 KB) [top] Screening, Technology and Research in Genetics ... Endocrine Society. (2010). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to steroid 21- ...

  7. Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pakistani Patient.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafaruddin; Tahir, Muzamil; Ashraf, H Shahzad; Khan Niazi, FazaluRehman; Khan, Munazza; Mustafa, Sadaf; Höti, Naseruddin

    2014-01-01

    "Giant hyperplasia" of the prostate is a rare pathology of the prostate gland. We report one such case, in which a successful retropubic prostatectomy was performed on an elderly male patient in Pakistan. The weight of the resected prostate was 700 g, which is the eighth largest prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia reported. PMID:26955540

  8. Genetics of primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares; Alencar, Guilherme Asmar; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Almeida, Madson Queiroz; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Lacroix, André

    2015-01-01

    ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome (CS), accounting for <2% of all endogenous CS cases; however it is more frequently identified incidentally with sub-clinical cortisol secretion. Recently, cortisol secretion has been shown to be regulated by ectopic corticotropin, which is in turn produced by clusters of steroidogenic cells of the hyperplastic adrenal nodules. Hence, the term 'ACTH-independent' is not entirely appropriate for this disorder. Accordingly, the disease is designated primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH) in this review article. The means by which cortisol production is regulated in PMAH despite the suppressed levels of ACTH of pituitary origin is exceedingly complex. Several molecular events have been proposed to explain the enhanced cortisol secretion, increased cell proliferation, and nodule formation in PMAH. Nonetheless, the precise sequence of events and the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition remain unclear. The purpose of this review is therefore to present new insights on the molecular and genetic profile of PMAH pathophysiology, and to discuss the implications for disease progression. PMID:25472909

  9. Conditional Deletion of Pten Causes Bronchiolar Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E.; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R.; Loudy, Dave E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (PtenΔ/Δ) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as indicated by β-tubulin and FOXJ1 expression in ciliated cells and by CCSP expression in nonciliated cells, cell proliferation (detected by expression of Ki-67, phospho-histone-H3, and cyclin D1) was increased and associated with activation of the AKT/mTOR survival pathway. Deletion of Pten caused papillary epithelial hyperplasia characterized by a hypercellular epithelium lining papillae with fibrovascular cores that protruded into the airway lumens. Cell polarity, as assessed by subcellular localization of cadherin, β-catenin, and zonula occludens-1, was unaltered. PTEN is required for regulation of epithelial cell proliferation in the lung and for the maintenance of the normal simple columnar epithelium characteristics of bronchi and bronchioles. PMID:17921358

  10. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giulio; Cavazza, Alberto; Spagnolo, Paolo; Sverzellati, Nicola; Longo, Lucia; Jukna, Agita; Montanari, Gloria; Carbonelli, Cristiano; Vincenzi, Giada; Bogina, Giuseppe; Franco, Renato; Tiseo, Marcello; Cottin, Vincent; Colby, Thomas V

    2016-06-01

    The term diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) may be used to describe a clinico-pathological syndrome, as well as an incidental finding on histological examination, although there are obvious differences between these two scenarios. According to the World Health Organization, the definition of DIPNECH is purely histological. However, DIPNECH encompasses symptomatic patients with airway disease, as well as asymptomatic patients with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia associated with multiple tumourlets/carcinoid tumours. DIPNECH is also considered a pre-neoplastic lesion in the spectrum of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours, because it is commonly found in patients with peripheral carcinoid tumours.In this review, we summarise clinical, physiological, radiological and histological features of DIPNECH and critically discuss recently proposed diagnostic criteria. In addition, we propose that the term "DIPNECH syndrome" be used to indicate a sufficiently distinct patient subgroup characterised by respiratory symptoms, airflow obstruction, mosaic attenuation with air trapping on chest imaging and constrictive obliterative bronchiolitis, often with nodular proliferation of neuroendocrine cells with/without tumourlets/carcinoid tumours on histology. Surgical lung biopsy is the diagnostic gold standard. However, in the appropriate clinical and radiological setting, transbronchial lung biopsy may also allow a confident diagnosis of DIPNECH syndrome. PMID:27076588

  11. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  12. Polycystic Ovaries Associated with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lucis, O. J.; Hobkirk, R.; Hollenberg, C. H.; MacDonald, S. A.; Blahey, P.

    1966-01-01

    Polycystic ovaries were found in a 16-year-old female with congenital absence of vagina, male-like external genitalia, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Masculinization was sufficiently severe to cause the patient to be reared as a male. Biochemical studies of ovarian tissue revealed hyperactivity and an imbalance of enzyme systems concerned with steroid-hormone biosynthesis, which led to production of large amounts of androgens. The pathway towards estrogens was preserved but less efficient than normal. Urinary steroid metabolites before and after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy revealed an absence of Porter-Silber chromogens and tetrahydrocortisone. Excretion of aldosterone was normal and that of corticosterone slightly higher than normal. The patterns of urinary 17-ketosteroids, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol and pregnanetriolone were similar to those commonly seen in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Urinary estrogens after panhysterectomy were low, being in the post-menopausal range. The pathogenesis of polycystic ovaries and their possible contribution to masculinization are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5901591

  13. Mitotically active microglandular hyperplasia of the cervix: a case series with implications for the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Abi-Raad, Rita; Alomari, Ahmed; Hui, Pei; Buza, Natalia

    2014-09-01

    Microglandular hyperplasia (MGH) is a benign proliferation of endocervical glands with relatively uniform columnar or cuboidal nuclei, and rare to absent mitoses. Endometrial adenocarcinomas with mucinous differentiation or a microglandular pattern can closely mimic MGH, often resulting in a diagnostic dilemma in small biopsy specimens. Rare unusual morphologic features-mild to moderate nuclear atypia, solid or reticular growth pattern, hobnail and signet ring cells-have been previously reported in MGH. We present 9 cases of unusual, mitotically active-between 5 and 11 mitotic figures per 10 HPF-MGH, all of which presented as endocervical polyps and had morphologic features otherwise typical of MGH. The patients' age ranged between 35 and 56 yr, 2 patients were postmenopausal. High-risk human papillomavirus status was available in 7 patients, all of which were negative. The Ki-67 proliferation index ranged between 1% and 15%, and all cases were negative for p16, carcinoembryonic antigen, and vimentin immunostains. The clinical follow-up ranged from 3 to 76.2 mo, with a median of 40.7 mo, all patients were doing well without evidence of endocervical or endometrial malignancy. In summary, this case series documents the presence of rare cases of MGH demonstrating significant mitotic activity (up to 11/10 HPF) without a negative impact on the clinical prognosis. Mitotic activity alone should be interpreted with caution in small biopsy specimens with microglandular growth pattern. Immunohistochemical stains, especially p16, carcinoembryonic antigen, and vimentin, may be helpful-in addition to the patient's clinical history and human papillomavirus status to rule out endocervical or endometrial malignancy. PMID:25083971

  14. Prolonged exposure of cholestatic rats to complete dark inhibits biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuyan; Onori, Paolo; Meng, Fanyin; DeMorrow, Sharon; Venter, Julie; Francis, Heather; Franchitto, Antonio; Ray, Debolina; Kennedy, Lindsey; Greene, John; Renzi, Anastasia; Mancinelli, Romina; Gaudio, Eugenio; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2014-11-01

    Biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are common features in cholestatic liver disease. Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland as well as the liver. Melatonin inhibits biliary hyperplasia of bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. Since melatonin synthesis (by the enzyme serotonin N-acetyltransferase, AANAT) from the pineal gland increases after dark exposure, we hypothesized that biliary hyperplasia and liver fibrosis are diminished by continuous darkness via increased melatonin synthesis from the pineal gland. Normal or BDL rats (immediately after surgery) were housed with light-dark cycles or complete dark for 1 wk before evaluation of 1) the expression of AANAT in the pineal gland and melatonin levels in pineal gland tissue supernatants and serum; 2) biliary proliferation and intrahepatic bile duct mass, liver histology, and serum chemistry; 3) secretin-stimulated ductal secretion (functional index of biliary growth); 4) collagen deposition, liver fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver, and cholangiocytes; and 5) expression of clock genes in cholangiocytes. In BDL rats exposed to dark there was 1) enhanced AANAT expression/melatonin secretion in pineal gland and melatonin serum levels; 2) improved liver morphology, serum chemistry and decreased biliary proliferation and secretin-stimulated choleresis; and 4) decreased fibrosis and expression of fibrosis markers in liver sections, total liver and cholangiocytes and reduced biliary expression of the clock genes PER1, BMAL1, CLOCK, and Cry1. Thus prolonged dark exposure may be a beneficial noninvasive therapeutic approach for the management of biliary disorders. PMID:25214401

  15. Impact of body mass index on clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Ndrepepa, Gjin; Keta, Dritan; Byrne, Robert A; Schulz, Stefanie; Mehilli, Julinda; Seyfarth, Melchior; Schömig, Albert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    Studies that have tested the relationship between body weight as assessed by body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have given contradictory results. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of BMI on clinical outcome and assess the impact of adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors on the relationship between obesity and clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) following PCI. This study included 9146 patients with ACS who underwent coronary angiography and PCI: 2610 patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction, 2792 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction, and 3744 patients with unstable angina. The primary outcome of this analysis was 1-year mortality. Quartiles of BMI were: 12.8 to <24.3 (1st quartile), 24.3 to <26.4 (2nd quartile), 26.4 to <29.1 (3rd quartile), and >29.1 to 50.7 (4th quartile). Within the first year following PCI, there were 756 deaths: 228 deaths in the 1st BMI quartile, 209 deaths in the 2nd BMI quartile, 161 deaths in the 3rd BMI quartile and 158 deaths in the 4th BMI quartile (Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality 10.3%, 9.1%, 7.2%, and 7.0%, respectively; odds ratio [OR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.86, P < 0.001 for 1st vs 4th BMI quartile). After adjustment in the Cox proportional hazards model, the association between BMI and 1-year mortality was attenuated to the level of statistical insignificance (hazards ratio [HR] = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94-1.64; P = 0.127 for 1st vs 4th BMI quartile). In conclusion, in patients with ACS undergoing PCI, obesity as assessed with BMI was not an independent correlate of 1-year mortality. PMID:20091395

  16. Temporal Relationship Between Childhood Body Mass Index and Insulin and Its Impact on Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Ying; Sun, Dianjianyi; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez, Camilo; Qi, Lu; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Xue, Fuzhong; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Although obesity and insulin resistance are closely correlated, their temporal sequences in early life and influence on adult hypertension are largely unknown. This study aims to delineate the temporal relationship patterns between body mass index (BMI) and insulin in childhood and their impact on adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 990 adults (630 whites and 360 blacks) who had BMI and fasting insulin measured twice 5.4 years apart in childhood (mean age, 10.5 years at baseline and 15.9 years at follow-up) and blood pressure measured 14.7 years later in adulthood (mean age, 30.5 years). Cross-lagged panel and mediation analysis models were used to examine the temporal relationship between childhood BMI and insulin and its impact on adult hypertension. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and follow-up years, the cross-lagged path coefficient (β=0.33; P<0.001) from baseline BMI to follow-up insulin was significantly greater than the path coefficient (β=-0.02; P>0.05) from baseline insulin to follow-up BMI in childhood with P<0.001 for the difference in βs. Blacks and whites showed similar patterns of the temporal relationship. The path coefficient (β=0.59; P<0.001) from BMI to insulin in the hypertensive group was significantly greater than that (β=0.24; P<0.001) in normotensive group, with P<0.001 for the difference in βs between these 2 groups. The mediation effect of childhood insulin on the childhood BMI-adult hypertension association was estimated at 21.1% (P<0.001). These findings provide evidence that higher BMI levels precede hyperinsulinemia during childhood, and this 1-directional relation plays a role in the development of hypertension. PMID:27432860

  17. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: impact of the new EULAR recommendations on the score cardiovascular risk index.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Robustillo, Montserrat; Narváez, Javier; Rodríguez-Moreno, Jesús; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca, Javier; Nolla, Joan Miquel; González-Gay, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the application of the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force recommendations in the cardiovascular (CV) risk of a series of Spanish patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two hundred consecutive RA patients seen at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of Bellvitge Hospital, Barcelona, were studied. Information on clinical features of the disease, classic CV risk factors, and history of CV events was assessed. Both the systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE) CV risk index and the modified SCORE (mSCORE) according to the last EULAR recommendations were calculated. Based on the classic CV risk factors, the mean ± standard deviation SCORE was 2.1 ± 2.3% (median, 2; interquartile range [IQR], 1-3). Twenty-three (11%) patients were above the threshold of high CV risk for the Spanish population (≥5%). Following the EULAR recommendations, a change in the score was required in 119 (59%) patients. Therefore, the mean mSCORE was 2.7 ± 2.9% (median, 2; IQR, 1-3) and, due to this, 28 (14%) patients were above the threshold of high CV risk. Nine (5%) had at least one ischemic CV event. Patients with CV events were older and had more CV risk factors and higher SCORE and mSCORE than those without CV events. Although a large proportion of patients from this series fulfilled the criteria for the application of the EULAR recommendations, the final impact on the calculated CV risk was low and clinically significant in only a few patients. However, an association between the mSCORE and the presence of ischemic CV events was observed. PMID:21567119

  18. Impact of hypovitaminosis D on clinical, hormonal and insulin sensitivity parameters in normal body mass index polycystic ovary syndrome women.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Marwaha, Raman Kumar; Nisar, Sobia; Farooqi, Khalid Jamal; Jan, Rafi Ahmed; Wani, Saleem Ahmed; Gojwari, Tariq; Shah, Zaffar Amin

    2016-05-01

    Earlier data on the relationship of 25 hydroxyvitamins (25OHD) levels with various components of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been conflicting. We studied 122 normal body mass index (BMI) women with PCOS (cases) and 46 age and BMI-matched healthy women (controls) and assessed the impact of serum 25OHD levels on clinical, biochemical and insulin sensitivity parameters in these lean Indian women with PCOS. The mean age and BMI of the cases and controls were comparable. Mean serum 25OHD levels respectively were 10.1 ± 9.9 and 7.9 ± 6.8 ng/ml with 87.7% and 91.1% vitamin D (VD) deficient. No significant correlation was noted between 25OHD levels and clinical, biochemical and insulin sensitivity parameters except with the total testosterone levels (p = 0.007). Also, no significant difference in these parameters was observed once the PCOS women were stratified into various subgroups based on the serum 25OHD levels. We conclude that VD deficiency being common in normal BMI Indian women with or without PCOS does not seem to alter the metabolic phenotype in these women. PMID:26772667

  19. Weight Loss and Decrease of Body Mass Index during Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Are Common Events with Limited Clinical Impact

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Christina T.; Wischumerski, Isabel; Rust, Christian; Fiegl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Weight loss in cancer patients has been attributed with significant morbidity and mortality. During allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), oral nutrition is often hampered and hence total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is necessary. We therefore investigated the course of weight during stem cell transplantation and the clinical consequences of weight change. Methods 180 consecutive patients who received allogeneic SCT between January 2010 and December 2011 at our center were analyzed for weight loss, laboratory and clinical parameters. Results During SCT, a median decrease of 6.6% of body mass index (BMI) was observed for the whole population (from 25.3 at admission to 23.6 at discharge), and a 1.6fold increase of malnutrition despite use of TPN (28.3% to 45.0%). 55.6% of patients experienced a significant weight loss of ≥5% with a median decrease of 9.2% in BMI. Serum levels of albumin, total protein and cholesterol rapidly decreased during conditioning therapy. After a median of 2.4 years, the median BMI was still only 23.4 (not different from discharge). However, we did not observe a meaningful difference in side effects and survival between patients that did or did not lose weight. Conclusion Weight loss is commonly observed during allogeneic SCT despite TPN, but the clinical consequences thereof seem limited: we observed no significant impact on patients with a decrease ≥ 5% in BMI on transplant outcome, side effects or survival. PMID:26683031

  20. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Kim, Jean; Sritharan, Nilani; Petocz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i) non-cereal and (ii) cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14–16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p < 0.001), while no significant differences were observed for mean body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, waist circumference and physical activity level across the categories. Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children’s diets. PMID:27517957

  1. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Kim, Jean; Sritharan, Nilani; Petocz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2-16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i) non-cereal and (ii) cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14-16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p < 0.001), while no significant differences were observed for mean body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, waist circumference and physical activity level across the categories. Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children's diets. PMID:27517957

  2. The psychometric validation of a US English satisfaction measure for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Black, Libby; Grove, Alyson; Morrill, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to validate the US English Patient Perception of Study Medication (PPSM) questionnaire, which measures patient satisfaction with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) treatment and was administered to men with BPH lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) enrolled in a multi-national clinical trial. Methods Patients with moderate to severe BPH symptoms completed three disease-specific measures: The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the BPH Impact Index (BII) and the PPSM, at baseline (after completion of the placebo run-in period) and at every 13-week clinic visit thereafter for the duration of the study treatment period. The PPSM was analysed to assess its variability, reliability and validity. Results There were 879 patients included in the analyses, with a mean age of 66.7 years. The PPSM was found to comprise two factors – PPSM-Global and PPSM-Pain, with a Total Score ranging from 7 to 49. It demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ranged from .95 to .97) and also demonstrated convergent validity through significant correlations with the IPSS (.48 to .58), IPSS Quality of Life (QoL) item (.41 to .63) and BII (.31 to .45) and known-groups validity against the IPSS, IPSS QoL item and BII. Conclusion Results support the use of the PPSM as a measure of satisfaction in BPH patient groups. PMID:19545384

  3. Cystic lymphoid hyperplasia of the parotid gland as the initial manifestation of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bingcheng; Ngo, Raymond; Petersson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who presented with cystic lymphoid hyperplasia of the right parotid gland as the index diagnosis of HIV infection. Histological examination of the excised parotid gland revealed a solid-cystic lymphoepithelial lesion with a non-keratinous squamous epithelium, which grew into the lymphoid component via anastomosing cords and islands. These anastomosing cords and islands contained variably abundant B cells, several subepithelial multinucleated histiocytes, salivary ducts infiltrated by small lymphocytes, and a dense lymphoid infiltrate containing lymphoid follicles with enlarged, irregular germinal centres. PMID:24452982

  4. Microwave Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Raffoul, George

    2005-01-01

    Microwave ablation in the form of microwave energy applied to a heart muscle by a coaxial catheter inserted in a vein in the groin area can be used to heat and kill diseased heart cells. A microwave catheter has been developed to provide deep myocardial ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia by restoring appropriate electrical activity within the heart and eliminating irregular heartbeats. The resulting microwave catheter design, which is now being developed for commercial use in treating ventricular tachycardia, can be modified to treat prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inasmuch as the occurrence of BPH is increasing currently 350,000 operations per year are performed in the United States alone to treat this condition this microwave catheter has significant commercial potential.

  5. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia: Relevance in Oral Pathology.

    PubMed

    Sarangarajan, R; Vedam, V K Vaishnavi; Sivadas, G; Krishnaraj, R; Sarangarajan, Anuradha; Shanmugam, K T

    2015-07-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH), a neglected entity by oral pathologist possesses utmost importance in the field of research. Of all the investigative challenges, PEH, a reactive epithelial proliferation is seen secondary to lesions with infectious, inflammatory, reactive, and degenerative origin. Small sized samples, incomplete excision, improper orientation, and dense inflammatory changes render diagnostic confront to the oral pathologist in exclusion of frankly invasive malignant lesions like squamous cell carcinoma from lesions exhibiting PEH. The diagnosis can occasionally be difficult as they mimic other lesions also, on clinic-pathological assessment. Thus, this article gives an insight regarding the various concepts of etiopathogenesis, histopathology, differential diagnosis, and malignant potential of PEH. A combined effort of a clinician and pathologist benefits every patient to rule out malignancy and render appropriate treatment as the only local conservative approach is essential to remove PEH associated lesions. PMID:26229388

  6. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia causing massive breast enlargement.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Anita Geraldine; Tiang, Stephen; Harvey, Nathan; McClure, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign mesenchymal proliferative process, initially described by Vuitch et al. We report an unusual case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with a 6-week history of bilateral massive, asymmetrical, painful enlargement of her breasts, without a history of trauma. On clinical examination, both breasts were markedly enlarged and oedematous, but there were no discrete palpable masses. Preoperative image-guided core biopsies and surgery showed PASH. PASH is increasingly recognised as an incidental finding on image-guided core biopsy performed for screen detected lesions. There are a few reported cases of PASH presenting as rapid breast enlargement. In our case, the patient presented with painful, asymmetrical, massive breast enlargement. Awareness needs to be raised of this entity as a differential diagnosis in massive, painful breast enlargement. PMID:26475873

  7. Langerhans cell hyperplasia from molluscum contagiosum

    PubMed Central

    Hatter, Alyn D.; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine if molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on biopsy proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. We report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histologic lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive “driver” in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  8. Langerhans Cell Hyperplasia From Molluscum Contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Hatter, Alyn D; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis, which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics, which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine whether molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion, demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. Polymerase chain reaction on biopsy-proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion has been performed. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. The authors report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histological lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive "driver" in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  9. Steroid 21 hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nimkarn, Saroj; Lin-Su, Karen; New, Maria I

    2011-10-01

    Steroid 21 hydroxylase deficiency is the most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The severity of this disorder depends on the extent of impaired enzymatic activity, which is caused by various mutations of the 21 hydroxylase gene. This article reviews adrenal steroidogenesis and the pathophysiology of 21 hydroxylase deficiency. The three forms of CAH are then discussed in terms of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment, and genetic basis. Prenatal diagnosis and treatment are also reviewed. The goal of therapy is to correct the deficiency in cortisol secretion and suppress androgen overproduction. Glucocorticoid replacement has been the mainstay of treatment for CAH, but new treatment strategies continue to be developed and studied. PMID:21981961

  10. Impact of model order and estimation window for indexing TerraSAR-X images using Gauss Markov random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Molina, Daniela; Datcu, Mihai

    2010-10-01

    TerraSAR-X is the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) German satellite which provides a high diversity of information due to its high-resolution. TerraSAR-X acquires daily a volume of up to 100 GB of high complexity, multi-mode SAR images, i.e. SpotLight, StripMap, and ScanSAR data, with dual or quad-polarization, and with different look angles. The high and multiple resolutions of the instrument (1m, 3m or 10m) open perspectives for new applications, that were not possible with past lower resolution sensors (20-30m). Mainly the 1m and 3m modes we expect to support a broad range of new applications related to human activities with relevant structures and objects at the 1m scale. Thus, among the most interesting scenes are: urban, industrial, and rural data. In addition, the global coverage and the relatively frequent repeat pass will definitely help to acquire extremely relevant data sets. To analyze the available TerrrSAR-X data we rely on model based methods for feature extraction and despeckling. The image information content is extracted using model-based methods based on Gauss Markov Random Field (GMRF) and Bayesian inference approach. This approach enhances the local adaptation by using a prior model, which learns the image structure and enables to estimate the local description of the structures, acting as primitive feature extraction method. However, the GMRF model-based method uses as input parameters the Model Order (MO) and the size of Estimation Window (EW). The appropriated selection of these parameters allows us to improve the classification and indexing results due to the number of well separated classes could be determined by them. Our belief is that the selection of the MO depends on the kind of information that the image contains, explaining how well the model can recognize complex structures as objects, and according to the size of EW the accuracy of the estimation is determined. In the following, we present an evaluation of the impact of the model

  11. Germline RET 634 mutation positive MEN 2A-related C-cell hyperplasias have genetic features consistent with intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Cano, S J; de Miguel, M; Blanes, A; Tashjian, R; Wolfe, H J

    2001-08-01

    C-cell hyperplasias are normally multifocal in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. We compared clonality, microsatellite pattern of tumor suppressor genes, and cellular kinetics of C-cell hyperplasia foci in each thyroid lobe. We selected 11 females from multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A kindred treated with thyroidectomy due to hypercalcitoninemia. C-cell hyperplasia foci were microdissected for DNA extraction to analyze the methylation pattern of androgen receptor alleles and microsatellite regions (TP53, RB1, WT1, and NF1). Consecutive sections were selected for MIB-1, pRB1, p53, Mdm-2, and p21WAF1 immunostaining, DNA content analysis, and in situ end labeling. Appropriate tissue controls were run. Only two patients had medullary thyroid carcinoma foci. Nine informative C-cell hyperplasia patients showed germline point mutation in RET, eight of them with the same androgen receptor allele preferentially methylated in both lobes. C-cell hyperplasia foci showed heterogeneous DNA deletions revealed by loss of heterozygosity of TP53 (12 of 20), RB1 (6 of 14), and WT1 (4 of 20) and hypodiploid G0/G1 cells (14 of 20), low cellular turnover (MIB-1 index 4.5%, in situ end labeling index 0.03%), and significantly high nuclear area to DNA index ratio. MEN 2A (germline point mutation in RET codon 634) C-cell hyperplasias are monoclonal and genetically heterogeneous and show down-regulated apoptosis, findings consistent with an intraepithelial neoplasia. Concordant X-chromosome inactivation and interstitial gene deletions suggest clone expansions of precursors occurring at a point in embryonic development before divergence of each thyroid lobe and may represent a paradigm for other germline mutations. PMID:11502837

  12. Evaluation of the impact of atmospheric ozone and aerosols on the horizontal global/diffuse UV Index at Livorno (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaglione, Daniele; Giulietti, Danilo; Morelli, Marco

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted at Livorno (Italy) to evaluate the impact of atmospheric aerosols and ozone on the solar UV radiation and its diffuse component at ground in clear sky conditions. Solar UV radiation has been quantified in terms of UV Index (UVI), following the ISO 17166:1999/CIE S007/E-1998 international standard. UVI has been calculated by exploiting the libRadtran radiative transfer modelling software as a function of both the Aerosols Optical Depth (AOD) and the Total Ozone Column (TOC). In particular AOD and TOC values have been remotely sensed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the NASA's EOS (Earth Observing System) satellites constellation. An experimental confirmation was also obtained by exploiting global UVI ground-based measurements from the 26/9/14 to 12/8/15 and diffuse UVI ground-based measurements from the 17/5/15 to 12/8/15. For every considered value of Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and atmospheric condition, estimates and measurements confirm that the diffuse component contributes for more than 50% on the global UV radiation. Therefore an exposure of human skin also to diffuse solar UV radiation can be potentially harmful for health and need to be accurately monitored, e.g. by exploiting innovative applications such as a mobile app with a satellite-based UV dosimeter that has been developed. Global and diffuse UVI variations due to the atmosphere are primarily caused by the TOC variations (typically cyclic): the maximum TOC variation detected by OMI in the area under study leads to a corresponding variation in global and diffuse UVI of about 50%. Aerosols in the area concerned, mainly of maritime nature, have instead weaker effects causing a maximum variation of the global and diffuse UVI respectively of 9% and 35% with an SZA of 20° and respectively of 13% and 10% with an SZA of 60°.

  13. Impact of the great east Japan earthquake on the body mass index of preschool children: a nationwide nursery school survey

    PubMed Central

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Zheng, Wei; Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kato, Noriko; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the 2011 great east Japan earthquake on body mass index (BMI) of preschool children. Design Retrospective cohort study and ecological study. Setting Affected prefectures (Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate) and unaffected prefectures in northeast Japan. Participants The cohort study assessed 2033 and 1707 boys and 1909 and 1658 girls in 3 affected prefectures and unaffected prefectures, respectively, all aged 3–4 years at the time of the earthquake. The ecological study examined random samples of schoolchildren from the affected prefectures. Primary and secondary outcome measures The cohort study compared postdisaster changes in BMIs and the prevalence of overweight and obese children. The ecological study evaluated postdisaster changes in the prevalence of overweight children. Results 1 month after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were observed among girls (+0.087 kg/m2 vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima and among boys and girls (+0.165 and +0.124 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Iwate. 19 months after the earthquake, significantly increased BMIs were detected among boys and girls (+0.137 and +0.200 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Fukushima, whereas significantly decreased BMIs were observed among boys and girls (−0.218 and −0.082 kg/m2, respectively vs unaffected prefectures) in Miyagi. 1 month after the earthquake, Fukushima, Miyagi and Iwate had a slightly increased prevalence of overweight boys, whereas Fukushima had a slightly decreased prevalence of overweight girls, compared with the unaffected prefectures. The ecological study detected increases in the prevalence of overweight boys and girls in Fukushima who were 6–11 and 6–10 years of age, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that in the affected prefectures, preschool children gained weight immediately after the earthquake. The long-term impact of the earthquake on early childhood

  14. Role of epithelial hyperplasia in regression following photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, C. A.; Holden, B. A.; Epstein, D.; Tengroth, B.; Fagerholm, P.; Hamberg-Nyström, H.

    1996-01-01

    AIM--To determine the relation between epithelial hyperplasia and regression of effect after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). METHODS--Seventy unilaterally treated patients with PRK were examined. All eyes had been treated with the Summit excimer laser 27 (SD 7) months previously with zone diameters of 4.1 to 5.0 mm. The untreated fellow eyes served as controls. Epithelial thickness was measured centrally with a thin slit optical pachometer and manifest subjective refraction was performed. RESULTS--The epithelium was 21% thicker in the treated eye (p < 0.0001). The relation between refractive regression and epithelial hyperplasia was significant (r = 0.41; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--Epithelial hyperplasia after PRK correlated with the myopic shift (including hyperopia reduction) after treatment with the Summit laser. A model is proposed suggesting that both subepithelial and epithelial layers contribute to regression in the Summit treated eyes with 18 microns of epithelial hyperplasia contributing each dioptre of regression. PMID:8759267

  15. Axon and muscle spindle hyperplasia in the myostatin null mouse

    PubMed Central

    Elashry, Mohamed I; Otto, Anthony; Matsakas, Antonios; El-Morsy, Salah E; Jones, Lisa; Anderson, Bethan; Patel, Ketan

    2011-01-01

    Germline deletion of the myostatin gene results in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the tension-generating (extrafusal) fibres in skeletal muscle. As this gene is expressed predominantly in myogenic tissues it offers an excellent model with which to investigate the quantitative relationship between muscle and axonal development. Here we show that skeletal muscle hyperplasia in myostatin null mouse is accompanied by an increase in nerve fibres in major nerves of both the fore- and hindlimbs. We show that axons within these nerves undergo hypertrophy. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the age-related neural atrophic process is delayed in the absence of myostatin. Finally, we show that skeletal muscle hyperplasia in the myostatin null mouse is accompanied by an increase in the number of muscle spindles (also called stretch receptors or proprioceptors). However, our work demonstrates that the mechanisms regulating intrafusal fibre hyperplasia and hypertrophy differ from those that control the aetiology of extrafusal fibres. PMID:21208206

  16. New Developments in Our Understanding of Neointimal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Timmy; Ul Haq, Naveed

    2015-11-01

    The vascular access remains the lifeline for the hemodialysis patient. The most common etiology of vascular access dysfunction is venous stenosis at the vein-artery anastomosis in arteriovenous fistula and at the vein-graft anastomosis in arteriovenous grafts (AVG). This stenotic lesion is typically characterized on histology as aggressive venous neointimal hyperplasia in both arteriovenous fistula and AVG. In recent years, we have advanced our knowledge and understanding of neointimal hyperplasia in vascular access and begun testing several novel therapies. This article will (1) review recent developments in our understanding of the pathophysiology of neointimal hyperplasia development in AVG and fistula failure, (2) discuss atypical factors leading to neointimal hyperplasia development, (3) highlight key novel therapies that have been evaluated in clinical trials, and (4) discuss future opportunities and challenges to improve our understanding of vascular access dysfunction and translate this knowledge into novel and innovative therapies. PMID:26524947

  17. Ortho-surgical management of condylar hyperplasia: Rare case reports

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Virendra; Verma, Ajay; Attresh, Gyanander; Batra, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia of the mandible is a clinical condition of over-development and growth because of excessive cellular growth of one condylar part of the mandible leading to facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation and enlargement of condyle. The elongation of the condylar neck in turn leads to malocclusion and articular dysfunction. In the past the interceptive and corrective procedures of growth and deformity in condylar hyperplasia were either condylectomy or high condylotomy. However, the deformity ceases after growth is completed. Therefore, other surgical procedures have to be undertaken to correct the manifested deformity of condylar hyperplasia. Further it has to be stressed that no single procedure can completely correct the deformity. So in addition to condylectomy, other orthognathic surgical procedures both on body and ramus and also on maxilla can be undertaken to correct the canting of occlusion. Two rare cases of unilateral hyperplasia encountered in our hospital are presented which required different lines of treatment. PMID:25298720

  18. An update of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    New, Maria I

    2004-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations that encode for enzymes involved in one of the various steps of adrenal steroid synthesis. These defects result in the absence or the decreased synthesis of cortisol from its cholesterol precursor. The anterior pituitary secretes excess adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) via feedback regulation by cortisol, which results in overstimulation of the adrenals and causes hyperplasia. Symptoms due to CAH can vary from mild to severe depending on the degree of ensymatic defect. In the classical form of CAH, there is a severe enzymatic defect owing to mutations in the CYP21 gene. Classically affected female fetuses undergo virilization of the genitalia prenatally and present with genital ambiguity at birth; however, prenatal treatment of CAH with dexamethasone to prevent ambiguity has been successfully utilized for over a decade. In the less severe, late-onset form of CAH, prenatal virilization does not occur. The milder enzyme deficiency was termed nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC21OHD) in 1979 and was later found to be the most common autosomal recessive disorder in humans. Disease frequency of NC21OHD varies between ethnic groups with the highest ethnic-specific disease frequency in Ashkenazi Jews at 1/27. NC21OHD is diagnosed by serum elevations of 17-OHP that plot on a nomogram between the range for unaffected individuals and levels observed for classical CAH and is typically confirmed with molecular genetic analysis. Similar to classical CAH, nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency may cause premature development of pubic hair, advanced bone age, accelerated linear growth velocity and diminished final height in both males and females. Severe cystic acne has also been attributed to nonclassical CAH. Women may present with symptoms of androgen excess, including hirsutism, temporal baldness, and infertility. Menarche in females may be normal or delayed and

  19. Early detection of drought impact on rice paddies in Indonesia by means of Niño 3.4 index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmaini, Elza; Hadi, Tri Wahyu; Subagyono, Kasdi; Puspito, Nanang Tyasbudi

    2015-08-01

    El Niño events have been frequently marked by drought occurrences with severe consequences for agricultural production in Indonesia. Paddy drought occurs almost every year and extends during El Niño phenomena. The Niño 3.4 index is commonly used as an important tool for managing a food security policy. However, there are no details regarding the impact of El Niño on drought-induced paddy damage. We developed the Paddy Drought Impact Index (PDII), which is the ratio of drought-induced paddy damaged area to the total paddy area planted in order to investigate the impact of drought on paddies among 335 districts in Indonesia. Unlike other agricultural drought indices, this index represents real-life percentage of drought-induced paddy damage to indicate each district's relative severity to drought, which can be easily understood by practical users. The connection between the Niño 3.4 index and PDII was assessed using cross correlation analysis. Scatter plots of best lag time Niño 3.4 index against PDII were examined. The findings show that with 2 months lag of Niño 3.4 prior to PDII, March and June Niño 3.4 indices can be used to predict May-July and August-October PDII, respectively. Critical thresholds of the March Niño 3.4 index were found to range from 0.0 to 0.5 °C, which is associated with a 0.57 probability of weak El Niño occurrence during the subsequent 5 months. On the other hand, a higher probability of 0.67 for occurrences of moderate El Niño is associated with the critical thresholds of June Niño 3.4 index, which ranges from 0.5-1.0 °C. This study has found that the potential impact of drought due to the weak and moderate El Niño occurrences in Indonesia is such that yields are reduced by about 40 % in average. We also found that the most drought-prone areas are located in West Java for both May-July and August-October and in South Sulawesi for August-October.

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with focal nodular hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lowell, Jeffrey A; Hassan, Anjum; Howard, Todd K

    2002-01-01

    Background Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon liver tumour that typically requires no therapeutic intervention. Case outline A 43-year-old woman with a 20-year history of oral contraceptive use presented with symptomatic bilateral liver masses. Biopsy revealed hepatocellular carcinoma in the right hemiliver and focal nodular hyperplasia in the left hemiliver.At operation,the patient was noted to have multiple liver nodules bilaterally, and all intraoperative biopsies were consistent with focal nodular hyperplasia including a biopsy taken from the region that demonstrated carcinoma preoperatively. Because of the earlier biopsy results and the patient's preoperative symptoms, a right hemihepatectomy was performed. Final pathology revealed hepatocellular carcinoma directly adjacent to an area of focal nodular hyperplasia, as well as multiple other areas of hyperplastic liver tumour. Discussion Although focal nodular hyperplasia is believed to be benign, few studies have followed patients with this tumour beyond three years. Longer-term follow-up studies are needed to determine the natural history of focal nodular hyperplasia, potentially focussing on a subset of patients with either diffuse tumours or prolonged oral contraceptive use. PMID:18332941

  1. [Pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Oelke, M; Martinelli, E

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is indicated when men suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) but there are no absolute indications for prostate surgery or severe bladder outlet obstruction. Phytotherapy can be used in men with mild to moderate LUTS and alpha-blockers can quickly and effectively decrease the LUTS and symptomatic disease progression. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-I) are an alternative to alpha-blockers when men experience bothersome side effects from alpha-blockers or erectile dysfunction. If patients predominantly have bladder storage symptoms and a small prostate, muscarinic receptor antagonists are a viable treatment option. The combination of alpha-blocker plus muscarinic receptor antagonist is more efficacious in reducing LUTS than the single drugs alone. The 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) can significantly decrease LUTS and disease progression (e.g. acute urinary retention and need for prostate surgery) in men with larger prostates (> 30-40 ml). The combination of 5ARI plus alpha-blocker can reduce LUTS and disease progression more effectively than drug monotherapy. Combination therapy with PDE5-I (tadalafil) plus 5ARI (finasteride) reduces LUTS more substantially than 5ARI alone and, additionally, PDE5-Is reduce the sexual side effects during 5ARI treatment. PMID:26676726

  2. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: from Bench to Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Ju

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease, especially in old men, and often results in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This chronic disease has important care implications and financial risks to the health care system. LUTS are caused not only by mechanical prostatic obstruction but also by the dynamic component of obstruction. The exact etiology of BPH and its consequences, benign prostatic enlargement and benign prostatic obstruction, are not identified. Various theories concerning the causes of benign prostate enlargement and LUTS, such as metabolic syndrome, inflammation, growth factors, androgen receptor, epithelial-stromal interaction, and lifestyle, are discussed. Incomplete overlap of prostatic enlargement with symptoms and obstruction encourages focus on symptoms rather than prostate enlargement and the shifting from surgery to medicine as the treatment of BPH. Several alpha antagonists, including alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, have shown excellent efficacy without severe adverse effects. In addition, new alpha antagonists, silodosin and naftopidil, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are emerging as BPH treatments. In surgical treatment, laser surgery such as photoselective vaporization of the prostate and holmium laser prostatectomy have been introduced to reduce complications and are used as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy. The status of TURP as the gold standard treatment of BPH is still evolving. We review several preclinical and clinical studies about the etiology of BPH and treatment options. PMID:22468207

  3. Nonclassical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cuhaci, Neslihan; Aydın, Cevdet; Yesilyurt, Ahmet; Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency due to mutation of the CYP21A2 gene. Patients with nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH) are usually asymptomatic at birth and typically present in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood with symptoms of excessive androgen secretion. Subfertility is relative in NC-CAH, but the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is higher. Here, we report a previously undiagnosed female who gave birth to a normal male child and is planning to become pregnant again. Case Report. A 32-year-old female was referred to our clinic for obesity. Her medical history revealed that she had had three pregnancies. She was planning to become pregnant again. Her laboratory results revealed that she had NC-CAH. Since her husband is the son of her aunt and she had miscarriages and intrauterin exitus in her history, their genetic analyses were performed. Conclusion. Since most patients with NC-CAH have a severe mutation, these patients may give birth to a child with the classical CAH (C-CAH) if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Females with NC-CAH who desire pregnancy must be aware of the risk of having an infant with C-CAH. PMID:26558116

  4. Tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast.

    PubMed

    Wieman, Stephanie M; Landercasper, Jeffrey; Johnson, Jeanne M; Ellis, Richard L; Wester, Susan M; Lambert, Pamela J; Ross, Lauren A

    2008-12-01

    Tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a rare benign proliferative disease of the breast. The majority of the literature reports of PASH have not contained detailed descriptions of the imaging characteristics of PASH. A 10-year retrospective study of patients with tumoral PASH and a 20-year Ovid MEDLINE search were performed to determine whether specific imaging and needle biopsy results could characterize PASH preoperatively. We identified 22 patients with tumoral PASH. Seventeen (77%) of 22 women had a palpable lump and 14 (72%) of 21 had a density on mammography. Ultrasound (US) findings included mixed or hypoechoic echogenicity in 83 per cent and ill-defined borders in 62 per cent. Eight (36%) patients had lesions with a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification of 4 or 5. The sensitivity of preoperative core needle biopsy (CNB) to identify PASH was 83 per cent. A review of the literature revealed that 90 per cent of patients with PASH had some malignant imaging characteristics and 95 per cent had a mass on mammography. The imaging characteristics of PASH exhibited marked variability. Excision of PASH after CNB may be considered for patients with symptoms, enlarging lesions, or lesions classified as BI-RADS 4 or 5. PASH diagnosed by CNB allows selected patients to avoid excision. PMID:19097540

  5. A case of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Ghasemi, Mahmoud; Hovsepian, Silva

    2012-07-01

    Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), a rare disorder of steroid biosynthesis, is the most severe form of CAH. In this disorder the synthesis of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex steroids is impaired which result in adrenal failure, severe salt wasting crisis and hyperpigmentation in phenotypical female infants irrespective of genetic sex. In this report, we presented a 28-day-old phenotypic female infant, which referred with lethargy, failure to thrive and electrolyte abnormalities. Considering the clinical and biochemical findings, lipoid CAH was diagnosed and replacement therapy with standard doses of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid and sodium chloride was initiated. During follow-up, she had good clinical condition, but at 6 years of age, she refers with hypertension and adrenal insufficiency because of arbitrary drug discontinuation by mother. In ultrasonography an abdominal mass (the testicles) was reported. Chromosome study showed 46XY pattern. Orchiectomy was performed. We recommended that in cases with clinical presentation of adrenal insufficiency if there is not the facility to determine the karyotype, repeated ultrasonography perform during follow-up. In addition, investigating the genetic bases of the disorder would help us to determine the pathogenesis of lipoid CAH in our community. It would be helpful in prenatal diagnosis and treatment of the disorder to prevent its related comorbidities. PMID:22891154

  6. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Yau, Mabel; Barhan, Ariella; Zaidi, Mone; Lo, Y M Dennis; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is genital ambiguity noted at birth in affected females, which leads to psychological and psychosexual issues in adult life. Attempts to correct genital ambiguity through surgical intervention have been partially successful. Fetal hyperandrogenemia and genital ambiguity have been shown to be preventable by prenatal administration of low-dose dexamethasone initiated before the 9th week of gestation. In 7 of 8 at-risk pregnancies, the unaffected fetus is unnecessarily exposed to dexamethasone for weeks until the diagnosis of classical CAH is ruled out by invasive procedures. This therapeutic dilemma calls for early prenatal diagnosis so that dexamethasone treatment can be directed to affected female fetuses only. We describe the utilization of cell-free fetal DNA in mothers carrying at-risk fetuses as early as 6 gestational weeks by targeted massively parallel sequencing of the genomic region including and flanking the CYP21A2 gene. Our highly personalized and innovative approach should permit the diagnosis of CAH before genital development begins, therefore restricting the purposeful administration of dexamethasone to mothers carrying affected females. PMID:26683339

  7. Hemimandibular hyperplasia: classification and treatment algorithm revisited.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meibang; Chan, Fuan Chiang; Jin, Xiaolei; Xu, Jiajie; Lu, Jianjian; Zhang, Chao; Teng, Li

    2014-03-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH) is a developmental asymmetry characterized by three-dimensional enlargement of one half of the mandible. The hyperplastic side usually involves the condyle, condylar neck, ramus, and body, with the anomaly terminating abruptly at the symphysis. The malformation results in the clinical presentation of ipsilateral enlargement of the mandible and tilted occlusal plane, associated with a deviated chin to the contralateral side. Since the first case report of HH in the English literature in 1836, various terminology and classifications were used. In this study, the authors classified the patients into typical and atypical types of HH on the basis of clinical and radiologic observations in an effort to achieve a simplified and efficient surgical management on the basis of the severity of deformity. Accordingly, surgical treatments are designed respectively on the basis of the authors' classification and treatment algorithm. In addition, in view of potential complications arising from condylectomy, none of the patients had undergone condylectomy as part of the surgical treatment. The authors present their experience on the basis of this proposed classification and treatment algorithm with functional and aesthetic outcomes as the end points of this study. PMID:24448522

