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The Impact of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Surgical Treatment with Turp Method on the Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Introduction/Objective Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a gold treatment method in older men who develop lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) which are caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). The objective of the study was to assess the impact of BPH surgical treatment with TURP method on the quality of life, as a consequence of urinary symptoms. Material and methods The research material was based on 40 patients who, due to BPH, were treated with the method of transurethral resection. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was used in the research i.e. question Nº 8 that relates to the quality of life, as a consequence of the urinary symptoms. The criteria for the patients to be selected for this type of BPH surgical treatment were good general status of the patient, age under 80, the weight of benign prostatic gland hyperplasia tissue 30–80 grams, postvoid residual urine (PVR) higher than 150 ml, IPSS value >19 points, and Index of Quality of Life (IQL) values > 3 points. All patients, first preoperatively, and then postoperatively, gave answers to IPSS IQL in time intervals of 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Results Difference testing of IQL arithmetic means (AM) between results before the operation, then during the first, second and third checkup was performed with the t-test and Wilcoxon test of equivalent pairs, and has shown that there is a highly statistically significant difference between preoperative values and the values during all the postoperative checkups. Taking into consideration the age subgroups (20 patients between 59 and 69 years and 20 patients between 70 and 80 years), difference testing of arithmetic means between results before the operation and first, second and third checkup, isolated, for each age subgroup, was carried out. It has demonstrated that there is a statistically significant difference between preoperative values and values during all postoperative checkups. Difference testing of arithmetic means between the stated age groups has also been conducted. The t-test and Mann-Whitney test have been used for this purpose and have shown that there is no statistically significant difference between preoperative test results and the results during all postoperative checkups. Conclusion The quality of life, as a consequence of urinary symptoms, has significantly improved after the BPH treatment with TURP method. The impact of TURP on the quality of life is not related to age i.e. TURP is equally efficient regardless of patient’s age.

Milicevic, Snjezana



Application of ultrasonography and the resistive index for evaluating bladder outlet obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an extremely common and chronic condition that can lead to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in elderly men. Although pressure-flow studies are considered the most reliable method for evaluating BOO, they are invasive and complicated. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) is a promising alternative because of its minimal invasiveness. Recently, TRUS imaging has been shown capable of measuring the resistive index, a useful parameter for evaluating BOO and for determining proper medical intervention in patients suffering from BPH. PMID:21475953

Shinbo, Hitoshi; Kurita, Yutaka



Impact of interventional therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia on quality of life and sexual function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the epidemiologic impact of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the use of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment\\u000a of this condition is one of the main ambitions of contemporary urology. Compared with the prevalence of BPH and LUTS in elderly\\u000a men, only a small percentage of patients requires surgery for indications such as renal insufficiency, chronic retention,\\u000a and infection. The

András Hoznek; Clément-Claude Abbou



Prostate-specific antigen and transition zone index - powerful predictors for acute urinary retention in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Objectives. To examine the efficacy of prostate-spec ific antigen and vari- ous parameters obtained by transrectal ultrasonography as predictors of acute urinary retention in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods. Eighty-nine men with symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia were en- rolled in this study from February 2002 to June 2003. Among them, 21 patients presented with acute urinary retention.

Daimantas Milonas


Mis-sizing of stent promotes intimal hyperplasia: impact of endothelial shear and intramural stress  

PubMed Central

Stent can cause flow disturbances on the endothelium and compliance mismatch and increased stress on the vessel wall. These effects can cause low wall shear stress (WSS), high wall shear stress gradient (WSSG), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and circumferential wall stress (CWS), which may promote neointimal hyperplasia (IH). The hypothesis is that stent-induced abnormal fluid and solid mechanics contribute to IH. To vary the range of WSS, WSSG, OSI, and CWS, we intentionally mismatched the size of stents to that of the vessel lumen. Stents were implanted in coronary arteries of 10 swine. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was used to size the coronary arteries and stents. After 4 wk of stent implantation, IVUS was performed again to determine the extent of IH. In conjunction, computational models of actual stents, the artery, and non-Newtonian blood were created in a computer simulation to yield the distribution of WSS, WSSG, OSI, and CWS in the stented vessel wall. An inverse relation (R2 = 0.59, P < 0.005) between WSS and IH was found based on a linear regression analysis. Linear relations between WSSG, OSI, and IH were observed (R2 = 0.48 and 0.50, respectively, P < 0.005). A linear relation (R2 = 0.58, P < 0.005) between CWS and IH was also found. More statistically significant linear relations between the ratio of CWS to WSS (CWS/WSS), the products CWS × WSSG and CWS × OSI, and IH were observed (R2 = 0.67, 0.54, and 0.56, respectively, P < 0.005), suggesting that both fluid and solid mechanics influence the extent of IH. Stents create endothelial flow disturbances and intramural wall stress concentrations, which correlate with the extent of IH formation, and these effects were exaggerated with mismatch of stent/vessel size. These findings reveal the importance of reliable vessel and stent sizing to improve the mechanics on the vessel wall and minimize IH.

Chen, Henry Y.; Sinha, Anjan K.; Choy, Jenny S.; Zheng, Hai; Sturek, Michael; Bigelow, Brian; Bhatt, Deepak L.



Economic Impact of Surgical Intervention in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

The economic burden of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on our health care system is significant and likely to continue to grow given the burgeoning elderly population. Coincident with the rising number of annual physician office visits and expenditures for BPH has been a dramatic shift in the disease’s management, from surgical to medical care. However, long-term cost data call into question the appropriateness of medical therapy as the initial treatment approach for all men with BPH, particularly those with moderate to severe symptoms. Although there has been a paradigm shift away from traditional BPH surgery, there has been renewed interest in the treatment of BPH with novel surgical techniques and minimally invasive surgeries. The economics of surgical interventions for BPH are discussed.

Hollingsworth, John M; Wei, John T




Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeRadical cystectomy has a significant rate of morbidity and it is important to elucidate the factors that contribute to this risk. Obesity is a major problem in the United States and is associated with increased health hazard. Morbid obesity may even preclude definitive surgical treatment. This study examines the impact of body mass index (BMI) on radical cystectomy.




Impact of bipolar electrodes contact on fractionation index measurement.  


Signals such as Complex Fractionated Atrial Electrograms (CFAE) are tracked during ablation procedures to locate the arrhythmical substrate regions. Most of CFAE classification tools use fractionation indexes. However, recordings from intracardiac catheter depend on electrode contact quality. This paper investigates the impact of electrode contact area on fractionation indexes. It is assessed through three kinds of arrhythmical activations resulting from a numerical simulation of a small piece of the cardiac tissue. Bipolar electrograms are extracted corresponding to 25 different contact areas and fractionation indexes (Shannon entropy, non linear energy operator and maximum peak ratio) are computed. Results yield that the Shannon entropy offers a good potential discrimination between arrhythmic scenarios and is less sensitive to the electrode contact variation. PMID:24110661

Navoret, Nicolas; Jacquir, Sabir; Laurent, Gabriel; Binczak, Stephane



Index of Alien Impact: A Method for Evaluating Potential Ecological Impact of Alien Plant Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact ( IAI) to estimate the collective ecological impact of in situ alien species. IAI summarizes the frequency

Teresa K. Magee; Paul L. Ringold; Michael A. Bollman; Ted L. Ernst



Developing an efficient macrofauna monitoring index from an impact study — A dredge spoil example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from an initial impact study were used to develop a labour-efficient index for biological monitoring of dredge spoil disposal. Each of 12 indicator species was assigned a score, based primarily on the ratio of its abundance in control vs impacted samples. The ‘Index’ value was the average score of those indicator species present in the sample. The Index was

Rodney D Roberts; Murray R Gregory; Brian A Foster



Impact of body mass index for patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on short and long term results after pancreaticoduodenectomies (PD). METHODS: A consecutive series of PDs performed at the Karolinska University Hospital from 2004 till 2010 were retrieved from our prospective database. The patients were divided by BMI into overweight/obese (O; BMI ? 25 kg/m2) and controls (C; BMI < 25 kg/m2). Demographics, peri-operative data, morbidity, mortality, pancreatic fistula (PF) rate, length of stay (LOS), hospital costs, histology, and survival were analyzed. An additional sub analysis of survival was performed in patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and divided in underweight, normal-weight, overweight and obese. RESULTS: A total of 367 PDs were included (O = 141/C = 226). No differences were found between O and C regarding demographics, peri-operative data, costs, morbidity or mortality. O was associated with higher intra-operative blood loss (1392 ± 115 mL vs 1121 ± 83 mL; P = 0.01), rate of PF (20% vs 9.5%; P = 0.006) and marginally longer LOS (18 ± 0.9 d vs 15 ± 1.1 d; P = 0.05). An increasing risk for PF was observed with increasing BMI. The 1, 3 and 5 years survival rate was similar in O and C in PDAC (68.7%, 26.4% and 8.8% vs 66.1%, 30.9% and 17.9% respectively; P = 0.9). When the survival was analyzed using 4 different categories of BMI (underweight, normal, overweight and obese), a trend was seen toward a difference in survival, with a worse prognosis for the underweight and obese patients compared to normal weight and overweight patients. CONCLUSION: Overweight increases the risk for intra-operative bleeding and PF, but do not otherwise alter short or long term outcome after PD for pancreatic cancer.

Del Chiaro, Marco; Rangelova, Elena; Ansorge, Christoph; Blomberg, John; Segersvard, Ralf



The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT {+-} indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: <18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and >30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT {+-} indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: <18.5, (0%) 0/6 patients; 18.5-24.9 (6%), 6 of 105 patients developed HO; 25-29.9 (19%), 22 of 117; >30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06-1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT {+-} indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

Mourad, Waleed Fouad, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY (United States); Packianathan, Satya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)



Index of Alien Impact: A Method for Evaluating Potential Ecological Impact of Alien Plant Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact ( IAI) to estimate the collective ecological impact of in situ alien species. IAI summarizes the frequency of occurrence and potential ecological impact ( Invasiveness-Impact Score ( I i )) of individual alien species for all aliens present in a particular location or community type. A component metric, I i , is based on ecological species traits (life history, ecological amplitude, and ability to alter ecosystem processes) that reflect mechanisms, which can increase impact to ecosystem structure and function. While I i is less complex than some other multi-metric rankings of alien impact, it compares well to these metrics and to qualitative judgments. IAI can be adapted for different ecological settings by modifying the set of species traits incorporated in I i to reflect properties likely to breach biotic and abiotic barriers or alter ecosystem function in a particular region or community type of interest. To demonstrate our approach, we created versions of IAI and I i , applicable to the diverse streamside vegetation of a river basin (19,631 km2) spanning low-elevation arid to mesic montane habitats in eastern Oregon, USA. In this demonstration effort, we (1) evaluate relationships of IAI to metrics describing invasion level, and (2) illustrate the potential utility of IAI for prioritizing alien species management activities and informing restoration goals.

Magee, Teresa K.; Ringold, Paul L.; Bollman, Michael A.; Ernst, Ted L.



Index of alien impact: a method for evaluating potential ecological impact of alien plant species.  


Alien plant species are stressors to ecosystems and indicators of reduced ecosystem integrity. The magnitude of the stress reflects not only the quantity of aliens present, but also the quality of their interactions with native ecosystems. We develop an Index of Alien Impact (IAI) to estimate the collective ecological impact of in situ alien species. IAI summarizes the frequency of occurrence and potential ecological impact (Invasiveness-Impact Score (I ( i ))) of individual alien species for all aliens present in a particular location or community type. A component metric, I (i), is based on ecological species traits (life history, ecological amplitude, and ability to alter ecosystem processes) that reflect mechanisms, which can increase impact to ecosystem structure and function. While I (i) is less complex than some other multi-metric rankings of alien impact, it compares well to these metrics and to qualitative judgments. IAI can be adapted for different ecological settings by modifying the set of species traits incorporated in I (i) to reflect properties likely to breach biotic and abiotic barriers or alter ecosystem function in a particular region or community type of interest. To demonstrate our approach, we created versions of IAI and I (i), applicable to the diverse streamside vegetation of a river basin (19,631 km(2)) spanning low-elevation arid to mesic montane habitats in eastern Oregon, USA. In this demonstration effort, we (1) evaluate relationships of IAI to metrics describing invasion level, and (2) illustrate the potential utility of IAI for prioritizing alien species management activities and informing restoration goals. PMID:20140674

Magee, Teresa K; Ringold, Paul L; Bollman, Michael A; Ernst, Ted L



A correlation between Schmidt hammer rebound numbers with impact strength index, slake durability index and P-wave velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this study was to establish statistical relationship between Schmidt hammer rebound numbers with impact strength index (ISI), slake durability index (SDI) and P-wave velocity. These are important properties to characterize a rock mass and are being widely used in geological and geotechnical engineering. Due to its importance, Schmidt hammer rebound number is considered as one of the most important property for the determination of other properties, like ISI, SDI and P-wave velocity. Determination of these properties in the laboratory is time consuming and tedious as well as requiring expertise, whereas Schmidt hammer rebound number can be easily obtained on site which in addition is non-destructive. So, in this study, an attempt has been made to determine these index properties in the laboratory and each index property was correlated with Schmidt hammer rebound values. Empirical equations have been developed to predict ISI, SDI and P-wave velocity using rebound values. It was found that Schmidt hammer rebound number shows linear relation with ISI and SDI, whereas exponential relation with P-wave velocity. To check the sensitivity of empirical relations, Student's t test was done to verify the correlation between rebound values and other rock index properties.

Sharma, P. K.; Khandelwal, Manoj; Singh, T. N.



The Impact of Term-Indexing Characteristics on a Document Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the impact of term frequencies, term distributions, and indexing exhaustivity on the representation of document spaces in a visual, vector-based retrieval environment. Compares document-space densities and discusses visualization techniques, term weights, and implications for automatic indexing in information retrieval systems.…

Wolfram, Dietmar; Zhang, Jin



Introducing the Current Contribution Index for characterizing the recent, relevant impact of journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Garfield (Impact) Factor characterizes the measure of the up to date specific contribution of scientific journals to the\\u000a total impact of the journals in a special field. A new indicator (Current Contribution Index, CCI) was introduced in order\\u000a to characterize the relative contribution of journals to recent, relevant knowledge of a corresponding field. The CC Index\\u000a relates the number

Peter Vinkler



The impact of global warming on the Southern Oscillation Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)—a measure of air pressure difference across the Pacific Ocean, from Tahiti in the south-east\\u000a to Darwin in the west—is one of the world’s most important climatic indices. The SOI is used to track and predict changes\\u000a in both the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and the Walker Circulation (WC). During El Niño, for example, the WC

Scott B. Power; Greg Kociuba


Safety Index of Old Sandstone Arch Bridges Under Ship Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the following article, the examination of an old sandstone arch bridge that is exposed to ship impact is described. The probabilistic calculation to describe the capacity of the bridge is understood to be a part of the overall examination, which also includes other procedures like drilling. 1 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION Sandstone arch bridges are regarded as beautiful constructions. One reason

Manfred Curbach


Development of a diatom index of biotic integrity for acid mine drainage impacted streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from extensive coal mining throughout Appalachia since the 1800s has caused a legacy of severe acid and dissolved metal loads to thousands of stream miles, which has critically impacted aquatic life and ecological attributes. Relationships of diatoms and macroinvertebrates with AMD have been established, but no index specifically designed to quantify AMD impacts using diatoms

Jason T. Zalack; Nathan J. Smucker; Morgan L. Vis



Body Mass Index Impacts In Vitro Fertilization Stimulation  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to prospectively determine if body mass index (BMI) is predictive of live birth rates in patients undergoing IVF. The prospective study enrolled 117 infertility patients with the primary outcome measure being IVF success rates. Mean BMI did not differ between patients with successful outcomes and those without successful outcomes. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI and the number of stimulated follicles (r = 0.19, P < .05). A significant negative correlation between BMI and ampules of gonadotropins used (r = ?0.25, P < .01) and between BMI and days of stimulation (r = ?0.19, P < .05) was noted. These data demonstrate that women with an elevated BMI produce more follicles, stimulate quicker, and require less gonadotropins during IVF. However, BMI did not have a significant effect on pregnancy outcome rates.

Hill, Micah J.; Hong, Steve; Frattarelli, John L.



Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources  


Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... following organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse - ...


Contemporary Labor Patterns: The Impact of Maternal Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare labor patterns by body mass index (BMI). Study Design 118,978 gravidas with a singleton term cephalic gestation were studied. Repeated-measures analysis constructed average labor curves by parity and BMI categories for those that reached 10cm. Interval censored regression analysis determined median traverse times adjusting for covariates in vaginal deliveries and intrapartum cesareans. Results For nulliparas, the time difference to reach 10 cm was 1.2 hours from the lowest to highest BMI category. Multiparas entered active phase by 6 cm, but reaching this point took longer for BMI?40.0 (3.4hours) compared to BMI<25.0 (2.4hours). Progression by centimeter (P<0.001) except from 7–9cm in multiparas (P>0.05), and from 4–10cm (P<0.001) increased as BMI increased for nulliparas and multiparas. Second stage length with and without an epidural was similar among BMI categories for nulliparas (P>0.05), but decreased as BMI increased for multiparas (P<0.001). Conclusion Labor proceeds more slowly as BMI increases suggesting that labor management be tailored to allow for these differences.




Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science  

PubMed Central

Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal.

Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin



Enhancing the h index for the objective assessment of healthcare researcher performance and impact  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether the h index (a bibliometric tool which is increasingly used to assess and appraise an individual's research performance) could be improved to better measure the academic performance and citation profile for individual healthcare researchers. Design Cohort study. Setting Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. Participants Publication lists from 1 January 2000 until 31 December 2009 for 501 academic healthcare researchers from the Faculty of Medicine. Main outcome measures The h index for each researcher was calculated over a nine-year period. The citation count for each researcher was differentiated into high (h2 upper), core (h2 centre) and low (h2 lower) visibility areas. Segmented regression model (sRM) was used to statistically estimate number of high visibility publications (sRM value). Validity of the h index and other proposed adjuncts were analysed against academic rank and conventional bibliometric indicators. Results Construct validity was demonstrated for h index, h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM value (all P < 0.05). Convergent validity of the h index and sRM value was shown by significant correlations with total number of publications (r = 0.89 and 0.86 respectively, P < 0.05) and total number of citations (r = 0.96 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.05). Significant differences in h index and sRM value existed between non-physician and physician researchers (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study supports the construct validity of the h index as a measure of healthcare researcher academic rank. It also identifies the assessment value of our developed indices of h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM. These can be applied in combination with the h index to provide additional objective evidence to appraise the performance and impact of an academic healthcare researcher.

Patel, Vanash M; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bornmann, Lutz; Mutz, Rudiger; Makanjuola, Jonathan; Skapinakis, Petros; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos



Impact on enzyme activity as a new quality index of wastewater.  


The aim of this study was to define a new indicator for the quality of wastewaters that are released into the environment. A quality index is proposed for wastewater samples in terms of the inertness of wastewater samples toward enzyme activity. This involves taking advantage of the sensitivity of enzymes to pollutants that may be present in the waste samples. The effect of wastewater samples on the rate of a number of different enzyme-catalyzed reactions was measured, and the results for all the selected enzymes were analyzed in an integrated fashion (multi-enzymatic sensor). This approach enabled us to define an overall quality index, the "Impact on Enzyme Function" (IEF-index), which is composed of three indicators: i) the Synoptic parameter, related to the average effect of the waste sample on each component of the enzymatic sensor; ii) the Peak parameter, related to the maximum effect observed among all the effects exerted by the sample on the sensor components; and, iii) the Interference parameter, related to the number of sensor components that are affected less than a fixed threshold value. A number of water based samples including public potable tap water, fluids from urban sewage systems, wastewater disposal from leather, paper and dye industries were analyzed and the IEF-index was then determined. Although the IEF-index cannot discriminate between different types of wastewater samples, it could be a useful parameter in monitoring the improvement of the quality of a specific sample. However, by analyzing an adequate number of waste samples of the same type, even from different local contexts, the profile of the impact of each component of the multi-enzymatic sensor could be typical for specific types of waste. The IEF-index is proposed as a supplementary qualification score for wastewaters, in addition to the certification of the waste's conformity to legal requirements. PMID:23353880

Balestri, Francesco; Moschini, Roberta; Cappiello, Mario; Del-Corso, Antonella; Mura, Umberto



Standard precipitation index to track drought and assess impact of rainfall on watertables in irrigation areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is employed to track drought and assess the impact of rainfall on shallow groundwater\\u000a levels in three selected irrigation areas of the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. The continuous SPI method can provide\\u000a better means of quantifying rainfall variability and correlating it with changes of shallow watertable levels since it is\\u000a based on continuous statistical functions

S. Khan; H. F. Gabriel; T. Rana



Impact of baseline symptom severity on future risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia-related outcomes and long-term response to finasteride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate the long-term effects of finasteride on symptoms, acute urinary retention (AUR), and the need for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related surgery in relationship to baseline symptom severity.Methods. A total of 3040 men with BPH were treated for 4 years with finasteride or placebo. The changes from baseline in symptoms and the incidence of BPH-related surgery and AUR were

Steven Kaplan; Dennis Garvin; Patricia Gilhooly; Max Koppel; Richard Labasky; Richard Milsten; Pratap Reddy; Steven Rosenberg; David Sussman; Charles White; Michael Lee; Frances Pappas; Joanne Waldstreicher



Laparoscopic surgery for endometrial cancer: increasing body mass index does not impact postoperative complications  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effect of body mass index on postoperative complications and the performance of lymph node dissection in women undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy for endometrial cancer. Methods Retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing surgery for endometrial cancer between 8/2004 and 12/2008. Complications graded and analyzed using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events ver. 4.03 classification. Results 168 women underwent surgery: laparoscopy n=65, laparotomy n=103. Overall median body mass index 36.2 (range, 18.1 to 72.7) with similar distributions for age, body mass index and performance of lymph node dissection between groups. Following laparoscopy vs. laparotomy the percent rate of overall complications 53.8:73.8 (p=0.01), grade ?3 complications 9.2:34.0 (p<0.01), ?3 wound complications 3.1:22.3 (p<0.01) and ?3 wound infection 3.1:20.4 (p=0.01) were significantly lower after laparoscopy. In a logistic model there was no effect of body mass index (?36 and<36) on complications after laparoscopy in contrast to laparotomy. Para-aortic lymph node dissection was performed by laparoscopy 19/65 (29%): by laparotomy 34/103 (33%) p=0.61 and pelvic lymph node dissection by laparoscopy 21/65 (32.3%): by laparotomy 46/103 (44.7%) p=0.11. Logistic regression analysis revealed that for patients undergoing laparoscopy for stage I disease there was an inverse relationship between the performance of both para-aortic lymph node dissection and pelvic lymph node dissection and increasing body mass index (p=0.03 and p<0.01 respectively) in contrast to the laparotomy group where there was a trend only (p=0.09 and 0.05). Conclusion For patients undergoing laparoscopy, increasing body mass index did not impact postoperative complications but did influence the decision to perform lymph node dissection.

Arumugam, Cibi; Gordinier, Mary E.; Metzinger, Daniel S.; Pan, Jianmin; Rai, Shesh N.



A new index for the prediction of the indentation of composites under low velocity impact loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of a new empirical model for the prediction of the indentation depth resulting in a glass fibre laminates subjected to a low velocity impact, was verified. CFRP indentation data, drawn from a database, were considered to validate the new model. The advantage of the new model is that the effect of the tup diameter is explicitly accounted for. Furthermore, a single material constant has to be experimentally determined and it can be assumed as an index for the indentation sensitivity. The constant was found similar for GFRP and CFRP laminates denoting independence of constraint conditions, laminate type or laminae orientation and stacking sequence.

Lopresto, V.; Caprino, G.; Leone, C.



Probabilistically based vulnerability index of reinforced concrete buildings due to rockfall impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of the structural vulnerability of buildings which are threatened by rockfalls represents a very important part of the Quantitative Rockfall Risk assessment. The interest is mainly concentrated on the evaluation of a vulnerability rate for a structural typology, for a range of rockfall magnitudes, in order to be used as an input into the following risk equation: Risk=Hazard x Exposed elements x Vulnerability of exposed elements Up to now, the most popular approaches in practice are mainly empirically or judgmentally based, given the limited scientific background in the field of structural vulnerability evaluation due to rockfalls. The aim of the work that is presented here is to introduce a methodology for the quantified assessment of the vulnerability of reinforced concrete structures, which are subjected to potential rockfall impacts. The objective is to provide an output, in terms of a vulnerability rate, given a specific structure, rock boulder diameter and velocity at the moment of the impact. The presented methodology applies for direct rock impacts on the basement columns of reinforced concrete buildings. It is considered that only an impact on structural elements (columns, beams) may cause collapse of the structure, whether an impact on a non-structural element such as an infill wall may only result in local damage of the element itself. Here, the structural vulnerability is determined by the first type of damage, as in the case of structural collapse repairing maybe technically difficult as wells as highly costly up to the point of not applicable, while non-structural damage is maybe easier repaired. For the evaluation of the structural vulnerability of a building due to a rock impact, we have modified a methodology that we have previously developed, by introducing the probability of collapse. The vulnerability is thus obtained by combining the probability of building collapse with the impact probability. The steps are the following: 1) calculation of the probability of impact on a structural element Pimp according to the geometry of the exposed façade(s) and the rock boulder size, 2) evaluation of the extent of the effect of the initial impact, which is mainly limited to local damage, 3) assessment of the post-impact stability of the intact structure in terms of probability of collapse and 4) iteration of the previous steps for the calculation of the vulnerability rate for different rockfall magnitude scenarios. For the assessment of the extent of the local damage due to the impact at step 2, the capacity energy of one individual column is analytically calculated. Given the column energy capacity and the rock motion parameters, it is possible to determine the number of structural elements that fail. For the evaluation of the post-impact response of the building at step 3, a collapse factor is used. It is analytically calculated for each structural element, as equal to the ratio: cf= post-impact static loads / element capacity In order to calculate the probability of collapse Pc, the introduced uncertainty is the resistance of the reinforced concrete and the expression for the probabilistic analysis is: Pc= max P[cf>1] where P[cf>1] is the probability of collapse for each structural element. The vulnerability of the building is then defined as: V=Pimp x Pc The methodology is applied for a reinforced concrete structure. The obtained results are presented on a three-dimensional diagram that correlates the vulnerability of the building with the size of the rock boulder d and its velocity v. The interpretation of the vulnerability index results is made and the efficiency of the index is discussed.

Mavrouli, O.; Corominas, J.



A statistical assessment of the impact of land uses on surface water quality indexes.  


The release of wastewater from various land uses is threatening the quality of surface water. Different land uses pose varying degrees of danger to water resources. The hazardous extent of each activity depends on the amount and characteristics of the wastewater. The concept of the contamination potential index (CPI) of an activity is introduced and applied here. The index depends on the quantity of wastewater from a single source and on various chemicals in the waste whose concentrations are above allowable standards. The CPI concept and the land use impact assessment are applied to the surface water conditions in Nakhon Nayok Province in the central region of Thailand. The land uses considered in this study are residential area, industrial zone, in-season and off-season rice farming, and swine and poultry livestock. Multiple linear regression analysis determines the impact of the CPIs of these land uses on certain water quality characteristics, i.e., total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, phosphate, and chloride concentrations, using CPIs and previous water quality measurements. The models are further verified according to the current CPIs and measured concentrations. The results of the backward and forward modeling show that the land uses that affect water quality are off-season rice farming, raising poultry, and residential activity. They demonstrate that total dissolved solids and conductivity are reasonable parameters to apply in the land use assessment. PMID:22406854

Seeboonruang, Uma



Introducing a conditional 'Willingness to Pay' index as a quantifier for environmental impact assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal concentration Copt of a pollutant in the environment can be determined as an equilibrium point in the trade off between (i) environmental cost, due to impact on man/ecosystem/economy, and (ii) economic cost for environmental protection, as it can be expressed by Pigouvian tax. These two conflict variables are internalized within the same techno-economic objective function of total cost, which is minimized. In this work, the first conflict variable is represented by a Willingness To Pay (WTP) index. A methodology is developed for the estimation of this index by using fuzzy sets to count for uncertainty. Implementation of this methodology is presented, concerning odor pollution of air round an olive pomace oil mill. The ASTM E544-99 (2004) 'Standard Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity' has been modified to serve as a basis for testing, while a network of the quality standards, required for the realization/application of this 'Practice', is also presented. Last, sensitivity analysis of Copt as regards the impact of (i) the increase of environmental information/sensitization and (ii) the decrease of interest rate reveals a shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively; certain positive and negative implications (i.e., shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively) caused by socio-economic parameters are also discussed.

Batzias, Fragiskos; Kopsidas, Odysseas



Intimal Hyperplasia in Murine Models  

PubMed Central

The most commonly used procedures to induce arterial injury in mice are carotid artery ligation with cessation of blood flow and mechanically-induced denudation of endothelium in the carotid or the femoral arteries. Both procedures result in neointimal hyperplasia after two to three weeks. A survey of various inbred strain of mice shows that strain-specific differences in susceptibility to injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia are different than those for susceptibility to diet-induced atherosclerosis, with strains identified as susceptible to both neointimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis, resistant to both, susceptible to atherosclerosis but resistant to neointimal hyperplasia, or resistant to atherosclerosis but susceptible to neointimal hyperplasia. Inflammatory cells such as T and B lymphocytes, which are contributory to atherosclerosis, are protective against injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia. In contrast, the infiltration of monocytes into the site of injury and their differentiation to macrophages favor neointimal hyperplasia similar to their pathogenic role in atherosclerosis. The regulatory role of lymphocytes and macrophages in neointimal hyperplasia is related to the production of cytokines such as interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor-?, respectively. Interestingly, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity appears to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in the endothelial denudation model but contributes to neointimal hyperplasia when arterial injury is induced by periadventitial cuff placement. The difference appears to be due to the time required for endothelial recovery and the participation of inflammatory cells. Thus, although arterial injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia results in similar vascular occlusion as progressive atherosclerosis, the pathology and mechanism of the two disease processes are quite different.

Hui, David Y.



The impact of wait list body mass index changes on the outcome after liver transplantation.  


Obesity is associated with poor health outcomes in the general population, but the evidence surrounding the effect of body mass index (BMI) on postliver transplantation survival is contradictory. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of wait list BMI and BMI changes on the outcomes after liver transplantation. Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we compared survival among different BMI categories and examined the impact of wait list BMI changes on post-transplantation mortality for patients undergoing liver transplantation. Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression was carried out to adjust for confounding factors. Among 38 194 recipients, underweight patients had a poorer survival compared with normal weight (HR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.13-1.49). Conversely, overweight and mildly obese men experienced better survival rates compared with their lean counterparts (HR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.84-0.96, and HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79-0.93 respectively). Female patients gaining weight over 18.5 kg/m(2) while on the wait list showed improving outcomes (HR = 0.46, (95% CI: 0.28-0.76)) compared with those remaining underweight. This study supports the harmful impact of underweight on postliver transplant survival, and highlights the need for a specific monitoring and management of candidates with BMIs close to 18.5 kg/m(2) . Obesity does not constitute an absolute contraindication to liver transplantation. PMID:23199077

Orci, Lorenzo A; Majno, Pietro Edoardo; Berney, Thierry; Morel, Philippe; Mentha, Gilles; Toso, Christian



Indexes to anticipate negative impacts of heat waves in urban Mediterranean environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study intention is to understand what might be the better indexes to anticipate health deterioration during temperature extreme events in a urban Mediterranean environment like Porto. To do this we look to the effects of the July 2006 Heat Wave using the Heat Index on the Mortality (All Causes) and Morbidity (All Causes, Respiratory and Circulatory diseases) in general, and in people over 74 years and by Gender, in Porto. The Poisson Generalized Additive Regression model was used in order to estimate the impact of Apparent Temperature (Heat Index) and Daily Mortality and Morbidity during the July 2006 Heat Wave. Daily Mortality, Morbidity and Heat Index was correlated with lags of Apparent Temperature up to 7 days using Pearson correlation. For a 1°C increase in mean Apparent Temperature we observed a 2.7% (95%CI:1.7-3.6%) increase in Mortality (for All Causes), 1.7% (95%CI:0.6-2.9%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,2% (95%CI:0.4-4.1%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 5,4% (95%CI:1.1-6.6%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity and 7,5% (95%CI:1.3-14.1%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity, for the entire population. For people ? 75 years, our work showed a 3,3% increase (95%CI:1.7-5.0%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,7% (95%CI:0.4-5.1%) in Men Respiratory Morbidity, 3,9% (95%CI:1.6-6.3%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 7.0% (95%CI:1.1-13.2%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and 9.0% (95%CI:0.3-18.5%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We conclude that the use of Heat Index in a Mediterranean Tempered Climate enabled the identification of the effects of the July 2006 Heat Wave in Mortality due to All Causes and in Respiratory Morbidity of the General Population, as well as in Respiratory Morbidity of individuals with more than 74 years of age.