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Guneyli, Serkan; Ward, Emily; Thomas, Stephen; Yousuf, Ambereen Nehal; Trilisky, Igor; Peng, Yahui; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in middle-aged and older men and negatively affects the quality of life. An ultrasound classification for BPH based on a previous pathologic classification was reported, and the types of BPH were classified according to different enlargement locations in the prostate. Afterwards, this classification was demonstrated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The classification of BPH is important, as patients with different types of BPH can have different symptoms and treatment options. BPH types on MRI are as follows: type 0, an equal to or less than 25 cm3 prostate showing little or no zonal enlargements; type 1, bilateral transition zone (TZ) enlargement; type 2, retrourethral enlargement; type 3, bilateral TZ and retrourethral enlargement; type 4, pedunculated enlargement; type 5, pedunculated with bilateral TZ and/or retrourethral enlargement; type 6, subtrigonal or ectopic enlargement; type 7, other combinations of enlargements. We retrospectively evaluated MRI images of BPH patients who were histologically diagnosed and presented the different types of BPH on MRI. MRI, with its advantage of multiplanar imaging and superior soft tissue contrast resolution, can be used in BPH patients for differentiation of BPH from prostate cancer, estimation of zonal and entire prostatic volumes, determination of the stromal/glandular ratio, detection of the enlargement locations, and classification of BPH types which may be potentially helpful in choosing the optimal treatment. PMID:27015442

  9. Cinacalcet HCl prevents development of parathyroid gland hyperplasia and reverses established parathyroid gland hyperplasia in a rodent model of CKD

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gerald; Davis, James; Shatzen, Edward; Colloton, Matthew; Martin, David

    2012-01-01

    Background. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) represents an adaptive response to progressively impaired control of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is characterized by parathyroid hyperplasia and excessive synthesis and secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hyperplasia in uremic rats can be prevented by calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) activation with the calcimimetic cinacalcet (Sensipar®/Mimpara®); however, it is unknown, how long the effects of cinacalcet persist after withdrawal of treatment or if cinacalcet is efficacious in uremic rats with established sHPT. Methods. We sought to determine the effect of cinacalcet discontinuation in uremic rats and whether cinacalcet was capable of influencing parathyroid hyperplasia in animals with established sHPT. Results. Discontinuation of cinacalcet resulted in reversal of the beneficial effects on serum PTH and parathyroid hyperplasia. In rats with established sHPT, cinacalcet decreased serum PTH and mediated regression of parathyroid hyperplasia. The cinacalcet-mediated decrease in parathyroid gland size was accompanied by increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Prevention of cellular proliferation with cinacalcet occurred despite increased serum phosphorus and decreased serum calcium. Conclusions. The animal data provided suggest established parathyroid hyperplasia can be reversed by modulating CaSR activity with cinacalcet and that continued treatment may be necessary to maintain reductions in PTH. PMID:22036941

  10. Analysis of arterial intimal hyperplasia: review and hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite a prodigious investment of funds, we cannot treat or prevent arteriosclerosis and restenosis, particularly its major pathology, arterial intimal hyperplasia. A cornerstone question lies behind all approaches to the disease: what causes the pathology? Hypothesis I argue that the question itself is misplaced because it implies that intimal hyperplasia is a novel pathological phenomenon caused by new mechanisms. A simple inquiry into arterial morphology shows the opposite is true. The normal multi-layer cellular organization of the tunica intima is identical to that of diseased hyperplasia; it is the standard arterial system design in all placentals at least as large as rabbits, including humans. Formed initially as one-layer endothelium lining, this phenotype can either be maintained or differentiate into a normal multi-layer cellular lining, so striking in its resemblance to diseased hyperplasia that we have to name it "benign intimal hyperplasia". However, normal or "benign" intimal hyperplasia, although microscopically identical to pathology, is a controllable phenotype that rarely compromises blood supply. It is remarkable that each human heart has coronary arteries in which a single-layer endothelium differentiates early in life to form a multi-layer intimal hyperplasia and then continues to self-renew in a controlled manner throughout life, relatively rarely compromising the blood supply to the heart, causing complications requiring intervention only in a small fraction of the population, while all humans are carriers of benign hyperplasia. Unfortunately, this fundamental fact has not been widely appreciated in arteriosclerosis research and medical education, which continue to operate on the assumption that the normal arterial intima is always an "ideal" single-layer endothelium. As a result, the disease is perceived and studied as a new pathological event caused by new mechanisms. The discovery that normal coronary arteries are

  11. Pathophysiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Insights From Medical Therapy for the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    The medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has its roots in the early 1970s. During this era, the first clinical trials investigating α-blockade and androgen deprivation therapy were reported for men with clinical BPH. The observation that clinical BPH was improved following administration of both α-blockers and androgen deprivation therapy supported the evolving paradigm that clinical BPH resulted from dynamic and static pathways. During the past several decades, the evolution of α-blockers for the treatment of BPH has been impacted by innovations targeted to simplify the administration and improve tolerability while maintaining their effectiveness. PMID:20126609

  12. Clinical and pathological aspects of epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gîrtan, Mihaela; Stăniceanu, Florica; Zurac, Sabina; Laba, Elisabeta; Forna, Norina

    2008-01-01

    In many cases, the oral health status indicates the general status of the body. 90% of the disorders of the body also manifest at the level of the oral cavity, which means that the dentist can draw the attention of a certain health problem. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a high prevalence of the lesions of the oral mucous, especially lichen planus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis or oral candidiasis. We present here a case of diabetes mellitus with hyperplasic lesion at the level of the inferior vestibule, extended to the right jugal mucosa. The lesion appeared pursuant to the application of removable prosthetics. The biopsy specimen was examined using normal and special staining (HE Hematoxiline - eosine, Van Gieson VG) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In the HE stain, an epithelial hyperplasia was noticed as a result of the proliferation of the basal cells, associated with hyperkeratosis (parakeratosis or orthokeratosis). A moderated inflammatory limphoplasmocitary infiltrate, composed by lymphocytes and plasma cells, was present within the hyperplasic chorion. The immunohistochemical reactions revealed Ki-67 positive nuclei in the basal and suprabasal strata (indicating an increased proliferating activity); rare p53 positive nuclei in the basal stratum (indicating a suppressive action on the cell proliferation); CD3/CD8 positive cells in the inflammatory infiltrate (indicating an important number of T suppressor lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate). In conclusion, diabetes mellitus is a disease which frequently determines major modifications at the level of the oral cavity. Interdisciplinary collaboration between the pathologist and the dentist is necessary for adequate diagnosis and successful treatment. PMID:20201276

  13. Current Laser Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient. PMID:21165192

  14. [Interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Muschter, R; Hessel, S; Hofstetter, A; Keiditsch, E; Rothenberger, K H; Schneede, P; Frank, F

    1993-07-01

    We report on the new method of interstitial laser coagulation for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The procedure is based on the interstitial application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation, delivered through a new light guide system. Such light applicators coagulate constant tissue volumes in a homogeneous manner, as proven by in vitro studies in different tissues, including surgically removed prostate adenoma. The extent of the coagulation is determined by laser power and irradiation time. At 5 W, for example, and during a 10-min period, this zone reached a diameter of up to 20 mm. Temperatures generated in the process were over 100 degrees C, as measured by time/space resolution. These results were confirmed by in vivo studies in canine prostates. In the course of 7 weeks, the coagulated areas formed scars with degeneration and fibrosis, accompanied by marked shrinking. Neighbouring organs were not affected. The method was successfully transferred to clinical practice. The application of the light guides to the lateral lobes was performed percutaneously from the perineum under transrectal ultrasound guidance. The median lobe was punctured transurethrally under direct vision. Twenty-seven patients with an average age of 67.7 years were treated between July 1991 and March 1992. At the time of evaluation 15 patients had a follow-up of more than 2 months. They experienced a mean increase of peak flow rate from 6.6 to 15.2 ml/s and a mean decrease of residual volume from 206 to 38 ml. This was accompanied by a marked lessening of symptoms. The average prostate weight decreased from 63 to 44 g. Sexually active patients did not experience retrograde ejaculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7690498

  15. Stroma-poor Warthin's tumor with significant oncocytic hyperplasia: case presentation and considerations regarding its histogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroo; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Kikuchi, Nami; Ishii, Aya; Ikeda, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Although Warthin's tumor is one of the common tumors of the salivary glands, Warthin's tumors with a prominent component of nodular oncocytic hyperplasia reminiscent of oncocytoma are rare. Here we report such a tumor, measuring 3 cm in diameter, found in the parotid gland of an 81-year-old man. Histologically, approximately 70% of the mass was a component of nodular oncocytic proliferation, and the remaining portion was a component of conventional Warthin's tumor. We performed immunohistochemical analysis to explore what factors determined the morphogenesis of the two components in the single mass. Cytokeratin (CK) 5÷6-positive tumor cells, which represent basal cells, were aligned in a layer in the conventional Warthin's tumor component, whereas they were localized around blood vessels in the nodular oncocytic hyperplasia component. Immunostaining for CD34 showed that capillaries were sparsely present beneath the bilayered epithelia in the former component, while blood vessels resembling sinusoids separated the trabeculae of the tumor cells in the latter component. Ki-67 labeling index was slightly higher in the latter component. Double immunostaining for CK5÷6 and Ki-67 revealed that most of Ki-67-positive proliferating tumor cells were CK5÷6-positive, suggesting that CK5÷6-positive population contained proliferative progenitor cells of the tumor. These findings imply that the regional difference in the distribution pattern and proliferative activity of CK5÷6-positive putative progenitor cells along with the difference in the pattern of vascular network occurred during the tumorigenic process of the tumor and determined one region to become conventional Warthin's tumor morphology and the other to become nodular oncocytic hyperplasia. PMID:27516039

  16. Beverage Selections and Impact on Healthy Eating Index Scores in Elementary Children's Lunches from School and from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Watkins, Tracee; Barbee, Mary; Rushing, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purposes of this study were to: 1) analyze beverage selections of elementary students consuming National School Lunch Program meals (NSLP) and lunches brought from home (LBFH), 2) compare overall meal quality (MQ) of NSLP and LBFH by food components using Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), and 3) investigate the impact…

  17. The Occupational Mix Adjustment to the Medicare Hospital Wage Index: Why the Rural Impact Is Less than Expected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Kristin L.; Slifkin, Rebecca; Holmes, George M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural hospitals are heavily dependent on Medicare for their long-term financial solvency. A recent change to Medicare prospective payment system reimbursement--the occupational mix adjustment (OMA) to the wage index--has attracted a great deal of attention in rural policy circles. Purpose: This paper explores variation in the OMA across…

  18. Negative Impact and Positive Value in Caregiving: Validation of the COPE Index in a Six-Country Sample of Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balducci, Cristian; Mnich, Eva; McKee, Kevin J.; Lamura, Giovanni; Beckmann, Anke; Krevers, Barbro; Wojszel, Z. Beata; Nolan, Mike; Prouskas, Constantinos; Bien, Barbara; Oberg, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study attempts to further validate the COPE Index on a large sample of carers drawn from six European countries. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey, with approximately 1,000 carers recruited in each of six countries by means of a common standard evaluation protocol. Our saturation recruitment of a designated…

  19. Persistent mammary hyperplasia in FVB/N mice.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Ana I; Shyamala, G; Galvez, Jose J; Thordarson, Gudmundur; Wakefield, Lalage M; Cardiff, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    The inbred FVB/N mouse strain is widely used for creating transgenic mice. Over the past decade, persistent mammary hyperplasia has been detected in many multiparous FVB/N female mice sent to the University of California, Davis (UCD) Mutant Mouse Pathology Laboratory (MMPL) by a number of different laboratories. However, the experimental details concerning most specimens were not always available. To confirm these empiric findings, experiments were carried out to evaluate the mammary glands of FVB/N mice under controlled conditions. Persistent mammary hyperplasia that related to parity was found. Weeks after their first to fourth pregnancy, 10 FVB/N female mice from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) colony were studied and the mammary glands were evaluated. The percentage of fat pad filled was estimated, using image analysis. Serum samples and the pituitary gland from other FVB/N mice from the LBNL were assayed for prolactin concentration. Multiparous FVB/N females consistently had persistent mammary hyperplasia. Four of seven females in the LBNL colony had hyperplasia after three pregnancies. A few foci of squamous nodules and sporadic carcinomas also were observed. Thus, some FVB/N females may have persistent mammary hyperplasia after three pregnancies without detectable pituitary abnormalities. Mammary carcinomas also may develop sporadically. These background phenotypes must be considered when interpreting the effect of genetic manipulation in FVB/N mice. PMID:14524420

  20. HUMAN USE INDEX (FUTURE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  1. HUMAN USE INDEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  2. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  3. Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lynn W; Trahan, William R; Snow, Jesse E

    2013-01-01

    Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia (LJSGH) is a recently described benign condition that affects the gingiva of children and young adults. Clinically distinctive, LJSGH presents as a localized area of erythema on the attached gingiva, with a subtly papillary surface architecture. The lesions are generally biopsied because of the lack of resolution with conservative oral hygiene therapeutic measures and esthetic concerns. The histopathology has a characteristic appearance of subtle papillary epithelial hyperplasia, acute inflammation, and numerous engorged capillary vascular spaces in the lamina propria, although clinical correlation is necessary to make the diagnosis. The purposes of this paper were to: introduce localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia to the pediatric dental community; document its clinical and histologic features and treatment and the follow-up of three cases; and discuss the most common clinical differential diagnoses. PMID:23930637

  4. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in children.

    PubMed

    Moran, C A; Mullick, F G; Ishak, K G

    1991-05-01

    Sixteen cases of nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in children are presented. The patients, 10 girls and 6 boys, were between the ages of 7 months and 13 years, with a median of 6 years. Clinically, nine children presented with hepatomegaly or splenomegaly, with and without signs of portal hypertension. A history of anticonvulsant drug therapy was obtained in four patients. Associated conditions in the remaining three cases were Donohue's syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and angiomyolipoma of the kidney. In five patients a clinical diagnosis of primary intra-abdominal tumor was made. Follow-up showed that six patients died of causes unrelated to the nodular hyperplasia. Two patients were asymptomatic when last seen 5 and 18 years after the initial diagnosis of nodular hyperplasia. Both patients underwent shunt surgery. No follow-up was available for eight patients. The importance of recognizing this entity in the pediatric age group, as well as its histopathologic differential diagnosis, is stressed. PMID:2035739

  5. Hereditary Gingivo-Alveolar Hyperplasia: A Report of Two Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Prasetyono, Theddeus O.H.; Ekaputri, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Gingival hyperplasia is characterized by fibrotic gingival overgrowth. The lesion may bury all the crown of the teeth and lead to impairment in masticatory functions and aesthetic disfigurement. This inherited disease is considered rare. We presented two cases of gingival hyperplasia in two siblings: an 11-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy, whose mother had also suffered from the disease. The two siblings presented with generalized gingival overgrowth involving the maxillary and mandibular arches and covering almost all of the teeth. We performed surgery to reduce the excessive gingivo-alveolar tissue and disclosed most of the teeth. The patients showed functional and aesthetic improvement. The last follow-up through a phone call, which was conducted 12 months after the surgery, revealed no recurrent hyperplasia. PMID:25692435

  6. [Intimal hyperplasia within a vascular anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Kur'ianov, P S; Razuvaev, A S; Vavilov, V N

    2008-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) appears to rank high amongst plausible causes of reconstructed arteries restenosis. It always occurs in the area of a surgical intervention on a vessel in response to a mechanical lesion. IH is the cause of thrombosis in 15 to 50% of cases following vascular reconstruction during the first year after the operation (with the exception of early thromboses, which are probably caused by an improperly performed interventional technique). Of a wide variety of clinical situations leading to development of IH in the vascular wall, for the purposes of the present review, we singled out the problem concerning the onset and development of this tissue reaction in intervascular anastomoses, which is currently one of the most important issues. Analysing the publications on the problem concerned showed that amongst significantfactors influencing the development of IH in the anastomosis, the investigators single out different parameters of the anastomoses, configuration (either an end-to-end or an end-to-side anastomosis, the use of special inserts and patches within the latter), as well as the use of autologous or synthetic conduits, blanket suture or interrupted suture, peculiarities of local haemodynamics (linear blood flow rate, distribution of parietal fraction forces, zones of stagnation and flow separation), etc. To a certain degree, the published data are rather controversial. There remain many problems, which are either unaddressed as yet, or insufficiently studied, if at all. For instance, while establishing an anastomosis between a bypass graft and an artery, surgeons often resort to endarterectomy. It is not known whether or not this technique would influence the IH pattern in the anastomosis concerned. Neither is it clear whether the high velocity flow exerts a direct damaging action upon the endothelium, whether it promotes the development of IH in the area of the lesion, and if affirmative, then what the mechanisms of this effect really are

  7. Smoking habits and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Fu, Shi; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have warned against the promoting effects of cigarette smoking on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In contrast, some have argued that smoking confers a protective effect regarding BPH, while others have observed an aggravated effect. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine whether cigarette use is associated with BPH risk. To identify articles from observational studies of relevance, a search was performed concurrent to March 21, 2016, on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model, according to the heterogeneity, was calculated to reveal the relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eight articles were included in this meta-analysis, representing data for 44,100 subjects, of which 5221 (11.8%) had BPH as defined according to the criteria. Seven reports are concerned with analysis between nonsmokers and ex-smokers, in which no significant difference was observed (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94–1.05). Another meta-analysis of 7 studies indicated an observable trend, but without significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and current smokers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41). Between groups of heavy (6 articles; RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84–1.24) and light smokers (5 articles; RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.71–1.15), again no significant difference appears. Finally, we combined individuals as never-smokers and ever-smokers and still found no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92–1.15). Sensitivity analysis was displayed and confirmed the stability of the present results. Combined evidence from observational studies shows no significant association between cigarette smoking and BPH risk, either for ex-smokers or for current smokers. The trend of elevated BPH risk from smoking was observed only in current smokers compared with nonsmokers, while marginal significance was observed in comparing ever-smokers with

  8. Impact of index change saturation on the growth behavior of higher-order type I ultrafast induced fiber Bragg gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Smelser, Christopher W.; Mihailov, Stephen J.; Grobnic, Dan

    2008-05-15

    Ultrafast infrared induced fiber Bragg gratings in a hydrogen-loaded SMF-28 fiber are shown to exhibit complex and, what we believe to be, novel spectral evolutions. It is believed that the induced grating peak profile in the fiber is nonsinusoidal as a result of the nonlinear absorption required to modify the material. Rouard's method is used to show that the observed spectral evolution is a consequence of the saturation of the nonsinusoidal index change profile.

  9. The Impact of Neighborhood Park Access and Quality on Body Mass Index Among Adults in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Stark, James H.; Neckerman, Kathryn; Lovasi, Gina S.; Quinn, James; Weiss, Christopher C.; Bader, Michael D. M.; Konty, Kevin; Harris, Tiffany G.; Rundle, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between adult individuals’ body mass index (BMI) and characteristics of parks (size and cleanliness) in an urban environment taking into account the physical and social environment of the neighborhood. Methods Cross-sectional, hierarchical linear models were used to determine whether park effects were associated with BMI using self-reported height and weight data obtained from the Community Health Survey in New York City (2002-2006). Results Both the proportion of the residential zip code that was large park space and the proportion that was small park space had significant inverse associations with BMI after controlling for individual socio-demographic and zip code built environment characteristics (-0.20 BMI units across the inter-quartile range (IQR) for large parks, 95% CI -0.32, -0.08; -0.21 BMI units across the IQR for small parks, 95% CI -0.31, -0.10, respectively). Poorer scores on the park cleanliness index were associated with higher BMI, 0.18 BMI units across the IQR of the park cleanliness index (95% CI 0.05, 0.30). Conclusions This study demonstrated that proportion of neighborhoods that was large or small park space and park cleanliness were associated with lower BMI among NYC adults after adjusting for other neighborhood features such as homicides and walkability, characteristics that could influence park usage. PMID:24704504

  10. Expectant management of focal nodular hyperplasia during pregnancy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Kivnick, S; Greenspoon, J S; Kanter, M H; Gee, C; Fullman, H J

    1992-04-01

    A patient with unresectable focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver completed an uncomplicated pregnancy. Although there is a risk of hepatic rupture during pregnancy, expectant management may be an option for some cases of focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:1593563

  11. Steroid hormone receptors in prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khalid, B A; Nurshireen, A; Rashidah, M; Zainal, B Y; Roslan, B A; Mahamooth, Z

    1990-06-01

    One hundred and six prostatic tissue samples obtained from transurethral resection were analysed for androgen and estrogen receptors. In 62 of these, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were also assayed. Steroid receptors were assayed using single saturation dose 3H-labelled ligand assays. Ninety percent of the 97 prostatic hyperplasia tissues and six of the nine prostatic carcinoma tissues were positive for androgen receptors. Estrogen receptors were only present in 19% and 33% respectively. Progesterone receptors were present in 70% of the tissues, but glucocorticoid receptors were present in only 16% of prostatic hyperplasia and none in prostatic carcinoma. PMID:1725553

  12. Prevalence and Difficulty Index Associated with the 3rd Mandibular Molar Impaction among Malaysian Ethnicities: A Clinico-Radiographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahdey, Haydar Majeed; Wei, Myint

    2015-01-01

    Background The mandibular third molars (3Mms) are the most common impacted teeth in the human dentition and their prevalence ranges from 27-68.8% in various parts of the world. The assessment of surgical difficulty of 3Mms extraction helps in better formulation of treatment plan by minimizing postoperative complications. Objectives The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of 3Mm impaction in patients between 20-44-year-old among Malaysian’s ethnicities attending Oral Health Center/ SEGi University, Faculty of dentistry. Materials and Methods This study reviewed 1249 orthopantomograms (OPGs) of subjects aged 20 to 44 years of three Malaysian ethnic groups. Of the study population 918 OPGs were considered for the study. Patient’s details include age, gender and ethnicity were extracted from the patient’s clinical record and all details related to impaction were obtained from patient’s panoramic radiograph that was individually examined by two investigators. The data collected was statistically analysed using SPSS 16. Results This study found that Chinese female recorded the highest number of patients with “very difficult” category of impacted mandibular third molars. The most common age group involved was 20-24 years, mesioangular impaction, deep occlusal level and no ramus space for impacted mandibular third molars (3ms) were the most common findings observed. Conclusion The present study suggests that predicting the level of difficulty preoperatively for impacted 3m surgery will help in formulating the better treatment plan, thereby minimizing the postoperative complication for the ultimate benefit of the patient. PMID:26501016

  13. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: a link with sickle cell disease?

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, N D; Pain, J; Cowan, N C; Salisbury, J; Howard, E R

    1991-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver tumour that is rare in children. We report the second case of a child with sickle cell disease presenting with symptomatic focal nodular hyperplasia. The possible pathogenesis of focal nodular hyperplasia and the association with sickle cell disease are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1929517

  14. The impact of thickness and thermal annealing on refractive index for aluminum oxide thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Lu, Hong-Liang; Chen, Xin; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Yan-Feng; Xu, Ji-Ping; Wang, Song-You; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2015-01-01

    The aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films with various thicknesses under 50 nm were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on silicon substrate. The surface topography investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the samples were smooth and crack-free. The ellipsometric spectra of Al2O3 thin films were measured and analyzed before and after annealing in nitrogen condition in the wavelength range from 250 to 1,000 nm, respectively. The refractive index of Al2O3 thin films was described by Cauchy model and the ellipsometric spectra data were fitted to a five-medium model consisting of Si substrate/SiO2 layer/Al2O3 layer/surface roughness/air ambient structure. It is found that the refractive index of Al2O3 thin films decrease with increasing film thickness and the changing trend revised after annealing. The phenomenon is believed to arise from the mechanical stress in ALD-Al2O3 thin films. A thickness transition is also found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SE after 900°C annealing. PMID:25852343

  15. Impact of consumption of vegetable, fruit, grain, and high glycemic index foods on aggressive prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Jill; Cheng, Iona; Witte, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common but complex disease, and distinguishing modifiable risk factors such as diet for more aggressive disease is extremely important. Previous work has detected intriguing associations between vegetable, fruit, and grains and more aggressive prostate cancer, although these remain somewhat unclear. Here we further investigate such potential relationships with a case-control study of 982 men (470 more aggressive prostate cancer cases and 512 control subjects). Comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of intake, we found that increasing intakes of leafy vegetables were inversely associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR) =0.66, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.96, P-trend=0.02), as was higher consumption of high carotenoid vegetables (OR=0.71, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.04; P-trend=0.04). Conversely, increased consumption of high glycemic index foods were positively associated with risk of aggressive disease (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.57; P-trend=0.02). These results were driven by a number of specific foods within the food groups. Our findings support the hypothesis that diets high in vegetables and low in high glycemic index foods decrease risk of aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:21774611

  16. The impact of thickness and thermal annealing on refractive index for aluminum oxide thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Lu, Hong-Liang; Chen, Xin; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Yan-Feng; Xu, Ji-Ping; Wang, Song-You; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2015-02-01

    The aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films with various thicknesses under 50 nm were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on silicon substrate. The surface topography investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the samples were smooth and crack-free. The ellipsometric spectra of Al2O3 thin films were measured and analyzed before and after annealing in nitrogen condition in the wavelength range from 250 to 1,000 nm, respectively. The refractive index of Al2O3 thin films was described by Cauchy model and the ellipsometric spectra data were fitted to a five-medium model consisting of Si substrate/SiO2 layer/Al2O3 layer/surface roughness/air ambient structure. It is found that the refractive index of Al2O3 thin films decrease with increasing film thickness and the changing trend revised after annealing. The phenomenon is believed to arise from the mechanical stress in ALD-Al2O3 thin films. A thickness transition is also found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SE after 900°C annealing.

  17. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history. PMID:27601862

  18. BET Bromodomain Blockade Mitigates Intimal Hyperplasia in Rat Carotid Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bowen; Zhang, Mengxue; Takayama, Toshio; Shi, Xudong; Roenneburg, Drew Alan; Craig Kent, K.; Guo, Lian-Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background Intimal hyperplasia is a common cause of many vasculopathies. There has been a recent surge of interest in the bromo and extra-terminal (BET) epigenetic “readers” including BRD4 since the serendipitous discovery of JQ1(+), an inhibitor specific to the seemingly undruggable BET bromodomains. The role of the BET family in the development of intimal hyperplasia is not known. Methods We investigated the effect of BET inhibition on intimal hyperplasia using a rat balloon angioplasty model. Results While BRD4 was dramatically up-regulated in the rat and human hyperplastic neointima, blocking BET bromodomains with JQ1(+) diminished neointima in rats. Knocking down BRD4 with siRNA, or treatment with JQ1(+) but not the inactive enantiomer JQ1(−), abrogated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB)-stimulated proliferation and migration of primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells. This inhibitory effect of JQ1(+) was reproducible in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells. In human aortic endothelial cells, JQ1(+) prevented cytokine-induced apoptosis and impairment of cell migration. Furthermore, either BRD4 siRNA or JQ1(+) but not JQ1(−), substantially down-regulated PDGF receptor-α which, in JQ1(+)-treated arteries versus vehicle control, was also reduced. Conclusions Blocking BET bromodomains mitigates neointima formation, suggesting an epigenetic approach for effective prevention of intimal hyperplasia and associated vascular diseases. PMID:26870791

  19. Mistaken gender identity in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder. PMID:24891708

  20. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  1. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history. PMID:27601862

  2. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  3. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast: intraductal appearance.

    PubMed

    Gur, Akif Serhat; Unal, Bulent; Edington, Howard; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Soran, Atilla

    2009-08-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign proliferative lesion of breast stroma. The diagnosis of PASH can be made using imaging techniques such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance or mammography. Ductoscopy is a relatively new technique which is used for imaging the intraductal surface. We report a patient with PASH in whom ductoscopy was performed successfully. PMID:19751351

  4. Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pakistani Patient*

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zafaruddin; Tahir, Muzamil; Ashraf, H. Shahzad; Khan Niazi, FazaluRehman; Khan, Munazza; Mustafa, Sadaf; Höti, Naseruddin

    2014-01-01

    “Giant hyperplasia” of the prostate is a rare pathology of the prostate gland. We report one such case, in which a successful retropubic prostatectomy was performed on an elderly male patient in Pakistan. The weight of the resected prostate was 700 g, which is the eighth largest prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia reported. PMID:26955540

  5. Microwave applicators for thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a primer.

    PubMed

    Bolmsjö, M B; Vrba, T

    2000-12-01

    Microwave thermotherapy for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is becoming increasingly more common. This article provides an introduction to the functional principles of microwave antennas for delivery of energy to the prostatic gland. Different antenna designs (monopole, dipole, and helical coil types) and impedance matching are discussed. PMID:11108559

  6. Diffuse Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Cansız Ersöz, Cevriye; Cangır, Ayten Kayı; Dizbay Sak, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare pulmonary disorder characterised by a proliferation of neuroendocrine cells within the lung. It is believed that a minority of the patients with DIPNECH can develop carcinoid tumors. Here, we report two new cases of DIPNECH with coexisting carcinoid tumors. PMID:27293939

  7. Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kin Hang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

  8. Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kin Hang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

  9. Role of metabolic environment on nitric oxide mediated inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Monica P; Emond, Zachary M; Wang, Zheng; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Kibbe, Melina R

    2014-01-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is well known to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. Previously, we reported that NO was more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a type 2 diabetic environment than control. We also found that NO was ineffective in an uncontrolled type 1 diabetic environment; however, insulin restored the efficacy of NO. Thus, the goal of this study was to more closely evaluate the effect of insulin and glucose on the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments using different doses of insulin as well as pioglitazone. Type 1 diabetes was induced in male lean Zucker (LZ) rats with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg IP). Groups included control, moderate glucose control, and tight glucose control. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats fed Purina 5008 chow were used as a type 2 diabetic model. Groups included no therapy, insulin therapy, or pioglitazone therapy. After 4 weeks of maintaining group assignments, the carotid artery injury model was performed. Treatment groups included: control, injury and injury plus NO. 2 weeks following arterial injury, in the type 1 diabetic rats, NO most effectively reduced the neointimal area in the moderate and tightly controlled groups (81% and 88% vs. 33%, respectively, p=0.01). In type 2 diabetic rats, the metabolic environment had no impact on the efficacy of NO (81-82% reduction for all groups). Thus, in this study, we show NO is effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments. A greater understanding of how the metabolic environment may impact the efficacy of NO may lead to the development of more effective NO-based therapies for patients with diabetes. PMID:24333562

  10. Analyzing the impact of increasing Mechanical Index (MI) and energy deposition on shear wave speed (SWS) reconstruction in human liver

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yufeng; Palmeri, Mark L.; Rouze, Ned C.; Rosenzweig, Stephen J.; Abdelmalek, Manal F.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) has found success in liver fibrosis staging. This work evaluates hepatic SWEI measurement success as a function of push pulse energy using 2 Mechanical Index (MI) values (1.6 and 2.2) over a range of pulse durations. Shear wave speed (SWS) was measured in the livers of 26 study subjects with known or potential chronic liver diseases. Each measurement consisted of 8 SWEI sequences, each with different push energy configurations. The rate of successful SWS estimation was linearly proportional to the push energy. SWEI measurements with higher push energy were successful in patients for whom standard push energy levels failed. The findings also suggest that liver capsule depth could be used prospectively to identify patients who would benefit from elevated output. We conclude that there is clinical benefit to using elevated acoustic output for hepatic SWS measurement in patients with deeper livers. PMID:25896024

  11. The impact of exercise on derived measures of central pressure and augmentation index obtained from the SphygmoCor device.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ellen A; Black, Mark A; Pybis, Jennifer; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether measures derived from the SphygmoCor device and its associated transfer function are influenced by exercise-induced alterations in vascular tone. Measurements were taken from either the exercised or the contralateral nonexercised limb during repeated and identical incremental hand-grip protocols. Eight male subjects performed three 3-min bouts of hand-grip exercise on two occasions. The exercise intensities were set at 3 kg, 5 kg, with a final 1.5-kg bout performed during cuff ischemia (1.5Isch). Blood pressure waveforms were recorded from the radial artery of either the exercised or nonexercised limb using applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor) during a 90-s rest period immediately after each exercise bout. Central blood pressures and augmentation indexes (AIx), an index of arterial stiffness, were derived using the peripheral waveform and the inbuilt SphygmoCor transfer function (TF). AIx was consistently approximately 10% higher in the exercised arm during all trials compared with the nonexercised limb. Similarly, there was a consistent and significant difference ( approximately 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) between exercised and nonexercised arms for the derived central systolic and mean arterial blood pressures. Despite identical bouts of exercise, AIx and central systolic and mean arterial blood pressures derived from applanation tonometry at the peripheral radial artery were statistically different when assessed at the exercising arm vs. the nonexercising arm. Changes in vascular tone with exercise may modify the intrinsic characteristics of the vessel wall and could compromise the assumptions underlying transfer functions used to derive central measures using applanation tonometry. PMID:19342433

  12. Prognostic impact of progesterone receptor status combined with body mass index in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    OHARA, MASAHIRO; AKIMOTO, ETSUSHI; NOMA, MIDORI; MATSUURA, KAZUO; DOI, MIHOKO; KAGAWA, NAOKI; ITAMOTO, TOSHIYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have played a central role in endocrine therapy for the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. However, prognostic factors for recurrence following such treatment have not been identified. The current study aimed to validate the prognostic value of endocrine-related progesterone receptor (PgR) status combined with body mass index (BMI). Among 659 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent curative surgery between 2002 and 2012, 184 postmenopausal patients with ER-positive (ER+) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative (HER2-) breast cancer who were treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy were assessed. The patients were assigned to groups based on BMI, according to the WHO cut-off value: ≥25 kg/m2 (high, H) or <25 kg/m2 (low, L). Positive nodal status, negative PgR status, BMI-H and a high Ki-67 labeling index (≥20%) were found to be significantly associated with a short recurrence-free interval (RFI) upon univariate analysis (P=0.048, 0.007, 0.027, and 0.012, respectively). The patients were further grouped based on their combined PgR/BMI status. The RFI was significantly shorter in the PgR- and/or BMI-H group compared with that of the PgR+/BMI-L group (P=0.012). Multivariate analysis revealed PgR- tumors and/or BMI-H and positive nodal status to be independent prognostic factors (P=0.012 and 0.020, respectively). The present findings indicate that PgR/BMI status may serve as a practical tool in the management of ER+ and HER2- breast cancer in patients treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitors. PMID:26722327

  13. Impact of temperature-humidity index on egg-laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) level on productive parameters, welfare, and immunity in Japanese quails. One hundred and eighty (180) birds of Japanese quail, 14 weeks old, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, less than 70), H1 (at moderate THI, 70-75), and H2 (at high THI, 76-80). Birds in the control group had higher body weight (281.2 g, p = 0.001), egg mass (745 g, p = 0.001), fertility (85.4 %, p = 0.039), hatchability (80.4 %, p = 0.001), and immune response titer to Newcastle disease virus ( p = 0.031), compared with H2 group. Furthermore, the thermoneutral group had higher internal egg quality score [albumen height (5.14 mm, p = 0.001), yolk height (10.88 mm, p = 0.015), yolk index (42.32 %, p = 0.039), and Haugh unit (92.67, p = 0.001)]. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in fertility percentage, immune response, and corticosterone concentration between control and H1 group. Birds in the H2 group had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte percentage ( p = 0.001 and 0.020, respectively) but the highest H/L ratio (0.83, p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in control and H1 groups (5.49 and 6.41 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.024) than that in H2 group. Japanese quail exposed to heat stress revealed drop in production and immunological parameters, as well as a detrimental effects on welfare. Thus, practical approaches might be used to reduce the detrimental effects of greater THI level.

  14. Impact of temperature-humidity index on egg-laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) level on productive parameters, welfare, and immunity in Japanese quails. One hundred and eighty (180) birds of Japanese quail, 14 weeks old, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, less than 70), H1 (at moderate THI, 70-75), and H2 (at high THI, 76-80). Birds in the control group had higher body weight (281.2 g, p = 0.001), egg mass (745 g, p = 0.001), fertility (85.4 %, p = 0.039), hatchability (80.4 %, p = 0.001), and immune response titer to Newcastle disease virus (p = 0.031), compared with H2 group. Furthermore, the thermoneutral group had higher internal egg quality score [albumen height (5.14 mm, p = 0.001), yolk height (10.88 mm, p = 0.015), yolk index (42.32 %, p = 0.039), and Haugh unit (92.67, p = 0.001)]. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in fertility percentage, immune response, and corticosterone concentration between control and H1 group. Birds in the H2 group had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte percentage (p = 0.001 and 0.020, respectively) but the highest H/L ratio (0.83, p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in control and H1 groups (5.49 and 6.41 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.024) than that in H2 group. Japanese quail exposed to heat stress revealed drop in production and immunological parameters, as well as a detrimental effects on welfare. Thus, practical approaches might be used to reduce the detrimental effects of greater THI level.

  15. SIRT1 Limits Adipocyte Hyperplasia through c-Myc Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Abdesselem, Houari; Madani, Aisha; Hani, Ahmad; Al-Noubi, Muna; Goswami, Neha; Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Billing, Anja M; Pasquier, Jennifer; Bonkowski, Michael S; Halabi, Najeeb; Dalloul, Rajaa; Sheriff, Mohamed Z; Mesaeli, Nasrin; ElRayess, Mohamed; Sinclair, David A; Graumann, Johannes; Mazloum, Nayef A

    2016-01-29

    The expansion of fat mass in the obese state is due to increased adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The molecular mechanism that drives adipocyte hyperplasia remains unknown. The NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a key regulator of mammalian metabolism, maintains proper metabolic functions in many tissues, counteracting obesity. Here we report that differentiated adipocytes are hyperplastic when SIRT1 is knocked down stably in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. This phenotype is associated with dysregulated adipocyte metabolism and enhanced inflammation. We also demonstrate that SIRT1 is a key regulator of proliferation in preadipocytes. Quantitative proteomics reveal that the c-Myc pathway is altered to drive enhanced proliferation in SIRT1-silenced 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, c-Myc is hyperacetylated, levels of p27 are reduced, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is activated upon SIRT1 reduction. Remarkably, differentiating SIRT1-silenced preadipocytes exhibit enhanced mitotic clonal expansion accompanied by reduced levels of p27 as well as elevated levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and c-Myc, which is also hyperacetylated. c-Myc activation and enhanced proliferation phenotype are also found to be SIRT1-dependent in proliferating mouse embryonic fibroblasts and differentiating human SW872 preadipocytes. Reducing both SIRT1 and c-Myc expression in 3T3-L1 cells simultaneously does not induce the adipocyte hyperplasia phenotype, confirming that SIRT1 controls adipocyte hyperplasia through c-Myc regulation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of adipocyte hyperplasia will open new avenues toward understanding obesity. PMID:26655722

  16. SIRT1 Limits Adipocyte Hyperplasia through c-Myc Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Abdesselem, Houari; Madani, Aisha; Hani, Ahmad; Al-Noubi, Muna; Goswami, Neha; Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Billing, Anja M.; Pasquier, Jennifer; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Halabi, Najeeb; Dalloul, Rajaa; Sheriff, Mohamed Z.; Mesaeli, Nasrin; ElRayess, Mohamed; Sinclair, David A.; Graumann, Johannes; Mazloum, Nayef A.

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of fat mass in the obese state is due to increased adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The molecular mechanism that drives adipocyte hyperplasia remains unknown. The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a key regulator of mammalian metabolism, maintains proper metabolic functions in many tissues, counteracting obesity. Here we report that differentiated adipocytes are hyperplastic when SIRT1 is knocked down stably in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. This phenotype is associated with dysregulated adipocyte metabolism and enhanced inflammation. We also demonstrate that SIRT1 is a key regulator of proliferation in preadipocytes. Quantitative proteomics reveal that the c-Myc pathway is altered to drive enhanced proliferation in SIRT1-silenced 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, c-Myc is hyperacetylated, levels of p27 are reduced, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is activated upon SIRT1 reduction. Remarkably, differentiating SIRT1-silenced preadipocytes exhibit enhanced mitotic clonal expansion accompanied by reduced levels of p27 as well as elevated levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and c-Myc, which is also hyperacetylated. c-Myc activation and enhanced proliferation phenotype are also found to be SIRT1-dependent in proliferating mouse embryonic fibroblasts and differentiating human SW872 preadipocytes. Reducing both SIRT1 and c-Myc expression in 3T3-L1 cells simultaneously does not induce the adipocyte hyperplasia phenotype, confirming that SIRT1 controls adipocyte hyperplasia through c-Myc regulation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of adipocyte hyperplasia will open new avenues toward understanding obesity. PMID:26655722

  17. Neointimal hyperplasia persists at six months after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic porcine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Lu, Lin; Pu, LiJin; Zhang, RuiYan; Shen, Jie; Zhu, ZhengBing; Hu, Jian; Yang, ZhenKun; Chen, QiuJin; Shen, WeiFeng

    2007-01-01

    Background Observational clinical studies have shown that patients with diabetes have less favorable results after percutaneous coronary intervention compared with the non-diabetic counterparts, but its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the changes of neointimal hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation in a diabetic porcine model, and to evaluate the impact of aortic inflammation on this proliferative process. Methods Diabetic porcine model was created with an intravenous administration of a single dose of streptozotocin in 15 Chinese Guizhou minipigs (diabetic group); each of them received 2 SES (Firebird, Microport Co, China) implanted into 2 separated major epicardial coronary arteries. Fifteen non-diabetic minipigs with SES implantation served as controls (control group). At 6 months, the degree of neointimal hyperplasia was determined by repeat coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and histological examination. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α protein level in the aortic intima was evaluated by Western blotting, and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels were assayed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Results The distribution of stented vessels, diameter of reference vessels, and post-procedural minimal lumen diameter were comparable between the two groups. At 6-month follow-up, the degree of in-stent restenosis (40.4 ± 24.0% vs. 20.2 ± 17.7%, p < 0.05), late lumen loss (0.33 ± 0.19 mm vs. 0.10 ± 0.09 mm, p < 0.001) by quantitative angiography, percentage of intimal hyperplasia in the stented area (26.7 ± 19.2% vs. 7.3 ± 6.1%, p < 0.001) by IVUS, and neointimal area (1.59 ± 0.76 mm2 vs. 0.41 ± 0.18 mm2, p < 0.05) by histological examination were significantly exacerbated in the diabetic group than those in the controls. Significant increases in TNF-α protein and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels were observed in aortic intima in the diabetic group

  18. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tacklind, James; MacDonald, Roderick; Rutks, Indy; Wilt, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate, can lead to obstructive and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The pharmacologic use of plants and herbs (phytotherapy) for the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH is common. The extract of the berry of the American saw palmetto, or dwarf palm plant, Serenoa repens (also known by its botanical name of Sabal serrulatum), is one of several phytotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of BPH. Objectives This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of Serenoa repens in the treatment of LUTS consistent with BPH. Search strategy Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library), by checking bibliographies, and by handsearching the relevant literature. Selection criteria Trials were eligible if they (1) randomized men with symptomatic BPH to receive preparations of Serenoa repens (alone or in combination) for at least four weeks in comparison with placebo or other interventions, and (2) included clinical outcomes such as urologic symptom scales, symptoms, and urodynamic measurements. Eligibility was assessed by at least two independent observers. Data collection and analysis Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The main outcome measure for comparing the effectiveness of Serenoa repens with placebo or other interventions was the change in urologic symptom-scale scores. Secondary outcomes included changes in nocturia and urodynamic measures. The main outcome measure for side effects or adverse events was the number of men reporting side effects. Main results In this update 9 new trials involving 2053 additional men (a 64.8% increase) have been included. For the main comparison - Serenoa repens versus placebo - 3 trials were added with 419 subjects and 3 endpoints (IPSS, peak urine flow, prostate size

  19. Impact of a Glaucoma Severity Index on Results of Trabectome Surgery: Larger Pressure Reduction in More Severe Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Ralitsa T.; Roy, Pritha; Parikh, Hardik A.; Dang, Yalong; Schuman, Joel S.; Loewen, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To stratify outcomes of trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT) by glaucoma severity using a simple and clinically useful glaucoma index. Based on prior data of trabectome after failed trabeculectomy, we hypothesized that more severe glaucoma might have a relatively more reduced facility compared to mild glaucoma and respond with a larger IOP reduction to trabecular meshwork ablation. Methods Patients with primary open angle glaucoma who had undergone AIT without any other same session surgery and without any second eye surgery during the following 12 months were analyzed. Eyes of patients that had less than 12 months follow up or were diagnosed with neovascular glaucoma were excluded. A glaucoma index (GI) was created to capture glaucoma severity based on visual field, number of preoperative medications, and preoperative IOP. Visual field (VF) was separated into 3 categories: mild, moderate, and advanced (assigned 1, 2, and 3 points, respectively). Preoperative number of medications (meds) was divided into 4 categories: ≤1, 2, 3 or ≥4, and assigned with a value of 1 to 4. Baseline IOP (IOP) was divided into 3 categories: <20 mmHg, 20–29 mmHg, and greater than 30 mmHg and assigned with 1 to 3 points. GI was defined as IOP × meds × VF and separated into 4 groups: <6 (Group 1), 6–12 (Group 2), >12–18 (Group 3) and >18 (Group 4). Linear regression was used to determine if there was an association between GI group and IOP reduction after one year or age, gender, race, diagnosis, cup to disc (C/D) ratio, and Shaffer grade. Results Out of 1340 patients, 843 were included in the analysis. The GI group distribution was GI1 = 164, GI2 = 202, GI3 = 260, and GI4 = 216. Mean IOP reduction after one year was 4.0±5.4, 6.4±5.8, 9.0±7.6, 12.0±8.0 mmHg for GI groups 1 to 4, respectively. Linear regression showed that IOP reduction was associated with GI group after adjusting for age, gender, race, diagnosis, cup to disc ratio, and Shaffer grade

  20. Impact of temperature-humidity index on egg-laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) level on productive parameters, welfare, and immunity in Japanese quails. One hundred and eighty (180) birds of Japanese quail, 14 weeks old, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, less than 70), H1 (at moderate THI, 70-75), and H2 (at high THI, 76-80). Birds in the control group had higher body weight (281.2 g, p = 0.001), egg mass (745 g, p = 0.001), fertility (85.4 %, p = 0.039), hatchability (80.4 %, p = 0.001), and immune response titer to Newcastle disease virus (p = 0.031), compared with H2 group. Furthermore, the thermoneutral group had higher internal egg quality score [albumen height (5.14 mm, p = 0.001), yolk height (10.88 mm, p = 0.015), yolk index (42.32 %, p = 0.039), and Haugh unit (92.67, p = 0.001)]. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in fertility percentage, immune response, and corticosterone concentration between control and H1 group. Birds in the H2 group had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte percentage (p = 0.001 and 0.020, respectively) but the highest H/L ratio (0.83, p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in control and H1 groups (5.49 and 6.41 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.024) than that in H2 group. Japanese quail exposed to heat stress revealed drop in production and immunological parameters, as well as a detrimental effects on welfare. Thus, practical approaches might be used to reduce the detrimental effects of greater THI level. PMID:26489416

  1. Outcomes and quality of life issues in the pharmacological management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

    PubMed Central

    Cambio, Angelo J; Evans, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of the aging male population. BPH treatment includes a variety of pharmacological and surgical interventions. The goal of this paper is to review the natural history of BPH, outcomes of pharmacological management, effects on quality of life (QoL), future pharmacotherapies, and associated patient-focused perspectives. Materials and methods Medline searches for the keywords benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH, alpha blockers, 5 alpha-reductase, and quality of life were performed. Relevant literature was reviewed and analyzed. Results Alpha blockers, 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, and phytotherapy are the three categories of pharmaceutical interventions currently available for BPH. Various clinical trials have shown that alpha blockers and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors are safe, efficacious, and improve QoL in patients with BPH. The evidence for phytotherapeutics is not as convincing. The current armamentarium of pharmaceutical interventions are encompassed in these three classes of medications. New pharmacotherapies based on novel mechanisms are on the horizon. Conclusion There are a variety of safe and efficacious medical therapies available for the management of BPH and it is important for the practicing physician to have an understanding of these pharmacotherapies and their potential impact on the patient. There is not enough evidence to make a recommendation regarding phytotherapy use. New classes of drugs for BPH will likely find their way into routine use. PMID:18360626

  2. Definition and impact of a quality index for radar-based reference measurements in the H-SAF precipitation product validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinollo, A.; Vulpiani, G.; Puca, S.; Pagliara, P.; Kaňák, J.; Lábó, E.; Okon, L'.; Roulin, E.; Baguis, P.; Cattani, E.; Laviola, S.; Levizzani, V.

    2013-10-01

    field derived by radar data was compared with the PR-OBS-3 precipitation product, with varying thresholds of quality index: the impact of the introduction of the quality index defined on the statistical results of the satellite product validation as well as their sensitivity to the threshold choice were thus evaluated. Results show that PR-RMSE (a relative RMSE here introduced) is reduced from values between 2.5 and 3 to values around 1 when the quality threshold is increased from 0 (no threshold) to 0.8. Fractional standard error also decreases, from values around 2 to values around 1.5 in the same span of the quality threshold.

  3. Can we rely on the Dermatology Life Quality Index as a measure of the impact of psoriasis or atopic dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Twiss, James; Meads, David M; Preston, Elizabeth P; Crawford, Sigrid R; McKenna, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) is a widely used health-related quality of life measure. However, little research has been conducted on its dimensionality. The objectives of the current study were to apply Rasch analysis to DLQI data to determine whether the scale is unidimensional, to assess its measurement properties, test the response format, and determine whether the measure exhibits differential item functioning (DIF) by disease (atopic dermatitis versus psoriasis), gender, or age group. The results show that there were several problems with the scale, including misfitting items, DIF by disease, age, and gender, disordered response thresholds, and inadequate measurement of patients with mild illness. As the DLQI did not benefit from the application of Rasch analysis in its development, it is argued that a new measure of disability related to dermatological disease is required. Such a measure should use a coherent measurement model and ensure that items are relevant to all potential respondents. The current use of the DLQI as a guide to treatment selection is of concern, given its inadequate measurement properties. PMID:21881588

  4. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-07-22

    We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden. PMID:23872857

  5. Impact of Pretreatment Body Mass Index on Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Ping-Ching; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chang, Kai-Ping; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ji-Hong; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of pretreatment body mass index (preT BMI) with outcomes of head-and-neck cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: All 1,562 patients diagnosed with head-and-neck cancer and treated with curative-intent RT to a dose of 60 Gy or higher were retrospectively studied. Body weight was measured both at entry and at the end of RT. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis (DM) were analyzed by preT BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2} vs. {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}). The median follow-up was 8.6 years. Results: Patients with lower preT BMI were statistically significantly associated with poorer CSS and OS than those with higher preT BMI. There was no significant difference between preT BMI groups in terms of LRC and DM. Body weight loss (BWL) during radiation did not influence survival outcomes. However, in the group with higher preT BMI, CSS, OS, and DM-free survival of patients with less BWL during radiation were statistically longer when compared with greater BWL. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that higher preT BMI positively influenced survival outcomes for patients with head-and-neck cancer. Patients with higher preT BMI who were able to maintain their weight during radiation had significantly better survival than patients with greater BWL.

  6. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden.

  7. Tomotherapy treatment plan quality assurance: The impact of applied criteria on passing rate in gamma index method

    SciTech Connect

    Bresciani, Sara; Di Dia, Amalia; Maggio, Angelo; Cutaia, Claudia; Miranti, Anna; Infusino, Erminia; Stasi, Michele

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Pretreatment patient plan verification with gamma index (GI) metric analysis is standard procedure for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the variability of the local and global gamma index obtained during standard pretreatment quality assurance (QA) measurements for plans performed with Tomotherapy unit. The QA measurements were performed with a 3D diode array, using variable passing criteria: 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm, each with both local and global normalization.Methods: The authors analyzed the pretreatment QA results for 73 verifications; 37 were prostate cancer plans, 16 were head and neck plans, and 20 were other clinical sites. All plans were treated using the Tomotherapy Hi-Art System. Pretreatment QA plans were performed with the commercially available 3D diode array ArcCHECK™. This device has 1386 diodes arranged in a helical geometry spaced 1 cm apart. The dose measurements were acquired on the ArcCHECK™ and then compared with the calculated dose using the standard gamma analysis method. The gamma passing rate (%GP), defined as the percentage of points satisfying the condition GI < 1, was calculated for different criteria (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm) and for both global and local normalization. In the case of local normalization method, the authors set three dose difference threshold (DDT) values of 2, 3, and 5 cGy. Dose difference threshold is defined as the minimum absolute dose error considered in the analysis when using local normalization. Low-dose thresholds (TH) of 5% and 10% were also applied and analyzed.Results: Performing a paired-t-test, the authors determined that the gamma passing rate is independent of the threshold values for all of the adopted criteria (5%TH vs 10%TH, p > 0.1). Our findings showed that mean %GPs for local (or global) normalization for the entire study group were 93% (98%), 84% (92%), and 66% (61%) for 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm criteria

  8. Impact of Body Mass Index on Vascular Calcification and Pericardial Fat Volume Among Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nafakhi, Hussein; Al-Mosawi, Abdulameer; Elwali, Hayder; Al-Nafakh, Hasan; Tawfeq, Raad; Nafakhi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the relationship between pericardial fat volume (PFV), aortic root calcification (ARC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) among patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between January and December 2014 at the Kufa University Teaching Hospital, Najaf, Iraq. A total of 130 consecutive patients with an intermediate pretest probability of ischaemic heart disease who underwent 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (CT) angiography during the study period were recruited. Of these, 111 were included in the study and divided into groups according to BMI. Imaging markers were measured on CT angiography. Results: A total of 28 patients were obese, while 42 and 41 were overweight and normal weight, respectively. The median PFV, CAC and ARC was 109 cm3 (interquartile range [IQR]: 52–176 cm3), 0 Agatston score (IQR: 0–52 Agatston score) and 0 Agatston score (IQR: 0–15 Agatston score), respectively, in the normal weight group in comparison to 79 cm3 (IQR: 43–138 cm3), 0 Agatston score (IQR: 0–54 Agatston score) and 0 Agatston score (IQR: 0–0 Agatston score), respectively, in the obese group. Significant correlations were observed between PFV and CAC (r2 = 0.22; P = 0.002) and ARC and CAC (r2 = 0.37; P <0.001) in the normal weight group. However, no significant correlations were observed for obese and overweight patients. Conclusion: These findings indicate that BMI may not be an accurate tool for measuring adiposity or assessing subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in patients with suspected CAD. PMID:27606110

  9. Impact of surgical ventricular reconstruction on sphericity index in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: follow-up from the STICH trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Oh; Daly, Richard C.; Lin, Grace; Lahr, Brian D.; Wiste, Heather J.; Beaver, Thomas M.; Iacovoni, Attilio; Malinowski, Marcin; Friedrich, Ivar; Rouleau, Jean L.; Favaloro, Roberto R.; Sopko, George; Lang, Irene M.; White, Harvey D.; Milano, Carmelo A.; Jones, Robert H.; Lee, Kerry L.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Oh, Jae K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims We sought to evaluate associations between baseline sphericity index (SI) and clinical outcome, and changes in SI after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with or without surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR) in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients enrolled in the SVR study (Hypothesis 2) of the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial. Methods and results Among 1,000 patients in the STICH SVR study, we evaluated 546 patients (255 randomized to CABG alone and 291 to CABG+SVR) whose baseline SI values were available. SI was not significantly different between treatment groups at baseline. After 4 months, SI had increased in the CABG+SVR group, but was unchanged in the CABG alone group (0.69 ± 0.10 to 0.77 ± 0.12 versus 0.67 ± 0.07 to 0.66 ± 0.09, respectively; P < 0.001). SI did not significantly change from 4 months to 2 years in either group. Although LV end-systolic volume and ejection fraction improved significantly more in the CABG+SVR group compared to CABG alone, the severity of mitral regurgitation significantly improved only in the CABG alone group and estimated LV filling pressure (E/A ratio) increased only in the CABG+SVR group. Higher baseline SI was associated with worse survival after surgery (hazard ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.02−1.43; P = 0.026). Survival was not significantly different by treatment strategy. Conclusion Although SVR was designed to improve LV geometry, SI worsened after SVR despite improved LV ejection fraction and smaller LV volume. Survival was significantly better in patients with lower SI regardless of treatment strategy. (THE STICH TRIAL: Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure trial; NCT00023595) PMID:25779355

  10. The Impact of Hemodialysis on Sexual Function in Male Patients using the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire (IIEF)

    PubMed Central

    Savadi, Hossein; Khaki, Morteza; Javnbakht, Maryam; Pourrafiee, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Routine hemodialysis is one of the preferred treatment methods in patients with chronic kidney disease. It seems that routine hemodialysis can be effective in improving sexual function in these patients. This study aimed to determine the effect of routine dialysis sessions over a six-month period on the status of sexual function in men with chronic renal failure using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to November 2016 on patients with chronic renal failure who were first-time candidates for routine hemodialysis and who were referred to Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad. All of the patients completed the IIEF questionnaire before their first hemodialysis. Afterwards, all of the patients underwent routine dialysis sessions over a six-month period and completed the IIEF questionnaire again at the end of the sixth month. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was assessed before and after hemodialysis. The scores on the two IIEF questionnaires were compared according to five domains, i.e., erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction. The comparisons were done before and after hemodialysis using the paired-samples t-test. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 19. Results The study included 30 men with a mean age of 40.2 ± 8.2. The prevalence of sexual dysfunctions in the order of their frequency was as follows: intercourse satisfaction (100%), overall satisfaction (100%), sexual desire (96.7%), orgasmic function (93.3%), and erectile function (90%). After six months of treatment with hemodialysis, the ratings of all areas of sexual dysfunction were improved significantly (p-value = 0.00 for all domains). Conclusion According to the results of this study, it seems that a six-month course of hemodialysis can improve erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse

  11. Application of ERICA index to evaluation of soil ecosystem health according to sustainability threshold for chemical impact.

    PubMed

    Boriani, Elena; Benfenati, Emilio; Baderna, Diego; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-01-15

    The aim of the improved ERICA model for risk assessment (Boriani et al., 2010) is to give an instrument able to measure the effect of xenobiotics introduced into the environment. This will be of great help for "green" processes and sustainable industries and may help to advertise their products as safe for the environment following impact assessment. In this work we have added new indicators and scoring systems to be used in particular with attention for the soil compartment. Even though it is partly starting to be considered by some legislations, there is still an open debate to assess if a compound added to a certain scenario will increase risk for human beings and the environment. The prolonged environmental occurrence introduces uncertainty regarding the presence and properties of degradation products and cumulative effects from multiple substances present in the environment. Tools capable of efficiently coping with this issue may prove useful for stakeholders. For instance, industries able to show that their substances present good characteristics also related to fate and transport properties may document the added value of environmental friendly products. Furthermore, the use of these tools may lead to awareness by industries of minimizing the environmental impact of the whole production chain. In the present study we show how the instrument ERICA may work by addressing multiple sources of exposure. An improved version of ERICA and in particular its parameter EF (fate and transport of chemical compounds into the environment) is described in this paper and is applied to a scenario of two veterinarian pharmaceutical compounds: Sulfadiazine (SDZ) and Toltrazuril and their metabolites present in the environment. Results show that the new EF parameter is able to prioritize the chemical compounds better than the previous version with respect to their ability to degrade or not into the environment. PMID:23186630

  12. Impact of Body Mass Index on the Prognosis of Japanese Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Kodani, Eitaro; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Ken; Yamashita, Takeshi; Origasa, Hideki

    2016-07-15

    Obesity is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF); however, obesity is associated with lower mortality in patients with established AF, a phenomenon known as the obesity paradox. Previous studies reported inconsistent results regarding effects of body weight on risk of cardiogenic embolism in patients with AF. To determine relation between body mass index (BMI) and prognosis among Japanese patients with nonvalvular AF (NVAF), a post hoc analysis was conducted using observational data in the J-RHYTHM Registry. Subjects were categorized as underweight (BMI <18.5), normal (18.5 to 24.9), overweight (25.0 to 29.9), or obese (≥30 kg/m(2)). End points included thromboembolism, major hemorrhaging, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality. Of the 7,406 patients with NVAF, 6,379 patients (70 ± 10 years old; BMI, 23.6 ± 3.9 kg/m(2)) having baseline BMI data constituted the study group. During the 2-year follow-up period, 111 patients had thromboembolism, 124 experienced major hemorrhage, and 159 died. Multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazards model showed that none of the BMI categories were independent predictors of thromboembolism. However, being underweight was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62 to 3.69; p <0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 3.00, 95% CI 1.52 to 5.91, p = 0.001) when normal weight was used as the reference. Additionally, being overweight was a predictor of lower all-cause mortality (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.95, p = 0.029). In conclusion, being underweight is associated with higher risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with having a normal weight. Being overweight or obese is not associated with increased mortality among Japanese patients with NVAF. PMID:27255662

  13. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years.

  14. KRAS, HRAS and EGFR Mutations in Sporadic Sebaceous Gland Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Groesser, Leopold; Singer, Sebastian; Peterhof, Eva; Landthaler, Michael; Heigl, Ulrike; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Berneburg, Mark; Hafner, Christian

    2016-08-23

    Sporadic sebaceous gland hyperplasia (SGH) is a benign skin lesion, with a high prevalence in the general population. Although SGH has been attributed to both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, the underlying genetic changes have not yet been characterized. Recently, HRAS and KRAS mutations have been identified in sebaceous naevus, a hamartoma sharing histological characteristics with SGH. Therefore we screened 43 SGH for activating mutations in RAS genes and other oncogenes. We identified a wide spectrum of mutually exclusive activating HRAS (8/43), KRAS (11/43) and EGFR mutations (7/31) in altogether 60% of the lesions investigated. A RAS and EGFR wildtype status was found in 15 normal sebaceous glands in the head and neck area. Our findings indicate that activating HRAS, KRAS and EGFR mutations play a major role in the pathogenesis of sporadic SGH. These results support the concept that SGH is a true benign neoplasm rather than a reactive hyperplasia. PMID:26804118

  15. Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: risks outweigh benefits.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2013-05-01

    Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by administering dexamethasone to a woman presumed to be carrying an at-risk fetus has been described as safe and effective in several reports. A review of data from animal experimentation and human trials indicates that first-trimester dexamethasone decreases birthweight; affects renal, pancreatic beta cell, and brain development; increases anxiety; and predisposes to adult hypertension and hyperglycemia. In human studies, first-trimester dexamethasone is associated with orofacial clefts, decreased birthweight, poorer verbal working memory, and poorer self-perception of scholastic and social competence. Numerous medical societies have cautioned that prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with dexamethasone should only be done in prospective clinical research settings with institutional review board approval, and therefore is not appropriate for routine community practice. PMID:23123167

  16. Pictures of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Sempoux, Christine; Balabaud, Charles; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    This practical atlas aims to help liver and non liver pathologists to recognize benign hepatocellular nodules on resected specimen. Macroscopic and microscopic views together with immunohistochemical stains illustrate typical and atypical aspects of focal nodular hyperplasia and of hepatocellular adenoma, including hepatocellular adenomas subtypes with references to clinical and imaging data. Each step is important to make a correct diagnosis. The specimen including the nodule and the non-tumoral liver should be sliced, photographed and all different looking areas adequately sampled for paraffin inclusion. Routine histology includes HE, trichrome and cytokeratin 7. Immunohistochemistry includes glutamine synthase and according to the above results additional markers such as liver fatty acid binding protein, C reactive protein and beta catenin may be realized to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenoma subtypes. Clues for differential diagnosis and pitfalls are explained and illustrated. PMID:25232451

  17. Focal nodular hyperplasia with major sinusoidal dilatation: a misleading entity

    PubMed Central

    Laumonier, Hervé; Frulio, Nora; Laurent, Christophe; Balabaud, Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2010-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign liver lesion thought to be a non-specific response to locally increased blood flow. Although the diagnosis of FNH and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) has made great progress over the last few years using modern imaging techniques, there are still in daily practice some difficulties concerning some atypical nodules. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman with a single liver lesion thought to be, by imaging, an inflammatory HCA with major sinusoidal congestion. This nodule was revealed to be, at the microscopical level and after specific immunostaining and molecular analysis, an FNH with sinusoidal dilatation (so-called telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia). PMID:22798311

  18. Therapeutic options in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S

    2009-01-01

    Current theraputic options for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are reviewed. Therapeutic options for mild lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as defined by the American Urological Association, are generally treated medically. Moderate to severe LUTS can be treated medically or with surgical therapy. Current medical and surgical treatments for LUTS secondary to BPH are reviewed and evolving treatments are explored. PMID:19936164

  19. [Occult cancer in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Duarte, C; Aguillón, J; Rodríguez, H

    1991-05-01

    The results of a prospective study undertaken in 29 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are presented. Transrectal ultrasound, ultrasound-guided biopsy and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were utilized in the search for hidden cancer of the prostate. However, no cancer was detected in any patient. Very high values of PSA were found, particularly in patients with an indwelling catheter. Transrectal ultrasound yielded no false negatives and no complications were observed. PMID:1712190

  20. Rapidly growing bilateral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Eun Mi; Whang, In Yong; Chang, Eun Deok

    2010-01-01

    A tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) that causes huge breast enlargement is very rare. Only two cases of huge tumoral PASHs have been reported in the English medical literature. We report here on a surgically confirmed case of bilateral huge tumoral PASH in a 47-year-old woman, and we present the imaging and histopathology findings. We also review the relevant medical literature. PMID:20461190

  1. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under clinical trial. PMID:26918132

  2. Clinical and radiological findings of a bilateral coronoid hyperplasia case

    PubMed Central

    Torenek, Kubra; Duman, Suayip Burak; Bayrakdar, Ibrahim Sevki; Miloglu, Ozkan

    2015-01-01

    Coronoid hyperplasia (CH) is an infrequent condition that can be defined as an abnormal bony elongation of histologically normal bone. Progressive and painless difficulty in opening the mouth is the main clinical finding of CH. In this case report, the clinical and radiological findings for a 23-year-old male patient with bilateral CH are presented. When plain radiographies are not sufficient for diagnosis and evaluation of the CH, cone-beam computed tomography can be used. PMID:25713499

  3. Condylar hyperplasia: An updated review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, Joseph; Pierce, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare disorder characterized by excessive bone growth that almost always presents unilaterally, resulting in facial asymmetry. Classification of the different types of CH can differ depending on the authors. Correct diagnosis is critical in determining the proper treatments and timing. This paper is a review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and surgical treatments of CH. PMID:26629479

  4. Condylar hyperplasia: An updated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luis Eduardo; Zacharias, Joseph; Pierce, Sean

    2015-11-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare disorder characterized by excessive bone growth that almost always presents unilaterally, resulting in facial asymmetry. Classification of the different types of CH can differ depending on the authors. Correct diagnosis is critical in determining the proper treatments and timing. This paper is a review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and surgical treatments of CH. PMID:26629479

  5. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under clinical trial. PMID:26918132

  6. Particle sizing calibration with refractive index correction for light scattering optical particle counters and impacts upon PCASP and CDP data collected during the Fennec campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, P. D.; Dean, A. R.; Williams, P. I.; Dorsey, J. R.; Minikin, A.; Pickering, M. A.; Petzold, A.

    2012-05-01

    Optical particle counters (OPCs) are used regularly for atmospheric research, measuring particle scattering cross sections to generate particle size distribution histograms. This manuscript presents two methods for calibrating OPCs with case studies based on a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP), both of which are operated on the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 research aircraft. A probability density function based method is provided for modification of the OPC bin boundaries when the scattering properties of measured particles are different to those of the calibration particles due to differences in refractive index or shape. This method provides mean diameters and widths for OPC bins based upon Mie-Lorenz theory or any other particle scattering theory, without the need for smoothing, despite the highly nonlinear and non-monotonic relationship between particle size and scattering cross section. By calibrating an OPC in terms of its scattering cross section the optical properties correction can be applied with minimal information loss, and performing correction in this manner provides traceable and transparent uncertainty propagation throughout the whole process. Analysis of multiple calibrations has shown that for the PCASP the bin centres differ by up to 30% from the manufacturer's nominal values and can change by up to approximately 20% when routine maintenance is performed. The CDP has been found to be less sensitive than the manufacturer's specification with differences in sizing of between 1.6 ± 0.8 μm and 4.7 ± 1.8 μm for one flight. Over the course of the Fennec project in the Sahara the variability of calibration was less than the calibration uncertainty in 6 out of 7 calibrations performed. As would be expected from Mie-Lorenz theory, the impact of the refractive index corrections has been found to be largest for absorbing materials and the impact on Saharan dust measurements made

  7. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  8. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-06

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  9. Gastrointestinal Hyperplasia with Altered Expression of DNA Polymerase β

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Jelezcova, Elena; Brown, Ashley R.; Foley, Julie F.; Nyska, Abraham; Cui, Xiangli; Hofseth, Lorne J.; Maronpot, Robert M.; Wilson, Samuel H.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Sobol, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Altered expression of DNA polymerase β (Pol β) has been documented in a large percentage of human tumors. However, tumor prevalence or predisposition resulting from Pol β over-expression has not yet been evaluated in a mouse model. Methodology/Principal Findings We have recently developed a novel transgenic mouse model that over-expresses Pol β. These mice present with an elevated incidence of spontaneous histologic lesions, including cataracts, hyperplasia of Brunner's gland and mucosal hyperplasia in the duodenum. In addition, osteogenic tumors in mice tails, such as osteoma and osteosarcoma were detected. This is the first report of elevated tumor incidence in a mouse model of Pol β over-expression. These findings prompted an evaluation of human gastrointestinal tumors with regard to Pol β expression. We observed elevated expression of Pol β in stomach adenomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas, but reduced Pol β expression in esophageal adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. Conclusions/Significance These data support the hypothesis that balanced and proficient base excision repair protein expression and base excision repair capacity is required for genome stability and protection from hyperplasia and tumor formation. PMID:19654874

  10. Treatment of hemimandibular hyperplasia: the biological basis of condylectomy.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Carsten; Kruse-Losler, Birgit; Danesh, Gholamreza; Joos, Ulrich; Meyer, Ulrich

    2007-07-01

    Treatments to correct skeletal deformities in patients with hemimandibular hyperplasia differ, particularly about the age at which the operation is done and the operation itself. To some extent, the differences can be attributed to the unknown biological basis of disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinically the outcome of a rationale for the operation based on condylectomy on the affected side. Histological, radiological, and nuclear methods were used to get a more detailed insight into the reason for the operation. Six patients with hemimandibular hyperplasia were treated by a combined orthodontic-maxillofacial protocol. All patients had the affected joint removed. The histological morphology of each condylar specimen was compared with the bone scintigraphy to try and find a correlation between the methods. The clinical evaluation showed morphological and functional rehabilitation of all six patients. During the 2-year follow-up, all patients had stable symmetrical mandibles with no disturbance of temporomandibular function. Remodelling of the joint and the destruction of the cartilaginous layer was accompanied by much bone scintigraphic activity. We conclude that condylectomy can correct hemimandibular hyperplasia, even in patients with active condylar growth, by removing the underlying disease. PMID:17145124

  11. Mandibular condylar hyperplasia: clinical, histopathological, and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Angiero, Francesca; Farronato, Giampietro; Benedicenti, Stefano; Vinci, Raffaele; Farronato, Davide; Magistro, Sarah; Stefani, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is a rare disorder characterized by an increased volume of the condyle, ramus, and mandibular body leading to facial asymmetry. We present three cases of condylar hyperplasia: two women and one man, age range 27 to 34. Clinically, all three patients showed a deviation of the mandible to the opposite side and a protruded position of the chin, hypertrophy of the lower border of the mandible, combined with an elongation of the mandibular ramus, open-bite on the deformed side, and cross-bite on the opposite side. In all three cases, scintigraphy showed an increased uptake. Radiography and CT scanning confirmed the clinical diagnosis and patients were subjected to surgery, comprising high condylectomy on the affected side with access in the pre-tragus area. The surgical piece sent to the Institute of Pathological Anatomy for histological examination revealed a nonuniform picture, in terms of both the depth of cartilage islands and the thickness of the fibrous layer covering the joint surface. Common to all three cases, however, was the apparent evolution of fibrous tissue to cartilage, and of this to compact bone tissue. At two-four years, all cases have maintained a good occlusal response. The asymmetric deformity of the mandible resulting from the rare condition of hemimandibular hyperplasia is presented and the clinical, histopathological and therapeutic aspects discussed. PMID:19241796

  12. Qianliening capsule inhibits benign prostatic hyperplasia angiogenesis via the HIF-1α signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIN, JIUMAO; ZHOU, JIANHENG; XU, WEI; HONG, ZHENFENG; PENG, JUN

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in the progression and development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and has become a promising target for BPH treatment. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling pathway promotes the process of angiogenesis, contributing to the growth and progression of a number of hyperplasia diseases, including BPH. Qianliening capsule (QC) is a traditional Chinese formula that has been used clinically in China to treat BPH for a number of years. Recently, QC was demonstrated to inhibit prostatic cell growth and induce apoptosis in vivo and in vitro via regulating the epidermal growth factor/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway and mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis pathway. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-BPH effect remain largely unknown. To further elucidate the mechanism of QC activity in BPH treatment, a rat BPH model established by injecting testosterone following castration was established and the effect of QC on prostatic tissue angiogenesis was evaluated, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. QC was shown to reduce the prostatic index in BPH rats, but without affecting the body weight, demonstrating that QC is effective in the treatment of BPH and without apparent toxicity. In addition, QC treatment significantly reduced the intraprostatic microvessel density, indicating antiangiogenesis activity in vivo. In addition, treatment with QC inhibited the expression of HIF-1α in BPH rats, as well as the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Therefore, for the first time, the present study hypothesized that QC inhibits angiogenesis in prostatic tissue of BPH rats via the inhibition of the HIF-1α signaling pathway, which may be one of the mechanisms in which QC treats BPH. PMID:24944609

  13. Laparoscopic simple prostatectomy with prostatic urethra preservation for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yinglu; Yang, Feiya; Tian, Long; Zhang, Junhui; Yan, Yong; Kang, Ning; Xin, Zhongcheng; Niu, Yinong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Laparoscopic simple prostatectomy for large volume benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been reported in the literature and may be a viable alternative to open surgery for large prostate glands. While previous publications have shown comparable outcomes between laparoscopic and open simple prostatectomy, there have been few publications describing improved laparoscopic operative technique to further improve these outcomes. The authors describe a novel technique of prostatic urethra preservation during laparoscopic simple prostatectomy. Materials and methods From January 2006 to September 2009, laparoscopic simple prostatectomy with prostatic urethra preservation was performed in 51 patients with symptomatic BPH. This technique included extraperitoneal insufflation of the retropubic space by balloon dilation, placement of five trocars in an inverted U shape, transverse prostatic capsular incision, development of a subcapsular plane, and removal of prostatic adenoma with preservation of the prostatic urethra followed by suturing of the prostatic capsule. Demographic, perioperative and outcome data were recorded. Results The mean operative time was 126±51.98 min and the estimated blood loss was 232.55±199.54 mL. Significant improvements were noted in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) questionnaires and maximum flow rate (Qmax) of patients three months after surgery. No incontinence was reported in any patient. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the 5-Item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) score pre- and post- operatively in patients who had erectile function before surgery and no patient complained of retrograde ejaculation during the postoperative follow-up period. Conclusions Laparoscopic simple prostatectomy with prostatic urethra preservation for benign prostatic hyperplasia is feasible and reproducible. With this technique, postoperative morbidity can be reduced and antegrade

  14. Impact of radiatively interactive dust aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 climate model: Sensitivity to dust particle shape and refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Nowottnick, Edward P.; Randles, Cynthia A.; Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Smith, Jamison A.; Bardeen, Charles G.

    2014-01-01

    The radiative effects of Saharan dust aerosols are investigated in the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. A sectional aerosol microphysics model (CARMA) is run online in GEOS-5. CARMA treats the dust aerosol lifecycle, and its tracers are radiatively coupled to GEOS-5. A series of AMIP-style simulations are performed, in which input dust optical properties (particle shape and refractive index) are varied. Simulated dust distributions for summertime Saharan dust compare well to observations, with best results found when the most absorbing dust optical properties are assumed. Dust absorption leads to a strengthening of the summertime Hadley cell circulation, increased dust lofting to higher altitudes, and a strengthening of the African easterly jet, resulting in increased dust atmospheric lifetime and farther northward and westward transport. We find a positive feedback of dust radiative forcing on emissions, in contrast with previous studies, which we attribute to our having a relatively strong longwave forcing caused by our simulating larger effective particle sizes. This longwave forcing reduces the magnitude of midday net surface cooling relative to other studies, and leads to a nighttime warming that results in higher nighttime wind speeds and dust emissions. The radiative effects of dust particle shape have only minor impact on transport and emissions, with small (~5%) impact on top of atmosphere shortwave forcing, in line with previous studies, but relatively more pronounced effects on shortwave atmospheric heating and surface forcing (~20% increase in atmospheric forcing for spheroids). Shape effects on longwave heating terms are of order ~10%.

  15. Change in Body Mass Index and Its Impact on Incidence of Hypertension in 18–65-Year-Old Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Qian; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study assessed change in body mass index (BMI) and its impact on the incidence of hypertension in 18- to 65-year-old Chinese adults. Methods: Two waves of data were collected in 2006 and 2011 by the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) with samples drawn from nine provinces in China. The logistic regression model was used to examine the association between change in BMI and the incidence of hypertension, and odds ratio (OR) and 95% confident interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: The risk of incident hypertension increased as the quartile of the BMI difference value (D-value) increased in men (OR and 95% CI for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile: 2.303, 1.560–3.401, respectively, p for trend < 0.001) and women (OR and 95% CI for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile: 1.745, 1.199–2.540, respectively, p for trend = 0.004). Compared with non-overweight subjects in 2011, the ORs of incident hypertension were all significantly higher for overweight subjects, regardless of their overweight status at baseline (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, the results from this study provide unequivocal evidence that prevention of weight gain is likely to have a great impact on the incidence of hypertension in Chinese adults. PMID:26927144

  16. The 2010 Russian Drought Impact on Satellite Measurements of Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence: Insights from Modeling and Comparisons with the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Joiner, J.; Tucker, C.; Berry, J.; Lee, J. -E.; Walker, G.; Reichle, R.; Koster, R.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We examine satellite-based measurements of chlorophyll solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) over the region impacted by the Russian drought and heat wave of 2010. Like the popular Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) that has been used for decades to measure photosynthetic capacity, SIF measurements are sensitive to the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically-active radiation (fPAR). However, in addition, SIF is sensitive to the fluorescence yield that is related to the photosynthetic yield. Both SIF and NDVI from satellite data show drought-related declines early in the growing season in 2010 as compared to other years between 2007 and 2013 for areas dominated by crops and grasslands. This suggests an early manifestation of the dry conditions on fPAR. We also simulated SIF using a global land surface model driven by observation-based meteorological fields. The model provides a reasonable simulation of the drought and heat impacts on SIF in terms of the timing and spatial extents of anomalies, but there are some differences between modeled and observed SIF. The model may potentially be improved through data assimilation or parameter estimation using satellite observations of SIF (as well as NDVI). The model simulations also offer the opportunity to examine separately the different components of the SIF signal and relationships with Gross Primary Productivity (GPP).

  17. How frequent are invasive therapies required in patients receiving tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia? A retrospective long-term study.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Kazuki; Homma, Yukio; Kubota, Kiyoshi; Sozu, Takashi

    2006-02-01

    Three hundred Japanese patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) who started an alpha1-adrenoceptor blocker, tamsulosin, between 1993 and 1996 were followed for 3.0+/-3.3 years (mean+/-SD) to determine whether an association existed between the disease severities measured prior to the tamsulosin treatment and the timing at which the invasive therapy was implemented. Patients with a lower quality of life (QOL) index or maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) were transferred for invasive therapy earlier than those with less severe BPH. The International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) was also associated, but apparently to a lesser extent, with the timing of the invasive therapy. Finally, the overall severity evaluated using all of the above three indices, I-PSS, QOL index, and Qmax, in accordance with the 'Severity Criteria for BPH' issued by the Japanese Urological Association, was found to be a good measure for predicting the prognosis of patients with BPH treated with tamsulosin. PMID:16563136

  18. [Terminology and classification of condylar hyperplasia: Two case reports and review].

    PubMed

    Yılancı, Hümeyra Özge; Akkaya, Nursel; Özbek, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is characterized by the growth of mandibular condyle. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain controversial. It often occurs unilaterally and leads to facial asymmetry and malocclusion. In the literature, it was also classified according to anomalies accompanied by the growth of other components of the mandible. Differential diagnosis of condylar hyperplasia usually includes tumors of temporomandibular joint. In this article, we discuss the term "condylar hyperplasia" and its classification considering two patients with condylar growth. PMID:26572183

  19. Amlodipine-induced Gingival Hyperplasia – A Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Madi, M; Shetty, SR; Babu, SG; Achalli, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anticonvulsants, antihypertensive calcium channel blockers and immunosuppressants are the three main classes of drugs known to cause drug-induced gingival hypertrophy or hyperplasia. Among the calcium channel blockers, nifedipine administration has most frequently been associated with medication-related gingival hyperplasia. The incidence with amlodipine, which has a mode of action pharmacodynamically comparable to nifedipine, has rarely been reported. Here, we present a rare case of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in a hypertensive patient. PMID:26426184

  20. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in chronic renal failure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, N M; Begenik, H; Emre, H; Erdur, F M; Soyoral, Y

    2012-12-01

    Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is used in the management of both hypertension and angina. Amlodipine induced side effects are headache, dizziness, edema, flushing, palpitations, and rarely gingival hyperplasia. The exact reason of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia is not known. We presented a case with chronic renal failure (CRF) that developed gingival hyperplasia due to amlodipine use, which improved after ceasing the drug. PMID:23516009

  1. 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT for assessment of condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Derlin, Thorsten; Busch, Jasmin D; Habermann, Christian R

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of condylar hyperplasia diagnosed with 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT. A 21-year-old woman with facial asymmetry was referred for assessment of condylar growth activity. SPECT/CT confirmed condylar hyperactivity, and simultaneous low-dose CT contributed to the diagnosis of hemimandibular hyperplasia. SPECT/CT may become a valuable tool for the diagnosis and comprehensive assessment of condylar hyperplasia, providing both functional and morphological information. PMID:23242067

  2. [18F]-fluoride positron emission tomography for imaging condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Laverick, S; Bounds, G; Wong, Wai Lup

    2009-04-01

    The management of condylar hyperplasia depends on the diagnosis of continued growth in the affected condyle, and there is currently no satisfactory way of imaging it. [(18)F]-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) was included in the investigation of 5 patients who were suspected of having condylar hyperplasia, and the results were correlated with the operative findings. The technique correctly identified condylar hyperplasia in all patients. Our results suggest that [(18)F]-fluoride PET is a valid way of assessing patients with condylar hyperplasia. PMID:18926607

  3. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. PMID:26421203

  4. Natal tooth associated with fibrous hyperplasia - a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Harsimran Singh; Munjal, Deepti; Dhingra, Renuka; Malik, Narender Singh; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Eruption of tooth at about 6 months of age is a significant stage in child's life and is an emotional event for parents. However, a tooth present in the oral cavity of newborn can lead to a lot of delusions. Natal and neonatal teeth are of utmost importance not only for a dentist but also for a paediatrician due to parent's anxiety, folklore superstitions and numerous associated complications with it. This paper reports a rare case, wherein a natal tooth has led to the development of a reactive fibrous hyperplasia in an 8-week-old infant. PMID:26023656

  5. The next 150 years of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Turcu, Adina F; Auchus, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH) are a group of autosomal recessive defects in cortisol biosynthesis. Substantial progress has been made since the description of the first report, 150 years ago. This article reviews some of the recent advances in the genetics, diagnosis and treatment of CAH. In addition, we underline the aspects where further progress is required, including, among others, better diagnostic modalities for the mild phenotype and for some of the rare forms of disease, elucidation of epigenetic factors that lead to different phenotypes in patients with identical genotype and expending on treatment options for controlling the adrenal androgen excess. PMID:26047556

  6. A huge benign prostatic hyperplasia presenting with renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Basatac, Cem; Cicek, Mehmet Cagatay

    2015-01-01

    Although transurethral resection of the prostate is still standard of care in many patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia, traditional open prostatectomy (OP) seems as a widely applied method in larger glands. In spite of the fact that holmium laser enucleation can be performed in large glands, upper limits of prostate size in this method are not clearly identified in the current literature. In this case, we aim to report feasibility and efficacy of OP in huge prostate size measured as 680 ml by transrectal ultrasound and review the current literature. PMID:26034239

  7. The Next 150 Years of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH) are a group of autosomal recessive defects in cortisol biosynthesis. Substantial progress has been made since the description of the first report, 150 years ago. This article reviews some of the recent advances in the genetics, diagnosis and treatment of CAH. In addition, we underline the aspects where further progress is required, including, among others, better diagnostic modalities for the mild phenotype and for some of the rare forms of disease, elucidation of epigenetic factors that lead to different phenotypes in patients with identical genotype and expending on treatment options for controlling the adrenal androgen excess. PMID:26047556

  8. Distribution of insulin-like growth factors in condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Götz, Werner; Lehmann, Tim Sebastian; Appel, Thorsten Robin; Rath-Deschner, Birgit; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Luder, Hans-Ulrich; Reich, Rudolf H; Jäger, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a local overgrowth of the condylar process of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of unknown etiology. Probably, growth factors like the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are involved in its pathogenesis. Specimens from 12 patients were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically to obtain the distribution of the IGFs-I and -II and the IGF1 receptor. The results revealed juvenile and adult subtypes. While generally IGF-II could only be detected weakly, in the juvenile cases strong immunostaining for IGF-I in cartilage and bone supposes an influence on pathological growth processes. PMID:17695990

  9. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  10. Relative Path Impact Index (RPII): a morphometric approach to quantify the effect of anthropogenic features on surface flow processes in agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, P.; Prosdocimi, M.; Sofia, G.; Preti, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2014-12-01

    Soil erosion in cultivated land is one of the main critical issue because of its significant economic consequences, especially whether it occurs in hilly and mountainous environments. Among the cultivated lands, vineyards deserve a particular attention. In fact, they not only represent one of the most important crop in terms of income and employment, but they also constitute the form of agricultural land use that causes the highest soil loss. In these cultivated lands, the construction of terraces is one of the most widely used system for soil and water conservation measures. However, while favoring agricultural activities, terraces may cause local instabilities as well, if they are not properly maintained. Terraced fields are also served by agricultural roads and the construction of these anthropogenic features can have deep effects on water flows and instabilities. In fact, the plane surface of roads can intercept the overland and the subsurface flow and can modify the natural flow directions expanding the drainage network. The main objective of this work is to use high-resolution topography derived from lidar technology for a hydro-geomorphological analysis of terraced vineyards. We considered few case studies located in Italy. At first, the Relative Path Impact Index (RPII) is used to identify likely sections of terraces and agricultural roads subject to potential landsliding or erosion. Statistical thresholds of RPII are then defined to label the most critical areas. Afterwards, using the index and the defined thresholds, different scenarios of soil conservation measures are simulated, to establish the optimal solution for erosion reduction. The results prove the effectiveness of high-resolution topography in the analysis of surface erosion in terraced vineyards, when the surface water flow is the main factor triggering the instabilities. This preliminary analysis can help in scheduling a suitable planning to mitigate the consequences of the anthropogenic

  11. Maternal Obesity, Cage Density, and Age Contribute to Prostate Hyperplasia in Mice.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Emily C; Gill, Jeff; Lamb, Laura E; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-02-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors is gravely needed to prevent adverse prostate health outcomes. We previously developed a murine precancer model in which exposure to maternal obesity stimulated prostate hyperplasia in offspring. Here, we used generalized linear modeling to evaluate the influence of additional environmental covariates on prostate hyperplasia. As expected from our previous work, the model revealed that aging and maternal diet-induced obesity (DIO) each correlated with prostate hyperplasia. However, prostate hyperplasia was not correlated with the length of maternal DIO. Cage density positively associated with both prostate hyperplasia and offspring body weight. Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in prostates also positively correlated with cage density and negatively correlated with age of the animal. Together, these findings suggest that prostate tissue was adversely patterned during early life by maternal overnutrition and was susceptible to alteration by environmental factors such as cage density. Additionally, prostate hyperplasia may be acutely influenced by exposure to DIO, rather than occurring as a response to worsening obesity and comorbidities experienced by the mother. Finally, cage density correlated with both corticosteroid receptor abundance and prostate hyperplasia, suggesting that overcrowding influenced offspring prostate hyperplasia. These results emphasize the need for multivariate regression models to evaluate the influence of coordinated variables in complicated animal systems. PMID:26243546

  12. Amyloidaceous ulcerated gingival hyperplasia: a newly described entity related to ligneous conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Gokbuget, A Y; Mutlu, S; Scully, C; Efeoglu, A; Porter, S R; Speight, P; Erseven, G; Karacorlu, M

    1997-02-01

    Gingival hyperplasia may be genetic, may be acquired as a consequence of exposure to drugs and other agents or may appear as part of a more widespread disorder. Five patients who acquired gingival hyperplasia due to amyloidaceous deposits staining only for fibrin are presented. This appears to be a new entity related to ligneous conjunctivitis. PMID:9049911

  13. Altered catecholamine receptor affinity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, M.K.; Cotecchia, S.; Hagen, P.O. )

    1991-08-01

    Intimal thickening is a universal response to endothelial denudation and is also thought to be a precursor of atherosclerosis. The authors have demonstrated selective supersensitivity in arterial intimal hyperplasia to norepinephrine and they now report a possible mechanism for this. Binding studies in rabbit aorta with the selective alpha 1-adrenergic radioligand 125I-HEAT demonstrated that there was no change in receptor density (20 {plus minus} 4 fmole/10(6) cells) in intact vascular smooth muscle cells at either 5 or 14 days after denudation. However, competition studies showed a 2.6-fold increase in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor affinity for norepinephrine in intimal hyperplastic tissue (P less than 0.05). This increased affinity for norepinephrine was associated with a greater increase in 32P-labeled phosphatidylinositol (148% intimal thickening versus 76% control) and phosphatidic acid (151% intimal thickening versus 56% control) following norepinephrine stimulation of free floating rings of intimal hyperplastic aorta. These data suggest that the catecholamine supersensitivity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia is receptor mediated and may be linked to the phosphatidylinositol cycle.