Monteiro, A. M.; Carvalho, C. V.; Velho, S. V.; Sousa, C. S.



[Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia].  


Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia(CLAH) is known as the severest form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which is characterized by the lack of biosynthesis of all steroid hormones and its metabolites due to the failure in converting cholesterol to pregnenolone, the first and rate-limiting step of steroid synthesis. The genetic etiology has been identified; trafficking defect of cholesterol to mitochondria due to defect of StAR gene, and conversion defect of cholesterol to pregnenolone at mitochondrial membrane due to the defect of CYP11A, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme. The advancement of genetical analysis has revealed that the clinical feature is not only defined as severe salt-loosing and complete failure of musculinization, but also as relatively mild or late-onset form. Spontaneous puberty may exhibit to 46,XX patients while 46,XY subjects will never show pubertal signs. It suggested that 1) it may take more time to deposit lipid particles to cause irreversible damage to ovary than to testis, 2) there exists the other ways in cholesterol trafficking which rescue the StAR deficiency. PMID:14968544

Horikawa, Reiko



The Influence of Body Mass Index and Gender on the Impact Attenuation Properties of Flooring Systems.  


The biomechanical effectiveness of safety floors has never been assessed during sideways falls with human volunteers. Furthermore, the influence of body mass index (BMI) and gender on the protective capacity of safety floors is unknown. The purpose of this study was to test whether safety floors provide greater impact attenuation compared to traditional flooring, and whether BMI and gender modify their impact attenuation properties. Thirty participants (7 men and 7 women of low BMI; 7 men and 9 women of high BMI) underwent lateral pelvis release trials on 2 common floors and 4 safety floors. As a group, the safety floors reduced peak force (by up to 11.7%), and increased the time to peak force (by up to 25.5%) compared to a traditional institutional grade floor. Force attenuation was significantly higher for the low BMI group, and for males. Force attenuation was greatest for the low BMI males, averaging 26.5 (SD = 3.0) % across the safety floors. These findings demonstrate an overall protective effect of safety floors during lateral falls on the pelvis, but also suggest augmented benefits for frail older adults (often with low body mass) who are at an increased risk of hip fracture. PMID:23429161

Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris; Laing, Andrew C



Impact of physician assistance on the reliability of the International Index of Erectile Function.  


The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of assistance on the comprehensibility and reliability of the Turkish version of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). In this study, 458 patients were asked to complete the IIEF questionnaire by themselves during their first visit and then once again during their second visit with the assistance of a physician. The impact of physician assistance was evaluated by comparing the first and second questionnaires. The data were analysed using statistical package software (spss). A t test, Cronbach's alpha analysis, test-retest correlation (Pearson) and comparison of two rates between two independent groups test were used to analyse the impact of physician assistance. A P value <0.05 was considered to be significant. The proportions of the patients who completed the questionnaires were 70.9% and 100% at the first and second visit respectively. Physician assistance significantly increased the number of patients who completed the questionnaire among patients ? 60 years old (P = 0.0009) and in patients with low levels of education (P = 0.0001). The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.782 and 0.917 for the first and second questionnaires respectively. A high degree of internal consistency was observed for the 'physician-assisted' questionnaire (P < 0.001), and relatively less internal consistency was found for the 'self-administered' questionnaire (P < 0.05) A relatively weaker correlation was found between the first and second questionnaires in primary school graduates (r = 0.391, P < 0.05) and in patients ? 60 years old (r = 0.433, P < 0.05). There was a significant difference between the 'self-administered' and 'physician-assisted' IIEF scores in patients ? 60 years old (P < 0.0001) and primary school graduates (P < 0.0001). Physician assistance increased the comprehensibility and reliability of the IIEF questionnaire, especially in elderly patients and in patients with low education levels. PMID:22591590

Bayraktar, Z; Atun, I



Empirical Analysis on Major Impact Factors of Civil Happiness Index under Current Public Service System in China: Beijing as an Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses and proves the impacts that the differences in housing condition, age, income, graduate degree and profession etc. have on citizens' happiness index, and further analyzes the difference performance. According to the empirical data, age, income and profession have major impacts on happiness index, while housing and graduate degree have no impacts. Through analyzing the reasons lying behind

Weixia Lv; Yonggui Wang; Jing Huang



Congenital adrenal hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia consists of a heterogenous group of inherited disorders due to enzymatic defects in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone. This results in glucocorticoid deficiency, mineralocorticoid deficiency, and androgen excess. 95% of CAH cases are due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical forms range from the severe, classical CAH associated with complete loss of enzyme function, to milder, non-classical forms (NCAH). Androgen excess affects the pilosebaceous unit, causing cutaneous manifestations such as acne, androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism. Clinical differential diagnosis between NCAH and polycystic ovary syndrome may be difficult. In this review, the evaluation of patients with suspected CAH, the clinical presentation of CAH forms, with emphasis on the cutaneous manifestations of the disease, and available treatment options, will be discussed.

Dessinioti, Cleo; Katsambas, Andreas



Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia (CHH) is a rare congenital malformation characterized by marked unilateral overdevelopment of hard and soft tissues of the face. Asymmetry in CHH is usually evident at birth and accentuated with age, especially at puberty. The affected side grows at a rate proportional to the nonaffected side so that the disproportion is maintained thr oughout the life. Multisystem involvement has resulted in etiological heterogeneity including heredity, chromosomal abnormalities, atypical forms of twinning, altered intrauterine environment, and endocrine dysfunctions; however, no single theory explains the etiology adequately. Deformities of all tissues of face, including teeth and their related tissues in the jaw, are key findings for correct diagnosis of CHH. Here an attempt has been made to present a case of CHH with its archetypal features and to supplement existing clinical knowledge.

Deshingkar, S. A.; Barpande, S. R.; Bhavthankar, J. D.



Body Mass Index and the Impact of a Health Promotion Intervention on Health Services Use and Expenditures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the impact of a health promotion intervention on health services use and expenditures among Medicare beneficiaries with disabilities. Method: We analyzed data from 452 Medicare beneficiaries who participated in a Medicare demonstration. The intervention included the following components: patient education, health promotion coaching, medication management, and physician care management.

Hongdao Meng; Dianne Liebel; Brenda R. Wamsley



Impact of Body Mass Index on Outcomes After Conformal Radiotherapy in Patients With Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Several retrospective analyses have suggested that obese men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) have outcomes inferior to those of normal-weight men. However, a recently presented analysis for the first time challenged this association between body mass index (BMI) and treatment failure. It is therefore important to provide further data on this issue. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of 564 men treated with risk-adapted conformal EBRT at a single institution. Low-risk patients received EBRT alone, and the other patients received EBRT plus endocrine treatment. In addition, high-risk patients were treated to higher EBRT doses (74 Gy). A rectal balloon catheter for internal immobilization, which can be identified on portal images, was used in 261 patients (46%). Thus, localization did not rely on bony landmarks alone in these cases. Results: The median BMI was 26, and 15% of patients had BMI {>=}30. Neither univariate nor multivariate analyses detected any significant impact of BMI on biochemical relapse, prostate cancer-specific survival, or overall survival. The 5-year biochemical relapse rate was 21% and prostate cancerspecific survival 96%. Conclusions: The present analysis of a large cohort of consecutively treated patients suggests that efforts to reduce prostate movement and geographic miss might result in comparable outcomes in obese and normal-weight patients.

Geinitz, Hans, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Thamm, Reinhard; Mueller, Tobias; Jess, Kerstin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Zimmermann, Frank B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Universitaetsspital Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Molls, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Nieder, Carsten [Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso (Norway)



Climate Change Impact on Forest Cover using Warmth Index and Minimum Temperature in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of study was to predict the changes in regional forest distribution using the Warmth Index (WI) and minimum temperature index (MTI) in Korea. Previously, there were several trials to explain the forest cover changes in Korea using global-scale models, such as MC1 (MAPSS-CENTURY) and CEVSA (Carbon Exchange between Vegetation, Soil, and Atmosphere). However, these global vegetation models are not pertinent to simulate the climate change impact on relatively small Korean ecosystem. Therefore, the zonal distribution of WI and MTI was applied to interpret the spatial patterns of forest vegetation. Firstly, the climate data of past years (1971-2000) was prepared by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), and ECHO-G model provided future climate data under A1B scenario. Then, the optimal habitat rages of tree species were plotted by spatial distribution patterns of WI and MTI. In terms of cold tolerance for tree species, minimum monthly mean temperature of January (the coldest month) was converted to MTI, which related to intercellular freezing. MTI distribution of Korea in past years was ranged from -84.85 to 14. Overall MTI will be inclined in future period (2021-2050) and period (2071-2100), ranged from -80.91 to 19.45 and from 34.36 to -58.73, respectively. Also, WI was calculated by summing up of monthly mean temperature above 5 degrees Celsius. WI distribution of Korea in past years (1971-2000) was ranged from 72 to 132.9 degrees Celsius month. Overall WI will be increased in future period (2021-2050) and period (2071-2100), ranged from 81 to 147.9 degrees Celsius month and from 98 to 174.1 degrees Celsius month, respectively. As results of simulations, there were certain changes in vegetation distribution by climate change. The optimal habitat range of evergreen needleleaf species will be decreased and the range of deciduous and evergreen broadleaf species will be increased in the future; 1) especially, the optimal range of Pinus densiflora will shrink in the future, and 2) in southern part of Korea, the integration of WI and MTI tends to be laid over the optimal range for evergreen broadleaf species, such as Camellia japonica and Cyclobalanopsis glauca. The zonal distribution of integrated WI and MTI can explain more specifically than previous studies using only WI or MTI and global scale models.

Choi, S.; Lee, W.; Yoo, S.; Park, S.



Impact of body mass index and albumin on morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Extremely thin and overly obese patients may not tolerate cardiac surgery as well as other patients. A retrospective study was conducted to determine whether the extremes of body mass index (weight\\/height2 [kg\\/m2]) and\\/or cachexia increased the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac operations. Methods: Body mass index was used to objectively measure “thinness” (body mass index 30); preoperative serum

Daniel T. Engelman; David H. Adams; John G. Byrne; Sary F. Aranki; John J. Collins; Gregory S. Couper; Elizabeth N. Allred; Lawrence H. Cohn; Robert J. Rizzo



Developmental Trajectories of Body Mass Index Among Japanese Children and Impact of Maternal Factors during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this study were to 1) determine the distinct patterns of body mass index (BMI) trajectories in Japanese children, and 2) elucidate the maternal factors during pregnancy, which contribute to the determination of those patterns. Methodology/Principal Findings All of the children (1,644 individuals) born in Koshu City, Japan, between 1991 and 1998 were followed in a longitudinal study exploring the subjects’ BMI. The BMI was calculated 11 times for each child between birth and 12 years of age. Exploratory latent class growth analyses were conducted to identify trajectory patterns of the BMI z-scores. The distribution of BMI trajectories were best characterized by a five-group model for boys and a six-group model for girls. The groups were named “stable thin,” “stable average,” “stable high average,” “progressive overweight,” and “progressive obesity” in both sexes; girls were allocated to an additional group called “progressive average.” Multinomial logistic regression found that maternal weight, smoking, and skipping breakfast during pregnancy were associated with children included in the progressive obesity pattern rather than the stable average pattern. These associations were stronger for boys than for girls. Conclusions/Significance Multiple developmental patterns in Japanese boys and girls were identified, some of which have not been identified in Western countries. Maternal BMI and some unfavorable behaviors during early pregnancy may impact a child’s pattern of body mass development. Further studies to explain the gender and regional differences that were identified are warranted, as these may be important for early life prevention of weight-associated health problems.

Haga, Chiyori; Kondo, Naoki; Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Ando, Daisuke; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Taichiro; Yamagata, Zentaro



Impact of body mass index on clinicopathological outcome and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.  


Background:Accumulating evidence suggests that obesity is associated with tumor progression in prostate cancer (PCa) patients after radical prostatectomy (RP). We conducted a retrospective multicenter study to determine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the clinicopathological characteristics and biochemical recurrence of PCa in Japanese men who underwent RP.Methods:The medical records of 1257 men with PCa treated by RP without neoadjuvant therapy at four medical institutes between 2001 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized into four groups using the World Health Organization (WHO) BMI classification and BMI quartiles. Associations of the various BMI categories with clinicopathological characteristics and biochemical recurrences were statistically evaluated. Biochemical recurrence was defined as a PSA level of >0.2?ng?ml(-1).Results:Of the 1257 patients, 230 (18.3%) experienced biochemical recurrence during the median follow-up period of 49 months. The median BMI was 23.8?kg?m(-2), and 1.4% patients were underweight, 65.4% were of normal weight, 30.9% were overweight and 2.4% were obese (WHO classification). Preoperative PSA levels and PSA density (PSAD) tended to decrease as BMI increased. Pathological characteristics did not differ significantly among BMI categories. As per the WHO classification and quartile categories, biochemical recurrence rate was comparable among the BMI groups. After adjusting for other pre- and postoperative covariables, multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that a high BMI did not have an independent impact on biochemical recurrence-free survival.Conclusions:Underweight Japanese PCa patients treated by RP had higher preoperative PSA levels and PSAD. High BMI was not associated with adverse pathological findings or increased biochemical recurrence rate in Japanese PCa patients treated with RP. Racial differences may exist in the relationship between obesity and outcomes of RP in PCa patients. PMID:23752230

Narita, S; Mitsuzuka, K; Yoneyama, T; Tsuchiya, N; Koie, T; Kakoi, N; Kawamura, S; Kaiho, Y; Ohyama, C; Tochigi, T; Yamaguchi, T; Habuchi, T; Arai, Y



Impact of body mass index on diastolic function in patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a major public health epidemic and is associated with increased risk of heart failure and mortality. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (DD). Methods: We reviewed clinical records and echocardiogram of patients with baseline echocardiogram between 1996 and 2005 that showed normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Diastolic function was labeled as normal, stage 1, stage 2 or stage 3/4 dysfunction. Patients were categorized as normal weight (BMI <25?kg?m?2), overweight (25–29.9?kg?m?2), obese (30–39.9?kg?m?2) and morbidly obese (?40?kg?m?2). Multivariable ordinal and ordinary logistic regression were performed to identify factors associated with DD, and evaluate the independent relationship of BMI with DD. Results: The cohort included 21?666 patients (mean (s.d.) age, 57.1 (15.1); 55.5% female). There were 7352 (33.9%) overweight, 5995 (27.6%) obese and 1616 (7.4%) morbidly obese patients. Abnormal diastolic function was present in 13?414 (61.9%) patients, with stage 1 being the most common. As BMI increased, the prevalence of normal diastolic function decreased (P<0.0001). Furthermore, there were 1733 patients with age <35 years; 460 (26.5%) and 407 (23.5%) were overweight and obese, respectively, and had higher prevalence of DD (P<0.001). Using multivariable logistic regression, BMI remained significant in both ordinal (all stages of diastolic function) and binary (normal versus abnormal). Also, obesity was associated with increased odds of DD in all patients and those aged <35 years. Conclusions: In patients with normal LVEF, higher BMI was independently associated with worsening DD.

AlJaroudi, W; Halley, C; Houghtaling, P; Agarwal, S; Menon, V; Rodriguez, L; Grimm, R A; Thomas, J D; Jaber, W A



Prognostic impact of proliferative index determined by quantitative image analysis and the International Prognostic Index in patients with mantle cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background: The proliferative index (PI) is a powerful prognostic factor in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL); however, its utility is hampered by interobserver variability. The mantle cell international prognostic index (MIPI) has been reported to have prognostic importance. In this study, we determined the prognostic value of the PI as determined by quantitative image analysis in MCL. Patients and methods: Eighty-eight patients with adequate tissue were included in this analysis. Patients were treated with one of two treatment programs: sequential therapy with high-dose therapy consolidation or radioimmunotherapy followed by combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone. Patients were divided into four groups based on PI (<10%, 10%–29.9%, 30%–49.9%, and >50%), and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Thirty percent was identified as the optimal cut-off for PI. By univariate analysis, intensive treatment and a low PI were associated with a superior progression-free survival (PFS); only PI was associated with overall survival. By multivariate analysis, both intensive treatment and PI correlated with PFS. The MIPI had no prognostic impact. Conclusions: PI is the most important prognostic factor in MCL. The cut-off of 30% is clinically meaningful and can be used to tailor the intensity of therapy in future clinical trials.

Schaffel, R.; Hedvat, C. V.; Teruya-Feldstein, J.; Persky, D.; Maragulia, J.; Lin, D.; Portlock, C. S.; Moskowitz, C. H.; Zelenetz, A. D.



Magnetic resonance imaging in hemifacial hyperplasia.  


We describe a case of hemifacial hyperplasia due to a combination of lipoma and lipomatosis. The contribution of MRI to the diagnosis of hemifacial hyperplasia and to monitoring growth and development in this condition is demonstrated. PMID:11681487

Sugiyama, M; Tanaka, E; Ogawa, I; Ishibashi, R; Naito, K; Ishikawa, T



The impact of the VF14 index, a perceived visual function measure, in the routine management of cataract patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Evidence about the impact of routine feedback of patient-reported outcomes is contradictory, and there is limited information regarding its use in the routine management of cataract patients. Methods: The VF-14 Index was used to assess the visual function of 833 consecutive cataract patients, attending 19 ophthalmologists from public and private hospitals and primary care practices in Spain, in 1999–2000.

J. M. Valderas; M. Rue; G. Guyatt; J. Alonso



Auricular angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia.  


Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is an uncommon, benign, angioproliferative cutaneous disorder. Previously, angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and Kimura's disease were regarded as identical conditions, however, recent work identifies them as separate entities. It is clinically manifested by solitary or multiple, red to brown firm papules and nodules, occurring in the head and neck region with a predilection for the peri-auricular area. It usually occurs during the early and mid-adult life. It is more common in Caucasians with equal gender involvement. We report this condition in a 32 years old adult Pakistani male having red-brown papules in left ear. PMID:22015125

Rahman, Atiya; Asad Shabbir, Syed Muhammad; Tabassum, Saadia; Hafeez, Javeria



Assessment of different doses of N applied to a melon crop in the quality of groundwater: environmental impact indexes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Provided that the intensive use of N in agricultural systems has negatively impacted environmental quality, because a higher fertilization requirements of the crop to make the nitrate leached into the aquifer contaminating, as well as increasing their presence on the ground resulting in a time of intercropping nitrates washing with the arrival of rains. It's necessary to know the N management to reduce the pollution risks and may lead the higher production with the fewer economic cost, environmental and health. The aim of this study was to asses how different doses of nitrogen applied to a melon crop affected the quality of groundwater. The doses of N applied ranged between 11 and 393 kg ha-1. Several indexes, based in N leaching consequence of the agricultural practice, were calculated and provided an essential tool for knowing the risks of groundwater pollution with the practices used. Drinking water impact, irrigation water management impact and environmental impact indexes were obtained during four years in a vulnerable area of the centre of Spain. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111

Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Ribas, F.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Tarquis, A. M.



Development of a water state index to assess the severity of impacts on and changes in natural water resources.  


Lifecycle assessment (LCA) is a standardised methodology that is used to assess the impact of techno-economic systems on the natural environment. By compiling an inventory of energy and material inputs and environmental releases or outputs of a system, and evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with the inventory, one can make an informed decision regarding the sustainability of a techno-economic system in question. However, the current lifecycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodologies that form part of LCA studies do not effectively consider the impacts of techno-economic systems on ground and surface water resources in South Africa (and elsewhere). It is proposed that a microbiology based index method, similar to methods proposed for terrestrial resources, can establish the states of water resources for six classes of current economic exploitation: protected, moderate use, degraded, cultivated, plantation, and urban. It is further suggested that changes in these classes (and states) can be used meaningfully in LCIA methodologies to quantify the extent to which techno-economic interventions may alter natural water resources. Research is recommended to further improve the accuracy and reliability of the water state index. PMID:19001713

Suridge, A K J; Brent, A C



Omega-3 index determined by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry.  


Omega-3 index is a relatively new concept, defined as the sum of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) expressed as a percentage of the total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes. This index reflects medium to long-term intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and could be a useful tool in epidemiological studies. The standard technique used for fatty acid analysis and quantification has been gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection. This method is robust and has good precision and sensitivity. However, a major disadvantage is inability to confirm spectrometrically the identity of fatty acids detected, which is important especially in complex biological samples. The current study measures omega-3 index in 12 healthy human volunteers using GC-mass spectrometry (MS). Both the intra-assay and day-to-day variations were well within 5% with linearity of response extending to a concentration of 250 microg/ml (830 micromol/L) of EPA. The limit of detection of EPA was 0.36 microg/ml (1.2 micromol/L). About 25 fatty acids were consistently detected in red blood cells from healthy volunteers including cis and trans isomers. The omega-3 index ranged from 2.4% to 6.2% among the 12 volunteers examined and there was no difference between samples taken in the fasting and postprandial states. EPA and DHA concentrations ranged from 3.53 to 105.89 microg/ml (11.7-350 micromol/L) and 12.19 to 214.42 microg/ml (37.1-652.7 micromol/L), respectively. Thus a GC-MS method has been developed for measuring the omega-3 index. Further studies are required to determine the role of this index as a predictor of disease. PMID:19376692

Abu, E O; Oluwatowoju, I



Benefits of Biofuels in Sweden: A Probabilistic Reassessment of the Index of New Cars’ Climate Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climate impact of new cars in Sweden 2009 has been evaluated by the Swedish Transport Administration including reduction factors to attribute the positive impact of renewable fuels on CO2 emissions. The Swedish Transport Administration recommends to the public to buy cars that can be operated on biofuels. Besides acknowledging prevailing uncertainties for many of the input parameters to the

Nils Lubbe; Ullrika Sahlin



Impact of Body Mass Index and Obesity on Clinical Response to Systemic Treatment for Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our aim was to assess the role of the body mass index (BMI) in the clinical response to systemic treatment for psoriasis. Methods: A nationwide cohort study of patients receiving a new systemic treatment for plaque psoriasis at reference centres in Italy was conducted. Information was gathered through a web-based electronic form. Patients being maintained on the same medication

Luigi Naldi; Antonio Addis; Sergio Chimenti; Alberto Giannetti; Mauro Picardo; Carlo Tomino; Mara Maccarone; Liliane Chatenoud; Paola Bertuccio; Eugenia Caggese; Rosanna Cuscito



Impact of Increased Body Mass Index on Laparoscopic Surgery for Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laparoscopy was initially considered to be a risky procedure for rectal cancer patients, especially patients with an increased body weight. The literature is scarce regarding the effects of obesity on laparoscopic rectal surgery. The aim of the current study was to analyze the effect of an increased body mass index (BMI) on outcome of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer.

Tayfun Karahasanoglu; Ismail Hamzaoglu; Bilgi Baca; Erman Aytac; Ebru Kirbiyik



Reversible papillary hyperplasia of the rat urinary bladder.  

PubMed Central

A rapid reproducible method for the production of ulcers and reversible regenerative hyperplasia of the urinary bladder of rats is described. This method does not involve administration of a toxic chemical or retention of a foreign body. Ulceration was produced by means of applying a steel rod, 5 mm in diameter, frozen at -78 C, to the serosal surface of the bladder for 2 seconds, twice, with a 5-second interval between each application. Sequential histologic observations showed that ulcers were accompanied by necrosis of the entire thickness of the bladder at the site of freezing with extensive acute inflammation. Regenerative hyperplasia was evident at the edge of the ulcer by the second day, with greatest severity at 5 days when papillary and nodular hyperplasia were present. At 15 days the bladders were normal or had only minimal hyperplasia. The labeling index by autoradiography was highest in the mildly hyperplastic area near the ulcer at 2 days and remained relatively high through 5 days. The hyperplastic epithelium surrounding the ulcer observed by scanning electron microscopy had numerous degenerative cells on the surface, and small epithelial cells with numerous short, uniform microvilli on their luminal surface were also observed. The numerous short, uniform microvilli on their luminal surface were also observed. The microvilli had a symmetric luminal membrane, as observed on trasmission electron microscopy. More peripherally the cells had microridges only or microvilli and microridges on their luminal surface. Neither pleomorphic microvili nor a structured glycocalyx fuzz on microvilli was observed during the process of regenerative hyperplasia, distinguishing it from neoplastic bladder proliferations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11

Shirai, T.; Cohen, S. M.; Fukushima, S.; Hananouchi, M.; Ito, N.



On indexing in the Web of Science and predicting journal impact factor.  


We discuss what document types account for the calculation of the journal impact factor (JIF) as published in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Based on a brief review of articles discussing how to predict JIFs and taking data differences between the Web of Science (WoS) and the JCR into account, we make our own predictions. Using data by cited-reference searching for Thomson Scientific's WoS, we predict 2007 impact factors (IFs) for several journals, such as Nature, Science, Learned Publishing and some Library and Information Sciences journals. Based on our colleagues' experiences we expect our predictions to be lower bounds for the official journal impact factors. We explain why it is useful to derive one's own journal impact factor. PMID:18600790

Wu, Xiu-Fang; Fu, Qiang; Rousseau, Ronald



A new economic assessment index for the impact of climate change on grain yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community. This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional “yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)” or “yield impact of weather factor” to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore, the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China, and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

Dong, Wenjie; Chou, Jieming; Feng, Guolin



The impact of body build on the relationship between body mass index and percent body fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that differences in the relationship between percent body fat (%BF) and body mass index (BMI) between populations can be explained (in part) by differences in body build.DESIGN: Cross-sectional, comparative study.SUBJECTS: 120 age, gender and BMI matched Singapore Chinese, Beijing Chinese and Dutch (Wageningen) Caucasians.MEASUREMENTS: From body weight and body

P. Deurenberg; M Deurenberg Yap; J. Wang; F. P. Lin; G. Schmidt



Cellulose crystallinity index: measurement techniques and their impact on interpreting cellulase performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although measurements of crystallinity index (CI) have a long history, it has been found that CI varies significantly depending on the choice of measurement method. In this study, four different techniques incorporating X-ray diffraction and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were compared using eight different cellulose preparations. We found that the simplest method, which is also the most widely

John O Baker; Michael E Himmel; Philip A Parilla; David K Johnson



Body mass index at various ages and mortality in Chinese women: impact of potential methodological biases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Inadequate control for potential methodological biases has been suggested as an explanation for the conflicting findings concerning the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality.Methods:Using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study conducted in a relatively lean population, we examined the associations of BMI at various ages and average adult BMI with mortality and evaluated

X Zhang; X-O Shu; W-H Chow; G Yang; H Li; J Gao; Y-T Gao; W Zheng



Atypical lymphoid hyperplasia mimicking lymphoma.  


The distinction between reactive and neoplastic lymphoid infiltrates is a common problem in clinical practice and can be problematic. The clinical implications for both the patient and the treating clinician are profound. In this article, we discuss six of the common entities that can present as atypical lymphoid hyperplasia and thus can mimic malignant lymphomas, with emphasis on morphologic features, immunophenotypic findings, and molecular correlates that help distinguish these disorders from neoplastic conditions. The six conditions to be discussed in detail include reactive follicular hyperplasia versus follicular lymphoma; progressive transformation of germinal centers versus nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma; immunoblastic proliferations versus diffuse large B-cell lymphomas; variant forms of Castleman disease that may mimic a number of lymphoid cancers; Kikuchi's disease versus large cell lymphomas; and finally, dermatopathic lymphadenopathy and its distinction from lymph nodes showing early involvement by cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (Mycosis fungoides). PMID:19577167

Good, David J; Gascoyne, Randy D



Sexual function in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual health has significant impact on quality of life among men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The degree of sexual\\u000a dysfunction matches the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Treatment of BPH affects not only LUTS, but sexual\\u000a function as well. Medical, surgical, and minimally invasive therapies differ in their effect on erectile function, ejaculation,\\u000a and sexual satisfaction. Choice

Paul K. Hegarty; Nicholas J. Hegarty; John M. Fitzpatrick



Tackling climate change impacts in the context of sustainability: the livelihood index as an integrative framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change will have consequences for human livelihoods, deriving from multiple direct and indirect impacts. Knowledge on sectoral impacts is increasing, e.g. the water the sector, however this knowledge remains fragmented and an integrative framework to assess the consequences of sectoral climate impacts on human livelihoods is missing. Further, adaptation needs to adapt to the expected climate impacts should be linked to goals of sustainable development. We introduce a modelling framework to quantify relevant livelihood dimensions, based on an extensive, interdisciplinary literature review. The applied fuzzy methodology allows translating the concept of livelihoods into a measurable framework, while retaining relationships and processes along the chain of aggregation. The framework includes a range of aspects including natural, infrastructural as well as societal resources. A quantification of these requirements can provide insights to several important issues in human-environmental systems. On the one hand it allows linking and integrating sectoral climate impacts, enabling cross-sectoral comparison. On the other hand, it paves the way towards addressing issues of sustainability, by focussing on the fulfilment of needs, which is a core component of the sustainability concept. On the basis of several climate change scenarios, we exemplify our approach by calculating the consequences of changes in water availability for human livelihoods over the course of the century. We present results from a global assessment at country-level, as well as more detailed insight from several country case studies at sub-national resolution.

Lissner, Tabea K.; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.



The criteria weight determination of factors impacting the melt flow index of degradable plastics using Lambda-Max method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three common methods of determining criteria weights using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) are extent analysis, logarithmic least square method (LLSM) and Lambda-Max. Lambda-Max criteria weights determination method uses pair wise comparison of criteria considered. Studies have shown that Lambda-Max is a preferred criteria weight determination method since it involves lesser computation with consistent results of precise criteria weights generated. In this paper the criteria weights of four factors impacting the Melt Flow Index of degradable plastics are calculated using Lambda-Max method. The input factors (criteria) are the percentages by mass of polyethylene, oil palm biomass, palm olein and starch used in the formulation of degradable plastics. The criteria weights are calculated using Lambda-Max based on input given by four experts. The finding indicates the feasibility of using Lambda-Max method in criteria weight determination for determining the impact of four factors in the formulation of degradable plastics as reflected by the consistency control index value calculated.

Dom, Rosma Mohd; Saadon, Nurul Adzlyana; Mohamad, Daud



Fuzzy Clustering Analysis in Environmental Impact Assessment--A Complement Tool to Environmental Quality Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In spite of rapid progress achieved in the methodological research underlying environmental impact assessment (EIA), the problem of weighting various parameters has not yet been solved. This paper presents a new approach, fuzzy clustering analysis, which is illustrated with an EIA case study on Baoshan-Wusong District in Shanghai, China. (Author)|

Kung, Hsiang-Te; And Others



A Teratogenic Deformity Index for Evaluating Impacts of Selenium on Fish Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for using teratogenic deformities in fish as the basis for evaluating impacts of selenium contamination. Teratogenic deformities are reliable bioindicators of selenium toxicosis in fish. They are produced in response to dietary exposure of parent fish and subsequent deposition of selenium in eggs. There is a close parallel between selenium concentrations in eggs, incidence of

A. Dennis Lemly



The CINMa index: assessing the potential impact of GM crop management across a heterogeneous landscape.  


While significant progress has been made on the modification of crops for the benefit of producers, the same cannot be said in regards to eliciting the potential impact that these crops may have on the wider landscape and the diversity of life therein. Management impacts can create difficulties when making policy, regulation and licensing decisions in those countries where agriculture has a significant social and ecological position in the landscape. To begin to gauge the potential impacts of the management of a selection of GM crops on an agricultural landscape, four key biodiversity stressors (Chemicals, Introgression, Nutrients and Management: CINMa) were identified and a grading system developed using published data. Upon application to five selected GM crops in a case study area, CINMa identifies areas in the wider landscape where biodiversity is likely to be negatively or positively impacted, as well as agricultural zones which may benefit from the land use change associated with the management of GM crops and their associated post market environmental monitoring. PMID:21975254

Collier, Marcus J; Mullins, Ewen



A Genetically Engineered Crop's Impact on Pesticide Use: A Revealed-Preference Index Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revealed-preference-based method is proposed for assessment of the environmental and human health impact of genetically engineered (GE) crops. This method employs the relative pesticide toxicity information from farmers' pesticide choices combined with volume of pesticides as an alternative to previous methods which are based on volume only, on number of pesticide applications, or on stated preferences. The method is

Olha Sydorovych; Michele C. Marra



Impact Research of Process Parameters on Sink Index of Rapid Heat Cycle Molding Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking the independently designed in-vehicle Bluetooth high glossy product as an example, in combination with the Taguchi experiment and the simulation technology, the experimental research of the impact of Rapid Heat Cycle Molding(RHCM) process on the sink mark of the product is conducted through the introduction of interference factors. The results show that the technical characteristics of high mold temperature

Sun Ling; Liu Donglei



Lipomatosis: a diverse form of hemifacial hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

A case of hemifacial hyperplasia that presented with muscular, skeletal, and dental hyperplasia along with lipomatous infiltration was described. Advanced imaging was useful in identifying the lipomatous infiltration present in the lesion, which raises the possibility of lipomatosis having a diverse presentation in hemifacial hyperplasia. As there was a scarcity of related literature in the field of dentomaxillofacial radiology, this report would make us familiar with its computed tomographic and magnetic resonance image findings.