  14. Epicardial-Derived Adrenomedullin Drives Cardiac Hyperplasia During Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel-Strong, Sarah E.; Li, Manyu; Klein, Klara R.; Nishikimi, Toshio; Caron, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Growth promoting signals from the epicardium are essential for driving myocardial proliferation during embryogenesis. In adults, these signals become reactivated following injury and promote angiogenesis and myocardial repair. Therefore, identification of such paracrine factors could lead to novel therapeutic strategies. The multi-functional peptide adrenomedullin (Adm = gene, AM = protein) is required for normal heart development. Moreover, elevated plasma AM following myocardial infarction offers beneficial cardioprotection and serves as a powerful diagnostic and prognostic indication of disease severity. Results Here, we developed a new model of Adm overexpression by stabilizing the Adm mRNA through gene-targeted replacement of the endogenous 3′ untranslated region. As expected, Admhi/hi mice express three-times more AM than controls in multiple tissues, including the heart. Despite normal blood pressures, Admhi/hi mice unexpectedly showed significantly enlarged hearts due to increased cardiac hyperplasia during development. The targeting vector was designed to allow for reversion to wild-type levels by means of Cre-mediated modification. Using this approach, we demonstrate that AM derived from the epicardium, but not the myocardium or cardiac fibroblast, is responsible for driving cardiomyocyte hyperplasia. Conclusions AM is produced by the epicardium and drives myocyte proliferation during development, thus representing a novel and clinically relevant factor potentially related to mechanisms of cardiac repair after injury. PMID:24123312

  15. Lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphoma in KSHV K1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Berkova, Zuzana; Wang, Shu; Sehgal, Lalit; Patel, Keyur Pravinchandra; Prakash, Om; Samaniego, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Growing evidence supports the involvement of human herpervirus 8, Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), in the pathology of primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma, but the exact mechanism of KSHV contribution to the oncogenic process remains elusive. We studied transgenic mice expressing the ORF K1 of KSHV, whose position in the KSHV genome corresponds to known lymphoproliferative genes of other herpesviruses. K1 protein was previously shown to contain a constitutively active ITAM domain, involved in activation of Akt and pro-survival signaling, and to inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis by interfering with binding of FasL. All this pointed to a possible role of K1 in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated cancers. K1 transgenic mice (80-90%) developed lymphoid hyperplasia and splenomegaly at 8 and 10 months of age, 25% had confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma, and 50% developed abdominal and/or hepatic tumors by 18 months of age. Histological examination showed loss of splenic architecture and increased cellularity. Lymph nodes showed disrupted architecture with effaced follicles and other pathological changes, including signs of angiofollicular lymphoid hyperplasia. One of the livers showed signs of angiosarcoma. In summary, our histology results revealed pathological changes in K1 transgenic mice similar to lymphoma, Castleman's disease, and angiosarcoma, suggesting that K1 may contribute to the development of KSHV-associated cancers. PMID:25301266

  16. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Kim, Hyung Ji

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  17. Thymus hyperplasia, differential diagnosis in the wheezing infant.

    PubMed

    Pedroza Meléndez, A; Larenas-Linnemann, D

    1997-01-01

    Thymus hyperplasia is not a rare condition in infancy, but it is generally considered not to cause any symptoms. We present here a series of 11 children seen at the National Institute of Pediatrics (NIP), Mexico-city, that do have respiratory symptoms secondary to the enlarged gland. Age of onset of the symptoms was median at birth, with age of first visit to the NIP of 6 months. Symptoms were respiratory crisis and various respiratory complaints. Five underwent thoracotomy and resection of the right pulmonary lobe was necessary in one, because of irreversible changes in the lung tissue due to chronic compression. In another patient thymic lobectomy was executed because extrinsic compression of the right upper bronchus resulted in recurrent atelectasia. The five biopsies taken during the intervention showed normal or hyperplastic or involutive thymic tissue without signs of malignancy. The evolution was positive in all the patients. In conclusion thymic hyperplasia must be taken into account in the evaluation of an infant with respiratory symptoms. PMID:9150833

  18. Pathophysiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in the Aging Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Nearly all men will develop histological benign prostatic hyperplasia by the age of 80, but the degree of prostatic enlargement resulting from the hyperplasia is highly variable. Historically, it has often been assumed that the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men is the result of bladder outlet obstruction associated with prostatic enlargement. The observation that prostatic enlargement, bladder outlet obstruction, and LUTS are all age-dependent has been interpreted to indicate that these phenomena were causally related, but there is insufficient evidence for this. Undoubtedly, some men' prostatic enlargement causes obstruction and symptoms. Based upon the available data, however, this subset appears to be extremely small. Because of the many urological and nonurological conditions that cause LUTS and age-dependent changes in bladder and neurological function, it is unlikely that there exists a single dominant etiology for the aging male population. If this is the case, then the optimal management of LUTS will require different and possibly combination therapies. PMID:16986052

  19. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  20. Fermented Dairy Products Modulate Citrobacter rodentium–Induced Colonic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James W.; Chervaux, Christian; Raymond, Benoit; Derrien, Muriel; Brazeilles, Rémi; Kosta, Artemis; Chambaud, Isabelle; Crepin, Valerie F.; Frankel, Gad

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of fermented dairy products (FDPs) in an infection model, using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Treatment of mice with FDP formulas A, B, and C or a control product did not affect CR colonization, organ specificity, or attaching and effacing lesion formation. Fermented dairy product A (FDP-A), but neither the supernatant from FDP-A nor β-irradiated (IR) FDP-A, caused a significant reduction in colonic crypt hyperplasia and CR-associated pathology. Profiling the gut microbiota revealed that IR-FDP-A promoted higher levels of phylotypes belonging to Alcaligenaceae and a decrease in Lachnospiraceae (Ruminococcus) during CR infection. Conversely, FDP-A prevented a decrease in Ruminococcus and increased Turicibacteraceae (Turicibacter). Importantly, loss of Ruminococcus and Turicibacter has been associated with susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that viable bacteria in FDP-A reduced CR-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and prevented the loss of key bacterial genera that may contribute to disease pathology. PMID:24706936

  1. Downstream anastomotic hyperplasia. A mechanism of failure in Dacron arterial grafts.

    PubMed Central

    LoGerfo, F W; Quist, W C; Nowak, M D; Crawshaw, H M; Haudenschild, C C

    1983-01-01

    The precise location and progression of anastomotic hyperplasia and its possible relationship to flow disturbances was investigated in femoro-femoral Dacron grafts in 28 dogs. In 13 grafts, the outflow from the end-to-side downstream anastomosis was bidirectional (BDO), and in 15 it was unidirectional (UDO) (distally). Grafts were electively removed at intervals of two to 196 days or at the time of thrombosis. Each anastomosis and adjacent artery was perfusion-fixed and sectioned sagittally. The mean sagittal section was projected onto a digitized pad, and the total area of hyperplasia internal to the arterial internal elastic lamina and within the adjacent graft was integrated by computer. The location of the hyperplasia was compared with previously established sites of flow separation and stagnation. The observation was made that hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream, as compared with the upstream, anastomosis in both groups (BDO = p less than 0.001 and UDO = p less than 0.001) (analysis of variance for independent groups). Furthermore, this downstream hyperplasia was progressive with time (BDO p less than 0.01) (UDO p less than 0.01); Spearman Rank Correlation. There was no significant increase in the extent of downstream hyperplasia where flow separation was known to be greater (BDO). Five grafts failed (three BDO, two UDO), as a result of complete occlusion of the downstream anastomosis by fibrous hyperplasia. Transmission electron microscopy showed the hyperplasia to consist of collagen-producing smooth muscle cells. Anastomotic hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream anastomosis, is progressive with time, and is the primary cause of failure of Dacron arterial grafts in this model. Quantitative analysis of downstream anastomotic hyperplasia may be a valuable measure of the biocompatibility of Dacron grafts. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6219641

  2. Mapping the Duration and Severity of Drought Impacts on Grasslands in the Southern Great Plains through a Water-related Vegetation Index Derived from MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, G.; Wagle, P.; Bajgain, R.; Basara, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Grasslands in the Southern Great Plains of the United States are sensitive to drought. Previous studies have utilized a variety of methods and indices to monitor drought and assess the impacts. These drought indices were based on climate data such as precipitation and surface air temperature. However, water-related vegetation indices such as land surface water index (LSWI) have not been widely used as an indicator of drought severity at large scales. In this study, we analyzed land surface temperature (LST) data (MYD11A2) and LSWI data (MOD09A1) from 2006 and 2007 (H10V05, covering parts of Oklahoma and Kansas) to assess drought. First, LST data from an entire year were used to define and map the temperature-defined plant growing season (start and end dates as well as duration of LST > 5 °C). Second, LSWI data from within the LST-based growing season were used to assess vegetation growing condition and delineate the LSWI-based growing season (between the first date and the last date when LSWI > 0). The number of days with LSWI < 0 within the LSWI-based growing season is around zero in a year without summer droughts (e.g. 2007), but increases substantially in a year with severe summer droughts (e.g. 2006), varying between 100 to 150 day. Four levels (severe drought, moderate drought, abnormally dry, and no drought) of drought indicators were used to define the drought severity of grasslands based on the length of the LSWI-based growing season and the total number of LSWI < 0. Preliminary results revealed that the frequency of LSWI < 0 within the LSWI-defined growing season corresponded well with the drought condition in 2006. The LSWI-based approach developed in this study, at a spatial resolution of 500-m and a temporal resolution of 8-day, may provide an additional drought indicator in the Southern Great Plains.

  3. Impact of gender and healthy aging on pulmonary capillary wedge pressure estimated by the kinetics-tracking index using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masanori; Tanaka, Ryuhei; Ono, Koji; Minatoguchi, Shingo; Watanabe, Takatomo; Arai, Masazumi; Nishigaki, Kazuhiko; Noda, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Sachiro; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2016-05-01

    Risk stratification in heart failure (HF) among patients and healthy subjects using pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is important for understanding when and why HF develops. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of gender and healthy aging on estimated PCWP using a kinetics-tracking index in patients and in healthy subjects without hypertension. The study population consisted of 198 healthy subjects without cardiovascular or other systemic diseases and who were not taking any medications. Echocardiographic studies were performed using an ACUSON Sequoia 512 ultrasound system. Active left atrial (LA) emptying function (EF) was defined as (pre-atrial contraction LA volume-minimum LA volume)/pre-atrial contraction LA volume × 100%. With an increase in age, the E/A and E/e' ratios (markers of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (DD)) showed a similar decrease in males and females. PCWP was maintained at 8.3±1.8 mm Hg in males and 8.2±2.3 mm Hg in females because of compensation by an increase in active LA EF. In contrast, the compensation for LV DD with an increase in active LA EF in females tended to be more gradual (slope=0.11) than in males (slope=0.18, P=0.060 vs. female). The parameters that indicated LV DD deteriorated with advancing age. PCWP might be maintained because of compensation, namely an increase in active LA EF in both males and females. The compensation in female septuagenarians and octogenarians was weaker than in male septuagenarians and octogenarians. This difference in compensation may explain why HF with preserved LV ejection fraction occurs more frequently in females than in males. PMID:26791012

  4. Baby knows best? The impact of weaning style on food preferences and body mass index in early childhood in a case–controlled sample

    PubMed Central

    Pitchford, Nicola J

    2012-01-01

    Objective The impact of different weaning methods on food preferences and body mass index (BMI) in early childhood is not known. Here, we examine if weaning method—baby-led weaning versus traditional spoon feeding—influences food preferences and health-related outcomes. Design, setting and participants Parents (n=155) recruited through the Nottingham Toddler laboratory and relevant internet sites completed a questionnaire concerning (1) infant feeding and weaning style (baby-led=92, spoon-fed=63, age range 20–78 months), (2) their child's preference for 151 foods (analysed by common food categories, eg, carbohydrates, proteins, dairy) and (3) exposure (frequency of consumption). Food preference and exposure data were analysed using a case–controlled matched sample to account for the effect of age on food preference. All other analyses were conducted with the whole sample. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measures were food preferences, exposure and weaning style. The secondary outcome measures were BMI and picky eating. Results Compared to the spoon-fed group, the baby-led group demonstrated (1) significantly increased liking for carbohydrates (no other differences in preference were found) and (2) carbohydrates to be their most preferred foods (compared to sweet foods for the spoon-fed group). Preference and exposure ratings were not influenced by socially desirable responding or socioeconomic status, although an increased liking for vegetables was associated with higher social class. There was an increased incidence of (1) underweight in the baby-led group and (2) obesity in the spoon-fed group. No difference in picky eating was found between the two weaning groups. Conclusions Weaning style impacts on food preferences and health in early childhood. Our results suggest that infants weaned through the baby-led approach learn to regulate their food intake in a manner, which leads to a lower BMI and a preference for healthy foods like

  5. Using Health Utility Index (HUI) for measuring the impact on health-related quality of Life (HRQL) among individuals with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Mo, Frank; Choi, Bernard C K; Li, Felix C K; Merrick, Joav

    2004-08-27

    Quality of life is an important indicator in assessing the burden of disease, especially for chronic conditions. The Health Utilities Index (HUI) is a recently developed system for measuring the overall health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL) of individuals, clinical groups, and general populations. Using the HUI (constructed based on eight attributes: vision, hearing, speech, mobility, dexterity, cognition, emotion, and pain/discomfort) to measure the HRQL for chronic disease patients and to detect possible associations between HUI system and various chronic conditions, this study provides information to improve the management of chronic diseases. This study is of interest to data analysts, policy makers, and public health practitioners involved in descriptive clinical studies, clinical trials, program evaluation, population health planning, and assessments. Based on the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) for 2000-01, the HUI was used to measure the quality of life for individuals living with various chronic conditions (Alzheimer/other dementia, effects of stroke, urinary incontinence, arthritis/rheumatism, bowel disorder, cataracts, back problems, stomach/intestinal ulcers, emphysema/COPD, chronic bronchitis, epilepsy, heart disease, diabetes, migraine headaches, glaucoma, asthma, fibromyalgia, cancers, high blood pressure, multiple sclerosis, thyroid condition, and other remaining chronic diseases). Logistic Regression Model was employed to estimate the associations between the overall HUI scores and various chronic conditions. The HUI scores ranged from 0.00 (corresponding to a state close to death) to 1.00 (corresponding to perfect health); negative scores reflect health states considered worse than death. The mean HUI score by sex and age group indicated the typical quality of life for persons with various chronic conditions. Logistic Regression results showed a strong relationship between low HUI scores (< or = 0.5 and 0.06-1.0) and

  6. A Case Report of Adrenocortical Adenoma Mimicking Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in a Young Girl.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qingfeng; Lv, Zhibao; Xu, Weijue; Liu, Jiangbin; Wu, Yibo; Xi, Zhengjun

    2015-06-01

    Adrenal cortical tumors are rare in children. Secondary tumors associated with untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have also been reported in pediatric population. It is difficult for pediatricians to differentiate these 2 lesions.We described a 4.5-year-old girl who presented with symptoms and signs of virilization. Bone age was 9.5 years. Genetic analysis of CYP21A2 and CYP11B1 revealed a heterozygous mutation of CYP11B1 at c.1157C>T (A386V). No germline p53 gene mutation including R337H was detected.The patient was first misdiagnosed as CAH and treated with hydrocortisone for 3 months. Diagnosis of an adrenal cortical tumor was confirmed by laboratory data and abdominal computed tomography. After resection of the tumor, serum steroids normalized and clinical signs receded. The child received no additional treatment and remains disease free after 12 months of close observation. Histological examination showed neoplasia cells with predominantly eosinophilic cytoplasm and few atypical mitotic figures. The proliferation-associated Ki-67 index was <1% detected by immunohistochemistry.Neoplasm is a rare but significant cause of precocious puberty (PP). The possibility of neoplasms should always be considered early to avoid delayed cancer diagnosis and treatment in cases of PP. PMID:26107677

  7. An Analysis of the Entropy Index Diversity Scores of Selected North Carolina Urban High Schools and the Impact on Teacher Quality, Student Achievement, and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert Pernell

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the differences in teacher quality, student achievement, and graduation rates among select North Carolina urban high schools based on their racial segregation when measured by the entropy index. The entropy index is a measure of evenness among racial groups used to determine the level of segregation…

  8. Relationship Between Depression and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dunphy, Claire; Laor, Leanna; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven; Chughtai, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current data on the relationship between depression and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), with a focus on pathophysiology and patient management implications. Review of the literature indicated a clear relationship between LUTS secondary to BPH and depression. It is unknown whether this relationship is bidirectional or unidirectional. Depression is associated with the impact of LUTS on quality of life in men with BPH. Research suggests that depression alters the experience of LUTS in this population. Medical and surgical treatments for BPH may impact quality of life and, therefore, depression. Results conflict on the exact nature of the relationship examined, and on the extent to which the relationship may be attributed to physiological factors such as inflammation. Practicing clinicians should consider using a brief self-administered scale to assess for depression in patients with BPH. There is a clear need for additional research to decisively determine the nature of the relationship between LUTS secondary to BPH and depression, as well as the extent to which change in either condition may be affected by the other.

  9. Sexual outcome of patients undergoing thulium laser enucleation of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Carmignani, Luca; Bozzini, Giorgio; Macchi, Alberto; Maruccia, Serena; Picozzi, Stefano; Casellato, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may affect the quality of sexual function and ejaculation. The effect of new surgical procedures, which are currently available to treat BPH, on erection and ejaculation, has been poorly studied. This study aimed to assess the effect of thulium laser enucleation of the prostate (ThuLEP) on sexual function and retrograde ejaculation in patients with LUTS secondary to BPH. We performed a prospective study in 110 consecutive patients who had undergone ThuLEP to analyze changes in sexual function and urinary symptoms. To evaluate changes in erection and ejaculation, and the effect of urinary symptoms on the quality of life (QoL), five validated questionnaires were used: the ICIQ-MLUTSsex, MSHQ-EjD, International Index of Erectile Function 5, International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) questionnaire, and QoL index of the intraclass correlation coefficients. Patients also underwent IPSS and flowmetry to assess the outcome of flow. Patients were evaluated before surgery and 3-6 months after ThuLEP, whereas those with previous abdominal surgery were excluded. The patients' mean age was 67.83 years. Postoperative urinary symptoms improved after surgery. No significant differences in erectile function before and after surgery were observed. As compared with other techniques described in the literature, the percentage of patients with conserved ejaculation increased by 52.7% after ThuLEP. ThuLEP positively affects urinary symptoms and their effect on the QoL of patients as assessed by questionnaire scores. While endoscopic management of BPH (e.g. transurethral resection of the prostate) causes retrograde ejaculation in most patients, those who undergo ThuLEP have conserved ejaculation and erectile function. PMID:25652616

  10. Genetics of primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia: a model for early diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome?

    PubMed

    Drougat, Ludivine; Espiard, Stéphanie; Bertherat, Jerôme

    2015-10-01

    Long-term consequences of cortisol excess are frequent despite appropriate treatment after cure of Cushing's syndrome. This might be due to diagnostic delay, often difficult to reduce in rare diseases. The identification of a genetic predisposing factor might help to improve early diagnosis by familial screening. Primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH) is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. Hypercortisolism in PBMAH is most often diagnosed between the fifth and sixth decades of life. The bilateral nature of the adrenocortical tumors and the occurrence of rare clear familial forms suggest a genetic origin. Indeed, a limited subset of PBMAH can be observed as part of multiple tumors syndromes due to alterations of the APC, Menin or Fumarate Hydratase genes. Rare variants of the phosphodiesterases PDE11A have been associated with PBMAH. The recent identification of ARMC5 germline alterations in 25-50% of PBMAH patients without obvious familial history or associated tumors opens new perspectives. ARMC5 alterations follow the model of a tumor suppressor gene: a first germline inactivating mutation of this 16p located gene is followed by a somatic secondary hit on the other allele (inactivating mutation or allelic loss). Functional studies demonstrate that ARMC5 controls apoptosis and steroid synthesis. The phenotype of index cases patients with the mutation seems more severe than the one of WT index cases. However, phenotype variability within a family is often observed. This review summarizes the genetics of PBMAH, focusing on ARMC5, which offer new perspectives for early diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. PMID:26264719

  11. Sexual outcome of patients undergoing thulium laser enucleation of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Carmignani, Luca; Bozzini, Giorgio; Macchi, Alberto; Maruccia, Serena; Picozzi, Stefano; Casellato, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may affect the quality of sexual function and ejaculation. The effect of new surgical procedures, which are currently available to treat BPH, on erection and ejaculation, has been poorly studied. This study aimed to assess the effect of thulium laser enucleation of the prostate (ThuLEP) on sexual function and retrograde ejaculation in patients with LUTS secondary to BPH. We performed a prospective study in 110 consecutive patients who had undergone ThuLEP to analyze changes in sexual function and urinary symptoms. To evaluate changes in erection and ejaculation, and the effect of urinary symptoms on the quality of life (QoL), five validated questionnaires were used: the ICIQ-MLUTSsex, MSHQ-EjD, International Index of Erectile Function 5, International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) questionnaire, and QoL index of the intraclass correlation coefficients. Patients also underwent IPSS and flowmetry to assess the outcome of flow. Patients were evaluated before surgery and 3–6 months after ThuLEP, whereas those with previous abdominal surgery were excluded. The patients’ mean age was 67.83 years. Postoperative urinary symptoms improved after surgery. No significant differences in erectile function before and after surgery were observed. As compared with other techniques described in the literature, the percentage of patients with conserved ejaculation increased by 52.7% after ThuLEP. ThuLEP positively affects urinary symptoms and their effect on the QoL of patients as assessed by questionnaire scores. While endoscopic management of BPH (e.g. transurethral resection of the prostate) causes retrograde ejaculation in most patients, those who undergo ThuLEP have conserved ejaculation and erectile function. PMID:25652616

  12. [Benign prostate hyperplasia: success and limitations of pharmacological therapy].

    PubMed

    Madersbacher, S; Marszalek, M

    2007-10-01

    A profound knowledge of pathogenesis and natural history enables a differentiated therapy for elderly men with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The role of phytotherapy is still controversially discussed and, therefore, not clearly recommended by any BPH-guideline. alpha(1)-blockers are the therapy of choice for symptomatic patients at a low risk of disease progression (prostate volume <30-40 ml). 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) reduce the prostate volume by 20-25% and the risk for acute urinary retention/surgery by more than 50% compared to placebo. Combination therapy (alpha(1)-blocker plus 5ARI) is superior to either monotherapy, though this advantage is only demonstrable after a prolonged treatment period (>12 months). PMID:17426942

  13. Risk stratification for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment.

    PubMed

    Emberton, Mark; Fitzpatrick, John M; Rees, Jon

    2011-03-01

    • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common cause of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. In the past, the aim of drug treatment was to relieve symptoms until surgery became necessary, predominantly using an α-blocker or a 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) as monotherapy. • Together with improving knowledge about the pathogenesis of BPH, there is now strong evidence from large randomized trials that risk stratification and appropriate treatment with combined α-blocker/5ARI therapy can significantly reduce the risk of disease progression and avoid long-term complications such as acute urinary retention and surgery. • BPH will increasingly be managed in primary care in the future and, if new management strategies based on this evidence are to be implemented cost effectively, there is a need to introduce shared care between the primary and secondary care sectors to optimise use of resources and expertise. PMID:21265993

  14. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, David D; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH as a causal factor for prostate cancer development could improve the accuracy of prognostication and expedite intervention, potentially reducing the number of men who die from prostate cancer. PMID:23165396

  15. Alpha Blockers for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of alpha blocker therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has focused on improving convenience and tolerability. Indications for treating BPH include reversing signs and symptoms or preventing progression of the disease. The indication that most commonly drives the need for intervention is relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with the intent of improving quality of life. Alpha blockers are the most effective, least costly, and best tolerated of the drugs for relieving LUTS. Four long-acting alpha 1 blockers are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of symptomatic LUTS/BPH: terazosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and alfuzosin. All are well tolerated and have comparable dose-dependent effectiveness. Tamsulosin and alfuzosin SR do not require dose titration. Alfuzosin, terazosin, and doxazosin have all been shown to be effective in relieving LUTS/BPH independent of prostate size. PMID:18231614

  16. Economic issues and the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Holtgrewe, H L

    1995-09-01

    Enormous financial resources are expended worldwide on the treatment of the urologic complications and symptoms induced by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Even for its surgical management, where the best data exist, current international accounting of these expenditures remains very poorly documented. On February 8, 1994, the Department of Health and Human Services of the US government released clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of BPH. Imaging of the upper urinary tract as a routine diagnostic procedure is not recommended in these guidelines unless a comorbidity indicating its need exists. Diagnostic cystoscopy to assist in the decision of the need to treat is not recommended. Adherence to these two principles along with adherence to the strategies of management presented in the guidelines and discussed herein has the potential of achieving profound financial savings without impairing quality of care worldwide. PMID:7544513

  17. Congenital Blaschkoid Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia With Eosinophilia of the Anogenital Region.

    PubMed

    Su, Hai-Hui; Shan, Shi-Jun; Elston, Dirk M; Guo, Ying; Men, Jian-Long

    2016-04-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon, idiopathic vascular disorder. It manifests as dermal or subcutaneous red to brown papules or nodules, most commonly on the head and neck; other less common sites include the trunk, extremities, genitalia, lips, and oral mucosa. Although ALHE is a benign disease, lesions are often persistent and difficult to eradicate. ALHE occurs more frequently in Asian young and middle-aged women. Histologically, it is characterized by a florid vascular proliferation with hobnail epithelioid endothelial cells surrounding by lymphocytic and eosinophilic infiltrate. Here, we reported congenital ALHE in a 2-year-old girl. Unilateral lesions had a blaschkoid segmental distribution in the anogenital region and were successfully treated with the Nd:YAG laser. PMID:26863062

  18. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia developing within a port wine stain.

    PubMed

    Manton, Robert N; Itinteang, Tinte; de Jong, Sophie; Brasch, Helen D; Tan, Swee T

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old male with a port wine stain on the base of his neck presented with a 5-month history of gradual thickening of the involved skin which interfered with clothing and caused repeated bleeding. The lesion was excised and histopathologic examination revealed angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) arising from the pre-existing port wine stain - a rare finding with only one previously reported case. Additionally the lesion was associated with elevated serum renin levels which virtually normalized following excision of the lesion. We further demonstrated the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptors 1 and 2 by the lesion and discuss the possible role of the renin-angiotensin system in this condition. PMID:26010041

  19. Diagnosis and management of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Marumudi, Eunice; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Surana, Vineet; Shabir, Iram; Joseph, Angela; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2013-08-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is among the most common genetic disorders. Deficiency of adrenal steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene accounts for about 95% cases of CAH. This disorder manifests with androgen excess with or without salt wasting. It also is a potentially life threatening disorder; neonatal screening with 17-hydroxyprogesterone measurement can diagnose the condition in asymptomatic children. Carefully monitored therapy with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid supplementation will ensure optimal growth and development for children with CAH. Genital surgery may be required for girls with CAH. Continued care is required for individuals with CAH as adults to prevent long-term adverse consequences of the disease, including infertility, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. PMID:23624029

  20. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Longchamp, Alban; Allagnat, Florent; Alonso, Florian; Kuppler, Christopher; Dubuis, Céline; Ozaki, Charles-Keith; Mitchell, James R.; Berceli, Scott; Corpataux, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH). Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx) regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS) confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment. PMID:26398895

  1. Trends in Simple Prostatectomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pariser, Joseph J; Packiam, Vignesh T; Adamsky, Melanie A; Bales, Gregory T

    2016-08-01

    The definitive treatment for symptomatic large volume (>80 mL) benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is simple prostatectomy (SP). This can be performed by utilizing a retropubic, suprapubic, or a combined approach. The latter two approaches allow for the management of concomitant bladder diverticulum or stones through the same incision. Each approach affords unique technical strengths and weaknesses that must be considered in light of patient characteristics and concomitant pathology. SP allows for removal of the entire prostatic adenoma while obviating some of the neurovascular and continence issues that can arise from radical prostatectomy. Concerns with SP include its relatively high perioperative morbidity, notably bleeding. Therefore, there is increasing interest in less invasive options, including enucleation procedures and minimally invasive SP. This review presents an update regarding trends and outcomes of SP, as well as the effectiveness and popularity of alternative treatments. PMID:27294802

  2. Mandible condylar hyperplasia: a review of diagnosis and treatment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Olate, Sergio; Netto, Henrique Duque; Rodriguez-Chessa, Jaime; Alister, Juan Pablo; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose; de Moraes, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a bone disease characterized by the increased development of one mandibular condyle. It regularly presents as an active growth with facial asymmetry generally without pain. Statistically it affects more women in adolescence, although it does not discriminate by age or gender. Its best-known consequence is asymmetric facial deformity (AFD), which combined with alteration of the dental occlusion with unilateral crossbite or open bite. It is not known when CH begins and how long it lasts; diagnostic examinations are described and are efficient in some research about diagnosis. Protocol treatment is not well studie and depends on the criteria described in this paper. The aim of this research is to provide up-to-date information about the diagnosis of this disease and to analyze the treatment protocol, visualizing the CH and AFD presented. PMID:24179565

  3. Mandible condylar hyperplasia: a review of diagnosis and treatment protocol.

    PubMed

    Olate, Sergio; Netto, Henrique Duque; Rodriguez-Chessa, Jaime; Alister, Juan Pablo; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose; de Moraes, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a bone disease characterized by the increased development of one mandibular condyle. It regularly presents as an active growth with facial asymmetry generally without pain. Statistically it affects more women in adolescence, although it does not discriminate by age or gender. Its best-known consequence is asymmetric facial deformity (AFD), which combined with alteration of the dental occlusion with unilateral crossbite or open bite. It is not known when CH begins and how long it lasts; diagnostic examinations are described and are efficient in some research about diagnosis. Protocol treatment is not well studie and depends on the criteria described in this paper. The aim of this research is to provide up-to-date information about the diagnosis of this disease and to analyze the treatment protocol, visualizing the CH and AFD presented. PMID:24179565

  4. Bone Scintigraphy SPECT/CT Evaluation of Mandibular Condylar Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyun; Reed, Tameron; Longino, Becky H

    2016-03-01

    Mandibular condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a complex developmental deformity resulting in asymmetries of the hyperplastic condyle. Bone scan SPECT is a sensitive and accurate method of detecting the growth activity of this disorder. This method can be used to quantitate the radionuclide uptake differences between the left and right condyles. Uptake differences of 10% or more between the left and right condyles, with increased uptake ipsilateral to the CH, are considered to be evidence of active growing CH. Quantitative assessment of CH is important to select an appropriate treatment course. Degenerative arthropathies of the temporomandibular joints may result in altered uptake, but this is mostly associated with the side contralateral to the CH. The CT portion of SPECT/CT is useful to assess the condylar dimensions and underlying bony changes. PMID:26111714

  5. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Todd J; Manigault, Kendra R; McBurrows, Niesha N; Wray, Tiffany L; Woodard, Laresa M

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy, is a nonmalignant adenomatous overgrowth of the periurethral prostate gland commonly seen in aging men. Historically, it has been assumed that the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract symptoms in men is the result of bladder outlet obstruction associated with prostate enlargement. Symptoms such as urinary hesitancy, incomplete bladder emptying, dribbling or prolonged urination, nocturia, urinary urgency, and/or urge incontinence are common. Understanding the differential diagnosis and ordering appropriate laboratory tests are essential in accurately identifying a BPH diagnosis. Management can be broken down into medical or pharmacological and surgical therapies. This article aims to provide an overview of BPH and its management in older adults. PMID:27535076

  6. The Pain and Sleep Questionnaire three-item index (PSQ-3): A reliable and valid measure of the impact of pain on sleep in chronic nonmalignant pain of various etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Ayearst, Lindsay E; Harsanyi, Zoltan; Michalko, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is among the more common complaints reported by chronic pain patients. Because pain-related sleep disturbance may serve as a marker for the assessment of responses to treatment for chronic pain, inclusion of a measure designed to assess the impact of pain on sleep in clinical trial protocols is important, if not necessary. Measures typically used for this purpose lack scales specifically designed for the assessment of the impact of pain on sleep or are based on a single item. Single-item scales lack reliability and, therefore, validity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the psychometric properties of the five-item Pain and Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) Index, which is embedded in the eight-item inventory, by applying an accepted methodology using retrospective analyses in controlled clinical trials in which the measure had been administered among patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. METHODS: Data were pooled from nine independent, single-site, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials conducted over a period of approximately 10 years, the majority of which were cross-over designs. A cross-validation approach was adopted with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted to evaluate the underlying structure and dimensionality of the measure. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Mean score differences were used to assess the ability of the index to detect important treatment changes. Correlation coefficients were calculated between index scores and scores from other health-related outcome measures to evaluate the criterion validity of the index. Finally, predictive validity was assessed using multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Pooling the data resulted in a sample of 605 patients (65.5% female; mean age 55.7 years). Findings suggested a revised three-item PSQ Index (PSQ-3). The PSQ-3 demonstrated high internal consistency across samples (ranging from 0.82 to 0

  7. Arterial Levels of Oxygen Stimulate Intimal Hyperplasia in Human Saphenous Veins via a ROS-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Joddar, Binata; Firstenberg, Michael S.; Reen, Rashmeet K.; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Khan, Mahmood; Childers, Rachel C.; Zweier, Jay L.; Gooch, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous veins used as arterial grafts are exposed to arterial levels of oxygen partial pressure (pO2), which are much greater than what they experience in their native environment. The object of this study is to determine the impact of exposing human saphenous veins to arterial pO2. Saphenous veins and left internal mammary arteries from consenting patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were cultured ex vivo for 2 weeks in the presence of arterial or venous pO2 using an established organ culture model. Saphenous veins cultured with arterial pO2 developed intimal hyperplasia as evidenced by 2.8-fold greater intimal area and 5.8-fold increase in cell proliferation compared to those freshly isolated. Saphenous veins cultured at venous pO2 or internal mammary arteries cultured at arterial pO2 did not develop intimal hyperplasia. Intimal hyperplasia was accompanied by two markers of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS): increased dihydroethidium associated fluorescence (4-fold, p<0.05) and increased levels of the lipid peroxidation product, 4-hydroxynonenal (10-fold, p<0.05). A functional role of the increased ROS saphenous veins exposed to arterial pO2 is suggested by the observation that chronic exposure to tiron, a ROS scavenger, during the two-week culture period, blocked intimal hyperplasia. Electron paramagnetic resonance based oximetry revealed that the pO2 in the wall of the vessel tracked that of the atmosphere with a ~30 mmHg offset, thus the cells in the vessel wall were directly exposed to variations in pO2. Monolayer cultures of smooth muscle cells isolated from saphenous veins exhibited increased proliferation when exposed to arterial pO2 relative to those cultured at venous pO2. This increased proliferation was blocked by tiron. Taken together, these data suggest that exposure of human SV to arterial pO2 stimulates IH via a ROS-dependent pathway. PMID:25799140

  8. Nerve hyperplasia: a unique feature of ketamine cystitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an emerging association between ketamine abuse and the development of urological symptoms including dysuria, frequency and urgency, which have a neurological component. In addition, extreme cases are associated with severe unresolving bladder pain in conjunction with a thickened, contracted bladder and an ulcerated/absent urothelium. Here we report on unusual neuropathological features seen by immunohistology in ketamine cystitis. Results In all cases, the lamina propria was replete with fine neurofilament protein (NFP+) nerve fibres and in most patients (20/21), there was prominent peripheral nerve fascicle hyperplasia that showed particular resemblance to Morton’s neuroma. The nerve fascicles, which were positive for NFP, S100 and the p75 low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), were generally associated with a well-developed and in places, prominent, epithelial membrane antigen+/NGFR+ perineurium. This peripheral nerve fascicle hyperplasia is likely to account for the extreme pain experienced by ketamine cystitis patients. Urothelial damage was a notable feature of all ketamine cystitis specimens and where urothelium remained, increased NGFR expression was observed, with expansion from a basal-restricted normal pattern of expression into the suprabasal urothelium. Conclusions The histological findings were distinguishing features of ketamine cystitis and were not present in other painful bladder conditions. Ketamine cystitis afflicts predominantly young patients, with unknown long-term consequences, and requires a strategy to control severe bladder pain in order to remove a dependency on the causative agent. Our study indicates that the development of pain in ketamine cystitis is mediated through a specific neurogenic mechanism that may also implicate the urothelium. PMID:24252413

  9. From hyperplasia to frank breast neoplasia. Carcinogenesis. Immunoprevention.

    PubMed

    Corocleanu, M

    1995-01-01

    There is strong evidence that in advanced cases of breast fibrocystic disease, the risk of cancer is elevated. Cyclic breast glandular hyperplasia is commonly associated with mastodynia and/or breast fibrocystic disease. The administration of progestins, antiestrogens and/or local progesteron, results in some cases in a desensibilisation, accompanied by loss in responsiveness to hormonal therapy. Out of 167 patients (pts) suffering from mastodynia and/or breast fibrocystic disease with positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTHS) reactions to a pharmaceutical Placenta Suspension (PS), when injected intradermally, in 87 pts. who failed to respond to hormonal therapy, a vaccine preparade from PS admixed with an adjuvant (BCG), was administrated in one intradermal injection (0.1). In all the pts. recruited into the study, a complete remission of the symptoms occurred and in the majority of cases lasted throughout the 12 month follow-up period. The essential factor of relative hyper-estrinism, initiates breast epithelial hyperplasia and also increases stromal ground substance, which has the propensity to fibrous reorganisation. A true or relative hypoxia results, as a consequence of connective tissue sclerosis and epithelial thickness, constituting a supplementary factor for further epithelial proliferation. The risk of gene faults is greater when hypoxia operates at cell viability level and for long enough duration. Within the frame of persistent multicellular proliferative potential, a basic shift in energy metabolism is accompanied by appearance of fetal isoenzymes and of membrane glycoproteins, that induces a host immunological reaction (emphasised by PS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7556289

  10. Impact of baseline and nadir neutrophil index in non-small cell lung cancer and ovarian cancer patients: Assessment of chemotherapy for resolution of unfavourable neutrophilia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    . poor P = 0.02). Interestingly, survival rates in the intermediate NI groups indicated that individualised dose of chemotherapy to induce neutropenia may partly overcome the negative impact of elevated baseline neutrophils. Conclusions A neutrophil index comprising elevated baseline neutrophils and absence of neutropenia identified a high risk group of NSCLC and ovarian cancer patients with only modest effect of chemotherapy. New treatment options for this subset of patients are required. PMID:23945200

  11. The impact of ethnicity/race on the association between the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index and neurocognitive function among HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Marquine, M J; Sakamoto, M; Dufour, C; Rooney, A; Fazeli, P; Umlauf, A; Gouaux, B; Franklin, D; Ellis, R; Letendre, S; Cherner, M; Heaton, R K; Grant, I; Moore, D J

    2016-08-01

    The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index was developed as a risk index for health outcomes in HIV, and it has been consistently associated with mortality. It shows a significant, yet relatively weak, association with neurocognitive impairment, and little is known about its utility among ethnic/racial minority groups. We examined whether the association between the VACS Index and neurocognition differed by ethnic/racial group. Participants included 674 HIV-infected individuals (369 non-Hispanic whites, 111 non-Hispanic blacks, and 194 Hispanics). Neurocognitive function was assessed via a comprehensive battery. Scaled scores for each neurocognitive test were averaged to calculate domain and global neurocognitive scores. Models adjusting for demographics and HIV disease characteristics not included in the VACS Index showed that higher VACS Index scores (indicating poorer health) were significantly associated with worse global neurocognition among non-Hispanic whites. This association was comparable in non-Hispanic blacks, but nonsignificant among Hispanics (with similar results for English and Spanish speaking). We obtained comparable findings in analyses adjusting for other covariates (psychiatric and medical comorbidities and lifestyle factors). Analyses of individual neurocognitive domains showed similar results in learning and delayed recall. For other domains, there was an effect of the VACS Index and no significant interactions with race/ethnicity. Different components of the VACS Index were associated with global neurocognition by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, the association between the VACS Index and neurocognitive function differs by ethnic/racial group. Identifying key indicators of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment by ethnic/racial group might play an important role in furthering our understanding of the biomarkers of neuroAIDS. PMID:26679535

  12. Nitrogen Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to improve the management of nitrogen inputs to agricultural systems because they increase the potential for losses of reactive nitrogen to the environment, resulting in negative impacts to water and air resources. There is a need to reduce nitrate leaching, emissions of N2O from agr...

  13. Expert system support using a Bayesian belief network for the classification of endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Morrison, M L; McCluggage, W G; Price, G J; Diamond, J; Sheeran, M R M; Mulholland, K M; Walsh, M Y; Montironi, R; Bartels, P H; Thompson, D; Hamilton, P W

    2002-07-01

    Accurate morphological classification of endometrial hyperplasia is crucial as treatments vary widely between the different categories of hyperplasia and are dependent, in part, on the histological diagnosis. However, previous studies have shown considerable inter-observer variation in the classification of endometrial hyperplasias. The aim of this study was to develop a decision support system (DSS) for the classification of endometrial hyperplasias. The system used a Bayesian belief network to distinguish proliferative endometrium, simple hyperplasia, complex hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia and grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma. These diagnostic outcomes were held in the decision node. Four morphological features were selected as diagnostic clues used routinely in the discrimination of endometrial hyperplasias. These represented the evidence nodes and were linked to the decision node by conditional probability matrices. The system was designed with a computer user interface (CytoInform) where reference images for a given clue were displayed to assist the pathologist in entering evidence into the network. Reproducibility of diagnostic classification was tested on 50 cases chosen by a gynaecological pathologist. These comprised ten cases each of proliferative endometrium, simple hyperplasia, complex hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia and grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The DSS was tested by two consultant pathologists, two junior pathologists and two medical students. Intra- and inter-observer agreement was calculated following conventional histological examination of the slides on two occasions by the consultants and junior pathologists without the use of the DSS. All six participants then assessed the slides using the expert system on two occasions, enabling inter- and intra-observer agreement to be calculated. Using unaided conventional diagnosis, weighted kappa values for intra-observer agreement ranged from 0.645 to 0.901. Using the DSS, the results

  14. Prostate hyperplasia caused by long-term obesity is characterized by high deposition of extracellular matrix and increased content of MMP-9 and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Silva, Silas Amâncio; Gobbo, Marina Guimarães; Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Rafacho, Alex; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Góes, Rejane Maira; Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown a positive association of cancer and obesity, but the morphological and molecular mechanisms involved in this relationship are still unknown. This study analysed the impact of long-term obesity on rat prostate, focusing on stromal changes. Male adult Wistar rats were treated with high-fat diet to induce obesity, while the control group received a balanced diet. After 30 weeks of feeding, the ventral prostate was analysed by immunohistochemistry for cell proliferation, smooth muscle α-actin, vimentin, chondroitin sulphate and metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and 9). The content of androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptors (ERs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured by Western blotting, and activity of catalase and Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) were quantified by enzymatic assay. Long-term obesity decreased testosterone plasma levels by 70% and resulted in stromal prostate hyperplasia, as evidenced by increased collagen fibres. Such stromal hyperplasia was associated with increased number of blood vessels and raised VEGF content, and increased expression of chondroitin sulphate, vimentin, α-actin and MMP-9. In spite of the high cell density in prostate, the proliferative activity was lower in the prostates of obese rats, indicating that hyperplasia was established during the early phases in this obesity model. AR levels increased significantly, whereas the ERα decreased in this group. Moreover, the levels of catalase and GST were changed considerably. These findings indicate that long-term obesity, besides disturbing the antioxidant control, causes intense stromal remodelling and release of factors that create an environment that can promote proliferative disorders in the gland, culminating with diffuse hyperplasia. PMID:25529509

  15. High condylectomy procedure: a valuable resource for surgical management of the mandibular condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Santos, Darklilson; De Melo, Willian Morais; Souza, Francisley Avila; de Moura, Walter Leal; Cravinhos, Julio César de Paulo

    2013-07-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is an overdevelopment of the condyle, which may manifest unilaterally or bilaterally. This pathological condition can lead to facial asymmetry, malocclusion, and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint. The etiology and pathogenesis of condylar hyperplasia remain uncertain, but it has been suggested that its etiology may be associated with hormonal factors, trauma, and hereditary hypervascularity, affecting both genders. The diagnosis is made by clinical examination, and radiological imaging, and additionally, bone scintigraphy, is a fundamental resource for determining whether the affected condyle shows active growth. Patients with active condylar hyperplasia management have better results when they are subjected to the high condylectomy procedure. The authors report a case in a 20-year-old female subject with unilateral active condylar hyperplasia who was treated by high condylectomy. The patient has been followed up for 4 years without signs of recurrence and with good functional stability of the occlusion. PMID:23851829

  16. Genetics Home Reference: congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intersex Society of North America MalaCards: adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency March of Dimes: Genital and Urinary Tract Defects Merck Manual Consumer Version: The Body's Control ...

  17. Prevalence of Co-existing Endometrial Carcinoma in Patients with Preoperative Diagnosis of Endometrial Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kadirogullari, Pinar; Atalay, Cemal Resat; Sari, Mustafa Erkan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia has been associated with the presence of concomitant endometrial carcinoma. In this study, patients who were diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia and had hysterectomy, determination of the incidence of endometrial cancer accompanying postoperatively and clinical parameters associated with cancer are aimed. Materials and Methods Endometrial biopsies were taken from patients for various reasons and among them 158 patients diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia from pathologic examination results were retrospectively evaluated. All of the patient’s age, parity, weight, transvaginal ultrasound measured by endometrial thickness, concomitant systemic disease (diabetes, hypertension, hypothyroidism), tamoxifen use, hormone use and whether in reproductive age or menopause were all questioned. Patients who applied with endometrial cancer, their cervical stromal involvement, lymph node involvement, cytology positivity and omental metastases were examined. Patients were classified according to their stage and grade. Patients who had intraoperative frozen were re-evaluated. Results Fifteen cases with preoperative endometrial hyperplasia diagnosed with endometrial cancer postoperatively, 2 cases had complex hyperplasia without atypia and 13 cases had complex atypical hyperplasia. The rate of preoperative hyperplasia with postoperative endometrial cancer was found to be 10.8% where by 15 cases of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer postoperatively 11 cases were in postmenopausal period. In patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer according to their histologic types 14 cases had endometrioid adenocarcinoma while one patient with preoperative complex hyperplasia without atypia was diagnosed with serous papillary carcinoma postoperatively. Evaluation of stages in patients diagnosed with cancer, 7 cases of patients had stage IA, 7 cases of patients had stage IB, and 7 cases cases of patients with serous papillary carcinoma were

  18. Medications and surgical interventions for benign prostatic hyperplasia are potential confounders of prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Modi, Parth; Helfand, Brian T; McVary, Kevin T

    2010-07-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most widely used marker for prostate cancer (CaP) screening and monitoring benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. However, lack of an established abnormal threshold and the presence of other benign processes confound the interpretation of PSA levels. Many factors besides inflammation, trauma, and instrumentation can influence PSA levels; specifically, BPH and its associated medical and surgical therapies frequently complicate the interpretation of this serum blood test. For example, the commonly used 5 alpha reductase inhibitor (5ARI) medications directly affect PSA levels by decreasing prostate volume. The amount of time and potentially even the 5ARI formulary a patient is administered has been implicated to directly impact the degree of reduction in PSA (a proxy for prostate volume). In addition, each of the currently available surgical procedures for BPH appears to remove varying amounts of prostatic adenoma. This directly confounds CaP screening because each procedure is associated with a relatively specific postoperative nadir PSA level, and PSA kinetics are not well described in the literature. Taken together, it is important for clinicians to comprehend that BPH and its associated medical and surgical interventions should directly influence their interpretation of PSA and PSA velocity when screening for CaP or following BPH progression. PMID:20467844

  19. The potential for NX-1207 in benign prostatic hyperplasia: an update for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Barrett

    2011-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affect many older men and can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. BPH is a progressive condition that may lead to complications including acute urinary retention. There exists an unmet need for a safe and effective, office-based, catheter-free therapy for BPH patients. NX-1207 is a promising first-in-class drug currently in phase III trials for the treatment of BPH. This review provides an overview of the NX-1207 trial program and considers its potential application for patients with symptoms related to BPH. NX-1207 is administered as an office-based procedure by transrectal intraprostatic injection under ultrasound guidance. NX-1207 has selective pro-apoptotic properties, which induce focal cell loss in prostate tissue, leading to prostate volume reduction with both short- and long-term symptomatic improvement. In four US clinical trials to date, NX-1207 has shown evidence of symptomatic improvement substantially better than currently approved BPH medications with no significant safety issues. Larger phase III trials are ongoing to confirm further the efficacy, safety, and tolerability for this minimally invasive, anesthetic-free, clinic-based treatment for BPH. PMID:23251763

  20. Fixed-dose combination therapy with dutasteride and tamsulosin in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Dimitropoulos, Konstantinos; Gravas, Stavros

    2016-02-01

    Despite their multifactorial etiology, male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have been traditionally associated with benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) because of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Several pharmaceutical therapies have been used to manage LUTS, with α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists (α1-blockers) and inhibitors of 5α-reductase (5α-RIs) representing the most commonly prescribed agents currently in use for LUTS treatment. Due to their different modes of action, combined use of α1-blockers and 5α-RIs has been proven to offer more optimal control of symptoms and better associated quality of life, even though higher rates of adverse events have been shown. Following previous studies on the separate administration of dutasteride and tamsulosin, a fixed-dose combination capsule of tamsulosin 0.4 mg and dutasteride 0.5 mg has been approved and released for clinical use in men with BPH. The present review aims to discuss the rationale behind the combined use of tamsulosin and dutasteride for treating male LUTS, and to present the available data on the role of combination therapy in the management of BPH-related symptoms in terms of efficacy and safety. Special attention is given to the impact of combination treatment on the prevention of clinical progression of BPH. Cost-effectiveness of fixed-dose combination and patients' adherence to treatment are also discussed. PMID:26834837

  1. Long-term outcome of prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Lajic, Svetlana; Nordenström, Anna; Hirvikoski, Tatja

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with dexamethasone to minimize the genital virilization of external genitalia of affected girls has been in use since the mid-1980s. The positive effect of reducing virilization is now established. However, experimental data from animal studies and observations on adverse medical events in human newborns have raised concerns about the long-term safety of the treatment. Most animal studies on prenatal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids have been designed to mimic treatment for lung maturation in preterm infants. The primary focus has been on a possible impact on fetal programming and the development of the metabolic syndrome with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and high blood pressure. Altered reactivity to stress as a function of differences in reactivity of the HPA axis and glucocorticoid receptor function have been assayed. Effects on cognition, especially memory, have been observed. In children at risk for CAH and treated prenatally with dexamethasone, no overall effects on full-scale IQ have been observed, but a negative effect on verbal working memory has been reported. Contradictory effects on social behavior with respect to shyness and inhibition have been discussed. There is an urgent need for in-depth studies of long-term outcome in prenatal treatment of CAH regarding both maternal side effects and possible negative metabolic as well as cognitive and behavioral effects in the growing fetus and the child in her development into adulthood. PMID:18493135

  2. Fixed-dose combination therapy with dutasteride and tamsulosin in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dimitropoulos, Konstantinos; Gravas, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    Despite their multifactorial etiology, male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have been traditionally associated with benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) because of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Several pharmaceutical therapies have been used to manage LUTS, with α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists (α1-blockers) and inhibitors of 5α-reductase (5α-RIs) representing the most commonly prescribed agents currently in use for LUTS treatment. Due to their different modes of action, combined use of α1-blockers and 5α-RIs has been proven to offer more optimal control of symptoms and better associated quality of life, even though higher rates of adverse events have been shown. Following previous studies on the separate administration of dutasteride and tamsulosin, a fixed-dose combination capsule of tamsulosin 0.4 mg and dutasteride 0.5 mg has been approved and released for clinical use in men with BPH. The present review aims to discuss the rationale behind the combined use of tamsulosin and dutasteride for treating male LUTS, and to present the available data on the role of combination therapy in the management of BPH-related symptoms in terms of efficacy and safety. Special attention is given to the impact of combination treatment on the prevention of clinical progression of BPH. Cost-effectiveness of fixed-dose combination and patients’ adherence to treatment are also discussed. PMID:26834837

  3. Abnormal differentiation, hyperplasia and embryonic/perinatal lethality in BK5-T/t transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Schneider-Broussard, Robin; Hollowell, Debra; McArthur, Mark; Jeter, Collene R.; Benavides, Fernando; DiGiovanni, John; Tang, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    The cell-of-origin has a great impact on the types of tumors that develop and the stem/progenitor cells have long been considered main targets of malignant transformation. The SV40 large T and small t antigens (T/t), have been targeted to multiple differentiated cellular compartments in transgenic mice. In most of these studies, transgenic animals develop tumors without apparent defects in animal development. In this study, we used the bovine keratin 5 (BK5) promoter to target the T/t antigens to stem/progenitor cell-containing cytokeratin 5 (CK5) cellular compartment. A transgene construct, BK5-T/t, was made and microinjected into the male pronucleus of FVB/N mouse oocytes. After implanting ∼1700 embryos, only 7 transgenics were obtained, including 4 embryos (E9.5, E13, E15, and E20) and 3 postnatal animals, which died at P1, P2, and P18, respectively. Immunohistological analysis revealed aberrant differentiation and prominent hyperplasia in several transgenic CK5 tissues, especially the upper digestive organs (tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus, and forestomach) and epidermis, the latter of which also showed focal dysplasia. Altogether, these results indicate that constitutive expression of the T/t antigens in CK5 cellular compartment results in abnormal epithelial differentiation and leads to embryonic/perinatal animal lethality. PMID:19272531

  4. Diffuse Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia with Obliterative Bronchiolitis and Usual Interstitial Pneumonia: An Unusual "Headcheese Pattern" with Nodules.

    PubMed

    Pietrangeli, V; Piciucchi, S; Tomassetti, S; Ravaglia, C; Gurioli, C; Gurioli, Ch; Cavazza, A; Dubini, A; Poletti, V

    2015-12-01

    A 74-year-old non-smoker female presented to our attention with a history of dyspnea and cough. CT scan revealed multiple areas of patchy ground glass attenuation associated to a diffuse mosaic oligoemia. Scattered bilateral subcentimetric pulmonary nodules were also present. Patient underwent a surgical lung biopsy. Specimens showed features of diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia, microhoneycombing, fibroblast foci. A final diagnosis of diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia with obliterative bronchiolitis and UIP was rendered. PMID:26446675

  5. Solitary Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia in a 12-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Moran; Lee, Yang-Haeng; Kim, Bomi; Yoon, Young Chul; Wi, Jin Hong

    2016-01-01

    Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia is a premalignant lesion reflecting a focal proliferation of atypical cells. These lesions are usually observed as incidental findings in lungs that have been resected due to other conditions, such as lung cancer. We report the youngest case of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia on record in a 12-year-old girl. In this patient, the lesion was found in association with pneumothorax. PMID:27065090

  6. The cancer marker neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is highly expressed in human endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chi-Jr; Huang, Yen Hua; Au, Heng-Kien; Wang, Le-Ming; Chu, Sin-Tak

    2012-02-01

    Recently, endometrial hyperplasia was identified as presenting a higher risk for progressing to endometrial carcinoma more readily than adenomyosis. The Lcn-2 gene encodes neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), which promotes cell proliferation and serves as a cancer marker in some cancers. In our current study, we investigated the relationship between the expression of NGAL and that of pathogenic cytokines and cancer-related genes including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), E-cadherin, β-catenin, and vimentin in patients with endometrial disorders. NGAL expression was examined by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in hyperplasia and adenomyosis biopsy samples. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the occurrence of NGAL in glandular epithelial cells but not in the stromal cells of hyperplasia biopsy samples. NGAL protein and mRNA expression were significantly greater in endometrial hyperplasia than in endometrial adenomyosis. Although our data showed no difference in pathogenic cytokines between patients with endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenomyosis, we observed high expression levels of COX-2, β-catenin, vimentin, and E-cadherin in patients with endometrial hyperplasia. NGAL mRNA expression correlated positively with COX-2 and E-cadherin mRNA expression (r = 0.41 and r = 0.57, respectively), but correlated negatively with vimentin and β-catenin mRNA expression (r = -0.42 and r = -0.61, respectively). Our data suggest that NGAL is up-regulated in patients with endometrial hyperplasia to prevent the transition from hyperplasia to carcinoma. PMID:21573795

  7. Predictive diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia and personalized therapeutic strategy in women of fertile age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia has a high risk for malignant transformation and relapses; existing mini-invasive treatments may lead to irrevocable endometrium destruction. The aims were to analyze receptor systems in endometrial hyperplasia, to evaluate the capabilities of ultrasonography, sonoelastography for diagnosis and treatment control, and to develop treatment algorithm. Materials and methods We included 313 women (20–45 years), assessed into the following: group 1 (n = 112) with glandular cystic hyperplasia, group 2 (n = 98) endometrial polyps, and group 3 (n = 103) atypical hyperplasia; and 82 controls who have undergone hysteroscopy before in vitro fertilization in tubal origin infertility were also included. Patients underwent clinical examination, transvaginal ultrasound, immunohistochemical study, and hormonal therapy/hysteroresectoscopy. Results In patients with glandular hyperplasia, we registered increase of endometrium estrogen receptors (75.6% in the epithelium and 30.9% in the stroma; in controls, 43.3% and 29.6%, respectively); in polyps, there was a significant estrogen receptor increase in the stroma (48.2% vs 29.6% in controls), and in atypical hyperplasia, progesterone receptors significantly increased in the stroma. Ki-67 increased (40% to 50%) in the epithelium without changes in the stroma. Ultrasound has a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 85% for early detection of endometrial pathology and prediction outcome of intervention, and sonoelastography has a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 83% for polyp diagnosis. Personalized treatment was effective in 88.8%, relapse was diagnosed in 11.2% after 6 months, and conservative treatment of atypical hyperplasia was effective in 45%: in 25.8%, ablative hysteroresectoscopy was performed, while in 22.6% with comorbidities, hystero/oophorectomies were performed. Conclusions The evaluation of receptor status with ultrasound data in patients with endometrial

  8. Giant prostatic hyperplasia: report of a previously asymptomatic man presenting with gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock

    PubMed Central

    Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Carneiro, Ariê; Tristão, Rodrigo Alves; Sakuramoto, Paulo Kouiti; Youssef, Jorg Daoud Merched; Lopes, Antonio Correa; Santiago, Lucila Heloísa Simardi; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2015-01-01

    Giant prostatic hyperplasia is a rare condition characterized by very high volume benign prostatic enlargement (>500g). Few cases have been reported so far and most of them are associated with severe lower urinary symptoms. We report the first case of asymptomatic giant prostatic hyperplasia in an elderly man who had a 720g prostate adenoma, sudden gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock. The patient was successfully treated with open transvesical prostatectomy and had an uneventful postoperative recovery. PMID:26132361

  9. Uterine blood flow evaluation in bitches suffering from cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and CEH-pyometra complex.

    PubMed

    Batista, P R; Gobello, C; Rube, A; Corrada, Y A; Tórtora, M; Blanco, P G

    2016-04-15

    Doppler ultrasound is a useful diagnosis tool to evaluate uterine blood flow in different canine reproductive states. The aim of this study was to describe and compare uterine blood flow in bitches suffering from cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and CEH-pyometra complex (CEH-P). Ninety diestrous bitches were clinically, hematologically, and ultrasonographically classified into four groups: (1) clinical signs, leukocytosis, CEH, and uterine luminal contents (CEH-P, n = 31); (2) asymptomatic bitches with CEH and uterine contents (CEH-C, n = 15); (3) asymptomatic bitches with CEH without uterine contents (CEH, n = 16); and (4) normal diestrous bitches (ND, n = 28). The widest cross-sectional diameter and uterine wall thickness (W) of uterine horns were measured using two-dimensional ultrasound. Peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity of uterine arteries were measured by Doppler ultrasound in all the bitches. Peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity were higher in CEH-P than in CEH-C, CEH, and ND (P < 0.01); although both parameters did not show differences among the latter three groups (P > 0.1). Conversely, resistance index (RI) reported lower values in CEH-P than that in the other three groups (P < 0.01), being ND higher (P < 0.01) than both CEH-C and CEH which did not differ between themselves (P > 0.1). When all the bitches were considered, correlation between RI and cross-sectional diameter was r = -0.69 (P < 0.01) and between RI and uterine wall thickness was r = -0.02 (P > 0.1). It is concluded that the uterine artery blood flow velocity of bitches suffering from pyometra was higher, not only from normal bitches, but also from females with endometrial hyperplasia. Furthermore, endometrial hyperplasia, accompanied or not by luminal contents, had a higher blood flow velocity than normal uterus. Hemodynamic parameters appear as useful markers to differentiate uterine pathologic conditions. PMID:26810829

  10. Impact of wind erosion on detecting active tectonics from geomorphic indexes in extremely arid areas: a case study from the Hero Range, Qaidam Basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lei; Xiao, Ancheng; Yang, Shufeng

    2014-11-01

    Geomorphologic analysis has been used widely to detect active tectonics in regions where fluvial incision is the major erosional process. In this paper, however, we assess the feasibility of utilizing these frequently-used geomorphic indexes (e.g., hypsometric curves, longitudinal channel profiles, normalized stream length-gradient (SLK) index) to determine active tectonics in extremely arid areas where wind erosion also plays an important role. The case study is developed on the Hero Range in the western Qaidam Basin, one of the driest regions on Earth with severe wind erosion since late Pliocene. The result shows that in the west and south sectors, as well as the western part of the east sector, of the Hero Range where fluvial incision prevails, these geomorphic indexes are good indicators of active faulting and consistent with the geological result based on study of fault traces, scarps, faulted Holocene fans and historical seismicity within the past four decades. In contrast, along the northeastern margin (the NE and the SE parts of the east sector) of the range where wind erosion is also important, the results from the geomorphic indexes show quite active tectonics, contrary with the geological evidence favoring weakly active tectonics. Moreover, the positive SLK anomaly lies oblique to the fault trace and the anticline axis but parallel to the wind direction. To reconcile the contradiction, we propose that wind erosion caused by northwestern winds has a tendency to make geomorphic indexes exhibit anomalous values that indicate higher activities, by way of (1) lowering the base-level to generate knickpoints on the longitudinal channel profiles and therefore positive SLK anomalies, and (2) lateral erosion of the mountain front making the hypsometric curves and even the longitudinal channel profiles more convex, and producing obvious slope breaks.

  11. Micro and bulk analysis of prostate tissues classified as hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, W. M.; Banaś, A.; Banaś, K.; Cinque, G.; Dyduch, G.; Falkenberg, G.; Kisiel, A.; Marcelli, A.; Podgórczyk, M.

    2007-07-01

    BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) is the most common benign neoplasm (non cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland), whose prevalence increases with age. The gland, when increased in size, exerts pressure on the urethra, causing obstruction to urine flow. The latter may result in severe urinary tract and kidney conditions. In this work prostate samples from patients diagnosed with BPH were analyzed using synchrotron radiation. Micro-analysis of the hyperplastic samples was carried out on the L-beam line at HASYLAB, DESY (Germany), while bulk analysis on selected samples was performed at the DRX2 beamline at LNF, Frascati (Italy). Microanalysis with a mono-energetic beam 15 μm in diameter confirmed that concentrations of certain elements, such as S, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn, are good indicators of pathological disorders in prostate tissue that may be considered effective tracers of developing compliant. The concentrations of Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn are higher in hyperplastic tissues, as compared to normal ones, while for sulphur the opposite is observed. Additionally, Fe and S K-edge XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy experiments were carried out in order to determine the chemical speciation of these elements in our samples.

  12. Role of laser therapy in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Riese, Werner T.; Sharpe, Brent A.; Aronoff, David B.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.

    2001-05-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in males older than 50 years of age. 75-80% of this population is considered to have some degree of BPH causing clinical symptoms and requiring urological treatment. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) is currently the standard surgical treatment modality for BPH. In an attempt to minimize the need for hospitalization and the associated perioperative and postoperative morbidity, alternatives have been sought. Various types of laser techniques such as interstitial laser coagulation and side-firing technology have been proposed. Numerous studies have shown that laser procedures safely and effectively reduce the volume of the prostate. Intra- and postoperative bleeding are nearly unknown complications for laser procedures, whereas this is the most relevant complication for the TUR-P. Due to significant tissue edema after laser treatment, patients commonly show delayed time to void adequately and, therefore, catheter drainage is often necessary for 3 to 21 days. Retrograde ejaculation is reported to occur less (0- 10%) compared to TUR-P (greater than 60%). Urinary tract infections are very common after interstitial laser coagulation. Although not many long-term clinical data are available, various studies have shown that BPH patients improve in symptom score, flow rate and post-void residual up to 3 years after laser treatment. This paper presents a concise review of efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of the most frequently used laser techniques as well as the long-term clinical data compared to TUR-P.

  13. What do we know about phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Allkanjari, Olta; Vitalone, Annabella

    2015-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common urological diseases in aging men. Because of its long latency, BPH is a good target for prevention. The aim of the study has been to review the various options of treatment, currently available, in the field of phytotherapy. Watchful waiting, pharmacological therapy, and surgery are also helpful, depending on the severity of the disease. Although drug therapy (alpha1-blockers, 5alpha-reductase inhibitors) and surgery (prostatectomy, transurethral resection, etc.) seem to be most effective for patients with moderate-severe BPH, herbal medicines (i.e., Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica) are also commonly used in patients with mild-moderate symptoms. On the basis of preclinical studies several mechanisms of action have been postulated, including 5alpha-reductase inhibition, alpha-adrenergic antagonism, dihydrotestosterone and estrogen receptor inhibition. Randomized clinical trials indicate significant efficacy in improving urinary symptoms and mild adverse effects for some phytotherapeutic agents, while further clinical evidence is needed for others (e.g., Epilobium spp., Secale cereale, Roystonea regia). Healthcare professionals should be constantly informed about BPH phytotherapy, taking into account the risk/benefit profile of the use of medicinal plants in the management of BPH. PMID:25703069

  14. Approach to the Patient: The Adult With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). When the nonclassical (mild) form is included, 21OHD is the most common genetic disease in human beings. With the advent of pharmaceutical preparation of glucocorticoids starting in the 1960s and newborn screening starting in the 1990s, the majority of children with 21OHD are reaching adulthood, which has yielded a cohort of patients with, in essence, a new disease. Only recently have some data emerged from cohorts of adults with 21OHD, and in some centers, experience with the management of these patients is growing. These patients suffer from poor health, infertility, characteristic tumors in the adrenal glands and gonads, and consequences of chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Their care is fragmented and inconsistent, and many stop taking their medications out of frustration. Internal medicine residents and endocrinology fellows receive little training in their care, which further discourages their seeking medical attention. Adults with 21OHD have a different physiology from patients with Addison's disease or other androgen excess states, and their needs are different than those of young children with 21OHD. Consequently, their care requires unorthodox treatment and monitoring strategies foreign to most endocrine practitioners. Our goal for this article is to review their physiology, complications, and needs in order to develop rational and effective treatment and monitoring strategies. PMID:23837188

  15. [Lymphoepithelial sialadenitis (LESA)-like Thymic hyperplasia: A case report].

    PubMed

    Arndt, Börge; Gaiser, Timo; Marx, Alexander; Rieger, Christina

    2016-07-01

    A 43-year-old man was admitted to this hospital because of shortness of breath and chest pain. The patient had a history of cardiac surgery at the age of seven (due to a congenital heart defect), and of intracerebral bleeding which had occurred at the age of 23. There was no history of autoimmune disorders. Computed tomography revealed a well-circumscribed anterior mediastinal mass, measuring 4 × 3 × 3 cm with calcification and cystic components. Therefore a malignant tumor was suspected for which a thymectomy was performed. Histopathological evaluation revealed an unusual type of thymic hyperplasia strongly resembling lymphoepithelial sialadenitis (LESA) of the salivary glands. A CT scan of the neck, thorax and abdomen for staging did not display lymphadenopathy or splenomegaly. The laboratory tests revealed no abnormality. Clinical, there were no signs of lymphoma. Actually, the patient is in our aftercare. Taken together, lymphoepithelial sialadentis of the thymus is a very rare disorder and was first described in 2012. This disorder seems to be benigne and no other treatment is needed after thymectomy. PMID:27404934

  16. Suppression of benign prostate hyperplasia by Kaempferia parviflora rhizome

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Kazuya; Hayashi, Hirotaka; Matsumura, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Kaempferia parviflora rhizome is used as a folk medicine in Thailand for the treatment of various symptoms. In the present study, the inhibitory activities of extract from K. parviflora rhizome against 5α-reductase (5αR) were subjected. Furthermore, the effects of the extract from K. parviflorar hizome in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were studied using the model mice. Materials and Methods: Preparations of extracts from the rhizomes of K. parviflora, Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber officinale, and methoxyflavones isolated from K. parviflora was used for 5αR inhibition assay. The effects of K. parviflora extract on growth suppression for the prostates and seminal vesicles were performed based on the Hershberger's method. The K. parviflora extract was administered to castrated mice for 14 days. Results: K. parviflora extract showed more potent inhibitory activity on 5αR than C. zedoaria and Z. officinale extracts. The active principles were identified as 3,5,7,3’,4’-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,7,3’,4’-tetramethoxyflavone by activity guided fractionation. Furthermore, K. parviflora extract suppressed the weights of prostates and seminal vesicles in BPH model rats by daily administration for 14 days. Conclusion: These results indicate that K. parviflora extract can be a promising agent for the treatment of BPH. PMID:24174827

  17. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vineet V.; Pritti, Kumari; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed during puberty. The diagnosis of mosaic Turner could not explain the virilization. Therefore, we repeated the karyotype, which revealed 46, XX in more than 100 metaphases and was sufficient to exclude mosaicism. Furthermore, the endocrinological evaluation revealed high testosterone level with a normal 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP). The presence of pubertal onset virilization with a karyotype of 46, XX and raised testosterone level with normal 17-OHP level, raised the suspicion of NCAH for which adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was done which confirmed the diagnosis of NCAH. PMID:26751945

  18. Prostate brachytherapy in patients with median lobe hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wallner, K; Smathers, S; Sutlief, S; Corman, J; Ellis, W

    2000-06-20

    Our aim was to document the technical and clinical course of prostate brachytherapy patients with radiographic evidence of median lobe hyperplasia (MLH). Eight patients with MLH were identified during our routine brachytherapy practice, representing 9% of the 87 brachytherapy patients treated during a 6-month period. No effort was made to avoid brachytherapy in patients noted to have MLH on diagnostic work-up. Cystoscopic evaluation was not routinely performed. Postimplant axial computed tomographic (CT) images of the prostate were obtained at 0.5 cm intervals. Preimplant urinary obstructive symptoms were quantified by the criteria of the American Urologic Association (AUA). Each patient was contacted during the writing of this report to update postimplant morbidity information. There was no apparent association between the degree of MLH and preimplant prostate volume or AUA score. Intraoperatively, we were able to visualize MLH by transrectal ultrasound and did not notice any particular difficulty placing sources in the MLH tissue or migration of sources out of the tissue. The prescription isodose covered from 81% to 99% of the postimplant CT-defined target volume, achieving adequate dose to the median lobe tissue in all patients. Two of the eight patients developed acute, postimplant urinary retention. The first patient required intermittent self-catheterization for 3 months and then resumed spontaneous urination. MLH does not appear to be a strong contraindication to prostate brachytherapy, and prophylactic resection of hypertrophic tissue in such patients is probably not warranted. Int. J. Cancer (Radiat. Oncol. Invest.) 90, 152-156 (2000). PMID:10900427

  19. Tadalafil: a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Matthew A; Baye, Jordan; Vouri, Scott Martin

    2013-06-01

    Tadalafil is a phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for lower urinary tracts symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The mechanism for improved LUTS is thought to be related to three principal theories: alterations in nitric oxide levels, Rho-associated protein kinase deactivation, and reductions in pelvic atherosclerosis. The efficacy of PDE-5 inhibitors for the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH has been demonstrated in several randomized placebo-controlled trials. Tadalafil is thought to be superior based on an extended half-life; however, other PDE-5 inhibitors have positive results in BPH and have not been proved to be inferior to tadalafil. Before administration, concomitant use of medications such as nonselective α-adrenergic antagonists, nitrates, and cytochrome P450 inhibitors should be assessed for possible drug interactions. Potential adverse drug events seen in Food and Drug Administration-approved tadalafil include back pain, dyspepsia, headache, and dizziness. Given the efficacy and safety data currently available, the PDE-5 inhibitor tadalafil represents a reasonable alternative for selected male patients with LUTS associated with BPH, especially with concomitant erectile dysfunction. PMID:23529917

  20. Carney complex and other conditions associated with micronodular adrenal hyperplasias.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Madson Q; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-12-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is a multiple neoplasia syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and is characterized by skin tumors and pigmented lesions, myxomas, schwannomas, and various endocrine tumors. Inactivating mutations of the PRKAR1A gene coding for the regulatory type I-α (RIα) subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) are responsible for the disease in most CNC patients. The overall penetrance of CNC among PRKAR1A mutation carriers is near 98%. Most PRKAR1A mutations result in premature stop codon generation and lead to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. CNC is genetically and clinically heterogeneous, with specific mutations providing some genotype-phenotype correlation. Phosphodiesterase-11A (the PDE11A gene) and -8B (the PDE8B gene) mutations were found in patients with isolated adrenal hyperplasia and Cushing syndrome, as well in patients with PPNAD. Recent evidences demonstrated that dysregulation of cAMP/PKA pathway can modulate other signaling pathways and contributes to adrenocortical tumorigenesis. PMID:21115159

  1. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vineet V; Pritti, Kumari; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed during puberty. The diagnosis of mosaic Turner could not explain the virilization. Therefore, we repeated the karyotype, which revealed 46, XX in more than 100 metaphases and was sufficient to exclude mosaicism. Furthermore, the endocrinological evaluation revealed high testosterone level with a normal 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP). The presence of pubertal onset virilization with a karyotype of 46, XX and raised testosterone level with normal 17-OHP level, raised the suspicion of NCAH for which adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was done which confirmed the diagnosis of NCAH. PMID:26751945

  2. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and entrapment of the ulnar nerve

    PubMed Central

    Di Vitantonio, Hambra; De Paulis, Danilo; Ricci, Alessandro; Raysi, Soheila Dehcordi; Marzi, Sara; Del Maestro, Mattia; Galzio, Renato Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a sporadic vasoproliferative lesion of uncertain etiology involving the skin and the subcutaneous tissue. Occasionally, it involves also the large arteries compressing the near nerves. ALHE is commonly confused with Kimura's disease because of their clinical and histological similarities. Case Description: We report a case of a 52-year-old female suffering from a 6-month pain and paresthesias in the fourth and fifth finger of the right hand. The angiography showed a pseudoaneurysm in the proximal third of the right ulnar artery. A complete surgical excision of the vascular lesion was undertaken. The lesion forced the right ulnar nerve. The histopathological diagnosis deposed for ALHE. Conclusion: Up to now, literature has described 8 cases of ALHE involving the arteries, and only one case originating from the ulnar nerve. The authors report a case of a female with ALHE involving the ulnar artery that compressed the ulnar nerve. Clinical aspects, radiological features, surgical treatment, and operative findings are discussed reviewing the pertinent literature. PMID:27069750

  3. [Contemporary diagnosis and therapy in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Błazej

    2013-11-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive defect in steroidogenesis, mostly affecting 21-hydroxylase enzyme deficiency. The other seldom cortisol synthesis abnormalities include deficiencies of: 11beta-hydroxylase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17beta-hydroxylase, 17,20-lase and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dwehydrogenase type 1. There are three main types, depending on the clinical level of 21-hydroxylase deficiency: (1) classical form--salt-wasting CAH (2) the classical form non- salt-wasting (3) non-classical form. CAH incidence is estimated at 1/14 000-1/10 000, of which about 70% is the classic salt-wasting form. The clinical picture varies considerably depending on the form. In the classic salt-wasting CAH may develop into the a shock. In classic CAH without loss of salt dominates virilization in girls and precocious puberty in boys. A non-classical forms usually presents as hyperandrogenisation and fertility. CAH treatment is mainly based on the use of glucocorticoid therapy, and if necessary supplemented mineralocorticoids. There is also potential to consider prenatal treatment (female fetuses diagnosed as CAH) with the use of dexamethason. However this kind of treatment is related to some medical and ethical controversies. PMID:24575652

  4. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: issues in diagnosis and treatment in children.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajni; Seth, Anju

    2014-02-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a common disorder of impaired adrenal cortisol biosynthesis with associated androgen excess. The clinical presentation of 21-hydroxylase deficiency, the commonest cause of CAH, forms a spectrum and can be divided into classic and non-classic types. The former consists of life threatening salt wasting and non-life threatening simple virilizing phenotypes. Patients with the non-classic form are asymptomatic or have mild features of androgen excess. Most developed countries have newborn screening facilities for CAH. In the absence of newborn screening, the diagnosis of CAH may be missed or delayed. This can result in neonatal mortality in salt wasting forms and incorrect sex of rearing in females with simple virilizing form. The diagnosis is reached by demonstrating high serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) levels. Preterm birth and neonatal illness can cause physiological elevation of 17OHP, thus complicating the diagnosis of CAH in the newborn period. Prenatal diagnosis and treatment with dexamethasone to prevent virilization of affected female fetuses is another area of controversy. The management of CAH is complicated by the need to use supraphysiologic doses of glucocorticoids to suppress adrenal androgen synthesis. In this review, the authors address pertinent issues related to the diagnosis and management of CAH in children. PMID:24254335

  5. Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia with congenital portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yuki; Shimono, Taro; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Shintaku, Haruo; Tokuhara, Daisuke

    2014-12-01

    Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a rare benign tumor in children. Vascular anomalies have been identified as pathological features of FNH, but the etiology remains unclear. We describe a rare case including the time course of formation of hepatic FNH in response to congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS). A 4-month-old girl was identified on newborn mass screening to have hypergalactosemia, but no inherited deficiencies in galactose-metabolizing enzymes were found. Ultrasonography and per-rectal portal scintigraphy showed intrahepatic PSS of the right lobe as a cause of the hypergalactosemia. At age 12 months, the patient had elevated hepatic enzymes and small hypoechoic hepatic lesions around the shunt. On abdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography spoke-wheel sign and central stellate scar were seen, which are typical features of hepatic FNH without biopsy. Congenital intrahepatic PSS should be evaluated on abdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and observed over time because of its potential to develop into hepatic FNH. PMID:25521987

  6. Combination pharmacological therapies for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Seth A; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2012-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent condition of older men caused by unregulated growth of the prostate gland. Clinical trials of medical therapy for BPH have consistently demonstrated that combined therapy with an α(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist and a 5α-reductase inhibitor is superior to either agent alone. The addition of anticholinergic therapy to a treatment regimen could effectively improve symptoms in men with persistent storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) who have not seen a benefit with an α(1)-AR antagonist or 5α-reductase inhibitor. Among α(1)-AR antagonists, doxazosin, terazosin, tamsulosin, and alfuzosin, although with slight differences in adverse event profiles, are equivalent in effectiveness and efficacy. No data in the form of direct comparator trials exist to suggest a difference in clinical efficacy of finasteride and dutasteride, the two 5α-reductase inhibitors currently available. Current American Urological Association guidelines do not recommend phytotherapy or dietary supplements in any combination for the medical management of BPH. The current literature supports the safety and efficacy of the combination of an α(1)-AR antagonist and a 5α-reductase inhibitor in the treatment of symptomatic BPH and, in select patients, the use of an α(1)-AR antagonist and anticholinergic medication in the treatment of LUTS suggestive of BPH. PMID:22428659

  7. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) management in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Anil

    2012-10-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in up to 50% of men by age 50, and the incidence increases with age. This common clinical problem is diagnosed by history, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and physical examination by digital rectal examination (DRE). Initial management for BPH includes lifestyle modification, and smooth muscle relaxant alpha blocker therapy. Alpha blockers usually take effect quickly within 3-5 days, and have minimal side effects. Current commonly used alpha blockers include the selective alpha blockers tamsulosin (Flomax), alfusosin (Xatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo). For patients with larger prostates, the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor class (finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart)) work effectively to shrink prostate stroma resulting in improved voiding. The 5-ARI class of drugs, in addition to reducing prostate size, also reduce the need for future BPH-related surgery, and reduce the risk of future urinary retention. Drugs from the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor class may now be considered for treating BPH. Once daily 5 mg tadalafil has been shown to improve BPH-related symptoms and is currently approved to treat patients with BPH. Referral to a urologist can be considered for patients with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA), especially while on 5-ARI, failure of urinary symptom control despite maximal medical therapy, suspicion of prostate cancer, hematuria, recurrent urinary infections, urinary retention, or renal failure. Currently the primary care physician is armed with multiple treatment options to effectively treat men with symptomatic BPH. PMID:23089343

  8. A classification system for conditions causing condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wolford, Larry M; Movahed, Reza; Perez, Daniel E

    2014-03-01

    A classification system was developed to place patients with condylar hyperplasia (CH) into categories based on histology, clinical and imaging characteristics, effects on the jaws and facial structures, and rate of occurrence. Four major categories were defined. CH type 1 is an accelerated and prolonged growth aberration of the "normal" mandibular condylar growth mechanism, causing a predominantly horizontal growth vector, resulting in prognathism that can occur bilaterally (CH type 1A) or unilaterally (CH type 1B). CH type 2 refers to enlargement of the mandibular condyle caused by an osteochondroma, resulting in predominantly unilateral vertical overgrowth and elongation of the mandible and face. One of the forms has predominantly a vertical growth vector and condylar enlargement, but without exophytic tumor extensions (type 2A), whereas the other primary form grows vertically but develops horizontal exophytic tumor growth off of the condyle (CH type 2B). CH type 3 includes other rare, benign tumors and CH type 4 includes malignant conditions that originate in the mandibular condyle causing enlargement. The order of classification is based on occurrence rates and type of pathology, where CH type 1A is the most commonly occurring form and CH type 4 is the rarest. This classification system for CH pathology should help the clinician understand the nature of the pathology, progression if untreated, recommended ages for surgical intervention to minimize adverse effects on subsequent facial growth and development in younger patients, and the surgical protocols to comprehensively and predictably treat these conditions. PMID:24388179

  9. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H.