Umarji, Hemant R.; Arora, Aman; Ramaswami, Easwaran



Medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Pharmaceutical preparations are commonly used for benign prostate hyperplasia. This article reviews the current understanding of the natural history of the condition and the literature regarding medical treatment.

Connolly, Stephen S; Fitzpatrick, John M



Body mass index has a greater impact on pregnancy outcomes than gestational hyperglycaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  We evaluated diabetes-related pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of Spanish women in relation to their glucose tolerance status, prepregnancy BMI and other predictive variables.Methods  The present paper is part of a prospective study to evaluate the impact of American Diabetes Association (2000) criteria in the Spanish population. A total of 9,270 pregnant women were studied and categorised as follows according to

W. Ricart; J. López; J. Mozas; A. Pericot; M. A. Sancho; M. Balsells; R. Luna; A. Cortázar; P. Navarro; O. Ramírez; B. Flández; L. F. Pallardo; A. Hernández-Mijas; J. Ampudia; J. M. Fernández-Real; R. Corcoy



Revealing the impact of radiation-induced refractive index changes in polymer gel dosimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines effects of radiation-induced refractive index (RI) changes in polymer gel dosimeters. A prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner was used to image a normoxic polymer gel dosimeter that was irradiated with two simple irradiation patterns-one single beam, one cross beam. A combed fan-beam was used for rayline tracing. Scans revealed that notable rayline errors occur when a steep, side-to-side dose gradient (i.e. RI gradient) is encountered. When the gradient occurs in the plane of the detector system, distinctive streaks in images are observed. When the gradient occurs perpendicular to the plane of the detector system, much more severe image errors are observed.

Campbell, W. G.; Jirasek, A.; Wells, D.



The physiological impact of the nonlinearity of arterial elasticity in the ambulatory arterial stiffness index.  


The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is claimed to be a new estimator for arterial rigidity. It was recently defined as one minus the slope of the linear regression of systolic to diastolic ambulatory pressure during 24 h. Although several reports testify its clinical relevance, the explanation of how this new index is conceptually associated with arterial stiffness remains controversial. In this work we hypothesize that nonlinear arterial elasticity is behind AASI physiological principles. To that end, random number generators were used to emulate arterial cross-sectional area (CSA) during 24 h. Pressure values were calculated using linear and nonlinear elasticity models for rigid and compliant arteries. The AASI was calculated from simulated pressures and also analytically predicted for each model. Additionally, invasive aortic pressure and CSA were continuously measured in a conscious sheep during 24 h to test the nonlinear model. We found that analytical solutions agreed with simulation outcomes; for the nonlinear model, the AASI was higher in rigid arteries with respect to compliant arteries (0.51 versus 0.38) and the linear model systematically predicted AASI = 0. For in vivo pressure measurements, AASI was 0.31. Using the measured pulsatile CSA and an estimation of the elastic constant for the nonlinear model, the AASI was accurately predicted with errors below 5%. We conclude that the AASI is higher in stiffer arteries due to the nonlinear behavior of the arterial wall. With a nonlinear arterial function, the slope of the linear regression of diastolic to systolic pressures during 24 h depends on the product of an elastic constant by the pulsatile CSA. As the elastic constant dominates the product, the reported associations between the AASI and arterial stiffness indices now have a consistent explanation. PMID:20585150

Craiem, Damian; Graf, Sebastian; Salvucci, Fernando; Chironi, Gilles; Megnien, Jean-Louis; Simon, Alain; Armentano, Ricardo L



Global spatial indexing of the human impact on Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn mobilization.  


With increasing consumption of material by human activity, the extent of human influence relative to nature in the mobilization of metals and other elements on Earth continues to grow. Recognizing people as modern geomorphic agents, I produced global data layers at 1 degreesx1 degrees of human-mediated mass flows (coal combustion, biomass burning, and mining) and nature-mediated mass flows (net primary productivity, sea salt aerosol emission, and denudation to the oceans) for the industrial metals of aluminum, iron, copper, and zinc for the year 2000. The major mobilization processes are denudation (natural) and mining (anthropic), though net primary productivity for Zn and Cu and coal combustion for Al are nearly as significant. All flows are subsequently combined into an index representing human versus nature flow dominance. As the first maps of mobilization flows of metals widely used by modern technology, they reveal that approximately 1-5% (depending upon the metal) of Earth's land surface now has metal flow dominated by human activity. PMID:20666554

Rauch, Jason N



The influence of body mass index on thoracic injuries in frontal impacts.  


For this study, a comprehensive analysis was performed to assess the influence of body mass index on thoracic injury potential. The data for this study were obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database for years 1993-2005. Obese occupants had a 26 and 33% higher risk of AIS > or = 2 and AIS > or = 3 thoracic injury when compared to lean occupants. The increased risk of AIS > or = 3 injury due to obesity was slightly higher for older occupants, but the influence of age was greater than that of obesity. The increase in injury potential was higher for unbelted obese occupants than unbelted. Non-parametric and parametric risk curves were developed to estimate the risk of thoracic injury based on occupant BMI, belt use and delta-V. Overall, increase in thoracic injury risk due to obesity is more prominent in males and older occupants and for occupants sustaining AIS > or = 3 thoracic injuries. PMID:18329413

Cormier, Joseph M



Impact of Body Mass Index on Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Obesity is a major comorbidity in the Western world and influences outcomes of patient care. A minimally invasive approach towards radical cystectomy has been increasing in popularity. We sought to determine the influence of body mass index (BMI) on robot-assisted radical cystectomy. Methods: Fifty-one consecutive patients underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy for bladder cancer from October 2005 to April 2007 and were categorized into 3 groups based on their weight: normal (BMI <25), over-weight (BMI=25 to 29) and obese (BMI= 30 to 39.9). Effect of BMI on intraoperative, pathologic, and postoperative outcomes was assessed by retrospective review of the robot-assisted radical cystectomy database. Results: Mean BMI was 28.0, and 71% of the patients were overweight or obese. BMI did not correlate with age, sex, or American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score. Overweight and obese patients had similar operative times and estimated blood loss compared with patients with normal BMI. Overweight and obese patients with bulky disease (pT3–4) had significantly higher rates of positive surgical margins (P=0.05). Complication rates were similar. Conclusion: Robotic-assisted radical cystectomy can be considered for patients of all body mass indices. Wider excision should be performed in patients with higher BMI.

Butt, Zubair M.; Perlmutter, Adam E.; Piacente, Pamela M.; Wilding, Gregory; Tan, Wei; Kim, Hyung L.; Mohler, James L.



Numerical simulation of the impact of vegetation index on the interannual variation of summer precipitation in the Yellow River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two sets of numerical experiments using the coupled National Center for Environmental Prediction General Circulation Model (NCEP/GCM T42L18) and the Simplified Simple Biosphere land surface scheme (SSiB) were carried out to investigate the climate impacts of fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) on East Asia summer precipitation, especially in the Yellow River Basin (YRB). One set employed prescribed FVC and LAI which have no interannual variations based on the climatology of vegetation distribution; the other with FVC and LAI derived from satellite observations of the International Satellite Land Surface Climate Project (ISLSCP) for 1987 and 1988. The simulations of the two experiments were compared to study the influence of FVC, LAI on summer precipitation interannual variation in the YRB. Compared with observations and the NCEP reanalysis data, the experiment that included both the effects of satellite-derived vegetation indexes and sea surface temperature (SST) produced better seasonal and interannual precipitation variations than the experiment with SST but no interannual variations in FVC and LAI, indicating that better representations of the vegetation index and its interannual variation may be important for climate prediction. The difference between 1987 and 1988 indicated that with the increase of FVC and LAI, especially around the YRB, surface albedo decreased, net surface radiation increased, and consequently local evaporation and precipitation intensified. Further more, surface sensible heat flux, surface temperature and its diurnal variation decreased around the YRB in response to more vegetation. The decrease of surface-emitting longwave radiation due to the cooler surface outweighed the decrease of surface solar radiation income with more cloud coverage, thus maintaining the positive anomaly of net surface radiation. Further study indicated that moisture flux variations associated with changes in the general circulation also contributed to the precipitation interannual variation.

Li, Weiping; Xue, Yongkang



Melanocyte Changes in Epidermal Hyperplasia--An Experimental Study  

PubMed Central

Subepidermal injection of suspensions of silica in guinea-pigs produces granulomatous inflammation in the dermis and hyperplasia of the overlying epidermis. In the experiments described here this procedure was adopted in 16 animals in order to investigate the behaviour of the melanocytes in the hyperplastic epidermis. The DOPA reaction was used to identify melanocytes and the number of DOPA positive cells per 100 basal epidermal cells (DOPA index) was correlated with the degree of epidermal hyperplasia. The epidermal reaction was charted by estimating the autoradiographic labelling index after injection of tritiated thymidine and measuring the epidermal thickness. The DOPA index fell in the hyperplastic epidermis and had not returned to control levels by three weeks. However, there were foci within the epidermis where the number of melanocytes and their reactivity appeared to be increased. The number of “clear cells” in the basal epidermis was also estimated and the numbers of these cells approximately paralleled the changes in the DOPA positive cells. Silver staining for melanin did not demonstrate pigmentary incontinence. ImagesFigs. 2-4

Eady, R.; Marks, R.



Impact of body mass index on the risk of colorectal adenoma in a metabolically healthy population.  


Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) states exist that seem to be protected from cardiovascular risks. Although obesity is a risk factor for colorectal adenoma (CRA), there has yet to be any study of the risks of CRA in MHO individuals. In this study, we compared CRA prevalence in MHO individuals versus metabolically healthy individuals who were normal in weight. This cross-sectional study involved 18,085 Korean adults (39.1 ± 6.7 years) who had a health checkup including a colonoscopy. High-risk CRA was defined as any adenoma over 1 cm, 3 or more adenomas, adenoma with a villous component, or high-grade dysplasia. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to measure the associations between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of low-risk and high-risk CRA. Low-risk and high-risk CRA were present in 9.3% and 1.4% of the study population, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, drinking, exercise, family history of colorectal cancer, education, and use of analgesic and aspirin, compared with normal healthy individuals, the prevalence of low-risk and high-risk CRA was increased in MHO individuals [OR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-1.69 and OR = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.09-2.41, respectively]. In fully adjusted models, the prevalence of low-risk and high-risk CRA was associated with increasing categories of BMI in a dose-response manner (P for trend < 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Thus, excess body weight, even in the absence of a metabolic unhealthy state, was found to be positively associated with increased presence of CRAs. PMID:23687341

Yun, Kyung Eun; Chang, Yoosoo; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Chan-Won; Kwon, Min-Jung; Park, Sung Keun; Sung, Eunju; Shin, Hocheol; Park, Hye Soon; Ryu, Seungho



Development and validation of a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) for assessing urban impacts to Northern California freshwater wetlands.  


Despite California policies requiring assessment of ambient wetland condition and compensatory wetland mitigations, no intensive monitoring tools have been developed to evaluate freshwater wetlands within the state. Therefore, we developed standardized, wadeable field methods to sample macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated 40 wetlands across Northern California to develop a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI). A priori reference sites were selected with minimal urban impacts, representing a best-attainable condition. We screened 56 macroinvertebrate metrics for inclusion in the IBI based on responsiveness to percent urbanization. Eight final metrics were selected for inclusion in the IBI: percent three dominant taxa; scraper richness; percent Ephemeroptera, Odonata, and Trichoptera (EOT); EOT richness; percent Tanypodinae/Chironomidae; Oligochaeta richness; percent Coleoptera; and predator richness. The IBI (potential range 0-100) demonstrated significant discriminatory power between the reference (mean?=?69) and impacted wetlands (mean?=?28). It also declined with increasing percent urbanization (R (2)?=?0.53, p?

Lunde, Kevin B; Resh, Vincent H



Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and pregnancy.  


A 32-year-old woman with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) secondary to 21-hydroxylase deficiency presented with infertility. She was treated with different steroid replacement regimens together with fludrocortisone. The aim of this case report is to discuss fertility barriers in women with classical CAH, and emphasise the risks and benefits of available steroid treatment options. Clinical considerations covered include preconception health and fertility planning, optimising fertility through suppression of excess hormone production, reducing fetal androgen exposure in utero and limiting maternal and fetal side effects of therapy and limiting chances of CAH in the baby. In this case suppression of androgen and progesterone levels was challenging but eventually was achieved and resulted in a spontaneous pregnancy. However, she miscarried in the first trimester, and fetal biopsy revealed a complete hydatiform mole. She is advised not to conceive while she is under investigation to determine the extent of the disease. PMID:23917362

Shorakae, Soulmaz; Teede, Helena



Focal epithelial hyperplasia - an update.  


Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is an asymptomatic benign mucosal disease, which is mostly observed in specific groups in certain geographical regions. FEH is usually a disease of childhood and adolescence and is generally associated with people who live in poverty and of low socioeconomic status. Clinically, FEH is typically characterized by multiple, painless, soft, sessile papules, plaques or nodules, which may coalesce to give rise to larger lesions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially genotypes 13 and 32, have been associated and detected in the majority of FEH lesions. The clinical examination and social history often allow diagnosis, but histopathological examination of lesional tissue is usually required to confirm the exact diagnosis. FEH sometimes resolves spontaneously however, treatment is often indicated as a consequence of aesthetic effects or any interference with occlusion. There remains no specific therapy for FEH, although surgical removal, laser excision or possibly topical antiviral agents may be of benefit. There remains no evidence that FEH is potentially malignant. PMID:23061874

Said, Ahmed K; Leao, Jair C; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen R



Impact of the donor body mass index on the survival of pediatric liver transplant recipients and post-transplant obesity.  


In adult liver transplant recipients, the donor body mass index (dBMI) is associated with posttransplant obesity but not with graft or patient survival. Because of the obesity epidemic in the United States and the already limited supply of liver donors, clarifying whether the dBMI affects pediatric outcomes is important. United Network for Organ Sharing data for pediatric liver transplants in the United States (1990-2010) were evaluated. Data on transplants performed between 2004 and 2010 (n = 3788) were used for survival analyses with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models and for posttransplant obesity analyses with generalized estimating equations. For children receiving adult donor livers, a dBMI of 25 to <35 kg/m(2) was not associated with graft or patient survival in univariate or multivariate analyses. A dBMI ? 35 kg/m(2) increased the risk of graft loss [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.29-5.01, P = 0.007] and death (HR = 3.56, 95% CI = 1.64-7.72, P = 0.001). For pediatric donors, the dBMI was not associated with graft loss or mortality in a univariate or multivariate analysis. An overweight or obese donor was not a risk factor for posttransplant obesity. Overweight and obesity are common among liver transplant donors. This analysis suggests that for adult donors, a body mass index (BMI) of 25 to <35 kg/m(2) should not by itself be a contraindication to liver donation. Severe obesity (BMI ? 35 kg/m(2)) in adult donors increased the risk of graft loss and mortality, even after adjustments for recipient, donor, and transplant risk factors. Posttransplant obesity was not associated with the dBMI in this analysis. Further research is needed to clarify the impact of donor obesity on pediatric liver transplant recipients. PMID:22467594

Perito, Emily Rothbaum; Rhee, Sue; Glidden, Dave; Roberts, John Paul; Rosenthal, Philip



First data on an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on fish assemblages for the assessment of the impact of deforestation in a tropical West African river system  

Microsoft Academic Search

African tropical rainforests, and especially their freshwater biodiversity, are seriously threatened by ongoing industrial deforestation. Sound ecological management is needed to ensure the sustainability of these resources. For this purpose, an index of biotic integrity (IBI), based on fish assemblage characteristics, is developed in this paper. It is used to quantify the impact of industrial deforestation on freshwater biodiversity. Data

André Kamdem Toham; Guy G. Teugels



Fetal thyroid hyperplasia, rhesus isoimmunisation, and amniography.  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hyperplasia was identified at necropsy in 16 of 70 cases of haemolytic disease of the newborn due to rhesus isoimmunisation dying in the years 1959--76. No hyperplasia was found in the thyroids from 140 nonrhesus-affected infants matched for date of birth, bodyweight and length, and gestation, or in cases of haemolytic disease born before 1966. All 16 infants with thyroid hyperplasia had received intrauterine transfusions and the iodine-containing contrast media used for preliminary amniography were the only goitrogenic factors identified. Lipiodol, first used in 1966, was considered to have the greatest effect. The 16 infants with hyperplastic thyroids were less mature and smaller than 22 infants with normal thyroids who had been similarly exposed to contrast media. The high incidence of hyperplasia may be due to immaturity of the adaptive mechanisms which allow most normal individuals to escape the goitrogenic effects of iodine compounds. Images Fig. 1

Becroft, D M; Smeeton, W M; Stewart, J H



Throid Hyperplasia at Autopsy in Mulago Hospital.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thyroid hyperplasia was found in 89 per cent of unselected autopsy cases at Mulago Hospital. This reflects a low intake of dietary iodine. The number of tribes involved indicates that this is a widespread problem in Uganda. (Author)

D. H. Connor R. H. Follis



A simplified murine intimal hyperplasia model founded on a focal carotid stenosis.  


Murine models offer a powerful tool for unraveling the mechanisms of intimal hyperplasia and vascular remodeling, although their technical complexity increases experimental variability and limits widespread application. We describe a simple and clinically relevant mouse model of arterial intimal hyperplasia and remodeling. Focal left carotid artery (LCA) stenosis was created by placing 9-0 nylon suture around the artery using an external 35-gauge mandrel needle (middle or distal location), which was then removed. The effect of adjunctive diet-induced obesity was defined. Flowmetry, wall strain analyses, biomicroscopy, and histology were completed. LCA blood flow sharply decreased by ?85%, followed by a responsive right carotid artery increase of ?71%. Circumferential strain decreased by ?2.1% proximal to the stenosis in both dietary groups. At 28 days, morphologic adaptations included proximal LCA intimal hyperplasia, which was exacerbated by diet-induced obesity. The proximal and distal LCA underwent outward and negative inward remodeling, respectively, in the mid-focal stenosis (remodeling indexes, 1.10 and 0.53). A simple, defined common carotid focal stenosis yields reproducible murine intimal hyperplasia and substantial differentials in arterial wall adaptations. This model offers a tool for investigating mechanisms of hemodynamically driven intimal hyperplasia and arterial wall remodeling. PMID:23159527

Tao, Ming; Mauro, Christine R; Yu, Peng; Favreau, John T; Nguyen, Binh; Gaudette, Glenn R; Ozaki, C Keith



Impact of model order and estimation window for indexing TerraSAR-X images using Gauss Markov random fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TerraSAR-X is the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) German satellite which provides a high diversity of information due to its high-resolution. TerraSAR-X acquires daily a volume of up to 100 GB of high complexity, multi-mode SAR images, i.e. SpotLight, StripMap, and ScanSAR data, with dual or quad-polarization, and with different look angles. The high and multiple resolutions of the instrument (1m, 3m or 10m) open perspectives for new applications, that were not possible with past lower resolution sensors (20-30m). Mainly the 1m and 3m modes we expect to support a broad range of new applications related to human activities with relevant structures and objects at the 1m scale. Thus, among the most interesting scenes are: urban, industrial, and rural data. In addition, the global coverage and the relatively frequent repeat pass will definitely help to acquire extremely relevant data sets. To analyze the available TerrrSAR-X data we rely on model based methods for feature extraction and despeckling. The image information content is extracted using model-based methods based on Gauss Markov Random Field (GMRF) and Bayesian inference approach. This approach enhances the local adaptation by using a prior model, which learns the image structure and enables to estimate the local description of the structures, acting as primitive feature extraction method. However, the GMRF model-based method uses as input parameters the Model Order (MO) and the size of Estimation Window (EW). The appropriated selection of these parameters allows us to improve the classification and indexing results due to the number of well separated classes could be determined by them. Our belief is that the selection of the MO depends on the kind of information that the image contains, explaining how well the model can recognize complex structures as objects, and according to the size of EW the accuracy of the estimation is determined. In the following, we present an evaluation of the impact of the model order selection and the estimation windows size using TerraSAR-X data. We determine how many classes can be indexed depending on the Model Order and Estimation Window. The experimental results shows a good choice is model order 3 and 4, and estimation window with radius 15 × 15 pixels size.

Espinoza-Molina, Daniela; Datcu, Mihai



Neointimal hyperplasia persists at six months after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic porcine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Observational clinical studies have shown that patients with diabetes have less favorable results after percutaneous coronary intervention compared with the non-diabetic counterparts, but its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the changes of neointimal hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation in a diabetic porcine model, and to evaluate the impact of aortic inflammation on

Qi Zhang; Lin Lu; LiJin Pu; RuiYan Zhang; Jie Shen; ZhengBing Zhu; Jian Hu; ZhenKun Yang; QiuJin Chen; WeiFeng Shen



Impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on body mass index, ghrelin, insulin and lipid levels in 100 obese patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction A high percentage of patients benefit from bariatric procedures in terms of metabolic effect and substantial body mass reduction. These procedures improve glucose metabolism leading to the amelioration or complete resolution of type 2 diabetes, reduction of insulin resistance and alleviation of metabolic syndrome effects. Aim To assess the impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on the plasma levels of ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions as well as aspartate and alanine transaminases in patients with obesity. Material and methods One hundred patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in our centre between 2005 and 2009 were included in the study. Among them were 48 males with an average age of 47.93 ±9.24 years and 52 females with an average age of 44.19 ±9.33 years. Percentage excess weight loss (%EWL), percentage excess body mass index (BMI) loss (%EBL), ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, alanine transferase (ALT), and asparagine transferase (AST) were measured preoperatively and on the 7th day then 1, 3 and 6 months after the surgery. Results Statistically significant reduction in postoperative BMI, plasma levels of glucose and insulin as well as the homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA IR) score was noted in comparison to the preoperative values. The ghrelin levels decreased. Lipid profile, AST and ALT levels varied depending on the particular time points. Conclusions Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy reduces body mass and leads to the decrease of concentration of ghrelin in plasma as well as to the improvement of metabolism of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. The above changes alleviated symptoms of metabolic syndrome and obesity related co-morbidities.

Dadan, Jacek; Golaszewski, Pawel; Safiejko, Kamil



Gender-dependent impacts of body mass index and moderate alcohol consumption on serum uric acid--an index of oxidant stress status?  


Uric acid seems to be causally involved in a variety of medical disorders involving oxidative stress. Although alcohol abuse and obesity are known to increase serum uric acid, the interactions between moderate drinking, adiposity, and uric acid metabolism have remained poorly understood. We examined serum uric acid concentrations from 2062 apparently healthy volunteers (970 men, 1092 women) reporting either no alcohol (abstainers) or <40 g of ethanol consumption per day (moderate drinkers). The study population was further classified according to BMI as follows: <19 (underweight), 19-25 (normal weight), 25-30 (overweight), and >30 (obese). Serum uric acid concentrations in male moderate drinkers were significantly higher, and in females they were lower, than in the corresponding groups of abstainers. In the BMI-based subgroups, the highest concentrations were found in those who were overweight or obese. Significant two-factor interactions occurred between gender and drinking status (p<0.001) and between gender and BMI (p<0.02). Serum uric acid also correlated with indices of hepatocellular health (GGT, ALT, AST). The data indicate distinct gender-dependent impacts of alcohol consumption and BMI on serum uric acid. These findings should be applicable to the assessment of oxidative stress status and associated morbidity in alcohol consumers and individuals with excess body weight. PMID:19439211

Alatalo, Päivikki I; Koivisto, Heidi M; Hietala, Johanna P; Bloigu, Risto S; Niemelä, Onni J



[Clinical evaluation of supplemental administration of flavoxate hydrochloride in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with nocturia resistant to an alpha1-adrenoceptor blocker].  


We examined the effectiveness of supplemental administration of flavoxate hydrochloride in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) whose nocturia was not adequately relieved by an alpha1-adrenoceptor blocker. Fifty-two patients who had two or more nocturnal micturition after administration of tamsulosin hydrochloride or naftopidil for 4 weeks or more received 400-600 mg of flavoxate hydrochloride in addition to an alpha1-adrenoceptor blocker for another 8-12 weeks. With supplemental administration of flavoxate hydrochloride, significant improvement was observed in the number of nocturnal micturition, total International Prostate Sympton Score, quality of life score and BPH impact index. No significant change was observed in the voided volume, Qmax, voiding time and residual urine volume. Supplemental administration of flavoxate hydrochloride is therefore effective for the improvement of nocturia and QOL in BPH patients resistant to an alpha1-adrenoceptor blocker. PMID:18411771

Kato, Shinobu; Kusaka, Mamoru; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Izumitani, Masanobu; Asano, Haruyoshi; Ooki, Takahiro; Yanaoka, Masanori; Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka



Top-hat beam output of a single-mode microstructured optical fiber: Impact of core index depression.  


A new strategy to obtain a single-mode fiber with a flattened intensity profile distribution is presented. It is based on the use of an OVD-made high index ring deposited on a silica rod having a refractive index slightly lower than the silica used for the microstructured cladding. Using this strategy, we realized the first single-mode fiber with a quasi-perfect top-hat intensity profile around 1 µm. Numerical studies clearly demonstrate the advantage of using a core index depression to insure the single-mode operation of the fiber at the working wavelength. PMID:24104239

Valentin, Constance; Calvet, Pierre; Quiquempois, Yves; Bouwmans, Géraud; Bigot, Laurent; Coulombier, Quentin; Douay, Marc; Delplace, Karen; Mussot, Arnaud; Hugonnot, Emmanuel



Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis and the Development of Pre-Atherosclerotic Intimal Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Summary Intimal hyperplasia or thickening is considered to be the precursor lesion for atherosclerosis in humans; however the factors governing its formation are unclear. In the atherosclerosis-resistant internal thoracic artery, pre-atherosclerotic intimal hyperplasia routinely forms during adulthood after the 4th decade and is associated with at least two traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis: age and smoking. Background Intimal hyperplasia, or thickening, is considered to be the precursor lesion for atherosclerosis in humans; however, the factors governing its formation are unclear. To gain insight into the etiology of pre-atherosclerotic intimal hyperplasia, traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis were correlated with the intimal hyperplasia in an atherosclerosis-resistant vessel, the internal thoracic artery. Methods Paired internal thoracic arteries were obtained from 89 autopsies. Multivariate logistic regression and multiple regression models were used to examine the association of pre-atherosclerotic intimal hyperplasia with traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis: age, gender, hypertension, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Results Atherosclerotic lesions consisting of fatty streaks and/or type III intermediate lesions were identified in 19 autopsies. Only age >75 years was found to be significantly correlated with atherosclerotic lesion development (P=0.01). Multiple regression model of the intima/media ratio in all 89 cases revealed age >75 years (P<0.0001), age 51–75years (P=0.0012), smoking (P=0.008) and hypertension (P=0.02) to be significantly correlated with intimal thickness. In the 70 cases without atherosclerosis, only age 51–75 years (P=0.006) and smoking (P=0.028) were found to be significantly associated with pre-atherosclerotic intimal thickening. Conclusions In the atherosclerosis-resistant internal thoracic artery, pre-atherosclerotic intimal hyperplasia routinely forms during adulthood after the 4th decade and is associated with at least two traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis: age and smoking. These observations indicate that in some settings, intimal hyperplasia may be part of the disease process of atherosclerosis, and that its formation may be influenced by traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis.

Cizek, Stephanie M.; Bedri, Shahinaz; Talusan, Paul; Silva, Nilsa; Lee, Hang; Stone, James R.



Prostatic Hyperplasia: An Unknown Feature of Acromegaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate whether GH and insulin- like growth factor I (IGF-I) excess could lead to the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and\\/or prostatic carcinoma. Prostatic diameters and volume as well as the occurrence of prostatic diseases were studied by ultrasonography in 10 untreated acromegalic pa- tients less than 40 yr of age and 10 age- and




Macroorchidism: consequence of untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  


Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART) are consequences of delayed diagnosis and/or undertreatment in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We describe a case of CAH with TART who presented with bilateral macroorchidism. He was managed with glucocorticoids which led to decrease in testicular size without restoration of spermatogenesis. PMID:22885440

Rastogi, Ashu; Walia, Rama; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Bhansali, Anil



Neointimal hyperplasia associated with synthetic hemodialysis grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenosis is a major cause of failure of hemodialysis vascular grafts and is primarily caused by neointimal hyperplasia (NH) at the anastomoses. The objective of this article is to provide a scientific review of the biology underlying this disorder and a critical review of the state-of-the-art investigational preventive strategies in order to stimulate further research in this exciting area. The

Li Li; Christi M Terry; Yan-Ting E Shiu; Alfred K Cheung



Adult Consequences of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 95% of all CAH cases and is one the most common inborn metabolic disorders. While consensus and guidelines on therapeutic management in infancy and childhood are available, data regarding the treatment of adults with CAH are scarce. This review highlights the issues that need to be addressed when caring

Wiebke Arlt; Nils Krone



Bacillary angiomatosis associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.  


Bacillary angiomatosis is an opportunistic bacterial infection caused by either Bartonella henselae or B. quintana. The classic histologic presentation of bacillary angiomatosis involves three components: a lobular proliferation of capillaries with enlarged endothelial cells, neutrophilic debris, and clumps of finely granular material identified as bacteria with staining techniques. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is a histologic reaction pattern characterized by epithelial proliferation in response to a variety of stimuli, including mycobacterial, fungal, and bacterial infections. We describe a case of bacillary angiomatosis associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in an immunocompromised patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Histologic examination of a finger lesion demonstrated a capillary proliferation with neutrophilic debris and characteristic amorphous granular deposits. Warthin-Starry and Giemsa staining revealed clumps of coccobacilli. Cervical lymph node tissue also revealed organisms identified as Bartonella with PCR techniques. Stains and cultures for acid fast bacilli, fungus, and bacteria were negative. To our knowledge, there has been only one other report of bacillary angiomatosis presenting with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. We conclude that the differential diagnosis of entities associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia should be expanded to include bacillary angiomatosis. PMID:16456322

Amsbaugh, Sean; Huiras, Erin; Wang, Nadia S; Wever, Aaron; Warren, Simon



Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia: efficacy of isotretinoin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a benign but potentially disfiguring vascular lesion. It is usually characterized by dermal and subcutaneous nodules, primarily in the head and neck region. Spontaneous regression is common, but persistent or recurrent lesions may require treatment. Several treatments have been reported but surgery is the most efficient one. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report a

Fouad El Sayed; Rola Dhaybi; Alfred Ammoury; Myrna Chababi



Hereditary Pituitary Hyperplasia with Infantile Gigantism  

PubMed Central

Context: We report hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the results of the clinical and laboratory analysis of this rare instance of hereditary pituitary hyperplasia. Design: The study is a retrospective analysis of three cases from one family. Setting: The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health, a tertiary referral center. Patients: A mother and both her sons had very early-onset gigantism associated with high levels of serum GH and prolactin. Interventions: The condition was treated by total hypophysectomy. Main Outcome Measure(s): We performed clinical, pathological, and molecular evaluations, including evaluation basal and provocative endocrine testing, neuroradiological assessment, and assessment of the pituitary tissue by microscopic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Results: All three family members had very early onset of gigantism associated with abnormally high serum levels of GH and prolactin. Serum GHRH levels were not elevated in either of the boys. The clinical, radiographic, surgical, and histological findings indicated mammosomatotroph hyperplasia. The pituitary gland of both boys revealed diffuse mammosomatotroph hyperplasia of the entire pituitary gland without evidence of adenoma. Prolactin and GH were secreted by the same cells within the same secretory granules. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of GHRH in clusters of cells distributed throughout the hyperplastic pituitary of both boys. Conclusions: This hereditary condition seems to be a result of embryonic pituitary maldevelopment with retention and expansion of the mammosomatotrophs. The findings suggest that it is caused by paracrine or autocrine pituitary GHRH secretion during pituitary development.