    2014-01-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

  10. TMJ function after partial condylectomy in active mandibular condylar hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Olate, Sergio; Martinez, Felipe; Uribe, Francisca; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; de Moraes, Marcio

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is a frequent pathology that causes severe facial asymmetries. The partial condylectomy generally halts the disease. The aim of this research was to examine post-condylectomy TMJ function; 14 patients were included in this study, 6 male and 8 female. The average age was 21 years old. In all, the partial condylectomy was performed with preauricular or endaural access and the osteotomy were performed with drills, saw or an ultrasonic system. The patients were assessed with 3 or more time after surgery and were considering maximum mouth opening, right and left lateralities, presence of pain, noises, alterations in the facial nerve (VII) and esthetic alteration from the scar. The analysis was performed with the visual analog scale (VAS) and with a 7 cm metallic rule. Data analysis was descriptive plus chi-square test considering p value < 0.05 for statistical differences. With an average of 11 month after surgery, the results showed that the open mouth (over 35 mm) and lateralities (average 9 mm for the both right and left side) were normal and without statistical differences between the right or left side. Noise was observed in 3 patients and pain was observed in two patients with level 2 and 1 (VAS score). Scar was not related to problem with patient and the temporal branch of facial nerve was observed with limitations but without problem for patients. It can be concluded that the condylectomy is a safe and effective procedure with low morbidity for patients. PMID:24753777

  11. Critical review of lasers in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    PubMed

    Gravas, Stavros; Bachmann, Alexander; Reich, Oliver; Roehrborn, Claus G; Gilling, Peter J; De La Rosette, Jean

    2011-04-01

    • Laser treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia has challenged transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) due to advances in laser technology, better understanding of tissue-laser interactions and growing clinical experience. • Various lasers have been introduced including neodymium: yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG), holmium (Ho):YAG, potassium titanyl phosphate:YAG, thulium(Tm) and diode laser. Based on the different wave-length dependent laser-prostatic tissue interactions, the main techniques are coagulation, vaporization, resection and enucleation. • The present review aims to help urologists to distinguish and to critically evaluate the role of different laser methods in the treatment by using an evidence-based approach. It also details further evidence for use in specific patient groups (in retention, on anticoagulation) and addresses the issues of cost and learning curve. • Coagulation-based techniques have been abandoned; holmium ablation/resection of the prostate has been superseded by the enucleation technique Ho-laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). The short-term efficacy of the emerging laser treatments such as diode and Tm prostatectomy has been suggested by low quality studies. HoLEP and photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) represent valid clinical alternatives to TURP. HoLEP is the most rigorously analysed laser technique with durable efficacy for any prostate size and low early and late morbidity. PVP has grown in acceptance and popularity but long-term results from high quality studies are pending. PMID:21438974

  12. Association of Functional Ability and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia With Urinary Incontinence in Older Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) and analyze its association with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in community-dwelling older men in Korea. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of data from the Actual Living Condition of the Elderly and Welfare Need Survey conducted in the year 2008. Data was subjected to hierarchical logistic regression analysis to examine the association of IADL and BPH with UI in older men, entering IADL and BPH in model 1, and age, body mass index (BMI) and education in model 2, and then comorbidities and walking speed in model 3. Results: Of 6,185 men, 243 (3.9%) had self-reported UI. The prevalence of UI was 1.8% in men aged 60–64 years and 11.7% in those aged 85 years and above, indicating an increase in the prevalence of UI with their age. IADL and BPH remained the only significant factors associated with UI in model 1 (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44–1.64 and OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.47–5.10, respectively), model 2 (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.40–1.61 and OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.42–5.07), and model 3 (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.32–1.54 and OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.36–4.90). Conclusions: IADL limitations and presence of BPH were associated with UI in older men after controlling for BMI, education, comorbidities, and walking speed. Thus, UI should be assessed in older Korean men with IADL decline and BPH. Gender-sensitive interventions to attenuate IADL limitations and manage BPH should be developed and applied to improve UI in older men. PMID:27377946

  13. Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    El-Maouche, Diala; Collier, Suzanne; Prasad, Mala; Reynolds, James C; Merke, Deborah P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies reveal that bone mineral density (BMD) in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is mostly in the osteopenic range and is associated with lifetime glucocorticoid dose. The forearm, a measure of cortical bone density, has not been evaluated. Objective We aimed to evaluate BMD at various sites, including the forearm, and the factors associated with low BMD in CAH patients. Methods Eighty CAH adults (47 classic, 33 nonclassic) underwent dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry and laboratory and clinical evaluation. BMD Z-scores at the AP spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearm, and whole body were examined in relation to phenotype, body mass index, current glucocorticoid dose, average 5-year glucocorticoid dose, vitamin D, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Results Reduced BMD (T-score < −1 at hip, spine, or forearm) was present in 52% and was more common in classic than nonclassic patients (P = .005), with the greatest difference observed at the forearm (P = .01). Patients with classic compared to nonclassic CAH, had higher 17-hydroxyprogesterone (P = .005), lower DHEAS (P = .0002), and higher non-traumatic fracture rate (P = .0005). In a multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, sex, height standard deviation, phenotype, and cumulative glucocorticoid exposure, higher DHEAS was independently associated with higher BMD at the spine, radius, and whole body. Conclusion Classic CAH patients have lower BMD than nonclassic patients, with the most affected area being the forearm. This first study of forearm BMD in CAH patients suggests that low DHEAS may be associated with weak cortical bone independent of glucocorticoid exposure. PMID:24862755

  14. Metformin Attenuates Testosterone-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats: A Pharmacological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mosli, Hala H.; Esmat, Ahmed; Atawia, Reem T.; Shoieb, Sherif M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is uncontrolled proliferation of prostate tissue. Metformin, a widely prescribed anti-diabetic agent, possesses anticancer activity through induction of apoptotic signaling and cell cycle arrest. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of metformin against experimentally-induced BPH in rats. Treatment with 500 and 1000 mg/kg metformin orally for 14 days significantly inhibited testosterone-mediated increase in the prostate weight & prostate index (prostate weight/body weight [mg/g]) and attenuated the pathological alterations induced by testosterone. Mechanistically, metformin significantly protected against testosterone-induced elevation of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) and decrease of estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) expression, with no significant effect of androgen receptor (AR) and 5α-reductase expression. It decreased mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1R and protein expression ratio of pAkt/total Akt induced by testosterone. Furthermore, it significantly ameliorated testosterone–induced reduction of mRNA expression Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, P21 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and AMPK [PT-172] activity. In conclusion, these findings elucidate the effectiveness of metformin in preventing testosterone-induced BPH in rats. These results could be attributed, at least partly, to its ability to enhance expression ratio of ER-β/ER-α, decrease IGF-1, IGF-1R and pAkt expressions, increase P21, PTEN, Bax/Bcl-2 expressions and activate AMPK with a subsequent inhibition of prostate proliferation. PMID:26492952

  15. Medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia: Results from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bishr, Mohamed; Boehm, Katharina; Trudeau, Vincent; Tian, Zhe; Dell’Oglio, Paolo; Schiffmann, Jonas; Jeldres, Claudio; Sun, Maxine; Shariat, Sharokh F.; Graefen, Markus; Saad, Fred; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In men with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), medical treatment usually represents the first line. We examined the patterns of medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in the Montreal metropolitan area, within the context of a case control study focusing on incident prostate cancer. Methods: Cases were 1933 men with incident prostate cancer. Population controls included 1994 age-matched men. In-person interviews collected sociodemographic characteristics and medical history, including BPH diagnosis, its duration, and type of medical treatment received. Baseline characteristics were compared by the chi-square likelihood test for categorical variables and by the students t-test for continuously coded variables. Results: Overall, 1120 participants had history of BPH; of those 53.7% received medical treatment for BPH. Individuals with medically treated BPH, compared to individuals with medically untreated BPH, were older at index date [mean: 66.9 vs. 64.9 years, p<0.001)] and at diagnosis of BPH [mean: 62.3 vs. 60.3 years, p<0.001]. They also had a longer duration of BPH-history [mean: 4.7 vs. 4.0 years, p=0.02]. Regarding medical treatment, mono-therapy was more often used than combination therapy [87.6% vs. 12.4%, p<0.001]. Alpha-blockers (69.9%) were most commonly used as monotherapy, followed by 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) (26.6%). Alpha-blockers plus 5ARIs were the most common combination therapy (97.3%). Conclusions: Despite evidence from randomized, controlled trials for better efficacy with use of combination therapy, monotherapy consisting of alpha-blockers or 5ARI, in that order, is most frequently used. Additionally, 5ARI use was more common than previously reported (27% vs. 15%). PMID:26977208

  16. Bilateral coronoid hyperplasia (Jacob disease on right and elongation on left): report of a case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shi-Chun; Xu, Zhi-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Guang; Zheng, You-Hua; Li, Tang-Xin; Su, Ka

    2009-03-01

    A case is reported of bilateral coronoid hyperplasia. The literature is reviewed concerning this condition's etiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment. Jacob disease and coronoid elongation are both clinical features of coronoid hyperplasia. It is usually accompanied by restricted opening. The etiology and pathogenesis of coronoid hyperplasia are unclear. The condition can be diagnosed by panoramic radiographs and with 3-dimensional reconstructions from computerized tomography image data sets. Hyperplasia of the coronoid processes can be treated using an intraoral approach for coronoidectomy and dynamic laser physiotherapy after surgery. Although hyperplasia of the coronoid processes is uncommon in clinic, it can be found through careful examination and proper radiographic study. A 39-year-old female patient was referred for coronoid hyperplasia (Jacob disease on right and elongation on left). The histologic diagnosis for the right condylar condition was osteochondroma. PMID:19157918

  17. The natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia: what have we learned in the last decade?

    PubMed

    Kirby, R S

    2000-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) frequently has a significant detrimental impact on a patient's quality of life. If the disease is left untreated, it may progress in severity, leading to recurrent bladder infections, bladder calculi, and acute urinary retention (AUR), necessitating surgical treatment. The Forth Valley, Scotland, study reported that 14% of men aged 40 to 50 years have BPH. This increases to 43% of men >60 years old. BPH has been shown to be nearly as prevalent as hypertension and diabetes among patients seeking treatment for erectile dysfunction. The effects of BPH on quality of life include lack of sleep, anxiety, reduced mobility, interference with leisure activities and usual daily activities, and a compromised sense of well-being. Three symptoms are associated with an increased risk of AUR in men with BPH: a reduction in the force of the urinary stream, a sensation of incomplete bladder emptying, and an enlarged prostate gland on digital rectal examination. Age is a strong independent risk factor for the development of AUR. Transurethral resection of the prostate was more effective than watchful waiting in preventing AUR, as shown in the Veteran's Affairs Cooperative Study. Data from the Olmsted County study revealed that urinary flow decreases and prostate size increases with advanced age. This study also showed that lower urinary tract symptoms have a negative impact on parameters of physical and mental aspects of health. More recently, studies have shown that medical treatment with 5alpha-reductase inhibitors and possibly also alpha-blockers may alter the natural history and progression of BPH. PMID:11074195

  18. Turbulent urinary flow in the urethra could be a causal factor for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Borges, Anibal R

    2006-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common form of prostate disease in middle-aged and elderly men, and leads to severe impairment later in life. Despite its significant impact on public health, the underlying cause of BPH is yet to be determined. This hypothesis proposes a new causal factor for BPH. Applying concepts of dynamics of fluids to the process of urination it could be stated that a turbulent urinary flow through the passage of the urethra. The turbulent urinary flow in the urethra applies pressure and stretch forces to the surrounding tissue. This stimulus repeated over time and coupled with age-related changes of the urethral tissue could contribute to the development of BPH. In support of this hypothesis, several mechanotransduction studies have shown that vibration and pressure forces applied to different cell tissues can provoke cellular and molecular changes. Another supportive data is the presence of the hyperplasic reaction surrounding the urethra specifically located in the transition zone, the only zone where BPH develops. It is crucial to identify causal factors to understanding the disease and to determine effective primary prevention strategies. Future studies of the dynamics of fluids in the urethra are warranted. The finding of significant forces transmitted to the periurethral tissue from a turbulent urinary flow could give us the clue to the underlying cause of BPH. If this hypothesis proves to be valid there are several primary prevention measures that could be implemented to impede the development of BPH. Educational intervention measures in younger populations to avoid frequent urinary retention and active urination (process of forcing the urine through the urethra at a high velocity) could be considered. Studies of the impact of turbulence in the standing vs. sitting position during urination in men should also be considered. PMID:16764996

  19. The impact of eating frequency and time of intake on nutrient quality and body mass index: The INTERMAP Study, a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Aljuraiban, Ghadeer S.; Chan, Queenie; Griep, Linda M. Oude; Brown, Ian J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Elliott, Paul; Frost, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic evidence is sparse on the effect of dietary behaviors and diet quality on body mass index (BMI) that may be important drivers of the obesity epidemic. Objective This study investigated the relationships of frequency of eating and time of intake to energy density, nutrient quality and BMI using data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) including 2,696 men and women aged 40-59 from the United States and the United Kingdom. Design INTERMAP is a cross-sectional investigation with four 24-hour dietary recalls and BMI measurements conducted between 1996 and 1999. Consumption of solid foods was aggregated into eating occasion. Nutrient density is expressed using the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF 9.3) index. The ratio of evening/morning energy intake was calculated; mean values of four visits were used. Statistical analyses performed Characteristics across eating occasion categories are presented as adjusted mean with corresponding 95% confidence interval. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of eating occasions, ratio of evening/morning energy intake, dietary energy density, and NRF 9.3 index with BMI. Results Compared to participants with < 4 eating occasions/24-hours, those with ≥ 6 eating occasions/24-hours had lower mean: BMI: 27.3 vs. 29.0 kg/m2; total energy intake: 2,129 vs. 2,472 kcal/24-hours; dietary energy density: 1.5 vs. 2.1 kcal/g; and higher NRF 9.3 index: 34.3 vs. 28.1. In multiple regression analyses, higher evening intake relative to morning intake was directly associated with BMI; however this did not influence the relationship between eating frequency and BMI. Conclusions Our results suggest that a larger number of small meals may be associated with improved diet quality and lower BMI. This may have implications for behavioral approaches to controlling the obesity epidemic. PMID:25620753

  20. Extreme daily precipitation in the Northern Sierra Precipitation 8-Station index: The combined impact of landfalling atmospheric rivers and the Sierra barrier jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeira, J. M.; Ralph, F. M.; Neiman, P. J.; Hughes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Upper Sacramento River area is vital to California's water supply, and is susceptible to major floods. Recent studies indicate that orographic precipitation in this complex terrain involves both inland penetrating atmospheric rivers (ARs) and the Sierra barrier jet (SBJ). The southerly SBJ induces orographic precipitation along south-facing slopes in the Shasta region, whereas landfalling ARs ascend up and over the statically stable SBJ and induce orographic precipitation along west-facing upper slopes in the Northern Sierra Nevada. This paper explores the hypothesis that extreme daily precipitation here is controlled by the presence of both a landfalling AR and a SBJ. Three 10-year-long (2000-2011) observational datasets are used. ARs are identified from the Neiman et al. (2008) AR catalog that uses an SSM/I satellite-based AR-detection method from Ralph et al. (2004), whereas SBJ conditions are determined from Chico, CA wind profiler data using the method from Neiman et al. (2010). Extreme daily precipitation is identified from the average of 8 rain gauges spanning the region known as the "Northern Sierra 8-Station Index." The "index" is used by water managers to assess water supply. Extreme events are defined as the 50 largest daily precipitation totals in the index for the 10-year period (the top ~1.37%). These dates in the 8-station index are compared with the catalogs of landfalling ARs and SBJs. In summary, 46 of 50 (92%) extreme daily precipitation events are associated with landfalling ARs on either the day before or the day of precipitation, whereas 45 of 50 (90%) extreme daily precipitation events are associated with SBJ conditions. 38 of 50 (76%) extreme daily precipitation events are associated with both a landfalling AR and an SBJ. The 10 days with the largest daily precipitation in the index were all associated with both a landfalling AR and an SBJ. Thus, extreme daily precipitation in Northern California is strongly controlled by the presence of

  1. Personalized Medicine for Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bechis, Seth K.; Otsetov, Alexander G.; Ge, Rongbin; Olumi, Aria F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affects over 50 percent of men by age 60 and is the cause of millions of dollars of healthcare expenditure for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary obstruction. Despite the widespread use of medical therapy, there is no universal therapy that treats all men with symptomatic BPH, and at least 30% of patients do not respond to medical management and a subset require surgery. Significant advances have been made in understanding the natural history and development of the prostate, such as elucidating the role of the enzyme 5α reductase Type 2 (5AR2), and advances in genomics and biomarker discovery offer the potential for a more targeted approach to therapy. We review the current understanding of BPH progression as well as key genes and signaling pathways implicated in the process such as 5α reductase. We also explore the potential of biomarker screening and gene-specific therapies as tools to risk stratify BPH patients and identify those with symptomatic or medically resistant forms. Materials and Methods A PubMed® literature search of current and past peer-reviewed literature on prostate development, lower urinary tract symptoms, BPH pathogenesis, targeted therapy, biomarkers, epigenetics, 5AR2 and personalized medicine was performed. An additional Google Scholar™ search was conducted to broaden the scope of the review. Relevant reviews and original research articles were examined as well as their cited references, and a synopsis of original data was generated with the goal of informing the practicing urologist of these advances and their implications. Results BPH is associated with a state of hyperplasia of both the stromal and epithelial compartments, with 5AR2 and androgen signaling playing key roles in development and maintenance of the prostate. Chronic inflammation, multiple growth factor and hormonal signaling pathways, and medical comorbidities play an intricate role in prostate tissue

  2. The role of combination medical therapy in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Greco, K A; McVary, K T

    2008-12-01

    To review key trials of monotherapy and combination therapy of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonists (alpha(1)-ARAs), 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5alphaRIs) and anti-muscarinic agents in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To assess the safety and efficacy of combination therapies for LUTS associated with BPH, a search of the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases (1976-2008) was conducted for relevant trials and reviews using the terms benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms, alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonists, 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, anti-muscarinics, anticholinergics, combination therapy, alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, terazosin, dutasteride, finasteride, tolterodine, flavoxate, propiverine, oxybutynin, erectile dysfunction, sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil. Data from the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) study indicated a role for long-term use of alpha(1)-ARAs and 5alphaRIs in combination. In the MTOPS study, combination therapy with the alpha(1)-ARA doxazosin and the 5alphaRI finasteride was significantly more effective than either component alone in reducing symptoms (P=0.006 vs doxazosin monotherapy; P<0.001 vs finasteride monotherapy) and in lowering the rate of clinical progression (P<0.001 vs either monotherapy). These findings were confirmed by the 2-year preliminary results of the Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin study. In this study, combination therapy of the alpha(1)-ARA tamsulosin and the 5alphaRI dutasteride resulted in a significantly greater decrease in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) when compared with either monotherapy. Several recent trials have studied the efficacy of combining alpha(1)-ARAs and anti-muscarinic agents in the treatment of BPH. These studies have found this combination to result in statistically significant benefits in quality of life scores, patient satisfaction, urinary frequency, storage

  3. Benign prostatic hyperplasia - progress in pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Thor, Piotr Jan

    2015-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of the aging male population, in affected individuals often accompanied by metabolic syndrome. BPH is manifested by a complex range of symptoms originating from the lower urinary tract (LUTS - lower urinary tract symptoms), including disturbances resulting from impaired bladder compliance and bladder overactivity (e.g. frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, dysuria) and symptoms associated with the bladder outlet obstruction (e.g. the difficulty in voiding initiating, intermittency, involuntary interruption of voiding, weak urinary stream, straining to void). Despite numerous studies, the pathogenesis of BPH remains not completely understood, and the condition awaits a comprehensive description. The current pathophysiological view emphasizes the role of hormonal dysregulation, locally released in the prostate growth factors action and a complex inflammatory, BPH-associated process with the release of a number of pro-proliferative mediators. The current BPH pharmacotherapy involves administration of α-1-blockers, 5-α-reductase inhibitors, antimuscarinic drugs (cholinolytics) and phosphodiesterase- 5-inhibitors. Progress in the BPH pathophysiology allows the disclosure of additional, potential targets of pharmacological intervention, such as β-3 adrenoreceptor or CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists, P2X1 purinergic or ETA endothelin receptors antagonists, RhoA/Rho kinase system inhibitors, nitric oxide donors, drugs indirectly (luteinizing hormone - releasing hormone antagonists) or directly (antiandrogens) abolishing the effect of testosterone and its derivatives or agents blocking the action of proinflammatory cytokines. The article briefly discusses the pathophysiology of the aforementioned issues and the current BPH management along with the future, potential opportunities for pharmacotherapy of the. PMID:26637089

  4. Pituitary hyperplasia: an uncommon presentation of a common disease

    PubMed Central

    Massolt, E T; Peeters, R P; Neggers, S J; de Herder, W W

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 21-year-old woman presented with amenorrhea, bilateral galactorrhea and fatigue. Visual acuity and visual fields were normal. Laboratory examination demonstrated hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary showed a 19×17×12-mm sellar mass with supra- and parasellar extension, causing compression of the pituitary stalk and optic chiasm. Further examinations confirmed mild hyperprolactinemia, strongly elevated TSH (>500 mU/l), low free thyroxine (FT4), hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Hydrocortisone and l-T4 replacement therapy was started. Three months later, the galactorrhea had disappeared, thyroid function was normalized and MRI revealed regression of the pituitary enlargement, confirming the diagnosis of pituitary hyperplasia (PH) due to primary hypothyroidism. Subsequently, the menstrual cycle returned and the hypocortisolism normalized. This case demonstrates that severe primary hypothyroidism may have an unusual presentation and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pituitary enlargement associated with moderate hyperprolactinemia. Learning points One should always try to find one etiology as the common cause of all the clinical findings in a pathologic process.Amenorrhea, galactorrhea and fatigue may be the only presenting clinical manifestations of primary hypothyroidism.Not every patient with galactorrhea, hyperprolactinemia and a pituitary mass has a prolactinoma.Primary hypothyroidism should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia associated with pituitary enlargement and pituitary hormone(s) deficiency(ies).When PH due to primary hypothyroidism is suspected, thyroid hormone replacement should be started and only regression of pituitary enlargement on MRI follow-up can confirm the diagnosis.Examination of thyroid function in patients with a pituitary mass may avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:26279852

  5. Hepatic adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia: differential diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Herman, P; Pugliese, V; Machado, M A; Montagnini, A L; Salem, M Z; Bacchella, T; D'Albuquerque, L A; Saad, W A; Machado, M C; Pinotti, H W

    2000-03-01

    The diagnosis of benign hepatic tumors as hepatic adenoma (HA) and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. The importance of differentiating between these lesions is based on the fact that HA must be surgically resected and FNH can be only observed. A series of 23 female patients with benign liver tumors (13 FNH, 10 HA) were evaluated, and a radiologic diagnostic algorithm was employed with the aim of establishing preoperative criteria for the differential diagnosis. All patients were submitted to surgical biopsy or hepatic resection to confirm the diagnosis. Based only on clinical and laboratory data, distinction was not possible. According to the investigative algorithm, the diagnosis was correct in 82.6% of the cases; but even with the development of imaging methods, which were used in combination, the differentiation was not possible in four patients. For FNH cases scintigraphy presented a sensitivity of 38.4% and specificity of 100%, whereas for HA the sensitivity reached 60% and specificity 85.7%. Magnetic resonance imaging, employed when scintigraphic findings were not typical, presented sensitivities of 71.4% and 80% and specificities of 100% and 100% for FNH and HA, respectively. Preoperative diagnosis of FNH was possible in 10 of 13 (76.9%) patients and was confirmed by histology in all of them. In one case, FNH was misdiagnosed as HA. The diagnosis of HA was possible in 9 of 10 (90%) adenoma cases. Surgical biopsy remains the best method for the differential diagnosis between HA and FNH and must be performed in all doubtful cases. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for all patients with adenoma and can be performed safely. With the evolution of imaging methods it seems that the preoperative diagnosis of FNH may be considered reliable, thereby avoiding unnecessary surgical resection. PMID:10658075

  6. Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in New York State.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Melissa; DeMartino, Lenore; McMahon, Rebecca; Hamel, Rhonda; Maloney, Breanne; Stansfield, Daniele-Marisa; McGrath, Emily C; Occhionero, Amanda; Gearhart, Adam; Caggana, Michele; Tavakoli, Norma P

    2016-06-01

    From 2007 to 2014 the New York State (NYS) Newborn Screening (NBS) program screened 2 million newborns for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The data was analyzed to determine factors that affect 17α-hydroxyprogesterone levels and assist in developing algorithm changes that would improve the positive predictive value of the methodology being used. The concentration of 17-OHP in dried blood spots was measured using the AutoDELFIA Neonatal 17-OHP kit (Perkin Elmer, Turku, Finland). During the 8 year period of this study 2476 babies were referred, 105 babies were diagnosed with CAH (90 with the salt-wasting (SW), 8 with simple virilizing (SV), 5 with non-classical CAH, and 2 with another enzyme deficiency) and, 14 with possible CAH. Three false negative cases with SV-CAH were reported to the program. Of the total 108 known cases, 74 (69%) infants were detected by newborn screening in the absence of clinical information, or, known family history. The incidence of CAH in NYS is 1 in 18,170 with a ratio of SW to SV of 8.2:1. The incidence of CAH is lower in Black infants than in White, Hispanic and Asian infants. Despite a lower mean birth weight, female infants have a lower mean 17-OHP value than male infants and are under-represented in the referred category. As per other NBS programs the false positive rate is exacerbated by prematurity/low birth weight and by over-early specimen collection. PMID:27331001

  7. Laser Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Dosimetric and Thermodynamic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, Bahman

    1993-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most commonly occurring neoplastic disease in the aging human male. Currently, surgical treatment of BPH is the primary therapeutic method. However, due to surgical complications, less invasive methods of treatment are desirable. In recent years, thermal coagulation of the hyperplastic prostate by a laser has received a considerable amount of attention. Nevertheless, the optimum laser irradiation parameters that lead to a successful and safe treatment of BPH have not been determined. This dissertation studies the physics of laser coagulation of prostate from both basic science and practical perspectives. Optical properties of prostatic tissue are determined over a spectrum of wavelengths. Knowledge of these properties allows for selection of appropriate laser wavelengths and provides a basis for performing dose equivalency studies among various types of lasers. Furthermore, knowledge of optical properties are needed for development of computer simulation models that predict the extent of thermal injury during laser irradiation of prostate. A computer model of transurethral heating of prostate that can be used to guide the clinical studies in determining an optimum dosimetry is then presented. Studies of the effects of non-laser heating devices, optical properties, blood perfusion, surface irrigation, and beam geometry are performed to examine the extent of heat propagation within the prostate. An in vitro model for transurethral laser irradiation of prostate is also presented to examine the effects of an 810 nm diode laser, thermal boundary conditions, and energy deposition rate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Results of these studies suggest that in the presence of laminar irrigation, the convective boundary condition is dominated by thermal diffusion as opposed to the bulk motion of the irrigation fluid. Distinct phases of thermal events are also identified during the laser irradiation. The in vivo studies of

  8. The Impact of a Low Glycemic Index Diet on Inflammatory Markers and Serum Adiponectin Concentration in Adolescent Overweight and Obese Girls: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, M H; Kelishadi, R; Hashemipour, M; Esmaillzadeh, A; Surkan, P J; Keshavarz, A; Azadbakht, L

    2016-04-01

    Although the effects of dietary glycemic index (GI) on insulin resistance are well documented in adults, the complex interaction among glucose intolerance, inflammatory markers, and adipokine concentration has not been well studied, especially among adolescents. We investigated the effect of a low glycemic index (LGI) diet on insulin concentration, fasting blood sugar (FBS), inflammatory markers, and serum adiponectin concentration among healthy obese/overweight adolescent females. In this parallel randomized clinical trial, 2 different diets, an LGI diet and a healthy nutritional recommendation diet (HNRD) with similar macronutrient composition were prescribed to 50 obese and overweight adolescent girls with the same pubertal status. Biochemical markers FBS, serum insulin concentration, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and adiponectin were measured before and after a 10 week intervention. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, data from 50 subjects were analyzed. According to a dietary assessment, GI in the LGI group was 43.22±0.54. While the mean for FBS, serum insulin concentration, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and adiponectin concentration did not differ significantly within each group, the average hs-CRP and IL-6 decreased significantly in the LGI diet group after the 10 week intervention (p=0.009 and p=0.001; respectively). Comparing percent changes, we found a marginally significant decrease in hs-CRP in the LGI group compared with the HNRD group after adjusting for confounders. Compliance with an LGI diet may have favorable effect on inflammation among overweight and obese adolescent girls. PMID:27065462

  9. Monoclonality of parathyroid tumors in chronic renal failure and in primary parathyroid hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, A; Brown, M F; Ureña, P; Gaz, R D; Sarfati, E; Drüeke, T B

    1995-01-01

    The pathogeneses of parathyroid disease in patients with uremia and nonfamilial primary parathyroid hyperplasia are poorly understood. Because of multigland involvement, it has been assumed that these common diseases predominantly involve polyclonal (non-neoplastic) cellular proliferations, but an overall assessment of their clonality has not been done. We examined the clonality of these hyperplastic parathyroid tumors using X-chromosome inactivation analysis with the M27 beta (DXS255) DNA polymorphism and by searching for monoclonal allelic losses at M27 beta and at loci on chromosome band 11q13. Fully 7 of 11 informative hemodialysis patients (64%) with uremic refractory hyperparathyroidism harbored at least one monoclonal parathyroid tumor (with a minimum of 12 of their 19 available glands being monoclonal). Tumor monoclonality was demonstrable in 6 of 16 informative patients (38%) with primary parathyroid hyperplasia. Histopathologic categories of nodular versus generalized hyperplasia were not useful predictors of clonal status. These observations indicate that monoclonal parathyroid neoplasms are common in patients with uremic refractory hyperparathyroidism and also develop in a substantial group of patients with sporadic primary parathyroid hyperplasia, thereby changing our concept of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Neoplastic transformation of preexisting polyclonal hyperplasia, apparently due in large part to genes not yet implicated in parathyroid tumorigenesis and possibly including a novel X-chromosome tumor suppressor gene, is likely to play a central role in these disorders. Images PMID:7738171

  10. Reactive hyperplasia of the oral cavity in Kerman province, Iran: a review of 172 cases.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Goli; Amanpoor, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the clinical features of reactive hyperplasia among Iranian people. A series of 172 consecutive confirmed cases were studied using the database available at the Department of Oral Medicine, Kerman School of Dentistry. Reactive hyperplasia was classified into five groups: traumatic fibroma, peripheral fibroma with calcification, pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, and hyperplasia caused by dentures. Age, sex, site, clinical and radiographic findings, and outcome of treatment were recorded. Ages ranged from 5 to 79 years (mean 36). More women were affected than men (M/F 1:1.5). Pyogenic granuloma (M/F 1:2.2, chi(2)=6.4, p=0.011) and hyperplasia caused by dentures (M/F 1:3.7, chi(2)=10.9, p=0.001) were significantly more common among women. Peripheral giant cell granuloma was more common among men (M/F 1.4:1). Of the 172 cases, 111 (64%) involved the gingiva. Pyogenic granuloma more often affected the maxillary gingiva, while traumatic fibroma, peripheral fibroma with calcification, and peripheral giant cell granuloma, were more common in the mandibular gingiva. Twenty peripheral giant cell granulomas and 23 pyogenic granulomas had ulcers on the surface. A tendency to bleed was common among patients with pyogenic granuloma (n=31) and peripheral fibroma with calcification (n=12). We have confirmed that the clinical features of reactive hyperplasia among Iranians are, for the most part, similar to those reported by other investigators. PMID:17097201

  11. Long segmental hyperplasia of interstitial cells of Cajal with giant diverticulum formation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liyan; Qiu, Tian; Song, Ying; Shan, Ling; Liu, Xiuyun; Guo, Lei; Ying, Jianming; Zou, Shuangmei; Shi, Susheng; Polydorides, Alexandros D; Zhao, Xinming; Lu, Ning; Lin, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) usually form a well-circumscribed mass. In contrast, diffuse interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) hyperplasia along the Auerbach plexus without a discrete mass may occur in patients with germline mutations in the NF1, c-KIT or PDGFRA genes. However, sporadic, diffuse ICC hyperplasia without c-KIT or PDGFRA mutations has not been reported. We describe herein one such case, forming a giant diverticulum. A 63-year-old woman with no features of Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) presented with increasing abdominal pain for more than 30 years. A large, diverticulum-like mass in the ileum was resected. Microscopically, a diffuse proliferation of bland spindle cells was seen extending for 12 cm, replacing the muscularis propria and lined by intact mucosa. The spindle cells were CD117+/CD34+/DOG1+/SMA+/Desmin-/S100-. Mutation analyses did not reveal any mutations in c-KIT or PDGFRA. The lesion had two silent mutations in the NF1 gene. It is rare of the diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia showing diffuse longitudinal microscopic growth completely replacing the muscularis propria, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes, but without solid components and no c-KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations. This peculiar form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia may be related to intestinal dysmotility in this ileal segment and giant diverticulum formation. PMID:24294389

  12. IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M; Fick, Lizette CE; Leeto, Mosiuoa; Dewals, Benjamin; Horsnell, William GC; Brombacher, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. Results As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4Rα expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4Rα-/- mice. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections. PMID:18373844

  13. Correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry in the diagnosis of hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Berwig, Luana Cristina; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues; Serpa, Eliane Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil is one of the main causes of mouth breathing, and accurate diagnosis of this alteration is important for proper therapeutic planning. Therefore, studies have been conducted in order to provide information regarding the procedures that can be used for the diagnosis of pharyngeal obstruction. Objective: To verify the correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometric examinations in the diagnosis of pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia. Method: This was a cross-sectional, clinical, experimental, and quantitative study. Fifty-five children took part in this study, 30 girls and 25 boys, aged between 7 and 11 years. The children underwent nasofibropharyngoscopic and cephalometric evaluation to determine the grade of nasopharyngeal obstruction. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient at the 5% significance level was used to verify the correlation between these exams. Results: In the nasopharyngoscopy evaluation, most children showed grade 2 and 3 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 1. In the cephalometry assessment, most children showed grade 1 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 2. A statistically significant regular positive correlation was observed between the exams. Conclusion: It was concluded that the evaluation of the pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia could be carried out by fiber optic nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry, as these examinations were regularly correlated. However, it was found that cephalometry tended to underestimate the size of the pharyngeal tonsil relative to nasopharyngoscopy. PMID:25991937

  14. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  15. Linking pre-diabetes with benign prostate hyperplasia. IGFBP-3: a conductor of benign prostate hyperplasia development orchestra?

    PubMed

    Protopsaltis, Ioannis; Ploumidis, Achilles; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Constantoulakis, Padelis; Tzirogiannis, Kostantinos; Kyprianidou, Chrysoula; Papazafiropoulou, Athanasia K; Melidonis, Andreas; Delakas, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) represents a pattern of non-malignant growth of prostatic fibromuscular stroma. Metabolic disturbances such us pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome may have a role in BPH pathophysiology. A potential explanation for the above relationship involves the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis as well as IGF binding proteins, (IGFBPs) of which the most abundant form is IGFBP-3. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between intra-prostatic levels of IGF-1, IGF-2 as well as to evaluate the role of locally expressed IGFBP-3 in BPH development in pre-diabetes. A total of 49 patients admitted to the Urology department of a tertiary urban Greek hospital, for transurethral prostate resection, or prostatectomy and with pre-diabetes [impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or both] were finally included. The majority of the sample consisted of subjects with IGT (51.0%), followed by IFG and IGT (32.7%) and isolated IFG (16.3%). For all participants a clinical examination was performed and blood samples were collected. In addition, total prostate (TP) volume or transitional zone (TZ) volume were estimated by transrectal ultrasonography. The results of the multivariate analysis regarding TP volume showed that higher PSA (p<0.001), larger waist circumference (p=0.007) and higher IGFBP-3 expression levels (p<0.001) independently predicted higher TP volume. The results regarding the volume of the TZ showed that higher PSA (p<0.001), larger waist circumference (p<0.001) and higher IGFBP-3 expression levels (p=0.024) were independently associated with higher TZ volume. Our findings show that intra-prostatic levels of IGFBP-3, PSA and waist circumference, but not overall obesity, are positively associated with prostate volume. IGFBP-3 seems to be a multifunctional protein, which can potentiate or inhibit IGF activity. PMID:24367483

  16. Usefulness of Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index for Assessing Nutritional Status and Its Prognostic Impact in Patients Aged ≥65 Years With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yasuyuki; Nagai, Toshiyuki; Iwakami, Naotsugu; Sugano, Yasuo; Honda, Satoshi; Okada, Atsushi; Asaumi, Yasuhide; Aiba, Takeshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Kusano, Kengo; Ogawa, Hisao; Yasuda, Satoshi; Anzai, Toshihisa

    2016-08-15

    Malnutrition is becoming one of the most important determinants of worse clinical outcomes in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). However, appropriate tools for evaluating the nutritional status in patients aged ≥65 years with AHF remain unclear. We examined 490 consecutive patients aged ≥65 years with AHF. They were divided into 2 groups according to Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI; cut-off value = 92). During a median period of 189 days, the mortality rate was significantly higher in the lower GNRI group than the higher GNRI group (p <0.001). In multivariate analyses, lower GNRI was an independent determinant of adverse events (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.95, p <0.001). The GNRI showed the best prognostic value (C-statistic: 0.70) among other nutritional indexes. Adding GNRI to an existing outcome prediction model for mortality in AHF significantly increased the C-statistic from 0.68 to 0.74 (p = 0.017). The net reclassification improvement afforded by GNRI was 60% overall, 27% for events, and 33% for nonevents (p <0.001). In conclusion, lower GNRI on admission was independently associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients aged ≥65 years with AHF, and it was superior to other nutritional parameters. Furthermore, the assessment of nutritional status using GNRI is very helpful for risk stratification. PMID:27324158

  17. Impact of Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Subsequent Therapy with Ibuprofen on the Release of S-100B and Oxidative Stress Index in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Nihat; Ece, İbrahim; Peker, Erdal; Kaba, Sultan; Ustyol, Lokman; Balahoroğlu, Ragip; Tuncer, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) leads to injury in tissues/organs by reducing perfusion of organs and causing oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant status in preterm infants with hsPDA by measuring the total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status and to assess neuronal damage due to oxidant stress related to hsPDA. Material/Methods This prospective study included 37 low-birth-weight infants with echocardiographically diagnosed hsPDA treated with oral ibuprofen and a control group of 40 infants without PDA. Blood samples were taken from all infants, and than the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and S-100B protein levels were assessed and oxidative stress index was calculated before and after therapy. Results The mean pre-therapy TOS level and oxidative stress index (OSI) value of the patients with hsPDA were significantly higher, but TAC level was lower than in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean post-therapy values of TOS, TAC, OSI, and S-100B protein between the two groups. Conclusions hsPDA may cause cellular injury by increasing oxidative stress and damaging tissue perfusion; however the brain can compensate for oxidative stress and impaired tissue perfusion through well-developed autoregulation systems to decrease tissue injury. PMID:25542161

  18. Review of dutasteride/tamsulosin fixed-dose combination for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Barkin, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) will usually affect older men, of whom 50% over the age 60 years and almost 90% in their nineties will be bothered enough by their symptoms that they request some type of treatment. However, symptomatic bother may also affect men in their forties with a prevalence rate of almost 18%. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) has become the most widely used and best validated questionnaire to allow the patient to quantify the severity of his LUTS/BPH symptoms. This score has become the cornerstone in demonstrating the “rate of symptom response” for the patient who has been exposed to any type BPH management. Question 8 on the IPSS score is what is defined as the “Quality of Life” question or what is also termed the “Bothersome Index.” The score out of 6 as declared by the patient will reflect the degree of concern that the patient is feeling about his symptoms and the reduction of the score after treatment is a statement of their improved quality of life. There are 2 families of accepted medical therapy to treat the symptoms of BPH and potentially prevent the most worrisome long-term sequelae of progression of BPH: urinary retention or the need for surgery. When defining the impact of the main types of medical therapy, the alpha blockers have been termed the “openers” and the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors are described as the “shrinkers.” Since they each offer a different mechanism of effect, the concept of combination therapy was raised and trialed many times over recent years. The final aspect of any medical therapy is the patient’s satisfaction with the treatment and the side effects. In the CombAT (Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin) trial a new assessment was developed and tested called the Patient’s Perception of Study Medication (PPSM) which told the investigators if the patients, given free choice, would choose to take that combination of

  19. The Impact of Multiple Master Patient Index Records on the Business Performance of Health Care Organizations: A Qualitative Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banton, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to explore and examine the factors that led to the creation of multiple record entries, and present a theory on the impact the problem has on the business performance of health care organizations. A sample of 59 health care professionals across the United States participated in an online…

  20. A Rare Case of Multilocular Thymic Cyst with Follicular Lymphoid Hyperplasia: Radiologic and Histopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Suk; Cha, Eun Jung

    2016-06-01

    Multilocular thymic cysts are rare and acquired lesions induced by an inflammatory arising within the thymus. We report a rare case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia in a 59-year-old female. Chest CT and MRI revealed a large multilocular cystic mass, which contains thick septa and nodules in the thymus. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed almost no FDG uptake of the multilocular cystic mass but moderate FDG uptake of the solid nodules. Extended total thymectomy was performed. Histopathological findings revealed follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of thymic tissue but no neoplastic lesion. Based on these findings, diagnosis of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia was made. This is a rare case that preoperatively was difficult to diagnose. PMID:27275366

  1. Multiple osteoblastomas in a child with Cushing syndrome due to bilateral adrenal micronodular hyperplasias.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyeoh Won; Cho, Won Im; Chung, Hye Rim; Choi, Keun Hee; Yun, Sumi; Cho, Hwan Seong; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2016-03-01

    Adrenocorticotropin-independent adrenal hyperplasias are rare diseases, which are classified into macronodular (>1 cm) and micronodular (≤1 cm) hyperplasia. Micronodular adrenal hyperplasia is subdivided into primary pigmented adrenocortical disease and a limited or nonpigmented form 'micronodular adrenocortical disease (MAD)', although considerable morphological and genetic overlap is observed between the 2 groups. We present an unusual case of a 44-month-old girl who was diagnosed with Cushing syndrome due to MAD. She had presented with spotty pigmentation on her oral mucosa, lips and conjunctivae and was diagnosed with multiple bone tumors in her femur, pelvis and skull base at the age of 8 years. Her bone tumor biopsies were compatible with osteoblastoma. This case highlights the importance of verifying the clinicopathologic correlation in Cushing syndrome and careful follow-up and screening for associated diseases. PMID:27104180

  2. Multiple osteoblastomas in a child with Cushing syndrome due to bilateral adrenal micronodular hyperplasias

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hyeoh Won; Cho, Won Im; Choi, Keun Hee; Yun, Sumi; Cho, Hwan Seong; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin-independent adrenal hyperplasias are rare diseases, which are classified into macronodular (>1 cm) and micronodular (≤1 cm) hyperplasia. Micronodular adrenal hyperplasia is subdivided into primary pigmented adrenocortical disease and a limited or nonpigmented form 'micronodular adrenocortical disease (MAD)', although considerable morphological and genetic overlap is observed between the 2 groups. We present an unusual case of a 44-month-old girl who was diagnosed with Cushing syndrome due to MAD. She had presented with spotty pigmentation on her oral mucosa, lips and conjunctivae and was diagnosed with multiple bone tumors in her femur, pelvis and skull base at the age of 8 years. Her bone tumor biopsies were compatible with osteoblastoma. This case highlights the importance of verifying the clinicopathologic correlation in Cushing syndrome and careful follow-up and screening for associated diseases. PMID:27104180

  3. Mouth opening limitation caused by coronoid hyperplasia: a report of four cases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Hak-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Coronoid process hyperplasia is a rare condition that causes mouth opening limitation, otherwise known as trismus. The elongated coronoid processes impinge on the medial surfaces of the zygomatic arches when opening the mouth, which limits movement of the mandible and leads to trismus. Patients with trismus due to coronoid process hyperplasia do not have any definite symptoms such as temporomandibular joint pain or sounds upon clinical examination, and no significant abnormal signs are observed on panoramic radiographs or magnetic resonance images of the temporomandibular joint. Thus, the diagnosis of trismus is usually very difficult. However, computed tomography can help with the diagnosis, and the condition can be treated by surgery and postoperative physical therapy. This paper describes four cases of patients who visited our clinic for trismus and were subsequently diagnosed with coronoid process hyperplasia. Three were successfully treated with a coronoidectomy and postoperative physical therapy. PMID:25551096

  4. The impact of different sources of body mass index assessment on smoking onset: An application of multiple-source information models

    PubMed Central

    Caria, Maria Paola; Bellocco, Rino; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-source data are often collected to provide better information of some underlying construct that is difficult to measure or likely to be missing. In this article, we describe regression-based methods for analyzing multiple-source data in Stata. We use data from the BROMS Cohort Study, a cohort of Swedish adolescents who collected data on body mass index that was self-reported and that was measured by nurses. We draw together into a single frame of reference both source reports and relate these to smoking onset. This unified method has two advantages over traditional approaches: 1) the relative predictiveness of each source can be assessed and 2) all subjects contribute to the analysis. The methods are applicable to other areas of epidemiology where multiple-source reports are used. PMID:22065944

  5. [The impact of load density differences on land subsidence based on build-up index and PS-InSAR technology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bei-Bei; Gong, Hui-Li; Li, Xiao-Juan; Lei, Kun-Chao; Lin, Zhu; Wang, Yan-Bing

    2013-08-01

    The excessive mining for underground water is the main reason inducing the land subsidence in Beijing, while, increasing of load brought by the urban construction aggravate the local land subsidence in a certain degree. As an international metropolis, the problems of land subsidence that caused by urban construction are becoming increasingly highlights, so revealing the relationship between regional load increase and the response of land subsidence also becomes one of the key problems in the land subsidence research field. In order to analyze the relationship between the load changes in construction and the land subsidence quantitatively, the present study selected the TM remote sensing image covering Beijing plain and used Erdas Modeler tool to invert the index based on building site (IBI), acquired the spatial and temporal change information in research area further; Based on results monitored by PS-InSAR (permanent scatterer interferometry) and IBI index method, and combined with the GIS spatial analysis method in the view of pixels in different scales, this paper analyzes the correlation between typical area load change and land subsidence, The conclusions show that there is a positive correlation between the density of load and the homogeneity of subsidence, especially in area which has a high sedimentation rate. Owing to such characteristics as the complexity and hysteretic nature of soil and geological structure, it is not obvious that the land subsidence caused by the increase of load in a short period. But with the increasing of local land load made by high density buildings and additional settlement of each monomer building superposed with each other, regional land subsidence is still a question that cannot be ignored and needs long-term systematic research and discussion. PMID:24159875

  6. Impact of Radiatively Interactive Dust Aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 Climate Model: Sensitivity to Dust Particle Shape and Refractive Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Nowottnick, Edward Paul; Randles, Cynthia A.; Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Smith, Jamison A.; Bardeen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the radiative effects of dust aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. GEOS-5 is improved with the inclusion of a sectional aerosol and cloud microphysics module, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Into CARMA we introduce treatment of the dust and sea salt aerosol lifecycle, including sources, transport evolution, and sinks. The aerosols are radiatively coupled to GEOS-5, and we perform a series of multi-decade AMIP-style simulations in which dust optical properties (spectral refractive index and particle shape distribution) are varied. Optical properties assuming spherical dust particles are from Mie theory, while those for non-spherical shape distributions are drawn from a recently available database for tri-axial ellipsoids. The climatologies of the various simulations generally compare well to data from the MODIS, MISR, and CALIOP space-based sensors, the ground-based AERONET, and surface measurements of dust deposition and concentration. Focusing on the summertime Saharan dust cycle we show significant variability in our simulations resulting from different choices of dust optical properties. Atmospheric heating due to dust enhances surface winds over important Saharan dust sources, and we find a positive feedback where increased dust absorption leads to increased dust emissions. We further find that increased dust absorption leads to a strengthening of the summertime Hadley cell circulation, increasing dust lofting to higher altitudes and strengthening the African Easterly Jet. This leads to a longer atmospheric residence time, higher altitude, and generally more northward transport of dust in simulations with the most absorbing dust optical properties. We find that particle shape, although important for radiance simulations, is a minor effect compared to choices of refractive index, although total atmospheric forcing is enhanced by greater than 10 percent for simulations incorporating a

  7. Prognostic Impact of Baseline High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Based on Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khurshid; Chakraborty, Rabin; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Sim, Doo Sun; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Hachinohe, Daisuke; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a marker of inflammation and may lead to the development of atherosclerosis, adversely affecting mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between baseline hs-CRP level and 12-month clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) according to their body mass index (BMI) status. Subjects and Methods Using data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from November 2005 to September 2008, a total of 8174 consecutive AMI patients were studied. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that higher baseline levels of hs-CRP was associated with 12-month all-cause mortality (p=0.045). To further understand this association, patients were divided into 3 groups based on their body mass index: 1) overweight/obese, 2) normal weight, and 3) underweight patients. Then each group was stratified into quartiles based on their hs-CRP. Results In overweight/obese patients, Cox model showed significant association of hs-CRP with 12-month mortality when adjusted for age and gender (p<0.001), however, after adjustment with multiple covariates, mortality was highest in the 4th quartile {HR 2.382, (1.079-5.259), p=0.032} though statistically insignificant (p=0.172). We observed no significant association of serum hs-CRP with 12-month mortality in normal weight (p=0.681) and underweight (p=0.760) patients. Conclusion Higher baseline hs-CRP level (≥4.08 mg/dL) in overweight/obese AMI patients showed significant association with 12-month all-cause mortality independent of other prognostic markers. PMID:22493611

  8. Retrieval Results of Unassisted Searches of Two General Periodical Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Jennifer O.