Glasker, Sven; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.; Lafferty, Antony R. A.; Hofman, Paul L.; Li, Jie; Weil, Robert J.; Zhuang, Zhengping



The Occupational Mix Adjustment to the Medicare Hospital Wage Index: Why the Rural Impact Is Less than Expected  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: Rural hospitals are heavily dependent on Medicare for their long-term financial solvency. A recent change to Medicare prospective payment system reimbursement--the occupational mix adjustment (OMA) to the wage index--has attracted a great deal of attention in rural policy circles. Purpose: This paper explores variation in the OMA across…

Reiter, Kristin L.; Slifkin, Rebecca; Holmes, George M.



Impact of Body Mass Index on In-Hospital Mortality and Morbidity after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obesity is a common risk factor for morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. However, the relationship between obesity and postoperative risk has not been fully defined. Methods: A prospective study of 1015 consecutive patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was carried out. Body mass index (BMI) was used as the measure of obesity and was categorized as

Forouzan Yazdanian; Seyedeh Zahra Faritous; Gholamali Mollasadeghi



EPA Science Inventory

Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...



EPA Science Inventory

Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...


Hereditary gingival hyperplasia associated with amelogenesis imperfecta: a case report.  


Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) and amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) are two rare oral conditions with genetic etiologies. The case of a 17-year-old boy affected by HGF, AI, anterior open bite, and pyramidal impaction of the maxillary molars is reported. Internal bevel gingivectomies were carried out to reduce gingival overgrowth. Clinical examination of the family revealed the presence of HGF and AI in his 12-year-old sister (both in milder forms) and of HGF in his older half brother. Genetic sequencing analyses were performed to detect any of the known mutations leading to HGF and AI. Histologic analysis revealed the presence of fibroepithelial hyperplasia, consistent with a diagnosis of GF. Sequencing genetic analysis failed to identify any of the common mutations leading to HGF (SOS-1) or AI (enamelin and amelogenin genes). This phenotype, similar to what has been described in other families, may represent a new syndrome caused by an as-yet unknown genotype. PMID:22532955

Nibali, Luigi; Brett, Peter M; Donos, Nikos; Griffiths, Gareth S



Spectrum of carcinoembryonic antigen immunoreactivity from isolated ductal hyperplasias to atypical hyperplasias associated with infiltrating ductal breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To study the immunohistochemical expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in ductal hyperplasia of the breast and to investigate its putative relation with atypia and co-existing infiltrating ductal carcinoma. METHODS--Paraffin wax embedded tissue from 37 cases of isolated ductal hyperplasia (five with atypia and 32 without atypia) and 25 cases of ductal hyperplasia associated infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) (seven with atypia and 18 without atypia) was stained with a monoclonal anti-CEA antibody using a standard avidin biotin immunoperoxidase method. RESULTS--CEA immunoreactivity was observed in eight (12.8%) ductal hyperplasia cases. The percentage of CEA positivity in ductal hyperplasia cases with atypia (33.3%) was substantially higher than that observed in cases of ductal hyperplasia without atypia (8.0%). Six cases of ductal hyperplasia associated IDC reacted with CEA; in these six cases the neoplastic cells of the co-existing carcinoma were also CEA positive. The percentage of CEA immunoreactivity in ductal hyperplasia associated IDC was higher than that observed in isolated ductal hyperplasia (24.0 v 5.4%). The percentage of CEA immunoreactivity in atypical ductal hyperplasia associated IDC was similar to that observed in IDC alone (42.9 v 40.0%). CONCLUSIONS--The presence of CEA immunoreactivity has been confirmed in benign proliferative breast lesions. The prevalence of such immunoreactivity increases from 3.1% in isolated, nonatypical ductal hyperplasia to 42.9% in atypical ductal hyperplasia associated IDC. This finding and the similarity of the frequency of CEA positivity in atypical ductal hyperplasia associated IDC and in IDC alone suggests that there is a pathogenetic link between ductal hyperplasia and some types of breast cancer. Images

Schmitt, F C; Andrade, L



Developing an operational reference framework for fisheries management on the basis of a two-dimensional index of ecosystem impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite quantitative index for the percentage of primary production required to sustain fisheries and the average trophic level of catch (%PPReTLc) was employed to develop ecosystem-based reference functions suitable for fisheries management. Established ecosystem models, characterized by pairs of %PPReTLc, were classified as either sustainably exploited or ecosystem overfished, on the basis of the results of factorial correspondence analysis

Sergi Tudela; Marta Coll; Isabel Palomera



The impact of age, body mass index, and fish intake on the EPA and DHA content of human erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

n?3 FA are beneficial for cardiovascular health, reducing platelet aggregation, TG levels, and the risk of sudden death from\\u000a myocardial infarction. The percentage of EPA + DHA in red blood cells (RBC), also known as the Omega-3 Index, has recently\\u000a been proposed as a risk marker for death from coronary heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this study was to

Scott A. Sands; Kimberly J. Reid; Sheryl L. Windsor; William S. Harris



Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia with follicular mucinosis.  


Follicular mucinosis occurring along with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils (ALHE) has been described in a 49-year-old male. The patient presented with pruritic hyperpigmented papules and nodules on the vertex and right parietal scalp. There was no any other complaint. Histopathological examination from one of the papule showed prominent blood vessels in the dermis lined by plump histiocytoid endothelial cells that were surrounded by a dense lymphoid infiltrate with numerous eosinophils; these findings are typical of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. Features of follicular mucinosis were observed in the same section with 3 hyperplastic follicular infundibula containing pools of mucin in the infundibular epithelium. The concurrent occurrence of these 2 distinct histopathological patterns in the same biopsy specimen has been reported rarely. PMID:23716828

Gutte, Rameshwar; Doshi, Bhavana; Khopkar, Uday



Telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in the perinatal period: case report.  


We report a case of congenital telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia, a rare variant form of the disease. The patient was a 2-month-old boy whose parents noticed abdominal distention about 2 weeks after birth, and ultrasonogram revealed a large mass in the liver. He underwent right lobectomy, and gross findings showed an ill-defined mass without any central scar. Histologic findings demonstrated proliferating hepatocytes without atypia arranged in cords of 1- or 2-cell thickness with marked sinusoidal dilatation and extramedullary hematopoiesis. In addition, a significantly increased Ki-67 labeling index in the tumor compared with non-tumor liver cells, and cytogenetic analysis of 23 G-banded metaphase preparations revealed 3 abnormal karyotypes, suggesting hyperplastic or neoplastic features. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is only the third documented case of congenital telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:16211451

Okamura, Nobuyoshi; Nakadate, Hisaya; Ishida, Kazuo; Nakahara, Saori; Isobe, Yoshinori; Ohbu, Makoto; Okayasu, Isao



Focal cystic endometrial hyperplasia in a bitch.  


Rapid abdominal enlargement and weight gain occurred in a four-year-old Rhodesian ridgeback bitch in late oestrus. The bitch was nulliparous. Severe cardiovascular dysfunction followed and an exploratory laparotomy was performed. A large, single, spheroid mass weighting 17 kg was located in the middle section of the left uterine horn. A diagnosis of sterile, focal, cystic endometrial hyperplasia was made from gross pathology, histopathology and bacteriology. The bitch made a complete recovery following an ovariohysterectomy. PMID:7723293

Cockcroft, P D



New Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most common of all neoplasms. The most common treatment is prostatectomy, but other available therapies include androgen antagonists, ?-adrenergic blockers, anticholinergic agents, prostate dilation with a ballon, and urethral stents. Prostatectomy is likely to remain the standard of care for the foreseeable future because it is safe and much more effective than all other current and experimental forms of therapy.

Skepasts, Peter K.; Lee, Laurence M.



Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia in the hand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papillary endothelial hyperplasia first described by Masson as vegetant intravascular hemangioendothelioma, is a reactive\\u000a endothelial proliferation that, in many respects, mimics an angiosarcoma. Such lesions are most commonly located within veins\\u000a of the head, neck and fingers, and must be included in differential diagnosis of vascular lesions. The clinicopathologic features\\u000a of an unusual hand case are reported because of the

A. Alfaro; D. Arenas; S. Sanz; I. Gonzalez



Medical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Medical therapy for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) became an accepted standard of care in the 1990s following the reports of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies showing that finasteride, a 5-? reductase inhibitor, and terazosin, an ?-blocker, significantly improved lower urinary tract symptoms and increased peak urinary flow rates in men with BPH. This article reviews novel approaches to the pharmacological treatment of BPH.

Lepor, Herbert



Laser treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the role of lasers that allow acute removal of obstructing tissue in the surgical treatment of benign prostatic\\u000a hyperplasia (BPH). A MEDLINE search over the last 6 years focused on randomized trials, large case series and review articles.\\u000a A total of more than 4,000 patients were analyzed with respect to the morbidity and outcome, and the advantages and disadvantages

Rainer M. Kuntz



Prostatic hyperplasia: an unknown feature of acromegaly.  


This study was designed to investigate whether GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) excess could lead to the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and/or prostatic carcinoma. Prostatic diameters and volume as well as the occurrence of prostatic diseases were studied by ultrasonography in 10 untreated acromegalic patients less than 40 yr of age and 10 age- and body mass index-matched healthy males. Serum GH, IGF-I, PRL, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, prostate-specific antigen, and prostatic acid phosphatase levels were assessed. All patients had secondary hypogonadism, as diagnosed by low testosterone levels, and 4 of 10 patients had hyperprolactinemia. After 1 yr of treatment with octreotide (0.3-0.6 mg/day), ultrasound scan and hormone parameters were repeated. The 4 hyperprolactinemic acromegalics were treated with octreotide and cabergoline (1-2 mg/week) to suppress PRL levels. Symptoms due to prostatic, seminal vesicle, and/or urethral disorders or obstruction were experienced by neither acromegalics nor controls. Digital rectal examination revealed no occurrence of prostatic nodules or other abnormalities. Compared to healthy subjects, a remarkable increase in transversal prostatic diameter and volume was observed in acromegalics. In healthy subjects, prostate volume ranged from 15.1-21.8 mL, whereas in acromegalics it ranged from 21.8-41.8 mL. Similarly, an increased median lobe was observed. In fact, the transitional zone diameter was just detectable in 5 of 10 controls, whereas it was measurable in all acromegalics (18 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.8 +/- 0.3 mm; P < 0.001). The prevalence of periurethral calcifications was more than doubled in acromegalics (50%) compared to that in controls (20%). Treatment with octreotide for 1 yr produced normalization of circulating GH and IGF-I levels in 7 of 10 patients. In these 7 patients, ultrasound evaluation showed a significant reduction of the antero-posterior diameter (26.1 +/- 1 vs. 28.9 +/- 1.6 mm; P < 0.01), the transversal diameter (44.9 +/- 2 vs. 48 +/- 2 mm; P < 0.01), and the cranio-caudal diameter (36.5 +/- 1 vs. 41.3 +/- 1.5 mm; P < 0.001), whereas the transitional zone diameter was unchanged (16.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 17.4 +/- 1.7 mm). As a consequence, a significant decrease in prostate volume was recorded (22.1 +/- 1.1 vs. 29.8 +/- 2.5 mL; P < 0.001). Prostate volume increased in 2 of the 3 patients who did not achieve normalization of GH and IGF-I after octreotide treatment. Finally, after treatment, serum testosterone levels were significantly increased (from 1.5 +/- 0.3 to 3.5 +/- 0.3 microg/L), whereas dihydrotestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, delta4-androstenedione, 17beta-estradiol, prostate-specific antigen, and prostatic acid phosphatase were unchanged. Serum PRL levels were suppressed after cabergoline treatment in all 4 hyperprolactinemic patients throughout the study period. In conclusion, prostate enlargement occurs in young acromegalics with a higher than expected prevalence of micro- and macrocalcifications. This suggests that a careful prostate screening should be included in the work-up and follow-up of acromegalic males. PMID:9506725

Colao, A; Marzullo, P; Ferone, D; Spiezia, S; Cerbone, G; Marinò, V; Di Sarno, A; Merola, B; Lombardi, G



Evidence of a novel biomarker, ?s1Casein, a milk protein, in benign prostate hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in elderly men. Although it is a non-malignant disease, it has a significant detrimental impact on the quality of life in patients with late-stage disease. Owing to the lack of specific markers, diagnosis of early-stage BPH has been proven unsuccessful. Recently, using two-dimensional electrophoresis, we identified a group of prostatic secretory proteins

K Xu; M-T Ling; X Wang; Y-C Wong



A substrate classification index for the visual assessment of the impact of acid mine drainage in lotic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of acid mine drainage (AMD) on lotic receiving waters is complex and difficult to assess. While low pH, elevated sulphate and metals all characterize AMD these vary both spatially and temporally, with high river dilutions resulting in low absolute concentrations which are difficult to measure. From field observations the best indications of AMD contamination of lotic systems appear

N. F. Gray



Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 to Reduce Childhood Obesity: Its Implementation and Impact on Child and Adolescent Body Mass Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arkansas was among the first states to pass comprehensive legislation to combat childhood obesity, with Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003. Two distinct but complementary evaluations of the process, impact, and outcomes of Act 1220 are being conducted: first, surveillance of the weight status of Arkansas children and adolescents, using the statewide data amassed from the required measurements of students' body



Impact of intellectual capital on organisational performance : An empirical study of companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought evidence from the companies

Kin Hang Chan



Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 2)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

Chan, Kin Hang



Preexisting intimal hyperplasia of radial artery is associated with early failure of radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula in hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF), which provides the best vascular access for hemodialysis, continues to have a high incidence of early failure. Intimal hyperplasia (IH) of the radial artery is observed commonly in uremic patients before hemodialysis, but the impact of this preexisting IH on the early failure of radiocephalic AVFs has not been reported yet. Therefore, we designed

Young Ok Kim; Ho Cheol Song; Sun Ae Yoon; Chul Woo Yang; Nam Il Kim; Yeong Jin Choi; Eun Jung Lee; Wan Young Kim; Yoon Sik Chang; Byung Kee Bang



Keratinocyte-Derived Chemokine Induces Prostate Epithelial Hyperplasia and Reactive Stroma in a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Background Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is upregulated in fibrotic and malignant diseases and is a key mediator of proliferative responses. Elevated IL-8 was recently correlated with benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelium and a myofibroblast reactive stroma. Thus, we sought to determine whether overexpressed IL-8 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), the functional murine homolog of IL-8, induce prostate epithelial hyperplasia and a reactive phenotype. Methods Transgenic mice that overexpress KC within prostate epithelia and xenograft models with engineered human cells that overexpress IL-8 were developed. Results Overexpression of KC in transgenic mice produced hyperplastic prostate epithelial acini associated with a periacinar reactive stroma. KC induced an altered epithelial/stroma proliferation index ratio, increased acini diameter, epithelial infolding, and expression of prototypical reactive stroma markers. Overexpression of IL-8 in normal human prostate epithelial xenografts correlated with elevated epithelial proliferation index and altered morphology. Elevated human prostate stromal and epithelial cell proliferation, nodule-like morphology and increased xenograft survival were observed in IL-8-overexpressing orthotopic xenografts. Conclusions Together, these data demonstrate that overexpression of IL-8/KC results in a prostate epithelial hyperplasia with an associated reactive stroma phenotype. The novel transgenic mouse and human xenograft models described here may be useful in dissecting key mechanisms of IL-8 induced prostate hyperplasia and reactive stroma.

Schauer, Isaiah G.; Ressler, Steven J.; Rowley, David R.



Effects of Low-Dose Tamsulosin on Sexual Function in Patients With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose tamsulosin on sexual function in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Materials and Methods A total of 138 male LUTS patients aged more than 50 years with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ?8 were enrolled in this open-label, multicenter, prospective, noncomparative observational study. Clinical assessments included IPSS, quality of life (QoL) index, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Danish Prostate Symptom Score (DAN-PSS), and an early morning erection questionnaire. The data were recorded at baseline and at 1 and 3 months after treatment with tamsulosin 0.2 mg/d. Adverse events were analyzed in all patients. Results During the study period of 3 months, the IPSS and QoL index significantly improved from baseline by -11.40±9.40 and -1.11±1.36, respectively (p<0.001). However, there were no clinically relevant changes in total IIEF score (mean difference, 1.63±15.50; p=0.406) or the 5 subdomains (p>0.05). Furthermore, DAN-PSS weighted scores (A×B) showed no clinically relevant changes (mean difference on Q1, Q2, and Q3: -0.45±2.94, 0.27±2.50, and -1.27±2.27, p>0.05). In addition, there were no clinically significant changes in responses on the early morning erection questionnaire. Conclusions Tamsulosin at the dose of 0.2 mg significantly improved the IPSS and the QoL index compared with baseline. However, tamsulosin did not exhibit any significant impact on sexual function or any negative impact on ejaculatory function.

Kim, Sin Wook; Lee, Wan Cheol; Kim, Ma Tae; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Kim, Je Jong



Impact of Body Mass Index and Obesity on Clinical Response to Systemic Treatment for Psoriasis Evidence from the Psocare Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

in obese patients was 0.73 (95% CI = 0.58-0.93) at 8 weeks and 0.62 (95% CI = 0.49-0.79) at 16 weeks. The impact of the BMI did not show remarkable variations according to the drug prescribed at entry. Conclusion: The BMI affects the early clinical response to systemic treatment for psoriasis. Abstract Objective: Our aim was to assess the role

Luigi Naldi; Antonio Addis; Sergio Chimenti; Alberto Giannetti


Impact of waist-hip-ratio and body-mass-index on hormonal and metabolic parameters in young, obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of predominantly upper body fat localisation on the hormonal and metabolic profile in obese, infertile women. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of premenopausal women with obesity, infertility and menstrual dysfunction. SETTING: Department of Endocrinology and Reproduction of the University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Heidelberg. SUBJECTS: Eighteen women with android type obesity (waist-hip-ratio=WHR>0.85, group 1)

M Hollmann; B Runnebaum; I Gerhard



The impact of nutrition intervention on a reliable morbidity and mortality indicator: the hemodialysis-prognostic nutrition index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence of risk for hospitalization in hemodialysis (HD) patients and examine the impact of oral kilocalorie and protein supplementation in two Midwestern outpatient dialysis centers.Design\\/Setting: This was a prospective intervention study conducted at 2 outpatient dialysis centers in the Midwest.Patients: The inclusion criteria for patients were (1) more than 18 years of age, (2) receiving HD

Alison L. Steiber; Deepa J. Handu; Danielle R. Cataline; Tara R. Deighton; Lorraine J. Weatherspoon



Impact of Continuous Education About Oral Hygiene on the Changes of CPI-index for 12-15-year-old Schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Periodontal diseases are becoming ever growing problem, not only for stomatology, but also for medicine overall, as the final result from this disease is loss of the teeth. The main cause for the emergence of the periodontal disease is bacterial activity from dental plaque. CPI index / Community Periodontal Index is recommended from the World Health Organization for epidemiological research, and for its application, graded probe WHO for periodontal tissue, which on the top has a ball with radius of 0.5mm, is essential. The purpose of the research: The purpose of the research was to determine the status of periodontal tissue for the sixth, seventh and eighth-grade students, and to examine if continuous education about oral hygiene has a direct impact on the change on the value of CPI-index. The examinees and methods: The examinees and methods of research: during the research 300 schoolchildren (1994, 1995 and 1996 generations, (100 schoolchildren of each generation)) were examined, and these were split into three groups. In the first group, there was no education, in the second group at the beginning of the research a session was held on proper tooth - brushing and importance of oral hygiene and in the third group continuous sessions were held in the period of six months, as per pre-determined timetable (i.e. at the beginning, after seven days, after one month, after three months). The schoolchildren were examined and their CPI - index was determined at the beginning and the end of the research. The result: The result of the research has been shown in a tabular and graphic form. For the schoolchildren, where there was a continuous education about the importance of the oral hygiene, the values of CPI - index have significantly changed. Conclusion: The status of periodontal tissue for the sixth-, seventh and eighth-grade schoolchildren is unacceptable, but the continuous education about the importance of the oral hygiene is giving very good results in the prevention of emergence of oral diseases.

Deljo, Emsudina; Babacic, Rafeta; Meskovic, Belma; Grabus, Jasmina



The Impact of In Utero Exposure to Diabetes on Childhood Body Mass Index Growth Trajectories: The EPOCH Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine associations between exposure to maternal diabetes in utero and body mass index (BMI) growth trajectories from birth through 13 years of age among a diverse cohort of youth. Study design Mixed linear effects models were constructed to assess differences in BMI and BMI growth velocity from birth through 13 years of age for 95 subjects exposed to diabetes in utero and 409 unexposed subjects enrolled in a retrospective cohort study. Results The overall BMI growth trajectory (adjusted for sex and race/ethnicity) was not significantly different for exposed and unexposed subjects from birth through 26 months of age (p=0.48). However, the overall growth trajectory from 27 months of age through 13 years differed by exposure status (p=0.008), adjusted for sex and race/ethnicity. The difference was primarily due to a significantly higher BMI growth velocity among exposed youth between 10–13 years, increasing by 4.56 kg/m2 compared to 3.51 kg/m2 in the unexposed (p=0.005). Control for demographic variables, socioeconomic factors and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI did not alter the observed associations. Conclusions Exposure to maternal diabetes in utero accelerates BMI growth in late childhood thus increasing long-term obesity risk.

Crume, Tessa L.; Ogden, Lorraine; Daniels, Stephen; Hamman, Richard F.; Norris, Jill M.; Dabelea, Dana



A delayed-control trial examining the impact of body mass index recognition on obesity-related counseling.  


Background. Rates of body mass index (BMI) calculation and plotting remain low. We examined whether providing a BMI wheel and brief education to pediatric residents and attendings would increase rates of "BMI recognition" and obesity-related counseling. Methods. A delayed-control design was used to evaluate a 20-minute intervention. A total of 1640 records of well-child visits were reviewed to determine the proportion of records in which BMI was calculated and plotted and counseling provided. Results. In clinic A, there was a significant increase in the proportion of records in which BMI was recognized from pre- to postintervention (P < .01). No changes in clinic B occurred until after the delayed intervention. Obesity-related counseling was more likely to occur if BMI was recognized. Conclusion. Brief education and BMI wheel increased rates of BMI recognition. BMI recognition was associated with increased obesity management. Additional efforts should be incorporated to further increase BMI recognition and assist providers in treating these children. PMID:23754841

Rhee, Kyung E; Phan, Thao-Ly; Barnes, Richard F; Benun, Jacques; Wing, Rena R



Biomarkers for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Progression  

PubMed Central

Despite the fact that almost all men will develop symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia within their lifetimes, no molecular markers for the disease or its likelihood to progress have been established. A marker of this type could be used to stratify patients into subpopulations as well as to identify individuals whose disease is most likely to progress. Several molecular biomarkers have high potential to fulfill these needs, although none is currently approved for the clinical setting. The future does look promising as research to find novel biologic biomarkers is progressing while existing markers are optimized and validated for clinical use.

Cannon, Grant W.; Getzenberg, Robert H.



Particle sizing calibration with refractive index correction for light scattering optical particle counters and impacts upon PCASP and CDP data collected during the Fennec campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical particle counters (OPCs) are used regularly for atmospheric research, measuring particle scattering cross sections to generate particle size distribution histograms. This manuscript presents two methods for calibrating OPCs with case studies based on a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP), both of which are operated on the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 research aircraft. A method is also provided for modification of OPC bin boundaries when the scattering properties of measured particles are different to those of the calibration particles due to differences in refractive index or shape. This method provides mean diameters and widths for OPC bins based upon Mie-Lorenz theory or any other particle scattering theory, without the need for smoothing, despite the highly nonlinear and non-monotonic relationship between particle size and scattering cross section. By calibrating an OPC in terms of its scattering cross section the optical properties correction can be applied with minimal information loss and full propagation of uncertainty. Analysis of multiple calibrations has shown that for the PCASP the bin centres differ by up to 30% from the manufacturer's nominal values and can change by approximately 20% when routine maintenance is performed. The CDP has been found to differ from the manufacturer's specification by 15-64% and over the course of the Fennec project in the Sahara the variability of calibration was always less than the 2-? calibration uncertainty or 10%. As would be expected from Mie-Lorenz theory the impact of the refractive index corrections has been found to be largest for absorbing materials and the impact on Saharan dust measurements made as part of the Fennec project has been found to be up to a factor of 3 for the largest particles which could be measured by CDP. Software tools have been developed as part of this work and are now made available as open source resources for the community via the SourceForge repository.

Rosenberg, P. D.; Dean, A. R.; Williams, P. I.; Minikin, A.; Pickering, M. A.; Petzold, A.



The COWL pattern identified with a large AO index and its impact on annular surface temperature anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the cold ocean/warm land (COWL) pattern was identified from the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of the monthly 1000-hPa geopotential height field poleward of 20°N. Traditionally, the leading EOF has been recognized as the Arctic Oscillation (AO), or Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which causes annular surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies over high-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. A new finding of the present study is that the total AO events defined by the large AO index actually include a distinct type of events that are characterized by a less-annular spatial structure, i.e., the COWL pattern, which shows an NAO-like distribution in the Atlantic sector and a center of action over the North Pacific with the same sign as that over the Arctic. In addition, unlike canonical AO events, the COWL events also show a less-annular pattern in the stratosphere. Statistically, at least one-third of the AO events can be categorized as the COWL events. The SAT anomalies associated with the COWL pattern have an annular distribution over the high-latitude region of the two continents in the Northern Hemisphere. In contrast, if the COWL events are removed from the total AO events, the remainder shows less annular SAT anomalies. Thus, the typical annular SAT anomalies associated with AO events are in large part due to the contribution of the COWL pattern. Furthermore, the monthly variability and the interannual variability of all the AO events are equally important.

Shi, Ning; Bueh, Cholaw



Severity scoring index for crimean-congo hemorrhagic Fever and the impact of ribavirin and corticosteroids on fatality.  


Background.?Patients infected with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus present with a wide clinical spectrum. In observational studies, the effects of therapeutic agents are confounded by severity. We describe use of a clinical severity scoring index (SSI) for CCHF patients and assess the effect of ribavirin and corticosteroid therapy on the case-fatality rate, stratified by SSI. Methods.?The study group included hospitalized patients who received a diagnosis of CCHF at the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Clinic of Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital between 2004 and 2011. The SSI included platelet count, bleeding, fibrinogen level, activated partial thromboplastin time, and somnolence. The effects of ribavirin and corticosteroid on the case-fatality rate were studied by univariate and multivariate analysis, stratified by SSI. Results.?Two hundred eighty-one confirmed cases of CCHF were included in the study. Of 281 patients, 23 (8%) died. The mean age (±SD) of the patients was 47 ± 16 years. Forty-nine percent were female. The mean duration of stay at our clinic after onset of symptoms was 4.4 days, with a range of 1-14 days. In multivariate analysis of factors for the prediction of death, the SSI (odds ratio [OR], 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.09-5.13) and ribavirin use (OR, 0.04; 95% CI, .004-.48) were found to be statistically significant factors. Conclusion.?The SSI is an accurate predictor of death and will therefore be a useful tool for case management and for drug-assessment studies. After stratification of cases by SSI, ribavirin was found to be effective in reducing the case-fatality rate, especially among moderately ill patients, whereas steroids were found to be beneficial particularly among patients with severe disease. PMID:23946218

Dokuzoguz, Basak; Celikbas, Aysel Kocagül; Gök, Sebnem Eren; Baykam, Nurcan; Eroglu, Mustafa Necati; Ergönül, Onder



Offshore wind farms as productive sites or ecological traps for gadoid fishes? - Impact on growth, condition index and diet composition.  


With the construction of wind farms all across the North Sea, numerous artificial reefs are created. These windmill artificial reefs (WARs) harbour high abundances of fish species which can be attracted from elsewhere or can be the result of extra production induced by these wind farms. To resolve the attraction-production debate in suddenly altered ecosystems (cf. wind farms), the possible consequences of attraction should be assessed; thereby bearing in mind that ecological traps may arise. In this paper we investigated whether the wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea act as ecological traps for pouting and Atlantic cod. Length-at-age, condition and diet composition of fish present at the windmill artificial reefs was compared to local and regional sandy areas. Fish data from the period 2009-2012 were evaluated. Mainly I- and II-group Atlantic cod were present around the WARs; while the 0- and I-group dominated for pouting. For Atlantic cod, no differences in length were observed between sites, indicating that fitness was comparable at the WARs and in sandy areas. No significant differences in condition index were observed for pouting. At the WARs, they were slightly larger and stomach fullness was enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. Also diet differed considerably among the sites. The outcome of the proxies indicate that fitness of pouting was slightly enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. No evidence was obtained supporting the hypothesis that the WARs act as an ecological trap for Atlantic cod and pouting. PMID:23800713

Reubens, Jan T; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Zenner, Annemie N; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda



Fascioliasis: Role of Proline in Bile Duct Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animals with fascioliasis, extensive hyperplasia of the main bile duct occurs that often results in enlargement of the duct to more than 20 times the normal. We report that proline infused into the abdominal cavity of rats caused hyperplasia of the bile duct resembling that produced in the early stages of the disease. We suggest that Fasciola hepatica, which

Hadar Isseroff; Joseph T. Sawma; David Reino



Florid pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia related to tattoo: a case report.  


Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is a benign condition defined by an exuberant proliferation of the epithelium with downward progression into the dermis. It may occur in reaction to several conditions including chronic cutaneous wound. We describe an unusual case of a florid pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia mimicking a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, restricted to the red part of a rose tattoo. PMID:22712583

de Roeck, Aurelie; Joujoux, Jean M; Fournier, Françoise; Dandurand, Michel; Meunier, Laurent; Stoebner, Pierre E



Particle sizing calibration with refractive index correction for light scattering optical particle counters and impacts upon PCASP and CDP data collected during the Fennec campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical particle counters (OPCs) are used regularly for atmospheric research, measuring particle scattering cross sections to generate particle size distribution histograms. This manuscript presents two methods for calibrating OPCs with case studies based on a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP), both of which are operated on the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 research aircraft. A probability density function based method is provided for modification of the OPC bin boundaries when the scattering properties of measured particles are different to those of the calibration particles due to differences in refractive index or shape. This method provides mean diameters and widths for OPC bins based upon Mie-Lorenz theory or any other particle scattering theory, without the need for smoothing, despite the highly nonlinear and non-monotonic relationship between particle size and scattering cross section. By calibrating an OPC in terms of its scattering cross section the optical properties correction can be applied with minimal information loss, and performing correction in this manner provides traceable and transparent uncertainty propagation throughout the whole process. Analysis of multiple calibrations has shown that for the PCASP the bin centres differ by up to 30% from the manufacturer's nominal values and can change by up to approximately 20% when routine maintenance is performed. The CDP has been found to be less sensitive than the manufacturer's specification with differences in sizing of between 1.6 ± 0.8 ?m and 4.7 ± 1.8 ?m for one flight. Over the course of the Fennec project in the Sahara the variability of calibration was less than the calibration uncertainty in 6 out of 7 calibrations performed. As would be expected from Mie-Lorenz theory, the impact of the refractive index corrections has been found to be largest for absorbing materials and the impact on Saharan dust measurements made as part of the Fennec project has been found to be up to a factor of 3 for the largest particles measured by CDP with diameters of approximately 120 ?m. In an example case, using the calibration and refractive index corrections presented in this work allowed Saharan dust measurement from the PCASP, CDP and a Cloud Imaging Probe to agree within the uncertainty of the calibration. The agreement when using only the manufacturer's specification was poor. Software tools have been developed to perform these calibrations and corrections and are now available as open source resources for the community via the SourceForge repository.

Rosenberg, P. D.; Dean, A. R.; Williams, P. I.; Dorsey, J. R.; Minikin, A.; Pickering, M. A.; Petzold, A.



Conditional Deletion of Pten Causes Bronchiolar Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (Pten?/?) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as indicated by ?-tubulin and FOXJ1 expression in ciliated cells and by CCSP expression in nonciliated cells, cell proliferation (detected by expression of Ki-67, phospho-histone-H3, and cyclin D1) was increased and associated with activation of the AKT/mTOR survival pathway. Deletion of Pten caused papillary epithelial hyperplasia characterized by a hypercellular epithelium lining papillae with fibrovascular cores that protruded into the airway lumens. Cell polarity, as assessed by subcellular localization of cadherin, ?-catenin, and zonula occludens-1, was unaltered. PTEN is required for regulation of epithelial cell proliferation in the lung and for the maintenance of the normal simple columnar epithelium characteristics of bronchi and bronchioles.

Dave, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E.; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R.; Loudy, Dave E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.