    A survey of public library users was conducted regarding retrieval results of unassisted user searches in general periodical indexes. The data were analyzed to evaluate the impact or lack of impact of searching a CD-ROM index with loosely-controlled vocabulary and expanded-search capabilities (i.e., InfoTrac-General Periodicals Index) versus a…

  9. A Study of Using Massage Therapy Accompanied with Stretching Exercise for Rehabilitation of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Lv, Pin; Chong, Yuping; Zou, Huagang; Chen, Xiangxian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To apply massage therapy accompanied with stretching exercises for treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, evaluate the clinical outcome in patients, and estimate the therapy as a novel treatment method for mammary hyperplasia. Methods. 28 adult female patients were selected and treated with massage therapy and stretching exercises focusing on skeleton muscles of chest, abdomen, and axilla. The mammary gland oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb) levels were detected before and after treatment after 15, 30, and 45 days. Results. In this cohort, pretreatment OxyHb (mean ± SD) is 1.32 ± 0.14 (medium-high), and DeoxyHb is 0.87 ± 0.13 (normal). All patients were clinically diagnosed with benign mammary gland hyperplasia and mastitis. The posttreatment OxyHb levels are 1.23 ± 0.09 (normal-medium, 15-day), 1.16 ± 0.08 (normal, 30-day), and 1.05 ± 0.04 (normal, 45-day), and DeoxyHb levels are 0.90 ± 0.11 (normal, 15-day), 0.94 ± 0.18 (normal, 30-day), and 0.98 ± 0.12 (normal, 45-day). Patients were diagnosed with decreased hyperplasia 15 and 30 days after treatment and with no symptom of hyperplasia in mammary gland 45 days after treatment. Conclusion. Mammary gland hyperplasia is closely correlated with pathological changes of skeletal muscles and could be significantly improved by massage therapy and stretching exercises targeting neighboring skeletal muscles. PMID:27022615

  10. A Study of Using Massage Therapy Accompanied with Stretching Exercise for Rehabilitation of Mammary Gland Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Pin; Chong, Yuping; Zou, Huagang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To apply massage therapy accompanied with stretching exercises for treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia, evaluate the clinical outcome in patients, and estimate the therapy as a novel treatment method for mammary hyperplasia. Methods. 28 adult female patients were selected and treated with massage therapy and stretching exercises focusing on skeleton muscles of chest, abdomen, and axilla. The mammary gland oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (DeoxyHb) levels were detected before and after treatment after 15, 30, and 45 days. Results. In this cohort, pretreatment OxyHb (mean ± SD) is 1.32 ± 0.14 (medium-high), and DeoxyHb is 0.87 ± 0.13 (normal). All patients were clinically diagnosed with benign mammary gland hyperplasia and mastitis. The posttreatment OxyHb levels are 1.23 ± 0.09 (normal-medium, 15-day), 1.16 ± 0.08 (normal, 30-day), and 1.05 ± 0.04 (normal, 45-day), and DeoxyHb levels are 0.90 ± 0.11 (normal, 15-day), 0.94 ± 0.18 (normal, 30-day), and 0.98 ± 0.12 (normal, 45-day). Patients were diagnosed with decreased hyperplasia 15 and 30 days after treatment and with no symptom of hyperplasia in mammary gland 45 days after treatment. Conclusion. Mammary gland hyperplasia is closely correlated with pathological changes of skeletal muscles and could be significantly improved by massage therapy and stretching exercises targeting neighboring skeletal muscles. PMID:27022615

  11. Review of Prostate Anatomy and Embryology and the Etiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Aaron, LaTayia; Franco, Omar E; Hayward, Simon W

    2016-08-01

    Prostate development follows a common pattern between species and depends on the actions of androgens to induce and support ductal branching morphogenesis of buds emerging from the urogenital sinus. The human prostate has a compact zonal anatomy immediately surrounding the urethra and below the urinary bladder. Rodents have a lobular prostate with lobes radiating away from the urethra. The human prostate is the site of benign hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The rodent prostate has little naturally occurring disease. Rodents can be used to model aspects of human benign hyperplasia, but care should be taken in data interpretation and extrapolation to the human condition. PMID:27476121

  12. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia of Oral Cavity Expressing HPV 16 Gene: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Prabhat, M. P. V.; Raja Lakshmi, Chintamaneni; Sai Madhavi, N.; Bhavana, Sujana Mulk; Sarat, Gummadapu; Ramamohan, Kodali

    2013-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare contagious disease caused by human papilloma virus. Usually HPV involves either cutaneous or mucosal surfaces, whereas concomitant mucocutaneous involvement is extremely rare. We report such a unique case of multifocal epithelial hyperplasia involving multiple sites of oral cavity along with skin lesions in a 65-year-old female. We also discuss the probable multifactorial etiology and variable clinical presentations of the lesions, including evidence of HPV 16 expression, as detected by polymerase chain reaction. The present report illustrates the need for careful examination and prompt diagnosis of the disease, as it might be associated with high risk genotypes such as HPV 16 and 18. PMID:24455323

  13. Papular Clear Cell Hyperplasia of the Eccrine Duct: A Precursor Lesion of Clear Cell Syringoma?

    PubMed

    Alonso-Riaño, Marina; Cámara-Jurado, Maria; Garrido, Maria C; Rodríguez-Peralto, Jose L

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a 77-year-old diabetic patient with asymptomatic papular eruption developed over a cutaneous scar after the resection of a squamous cell carcinoma. Histological examination revealed a clear cell proliferation involving the secretory portion of the eccrine glands. This entity has been previously named as papular clear cell hyperplasia of the eccrine duct. This clear cell change might be caused by glycogen deposition because of diabetes. We postulate that papular clear cell hyperplasia could be a precursor lesion of clear cell syringoma. PMID:26291420

  14. Condylar hyperplasia of the temporomandibular joint: types, treatment, and surgical implications.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniel B; Castro, Vanessa

    2015-02-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a progressive and pathologic overgrowth of either or both mandibular condyles, which can affect the neck, ramus, or body of the mandible. It may lead to facial asymmetry, malocclusion, speech, and masticatory problems. Identifying the specific type of condylar hyperplasia is crucial. Serial radiographs, dental models, clinical evaluations, and bone scan techniques are usually the best diagnostic methods to determine the type of CH and if the growth process is still active. The protocol of surgical procedures recommended in this article for CH has been proven to treat the condylar pathology and correct the jaw deformity. PMID:25483450

  15. Treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia with topical imiquimod: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Sirin; Mansur, Ayse Tulin; Serdar, Zehra Asiran; Goktay, Fatih; Aslan, Canan

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) is a rare disorder caused by specific types of HPV. It mainly involves oral mucosa and children are affected more frequently. It may persist for years, producing a significant reduction in quality of life. Several treatment modalities such as surgical excision, laser ablation, cryotherapy, electrocauterization, topical, intralesional, systemic interferon, and systemic retinoic acid have been used with inconsistent results and many side effects. Here we report three children of Turkish origin with focal epithelial hyperplasia successfully treated with imiquimod 5% cream. No serious side effects were observed and recurrence did not occur during the 1-year follow-up period. PMID:19689526

  16. The energy intake through regular nontherapeutic meals provision in long-term care: impact on nutritional status and related Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index.

    PubMed

    Sturtzel, Baerbel; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Ohrenberger, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how the energy intake of institutionalized long-term-care patients through the regular nontherapeutic meals provision is associated with the nutritional status and the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI). A 9 month longitudinal, observational study. Long-term-care Hospital. 66 long-term-care patients with multiple medical conditions and solely oral food-intake. 47 (71 %) patients, predominantly women (n = 39/47), with a mean age of 83.04 (±9.58) years completed study time and 19 (29 %) deceased. At week 1 and week 36 of observation time energy intake was measured by means of three-days-weighing-records. Body composition was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Serum albumin, body weight and body height were taken from the medical report. Albumin content, body weight and height were used to calculate the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index: GNRI = [1.489 × albumin (g/L)] + [41.7 × (weight/ideal body weight)]. Energy intake was significantly below 24 kcal/kg body weight per day. The GNRI of the deceased patients was significantly (p = 0.002) lower than the GNRI of the completers. During observation time energy-intake p < 0.001, body fat (p = 0.001) and phase angle (PA) of bio impedance measurement (p = 0.018) and likewise the GNRI (p = 0.021) of the completers decreased significantly. At the beginning and at the end of observation time energy intake correlated significantly with PA (p = 0.028/p < 0.001) and GNRI (p = 0.436/p = 0.004). Also GNRI and PA correlated significantly at the beginning (p = 0.001) and at the end (p < 0.001) of observation time. The energy intake through non therapeutic meals provision was too low for sustaining the nutritional status and likewise the GNRI. The malnourishment and the nutrition related clinical risk of the geriatric patients aggrevated during observation time. PMID:26933634

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Marten

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  18. Cyclin D2 Overexpression in Transgenic Mice Induces Thymic and Epidermal Hyperplasia whereas Cyclin D3 Expression Results Only in Epidermal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.; LaCava, Margaret; Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; Jorcano, Jose L.; Richie, Ellen R.; Conti, Claudio J.

    2000-01-01

    In a previous report, we described the effects of cyclin D1 expression in epithelial tissues of transgenic mice. To study the involvement of D-type cyclins (D1, D2, and D3) in epithelial growth and differentiation and their putative role as oncogenes in skin, transgenic mice were developed which carry cyclin D2 or D3 genes driven by a keratin 5 promoter. As expected, both transgenic lines showed expression of these proteins in most of the squamous tissues analyzed. Epidermal proliferation increased in transgenic animals and basal cell hyperplasia was observed. All of the animals also had a minor thickening of the epidermis. The pattern of expression of keratin 1 and keratin 5 indicated that epidermal differentiation was not affected. Transgenic K5D2 mice developed mild thymic hyperplasia that reversed at 4 months of age. On the other hand, high expression of cyclin D3 in the thymus did not produce hyperplasia. This model provides in vivo evidence of the action of cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 as mediators of proliferation in squamous epithelial cells. A direct comparison among the three D-type cyclin transgenic mice suggests that cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 have similar roles in epithelial thymus cells. However, overexpression of each D-type cyclin produces a distinct phenotype in thymic epithelial cells. PMID:10980142

  19. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  20. The Impact on National Death Index Ascertainment of Limiting Submissions to Social Security Administration Death Master File Matches in Epidemiologic Studies of Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Hermansen, Sigurd W.; Leitzmann, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Although many epidemiologists use the National Death Index (NDI) as the “gold standard” for ascertainment of US mortality, high search costs per year and per subject for large cohorts warrant consideration of less costly alternatives. In this study, for 1995–2001 deaths, the authors compared matches of a random sample of 11,968 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study subjects to the Social Security Administration's Death Master File (DMF) and commercial list updates (CLU) with matches of those subjects to the NDI. They examined how varying the lower limits of estimated DMF match probabilities (m scores of 0.60, 0.20, and 0.05) altered the benefits and costs of mortality ascertainment. Observed DMF/CLU ascertainment of NDI-identified decedents increased from 89.8% to 95.1% as m decreased from 0.60 (stringent) to 0.20 (less stringent) and increased further to 96.4% as m decreased to 0.05 (least stringent). At these same cutpoints, the false-match probability increased from 0.4% of the sample to 0.6% and then 2.3%. Limiting NDI cause-of-death searches to subjects found in DMF searches using less stringent match criteria, further supplemented by CLU vital status updates, improves vital status assessment while increasing substantially the cost-effectiveness of ascertaining mortality in large prospective cohort studies. PMID:19251755

  1. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Mary K.; McGowan, Ciara A.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  2. Quality of life, social situation, and sexual satisfaction, in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Falhammar, Henrik; Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Thorén, Marja

    2014-09-01

    To determine quality of life (QoL) in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). CAH males with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 30), 19-67 years old, were compared with controls (n = 32). QoL was assessed using questionnaires on general living conditions and sexual issues, and the psychological well-being index (PGWB) form. Fewer CAH males than controls were students (3 vs. 25 %, P = 0.028) and more had blue-collar work (57 vs. 33 %, P = 0.023). Patients were less interested in sports (47 vs. 72 %, P = 0.034) and art/literature/film (10 vs. 47 %, P = 0.004). PGWB total score was 82.7 ± 13.7 versus 87.0 ± 11.1 (P = NS), but hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate treated scored lower than controls and prednisolone treated. Glucocorticoid over-treated had lower QoL than those with poor control (PGWB total score 77.1 ± 13.5 vs. 92.4 ± 11.1, P = 0.026) and controls (P = 0.025). Total PGWB score was positively correlated with adrenal androgens and steroid precursors. Subscale scores indicated that patients with late diagnosis were more depressive (12.1 ± 2.8 vs. 13.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.011) and had a lower self-control (11.3 ± 3.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.0, P = 0.019) compared with controls. Sexual satisfaction was similar in spite of more patients being sexually inactive (27 vs. 6 %, P = 0.040). Adult CAH males differed from controls with respect to type of occupation and spare time interests but had similar QoL despite being less sexually active. Optimizing glucocorticoid therapy might further improve QoL. Some disadvantages found in patients diagnosed late will hopefully not be seen in patients diagnosed by neonatal screening, but this has yet to be studied. PMID:24408051

  3. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  4. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  5. KSC Construction Cost Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center cost Index aids in conceptual design cost estimates. Report discusses development of KSC Cost Index since January 1974. Index since January 1974. Index provides management, design engineers, and estimators an up-to-data reference for local labor and material process. Also provides mount and rate of change in these costs used to predict future construction costs.

  6. Alterations in wall shear stress predict sites of neointimal hyperplasia after stent implantation in rabbit iliac arteries.

    PubMed

    LaDisa, John F; Olson, Lars E; Molthen, Robert C; Hettrick, Douglas A; Pratt, Phillip F; Hardel, Michael D; Kersten, Judy R; Warltier, David C; Pagel, Paul S

    2005-05-01

    Restenosis resulting from neointimal hyperplasia (NH) limits the effectiveness of intravascular stents. Rates of restenosis vary with stent geometry, but whether stents affect spatial and temporal distributions of wall shear stress (WSS) in vivo is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in spatial WSS after stent implantation predict sites of NH in rabbit iliac arteries. Antegrade iliac artery stent implantation was performed under angiography, and blood flow was measured before casting 14 or 21 days after implantation. Iliac artery blood flow domains were obtained from three-dimensional microfocal X-ray computed tomography imaging and reconstruction of the arterial casts. Indexes of WSS were determined using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. Vascular histology was unchanged proximal and distal to the stent. Time-dependent NH was localized within the stented region and was greatest in regions exposed to low WSS and acute elevations in spatial WSS gradients. The lowest values of WSS spatially localized to the stented area of a theoretical artery progressively increased after 14 and 21 days as NH occurred within these regions. This NH abolished spatial disparity in distributions of WSS. The results suggest that stents may introduce spatial alterations in WSS that modulate NH in vivo. PMID:15653759

  7. Changes of adrenomedullin and natriuretic peptides in patients with adrenal medullary hyperplasia prior to and following pharmacological therapy and adrenalectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pang-Hu; Shi, Lei; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Li-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathophysiological functions of adrenomedullin (ADM), atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) in patients with adrenal medullary hyperplasia (AMH). Plasma ADM, ANP and BNP concentrations were measured in 20 patients with AMH, 35 patients with essential hypertension (EH), and 40 healthy control subjects. Following effective antihypertensive therapy, the values in AMH and EH patients were measured again and laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed for AMH patients. At 2 weeks after surgery, the three peptides were measured again. The AMH patients had higher plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP and BNP compared with the EH and control subjects. There were significant differences in the values of ADM, ANP and BNP between adrenal vein and inferior vena cava and between AMH and contralateral adrenal vein. Plasma ADM concentration was correlated with serum epinephrine and norepinephrine and urine vanillylmandelic acid, in addition to systolic and diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular mass index and ANP and BNP values in the AMH group. Following antihypertensive treatment, ADM, ANP and BNP were significantly decreased in EH patients, but remained unchanged in AMH subjects. However, these concentrations significantly decreased following surgery. Therefore, the present results suggest that ADM, ANP and BNP may be involved in regulating adrenal medulla functions. PMID:27446289

  8. Cinnamomi Cortex (Cinnamomum verum) Suppresses Testosterone-induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-reductase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun-Myung; Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Woong Mo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomi cortex (dried bark of Cinnamomum verum) is an important drug in Traditional Korean Medicine used to improve blood circulation and Yang Qi. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease in aging men. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cinnamomi cortex water extract (CC) on BPH. BPH was induced by a pre-4-week daily injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Six weeks of further injection with (a) vehicle, (b) TP, (c) TP + CC, (d) TP + finasteride (Fi) was carried on. As a result, the prostate weight and prostatic index of the CC treatment group were reduced. Histological changes including epithelial thickness and lumen area were recovered as normal by CC treatment. The protein expressions of prostate specific antigen, estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), 5α-reductase (5AR), and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were suppressed by treatment of CC. Immunohistochemical assays supported the western blot results, as the expressions of AR and ERα were down-regulated by CC treatment as well. Further in vitro experiments showed CC was able to inhibit proliferation of RWPE-1 cells by suppressing 5AR and AR. These results all together suggest CC as a potential treatment for BPH. PMID:27549514

  9. Attenuation fluctuations and local dermal reflectivity are indicators of immune cell infiltrate and epidermal hyperplasia in skin inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Choudhury, Niloy; Levitz, David; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses responsible for skin homeostasis. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of psoriasis remains under investigated. To elucidate the spatial-temporal morphological evolution of psoriasis we undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to non-invasively document dermal alterations due to immune cell infiltration and epidermal hyperplasia in an Imiquimod (IMQ) induced model of psoriasis-like inflammation in DBA2/C57Bl6 hybrid mice. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a three parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(z) = ρ exp(-mu;z +ɛ(z)). Ensemble averaging of the fit parameters over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed that the local dermal reflectivity ρ, decreased significantly in response to 6 day IMQ treatment (p = 0.0001), as did the standard deviation of the attenuation fluctuation std(ɛ(z)), (p = 0.04), in comparison to cream controls and day 1 treatments. No significant changes were observed in the average dermal attenuation rate, μ. Our results suggest these label-free OCT-based metrics can be deployed to investigate new therapeutic targets in animal models as well as aid in clinical staging of psoriasis in conjunction with the psoriasis area and severity index.

  10. Cinnamomi Cortex (Cinnamomum verum) Suppresses Testosterone-induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-reductase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Myung; Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Woong Mo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomi cortex (dried bark of Cinnamomum verum) is an important drug in Traditional Korean Medicine used to improve blood circulation and Yang Qi. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease in aging men. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cinnamomi cortex water extract (CC) on BPH. BPH was induced by a pre-4-week daily injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Six weeks of further injection with (a) vehicle, (b) TP, (c) TP + CC, (d) TP + finasteride (Fi) was carried on. As a result, the prostate weight and prostatic index of the CC treatment group were reduced. Histological changes including epithelial thickness and lumen area were recovered as normal by CC treatment. The protein expressions of prostate specific antigen, estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), 5α-reductase (5AR), and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were suppressed by treatment of CC. Immunohistochemical assays supported the western blot results, as the expressions of AR and ERα were down-regulated by CC treatment as well. Further in vitro experiments showed CC was able to inhibit proliferation of RWPE-1 cells by suppressing 5AR and AR. These results all together suggest CC as a potential treatment for BPH. PMID:27549514

  11. Impact of changes in mode of travel to work on changes in body mass index: evidence from the British Household Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam; Panter, Jenna; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Active commuting is associated with various health benefits, but little is known about its causal relationship with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used cohort data from three consecutive annual waves of the British Household Panel Survey, a longitudinal study of nationally representative households, in 2004/2005 (n=15 791), 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. Participants selected for the analyses (n=4056) reported their usual main mode of travel to work at each time point. Self-reported height and weight were used to derive BMI at baseline and after 2 years. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between switching to and from active modes of travel (over 1 and 2 years) and change in BMI (over 2 years) and to assess dose–response relationships. Results After adjustment for socioeconomic and health-related covariates, the first analysis (n=3269) showed that switching from private motor transport to active travel or public transport (n=179) was associated with a significant reduction in BMI compared with continued private motor vehicle use (n=3090; −0.32 kg/m2, 95% CI −0.60 to −0.05). Larger adjusted effect sizes were associated with switching to active travel (n=109; −0.45 kg/m2, −0.78 to −0.11), particularly among those who switched within the first year and those with the longest journeys. The second analysis (n=787) showed that switching from active travel or public transport to private motor transport was associated with a significant increase in BMI (0.34 kg/m2, 0.05 to 0.64). Conclusions Interventions to enable commuters to switch from private motor transport to more active modes of travel could contribute to reducing population mean BMI. PMID:25954024

  12. Impacts of including forest understory brightness and foliage clumping information from multiangular measurements on leaf area index mapping over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisek, Jan; Chen, Jing M.; Alikas, Krista; Deng, Feng

    2010-09-01

    A new leaf area index (LAI) data set in 10 day intervals with consideration of the understory reflectance and foliage clumping effects over North America for 1 year is developed. The data set brings effectively together measurements from multiple sensors with complementary capabilities (SPOT-VEGETATION, Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, POLDER). First, the temporal consistency analysis indicated the new product is on par with other available LAI data sets currently used by the community. Second, with the removal of the background (understory in forests, moss, litter, and soil) effect on the forest overstory LAI retrieval, slightly different LAI reductions were found between needleleaf and broadleaf forests. This is caused by the more clumped nature of needleleaf forests, especially at higher LAI values, which allows more light to penetrate through the overstory canopy, making the understory more visible for equal LAI as compared to broadleaf forests. This is found over a representative set of 105 CEOS Benchmark Land Multisite Analysis and Intercomparison of Products sites in North America used for indirect validation. Third, the data set was directly validated and compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Collection 5 LAI product using results from the BigFoot project for available forest test sites. This study demonstrates that the fusion of data inputs between multiple sensors can indeed lead to improved products and that multiangle remote sensing can help us to address effectively the issues (separating the signal from the understory and overstory, foliage clumping) that could not be solved via the means of the conventional mono-angle remote sensing.

  13. Offshore wind farms as productive sites or ecological traps for gadoid fishes?--impact on growth, condition index and diet composition.

    PubMed

    Reubens, Jan T; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Zenner, Annemie N; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2013-09-01

    With the construction of wind farms all across the North Sea, numerous artificial reefs are created. These windmill artificial reefs (WARs) harbour high abundances of fish species which can be attracted from elsewhere or can be the result of extra production induced by these wind farms. To resolve the attraction-production debate in suddenly altered ecosystems (cf. wind farms), the possible consequences of attraction should be assessed; thereby bearing in mind that ecological traps may arise. In this paper we investigated whether the wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea act as ecological traps for pouting and Atlantic cod. Length-at-age, condition and diet composition of fish present at the windmill artificial reefs was compared to local and regional sandy areas. Fish data from the period 2009-2012 were evaluated. Mainly I- and II-group Atlantic cod were present around the WARs; while the 0- and I-group dominated for pouting. For Atlantic cod, no differences in length were observed between sites, indicating that fitness was comparable at the WARs and in sandy areas. No significant differences in condition index were observed for pouting. At the WARs, they were slightly larger and stomach fullness was enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. Also diet differed considerably among the sites. The outcome of the proxies indicate that fitness of pouting was slightly enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. No evidence was obtained supporting the hypothesis that the WARs act as an ecological trap for Atlantic cod and pouting. PMID:23800713

  14. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma: incidental finding of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ang; Liu, Wendy; Qian, Hong-Gang; Leng, Jia-Hua; Hao, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is a rare disease that forms a mass-like lesion and is characterized by the proliferation of non-neoplastic, polyclonal lymphocytes forming follicles. We recently encountered 2 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of liver, both of which were asymptomatic and mimicked hepatocellular carcinoma by various imaging modalities. Based on the clinical impression of hepatocellular carcinoma, surgical resections were performed. Microscopic findings revealed that both lesions consisted of an aggregation of lymphocytes consisting of predominantly B-cells, with multiple lymphoid follicles positive for CD10 and negative for bcl-2, consistent with the diagnosis of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Polyclonality of both lesions was further confirmed by B cell receptor gene rearrangement study. The incidence of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the liver is exceedingly rare, and it is difficult to differentiate such lesions from hepatic malignancies based upon clinical grounds. The clinicopathological findings and literature review of this report may be helpful to improve the clinical decision-making. PMID:26191310

  15. A unilocular thymic cyst associated with true thymic hyperplasia: a challenging diagnosis especially in a child

    PubMed Central

    Mlika, Mona; Gattoufi, Walid; Zribi, Hazem; Braham, Emna; Marghli, Adel; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of a mediastinal mass in a 19-year-old patient corresponding microscopically to an association of unilocular thymic cyst and true thymic hyperplasia. Our aim is to highlight the absence of specificity of clinical and radiological findings and the necessity of a thorough sampling of the tumor in order to establish the diagnosis. PMID:26445562

  16. Influence of breast feeding on the clinical features of salt-losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Joseph A; Bailey, John D

    1983-01-01

    Feeding habits before diagnosis were reviewed in 32 infants with salt-losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia who were admitted to hospital in adrenal crisis. Most breast-fed babies failed to thrive, seldom vomited, and despite severe salt wasting, presented at a later age than their formula-fed counterparts. PMID:6830279

  17. Mandibular Movement Restoration in a Child with Bilateral Coronoid Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Monevska, Danica Popovik; Benedetti, Alberto; Popovski, Vladimir; Naumovski, Slave; Grcev, Aleksandar; Bozovic, Suzana; Stamatoski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronoid process hyperplasia is an uncommon finding, characterized by an enlargement of the coronoid process, causing a mechanical obstacle by its interposing in the posterior portion of the maxilla or zygomatic arch. CASE PRESENTATION: The article presents a case report of a bilateral coronoid process hyperplasia in a 3-year-old girl demonstrated with inability to open the mouth and restricted jaw movement. Panoramic x-ray and 3-dimensional computed tomographic reconstruction showed bilateral elongation of the coronoid processes associated with deformation of the mandibular condyle with no involvement of the articular space. A coronoid resection by intraoral approach was done, followed by an aggressive physiotherapy. A considerable improvement in mouth opening of 30 mm was achieved. We strongly suggest early surgical treatment of coronoid hyperplasia to recover morphology and function consequently to reduce skeletofacial deformities in young patients. CONCLUSIONS: The article presents a clinical and surgical case of bilateral coronoidectomy in a 3-year-old girl, with retrognathic mandible. The diagnosis of bilateral coronoid process hyperplasia was confirmed, and the surgical treatment was under general anesthesia, with nasotracheal intubation guided by a nasofiber endoscope, using an intraoral approach. PMID:27335604

  18. PTEN sequence analysis in endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma in Slovak women.

    PubMed

    Gbelcová, H; Bakeš, P; Priščáková, P; Šišovský, V; Hojsíková, I; Straka, Ľ; Konečný, M; Markus, J; D'Acunto, C W; Ruml, T; Böhmer, D; Danihel, Ľ; Repiská, V

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Loss of PTEN function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different tumors, particularly endometrial carcinoma (ECa). ECa is the most common neoplasia of the female genital tract. Our study evaluates an association between the morphological appearance of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma and the degree of PTEN alterations. A total of 45 endometrial biopsies from Slovak women were included in present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples with simple hyperplasia (3), complex hyperplasia (5), atypical complex hyperplasia (7), endometrioid carcinomas G1 (20) and G3 (5), and serous carcinoma (5) were evaluated for the presence of mutations in coding regions of PTEN gene, the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in endometrial carcinoma. 75% of the detected mutations were clustered in exons 5 and 8. Out of the 39 mutations detected in 24 cases, 20 were frameshifts and 19 were nonsense, missense, or silent mutations. Some specimens harboured more than one mutation. The results of current study on Slovak women were compared to a previous study performed on Polish population. The two sets of results were similar. PMID:26114084

  19. [Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. The spectrum from Kimura disease to atypical pyogenic granuloma].

    PubMed

    Wustrow, A; Mahrle, G

    1987-04-15

    A patient showed the "atypical pyogenic granuloma" of the head in combination with atopic dermatitis and proceeding pyogenic granuloma of the back. The diagnostic aspects of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) including Kimura's disease, subcutaneous ALHE, and atypical pyogenic granuloma are discussed. PMID:3111112

  20. Thyroid hyperplasia and musculoskeletal deformity in a standardbred filly in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Thyroid hyperplasia and musculoskeletal deformity, described in foals in western Canada, has not been recognized as a common cause of neonatal foal mortality in Ontario. A case is reported from Ontario, with clinical and histopathological findings consistent with the syndrome described in western Canada. PMID:15206593

  1. Bone SPECT in management of mandibular condyle hyperplasia. Report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dimonte, M; Inchingolo, F; Minonne, A; Arditi, G; Di Palma, G

    2004-05-01

    In the present paper we report the case of a 14-year-old girl suffering from condylar hyperplasia and enlargement of ipsilateral jaw body, stressing the importance of bone SPECT in the clinical management of this temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Condylar hyperplasia is an uncommon idiopathic monolateral disorder of jaw growth consistent with exuberant or persistent activity of the condyle nucleus finally involving sociopsychological aspects due to facial dysmorphism. Besides facial asymmetry our patient showed prognathism, malocclusion, worsening otalgia and headache. Conventional X-rays examinations and multislice spiral CT gave us important morphostructural information also thanks to 3D volume-rendered and virtual reconstructions, while bone SPECT by detecting an intense well focused (99m)Tc-MDP uptake allowed to achieve uninvasively the final diagnosis of primary condyle hyperplasia. In spite of the full imaging characterization of TMJ disorders, consensus on best timing and therapeutic approaches on condylar hyperplasia is yet to be reached. In the present case patient was first treated orthodontically, planning a "high" condylectomy intervention after at least 6 months. PMID:15263884

  2. Unilateral hypoplastic kidney and ureter associated with diverse mesonephric remnant hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Jerome, Jean-Gilles; Wu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Mesonephric remnants have been rarely reported in the genitourinary system and sometimes impose a diagnostic challenge both clinically and pathologically. We reported a case of mesonephric remnant hyperplasia with mixed acinar/tubular and epididymis/vas deferens-like morphologies occurring in the renal parenchyma of a unilateral hypoplastic kidney, which has not been previously described. PMID:26309900

  3. Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia associated with chronic peritonitis in a 20-year-old Quarter horse.

    PubMed

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Rout, Emily D; Vap, Linda M; Aboellail, Tawfik A; Hassel, Diana M; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S

    2016-05-01

    A 20-year-old gelding was diagnosed with peritonitis and severe reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Exploratory laparotomy findings were suggestive of a neoplastic etiology; however, additional diagnostics ruled this out and the horse made a full recovery. This report demonstrates the difficulty and value of differentiating between reactive and neoplastic mesothelial processes. PMID:27152035

  4. The Impact of a 24 Month Housing First Intervention on Participants’ Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: Results from the At Home / Chez Soi Toronto Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Misir, Vachan; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; O’Campo, Patricia; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Hwang, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that individuals experiencing homelessness have high rates of overweight and obesity. Unhealthy weights and homelessness are both associated with increased risk of poor health and mortality. Using longitudinal data from 575 participants at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial, we investigate the impact of receiving a Housing First intervention on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference of participants with moderate and high needs for mental health support services. The ANCOVA results indicate that the intervention resulted in no significant change in BMI or waist circumference from baseline to 24 months. The findings suggest a need for a better understanding of factors contributing to overweight, obesity, and high waist circumference in populations who have histories of housing precarity and experience low-income in tandem with other concerns such as mental illness and addictions. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register ISRCTN42520374 PMID:26418677

  5. The Impact of Clinical Information on the Assessment of Endoscopic Activity: Characteristics of the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index Of Severity [UCEIS

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Dan; Feagan, Brian G.; Abreu, Maria T.; Altman, Douglas G.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Krzeski, Piotr; Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Marteau, Philippe R.; Mary, Jean-Yves; Reinisch, Walter; Sands, Bruce E.; Schnell, Patrick; Yacyshyn, Bruce R.; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Bernhardt, Christian A.; Sandborn, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: To determine whether clinical information influences endoscopic scoring by central readers using the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity [UCEIS; comprising ‘vascular pattern’, ‘bleeding’, ‘erosions and ulcers’]. Methods: Forty central readers performed 28 evaluations, including 2 repeats, from a library of 44 video sigmoidoscopies stratified by Mayo Clinic Score. Following training, readers were randomised to scoring with [‘unblinded’, n = 20, including 4 control videos with misleading information] or without [‘blinded’, n 20] clinical information. A total of 21 virtual Central Reader Groups [CRGs], of three blinded readers, were created. Agreement criteria were pre-specified. Kappa [κ] statistics quantified intra- and inter-reader variability. Results: Mean UCEIS scores did not differ between blinded and unblinded readers for any of the 40 main videos. UCEIS standard deviations [SD] were similar [median blinded 0.94, unblinded 0.93; p = 0.97]. Correlation between UCEIS and visual analogue scale [VAS] assessment of overall severity was high [r blinded = 0.90, unblinded = 0.93; p = 0.02]. Scores for control videos were similar [UCEIS: p ≥ 0.55; VAS: p ≥ 0.07]. Intra- [κ 0.47–0.74] and inter-reader [κ 0.40–0.53] variability for items and full UCEIS was ‘moderate’-to-‘substantial’, with no significant differences except for intra-reader variability for erosions and ulcers [κ blinded: 0.47 vs unblinded: 0.74; p 0.047]. The SD of CRGs was lower than for individual central readers [0.54 vs 0.95; p < 0.001]. Correlation between blinded UCEIS and patient-reported symptoms was high [stool frequency: 0.76; rectal bleeding: 0.82; both: 0.81]. Conclusions: The UCEIS is minimally affected by knowledge of clinical details, strongly correlates with patient-reported symptoms, and is a suitable instrument for trials. CRGs performed better than individuals. PMID:25956538

  6. Impact of Body Mass Index on In-Hospital Complications in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Japanese Real-World Multicenter Registry

    PubMed Central

    Numasawa, Yohei; Kohsaka, Shun; Miyata, Hiroaki; Kawamura, Akio; Noma, Shigetaka; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Susumu; Momiyama, Yukihiko; Naito, Kotaro; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with advanced cardiovascular disease. However, some studies have reported the “obesity paradox” after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcomes after PCI has not been thoroughly investigated, especially in Asian populations. Methods We studied 10,142 patients who underwent PCI at 15 Japanese hospitals participating in the JCD-KICS registry from September 2008 to April 2013. Patients were divided into four groups according to BMI: underweight, BMI <18.5 (n=462); normal, BMI ≥18.5 and <25.0 (n=5,945); overweight, BMI ≥25.0 and <30.0 (n=3,100); and obese, BMI ≥30.0 (n=635). Results Patients with a high BMI were significantly younger (p<0.001) and had a higher incidence of coronary risk factors such as hypertension (p<0.001), hyperlipidemia (p<0.001), diabetes mellitus (p<0.001), and current smoking (p<0.001), than those with a low BMI. Importantly, patients in the underweight group had the worst in-hospital outcomes, including overall complications (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese groups: 20.4%, 11.5%, 8.4%, and 10.2%, p<0.001), in-hospital mortality (5.8%, 2.1%, 1.2%, and 2.7%, p<0.001), cardiogenic shock (3.5%, 2.0%, 1.5%, and 1.6%, p=0.018), bleeding complications (10.0%, 4.5%, 2.6%, and 2.8%, p<0.001), and receiving blood transfusion (7.6%, 2.7%, 1.6%, and 1.7%, p<0.001). BMI was inversely associated with bleeding complications after adjustment by multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.92–0.98; p=0.002). In subgroup multivariate analysis of patients without cardiogenic shock, BMI was inversely associated with overall complications (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95–0.99; p=0.033) and bleeding complications (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91–0.98; p=0.006). Furthermore, there was a trend that BMI was moderately associated with in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88–1.01; p=0.091). Conclusions Lean

  7. Comparative evaluation of naftopidil and tamsulosin in the treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Griwan, Mahavir Singh; Karthikeyan, Y. R.; Kumar, Mandeep; Singh, Bikram Jit; Singh, Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Naftopidil, approved initially in Japan, is an α1d-adrenergic receptor antagonist (α1-blocker) used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It is different from tamsulosin hydrochloride and silodosin, in that it has a higher affinity for the α1D-adrenergic receptor subtype than for the α1A subtype and has a superior efficacy to a placebo and comparable efficacy to other α1-blockers such as tamsulosin. The incidences of ejaculatory disorders and intraoperative floppy iris syndrome induced by naftopidil may also be lower than that for tamsulosin and silodosin, which have a high affinity for the α1A-adrenergic receptor subtype. However, it remains unknown if the efficacy and safety of naftopidil in Japanese men is applicable to Indian men having LUTS/BPH. Material and Methods: Two groups of 60 patients each, having LUTS due to BPH, were treated with tamsulosin 0.4 mg and Naftopidil 75 mg for three months. Ultrasonography (for prostate size, post-void residual volume), uroflowmetry, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Quality of Life (QOL) score were recorded at the beginning of the study, and then at one and three months. Results: The prostate size, post-void residual volume, all the uroflowmetry variables, and the IPSS QOL scores showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.001) in both the groups. The improvement in the average flow rate and the QOL index was better in the naftopidil group on the intergroup comparison and was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Although the QOL life index was significantly better in the naftopidil group, overall both naftopidil and tamsulosin were found to be equally effective in the treatment of LUTS due to BPH. PMID:25125888

  8. Increased production of interleukin 1 beta and hepatocyte growth factor may contribute to foveolar hyperplasia in enlarged fold gastritis.

    PubMed Central

    Yasunaga, Y; Shinomura, Y; Kanayama, S; Higashimoto, Y; Yabu, M; Miyazaki, Y; Kondo, S; Murayama, Y; Nishibayashi, H; Kitamura, S; Matsuzawa, Y

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been reported that eradication of Helicobacter pylori improves fold width in H pylori associated enlarged fold gastritis. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of fold thickening in this condition. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In eight patients with enlarged fold gastritis and 13 patients without enlarged folds, the presence of H pylori infection, inflammatory infiltrates, mucosal plasia, and epithelial cell proliferation in the body mucosa were investigated, and production of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and interleukin 1 beta (IL 1 beta) was determined by a competitive reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction method and in vitro short-term culture of biopsy specimens. RESULTS: In the patients with enlarged fold gastritis, inflammatory infiltrates including macrophages increased with H pylori colonisation in the body. Foveolar thickness and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labelling index were increased. Messenger RNA levels of HGF, but not TGF alpha, were increased, and release of HGF and IL 1 beta was increased. HGF release, which was positively correlated with IL 1 beta release and foveolar thickness, decreased in the presence of IL 1 receptor antagonist. After eradication of H pylori, inflammatory infiltrates, IL 1 beta and HGF release decreased with concomitant decreases in PCNA labelling index, foveolar thickness and fold width. CONCLUSIONS: Increased IL 1 beta and HGF production caused by H pylori infection may contribute to fold thickening of the stomach by stimulating epithelial cell proliferation and foveolar hyperplasia in patients with enlarged fold gastritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 7 PMID:9038658

  9. Transgenic expression of human amphiregulin in mouse skin: inflammatory epidermal hyperplasia and enlarged sebaceous glands

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Stoll, Stefan W.; Sekhon, Sahil; Talsma, Caroline; Camhi, Maya I.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Lambert, Sylviane; Marley, Hue; Rittié, Laure; Grachtchouk, Marina; Fritz, Yi; Ward, Nicole L.; Elder, James T.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the role of amphiregulin in inflammatory epidermal hyperplasia, we overexpressed human AREG (hAREG) in FVB/N mice using a bovine K5 promoter. A construct containing AREG coding sequences flanked by 5′ and 3′ untranslated region sequences (AREG-UTR) led to a >10-fold increase in hAREG expression compared to an otherwise-identical construct containing only the coding region (AREG-CDR). AREG-UTR mice developed tousled, greasy fur as well as elongated nails and thickened, erythematous tail skin. No such phenotype was evident in AREG-CDR mice. Histologically, AREG-UTR mice presented with marked epidermal hyperplasia of tail skin (2.1-fold increase in epidermal thickness with a 9.5-fold increase in Ki-67+ cells) accompanied by significantly increased CD4+ T-cell infiltration. Dorsal skin of AREG-UTR mice manifested lesser but still significant increases in epidermal thickness and keratinocyte hyperplasia. AREG-UTR mice also developed marked and significant sebaceous gland enlargement, with corresponding increases in Ki-67+ cells. To determine the response of AREG-UTR animals to a pro-inflammatory skin challenge, topical imiquimod (IMQ) or vehicle cream was applied to dorsal and tail skin. IMQ increased dorsal skin thickness similarly in both AREG-UTR and wild type mice (1.7- and 2.2-fold vs vehicle, P < 0.001 each), but had no such effect on tail skin. These results confirm that keratinocyte expression of hAREG elicits inflammatory epidermal hyperplasia, and are consistent with prior reports of tail epidermal hyperplasia and increased sebaceous gland size in mice expressing human epigen. PMID:26519132

  10. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Mafalda Costa; Stamp, Gordon; Mudan, Satvinder

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are thought to derive from or differentiate towards the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) as most demonstrate a similar immunoprofile: CD117+, CD34+ and DOG1+. ICC hyperplasia refers to KIT-expressing microscopic spindle cell proliferations involving the myenteric plexus. Case report 74 year-old male presented with a 5-year history of heartburn and dysphagia. Imaging revealed a 4 cm GIST in the gastric fundus. Pathology of the resected specimen revealed diffuse segmental ICC hyperplasia harbouring two macroscopic GISTs and a ‘tumorlet’. A mutation in c-KIT exon 11 was detected in both the solid and the diffuse components. Discussion ICC hyperplasia can occur either as a sporadic focal lesion or in a syndromic setting, known to predispose to multiple GIST tumours at different sites. The majority of cases of sporadic ICC hyperplasia previously reported were of localised type. The hereditary form is mostly caused by germline mutations in c-KIT and PDGFRA or in patients with NF-1 andpresents as a diffuse hyperplasia, usually with a confluent, nodular or multifocal growth pattern. Conclusion We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder. PMID:26521201

  11. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  12. Impact of nutritional supplementation on immune response, body mass index and bioelectrical impedance in HIV-positive patients starting antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Challenges to HIV care in resource limited settings (RLS) include malnutrition. Limited evidence supports the benefit of nutritional supplementation when starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in RLS. Methods Randomized controlled pilot study. HIV-positive ART-naive adults with self-reported weight loss were randomized to receive ART plus FutureLife porridge® nutritional supplement (NS) (388 kcal/day) or ART alone (Controls) for 6 months. Patients returned for monthly assessments and blood was drawn at enrolment and 6 months on ART. Differences in body composition, biochemical and laboratory parameters were estimated at 6 months on treatment. Results Of the 36 randomized patients, 26 completed the 6 month follow-up (11 NS vs 15 Controls). At enrolment, groups were similar in terms of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and bioelectrical impedance. NS patients had a lower median CD4 count (60 cells/mm3 [IQR 12–105 vs 107 cells/mm3 [IQR 63–165]; p = 0.149) and hemoglobin (10.3 g/dL [IQR 9.0-11.3] vs 13.1 g/dL [IQR 11.1-14.7]; p = 0.001). At 6 months, NS patients increased their median CD4 count by 151 cells/mm3 [IQR 120–174) vs 77 cells/mm3 [IQR 33–145] in the Controls. NS patients had higher mean percentage change in body weight (12.7% vs 4.9%; p = 0.047), BMI (7.8% vs 5.5%; p = 0.007), absolute CD4 count (83.0% vs 46.4%, p = 0.002) and hemoglobin (9.5% vs 1.0%; p = 0.026). Patients in the NS arm had a higher mean percentage fat-free mass (16.7% vs −3.5%, p = 0.036), total body water (13.0% vs −1.9%, p = 0.026), intracellular water (16.1% vs −4.1%, p = 0.010) and basal metabolic rate (5.3% vs −0.2%, p = 0.014) compared to Controls. Patients in the NS arm also showed an improvement in physical activity at 6 months post-ART initiation compared to Controls (p = 0.037). Conclusion Preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that NS taken concurrently with ART can promote weight gain

  13. Simulation Of Fluctuating Geomagnetic Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, John; Tabor, Jill

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model produces synthetic geomagnetic-index (ap) data including short-term fluctuations like those of real ap data. Measures geomagnetic activity computed from measurements of fluctuations in geomagnetic field taken at 12 high-latitude stations every 3 hours. Used in studies of interactions between solar wind and Earth, especially in studies of effect of geomagnetic field upon heating of thermosphere by impacts of energetic charged solar-wind particles.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pronghorn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Cook, John G.; Armbruster, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  15. N-acetylcysteine improves redox status, mitochondrial dysfunction, mucin-depleted crypts and epithelial hyperplasia in dextran sulfate sodium-induced oxidative colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Amrouche-Mekkioui, Ilhem; Djerdjouri, Bahia

    2012-09-15

    The effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a pharmacological antioxidant was investigated in a murine model of chronic colitis. Male NMRI mice were given 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 10 days of water, three times. Compared to control mice given water, DSS-treated mice displayed severe imbalanced redox status with decreased glutathione and catalase, but increased malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase levels, at days 35th (active colitis) and 45th (recovery period). It also resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, mucosal ulcers, mucin-depleted crypts and epithelial cell apoptosis. Crypt abscesses and glandular hyperplasia occurred selectively in distal colon. NAC (150 mg/kg) given in drinking water for 45 days along with 3 DSS cycles improved the hallmarks of DSS-colitis. Interestingly, the moderate impact of NAC on lipids and proteins oxidation correlated with myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide levels.NAC as a mucoregulator and a thiol restoring agent is protective on oxidative crypt alterations, mucin depletion, epithelial cell hyperplasia and apoptosis. Taken together, our results highlight the role of NAC as a scavenger of phagocytes-derived reactive oxygen species in mice DDS-colitis, suggesting that a long term NAC diet might be beneficial in inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. PMID:22732651

  16. Dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI imaging findings in sporadic primary hyperplasia of parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi-Sheng; Wang, Chang-Yin; Wang, Bi-Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Primary hyperplasia of parathyroid is uncommon and rarely documented in literatures. We report an 18-year-old female patient with hyperparathyroidism due to unifocal primary hyperplasia of parathyroid glands. Dual-phase Tc-MIBI imaging was performed for this patient. We found remarkably increased MIBI uptake in the hyperplastic lesion in early imaging and no extinction of the uptake in delayed imaging. These results suggest that the dual-phase Tc-MIBI imaging is useful in localizing the hyperfunctioning lesions of primary hyperplasia of parathyroid glands. PMID:25706786

  17. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo: A Separate Entity or Hypertrophic Lichen Planus-like Reaction?

    PubMed

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Junkins-Hopkins, Jacqueline M

    2015-12-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as "lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia" or "hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction." Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  18. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  19. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  20. Subtype selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Forray; Noble

    1999-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is highly prevalent in the male population beyond the age of 60. Impairment of urinary flow due to prostate enlargement gives rise to symptoms of 'prostatism' that have a detrimental impact on the quality of life. The current trend in the management of symptomatic BPH favours pharmacotherapy as a first line option, while the number of surgical procedures being performed has experienced a steady decline during the last ten years. Among the pharmacological treatments, the use of alpha1-adrenoceptor blockers has demonstrated to be an effective treatment option for BPH. These agents reduce the adrenergic tone to the prostate and increase urinary flow, with a concomitant reduction of lower urinary tract symptoms. The alpha1-blockers currently approved include compounds such as alfuzosin, terazosin and doxazosin, originally developed for the treatment of hypertension, and more recently tamsulosin, an alpha1-subtype selective drug. The blockade of alpha1-adrenoceptors present in vascular smooth muscle is largely responsible for the most prominent side effects of current drugs, which can be severe and require patients dose titration. The limitation imposed by side effects naturally raises the possibility that complete blockade of prostatic alpha1 receptors is not attained at the maximum tolerated dose. The extensive efforts by the pharmaceutical industry towards the development of uroselective alpha1-blockers, is the subject of this review. Advances in the molecular cloning of genes encoding three alpha1-adrenoceptors led to the identification of the alpha1A-subtype as the predominant receptor responsible for the contraction of prostate smooth muscle. In preclinical animal models, selective alpha1A-antagonists have consistently been found to have minimal cardiovascular effects, thus providing a pharmacological rationale for uroselectivity. It has also become apparent, however, that uroselectivity can emerge in a poorly understood manner

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Transurethral Needle Ablation in symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bouza, Carmen; López, Teresa; Magro, Angeles; Navalpotro, Lourdes; Amate, José María

    2006-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) constitutes a major clinical problem. Minimally invasive therapies for the treatment of symptomatic BPH include Transurethral Needle Ablation (TUNA), but it is unclear what impact this technique has on the disease and its role among other currently available therapeutic options. The objective of this study is to ascertain the efficacy and safety of TUNA in the treatment of BPH. Methods Systematic review of the literature until January 2005 and meta-analysis of clinical studies assessing TUNA in symptomatic BPH. Studies were critically appraised. Estimates of effect were calculated according to the random-effects model. Results 35 studies (9 comparative, 26 non-comparative) were included. Although evidence was limited by methodological issues, the analysis of relevant outcomes indicates that while TUNA significantly improves BPH parameters with respect to baseline, it does not reach the same level of efficacy as TURP in respect to all subjective and objective variables. Further, its efficacy declines in the long-term with a rate of secondary-treatment significantly higher than of TURP [OR: 7.44 (2.47, 22.43)]. Conversely, TUNA seems to be a relatively safe technique and shows a lower rate of complications than TURP [OR:0.14 (0.05, 0.14)] with differences being particularly noteworthy in terms of postoperative bleeding and sexual disorders. Likewise, TUNA has fewer anesthetic requirements and generates a shorter hospital stay than TURP [WMD: -1.9 days (-2.75, -1.05)]. Scarce data and lack of replication of comparisons hinder the assessment of TUNA vs. other local therapies. No comparisons with medical treatment were found. Conclusion The body of evidence on which TUNA has been introduced into clinical practice is of only moderate-low quality. Available evidence suggest that TUNA is a relatively effective and safe technique that may eventually prove to have a role in selected patients with symptomatic BPH. TUNA

  2. California Nitrogen Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California N Index User Manual is designed to help you become accustomed to the software environment in which the N Index runs. This manual will use an example scenario to demonstrate how to use the N Index to assess nitrogen losses. The objective of this theoretical example is to guide you towa...

  3. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  4. Successful treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, characterized by bilateral macronodular adrenal hypertrophy and autonomous cortisol production, is a rare cause of Cushing’s syndrome. Bilateral adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia but obliges the patient to receive lifetime steroid replacement therapy subsequently, and may increase the patient’s risk of adrenal insufficiency. These circumstances require surgeons to carefully consider operative strategies on an individual basis. Case presentation We performed successful laparoscopic adrenalectomy on four patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Computed tomography scans showed bilateral adrenal enlargement in all patients. Case 1: a 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with obvious Cushing’s symptoms during treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Case 2: a 37-year-old Japanese man also presented with Cushing’s symptoms during treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. These patients were diagnosed as Cushing’s syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia based on endocrinologic testing, and underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Case 3: an 80-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized due to unusual weight gain and heightened general fatigue, and was diagnosed as Cushing’s syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. She underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy due to high operative risk. Case 4: a 66-year-old Japanese man was discovered to have bilateral adrenal tumors on medical examination. He did not have Cushing’s symptoms and was diagnosed as subclinical Cushing’s syndrome due to suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone serum levels and loss of cortisol circadian rhythm without abnormal levels of

  5. Alfuzosin. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wilde, M I; Fitton, A; McTavish, D

    1993-03-01

    Alfuzosin, a new quinazoline derivative, acts as a selective and competitive antagonist of alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction of prostatic, prostatic capsule, bladder base and proximal urethral smooth muscle, thereby reducing the tone of these structures. Consequently, urethral pressure and resistance, bladder outlet resistance, bladder instability and symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia are reduced. A limited range of clinical studies have shown oral alfuzosin to be more effective than placebo (in studies of < or = 6 months duration), to have sustained effects on long term administration (< or = 30 months), and to be comparable with the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, in the symptomatic treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This is reflected in increases in urinary flow rate and decreases in symptom score and residual urinary volume. The most marked improvements occur in patients with severe pretreatment urinary flow abnormalities. Furthermore, preliminary results suggest a beneficial effect of alfuzosin on quality of life in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The overall incidence of adverse effects appears similar to that with placebo, and the incidence of vasodilatory-related adverse effects appears lower than that with prazosin. The relative selectivity of alfuzosin for alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the genitourinary tract compared with receptors in the vasculature is a potential advantage over other alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, including prazosin, as the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia may be reduced by alfuzosin at doses that have minimal vasodilatory effects, thereby minimising postural hypotension and syncope. However, vasodilatory-related adverse effects are the most common adverse effects that occur with alfuzosin, and dose and first-dose hypotensive relationships, especially in the elderly, cannot be excluded at this stage in the clinical use of alfuzosin. The full potential of alfuzosin in the

  6. Modelling ultrasound-induced mild hyperthermia of hyperplasia in vascular grafts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts frequently develop occlusive neointimal hyperplasia as a result of myofibroblast over-growth, leading to graft failure. ePTFE exhibits higher ultrasound attenuation than native soft tissues. We modelled the selective absorption of ultrasound by ePTFE, and explored the feasibility of preventing hyperplasia in ePTFE grafts by ultrasound heating. Specifically, we simulated the temperature profiles of implanted grafts and nearby soft tissues and blood under ultrasound exposure. The goal was to determine whether ultrasound exposure of an ePTFE graft can generate temperatures sufficient to prevent cell growth on the graft without damaging nearby soft tissues and blood. Methods Ultrasound beams from two transducers (1.5 and 3.2 MHz) were simulated in two graft/tissue models, with and without an intra-graft cellular layer mimicking hyperplasia, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The resulting power deposition patterns were used as a heat source for the Pennes bioheat equation in a COMSOL® Multiphysics heat transfer model. 50°C is known to cause cell death and therefore the transducer powers were adjusted to produce a 13°C temperature rise from 37°C in the ePTFE. Results Simulations showed that both the frequency of the transducers and the presence of hyperplasia significantly affect the power deposition patterns and subsequent temperature profiles on the grafts and nearby tissues. While neither transducer significantly raised the temperature of the blood, the 1.5-MHz transducer was less focused and heated larger volumes of the graft and nearby soft tissues than the 3.2-MHz transducer. The presence of hyperplasia had little effect on the blood's temperature, but further increased the temperature of the graft and nearby soft tissues in response to either transducer. Skin cooling and blood flow play a significant role in preventing overheating of the native tissues. Conclusions

  7. Graves' Patient with Thymic Expression of Thyrotropin Receptors and Dynamic Changes in Thymic Hyperplasia Proportional to Graves' Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young Shin; Won, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dong-Wan; Chung, June-Key; Park, Do Joon

    2016-01-01

    Thymic hyperplasia is frequently observed in Graves' disease. However, detectable massive enlargement of the thymus is rare, and the mechanism of its formation has remained elusive. This case showed dynamic changes in thymic hyperplasia on serial computed tomography images consistent with changes in serum thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) antibodies and thyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, the patient's thymic tissues underwent immunohistochemical staining for TSH-R, which demonstrated the presence of thymic TSH-R. The correlation between serum TSH-R antibody levels and thymic hyperplasia sizes and the presence of TSH-R in her thymus suggest that TSH-R antibodies could have a pathogenic role in thymic hyperplasia. PMID:26996584

  8. Megestrol Acetate or Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System in Treating Patients With Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia or Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-09

    Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVB Endometrial Carcinoma

  9. Spatial function in adolescents and young adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: clinical phenotype and implications for the androgen hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Rovet, Joanne F

    2015-04-01

    Females with the classic form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are said to perform better than unaffected female controls on tests of mental rotation or other visuospatial abilities, but findings are conflicting. We studied 31 adolescents and young adults with CAH and 19 unaffected sibling controls, who were given standardized spatial tests and tests of other sexually differentiated cognitive functions (verbal fluency, perceptual speed). The possible role of CAH subtype (salt-wasting or simple-virilizing) was evaluated. Only females with the more severe, salt-wasting form of CAH, but not females with the simple-virilizing form, performed significantly better than sex-matched sibling controls on measures of mental rotation. Subtype differences were not significant for verbal fluency or perceptual speed. Severity of prenatal genital virilization, but not postnatal age when medication was started, predicted accuracy on the Mental Rotations Test. Results are consistent with the possibility of an organizational effect of androgens in the central nervous system that impacts the development of spatial abilities. Implications for the timing of the hypothetical critical period are discussed. PMID:25686803

  10. Prostatic urethral lift: A minimally invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cindy; Chin, Peter; Rashid, Prem; Woo, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The procedure may be performed under local, spinal, or general anesthesia. The PUL procedure involves the delivery of implants that retract obstructing prostate lobes. Unlike other benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment options including pharmacological therapy, and the current invasive gold-standard transurethral resection of the prostate, the PUL procedure achieves quantifiable improvements in functional outcomes and quality of life, in the absence of major adverse events. Furthermore, improvement in LUTS may be attained while preserving erectile and ejaculatory function. Adverse effects associated with the PUL procedure are mild to moderate, and are transient in nature. The PUL procedure provides an alternative for men seeking treatment for bothersome LUTS, with fewer side-effects. PMID:26157759

  11. Association of canine splenic hemangiosarcomas and hematomas with nodular lymphoid hyperplasia or siderotic nodules.

    PubMed

    Cole, Patricia Ann

    2012-07-01

    Hemorrhagic splenic masses diagnosed as hemangioma or hemangiosarcoma were reviewed. Lymphoid hyperplasia was present in none of the hemangiosarcoma cases and in 27% of the hematoma cases. Siderotic nodules in the capsule or trabeculae were present in 25% of hemangiosarcoma cases and in 36% of hematoma cases. Hemoabdomen was noted in the clinical history of 54% of hemangiosarcoma cases and in 22% of hematoma cases. The average age (10.3 and 9.6 years, respectively), sex ratios (slightly more males), and most common breeds (Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, and German Shepherd Dog) were similar for the hemangiosarcoma and hematoma cases. Since lymphoid hyperplasia is much more common in cases of hematoma, the presence of this feature lends support to a diagnosis of hematoma rather than hemangiosarcoma. Signalment, history of hemoabdomen, and presence of siderotic nodules do not point to one diagnosis over the other. PMID:22621950

  12. Anoctamin 1 (TMEM16A) is essential for testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Joo Young; Wee, Jungwon; Jung, Jooyoung; Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Byeongjun; Hong, Gyu-Sang; Chang, Beom Chul; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee; Min, Hye-Young; Lee, Ho-Young; Na, Tae-Young; Lee, Mi-Ock; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by an enlargement of the prostate, causing lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that mediates various physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate that it is essential for testosterone-induced BPH. ANO1 was highly amplified in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated prostate epithelial cells, whereas the selective knockdown of ANO1 inhibited DHT-induced cell proliferation. Three androgen-response elements were found in the ANO1 promoter region, which is relevant for the DHT-dependent induction of ANO1. Administration of the ANO1 blocker or Ano1 small interfering RNA, inhibited prostate enlargement and reduced histological abnormalities in vivo. We therefore concluded that ANO1 is essential for the development of prostate hyperplasia and is a potential target for the treatment of BPH. PMID:26153424

  13. Fetal endocrine therapy for congenital adrenal hyperplasia should not be done.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by administering dexamethasone to a woman presumed to be carrying an at-risk fetus remains a controversial experimental treatment. Review of data from animal experimentation and human trials indicates that dexamethasone cannot be considered safe for the fetus. In animals, prenatal dexamethasone decreases birth weight, affects renal, pancreatic beta cell and brain development, increases anxiety and predisposes to adult hypertension and hyperglycemia. In human studies, prenatal dexamethasone is associated with orofacial clefts, decreased birth weight, poorer verbal working memory, and poorer self-perception of scholastic and social competence. Numerous medical societies have cautioned that prenatal treatment of adrenal hyperplasia with dexamethasone is not appropriate for routine clinical practice and should only be done in Institutional Review Board approved, prospective clinical research settings with written informed consent. The data indicate that this treatment is inconsistent with the classic medical ethical maxim to 'first do no harm'. PMID:26051303

  14. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 13 from focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, H; Hettich, I; Runne, U; Gissmann, L; Chilf, G N

    1983-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck lesions of a Turkish patient were shown to contain papillomavirus-specific DNA, which was molecularly cloned into bacteriophage lambda. It proved to be related to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 DNA and HPV type 11 DNA. Reassociation kinetics revealed a cross-hybridization of 4 and 3%, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity with HPV type 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, or 10. This papillomavirus type will be referred to as HPV type 13. The DNA was characterized by cleavage with several restriction enzymes, and the cleavage sites were physically mapped. Papules from two additional cases of Morbus Heck contained HPV type 13 DNA as shown by Southern blot hybridization and by the characteristic cleavage patterns. This may indicate that HPV type 13 is more frequently associated with focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck than are other HPV types. Images PMID:6312071

  15. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia of the Mediastinum (Castleman's Disease): Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Muhammad A.K.; Ferrante, John W.; Gielchinsky, Isaac; Norman, John C.

    1984-01-01

    Giant lymph node hyperplasia is a rare, benign disease involving lymph nodes in various locations, predominantly in the mediastinum. There are two variants: plasma cell (earlier and/or acute) and hyaline-vascular, more chronic with an intermediate transitional type. The usual presentation is a solitary well-circumscribed asymptomatic mass lesion, often attaining large size, with infrequent associated hematologic manifestations. A case of giant lymph node hyperplasia involving the paravertebral superior mediastinum is reported. Surgical excision was the treatment of choice in a 65-year-old man, and at thoractomy, an encapsulated mass was excised from the posterior superior mediastinum. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged on the tenth postoperative day. Three years later, he is well and employed as a carpenter. Images PMID:15226878

  16. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency in a domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Knighton, Elizabeth L

    2004-07-15

    A calico-colored domestic shorthair cat was examined because of possible cryptorchidism. The cat had a fully formed penis, prepuce, and scrotum, but no descended testes, and exploratory laparotomy revealed a grossly normal female internal genital tract (ie, 2 ovaries, 2 uterine horns, and uterine body). Chromosomal analysis revealed a normal female (38,XX) karyotype. Four months later, the cat was examined because of polyuria, polydipsia, and inappropriate urination. Serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations were low, and results of an ACTH stimulation test were suggestive of decreased adrenal gland function. Serum ACTH, testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and deoxycorticosterone concentrations were high, and a diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency was made. Treatment with prednisone diminished clinical signs but had a variable effect on corticosteroids hormone concentrations. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a cat. PMID:15323380

  17. Prosthetic rehabilitation of hemimandibular hyperplasia: five-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Bulent; Ozpinar, Birgul; Ozgur, Levent; Comlekoglu, M Erhan; Aladag, Akin; Akar, Gulcan Coskun

    2010-01-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia is a rare asymmetrical mandibular malformation, characterized by enlargement of the condyle, the condylar neck, the ramus, and the body of the mandible. This condition results in laterognathia, dental articulation disorders, and functional defects. Therapy largely depends on the patient's age and the desired esthetic and functional results. This clinical report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a 50-year-old woman with hemimandibular hyperplasia. During the diagnostic phase, facial asymmetry was observed, as was the chin midline shifting to the unaffected side and three-dimensional enlargement of one side of the mandible, the condyle, the condylar neck, and the ramus. No biomechanical or functional problems were seen at a five-year follow-up visit, except for physiological wear to the artificial teeth. PMID:20236910

  18. Feminising genitoplasty: one-stage genital reconstruction in congenital adrenal hyperplasia: 30 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Roll, M F; Kneppo, C; Roth, H; Bettendorf, M; Waag, K-L; Holland-Cunz, S

    2006-10-01

    The study objective is to evaluate the results of our surgical technique for children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia at the University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Paediatric Surgery. The records of 19 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia treated between 1972 and 2004 were reviewed with respect to age at surgery, operative procedures and outcome. We describe the recession clitoroplasty technique currently used in our hospital and highlight the importance of short and long-term follow-up results with respect to appearance, position and size of the clitoris and quality of the vagina. One-stage recession clitoroplasty and vaginoplasty gives very satisfactory cosmetic and functional results, with few complications and a reduced need for secondary surgical interventions. The results of this study support the assumption that total correction can be achieved through a single-stage operation, performed in infancy. PMID:17160777

  19. Use of a Cumulative Exposure Index to Estimate the Impact of Tap Water Lead Concentration on Blood Lead Levels in 1- to 5-Year-Old Children (Montréal, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Ngueta, Gerard; Abdous, Belkacem; Tardif, Robert; St-Laurent, Julie; Levallois, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Drinking water is recognized as a source of lead (Pb) exposure. However, questions remain about the impact of chronic exposure to lead-contaminated water on internal dose. Objective Our goal was to estimate the relation between a cumulative water Pb exposure index (CWLEI) and blood Pb levels (BPb) in children 1–5 years of ages. Methods Between 10 September 2009 and 27 March 2010, individual characteristics and water consumption data were obtained from 298 children. Venous blood samples were collected (one per child) and a total of five 1-L samples of water per home were drawn from the kitchen tap. A second round of water collection was performed between 22 June 2011 and 6 September 2011 on a subsample of houses. Pb analyses used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between CWLEI and BPb. Results Each 1-unit increase in CWLEI multiplies the expected value of BPb by 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.15) after adjustment for confounders. Mean BPb was significantly higher in children in the upper third and fourth quartiles of CWLEI (0.7–1.9 and ≥ 1.9 μg/kg of body weight) compared with the first (< 0.2 μg/kg) after adjusting for confounders (19%; 95% CI: 0, 42% and 39%; 95% CI: 15, 67%, respectively). The trends analysis yielded a p-value < 0.0001 after adjusting for confounders suggesting a dose–response relationship between percentiles of CWLEI and BPb. Conclusions In children 1–5 years of age, BPb was significantly associated with water lead concentration with an increase starting at a cumulative lead exposure of ≥ 0.7 μg Pb/kg of body weight. In this age group, an increase of 1 μg/L in water lead would result in an increase of 35% of BPb after 150 days of exposure. Citation Ngueta G, Abdous B, Tardif R, St-Laurent J, Levallois P. 2016. Use of a cumulative exposure index to estimate the impact of tap water lead concentration on blood lead levels in 1- to 5-year-old children

  20. In vitro gene amplification for prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Rumsby, G; Honour, J W

    1990-01-01

    A simple, rapid, non-radioactive method for detecting homozygous deletions/conversions of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene is described. In our experience this method will be useful for first trimester prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 17% of families of a child with the salt losing form. This test includes an internal control to monitor the success of amplification. Images PMID:2277381

  1. Neuropilins 1 and 2 mediate neointimal hyperplasia and re-endothelialization following arterial injury

    PubMed Central

    Pellet-Many, Caroline; Mehta, Vedanta; Fields, Laura; Mahmoud, Marwa; Lowe, Vanessa; Evans, Ian; Ruivo, Jorge; Zachary, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Aims Neuropilins 1 and 2 (NRP1 and NRP2) play crucial roles in endothelial cell migration contributing to angiogenesis and vascular development. Both NRPs are also expressed by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and are implicated in VSMC migration stimulated by PDGF-BB, but it is unknown whether NRPs are relevant for VSMC function in vivo. We investigated the role of NRPs in the rat carotid balloon injury model, in which endothelial denudation and arterial stretch induce neointimal hyperplasia involving VSMC migration and proliferation. Methods and results NRP1 and NRP2 mRNAs and proteins increased significantly following arterial injury, and immunofluorescent staining revealed neointimal NRP expression. Down-regulation of NRP1 and NRP2 using shRNA significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia following injury. Furthermore, inhibition of NRP1 by adenovirally overexpressing a loss-of-function NRP1 mutant lacking the cytoplasmic domain (ΔC) reduced neointimal hyperplasia, whereas wild-type (WT) NRP1 had no effect. NRP-targeted shRNAs impaired, while overexpression of NRP1 WT and NRP1 ΔC enhanced, arterial re-endothelialization 14 days after injury. Knockdown of either NRP1 or NRP2 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced rat VSMC migration, whereas knockdown of NRP2, but not NRP1, reduced proliferation of cultured rat VSMC and neointimal VSMC in vivo. NRP knockdown also reduced the phosphorylation of PDGFα and PDGFβ receptors in rat VSMC, which mediate VSMC migration and proliferation. Conclusion NRP1 and NRP2 play important roles in the regulation of neointimal hyperplasia in vivo by modulating VSMC migration (via NRP1 and NRP2) and proliferation (via NRP2), independently of the role of NRPs in re-endothelialization. PMID:26410366

  2. Pituicytoma Coexisting With Corticotroph Hyperplasia: Literature Review With One Case Report.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaopeng; Fu, Hanhui; Kong, Xiangyi; Gao, Lu; Wang, Wenze; Ma, Wenbin; Yao, Yong; Wang, Renzhi; Xing, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Pituicytoma is a rare, low-grade glial neoplasm that arises in the neurohypophysis or infundibulum and usually presents as pituitary gland enlargement. They are often misdiagnosed as pituitary adenomas. Causes have varied for high serum adrenocorticotropic hormone level reported in a few patients with pituicytoma.We report a rare case of pituicytoma accompanied by corticotroph hyperplasia-a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological signs, and biopsy.We present a case of pituicytoma with corticotroph hyperplasia in a 46-year-old woman with typical Cushing syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion in the sellar area with equal T1 and T2 signals and marked homogeneous enhancement. We present detailed analysis of the patient's disease course and review pertinent literature. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor of this journal. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary.The patient underwent a surgical exploration and tumor resection through a trans-sphenoidal approach. Pathologic results revealed pituicytoma and corticotroph hyperplasia. As adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels did not decrease to normal, the patient received radiotherapy and recovered uneventfully. No recurrence was found over 8 years of follow-up.Pituicytoma is a rare type of sellar tumor. Pituicytomas in patients with Cushing syndrome are rarer still. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Cushing syndrome caused by corticotroph hyperplasia in a pituicytoma patient. PMID:26962837

  3. A Case of Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of the Lower Eyelid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joung-Sun; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Seung-Chul; Won, Young Ho

    2008-01-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a subcutaneous angioproliferating tumor with a characteristic inflammatory infiltrate that consists mainly of lymphocytes and eosinophils. A 24-year-old man presented with a firm single asymptomatic erythematous papule on the lower eyelid. Histopathological findings showed a proliferation of blood vessels lined with epithelioid cells and perivascular infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophils. We report a case of ALHE occurring on an unusual site. PMID:27303178

  4. Cholecystitis Associated with Heterotopic Pancreas, Pseudopyloric Metaplasia, and Adenomyomatous Hyperplasia: A Rare Combination

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navjot; Chander, Bal; Kaur, Harjit; Kaul, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the gall bladder is an uncommon incidental finding in most cases. We hereby describe the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of acalculous cholecystitis. Pathological examination detected heterotopic pancreatic tissue, pseudopyloric metaplasia, and adenomyomatous hyperplasia in the gall bladder. This is a rare combination of three entities which is being reported for the first time. This case emphasizes that heterotopic pancreas might be the causative factor for cholecystitis. PMID:27365925

  5. A Case Report: Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Tumor Presenting as a Palpable Mass

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Q. D.; Koch, G.; Girard, J. M.; Zamora, L.; Bouquet de Jolinière, Jean; Khomsi, F.; Feki, A.; Hoogewoud, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of woman with a palpable lump on her left breast. On mammography, a huge mass located between the inner and the outer inferior breast quadrants of the left breast was found. The ultrasound examination realized later revealed a heterogeneous mass with smooth and lobulated borders. An MRI was also performed, showing an oval mass with heterogeneous areas of enhancement. Finally, a core biopsy under sonographic guidance revealed a pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast. PMID:26835457

  6. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) tumour at the surgical scar site in a patient of carcinoma breast.

    PubMed

    Abrari, Andleeb

    2011-01-01

    A patient on follow-up post surgery for carcinoma breast, presented with a nodule under the surgical scar. The sinister eventuality of recurrent carcinoma was clinically considered first. The lesion was biopsied and the histopathology was diagnostic of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia tumour. The nodule was excised and the patient's clinical denouement has been uneventful in the 4 months which have elapsed after this event. PMID:22688488

  7. Neonatal Coronoid Hyperplasia: A Report of a Case and Concepts to Promote Early Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wallender, Aaron; Ahson, Imran; Steinberg, Barry

    2015-08-01

    Limited mouth opening in the neonatal patient is primarily caused by either soft tissue or hard tissue pathologic features. Differentiation between the two can usually be elicited by physical examination with the patient under anesthesia. Limited opening from soft tissue pathologic features can be increased with stretching. In contrast, osseous pathologic features will produce an anatomic stop. Syndromic cases with hard tissue pathologic features are primarily due to coronoid hyperplasia. Our aims are to help clinicians evaluate and identify mandibular hypomobility in the pediatric patient resulting from coronoid hyperplasia and to promote early treatment to improve long-term oral function. We present the case of a 2-month-old male who was born premature at 30 weeks by emergency cesarean section. Examination revealed multiple anomalies, including significant trismus with a maximal opening of 4 mm. A computed tomography scan revealed significant bilateral coronoid hyperplasia. At the age of 90 days, the patient underwent bilateral coronoidectomies with endoscopic guidance under general anesthesia. After resection, the patient was able to open his mouth to 25 mm. This opening was maintained with postoperative physiotherapy. Clinical problems can arise from the potential sequelae of neonatal trismus. Acutely, these problems can range from feeding difficulty and potential malnutrition to aspiration and emergent airway compromise. Long-term consequences include growth restrictions because of malnutrition, speech delay, muscle contracture and atrophy, facial asymmetry, and the risk of infection owing to poor oral hygiene. Information is limited about neonatal treatment of condylar hyperplasia in the published data. Treatment tends to be delayed owing to a late diagnosis and referral, and patients are prone to developing relapse. Postoperative physical therapy will help to prevent relapse and allows for maintenance of the improved jaw range of motion. PMID:25865712

  8. Facial Asymmetry in Young Adults with Condylar Hyperplasia-Unusual Changes in the Facial Bones

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; JK, Dayashankar Rao; Goel, Sumit; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Facial asymmetry can be caused by various pathological conditions, condylar hyperplasia (CH) is one of such condition, characterized by unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar overgrowth, causing facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and functional impairment. Advanced imaging and scintigraphic methods, helps the clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring its macroscopic aspects. Here we report three interesting and illustrative cases of facial asymmetry with unilateral CH discussing the unusual changes in the facial bones. PMID:25738093

  9. Enhancement of cytosolic tyrosine kinase activity by propylthiouracil-induced hyperplasia in the rat thyroid.

    PubMed

    Polychronakos, C; Piscina, R; Fantus, I G

    1989-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) is a well established model of rapid cell proliferation in vivo. Recent evidence indicates that tyrosine kinase activity is associated with growth factor receptors and oncogene protein products and may have an important regulatory action in the control of cell growth. Thus, we examined tyrosine kinase activity in rat thyroid membrane and cytosol preparations at rest and during PTU-induced hyperplasia. Although kinase activity was present in a crude microsomal membrane preparation, no change was observed during thyroid growth. In contrast, tyrosine kinase activity assayed with the artificial substrate poly(Glu,Na:Tyr) 4:1 was present in normal rat thyroid cytosol and increased 2- to 6-fold during the rapid phase of hyperplasia in the first 5-10 days of PTU treatment. It declined to control values by day 15, when the size and DNA content of the thyroid reached a plateau. Preincubation of the cytosolic preparations with several peptides known to bind to and activate growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases failed to enhance the activity, suggesting, along with the cytosolic localization, that the activity was distinct from these receptors. By gel filtration chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tyrosine kinase activity was associated with a 55 kDa protein. Partial purification over a poly(Glu,Na:Tyr)4:1-Sepharose column, yielded a protein that appeared capable of autophosphorylation. It is suggested that this tyrosine kinase plays a role in mediating the growth-promoting effects of this model of thyroid cell hyperplasia. PMID:2909378

  10. Facial asymmetry in young adults with condylar hyperplasia-unusual changes in the facial bones.

    PubMed

    Gn, Suma; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Jk, Dayashankar Rao; Goel, Sumit; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Facial asymmetry can be caused by various pathological conditions, condylar hyperplasia (CH) is one of such condition, characterized by unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar overgrowth, causing facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and functional impairment. Advanced imaging and scintigraphic methods, helps the clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring its macroscopic aspects. Here we report three interesting and illustrative cases of facial asymmetry with unilateral CH discussing the unusual changes in the facial bones. PMID:25738093

  11. Antagonistic effect of Lepidium meyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Gasco, M; Malheiros-Pereira, A; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2008-06-01

    The plants from the Lepidium gender have demonstrated to have effect on the size of the prostate. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian plant that grows exclusively over 4000 m above sea level. The present study was designed to determine the effect of red maca (RM) in the prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone enanthate (TE) in adult mice. Prostate hyperplasia was induced by administering TE, and then these animals (n = 6, each group) were treated with RM or Finasteride (positive control) for 21 days. There was an additional group without prostate hyperplasia (vehicle). Mice were killed on days 7, 14 and 21 after treatment with RM. Testosterone and oestradiol levels were measured on the last day of treatment. Prostatic stroma, epithelium and acini were measured histologically. RM reduced prostate weight at 21 days of treatment. Weights of seminal vesicles, testis and epididymis were not affected by RM treatment. The reduction in prostate size by RM was 1.59 times. Histological analysis showed that TE increased 2-fold the acinar area, effect prevented in the groups receiving TE + RM for 14 (P < 0.05) and 21 (P < 0.05) days and the group receiving TE + Finasteride for 21 days (P < 0.05). TE increased prostatic stroma area and this effect was prevented by treatment with RM since 7 days of treatment or Finasteride. The reduction in prostatic stroma area by RM was 1.42 times. RM has an anti-hyperplastic effect on the prostate of adult mice when hyperplasia was induced with TE acting first at prostatic stromal level. PMID:18477205

  12. Prevalence and Impact of Co-morbidity Burden as Defined by the Charlson Co-morbidity Index on 30-Day and 1- and 5-Year Outcomes After Coronary Stent Implantation (from the Nobori-2 Study).

    PubMed

    Mamas, Mamas A; Fath-Ordoubadi, Farzin; Danzi, Gian B; Spaepen, Erik; Kwok, Chun Shing; Buchan, Iain; Peek, Niels; de Belder, Mark A; Ludman, Peter F; Paunovic, Dragica; Urban, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Co-morbidities have typically been considered as prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases rather than systematic measures of general co-morbidity burden in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Charlson co-morbidity index (CCI) is a measure of co-morbidity burden providing a means of quantifying the prognostic impact of 22 co-morbid conditions on the basis of their number and prognostic impact. The study evaluated the impact of the CCI on cardiac mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after PCI through analysis of the Nobori-2 study. The prognostic impact of CCI was studied in 3,067 patients who underwent PCI in 4,479 lesions across 125 centers worldwide on 30-day and 1- and 5-year cardiac mortality and MACE. Data were adjusted for potential confounders using stepwise logistic regression; 2,280 of 3,067 patients (74.4%) had ≥1 co-morbid conditions. CCI (per unit increase) was independently associated with an increase in both cardiac death (odds ratio [OR] 1.47 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20 to 1.80, p = 0.0002) and MACE (OR 1.29 95% CI 1.14 to 1.47, p ≤0.0011) at 30 days, with similar observations recorded at 1 and 5 years. CCI score ≥2 was independently associated with increased 30-day cardiac death (OR 4.25, 95% CI 1.24 to 14.56, p = 0.02) at 1 month, and this increased risk was also observed at 1 and 5 years. In conclusion, co-morbid burden, as measured using CCI, is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in the short, medium, and long term. Co-morbidity should be considered in the decision-making process when counseling patients regarding the periprocedural risks associated with PCI, in conjunction with traditional risk factors. PMID:26037294

  13. Direct transfer of transforming growth factor beta 1 gene into arteries stimulates fibrocellular hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Nabel, E G; Shum, L; Pompili, V J; Yang, Z Y; San, H; Shu, H B; Liptay, S; Gold, L; Gordon, D; Derynck, R

    1993-01-01

    The arterial wall responds to thrombosis or mechanical injury through the induction of specific gene products that increase cellular proliferation and connective tissue formation. These changes result in intimal hyperplasia that is observed in restenosis and the early phases of atherosclerosis. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a secreted multi-functional protein that plays an important role in embryonal development and in repair following tissue injury. However, the function of TGF-beta 1 in vascular cell growth in vivo has not been defined. In this report, we have evaluated the role of TGF-beta 1 in the pathophysiology of intimal and medial hyperplasia by gene transfer of an expression plasmid encoding active TGF-beta 1 into porcine arteries. Expression of TGF-beta 1 in normal arteries resulted in substantial extracellular matrix production accompanied by intimal and medial hyperplasia. Increased procollagen, collagen, and proteoglycan synthesis in the neointima was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry relative to control transfected arteries. Expression of TGF-beta 1 induced a distinctly different program of gene expression and biologic response from the platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF B) gene: procollagen synthesis induced by TGF-beta 1 was greater, and cellular proliferation was less prominent. These findings show that TGF-beta 1 differentially modulates extracellular matrix production and cellular proliferation in the arterial wall in vivo and could play a reparative role in the response to arterial injury. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8248168

  14. Leoligin, the major lignan from Edelweiss, inhibits intimal hyperplasia of venous bypass grafts

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Ute; Schwaiger, Stefan; Zeller, Iris; Messner, Barbara; Stigler, Robert; Wiedemann, Dominik; Mayr, Tobias; Seger, Christoph; Schachner, Thomas; Dirsch, Verena M.; Vollmar, Angelika M.; Bonatti, Johannes O.; Stuppner, Hermann; Laufer, Günther; Bernhard, David

    2009-01-01

    Aims Despite the lower patency of venous compared with arterial coronary artery bypass grafts, ∼50% of grafts used are saphenous vein conduits because of their easier accessibility. In a search for ways to increase venous graft patency, we applied the results of a previous pharmacological study screening for non-toxic compounds that inhibit intimal hyperplasia of saphenous vein conduits in organ cultures. Here we analyse the effects and mechanism of action of leoligin [(2S,3R,4R)-4-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran-3-yl]methyl (2Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoat, the major lignan from Edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum Cass.). Methods and results We found that leoligin potently inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G1-phase. Leoligin induced cell death neither in SMCs nor, more importantly, in endothelial cells. In a human saphenous vein organ culture model for graft disease, leoligin potently inhibited intimal hyperplasia, and even reversed graft disease in pre-damaged vessels. Furthermore, in an in vivo mouse model for venous bypass graft disease, leoligin potently inhibited intimal hyperplasia. Conclusion Our data suggest that leoligin might represent a novel non-toxic, non-thrombogenic, endothelial integrity preserving candidate drug for the treatment of vein graft disease. PMID:19228707

  15. Mediastinal seminoma with florid follicular lymphoid hyperplasia: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of six cases.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Moran, Cesar A

    2015-02-01

    Seminomas are unusual primary tumors of the anterior mediastinum. Morphologically, they are indistinguishable from their testicular counterparts; however, in the mediastinum, the occurrence of secondary changes such as cyst formation is not uncommon. We now describe six cases associated with florid follicular hyperplasia. The patients were male with an age range from 24 to 31 years. Clinically, symptoms included cough, dyspnea, and chest pain. Anterior mediastinal masses were detected on imaging and all patients underwent thymectomy. Macroscopically, all tumors had a fleshy, lobulated cut surface. Histologically, the tumors were composed of round to polygonal cells with indistinct cell borders, clear cytoplasm, and prominent nucleoli. Striking follicular hyperplasia was evident in all cases to a degree whereby the tumor component was nearly obscured. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the germinal centers were largely composed of B lymphocytes, and T cells were the predominant component of the interfollicular areas. Scattered Langerhans cells were noted in between tumor cells, and dendritic cells were seen in the mantle zones. All cases failed to show light chain restriction. Follow-up showed that five patients were alive and well 1-5 years after diagnosis, while one was lost to follow-up. Thymic seminomas can be associated with striking lymphoid follicular hyperplasia, likely as a response to specific tumor antigens. Familiarity with this variant of thymic seminoma is important in order not to misdiagnose these cases for reactive conditions or other tumors such as lymphoproliferative neoplasms which may require a different treatment approach. PMID:25425477

  16. Inhibition of Intimal Hyperplasia in Transgenic Mice Conditionally Expressing the Chemokine-Binding Protein M3

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Robert; Jensen, Kristian K.; Wiekowski, Maria T.; Manfra, Denise; Alcami, Antonio; Taubman, Mark B.; Lira, Sergio A.

    2004-01-01

    Chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases. This report describes the generation of transgenic mice that conditionally express M3, a herpesvirus protein that binds and inhibits chemokines. In response to doxycycline, M3 expression was induced in a variety of tissues and M3 was detectable in the blood by Western blotting. No gross or histological abnormalities were seen in mice expressing M3. To determine whether M3 expression could modify a significant pathophysiological response, we examined its effect on the development of intimal hyperplasia in response to femoral arterial injury. Intimal hyperplasia is thought to play a critical role in the development of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and in the progression of atherosclerosis. Induction of M3 expression resulted in a 67% reduction in intimal area and a 68% reduction in intimal/medial ratio after femoral artery injury. These data support a role for chemokines in regulating intimal hyperplasia and suggest that M3 may be effective in attenuating this process. This transgenic mouse model should be a valuable tool for investigating the role of chemokines in a variety of pathological states. PMID:15161661

  17. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia in transgenic mice conditionally expressing the chemokine-binding protein M3.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Robert; Jensen, Kristian K; Wiekowski, Maria T; Manfra, Denise; Alcami, Antonio; Taubman, Mark B; Lira, Sergio A

    2004-06-01

    Chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases. This report describes the generation of transgenic mice that conditionally express M3, a herpesvirus protein that binds and inhibits chemokines. In response to doxycycline, M3 expression was induced in a variety of tissues and M3 was detectable in the blood by Western blotting. No gross or histological abnormalities were seen in mice expressing M3. To determine whether M3 expression could modify a significant pathophysiological response, we examined its effect on the development of intimal hyperplasia in response to femoral arterial injury. Intimal hyperplasia is thought to play a critical role in the development of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and in the progression of atherosclerosis. Induction of M3 expression resulted in a 67% reduction in intimal area and a 68% reduction in intimal/medial ratio after femoral artery injury. These data support a role for chemokines in regulating intimal hyperplasia and suggest that M3 may be effective in attenuating this process. This transgenic mouse model should be a valuable tool for investigating the role of chemokines in a variety of pathological states. PMID:15161661

  18. Primary aldosteronism caused by unilateral adrenal hyperplasia: rethinking the accuracy of imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Yu; Shen, Sjen-Jung; Chou, Chien-Wen; Yang, Chwen-Yi; Cheng, Hon-Mei

    2006-03-01

    A rare type of aldosteronism, known as unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (UAH), is difficult to diagnose, not only because it fails to conform to the typical common subtypes, but also because imaging results are unreliable. We report 2 Taiwanese patients with UAH. Case 1 was a 44-year-old man with 2 episodes of hypokalemic paralysis. Hypertension and suppressed plasma renin activity (PRA) with elevated plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were observed. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a right adrenal mass, but adrenal scintigraphy revealed no definite laterality. The patient underwent a laparoscopic right adrenalectomy. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia was discovered from results of the histologic analysis. Case 2 was a 33-year-old woman referred for hypokalemia, hypertension, and a left adrenal mass found on a CT scan. However, MRI revealed normal adrenal glands. The adrenal vein sampling for PAC showed overproduction of PAC from the left adrenal gland. A laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was done. Pathology results revealed micronodular cortical hyperplasia with central hemorrhage. Blood pressure, plasma potassium, aldosterone, and renin activity levels returned to normal after operation in both cases. Both patients have been well for 3 years and 16 months, respectively, after surgery. We review the literature and discuss the limitations of imaging studies. PMID:16599018

  19. Hyperplasia-adenoma sequence in pituitary tumorigenesis related to aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Villa, Chiara; Lagonigro, Maria Stefania; Magri, Flavia; Koziak, Maria; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Brauner, Raja; Bouligand, Jerome; Junier, Marie Pierre; Di Rocco, Federico; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Beckers, Albert; Roux, François Xavier; Daly, Adrian F; Chiovato, Luca

    2011-06-01

    Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene are associated with pituitary adenomas that usually occur as familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). Detailed pathological and tumor genetic data on AIP mutation-related pituitary adenomas are not sufficient. Non-identical twin females presented as adolescents to the emergency department with severe progressive headache caused by large pituitary macroadenomas require emergency neurosurgery; one patient had incipient pituitary apoplexy. Post-surgically, the patients were found to have silent somatotrope adenomas on pathological examination. Furthermore, the light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies demonstrated tumors of virtually identical characteristics. The adenomas were accompanied by multiple areas of pituitary hyperplasia, which stained positively for GH, indicating somatotrope hyperplasia. Genetic analyses of the FIPA kindred revealed a novel E216X mutation of the AIP gene, which was present in both the affected patients and the unaffected father. Molecular analysis of surgical specimens revealed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the adenoma but showed that LOH was not present in the hyperplastic pituitary tissue from either patient. AIP immunostaining confirmed normal staining in the hyperplastic tissue and decreased staining in the adenoma in the tumors from both patients. These results demonstrate that patients with AIP germline mutation can present with silent somatotrope pituitary adenomas. The finding of somatotrope hyperplasia unaccompanied by AIP LOH suggests that LOH at the AIP locus might be a late event in a potential progression from hyperplastic to adenomatous tissue. PMID:21450940

  20. The Role of gsp Mutations on the Development of Adrenocortical Tumors and Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Villares Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson; Wanichi, Ingrid Quevedo; Cavalcante, Isadora Pontes; Mariani, Beatriz Marinho de Paula

    2016-01-01

    Somatic GNAS point mutations, commonly known as gsp mutations, are involved in the pathogenesis of McCune–Albright syndrome (MAS) and have also been described in autonomous hormone-producing tumors, such as somatotropinoma, corticotrophoma, thyroid cancer, ovarian and testicular Leydig cell tumors, and primary macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PMAH) (1–3). The involvement of gsp mutations in adrenal tumors was first described by Lyons et al. Since then, several studies have detected the presence of gsp mutations in adrenal tumors, but none of them could explain its presence along or the mechanism that leads to tumor formation and hormone hypersecretion. As a result, the molecular pathogenesis of the majority of sporadic adrenocortical tumors remains unclear (3). PMAH has also been reported with gsp somatic mutations in a few cases. Fragoso et al. identified two distinct gsp somatic mutations affecting arginine residues on codon 201 of GNAS in a few patients with PMAH who lacked any features or manifestations of MAS. Followed by this discovery, other studies have continued looking for gsp mutations based on strong prior evidence demonstrating that increased cAMP signaling is sufficient for cell proliferation and cortisol production (2, 4). With consideration for the previously reported findings, we conjecture that although somatic activating mutations in GNAS are a rare molecular event, these mutations could probably be sufficient to induce the development of macronodule hyperplasia and variable cortisol secretion. In this manuscript, we revised the presence of gsp mutations associated with adrenal cortical tumors and hyperplasia. PMID:27512387