Management of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) can present management challenges to the pediatric clinician. Glucocorticoid replacement remains the cornerstone of treatment; however, there are new formulations and delivery mechanisms being studied. Clinicians continue to discuss the optimal treatment of patients from the prenatal stage, through infancy to adulthood. As well, the role of genetics in the clinical care of patients with CAH, and screening for complications, remain topics of discussion. This review will highlight advances made in the past year, as they pertain to the management of pediatric patients with CAH. Recent findings This article covers recent studies pertaining to optimal medication regimens, including prenatal dexamethasone treatment; medication delivery; monitoring of hormonal control; and the role of genotyping and genetics in the management of children with CAH. Summary Much remains to be learned about the optimal management of children with CAH, including fludrocortisone replacement in simple-virilizing patients, frequency of and specific monitoring strategies (e.g., electrolytes, bone age, etc.), catecholamine status, stress-dosing in non-classical adrenal hyperplasia, and early screening for complications or metabolic sequelae. Further randomized, prospective studies are needed to address these issues.

Kim, Mimi S.; Ryabets-Lienhard, Anna; Geffner, Mitchell E.



Impact of Body Mass Index on Incident Hypertension and Diabetes in Chinese Asians, American Whites, and American Blacks The People's Republic of China Study and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have hypothesized that the impact of body mass index on chronic disease may be greater in Asians than in Whites; however, most studies are cross-sectional and have no White comparison group. The authors compared the associations with body mass index in Chinese Asians (n ¼ 5,980), American Whites (n ¼ 10,776), and American Blacks (n ¼ 3,582) using prospective

June Stevens; Kimberly P. Truesdale; Eva G. Katz; Jianwen Cai


Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in lichen sclerosus of the vulva.  


Small tentacles or separated nests of squamous cells in the dermis are not uncommonly seen in long-standing vulvar lichen sclerosus (LS) associated with epidermal thickening. We recently encountered a case where separated nests of well-differentiated squamous cells in the dermis were difficult to distinguish from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Further biopsies showed similar nests originating from every hair follicle. We postulated a diagnosis of multifocal pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH) to explain this phenomenon. Because we could find no reference to PEH in the setting of LS, we reviewed the biopsies of 92 women with extragenital and vulvar LS with and without carcinoma to determine its frequency and histological appearance. The study population, which excluded the index case, comprised 10 women with extra-anogenital LS, 58 with vulvar LS without carcinoma, and 24 with vulvar LS with carcinoma. The presence of PEH, epidermal thickness, predominant dermal collagen change, degree of inflammation, and presence of fibrin and red blood cells were recorded. The presence or absence of lichen simplex chronicus (LSC), squamous cell hyperplasia (SCH), and differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) were recorded. PEH was identified only in vulvar LS, where it was seen in 7/58 (12.1%) women without carcinoma, 1/24 (8.3%) with carcinoma, and 0/10 (0%) with extra-anogenital LS. Two forms of PEH were seen: predominantly epidermal 7/8 (87.5%) and predominantly follicular 1/8 (12.5%). PEH was associated with increased epidermal thickness, less dermal edema, more dermal inflammation, fresh fibrin, and red blood cell extravasation. In all cases, there was associated LSC, but there was no SCH or differentiated VIN. In conclusion, PEH may explain many of the cases of dermal tentacles and separated squamous nests in vulvar LS with LSC. The association with fresh fibrin and red blood cells suggests that PEH might be a reaction to tissue damage. PEH is distinguished from SCC by its lack of atypia, confinement to the abnormal collagen, and limited growth. The pathologist must be careful about making a diagnosis of PEH in LS with epidermal thickening, looking carefully for basal atypia and other features of differentiated VIN in the overlying epidermis or dermal proliferation. We do not know whether PEH occurs in differentiated VIN and, if it does, how it could be distinguished from SCC. PMID:12496699

Lee, Eung Seok; Allen, David; Scurry, James



Giant hepatic angiomyolipoma simulating focal nodular hyperplasia.  


A case of hepatic angiomyolipoma occurring in a 41-year-old woman, the eighteenth case in literature, is reported herein. The radiographic imagings of the tumor simulated those of focal nodular hyperplasia; namely, the tumor was hyperechoic on ultrasound, hypodense on computed tomography, hypervascular on angiography, and exhibited an uptake of technetium (Tc)-99m phytate. The diagnosis was established after successful removal of the huge tumor from the right hepatic lobe. Histologically, the tumor was angiomyolipoma which was made up of three components, blood vessels, smooth muscle and fatty tissue. Furthermore, extramedullary hematopoiesis, which is usually seen in this tumor was confirmed. The differentiation of hepatic angiomyolipoma from FNH is also discussed. PMID:3404779

Miyahara, M; Kobayashi, M; Tada, I; Okada, K; Sato, K; Kim, Y I; Hiraoka, T; Yokoyama, S



Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical manifestations and evaluation.  


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a very common condition, related to aging and causing symptoms, called lower urinary tract symptoms. On account of its huge prevalence, it is important for clinicians who are involved in the management of patients with BPH to be aware of the very strict recommendations for BPH evaluation. In this article, we describe the different steps and procedures doctors should follow to evaluate these patients; symptoms and signs of BPH are reviewed, as well as the clinical evaluation steps and examinations available. The basic evaluation of the patients with BPH should include, according to the recommendations of the most relevant international guidelines, lower urinary tract symptoms evaluation with appropriate symptom scores, digital rectal examination, voiding charts, prostate-specific antigen and creatinine measurement, urinalysis, and imaging of the urinary tract. PMID:23244722

Santos Dias, José



Immigration Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Striving to become the "immigration resource directory on the net," the Immigration Index is a newly launched Website dedicated to news and information about immigration worldwide. Along with breaking headlines from a variety of news sources about immigration-related issues such as asylum, migration, trafficking and women, and much more, the site contains a fully annotated collection of links to immigration materials all around the World Wide Web. Only a month old, some of the categories in the Index's hierarchy still need some filling in. In time, however, the Immigration Index promises to become an invaluable resource for interested parties.


Elevated serum levels of adiponectin in children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes and the impact of age, gender, body mass index and metabolic control: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Adiponectin plays an important role in pathophysiology of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine adiponectin concentrations in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in a longitudinal manner and to study the impact of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and metabolic control. Research design and methods: In this study,

Angela Galler; Gotz Gelbrich; J urgen Kratzsch; Nicole Noack; Thomas Kapellen; Wieland Kiess



UK Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UK Index provides a searchable index of resources in or about the United Kingdom. The Quick Reference section offers links to News Resources in the UK such as the BBC, weather information, UK record charts, and UK related USENET newsgroups. The Foreign & Commonwealth Office provides good advice for travelers. The search engine allows the selection of categories such as arts or business to restrict the search to pages included in one category or a combination of categories.


Hypoglycemia and Insular Hyperplasia: Review of 148 cases  

PubMed Central

On the bases of personal experience and the series of 148 cases from an international inquiry and a review of the literature, the relation between insular hyperplasia and hypoglycemia was examined. The fundamental points in this investigation included: age, diagnostic investigations, histological findings and postoperative results. The data on the patients with insular hyperplasia indicates that 83% were of adult age. Insular hyperplasia was the only abnormal factor determined to be present. Through treatment a high percentage of cases (71%) was cured. From a practical surgical point of view, differentiation between occult insulomas and insular hyperplasia is not critical. Consequently, good results can be achieved in botlh diseases by practicing a progressive blind resection guided by examination of the operated specimen and by intra-operative blood sugar levels. ImagesFigs. 1a. and 1b.Figs. 1a. and 1b.

Stefanini, Paride; Carboni, Manlio; Patrassi, Neri; Basoli, Antonio



Thymic hyperplasia as a source of ectopic ACTH production.  


A 26 year-old man with suspected Cushing's disease underwent transsphenoidal exploration of the pituitary without any evidence of microadenoma or hyperplasia. Progressive hypercortisolism necessitated bilateral adrenalectomy. Postoperatively, skin pigmentation gradually developed with a marked elevation of plasma ACTH levels, and CT scanning uncovered a thymic mass. Following removal of the thymic mass, skin pigmentation disappeared and plasma ACTH levels fell to normal. The excised mass was found to be a benign thymic hyperplasia without epithelial or carcinoid tumor cells. However, gel chromatography showed that the thymic tissue extract contained high ACTH content comparable to that of ectopic ACTH-producing tumors with a major component corresponding to ACTH(1-39). Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization revealed the expression of proopiomelanocortin transcripts in lymphocytes of thymic hyperplasia. This report suggests that lymphocytes in thymic hyperplasia are the most likely site of deregulated ACTH expression causing ectopic ACTH syndrome. PMID:11075732

Ohta, K; Shichiri, M; Kameya, T; Matsubara, O; Imai, T; Marumo, F; Hirata, Y



[Turner syndrome and nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver].  


Turner's syndrome is an ovarian dysgenesis (karyotype 45 X0) characterized by sexual infantilism and multiple malformations. Liver enzyme anomalies are often observed, but the underlying pathogenic mechanism remains unknown. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver is associated with another disease in about 80% of cases. However, these two diseases have only been reported together in one woman. We describe here a second case of this association "Turner's syndrome and nodular regenerative hyperplasia". We think that women with Turner's syndrome should benefit from screening for nodular regenerative hyperplasia by searching for elevated liver enzymes. This easily applicable screening protocol would provide early diagnostic of nodular regenerative hyperplasia and allow early and effective treatment of portal hypertension. Moreover, this approach would improve our knowledge of this association. PMID:9791565

Thevenot, T; Dhote, R; Tulliez, M; Baverel, F; Permal, S; Rabineau, D; Christoforov, B



Coexistence of corticotroph adenoma and thyrotroph hyperplasia in a dog.  


Pituitary thyrotroph hyperplasia results from prolonged primary hypothyroidism in humans, mice and rats. In dogs with Cushing's disease, many cases have low serum thyroid hormones concentrations due to euthyroid sick syndrome. A 6-year-old castrated male Beagle diagnosed with Cushing's disease had a high serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration that was treated by hypophysectomy. On histological examination, the resected pituitary gland contained both a corticotroph adenoma and thyrotroph hyperplasia. The TSH-positive cell ratio in this case was greater than that of healthy Beagles. In the present case, the pituitary thyrotroph hyperplasia was probably caused by primary hypothyroidism. In conclusion, this Beagle is the first histological confirmation of the coexistence of a corticotroph adenoma and thyrotroph hyperplasia. PMID:19194082

Teshima, Takahiro; Hara, Yasushi; Shigihara, Kae; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nezu, Yoshinori; Harada, Yasuji; Yogo, Takuya; Teramoto, Akira; Osamura, Robert Y; Tagawa, Masahiro



Axon and muscle spindle hyperplasia in the myostatin null mouse  

PubMed Central

Germline deletion of the myostatin gene results in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the tension-generating (extrafusal) fibres in skeletal muscle. As this gene is expressed predominantly in myogenic tissues it offers an excellent model with which to investigate the quantitative relationship between muscle and axonal development. Here we show that skeletal muscle hyperplasia in myostatin null mouse is accompanied by an increase in nerve fibres in major nerves of both the fore- and hindlimbs. We show that axons within these nerves undergo hypertrophy. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the age-related neural atrophic process is delayed in the absence of myostatin. Finally, we show that skeletal muscle hyperplasia in the myostatin null mouse is accompanied by an increase in the number of muscle spindles (also called stretch receptors or proprioceptors). However, our work demonstrates that the mechanisms regulating intrafusal fibre hyperplasia and hypertrophy differ from those that control the aetiology of extrafusal fibres.

Elashry, Mohamed I; Otto, Anthony; Matsakas, Antonios; El-Morsy, Salah E; Jones, Lisa; Anderson, Bethan; Patel, Ketan



Pathophysiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Insights From Medical Therapy for the Disease  

PubMed Central

The medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has its roots in the early 1970s. During this era, the first clinical trials investigating ?-blockade and androgen deprivation therapy were reported for men with clinical BPH. The observation that clinical BPH was improved following administration of both ?-blockers and androgen deprivation therapy supported the evolving paradigm that clinical BPH resulted from dynamic and static pathways. During the past several decades, the evolution of ?-blockers for the treatment of BPH has been impacted by innovations targeted to simplify the administration and improve tolerability while maintaining their effectiveness.

Lepor, Herbert



Quantitative morphometry of squamous cell hyperplasia of the larynx.  

PubMed Central

The histopathological diagnosis of squamous cell hyperplasia of the larynx is very subjective. Since morphometry is highly reproducible, this method was applied to routine processed slides of 45 such lesions to assess objectively the epithelial characteristics. In each case measurements of nuclei of 50 cells in the basal, intermediate, and superficial cell layers were carried out. The data were analysed statistically. The findings suggest that quantitative morphometry may be helpful for the histopathological classification of squamous cell hyperplasia of the laryngeal mucosa. Images

Olde Kalter, P; Lubsen, H; Delemarre, J F; Alons, C L; Veldhuizen, R W; Meyer, C J; Snow, G B



Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia one month after LASIK surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To describe a case of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia following laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).Methods  This observational case report describes a 31-year-old man who underwent LASIK and presented 1 month later with a fleshy, conjunctival (plical) tumour in the left eye. An excisional biopsy of the tumour was performed.Results  Histopathology of the excised tumour revealed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia involving the left conjunctiva.Discussion  Conjunctival

Shantan Reddy; Paul T. Finger; Emil W. Chynn; Codrin E. Iacob



Landscape development intensity index.  


The condition of landscapes and the ecological communities within them is strongly related to levels of human activity. Human-dominated land uses and especially the intensity of the uses can affect adjacent ecological communities through direct, secondary, and cumulative impacts. Using land use data and a development-intensity measure derived from energy use per unit area, an index of Landscape Development Intensity (LDI) can be calculated for watersheds of varying sizes to estimate the potential impacts from human-dominated activities that are experienced by ecological systems within those watersheds. The intended use of the LDI is as an index of the human disturbance gradient (the level of human induced impacts on the biological, chemical, and physical processes of surrounding lands or waters). The LDI can be used at the scale of river, stream, or lake watersheds or at the smaller scale of individual isolated wetland watersheds. Based on land uses and land cover, the LDI can be applied using available GIS land use/land cover data, aerial photographs, or field surveys. A description of data needs and methods for calculating an LDI index and several applications of the index as a land use based ranking scheme of the human disturbance gradient for watersheds are given. PMID:15736887

Brown, Mark T; Vivas, M Benjamin



Dutasteride/tamsulosin: in benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


The 5?-reductase inhibitor dutasteride and the ?(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist tamsulosin are available as a fixed-dose combination for use in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and an enlarged prostate. Dutasteride 0.5?mg/day plus tamsulosin 0.4?mg/day improved lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) to a significantly greater extent than dutasteride or tamsulosin alone in men with BPH, moderate to severe LUTS and an increased risk of disease progression, according to the results of the randomized, double-blind, multinational CombAT trial. The mean change from baseline in the total International Prostate Symptom Score was significantly greater with dutasteride plus tamsulosin than with dutasteride or tamsulosin alone after 2 years (primary endpoint) and 4 years of therapy. After 4 years' therapy in the CombAT trial, the time to first acute urinary retention or BPH-related surgery (primary endpoint) significantly favoured men with symptomatic BPH who were receiving dutasteride plus tamsulosin versus those receiving tamsulosin alone, with no significant difference between recipients of dutasteride plus tamsulosin and recipients of dutasteride alone. In the CombAT trial, health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction were improved to a significantly greater extent with dutasteride plus tamsulosin than with dutasteride or tamsulosin alone. Combination therapy with oral dutasteride plus tamsulosin was generally well tolerated in patients with symptomatic BPH in the CombAT trial. PMID:22550968

Keating, Gillian M



Cinacalcet HCl prevents development of parathyroid gland hyperplasia and reverses established parathyroid gland hyperplasia in a rodent model of CKD  

PubMed Central

Background. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) represents an adaptive response to progressively impaired control of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is characterized by parathyroid hyperplasia and excessive synthesis and secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hyperplasia in uremic rats can be prevented by calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) activation with the calcimimetic cinacalcet (Sensipar®/Mimpara®); however, it is unknown, how long the effects of cinacalcet persist after withdrawal of treatment or if cinacalcet is efficacious in uremic rats with established sHPT. Methods. We sought to determine the effect of cinacalcet discontinuation in uremic rats and whether cinacalcet was capable of influencing parathyroid hyperplasia in animals with established sHPT. Results. Discontinuation of cinacalcet resulted in reversal of the beneficial effects on serum PTH and parathyroid hyperplasia. In rats with established sHPT, cinacalcet decreased serum PTH and mediated regression of parathyroid hyperplasia. The cinacalcet-mediated decrease in parathyroid gland size was accompanied by increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Prevention of cellular proliferation with cinacalcet occurred despite increased serum phosphorus and decreased serum calcium. Conclusions. The animal data provided suggest established parathyroid hyperplasia can be reversed by modulating CaSR activity with cinacalcet and that continued treatment may be necessary to maintain reductions in PTH.

Miller, Gerald; Davis, James; Shatzen, Edward; Colloton, Matthew; Martin, David





A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

Kock, L.J.



An Analysis of the Entropy Index Diversity Scores of Selected North Carolina Urban High Schools and the Impact on Teacher Quality, Student Achievement, and Graduation Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary purpose of this study was to examine the differences in teacher quality, student achievement, and graduation rates among select North Carolina urban high schools based on their racial segregation when measured by the entropy index. The entropy index is a measure of evenness among racial groups used to determine the level of…

Taylor, Robert Pernell



Photoselective Vaporization for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Background As an alternative to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) provides a bloodless, relatively painless relief of lower urinary tract symptoms for men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Following a review of the evidence in 2006, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee recommended that a study be conducted to evaluate PVP in Ontario. Objectives To compare the clinical effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, and budget impact of PVP compared to conventional TURP for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Ontario. Methods A prospective, nonrandomized trial was conducted in 3 Ontario centres. Consenting subjects were assessed at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months following surgery. Outcome measures included International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), peak urinary flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual (PVR) volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using the EuroQol 5 Domain questionnaire, and the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score. Adverse events, resource utilization, and productivity losses were also assessed. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses were completed using data from the study. Results Between February 2008 and August 2010, 164 subjects were enrolled in the study (n = 140 for PVP and n = 24 for TURP). Treatment outcomes were similar between the 2 groups at 6 months, with the IPSS decreasing similarly over time (P = 0.718). For other treatment outcomes (Qmax, PSA, HRQOL, SHIM) both treatments provided similar benefit over time; only changes in PVR volume favoured PVP (P = 0.018). The majority of PVP patients were managed on an outpatient basis, with only 7.1% requiring admission (all TURP subjects were inpatients). At 6 months, PVP was less costly than TURP ($3,891 versus $4,863; P = 0.001), with similar quality-adjusted life-years (0.448 versus 0.441; P = 0.658). PVP remained the most cost-effective treatment across all decision-making thresholds, with the technology costing less and providing similar clinical outcomes. Extrapolating the results to a provincial level indicated (based on an estimated case volume of 12,335 TURPs) that there is an opportunity to reallocate just over $14 million (Cdn), primarily related to the reduced need for hospital admission. Limitations This study was nonrandomized, and the results should be interpreted with some caution, despite generally similar baseline characteristics between the 2 groups. Recruiting individuals to the TURP arm was a challenge, resulting in a size imbalance between treatment arms. Conclusions Based on this analysis, PVP appears to be a cost-effective alternative to TURP, providing similar clinical benefit at a lower cost to the health system. Plain Language Summary For men with lower urinary tract symptoms due to an enlarged prostate, a laser treatment called photoselective vaporization of the prostate (or PVP) is just as effective as surgery. PVP does not require an overnight stay in the hospital for most men, and it costs almost $1,000 less. This report describes the results of a study that collected information about treatment outcomes, quality of life, and health care use related to PVP and surgery in Ontario.

Bowen, James M.; Whelan, J. Paul; Hopkins, Robert B.; Burke, Natasha; Woods, Edward A.; McIsaac, Gary P.; O'Reilly, Daria J.; Xie, Feng; Sehatzadeh, Shayan; Levin, Leslie; Mathew, Suja P.; Patterson, Lisa L.; Goeree, Ron; Tarride, Jean-Eric



Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Nonfamilial Adrenal Medullary Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Sporadic adrenomedullary hyperplasia (AMH) is characterized by a medical history of hypertension, excessive catecholamine excretion, and histomorphometric evidence of increased adrenomedullary tissue relative to the cortex in the absence of multiple endocrine neoplasia. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of patients after laparoscopic adrenalectomy for AMH, an early form of sporadic adrenal medulla–related endocrine hypertension, as well as to update our understanding of the clinical features and management of this clinicomorphologic entity. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients operated on between 2007 and 2011 at Reina Sofia University General Hospital, Murcia, Spain, with a diagnosis of AMH. Patient characteristics, diagnostic studies, surgical procedures, and histologic findings were analyzed. Results: Seven hypertensive patients with intermittent adrenergic crises were found to have AMH (3 men and 4 women; mean age, 44 years). Catecholamine levels were increased. Radiologic studies included 1 or more of the following: magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography imaging with fluorodeoxyglucose, dihydroxyphenylalanine–positron emission tomography–computed tomography, Octreoscan (Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, St. Louis, MO, USA) and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed in all cases. One patient underwent bilateral adrenalectomy because of persistent symptomatology after unilateral adrenalectomy. Surgery was associated with normalization of catecholamine hypersecretion and complete disappearance of symptoms, as well as the reduction or abstention of antihypertensive therapy. Conclusions: Sporadic AMH is a clinicomorphologic entity that may mimic pheochromocytoma clinically. Recent advances in diagnostic and surgical methods have changed the management and outcome of this unusual disease. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy may be recommended as the gold standard in the treatment of this entity. Definitive diagnosis is provided by histologic study.

Candel Arenas, Maria Fe; Gonzalez Valverde, Francisco Miguel; Terol Garaulet, Emilio; Maestre Maderuelo, Maria; Meoro Aviles, Amparo; Pastor Quirante, Francisco; Albarracin Marin Blazquez, Antonio



Current laser treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient. PMID:21165192

Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Paick, Jae-Seung



?-Catenin signaling regulates Foxa2 expression during endometrial hyperplasia formation.  


The Wnt/?-catenin signaling is essential for various organogenesis and is often implicated during tumorigenesis. Dysregulated ?-catenin signaling is associated with the formation of endometrial adenocarcinomas (EACs), which is considered as the common form of endometrial cancer in women. In the current study, we investigate the downstream target of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the uterine epithelia and the mechanism leading to the formation of endometrial hyperplasia. We report that conditional ablation and activation of ?-catenin in the uterine epithelia lead to aberrant epithelial structures and endometrial hyperplasia formation, respectively. We demonstrate that ?-catenin regulates Foxa2 with its candidate upstream region for the uterine epithelia. Furthermore, knockdown of Foxa2 leads to defects in cell cycle regulation, suggesting a possible function of Foxa2 in the control of cell proliferation. We also observe that ?-catenin and Foxa2 expression levels are augmented in the human specimens of complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia, which is considered to have a greater risk of progression to EACs. Thus, our study indicates that ?-catenin regulates Foxa2 expression, and this interaction is possibly essential to control cell cycle progression during endometrial hyperplasia formation. Altogether, the augmented expression levels of ?-catenin and Foxa2 are essential features during the formation of endometrial hyperplasia. PMID:22945641

Villacorte, M; Suzuki, K; Hirasawa, A; Ohkawa, Y; Suyama, M; Maruyama, T; Aoki, D; Ogino, Y; Miyagawa, S; Terabayashi, T; Tomooka, Y; Nakagata, N; Yamada, G



Effect of Transurethral Resection of Prostate on Prostatic Resistive Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: In the present study, we evaluated the effect of transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) on prostatic resistive index (RI) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH). Patients and Methods: Forty BPH patients who were candidates for prostatectomy were prospectively included in the study. Prostatic RI was measured using power Doppler imaging (PDI) before TUR-P. In the postoperative follow-up, all

Cuneyt Ozden; Isa Gunay; Tagmac Deren; Suleyman Bulut; Ozdem Levent Ozdal; Suha Koparal; Ali Memis



Pathophysiology and management of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

Endometrial cancer is currently the commonest pelvic malignancy affecting American women, most of whom share the same pathophysiologic basis, that is, unopposed estrogenic stimulation. The initial result of hyperestrogenism is the development of endometrial hyperplasia, which is reversible in most cases by appropriate hormonal therapy. Persistent stimulation eventually leads to atypical hyperplasia with nuclear atypia and invasive carcinoma. Because there is no cost-effective screening method for the detection of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, it is essential to survey the high-risk population with appropriate diagnostic techniques. After diagnosis, therapy should be individualized based on pathologic findings (cell type and histologic grade) and extent of disease (International Federation of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians stage, depth of myometrial invasion, and pelvic and para-aortic lymph node status). Recent studies suggest that sex hormone receptors and nuclear DNA ploidy patterns provide useful prognostic information independent of histologic grade. Images

Fu, Y. S.; Gambone, J. C.; Berek, J. S.



[Intimal hyperplasia within a vascular anastomosis].  


Intimal hyperplasia (IH) appears to rank high amongst plausible causes of reconstructed arteries restenosis. It always occurs in the area of a surgical intervention on a vessel in response to a mechanical lesion. IH is the cause of thrombosis in 15 to 50% of cases following vascular reconstruction during the first year after the operation (with the exception of early thromboses, which are probably caused by an improperly performed interventional technique). Of a wide variety of clinical situations leading to development of IH in the vascular wall, for the purposes of the present review, we singled out the problem concerning the onset and development of this tissue reaction in intervascular anastomoses, which is currently one of the most important issues. Analysing the publications on the problem concerned showed that amongst significantfactors influencing the development of IH in the anastomosis, the investigators single out different parameters of the anastomoses, configuration (either an end-to-end or an end-to-side anastomosis, the use of special inserts and patches within the latter), as well as the use of autologous or synthetic conduits, blanket suture or interrupted suture, peculiarities of local haemodynamics (linear blood flow rate, distribution of parietal fraction forces, zones of stagnation and flow separation), etc. To a certain degree, the published data are rather controversial. There remain many problems, which are either unaddressed as yet, or insufficiently studied, if at all. For instance, while establishing an anastomosis between a bypass graft and an artery, surgeons often resort to endarterectomy. It is not known whether or not this technique would influence the IH pattern in the anastomosis concerned. Neither is it clear whether the high velocity flow exerts a direct damaging action upon the endothelium, whether it promotes the development of IH in the area of the lesion, and if affirmative, then what the mechanisms of this effect really are. Not studied is the role of various types of synthetic fibres and synthetic grafts (except PTFE), various kinds of suture material in the development of IH in the zone of a vascular anastomosis concerned. This of course is far from being a complete list of the challenges requiring further investigation. PMID:19791568

Kur'ianov, P S; Razuvaev, A S; Vavilov, V N



Papillary endothelial hyperplasia in a TEC coronary atherectomy specimen.  

PubMed Central

Angiography in a 37 year old female with a three week history of typical crescendo angina found an 80% stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery. The patient underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty involving TEC artherectomy of the LAD artery. The specimen removed by atherectomy was found to have the appearance of papillary endothelial hyperplasia. This is an unusual histological diagnosis that occurs in association with thrombus. It is rarely found within arterial vessels and has not been reported in a coronary artery. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia is now thought to be a form of organising thrombus, probably dependent on the production of basic fibroblast growth factor by the endothelium. Images

Crilley, J. G.; Ritchie, C.; de Belder, M. A.



[Rupture of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia. About two cases].  


The diagnostics of focal nodular hyperplasia is reached through the use of imaging. When the diagnostic is certain, surgical abstention is the rule. Nevertheless, we were confronted with two cases of a rare complication; that of intraperitoneal rupture. In this situation, we suggest to first do an arteriography to control the bleeding, then to perform surgery when the patient has reached hemodynamic stability. Spontaneous rupture as a complication of benign nodular hyperplasia remains a rare event and only five cases were reported in litterature. PMID:16443188

Koch, N; Gintzburger, D; Seelentag, W; Denys, A; Gillet, M; Halkic, N



Microwave Thermotherapy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia with the Dornier Urowave: Results of a Randomized, Double-blind, Multicenter, Sham-controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To study the efficacy and safety of a new transurethral microwave thermotherapy device (the Urowave) in the treatment of men with clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial.Methods. A total of 220 patients (mean age 66.2 years) with clinical BPH, an American Urological Association symptom index (AUA SI) of 13 points or more, and a

Claus G Roehrborn; Glenn Preminger; Phil Newhall; John Denstedt; Hassan Razvi; L. Joseph Chin; Aaron Perlmutter; Winston Barzell; Willet Whitmore; Ralph Fritzsch; Jeffrey Sanders; Scott Sech; Sean Womack



Efficacy and safety of a dual inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase types 1 and 2 (dutasteride) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To study the efficacy and safety of dutasteride, a dual inhibitor of the 5-alpha-reductase isoenzymes types I and II.Methods. A total of 4325 men (2951 completed) with clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia, moderate to severe symptoms (American Urological Association-Symptom Index score of 12 points or greater), a peak flow rate of 15 mL\\/s or less, a prostate volume of 30

Claus G Roehrborn; Peter Boyle; J. Curtis Nickel; Klaus Hoefner; Gerald Andriole



11?-hydroxyandrostenedione and ? 5-androstenediol as markers of adrenal androgen production in patients with 21-hydroxylase–deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the sensitivity of 11?-hydroxyandrostenedione (11-OHA4) and ?5-androstenediol (ADIOL) as markers of excessive adrenal androgen production.Design: Prospective study.Setting: Academic medical centers.Patient(s): Thirteen women with untreated 21-hydroxylase–deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) and 18 healthy, eumenorrheic, nonhirsute controls matched for age and body mass index.Intervention(s): All subjects were studied before and after acute adrenal stimulation with 0.25 mg of IV

Raquel Huerta; Didier Dewailly; Christine Decanter; Eric S Knochenhauer; Larry R Boots; Ricardo Azziz



Proliferative activity of papillary carcinoma and benign papillary hyperplasia of thyroid follicular cells.  


Papillary structures of follicular cells are observed in nodular goiter, cysts, hyperplastic areas of follicular tumors, Graves' disease, thyroiditis and carcinomas. The distinction of papillary carcinomas from benign lesions has important implication for clinical management. The aim of the study was to test a marker of proliferation activity (MIB-1) in the diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid papillary proliferation. The study was carried out in 98 women with papillary carcinoma, nodular goiter. intracystic proliferation. Graves' disease and hyperplastic areas of follicular benign tumors. The formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were microscopically examined using HE staining and immunostaining with MIB-1 antibody (DAKO). The proliferative index (PI) was significantly higher in malignant than in benign papillary hyperplasia. Our results may provide additional information for differential papillary proliferation diagnosis by FNAB. PMID:12056645

Dziecio?, J; Lemancewicz, D; Lebkowska, U; Augustynowicz, A; Dadan, J; Klim, B; Ma?dyk, J



Foveolar hyperplasia following partial gastrectomy results from expansion of surface mucous cell compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antrectomy with gastroenterostomy reconstruction is often associated with the development of foveolar hyperplasia and oxyntic atrophy. While a role for bile reflux in the etiology of foveolar hyperplasia is well established, the identity of the mucous cell lineages responsible for this condition have not been well characterized. We have studied three patients who demonstrated foveolar hyperplasia in their gastric remnant

Gregory S. Ray; Mark W. Jackson; James R. Goldenring



Inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia in vascular grafts by sustained perivascular delivery of paclitaxel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia in vascular grafts by sustained perivascular delivery of paclitaxel.BackgroundNeointimal hyperplasia occurs commonly at the anastomoses of arteriovenous grafts for chronic hemodialysis, causing stenosis and occlusion. Antiproliferative drugs may be effective in inhibiting hyperplasia, but local drug delivery would be required to minimize systemic side effects. We examined the feasibility of local drug delivery to inhibit neointimal




Osteopontin Mediates Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Colonic Epithelial Cell Hyperplasia and Attaching-Effacing Lesions  

PubMed Central

Although osteopontin (OPN) is up-regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases, its role in disease pathogenesis remains controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the role of OPN in host responses to a non-invasive bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, which serves as a murine infectious model of colitis. OPN gene knockout and wild-type mice were infected orogastrically with either C. rodentium or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. Mouse-derived OPN+/+ and OPN?/? fibroblasts were incubated with C. rodentium and attaching-effacing lesions were demonstrated using transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Colonic expression of OPN was increased by C. rodentium infection of wild-type mice. Furthermore, colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia, the hallmark of C. rodentium infection, was reduced in OPN?/? mice, and spleen enlargement by infection was absent in OPN?/? mice. Rectal administration of OPN to OPN?/? mice restored these effects. There was an 8- to 17-fold reduction in bacterial colonization in OPN?/? mice, compared with wild-type mice, which was accompanied by reduced attaching–effacing lesions, both in infected OPN?/? mice and OPN?/? mouse fibroblasts. Moreover, adhesion pedestals were restored in OPN?/? cells complemented with human OPN. Therefore, lack of OPN results in decreased pedestal formation, colonization, and colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia responses to C. rodentium infection, indicating that OPN impacts disease pathogenesis through bacterial attachment and altered host immune responses.

Wine, Eytan; Shen-Tu, Grace; Gareau, Melanie G.; Goldberg, Harvey A.; Licht, Christoph; Ngan, Bo-Yee; Sorensen, Esben S.; Greenaway, James; Sodek, Jaro; Zohar, Ron; Sherman, Philip M.



Outcomes and quality of life issues in the pharmacological management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)  

PubMed Central

Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of the aging male population. BPH treatment includes a variety of pharmacological and surgical interventions. The goal of this paper is to review the natural history of BPH, outcomes of pharmacological management, effects on quality of life (QoL), future pharmacotherapies, and associated patient-focused perspectives. Materials and methods Medline searches for the keywords benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH, alpha blockers, 5 alpha-reductase, and quality of life were performed. Relevant literature was reviewed and analyzed. Results Alpha blockers, 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, and phytotherapy are the three categories of pharmaceutical interventions currently available for BPH. Various clinical trials have shown that alpha blockers and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors are safe, efficacious, and improve QoL in patients with BPH. The evidence for phytotherapeutics is not as convincing. The current armamentarium of pharmaceutical interventions are encompassed in these three classes of medications. New pharmacotherapies based on novel mechanisms are on the horizon. Conclusion There are a variety of safe and efficacious medical therapies available for the management of BPH and it is important for the practicing physician to have an understanding of these pharmacotherapies and their potential impact on the patient. There is not enough evidence to make a recommendation regarding phytotherapy use. New classes of drugs for BPH will likely find their way into routine use.

Cambio, Angelo J; Evans, Christopher P



Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung in autopsy cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) is a possible precursor lesion of adenocarcinoma of the lung, but very few reports of AAH have focused on the autopsy lung. Methods: We intended to clarify the characteristics of AAH in the general population by using 207 autopsy cases, ranging in age from 0 to 90 years old. Results: A total of 179 eligible

Tomoyuki Yokose; Mikio Doi; Kozo Tanno; Kentaro Yamazaki; Atsushi Ochiai



Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: update on prenatal diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnostic term congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) applies to a family of inherited disorders of steroidogenesis caused by an abnormality in one of the five enzymatic steps necessary in the conversion of cholesterol to cortisol. The enzyme defects are translated as autosomal recessive traits, with the enzyme deficient in more than 90% of CAH cases being 21-hydroxylase. In the classical

A. D Carlson; J. S Obeid; N Kanellopoulou; R. C Wilson; M. I New



Enterochromaffin cell hyperplasia and megacolon: report of a case.  

PubMed Central

A case of megacolon is described in which there was an unusual and focal hyperplasia of enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa. These formed discrete spherical acini in the lamina propria. These acini were not neoplastic and their significance is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Lindop, G B



Psychosexual Development of Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (N= 31) and their unaffected sisters or female cousins (N= 15) participated in a study of psychosexual development. All participants were ?18 years of age (mean age, 25 years; range, 18–40). Comparisons were also made between the CAH women with the salt-wasting (SW) form of the disorder and those with simple virilization (SV). A

Kenneth J. Zucker; Susan J. Bradley; Gillian Oliver; Jennifer Blake; Susan Fleming; Jane Hood



Hyperinsulinaemia as a Risk Factor for Developing Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the validity coefficient of the total prostate gland volume as an expression of the transition zone (TZ) volume. To test the hypothesis of hyperinsulinaemia as a causal factor for the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Patients and Methods: Three hundred and seven consecutive patients with lower urinary tract symptoms were studied. A subgroup of 114 patients were

Jan Hammarsten; Benkt Högstedt



Rapidly Growing Bilateral Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breast  

PubMed Central

A tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) that causes huge breast enlargement is very rare. Only two cases of huge tumoral PASHs have been reported in the English medical literature. We report here on a surgically confirmed case of bilateral huge tumoral PASH in a 47-year-old woman, and we present the imaging and histopathology findings. We also review the relevant medical literature.

Ryu, Eun Mi; Chang, Eun Deok



Human benign prostatic hyperplasia heterotransplants as an experimental model  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a nonmalignant adenomatous enlargement of the periurethral prostate gland. It is a common disease in older men. In addition to man, spontaneous benign prostatic hyperplasia occurs in chimpanzee and the dog. Alternatives to these spontaneous models are induced benign prostatic hyperplasia, xenografts and in vitro models. Xenografts may be induced by cells cultured in vitro or by the heterotransplantation of primary surgical specimens into immunosuppressed mice. The purpose of this review is to integrate data from more than 30 years of heterotransplantation research in the study of benign hyperplasia of the prostate. Heterotransplantation has provided data regarding the histopathology, morphology, tissue markers, androgen receptor expression, tissue kinetics, take rate and tissue vasculature for this prostate disease. There are advantages, as well as limitations, that have been identified for human prostate disease heterotransplants versus xenotransplantation of cultured cells. Overall, heterotransplanted tissue is better at retaining tissue morphology, pathology, secretory activity, expression of tissue markers and human vasculature of the patient's original specimen. Furthermore, heterotransplanted tissue preserves the three-dimensional tissular architecture of the prostate to maintain critical stromal–epithelial cell interactions.

Lopez-Barcons, Lluis-A



High intensity focused ultrasound in benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an extremely common condition and represents a major health issue in terms of patient numbers and treatment cost. Traditionally, the choice of treatment has been between watchful waiting and surgery, however, the side effects of surgery lead to reluctance for treatment in many men, other than those with severe symptoms and complications. In the last

Nicholas J. Hegarty; John M. Fitzpatrick



The Impact of Financial Crisis on Chinese SMEs: Based on Dynamic Cluster Analysis of the Growth Indexes of SMEs in China Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small and medium enterprises in the national economy occupy an important position in Chinese economic growth, labor, employment and social stability and development. For 2007-2008 global financial crisis, Chinese national economy caused by a powerful impact, but also the development of Chinese small and medium enterprises causing serious impact. Based on growth indicators of 218 cities listed on Shanghai

Huang Dechun; Ju Kang



Impacts of including forest understory brightness and foliage clumping information from multiangular measurements on leaf area index mapping over North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new leaf area index (LAI) data set in 10 day intervals with consideration of the understory reflectance and foliage clumping effects over North America for 1 year is developed. The data set brings effectively together measurements from multiple sensors with complementary capabilities (SPOT-VEGETATION, Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, POLDER). First, the temporal consistency analysis indicated the new product is on par

Jan Pisek; Jing M. Chen; Krista Alikas; Feng Deng



Exploring the relationship between body mass index and health-related quality of life: A pilot study of the impact of weight self-stigma and experiential avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-related quality of life (HRQL) has been shown to deteriorate as body mass index (BMI) increases. Recent research suggests weight stigma and experiential avoidance may partially account for the relationship between BMI and HRQL. Eighty-seven adults recruited from a weight-loss clinic completed an intake assessment, which consisted of physical measurement taking and completion of self-report measures. Experiential avoidance and weight

Jason Lillis; Michael E. Levin; Steven C. Hayes



Impact of sex, age, body mass index and handedness on finger joint space width in patients with prolonged rheumatoid arthritis using computer-aided joint space analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the associations between sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and handedness regarding the radiogeometric detectable\\u000a joint space distances of the finger articulations in patients suffering from a prolonged course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).\\u000a The joint space widths were measured by a new available Computer-aided joint space analysis (CAJSA); 128 patients with RA\\u000a underwent computerized semi-automated joint space analysis

Alexander Pfeil; Andreas Hansch; Gabriele Lehmann; Thorsten Eidner; Max L. Schäfer; Peter Oelzner; Diane M. Renz; Gunter Wolf; Gert Hein; Werner A. Kaiser; Joachim Böttcher



An examination of the impact of organizational downsizing and discrimination activities on corporate social responsibility as measured by a company’s reputation index  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research empirically tests the relationship between a company’s social responsibility (CSR) performance as measured by the company’s reputation index, on the one hand, and the degree of downsizing of employees and a company’s discriminatory practices, on the other. The sample consists 178 large publicly-held US-based corporations which announced their intentions to downsize during the 1990-1992 period. The statistical analysis

Zeina A. Karake



Epithelial tissue hyperplasia induced by the RAF inhibitor PF-04880594 is attenuated by a clinically well-tolerated dose of the MEK inhibitor PD-0325901.  


Clinical trials of selective RAF inhibitors in patients with melanoma tumors harboring activated BRAFV600E have produced very promising results, and a RAF inhibitor has been approved for treatment of advanced melanoma. However, about a third of patients developed resectable skin tumors during the course of trials. This is likely related to observations that RAF inhibitors activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, stimulate proliferation, and induce epithelial hyperplasia in preclinical models. Because these findings raise safety concerns about RAF inhibitor development, we further investigated the underlying mechanisms. We showed that the RAF inhibitor PF-04880594 induces ERK phosphorylation and RAF dimerization in those epithelial tissues that undergo hyperplasia. Hyperplasia and ERK hyperphosphorylation are prevented by treatment with the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD-0325901 at exposures that extrapolate to clinically well-tolerated doses. To facilitate mechanistic and toxicologic studies, we developed a three-dimensional cell culture model of epithelial layering that recapitulated the RAF inhibitor-induced hyperplasia and reversal by MEK inhibitor in vitro. We also showed that PF-04880594 stimulates production of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 in HL-60 cells, suggesting a possible mechanism for the skin flushing observed in dogs. The complete inhibition of hyperplasia by MEK inhibitor in epithelial tissues does not seem to reduce RAF inhibitor efficacy and, in fact, allows doubling of the PF-04880594 dose without toxicity usually associated with such doses. These findings indicated that combination treatment with MEK inhibitors might greatly increase the safety and therapeutic index of RAF inhibitors for the treatment of melanoma and other cancers. PMID:22752429

Torti, Vince R; Wojciechowicz, Donald; Hu, Wenyue; John-Baptiste, Annette; Evering, Winston; Troche, Gabriel; Marroquin, Lisa D; Smeal, Tod; Yamazaki, Shinji; Palmer, Cynthia L; Burns-Naas, Leigh Ann; Bagrodia, Shubha



Introducing a disturbance ionosphere index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although ionospheric perturbations such as traveling ionospheric disturbances have a strong impact on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and other space-based radio systems, the description of individual perturbations is difficult. To overcome this problem, it is suggested to use a disturbance ionosphere index (DIX) that describes the perturbation degree of the ionosphere in a less specific form as a proxy. Although such an index does not describe the exact propagation conditions at the measurement site, the estimated index number indicates the probability of a potential impact on radio systems used in communication, navigation, and remote sensing. The definition of such a DIX must take into account the following major requirements: relevance to practical needs, objective measure of ionospheric conditions, easy and reproducible computation, and availability of a reliable database. Since the total electron content has been shown in many publications to act as an outstanding parameter for quantifying the range error and also the strength of ionospheric perturbations, we propose a DIX that is based on GNSS measurements. To illustrate the use of the index, recent storms monitored in 2011 and the Halloween storm are discussed. The proposed index is a robust and objective measure of the ionospheric state, applicable to radio systems which are impacted by a highly variable perturbed ionosphere.

Jakowski, N.; Borries, C.; Wilken, V.



Raised 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  


Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to autosomal recessive diseases resulting from deficiency of enzymes involved in the production of cortisol by the adrenal glands. This study was designed to determine the frequency of suspected congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients by evaluating the laboratory data of blood 17-OHP. The study was conducted at Chemical Pathology Section of Department of Pathology at the Aga Khan University, Karachi. The basic demographic data of 2282 subjects was recorded, screened for blood 17-OHP levels from January 2007 to December 2010. A cutoff of ³ 4 ng/ml was considered as suggestive of CAH. The results showed 17-OHP levels ³ 4 ng/ml were found predominantly among infants (14.4%) and in females (18.2%). PMID:23673184

Iqbal, Sahar; Khan, Aysha Habib



Pituitary hyperplasia secondary to acquired hypothyroidism: case report  

PubMed Central

Objective and Importance despite recent progress in imaging, it is still difficult to distinguish between pituitary adenoma and hyperplasia, even using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with gadolinium injection. We describe an example of reactive pituitary hyperplasia from primary hypothyroidism that mimicked a pituitary macroadenoma in a child. Clinical Presentation a 10 year old boy presented with headache and statural growth arrest. MRI revealed an intrasellar and suprasellar pituitary mass. Endocrine evaluation revealed primary hypothyroidism. Intervention the patient was started on levothyroxine with resolution of the mass effect. Conclusion primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. Examination of thyroid function in patients with sellar and suprasellar masses revealed by MRI may avoid unnecessary operations which can cause irreversible complications.



Association between Klinefelter syndrome and focal nodular hyperplasia.  


Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign lesion of the liver, predominantly affecting women. Its etiology is unknown. Elevated levels of estrogens have been invoked to play a role in the disease. Klinefelter syndrome is the most common sex chromosome disorder, characterized by 47, XXY karyotype, resulting in male hypogonadism and sex hormone imbalance. We present a case of a 25-year-old man affected by Klinefelter syndrome, admitted to our hospital for aspecific dyspeptic symptoms. During admission he underwent: blood test for the liver function and sexual hormonal status, ultrasonography, echo color power Doppler and computerized tomography scan of the liver, and liver biopsy. A hypergonadotropic hypogonadism was present. Imaging of the liver showed an hepatic lesion that liver biopsy confirmed to be a focal nodular hyperplasia. Although the association could be casual, the sex hormone imbalance present in Klinefelter syndrome may suggest a role in the development of this benign liver lesion. PMID:12869895

Santarelli, Luca; Gabrielli, Maurizio; Orefice, Ruggero; Nista, Enrico C; Serricchio, Michele; Nestola, Manuela; Rapaccini, GianLudovico; De Ninno, Maria; Pola, Paolo; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio



[Disorders of kidney function in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia].  


The examination of 648 males aged 50 to 86 to conduct an early outpatient detection of renal dysfunction in the elderly men employed an original technique of renal function assessment based on the kinetics of urinary 5-NOK elimination. Renal dysfunctions were revealed in 165 patients, in 159 of them the underlying cause was benign prostatic hyperplasia. The results were compared with those obtained at radionuclide tracing and Reberg-Tareev test. The correlation found indicated the authors' technique informative value and its compatibility with the above methods. Identification of renal dysfunction at early stages of benign prostatic hyperplasia allowed their timely hospitalization and operative treatment which enables the physicians to prevent progression of chronic renal failure in these patients. PMID:9461783

Rodoman, V E; Avdoshin, V P; Andriukhin, M I


Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia  

SciTech Connect

A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years.

Pottern, L.M.



Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: risks outweigh benefits.  


Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by administering dexamethasone to a woman presumed to be carrying an at-risk fetus has been described as safe and effective in several reports. A review of data from animal experimentation and human trials indicates that first-trimester dexamethasone decreases birthweight; affects renal, pancreatic beta cell, and brain development; increases anxiety; and predisposes to adult hypertension and hyperglycemia. In human studies, first-trimester dexamethasone is associated with orofacial clefts, decreased birthweight, poorer verbal working memory, and poorer self-perception of scholastic and social competence. Numerous medical societies have cautioned that prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with dexamethasone should only be done in prospective clinical research settings with institutional review board approval, and therefore is not appropriate for routine community practice. PMID:23123167

Miller, Walter L; Witchel, Selma Feldman



Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia 1 month after LASIK surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study was conducted to investigate a case of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia following laser assisted in situ keratomileusis\\u000a (LASIK).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A 31-year-old man who underwent LASIK presented 1 month later with a fleshy conjunctival (plical) tumor in the left eye. An\\u000a excision biopsy of the tumor was performed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Histopathology of the excised tumor revealed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  Conjunctival lymphomas can masquerade

Shantan Reddy; Paul T. Finger; Emil W. Chynn; Codrin E. Iacob



Alcohol Consumption, Cigarette Smoking, and Risk of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking were evaluated in relation to development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) among 29,386 members of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men who were 40-75 years old in 1986 and free of prior BPH surgery, diagnosed cancer at baseline, and prostate cancer at baseline and during follow-up were followed for incidence of BPH surgery from 1986

Elizabeth A. Plate; Eric B. Rimm; Ichiro Kawachi; Graham A. Coldite; Meir J. Stampfer; Walter C. Willett; Edward Giovannucci


Sebaceous Hyperplasia of the Scrotum and Penile Shaft  

PubMed Central

Sebaceous hyperplasia (SH) is a proliferative abnormality of sebaceous glands, most often seen in elderly individuals. It consists of single or multiple, asymptomatic, small yellow papules with a central depression. The face is most commonly affected, but there have been reports of SH on the chest or genitalia. A lobular array of well-differentiated mature sebaceous lobules is noted on histological preparations. In this report, we describe a patient with SH on the penile shaft and parts of the scrotum.

Kim, Hei Sung; Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Hyung Ok



Hypertrophy and\\/or Hyperplasia: Dynamics of Adipose Tissue Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipose tissue grows by two mechanisms: hyperplasia (cell number increase) and hypertrophy (cell size increase). Genetics and diet affect the relative contributions of these two mechanisms to the growth of adipose tissue in obesity. In this study, the size distributions of epididymal adipose cells from two mouse strains, obesity-resistant FVB\\/N and obesity-prone C57BL\\/6, were measured after 2, 4, and 12

Junghyo Jo; Oksana Gavrilova; Stephanie Pack; William Jou; Shawn Mullen; Anne E. Sumner; Samuel W. Cushman; Vipul Periwal



Growth factors in benign prostatic hyperplasia: Basic science implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common proliferative disease of the prostate of men in the United States. The\\u000a histopathology of BPH strongly implicates local paracrine and autocrine growth factors and inflammatory cytokines in its pathogenesis.\\u000a A complex milieu of growth-regulatory proteins includes members of the fibroblast, insulin-like, and transforming growth factor\\u000a families. It appears that these proteins and

M. Scott Lucia; James R. Lambert



Vaginal hyperplasia in the bitch: Literature review and commentary  

PubMed Central

We reviewed the incidence, etiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatments and prevention of canine vaginal hyperplasia, and describe a simple surgical technique for its correction as practiced at the Small Animal Clinic, State University of Utrecht, The Netherlands. Many different treatments have been used, and some are novel approaches. In many cases, prevention is accomplished if the bitch is ovariectomized; there is a high incidence of recurrence with medical treatment.

Post, Klaas; Van Haaften, Bas; Okkens, Auke C.



Cutaneous Papillomatous Hyperplasia in Cyclosporine-A Treated Beagles  

Microsoft Academic Search

All twelve Beagle dogs undergoing long-term therapy (26 weeks) with the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine-A (30 mg\\/kg), developed cutaneous papillomatous hyperplasia. By week 7 all dogs developed generalized lesions distributed over the entire body. These occurred as irregular, oval, sessile, unpigmented, firm masses. The incidence and severity of the skin lesions varied among dogs and anatomic site, with no correlation to

Werner Seibel; John P. Sundberg; Lawrence J. Lesko; John J. Sauk; Leslie B. McCleary; Thomas M. Hassell



Evaluation of Adrenomedullary Function in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by adrenal insufficiency with or without salt wasting. It is also accompanied by adrenomedullary hypofunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate adrenomedullary function in patients with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase and 11?-hydroxylase deficiencies and in age-matched normal subjects. Methods: We measured plasma catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) and urine metanephrine in

Filiz Tutunculer; Nurcin Saka; Selda Can Arkaya; Semra Abbasoglu; Firdevs Bas



Management of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Results of the ESPE Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of children and adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) remains difficult. To assess the current European practice in diagnosis and management of CAH, an ESPE (European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology) survey was circulated in 2000\\/2001. The questionnaire was answered by 34% of ESPE members, representing 125 institutions which cared for 6,553 CAH patients. Paediatric endocrinologists, surgeons, gynaecologists, geneticists,

Felix G. Riepe; Nils Krone; Matthias Viemann; Carl-Joachim Partsch; Wolfgang G. Sippell



Overview of interventional treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) remains the gold standard surgical intervention for men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, there are other, newer technologies that have also demonstrated safety and efficacy at least equivalent to that of TURP (e.g., Holmium laser, photoselective vaporization of the prostate). These minimally invasive techniques may be particularly useful for selected patient populations (e.g., those on anticoagulant therapy).

Elhilali, Mostafa M.



New Advances in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Laser Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the past decade, numerous techniques for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia have emerged. Laser therapy,\\u000a in particular, has gained widespread popularity among urologists. Since its inception in 1996, holmium laser enucleation of\\u000a the prostate (HoLEP) has been evaluated rigorously in the treatment of glands of all sizes. HoLEP has produced superior relief\\u000a of bladder outlet obstruction as compared

Jessica Mandeville; Ehud Gnessin; James E. Lingeman



Myometrial hyperplasia mimics the clinical presentation of uterine fibroids: a report of 3 cases.  


The clinical diagnosis of fibroid uterus is based on physical examination findings and/or ultrasound. However, it is not uncommon for routine pathology examination to report no significant fibroids in such cases. Myometrial hyperplasia (MMH) is a structural variation with irregular zones of hypercellularity and increased nucleus/cell ratio that appears in adolescence, can progress during the childbearing years, and can sometimes cause grossly detectable bulges on pathologic examination. MMH can be inframucosal, intramural (microscopic), or subserosal. Three premenopausal women with a preoperative diagnosis of fibroids on pelvic examination, and/or sonograms, underwent hysterectomies. In all the 3 cases, the Myoma Index (number of fibroids×size of largest fibroid) indicated insignificant fibroids. The pathology simulating fibroids was firm, bulging inframucosal MMH. Firm, bulging MMH can mimic uterine fibroids on ultrasound and physical examination. In hysterectomies for fibroid uterus with a Myoma Index <3.7, it is recommended that pathologists evaluate for MMH as the possible explanation for the findings on physical examination and/or ultrasound. PMID:24071875

Newcomb, Patricia M; Cramer, Stewart F; Leppert, Phyllis C



Gulf of Mexico OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale: 2012. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Chapters 5-8, Appendices, and Keyword Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas consolidated Lease Sale 216/222 in the Central Planning Area. This Supplemental EIS tiers from the following EISs: the Outer Continental Shelf Oil an...



Ultrasonography and cystic hyperplasia-pyometra complex in the bitch.  


Cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex is the most frequent and important endometrial disorder encountered in bitches. The pathogenesis of the disease is related to the activity of progesterone [Feldman and Nelson, Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction (1996) W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia]. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) is an abnormal response of the bitch's uterus to ovarian hormones [De Bosschere et al. Theriogenology (2001) 55, 1509]. CEH is considered by many authors to be an exaggerated response of the uterus to chronic progestational stimulation during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle, causing an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the endometrial glands and uterine lumen (De Bosschere et al. 2001). The resulting lesions of pyometra are due to the interaction between bacteria and hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate if transabdominal uterine ultrasonography can be a useful and reliable diagnostic method to confirm Dow's [Veterinary Record (1958) 70, 1102] and De Bosschere's histopathological classification of CEH-pyometra complex. The study was carried out on 45 bitches with pyometra, 10 purebreds and 35 crossbreeds, 1-15 years old, 20% of which had whelped at least once. None of these animals had received exogenous oestrogen or progesterone treatment. On admission the 45 animals were in the luteal phase of the oestrus cycle. Clinical signs, blood parameters, uterine ultrasonography, bacterial swabs and uterine histopathological results were recorded. Results suggest that ultrasonographic examination is a useful and reliable tool for the diagnosis of cystic endometrial hyperplasia. PMID:15182288

Bigliardi, E; Parmigiani, E; Cavirani, S; Luppi, A; Bonati, L; Corradi, A



Social dominance in tilapia is associated with gonadotroph hyperplasia.  


Tilapias are emerging as one of the most important fish in worldwide aquaculture and are also widely used as model fish in the study of reproduction and behavior. During the reproductive season, male tilapia are highly territorial and form spawning pits in which the dominant males court and spawn with available females. Non-territorial males stand a much lower chance of reproducing. Using transgenic tilapia in which follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) gonadotrophs were fluorescently labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), we studied the effect of social dominance on the hormonal profile and pituitary cell populations in dominant and non-dominant males. Immunofluorescence studies showed that FSH-EGFP-transgenic fish reliably express EGFP in FSH-secreting cells. EGFP expression pattern differed from that of luteinizing hormone. Dominant males had larger gonads as well as higher levels of androgens and gonadotropins in the plasma. Pituitaries of dominant males exhibited higher gonadotropin content and gene expression. Flow cytometry revealed pituitary hyperplasia as well as FSH cell hyperplasia and increased granulation. Taken together, these findings suggest that gonadotroph hyperplasia as well as increased production by individual cells underlie the increased reproductive activity of dominant tilapia males. PMID:23660448

Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta



The use of the dynamic respiration index to predict the potential MSW-leachate impacts after short term mechanical biological treatment.  


The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of short full scale MBT process (28 d) getting a biological stability of DRI < 1000 mg O(2) kg VS(-1) h(-1), on the impact of leachate produced in simulated landfill. As consequence of that, waste was processed by full scale MBT and both untreated and treated waste were successively incubated in simulated landfills for 1 year. Leachates were collected at different incubation times and characterized. Results obtained indicated that MBT allowed waste-organic matter (OM) reduction favoring, also, optimal condition for successive OM degradation in the simulated landfill. Final results indicated a total reduction of leachate impact for the treated waste (DRI of 978 mg O(2)kg VS(-1) h(-1)) with respect to the untreated waste of: -54%, -69%, -77%, -70%, -81% and -16% for NTK, NH(3), TOC, COD, BOD(5) and total heavy metal contents, respectively. PMID:23201514

Salati, Silvia; Scaglia, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Alessandra; Carrera, Alberto; Adani, Fabrizio



Climate change and financial adaptation in Africa. Investigating the impact of climate change on the robustness of index-based microinsurance in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the applicability of crop insurance for the case of Malawi and explores the potential impact of climate\\u000a change on the viability of the Malawi weather insurance program making use of scenarios of climate change-induced variations\\u000a in rainfall patterns. The analysis is important from a methodological and policy perspective. By combining catastrophe insurance\\u000a modeling with climate modeling, the

Stefan Hochrainer; Reinhard Mechler; Georg Pflug



Impact of glycaemic index and dietary fibre on insulin sensitivity during the refeeding phase of a weight cycle in young healthy men.  


Previous studies suggest that a low-glycaemic index (LGI) diet may improve insulin sensitivity (IS). As IS has been shown to decrease during refeeding, we hypothesised that an LGI- v. high-GI (HGI) diet might have favourable effects during this phase. In a controlled nutritional intervention study, sixteen healthy men (aged 26·8 (SD 4·1) years, BMI 23·0 (SD 1·7) kg/m2) followed 1 week of overfeeding, 3 weeks of energy restriction and of 2 weeks refeeding at ^50% energy requirement (50% carbohydrates, 35% fat and 15% protein). During refeeding, subjects were divided into two matched groups receiving either high-fibre LGI or lower-fibre HGI foods (GI 40 v. 74, fibre intake 65 (SD 6) v. 27 (SD 4) g/d). Body weight was equally regained in both groups with refeeding (mean regain 70·5 (SD 28·0)% of loss). IS was improved by energy restriction and decreased with refeeding. The decreases in IS were greater in the HGI than in the LGIgroup (group £ time interactions for insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR), Matsuda IS index (MatsudaISI);all P,0·05). Mean interstitial glucose profiles during the day were also higher in the HGI group (DAUCHGI-LGI of continuous interstitial glucose monitoring: 6·6 mmol/l per 14 h, P¼0·04). At the end of refeeding, parameters of IS did not differ from baseline values in either diet group (adiponectin, insulin, HOMAIR, Matsuda ISI, M-value; all P.0·05). In conclusion, nutritional stress imposed by dietary restriction and refeeding reveals a GI/fibre effect in healthy non-obese subjects. LGI foods rich in fibre may improve glucose metabolism during the vulnerable refeeding phase of a weight cycle. PMID:23191994

Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Later, Wiebke; Eggeling, Ben; Pape, Detlef; Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja



Electrical stimulation inhibits neointimal hyperplasia after abdominal aorta balloon injury through the PTEN/p27Kip1 pathway.  


Electric fields (EFs) exert biological effects on promoting wound healing by facilitating cell division, cell proliferation, and cell directional migration toward the wound. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of direct-current (DC) EFs on the formation of neointimal hyperplasia and the possible mechanism in an abdominal aorta balloon injury rabbit model. Sixty rabbits were divided into normal, control, and experimental groups. After establishment of the abdominal aorta balloon injury model, electrodes were implanted into the bilateral psoas major muscle in control and experimental groups. Only the experimental group received electric stimulation (EFs applied at 3 or 4 V/cm for 30 min/day) for 1, 2, and 4 weeks, respectively. Neointimal hyperplasia of the abdominal aorta and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were measured. Expressions of collagen, p27(Kip1), and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) were detected. Results showed that the ratio of the tunica intima area to the tunica media area, the expression of type-I collagen in the neointimal, and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen index in experimental groups were significantly less than those in control groups 2 weeks post-operation (P< 0.01). Expressions of p27(Kip1) and PTEN were increased in experimental groups compared with control groups (P< 0.01). In conclusion, our results suggested that the application of DC EFs could inhibit neointimal hyperplasia and reduce collagen expression after abdominal aorta balloon injury. This was probably induced by upregulation of PTEN/p27(Kip1) expression, thereby inhibiting VSMC proliferation. PMID:20929926

Zhang, Ping; Liu, Zhitao; He, Guoxiang; Liu, Jianping; Feng, Jian



Smooth Muscle Hyperplasia in an Asthmatic Patient: Do We Know It All?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bronchial smooth muscle hyperplasia is a well-known structural change in asthma. The degree of hyperplasia is related to asthma severity. We report a case of extreme smooth muscle hyperplasia in an asthmatic patient. A 54-year-old female with a diagnosis of analgesic-induced asthma was admitted to our center for nasal polyposis surgery. During her preoperative evaluation, atelectasis of the right middle

Begum Ergan-Arsava; Gul Karakaya; Pinar Firat; A. Fuat Kalyoncu



Calcitonin driven v-Ha-ras induces multilineage pulmonary epithelial hyperplasias and neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We initiated a transgenic model for primary pulmonary neuroendocrine cell (PNEC) hyperplasia\\/neoplasia using v-Ha-ras driven by the neural\\/neuroendocrine (NE)-specific calcitonin promoter (rascal). Previously, we showed that nitrosamine treated rodents develop PNEC hyperplasia but non-NE lung tumors, with variable outcomes presumably reflecting ras activation in multiple cell lineages. Interestingly, all rascal transgenic mouse lineages develop hyperplasias of NE and non-NE cells

Mary E Sunday; Kathleen J Haley; Kristan Sikorski; Sherry A Graham; Rodica L Emanuel; Fan Zhang; QiQi Mu; Aliakbar Shahsafaei; Dimitrios Hatzis



Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver associated with systemic lupus erythematosus: three cases.  


Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver, characterised by regenerative nodules distributed throughout the liver in the absence of fibrosis, is a rare but important complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. The main consequence of nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver is non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. This condition is probably underdiagnosed, as many of these patients may remain asymptomatic. Furthermore, nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver may be misdiagnosed as cirrhosis. We describe three female patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. All three patients have clinical manifestations of portal hypertension, and all were initially misdiagnosed as having cryptogenic cirrhosis. PMID:19342741

Leung, Vincent K S; Loke, Tony K L; Luk, Ivy S C; Ng, W L; Chau, T N; Law, S T; Chan, James C S



Index Funds Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Matthew Roberts recently released Index Funds Online in response to the lack of index investment fund information on the Internet. Site features include the market performance newsletter Indexing Quarterly, background and definitional information on major US Indexes such as the S&P 500, and a library of new and interesting financial Websites, articles, and book reviews. Links to current index performance figures are also provided as well as a simple site search system and index fund discussion board.


Developmental programming: impact of prenatal testosterone excess and postnatal weight gain on insulin sensitivity index and transfer of traits to offspring of overweight females.  


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women and is exacerbated by obesity. Exposure of ewes to excess testosterone (T) from d 30-90 of gestation culminates in anovulation, functional hyperandrogenism, LH excess, and polyfollicular ovaries, features similar to those of women with PCOS, with some reproductive defects programmed by androgenic actions of T and others not. Excess weight gain during postnatal life increases the severity of these reproductive defects. Prenatal T-treated ewes also manifest reduced insulin sensitivity, a feature found in more than 70% of PCOS women. We tested the hypotheses that reduced insulin sensitivity of prenatal T-treated ewes is programmed by androgenic actions of T, and excess postnatal weight gain exaggerates this defect. In addition, we tested whether disruptive effects of excess weight gain on insulin sensitivity index are transferred to female offspring. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using iv glucose tolerance tests. Results revealed that disruptive effects of prenatal T excess on insulin sensitivity were programmed by androgenic action of T and postnatal overfeeding-impaired insulin sensitivity in both T-treated and controls and that prenatal T-treated sheep tend to manifest such overfeeding impairments earlier than controls. Importantly, offspring of overweight controls also manifest defects in insulin dynamics supportive of intergenerational transfer of obesity-related traits. The findings are of relevance in the context of developmental programming of insulin resistance by prenatal steroids and excess weight gain. PMID:19966179

Padmanabhan, V; Veiga-Lopez, A; Abbott, D H; Recabarren, S E; Herkimer, C



The Impact on National Death Index Ascertainment of Limiting Submissions to Social Security Administration Death Master File Matches in Epidemiologic Studies of Mortality  

PubMed Central

Although many epidemiologists use the National Death Index (NDI) as the “gold standard” for ascertainment of US mortality, high search costs per year and per subject for large cohorts warrant consideration of less costly alternatives. In this study, for 1995–2001 deaths, the authors compared matches of a random sample of 11,968 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study subjects to the Social Security Administration's Death Master File (DMF) and commercial list updates (CLU) with matches of those subjects to the NDI. They examined how varying the lower limits of estimated DMF match probabilities (m scores of 0.60, 0.20, and 0.05) altered the benefits and costs of mortality ascertainment. Observed DMF/CLU ascertainment of NDI-identified decedents increased from 89.8% to 95.1% as m decreased from 0.60 (stringent) to 0.20 (less stringent) and increased further to 96.4% as m decreased to 0.05 (least stringent). At these same cutpoints, the false-match probability increased from 0.4% of the sample to 0.6% and then 2.3%. Limiting NDI cause-of-death searches to subjects found in DMF searches using less stringent match criteria, further supplemented by CLU vital status updates, improves vital status assessment while increasing substantially the cost-effectiveness of ascertaining mortality in large prospective cohort studies.

Hermansen, Sigurd W.; Leitzmann, Michael F.



Pituitary hyperplasia: a complication of the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine  

PubMed Central

Objective “The pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine” has been used to describe patients with hypothyroidism who fail to comply with their treatment. We describe a unique case of a 32-year-old with hypothyroidism who developed pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia secondary to the pseudomalabsorption of thyroxine. Investigations and treatment After baseline thyroid-function tests were performed, the patient was administered levothyroxine 0.5 mg under the supervision of a registered nurse. Thyroid function testing was repeated at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Arrangements were made for further daily supervised loading of levothyroxine 0.1 mg. Results With the administration of 0.5 mg levothyroxine, free thyroxine levels increased by 120 minutes, and with daily supervised dosing of 0.1 mg there was normalization of the thyroid hormone levels and a reduction of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Maintenance of thyroid-stimulating hormone < 15 mU/L for 2 weeks led to a reduction in prolactin levels and regression in the size of the pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion If left untreated, these patients face significant morbidity and are at risk of developing pituitary hyperplasia, complications from an increase in pituitary size, hyperprolactinemia, and potentially myxedema coma. Recognizing pituitary hyperplasia and hyperprolactinemia as a complication from the pseudomalabsorption of levothyroxine may prevent the potential of a misdiagnosis of a prolactinoma leading to unnecessary investigations and inappropriate treatment. Patient awareness of this serious complication and the rapid, demonstrable resolution with adequate thyroid hormone replacement may provide motivation to comply with supervised dosing of levothyroxine. It has also been suggested that supervised treatment enables the individual to maintain their patient status, which may be in part the motivation behind this disorder.

Doyle, Mary-Anne; Lochnan, Heather A



The coexistence of atypical intraductal hyperplasias with breast carcinoma.  


We present a study made during 4 years (1992-1996), which pursued the underlining of the atypical intraductal hiperplasias (A.I.D.H.) lesions, met isolated or in the association with mamar carcinoma. Our study included a 188 number of the breast tumors, among: in the 23 cases we established the existence of the modification by the A.I.D.H, type at the fibrocystics disease associated or not with the other benign diseases of the breast (fibroadenosis, intraductal papiloma) and in the 63 cases there were the modification by the AIDH associated with in situ or invasiv carcinoma. Epithelial hyperplasia is frequently associated with the fibrocystic changes, being included in the category of fibrocystic or proliferating modifications. The synonymous terms used for the epithelial hyperplasia are the hiperplazia ductala, or the epitelioza, or the papilomatosis The last two are suggested by the proliferation possibility (papillary or linear) of the epithelial or the mio-epithelial cells. Regardless of the microscopic aspect of the lesion, that should be acknowledged and treated as it is, due to the increased risk of the development of a carcinoma later on, and also due to the ratio of association between the modification and the mammary carcinoma. The risk of occurrence of subsequent carcinoma is augmented in the presence of the epithelial atipii and also increases in the presence of a mammary carcinoma at the relatives of the first rank (1.3). In this context, the importance of the differential diagnosis between the simple intraductal hyperplasia and the atypical one, the difficulty of differentiation from intraductal carcinoma in some cases, and finally the association with an increased risk of subsequent occurrence of carcinoma, constitute into sufficient arguments to consider this topic separately. PMID:15678845

Bogdan, F; Gîrni??, L; Florescu, M; Simionescu, C; Cr?i?oiu, S; Com?nescu, V


Basal, Pulsatile, Entropic (Patterned), and Spiky (Staccato-like) Properties of ACTH Secretion: Impact of Age, Gender, and Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Background: Age, gender, and BMI determine ultradian modes of LH and GH secretion, viz., pulsatile, basal, pattern-defined regularity [approximate entropy (ApEn)] and spikiness (sharp, brief excursions). Whether the same determinants apply to ACTH secretion is not known. Setting: The study was conducted at a tertiary medical center. Subjects: We studied normal women (n = 22) and men (n = 26) [ages, 23–77 yr; body mass index (BMI), 21–32 kg/m2]. Methods: Volunteers underwent 10-min blood sampling to create 24-h ACTH concentration profiles. Outcomes: Dynamic measures of ACTH secretion were studied. Results: Mean ACTH concentrations (R2 = 0.15; P = 0.006) and both pulsatile (R2 = 0.12; P = 0.018) and basal (nonpulsatile) (R2 = 0.16; P = 0.005) ACTH secretion correlated directly with BMI (n = 48). Men had greater basal (P = 0.047), pulsatile (P = 0.031), and total (P = 0.010) 24-h ACTH secretion than women, including when total secretion was normalized for BMI (P = 0.019). In men, both ACTH-cortisol feedforward and cortisol-ACTH feedback asynchrony (cross-ApEn) increased with age (R2 = 0.20 and 0.22; P = 0.021 and 0.018). ACTH spikiness rose with age (P = 0.046), principally in women. Irregularity of cortisol secretion (ApEn) increased with age (n = 48; P = 0.010), especially in men. In both sexes, percentage pulsatile ACTH secretion predicted 24-h mean cortisol concentrations (R2 = 0.14; P = 0.009). Conclusion: Valid comparisons of ultradian ACTH dynamics will require cohorts matched for age, gender, and BMI, conditions hitherto not satisfied in most physiological studies of this axis.

Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Iranmanesh, Ali; Carroll, Bernard J.; Keenan, Daniel M.; Pincus, Steven M.



Unilateral coronoid hyperplasia treated by coronoidectomy using a transzygomatic approach  

PubMed Central

Coronoid hyperplasia is a rare disorder, which effectively is a mechanical problem associated with limited mouth opening. In some cases, enlarged coronoid pushes the zygoma forward causing facial asymmetry. This article looks at the case of a 15-year-old boy reporting in OPD of Government College of Dentistry, Indore, with chief complaint of facial asymmetry. Transzygomatic approach was taken to get proper access to the enlarged coronoid. Coronoidectomy was performed which significantly reduced facial asymmetry. Postoperative healing was uneventful and recurrence was not reported.

Newaskar, Vilas; Idrees, Faisal; Patel, Poornima



Which laser works best for benign prostatic hyperplasia?  


The advantages offered by lasers compared to older technologies for endoscopic surgery for symptomatic benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) are reviewed. Laser treatments for the endoscopic management of patients with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) resulting from BPH can be divided into three basic techniques. These techniques are vaporisation (removal of tissue), resection of tissue (excision of small chips and subsequent irrigation from bladder) and enucleation (dissection of the adenoma from the surgical capsule and subsequent morcellation). The decision to offer a transurethral laser approach to patients with BPH depends on their comorbidities, the surgeon's expertise with the different procedures, and the availability of the relevant technology. PMID:23780301

Kahokehr, Arman Adam; Gilling, Peter J



Review: transurethral microwave thermotherapy in benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


The transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) method combines the principles of microwave radiative heating and conductive cooling to destroy tissue within the prostate while preserving the other structures of the lower urinary tract. The method is effective in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), as demonstrated by laboratory and clinical studies. The ease of the 1-hour office treatment, the dramatic symptomatic improvement and reasonable uroflow rates that result, the preservation of sexual function, the apparent safety, and the durability of the result may mean that TUMT will introduce changes in the management of BPH as dramatic as those brought about in lithiasis management by ESWL. PMID:7689386

Devonec, M; Tomera, K; Perrin, P



Recurrent conjunctival dermoid cyst with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia.  


Conjunctival dermoid cysts are a rare subtype of dermoid cyst usually presenting in adulthood. The authors report a case of a recurrent conjunctival dermoid cyst with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia that was immunohistochemically demonstrated to be polyclonal. Follicular centers that were present within the cyst wall were negative for Bcl-2 and positive for the immunohistochemical markers CD20, Bcl-6, CD10, and Ki67, which helped to differentiate the lesion from a follicular lymphoma. The lesion did not recur after 14 months of follow-up. PMID:20562661

Stacy, Rebecca C; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Sutula, Francis C


[Operative treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia: modern aspects].  


A retrospective analysis was made of the treatment results for the last 5 years of 879 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 214 (24.3%) of whom had undergone transvesical adenomectomy while 665 (75.7%) had undergone transurethral resection (TUR) of the prostate. Adenomectomy had rather high effectiveness but was less safe than endoscopic intervention (higher lethality, more frequent development of myocardial infarction, pulmonary artery thromboembolism, postoperative hemorrhage). Patients operated for BPH are at risk of postoperative urethral stricture and sclerosis of urinary bladder cervix. Prebladder and postoperative stress urine incontinence appear only after open operations in BPH. PMID:15022441

Kamalov, A A; Gushchin, B L; Dorofeev, S D; Komlev, D L; Tokarev, F V; Efremov, E A


[The impact of substitution treatment by methadone among opiate-dependent subjects evaluated by Addiction Severity Index and by urine tests].  


Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been evaluated in the United States and in a few other countries. MMT has been developed in France since 1995, and over 5 000 patients receive this treatment. However no French study has yet been published on the efficacy of MMT as assessed by a validated scale. Retention in treatment for one year has been considered as a threshold to define maintenance of treatment benefits after discharge from a methadone program; determination of retention predictors is important. Over a three year period, we evaluated patients at admission and during treatment using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), and urine drug screening was performed weekly; 95 patients (66 males and 29 females) were evaluated at intake. Their mean age was 30.2 5.5, and they had used opioids for a mean of 10.6 5.7 years. Their ASI severity scores for drugs were over 5, showing a clear need for treatment. Female patients differed from males only in the employment-finances ASI score; 43 patients completed at least one year of treatment, after which their drug and legal composite scores significantly improved. No significant changes in their consumption of cocaine, alcohol, benzodiazepines or cannabis were found, but they smoked fewer cigarettes at 12 months. Demographics, ASI severity scores, and history of suicide attempts did not differentiate one-year completers from dropouts (n=16). However, dropouts had used more buprenorphine and less methadone in the 30 days preceding their admission, and they received a lower dose of methadone during treatment. Our population is comparable to other French MMT populations; they enter treatment after a long history of opioid dependence. The improvement found on the ASI composite scores is also similar to the improvement described in other international studies. Dropouts in our study seem to be more treatment-resistant patients, in the sense that they had used more buprenorphine before intake and were not stabilized with it; and they may have had a more negative attitude towards methadone. PMID:12386547

Trémeau, F; Darreye, A; Khidichian, F; Weibel, H; Kempf, M; Greth, Ph; Schneider, J L; Wantz, C; Weber, B; Stépien, S; Macher, J P


Impact of Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index on Risk of Cardiometabolic Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Adults: A National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Survey  

PubMed Central

Background We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC) or body mass index (BMI) category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults. Methods and Findings 46,024 participants aged ?20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007–2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI) of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96–2.44) vs 1.88 (1.67–2.12) and 1.12 (0.99–1.26); 5.70 (5.24–6.19) vs 1.51 (1.39–1.65) and 1.69 (1.57–1.82); and 3.73 (3.42–4.07) vs 2.16 (1.98–2.35) and 1.33 (1.25–1.40), respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05). Conclusion Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.

Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Ji, Linong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Zhaojun; Yang, Wenying; Jia, Weiping



Nucleic acid indexing  


A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)



Nucleic acid indexing  


A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)



Segment-specific association between cervical pillar hyperplasia (CPH) and degenerative joint disease (DJD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cervical pillar hyperplasia (CPH) is a recently described phenomenon of unknown etiology and clinical significance. Global assessment of pillar hyperplasia of the cervical spine as a unit has not shown a relationship with degenerative joint disease, but a more sensible explanation of the architectural influence of CPH on cervical spine biomechanics may be segment-specific. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this

Maja Stupar; Cynthia K Peterson



Bartter's syndrome with hyperplasia of renomedullary cells: Successful treatment with indomethacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bartter's syndrome with hyperplasia of renomedullary cells: Successful treatment with indomethacin. During treatment with indomethacin in a patient with Bartter's syndrome, hypokalemia, high plasma renin concentration, hyperaldosteronism and decreased sensitivity to angiotensin infusion were corrected. A particular finding in the renal biopsy specimen was a marked hyperplasia of renomedullary interstitial cells which had characteristics similar to the cells known to

René Verberckmoes; Boudewijn van Damme; Jan Clement; Antoon Amery; Paul Michielsen




Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted for qualitative analysis of serum proteins separated by SDS-PAGE and stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 in order to describe the preliminary identification of serum proteins that may act as diagnostic marker in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Serum samples of 23 biopsy confirmed cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal controls of similar age group were subjected

Saima Naz; Sarah Ahmad; Farkhanda Ghafoor



Effect of dutasteride on the detection of prostate cancer in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine the rate of prostate cancer detection in three large randomized placebo-controlled benign prostatic hyperplasia trials of dutasteride. Dutasteride, which lowers serum dihydrotestosterone more than 93% by inhibiting type 1 and type 2 5-alpha-reductase, is effective in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, its effect on the development of prostate cancer is unknown.

G. L. Andriole; C. Roehrborn; C. Schulman; K. M. Slawin; M. Somerville; R. S. Rittmaster



Two Closely Related but Distinct Retroviruses Are Associated with Walleye Discrete Epidermal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walleye discrete epidermal hyperplasia (WEH) is a hyperproliferative skin disease that is prevalent on adult walleye fish throughout North America. We have identified two retroviruses associated with WEH, designated here as walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus type 1 and type 2 (WEHV1 and WEHV2), that are closely related to one another (77% identity) and to walleye dermal sarcoma virus (64% identity)




Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita Presenting as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

We report on a patient with genetically confirmed adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) whose presentation and laboratory abnormalities were consistent with the more common condition, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The patient presented with failure to thrive and salt wasting. General appearance showed marked hyperpigmentation and normal male genitalia. He displayed mildly elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone and markedly elevated 11-deoxycortisol levels at baseline and with ACTH stimulation testing. Results were consistent with 11?-hydroxylase deficiency. He required glucocorticoids and high doses of mineralocorticoids. The marked elevation in 11-deoxycortisol directed our clinical reasoning away from a hypoplastic condition and towards a hyperplasic adrenal condition. Sequencing of the DAX1 gene (named for dosage-sensitive sex reversal (DSS) locus and the AHC locus on the X chromosome) revealed a missense mutation. A review of the literature revealed that elevated 11-deoxycortisol levels have been noted in kindreds with DAX1 mutations, but only when measured very early in life. A mouse model has recently been described that displays elevated 11-deoxycorticosterone levels and evidence for hyperplasia of the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland. We conclude that DAX1 testing may be considered in patients with laboratory evidence of 11?-hydroxylase deficiency, especially in those with severe salt wasting.

Flint, Jennifer L.; Jacobson, Jill D.



An insidious risk factor for cardiovascular disease: benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) have a considerably higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than the general population in old age. Many hypotheses have been created to explain traditional clinical risk factors of CVD, including age, male gender, cigarette smoking, inheritance, high blood pressure (BP), obesity, elevated fasting plasma glucose, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, decreased physical activity and metabolic syndrome; or nontraditional risk factors such as oxidative stress, inflammation, vascular calcification, malnutrition, homocysteine and genetic variation. Although these risk factors are important in CVD pathophysiology and clinical presentation, there is still no single theory sufficient to provide an adequate explanation for all the properties of CVD. We speculate that by causing nocturia-induced sleep disturbances, BP variability, increased sympathetic activity, non-dipping BP variations; BPH may be an insidious risk factor for CVD. Benign prostate hyperplasia may be related to increased BP, coronary ischemic hearth disease or other cardiovascular pathologic conditions. This attention on BPH may produce a new approach to the diagnosis and treatment of CVD. Although the underlying mechanisms are still exactly unclear, further prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to identify if patients with BPH/LUTS is higher risk for CVD. PMID:19359054

Karatas, Omer Faruk; Bayrak, Omer; Cimentepe, Ersin; Unal, Dogan



New advances in benign prostatic hyperplasia: laser therapy.  


Throughout the past decade, numerous techniques for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia have emerged. Laser therapy, in particular, has gained widespread popularity among urologists. Since its inception in 1996, holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) has been evaluated rigorously in the treatment of glands of all sizes. HoLEP has produced superior relief of bladder outlet obstruction as compared to transurethral resection of the prostate based on urodynamics, and has proved equally as effective as open prostatectomy, for the management of very large glands (>100 cc), with lower morbidity. In addition to HoLEP, several newer but less well-studied laser techniques currently are available. These include photoselective laser vaporization utilizing the potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP or "green light") laser, thulium laser enucleation, and high-power diode laser vaporization. This report reviews the most current literature on laser therapies utilized in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with regards to safety, outcome, efficiency, and long-term durability. PMID:21088938

Mandeville, Jessica; Gnessin, Ehud; Lingeman, James E



Altered catecholamine receptor affinity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia  

SciTech Connect

Intimal thickening is a universal response to endothelial denudation and is also thought to be a precursor of atherosclerosis. The authors have demonstrated selective supersensitivity in arterial intimal hyperplasia to norepinephrine and they now report a possible mechanism for this. Binding studies in rabbit aorta with the selective alpha 1-adrenergic radioligand 125I-HEAT demonstrated that there was no change in receptor density (20 {plus minus} 4 fmole/10(6) cells) in intact vascular smooth muscle cells at either 5 or 14 days after denudation. However, competition studies showed a 2.6-fold increase in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor affinity for norepinephrine in intimal hyperplastic tissue (P less than 0.05). This increased affinity for norepinephrine was associated with a greater increase in 32P-labeled phosphatidylinositol (148% intimal thickening versus 76% control) and phosphatidic acid (151% intimal thickening versus 56% control) following norepinephrine stimulation of free floating rings of intimal hyperplastic aorta. These data suggest that the catecholamine supersensitivity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia is receptor mediated and may be linked to the phosphatidylinositol cycle.

O'Malley, M.K.; Cotecchia, S.; Hagen, P.O. (Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))



Adrenal hypoplasia congenita presenting as congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  


We report on a patient with genetically confirmed adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) whose presentation and laboratory abnormalities were consistent with the more common condition, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The patient presented with failure to thrive and salt wasting. General appearance showed marked hyperpigmentation and normal male genitalia. He displayed mildly elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone and markedly elevated 11-deoxycortisol levels at baseline and with ACTH stimulation testing. Results were consistent with 11 ? -hydroxylase deficiency. He required glucocorticoids and high doses of mineralocorticoids. The marked elevation in 11-deoxycortisol directed our clinical reasoning away from a hypoplastic condition and towards a hyperplasic adrenal condition. Sequencing of the DAX1 gene (named for dosage-sensitive sex reversal (DSS) locus and the AHC locus on the X chromosome) revealed a missense mutation. A review of the literature revealed that elevated 11-deoxycortisol levels have been noted in kindreds with DAX1 mutations, but only when measured very early in life. A mouse model has recently been described that displays elevated 11-deoxycorticosterone levels and evidence for hyperplasia of the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland. We conclude that DAX1 testing may be considered in patients with laboratory evidence of 11 ? -hydroxylase deficiency, especially in those with severe salt wasting. PMID:23476826

Flint, Jennifer L; Jacobson, Jill D



PAR2 modulates PAR1-driven neointimal hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Objective Emerging evidence suggests that protease-activated receptors-1 and 2 (PAR1 and PAR2) can signal together in response to proteases found in the rapidly changing microenvironment of damaged blood vessels. However, it is unknown whether PAR1 and PAR2 promote or mitigate the hyperplastic response to arterial injury. Using cell-penetrating PAR1 pepducins and mice-deficient in PAR1 or PAR2, we set out to determine the respective contributions of the receptors to hyperplasia and phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in response to arterial injury. Methods and Results SMCs were strongly activated by PAR1 stimulation as evidenced by increased mitogenesis, mitochondrial activity, and calcium mobilization. The effects of chronic PAR1 stimulation following vascular injury were studied by performing carotid artery ligations in mice treated with PAR1 agonist pepducin, P1pal-13. Histological analysis revealed that PAR1 stimulation caused striking hyperplasia which was ablated in PAR1-/-, and surprisingly in PAR2-/- mice. P1pal-13 treatment yielded an expression pattern consistent with a de-differentiated phenotype in carotid artery SMCs. Detection of PAR1-PAR2 complexes provided an explanation for the hyperplastic effects of the PAR1 agonist requiring the presence of both receptors. Conclusions We conclude that PAR2 regulates the PAR1 hyperplastic response to arterial injury leading to stenosis.

Sevigny, Leila M.; Austin, Karyn M.; Zhang, Ping; Kasuda, Shogo; Koukos, Georgios; Sharifi, Sheida; Covic, Lidija; Kuliopulos, Athan



Apolipoprotein E Inhibits Neointimal Hyperplasia after Arterial Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

The potential cytostatic function of apolipoprotein (apo) E in vivo was explored by measuring neointimal hyperplasia in response to vascular injury in apoE-deficient and apoE-overexpressing transgenic mice. Results showed a significant increase in medial thickness, medial area, and neointimal formation after vascular injury in both apoE knockout and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Immunochemical analysis with smooth muscle ?-actin-specific antibodies revealed that the neointima contained proliferating smooth muscle cells. Neointimal area was 3.4-fold greater, and the intima/medial ratio as well as stenotic luminal area was more pronounced in apoE(?/?) mice than those observed in control mice (P < 0.05). The human apoE3 transgenic mice in FVB/N genetic background were then used to verify a direct effect of apoE in protection against neointimal hyperplasia in response to mechanically induced vascular injury. Results showed that neointimal area was reduced threefold to fourfold in mice overexpressing the human apoE3 transgene (P < 0.05). Importantly, suppression of neointimal formation in the apoE transgenic mice also abolished the luminal stenosis observed in their nontransgenic FVB/N counterparts. These results documented a direct role of apoE in modulating vascular response to injury, suggesting that increasing apoE level may be beneficial in protection against restenosis after vascular surgery.

Zhu, Binghua; Kuhel, David G.; Witte, David P.; Hui, David Y.



Effect of Phellius linteus water extract on benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases among elderly men. As the old-age population is increasing recently, it is to our interest to observe the growing BPH within them. In BPH, the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) acts as promotes prostate growth. It inhibits enzyme 5?-reductase that is involved in the conversion of testosterone to the DHT activity which reduces the excessive prostate growth. Through experiments, the effects of Phellius linteus water extract performed on the BPH rats were induced by testosterone treatments. For 12 weeks, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with testosterone for the induction of BPH. Rats were divided into four experimental groups: the not treated group (N), the testosterone injection and D.W treatment group (TN), the testosterone injection and Phellinus linteus treatment group (TP) and testosterone injection and finasteride treatment group (TF). Prostate weight, volume and weight ratio in the TP group and the TF group were significantly lower than the TN group. Testosterone and DHT levels in the TN group were significantly higher than that of the N group. And the TP group was significantly decreased than that of the TN group. While prostates of control rats revealed severe acinar gland atrophy and stromal proliferation; the TP and TF groups showed trophic symptoms and were lined by flattened epithelial cells, thus, the stromal proliferation is relatively low as compared to the TN group. These suggest that Phellinus linteus water extracts may be an useful remedy for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23766877

Kim, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Sun; Chun, Sung-Sik; Choi, Jeong-Hwa



[Interstitial laser-induced coagulation of the prostate for therapy of benign hyperplasia].  


Interstitial laser-induced coagulation (ILC) is a new, minimally invasive, procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It is based on the placement of special light guides in the prostatic tissue, either transurethrally or perineally. The radiation source is a Nd-YAG laser, which is active for 3 or 5 min per fiber placement, respectively, with the power reduced stepwise. The coagulation necroses caused shrink during follow-up, leading to a decrease in the obstruction. In 239 patients treated in this way the mean I-PSS-Score fell from 25.4 to 8.1 points and the quality of life index from 4.1 to 1.6, the urinary peak flow rate increased from 7.7 to 16.3 ml/s, the residual urine volume fell from 151 to 32 ml, and the mean prostate volume declined from 47.4 to 32.2 ml in the first 3 months of follow up; 9.2% of the patients required further treatment within 1 year because of persistent obstruction. The complication rate was low. Statistical analysis showed no factors allowing prediction of the outcome. ILC is an effective method with few side effects and complications, and it has a wide range of indications for all BPH patients. PMID:7538715

Muschter, R; Zellner, M; Hessel, S; Hofstetter, A



Photochemotherapy of intimal hyperplasia using Psoralen activated by uv light in porcine model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psoralen activated by UVA light (PUVA) was investigated as a means of inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation resulting from balloon injury. Twenty kilogram domestic swine were anesthetized and underwent balloon angioplasty to create a 133% overstretch injury. Assignments of treatment and control were randomized between the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex (LCX) coronaries arteries. The animals were given with 5 mg/kg of 8- methoxypsoralen eternally. Treatment vessels received 600 mJ/cm2 of 364 nm light during balloon inflation to activate the psoralen. Control vessels received drug and balloon injury only. Serum was obtained during the light delivery to assess psoralen levels. At 30 days, animals were sacrificed and the coronary arteries perfusion fixed. Five sections per vessel were analyzed morphometrically to determine percent intimal area and extent of injury. The restenosis injury index was 0.21 plus or minus .02 in treatment vessels and 0.14 plus or minus .01 in the controls with a p-value less than .02. In this large animal model of balloon angioplasty injury, psoralen activated by ultraviolet light increased intimal hyperplasia.

Buckley, Lisa A.; Gregory, Kenton W.; Bahlman, Deborah T.; Shangguan, Hanqun; Fahrenbach, Henner; Rosenthal, Eli; Block, Peter C.



Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in an Elite Female Soccer Player; What Sports Medicine Clinicians Should Know about This?  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) refers to a group of congenital conditions characterized by disordered cortisol synthesis. The correlation between CAH and sports performance has been less studied before and there is very limited information regarding the impacts of this congenital disease on sports performance. Probably, there are some limitations for patients who suffer from CAH in sports, but at the same time, they may enjoy some advantage due to the probable effect of endogenous hyperandrogenism on their exercise performance. Case Presentation The case is a 14 - year old girl with male phenotype who is a known case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. She plays in the women's national soccer team of under 16. She has been in the first division league of indoor soccer for 4 years and was also selected in the preparation training camp of women's football team for Singapore's youth Olympic Games. Her illness and dependence on corticosteroid have caused some concerns for her participation in the international competitions of women. However, following consultations with the Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) Committee of games organization, she received TUE to use corticosteroid only within the games period. Despite all her problems, she is now playing in the Second Division League of indoor soccer. Conclusions A female adolescent with CAH may compete at the high level of outdoor and indoor soccer. However, there are many questions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of this congenital disorder and its treatment on sports related issues.

Angoorani, Hooman; Haratian, Zohreh; Halabchi, Farzin



Insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response, and glucose effectiveness in a population-based sample of 380 young healthy Caucasians. Analysis of the impact of gender, body fat, physical fitness, and life-style factors.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion are traits that are both genetically and environmentally determined. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of the insulin sensitivity index (Si), the acute insulin response, and glucose effectiveness (Sg) in young healthy Caucasians and to estimate the relative impact of anthropometric and environmental determinants on these variables. METHODS: The material included 380 unrelated Caucasian subjects (18-32 yr) with measurement of Si, Sg and insulin secretion during a combined intravenous glucose (0.3 grams/kg body weight) and tolbutamide (3 mg/kg body weight) tolerance test. RESULTS: The distributions of Si and acute insulin response were skewed to the right, whereas the distribution of Sg was Gaussian distributed. Sg was 15% higher in women compared with men (P < 0.001). Waist circumference, body mass index, maximal aerobic capacity, and women's use of oral contraceptives were the most important determinants of Si. Approximately one-third of the variation of Si could be explained by these factors. Compared with individuals in the upper four-fifths of the distribution of Si, subjects with Si in the lowest fifth had higher waist circumference, higher blood pressure, lower VO2max, and lower glucose tolerance and fasting dyslipidemia and dysfibrinolysis. Only 10% of the variation in acute insulin response could be explained by measured determinants. CONCLUSION: Estimates of body fat, maximal aerobic capacity, and women's use of oral contraceptives explain about one-third of the variation in Si in a population-based sample of young healthy Caucasians.

Clausen, J O; Borch-Johnsen, K; Ibsen, H; Bergman, R N; Hougaard, P; Winther, K; Pedersen, O



Impact of a nurse-directed, coordinated school health program to enhance physical activity behaviors and reduce body mass index among minority children: A parallel-group, randomized control trial  

PubMed Central

Background Underserved children, particularly girls and those in urban communities, do not meet the recommended physical activity guidelines (>60 min of daily physical activity), and this behavior can lead to obesity. The school years are known to be a critical period in the life course for shaping attitudes and behaviors. Children look to schools for much of their access to physical activity. Thus, through the provision of appropriate physical activity programs, schools have the power to influence apt physical activity choices, especially for underserved children where disparities in obesity-related outcomes exist. Objectives To evaluate the impact of a nurse directed, coordinated, culturally sensitive, school-based, family-centered lifestyle program on activity behaviors and body mass index. Design, settings and participants: This was a parallel group, randomized controlled trial utilizing a community-based participatory research approach, through a partnership with a University and 5 community schools. Participants included 251 children ages 8–12 from elementary schools in urban, low-income neighborhoods in Los Angeles, USA. Methods The intervention included Kids N Fitness©, a 6-week program which met weekly to provide 45 min of structured physical activity and a 45 min nutrition education class for parents and children. Intervention sites also participated in school-wide wellness activities, including health and counseling services, staff professional development in health promotion, parental education newsletters, and wellness policies for the provision of healthy foods at the school. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health School Physical Activity and Nutrition Student Questionnaire measured physical activity behavior, including: daily physical activity, participation in team sports, attending physical education class, and TV viewing/computer game playing. Anthropometric measures included height, weight, body mass index, resting blood pressure, and waist circumference. Measures were collected at baseline, completion of the intervention phase (4 months), and 12 months post-intervention. Results Significant results for students in the intervention, included for boys decreases in TV viewing; and girls increases in daily physical activity, physical education class attendance, and decreases in body mass index z-scores from baseline to the 12 month follow-up. Conclusions Our study shows the value of utilizing nurses to implement a culturally sensitive, coordinated, intervention to decrease disparities in activity and TV viewing among underserved girls and boys.

Wright, Kynna; Giger, Joyce Newman; Norris, Keth; Suro, Zulma



Indexed Bibliography on Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document comprises a bibliography about tracking and related literature, with corresponding documentation in the form of indexed author and subject listings. Indexing was performed to enhance its utility as a reference. Topical subjects were distingu...

S. P. Schipani



Audio Indexing for Efficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian



Glycemic Index and Diabetes  


... food? Is the GI a better tool than carbohydrate counting? Glycemic index examples of foods. What is ... The glycemic index, or GI, measures how a carbohydrate-containing food raises blood glucose. Foods are ranked ...


Factors determining final height in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  


Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of adrenal disorders whereby cortisol biosynthesis is impaired or abolished. In most cases, CAH is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 21-hydroxylase causing a massive build up of adrenal precursors. In addition to prenatal virilisation of genetic females and postnatal virilisation of both males and females, short adult stature is characteristic of the disorder. The inadequate final height in CAH patients is often attributed to overtreatment with glucocorticoid replacement and poor control of adrenal androgen levels. In a recent study, the use of growth hormone alone and in combination with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue in children with CAH and poor predicted final height was found to decrease height deficit after one and two years of treatment. PMID:11529398

New, M I



Lymphoid nodules and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in bone marrow biopsies.  


Out of 2,474 bone marrow biopsies we have observed 330 cases (13.3%) with presence of lymphoid nodules (LN). LN were frequent in old age (24.6% over 80 years), in females (17%) and in some diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (73.7% of the cases), partial aplasia (34%), hypersplenism (30.4%), hemopoietic dysplasia (25%), chronic renal failure (20.4%), polycythemia vera (20.2%), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (18.8%), acute leukemia (17.7%). Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the bone marrow was found especially in systemic autoimmune diseases (26.3%), hypersplenism (9.8%), preleukemia (7.3%) and acute leukemia (4.2%). The presence of excessive medullary LN could indicate a bone marrow microenvironment damage, possibly of autoimmune origin. PMID:3934902

Navone, R; Valpreda, M; Pich, A



Anorexia nervosa in a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  


Life stressors and hormonal dysregulation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are common factors that play a role in both anorexia nervosa (AN) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The complexity of combined CAH and AN on the HPA axis has not, to our knowledge, been previously illustrated. We present a report of an adolescent with CAH who developed AN, requiring hospitalized management. We use this case to review the pathophysiology of CAH and AN as it relates to the stress response and hormonal dysregulation within the HPA axis. We then highlight the interplay between these conditions, and provide support to the theory that AN acts as a chronic stressor in patients with CAH, leading to HPA axis hyperactivity and elevated levels of androgen precursors. It is prudent for the medical team to monitor and modify CAH steroid dosing during the acute phase of AN, weaning appropriately with AN treatment success. PMID:23382307

Galle, Jennifer; Kirsch, Susan; Kaufman, Miriam



Diagnosis and management of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  


Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is among the most common genetic disorders. Deficiency of adrenal steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene accounts for about 95% cases of CAH. This disorder manifests with androgen excess with or without salt wasting. It also is a potentially life threatening disorder; neonatal screening with 17-hydroxyprogesterone measurement can diagnose the condition in asymptomatic children. Carefully monitored therapy with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid supplementation will ensure optimal growth and development for children with CAH. Genital surgery may be required for girls with CAH. Continued care is required for individuals with CAH as adults to prevent long-term adverse consequences of the disease, including infertility, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. PMID:23624029

Marumudi, Eunice; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Surana, Vineet; Shabir, Iram; Joseph, Angela; Ammini, Ariachery C



Diagnosis and management of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign tumor of the liver, after hemangioma. It is generally found incidentally and is most common in reproductive-aged women, but it also affects males and can be diagnosed at any age. Patients are rarely symptomatic, but FNH sometimes causes epigastric or right upper quadrant pain. The main clinical task is to differentiate it from other hypervascular hepatic lesions such as hepatic adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, or hypervascular metastases, but invasive diagnostic procedures can generally be avoided with the appropriate use of imaging techniques. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is more sensitive and specific than conventional ultrasonography (US) or computed tomography (CT), but Doppler US and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) can greatly improve the accuracy in the diagnosis of FNH. Once a correct diagnosis has been made, in most cases there is no indication for surgery, and treatment includes conservative clinical follow-up in asymptomatic patients.

Venturi, A.; Piscaglia, F.; Vidili, G.; Flori, S.; Righini, R.; Golfieri, R.; Bolondi, L.



Does Pseudohypoaldosteronism Mask the Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia?  

PubMed Central

Hyponatremia and hyperpotassemia occurring in the first few weeks of life primarily indicate aldosterone deficiency due to salt-losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (SL-CAH), while mineralocorticoid deficiency and insensitivity are the main causes of hyponatremia and hyperpotassemia in older infants. Some patients who present with vomiting and poor sucking, who have hyponatremia and hyperpotassemia and are initially diagnosed as CAH, during follow-up, are found to suffer from pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA). This situation has been reported several times before. The cases described here represent the opposite situation: they presented with hyponatremia and hyperpotassemia, thus PHA was considered as aldosterone levels were very high, but subsequent investigation and genetic analysis led to the diagnosis of SL-CAH. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Aycan, Zehra; Peltek Kendirci, Havva Nur; Erkek, Nilgun; Bas, Veysel Nijat



Papillary endothelial hyperplasia presenting as recurrent malignant glioma.  


The initial management of patients with malignant gliomas depends on accurate histologic diagnosis which, in turn, directs appropriate treatment planning. However, the diagnosis of recurrent disease is often based solely on radiological data which can occasionally be misinterpreted as showing recurrent tumor. Lack of awareness of conditions that mimic recurrent tumor and potentially confound radiological diagnosis can lead to inappropriate therapeutic decisions. We report the case of a patient whose imaging studies suggested recurrence of malignant glioma; however, surgical resection of the lesion guided by MRI scans resulted in the correct diagnosis of papillary endothelial hyperplasia and led to appropriate management of this condition that mimicked tumor recurrence. In this report, we provide a comprehensive review of this rare entity and emphasize the importance of adequately pursuing appropriate diagnostic considerations prior to making definitive treatment decisions. PMID:20740304

Ong, Shirley S; Bruner, Janet; Schellingerhout, Dawid; Puduvalli, Vinay K



Mandible condylar hyperplasia: a review of diagnosis and treatment protocol  

PubMed Central

Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a bone disease characterized by the increased development of one mandibular condyle. It regularly presents as an active growth with facial asymmetry generally without pain. Statistically it affects more women in adolescence, although it does not discriminate by age or gender. Its best-known consequence is asymmetric facial deformity (AFD), which combined with alteration of the dental occlusion with unilateral crossbite or open bite. It is not known when CH begins and how long it lasts; diagnostic examinations are described and are efficient in some research about diagnosis. Protocol treatment is not well studie and depends on the criteria described in this paper. The aim of this research is to provide up-to-date information about the diagnosis of this disease and to analyze the treatment protocol, visualizing the CH and AFD presented.

Olate, Sergio; Netto, Henrique Duque; Rodriguez-Chessa, Jaime; Alister, Juan Pablo; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose; de Moraes, Marcio



Correlations in the cytokine system in endometrial hyperplasia.  


Correlations between local expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor receptor, epithelial growth factor, transforming growth beta2 factor, PCNA, TNF-alpha, TNF receptor 1, Fas, FasL, IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12 genes in intact and hyperplastic endometrium and in the endometrium after hormone therapy were analyzed. Numerous correlations at the proliferation and secretion stages of the menstrual cycle indicate balanced cytokine system. The number of correlations decreases in glandular cystic and more so in atypical hyperplasia, indicating imbalance in the cytokine system. Dufastone and zoladex therapy did not lead to recovery of this balance, but higher correlations between the expression of some factors of cell proliferation attest to the beginning of normalization of pathologically changed endometrium. PMID:15098542

Zhdanov, A V; Sukhikh, G T; Davydova, M P; Slukina, T V; Chernukha, G E; Samoilova, T E; Smetnik, V P



Silodosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are highly prevalent in older men. Medical therapy is the first-line treatment for LUTS due to BPH. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers remain one of the mainstays in the treatment of male LUTS and clinical BPH. They exhibit early onset of efficacy with regard to both symptoms and flow rate improvement, and this is clearly demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials with extensions out to five years. These agents have been shown to prevent symptomatic progression of the disease. The aim of this article is to offer a critical review of the current literature on silodosin, formerly known as KMD-3213, a novel alpha-blocker with unprecedented selectivity for ?(1A)-adrenergic receptors, as compared with both ?(1B)- and ?(1D) -adrenoceptors, exceeding the selectivity of all currently used ?(1)-blockers, and with clinically promising effects. PMID:21116335

Rossi, Maxime; Roumeguère, Thierry



Silodosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are highly prevalent in older men. Medical therapy is the first-line treatment for LUTS due to BPH. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers remain one of the mainstays in the treatment of male LUTS and clinical BPH. They exhibit early onset of efficacy with regard to both symptoms and flow rate improvement, and this is clearly demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials with extensions out to five years. These agents have been shown to prevent symptomatic progression of the disease. The aim of this article is to offer a critical review of the current literature on silodosin, formerly known as KMD-3213, a novel alpha-blocker with unprecedented selectivity for ?1A-adrenergic receptors, as compared with both ?1B- and ?1D -adrenoceptors, exceeding the selectivity of all currently used ?1-blockers, and with clinically promising effects.

Rossi, Maxime; Roumeguere, Thierry



Evaluation and validation of the Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score as an outcome assessment tool for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: Effects of the ?1-adrenoreceptor antagonist silodosin.  


We investigated the Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score as an outcome assessment tool for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms using silodosin. In addition, the ability of the Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score to detect overactive bladder in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms was examined. The present study included 241 males with benign prostatic hyperplasia treated at 31 medical facilities between June 2009 and December 2010. All patients were given silodosin, and the effects of silodosin intake were measured using four questionnaires: the Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score, International Prostate Symptom Score, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score and Quality-of-Life index. The efficacy of silodosin for treating lower urinary tract symptoms was validated according to the total scores of all four questionnaires weighted equally (P?index was low in the groups with benign prostatic hyperplasia (??=?0.314) and benign prostatic hyperplasia/overactive bladder (??=?0.244). Our findings showed the Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score, both its total score and each subscore, is able to show the efficacy of silodosin, similar to other questionnaires. The Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score is also useful for identifying overactive bladder symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. As the Core Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Score does not correlate well with the Quality-of-Life index, these two questionnaires might be better used in combination to assess treatment outcomes. PMID:23662900

Ito, Hiroki; Sano, Futoshi; Ogawa, Takehiko; Yao, Masahiro



Indexing of Feminist Periodicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last twelve years there has been a phenomenal increase in the number of periodicals focusing on women's studies and feminism. Initially these titles were ignored by most indexing and abstracting services. The earliest indexing, by the Alternative Press Index and Women Studies Abstracts appeared in 1971 and 1972. Since 1975 there has been a marked increase in the

Mary Alice Sanguinetti



Dow Jones Internet Indexes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dow Jones Indexes has created the Dow Jones Internet Index (DJII) to bring "an ordered perspective" to "the seeming chaos of Internet stocks." The new index includes companies that generate a minimum of 50 percent of their revenues from the Internet. Complete documentation of DJII components, data, historical values, and news are provided on-site.


Indexing multiversion databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecient management of multiversion data with branched evolution is crucial for many applications. It requires databa- se designers aware of tradeos among index structures and policies. This paper defines a framework and an analysis method for understanding the behavior of dierent indexing policies. Given data and query characteristics the analysis allows determining the most suitable index structure. The analysis

Khaled Jouini; Geneviève Jomier



Generalized Partial Indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the use of generalized par- tial indexes for efficient query processing. We propose that partial indexes be built on those portions of the database that are statistically likely to be the most useful for query processing. We identify three classes of statistical infor- mation, and two levels at which it may be available. We describe indexing strategies

Praveen Seshadri; Arun N. Swami



Kaiser's Systematic Indexing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a system of subject indexing developed by Julius Kaiser (1868-1927) which is based on "concretes" and "processes" to govern the form of subject headings and subdivisions. Elements of amplification, guides for the subject index, and criticism of Kaiser's systematic indexing are noted. Five sources are given. (EJS)|

Rodriguez, Robert D.



Glycaemic index methodology.  


The glycaemic index (GI) concept was originally introduced to classify different sources of carbohydrate (CHO)-rich foods, usually having an energy content of >80 % from CHO, to their effect on post-meal glycaemia. It was assumed to apply to foods that primarily deliver available CHO, causing hyperglycaemia. Low-GI foods were classified as being digested and absorbed slowly and high-GI foods as being rapidly digested and absorbed, resulting in different glycaemic responses. Low-GI foods were found to induce benefits on certain risk factors for CVD and diabetes. Accordingly it has been proposed that GI classification of foods and drinks could be useful to help consumers make 'healthy food choices' within specific food groups. Classification of foods according to their impact on blood glucose responses requires a standardised way of measuring such responses. The present review discusses the most relevant methodological considerations and highlights specific recommendations regarding number of subjects, sex, subject status, inclusion and exclusion criteria, pre-test conditions, CHO test dose, blood sampling procedures, sampling times, test randomisation and calculation of glycaemic response area under the curve. All together, these technical recommendations will help to implement or reinforce measurement of GI in laboratories and help to ensure quality of results. Since there is current international interest in alternative ways of expressing glycaemic responses to foods, some of these methods are discussed. PMID:19079901

Brouns, F; Bjorck, I; Frayn, K N; Gibbs, A L; Lang, V; Slama, G; Wolever, T M S



Intestinal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia and extraintestinal lymphoma--a rare association.  


Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract is characterized by the presence of innumerable small discrete nodules involving a variable segment of the gastrointestinal tract. The association between nodular lymphoid hyperplasia and other benign and malignant diseases has been clearly described, with an increased risk of gastrointestinal tumours, namely gastrointestinal lymphoma. However, the association with extraintestinal lymphoma seems extremely rare. The authors present a clinical case of a patient with nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the small and large intestine that subsequently developed an extraintestinal lymphoma (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). PMID:22870792

Monsanto, P; Lérias, C; Almeida, N; Lopes, S; Cabral, J E; Figueiredo, P; Silva, M; Julião, M; Gouveia, H; Sofia, C



Rebound thymic hyperplasia after pneumonectomy and chemotherapy for primary synovial sarcoma.  


Thymic hyperplasia occurs in a small proportion of patients receiving chemotherapy for various malignancies. It likely results from an immunologic rebound phenomenon. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography is an important tool for staging malignant neoplasms. We report a case of rebound thymic hyperplasia manifesting as a hypermetabolic mass on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography after pneumonectomy and chemotherapy for primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma. We highlight the importance of recognizing the phenomenon of rebound thymic hyperplasia, as it can mimic residual or recurrent malignancy, especially in the setting of altered chest anatomy. PMID:18728544

Ford, Meghan E; Stevens, Robert; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Hall, Nathan C; Suster, Saul



Distinct roles of E2F proteins in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia.  


Intimal hyperplasia (IH) and restenosis limit the long-term utility of bypass surgery and angioplasty due to pathological proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the intima of treated vessels. Consequently, much attention has been focused on developing inhibitory agents that reduce this pathogenic process. The E2F transcription factors are key cell cycle regulators that play important roles in modulating cell proliferation and cell fate. Nonselective E2F inhibitors have thus been extensively evaluated for this purpose. Surprisingly, these E2F inhibitors have failed to reduce IH. These findings prompted us to evaluate the roles of different E2Fs during IH to determine how selective targeting of E2F isoforms impacts VSMC proliferation. Importantly, we show that E2F3 promotes proliferation of VSMCs leading to increased IH, whereas E2F4 inhibits this pathological response. Furthermore, we use RNA probes to show that selective inhibition of E2F3, not global inhibition of E2F activity, significantly reduces VSMC proliferation and limits IH in murine bypass grafts. PMID:17652516

Giangrande, Paloma H; Zhang, JianXin; Tanner, Alice; Eckhart, Andrea D; Rempel, Rachel E; Andrechek, Eran R; Layzer, Juliana M; Keys, Janelle R; Hagen, Per-Otto; Nevins, Joseph R; Koch, Walter J; Sullenger, Bruce A



Distinct roles of E2F proteins in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Intimal hyperplasia (IH) and restenosis limit the long-term utility of bypass surgery and angioplasty due to pathological proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the intima of treated vessels. Consequently, much attention has been focused on developing inhibitory agents that reduce this pathogenic process. The E2F transcription factors are key cell cycle regulators that play important roles in modulating cell proliferation and cell fate. Nonselective E2F inhibitors have thus been extensively evaluated for this purpose. Surprisingly, these E2F inhibitors have failed to reduce IH. These findings prompted us to evaluate the roles of different E2Fs during IH to determine how selective targeting of E2F isoforms impacts VSMC proliferation. Importantly, we show that E2F3 promotes proliferation of VSMCs leading to increased IH, whereas E2F4 inhibits this pathological response. Furthermore, we use RNA probes to show that selective inhibition of E2F3, not global inhibition of E2F activity, significantly reduces VSMC proliferation and limits IH in murine bypass grafts.

Giangrande, Paloma H.; Zhang, JianXin; Tanner, Alice; Eckhart, Andrea D.; Rempel, Rachel E.; Andrechek, Eran R.; Layzer, Juliana M.; Keys, Janelle R.; Hagen, Per-Otto; Nevins, Joseph R.; Koch, Walter J.; Sullenger, Bruce A.



Metabolic Syndrome and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Evidence of a Potential Relationship, Hypothesized Etiology, and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is highly prevalent in older men and causes substantial adverse effects on health. The pathogenesis of this disease is not totally clear. Recent reports have suggested a possible relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and BPH. Single components of MetS (obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance) as well as the syndrome itself may predispose patients to a higher risk of BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This may stem from changes in insulin resistance, increased autonomic activity, impaired nitrergic innervation, increased Rho kinase activity, pro-inflammatory status, and changes in sex hormones that occur in association with MetS. However, the exact underlying mechanisms that regulate the potential relationship between MetS and BPH/LUTS still need to be clarified. Increased physical activity and dietary strategies may help in decreasing the incidence of MetS and its impact on BPH/LUTS. However, differences in the definitions used to address the examined predictors and endpoints preclude the possibility of arriving at definitive conclusions.

Briganti, Alberto; Suardi, Nazareno; Castiglione, Fabio; Gallina, Andrea; Capitanio, Umberto; Montorsi, Francesco



Impact of cigarette smoking on the relationship between body mass index and coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 3264 stroke and 2706 CHD events in 378579 individuals in the Asia Pacific region  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated levels of body mass index (BMI) and smoking are well established lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. If these two risk factors have a synergistic relationship, rigorous lifestyle modification may contribute to greater reduction in cardiovascular burden than previously expected. Methods A pooled analysis of individual participant data from 38 cohorts, involving 378,579 participants. Hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BMI by cigarette smoking status were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results During a mean follow-up of 3.8 years, 2706 CHD and 3264 strokes were recorded. There was a log-linear, positive relationship of BMI with CHD and stroke in both smokers and non-smokers with evidence of a synergistic effect of smoking on the association between BMI and CHD only: HRs (95% CIs) associated with a 2 kg/m2 higher BMI were 1.13 (1.10 – 1.17) in current smokers and 1.09 (1.06 – 1.11) in non-smokers (p-value for interaction = 0.04). Conclusion Smoking amplifies the positive association between BMI and CHD but not stroke. If confirmed, these results suggest that effective strategies that target smoking cessation and weight loss are likely to have a greater impact than anticipated on reducing the burden of CHD.



Malignant mesothelioma eight years after a diagnosis of atypical mesothelial hyperplasia.  


The separation of mesothelial hyperplasia from early malignant mesothelioma remains one of the most difficult problems in histopathology. Inconclusive cases are termed "atypical mesothelial hyperplasia" and treated expectantly. A 49 year old male pipeline engineer was diagnosed as having atypical mesothelial hyperplasia in appendiceal serosa by the US-Canadian Mesothelioma Panel. Eight years later, he developed overtly malignant peritoneal and pleural mesothelioma. In hindsight, histological similarities between the diffuse malignant mesothelioma and the atypical mesothelial proliferation suggested malignancy from the outset. The most important of these features were the degree of mesothelial proliferation, micronodularity, architectural complexity, superficial invasion, uniform mild cytological atypia, and the absence of a clinical cause for a benign mesothelial proliferation. Ancillary investigations including immunohistochemistry were of no benefit in determining whether the atypical mesothelial hyperplasia was benign or malignant. Careful histological examination remains the mainstay of the diagnosis of early mesothelioma. PMID:10605410

Scurry, J; Duggan, M A



Malignant mesothelioma eight years after a diagnosis of atypical mesothelial hyperplasia.  

PubMed Central

The separation of mesothelial hyperplasia from early malignant mesothelioma remains one of the most difficult problems in histopathology. Inconclusive cases are termed "atypical mesothelial hyperplasia" and treated expectantly. A 49 year old male pipeline engineer was diagnosed as having atypical mesothelial hyperplasia in appendiceal serosa by the US-Canadian Mesothelioma Panel. Eight years later, he developed overtly malignant peritoneal and pleural mesothelioma. In hindsight, histological similarities between the diffuse malignant mesothelioma and the atypical mesothelial proliferation suggested malignancy from the outset. The most important of these features were the degree of mesothelial proliferation, micronodularity, architectural complexity, superficial invasion, uniform mild cytological atypia, and the absence of a clinical cause for a benign mesothelial proliferation. Ancillary investigations including immunohistochemistry were of no benefit in determining whether the atypical mesothelial hyperplasia was benign or malignant. Careful histological examination remains the mainstay of the diagnosis of early mesothelioma. Images

Scurry, J; Duggan, M A



Unknown syndrome: microcephaly, hypoplastic nose, exophthalmos, gum hyperplasia, cleft palate, low set ears, and osteosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a neonate, born at term, with microcephaly, a hypoplastic nose, exophthalmos, gum hyperplasia, cleft palate, and low set ears, who died at 86 minutes of age. Radiographs showed diffuse sclerosis of the bones.

J Raine; R M Winter; A Davey; S M Tucker



Gastric hyperplasia and parietal cell loss in Taenia taeniaeformis inoculated immunodeficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunodeficient mice were studied to determine their suitability as models in investigating the role of Taenia taeniaeformis larval products in the development of gastric hyperplasia. Recombinant active gene 2 (RAG2)-deficient and severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice were studied as candidate animal models. RAG2-deficient mice inoculated orally with T. taeniaeformis eggs developed gastric hyperplasia with alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff-positive cell proliferation similar

Jose Trinipil Lagapa; Kenjiro Konno; Yuzaburo Oku; Nariaki Nonaka; Mamoru Ito; Masao Kamiya



Overexpression of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase2 in Smooth Muscle Cells Reduces Neointimal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

K. Peppel, L. Zhang, T. T. T. Huynh, X. Huang, A. Jacobson, L. Brian, S. T. Exum, P.-O. Hagen and N. J. Freedman. Overexpression of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase-2 in Smooth Muscle Cells Reduces Neointimal Hyperplasia. Journal of Molecular Cellular Cardiology (2002) 34, 1399–1409. The activation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in neointimal hyperplasia involves signaling through receptor tyrosine

Karsten Peppel; Lisheng Zhang; Tam T. T. Huynh; Xuewei Huang; Anne Jacobson; Leigh Brian; Sabrina T. Exum; Per-Otto Hagen; Neil J. Freedman



Complex Hyperplasia With and Without Atypia: Clinical Outcomes and Implications of Progestin Therapy  

PubMed Central

Objective Limited data exist to inform clinicians and patients as to the likelihood of long-term endometrial hyperplasia response to progestin therapy, especially for atypical hyperplasia. We evaluated women with complex and atypical endometrial hyperplasia, comparing those prescribed progestin to those not prescribed progestin. Methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 1985–2005 among women aged 18–88 years at an integrated health plan in Washington State. Women were ineligible if they achieved an outcome (endometrial carcinoma, hysterectomy, or both) within 8 weeks of hyperplasia diagnosis. Exposure was progestin use for at least 14 days, by duration and recency. Outcomes included rate of: 1) endometrial carcinoma; and/or 2) hysterectomy. Analyses performed included Kaplan Meier, incident rate ratios, and Cox proportional hazard ratios. Results One thousand four hundred forty-three eligible women were identified. One thousand two hundred one had complex (n=164 no progestin) and 242 had atypical hyperplasia (n=62 no progestin). During follow-up, median 5.3 years (range 8 weeks to 20.8 years), 71 women were diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma (35 complex, 36 atypia) and 323 underwent hysterectomy (216 complex, 107 atypia). Among women with complex and atypical hyperplasia, rates of endometrial carcinoma among progestin users were 3.6 and 20.5 per 1,000 woman-years, respectively (compared with without progestin, 10.8 and 101.4). Among women with complex and atypical hyperplasia, rates of hysterectomy among progestin users were 23.3 and 61.4 per 1,000 woman-years, respectively (compared with without progestin, 55.1 and 297.3). Conclusion Endometrial carcinoma risk is diminished approximately 3- to 5-fold in women diagnosed with complex or atypical endometrial hyperplasia and dispensed progestin; hysterectomy risk is also decreased.

Reed, Susan D; Newton, Katherine M; Garcia, Rochelle L; Allison, Kimberly H; Voigt, Lynda F; Jordan, C Diana; Epplein, Meira; Swisher, Elizabeth; Upson, Kristen; Ehrlich, Kelly J; Weiss, Noel S



Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: a rational approach to treatment.  

PubMed Central

Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in a 3 year old child has been successfully treated by ligation of the hepatic artery branches supplying the lesion. The prominence of the abnormal vasculature in the lesion and its possible aetiological involvement is stressed. Because of the risks of partial hepatectomy, hepatic artery ligation is suggested as the treatment of choice for focal nodular hyperplasia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Mowat, A P; Gutjahr, P; Portmann, B; Dawson, J L; Williams, R



Cinacalcet HCl attenuates parathyroid hyperplasia in a rat model of secondary hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinacalcet HCl attenuates parathyroid hyperplasia in a rat model of secondary hyperparathyroidism.BackgroundSecondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a physiologic response to kidney failure characterized by elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and parathyroid gland enlargement. Calcimimetic agents acting through allosteric modification of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) can attenuate parathyroid hyperplasia in rats with secondary HPT. The present




Calcimimetic NPS R-568 prevents parathyroid hyperplasia in rats with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcimimetic NPS R-568 prevents parathyroid hyperplasia in rats with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism.BackgroundSecondary hyperparathyroidism (secondary HPT) in chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is characterized by multiglandular hyperplasia.MethodsIn this study, we investigated the effects of the calcimimetic NPS R-568 on the parathyroid gland in rats with CRI induced by ligation of the renal arteries and severe secondary HPT induced by dietary phosphorus loading.

Michihito Wada; Nobuo Nagano; Yoshihiro Furuya; Ji Chin; Edward F Nemeth; John Fox



Long-term, open-label, phase III multicenter study of tamsulosin in benign prostatic hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of tamsulosin in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and to monitor the increases and decreases in therapeutic response over time. Tamsulosin, a uroselective alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, targets alpha1A-adrenergic receptors of prostatic smooth muscle with greater affinity than the vascular

Perinchery Narayan; Herbert Lepor



Radioactive stents delay but do not prevent in-stent neointimal hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Restenosis after conventional stenting is almost exclusively caused by neointimal hyperplasia. Beta-particle-emitting radioactive stents decrease in-stent neointimal hyperplasia at 6-month follow-up. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 1-year outcome of (32)P radioactive stents with an initial activity of 6 to 12 microCi using serial quantitative coronary angiography and volumetric ECG-gated 3D intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). METHODS AND

I. Patrick Kay; Alexander J. Wardeh; Ken Kozuma; A. H. M. Knook; A. Thury; P. W. J. C. Serruys; D. P. Foley; P. C. Levendag; Giessen van der W. J; G. Sianos



Turbulent urinary flow in the urethra could be a causal factor for benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common form of prostate disease in middle-aged and elderly men, and leads to severe impairment later in life. Despite its significant impact on public health, the underlying cause of BPH is yet to be determined. This hypothesis proposes a new causal factor for BPH. Applying concepts of dynamics of fluids to the process of urination it could be stated that a turbulent urinary flow through the passage of the urethra. The turbulent urinary flow in the urethra applies pressure and stretch forces to the surrounding tissue. This stimulus repeated over time and coupled with age-related changes of the urethral tissue could contribute to the development of BPH. In support of this hypothesis, several mechanotransduction studies have shown that vibration and pressure forces applied to different cell tissues can provoke cellular and molecular changes. Another supportive data is the presence of the hyperplasic reaction surrounding the urethra specifically located in the transition zone, the only zone where BPH develops. It is crucial to identify causal factors to understanding the disease and to determine effective primary prevention strategies. Future studies of the dynamics of fluids in the urethra are warranted. The finding of significant forces transmitted to the periurethral tissue from a turbulent urinary flow could give us the clue to the underlying cause of BPH. If this hypothesis proves to be valid there are several primary prevention measures that could be implemented to impede the development of BPH. Educational intervention measures in younger populations to avoid frequent urinary retention and active urination (process of forcing the urine through the urethra at a high velocity) could be considered. Studies of the impact of turbulence in the standing vs. sitting position during urination in men should also be considered. PMID:16764996

Martinez-Borges, Anibal R



Moving Objects Indexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For querying large amounts of moving objects, a key problem is to create efficient indexing structures that make it possible to effectively answer various types of queries. Traditional spatial indexing approaches cannot be used because the locations of moving objects are highly dynamic, which leads to frequent updates of index structures, which in turn will cause huge overheads. In this chapter, we first introduce a few of the underlying spatial index structures including the R-tree, Grid File, and Quad-tree. Then, we propose the indexing methods for moving objects in Euclidean space and in spatial networks. Finally, we describe techniques that index the past, present, and anticipated future positions of moving objects.

Chen, Jidong; Meng, Xiaofeng


Reversion of gingival hyperplasia in a heart transplant patient upon interruption of cyclosporine therapy.  


A heart transplant patient undergoing a combined cyclosporine and prednisone treatment was monitored during the 18 months following transplantation. A complete oral and dental examination was performed in each of the first six months after transplantation, and then in the 9th, 12th, 15th, and 18th months. The data collected included gingival hyperplasia secondary to cyclosporine use, and clinical and periodontal variables. Histological studies were also conducted on gingival tissue samples in months 1, 3, 9, 15, and 18. Cyclosporine treatment was replaced by azathioprine treatment in month 10 because the patient was experiencing nephrotoxicity. Between months 9 and 18, gingival hyperplasia regressed by 26.5% due to a reduction in the fibrous connective tissue mass, fibroblasts, and inflammatory infiltration. The control group included 13 heart transplant patients subject to equivalent conditions except discontinuance of cyclosporine treatment; seven of the patients had developed hyperplasia by month 9. Average hyperplasia in the control group increased by 2% between months 9 and 18; only one patient showed a 6.2% decrease in hyperplasia. This provides further evidence for the causal relationship between cyclosporine therapy and gingival hyperplasia, and suggests that this side-effect is reversible. PMID:9084329

Somacarrera, M L; Lucas, M; Acero, J


Ramelteon combined with an ?1-blocker decreases nocturia in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Background Nocturia is defined as waking one or more times during the night due to the urge to void. Recently, the effectiveness of several sedatives and analgesics for nocturia has been reported. We herein investigated the effects of ramelteon, an antioxidant and sleep inducer, on nocturia unresponsive to ?1-blocker monotherapy in males with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as a pilot study. Methods Subjects were 19 patients who had LUTS suggestive of benign prostate hyperplasia, received ?1-blockers (tamsulosin, silodosin, or naftopidil), and continued to have two or more episodes of nocturia per night before starting ramelteon. Ramelteon at 8 mg once daily for one month was added to the ?1-blocker. A self-administered questionnaire including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL) index, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), and Nocturia Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (N-QOL) were assessed before and one month after starting ramelteon. Results The mean score on IPSS question 7 (nocturia) decreased significantly from 2.88 before starting ramelteon to 2.41 one month after starting the medication (P?=?0.03). The mean total OABSS decreased significantly from 6.31 to 5.38 (P?=?0.03), and the mean for OABSS question 2 (nighttime frequency of nocturia) also significantly decreased from 2.63 to 2.13 (P?=?0.01). The mean total N-QOL score did not change significantly. Two patients had dizziness; the remaining patients had no adverse drug-related events. Conclusions Ramelteon in combination with an ?1-blocker could be a treatment option for reducing nocturia in men with BPH.



Prostatic artery embolization in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: short and medium follow-up.  


To evaluate the short and mid-term results of prostatic artery embolization in patients with benign prostatic embolization. Retrospective study between March 2009 and June 2011 with 103 patients (mean age 66.8 years, 50-85) that met our inclusion criteria with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The clinical outcome was evaluated by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), International Index of Erectile Function, prostate volume (PV), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), peak urinary flow (Q(max)), and post-void residual volume (PVR) measurements at 3 and 6 months, 1 year, 18 months, and 2 years after PAE and comparison with baseline values was made. Technical and clinical successes, as well as poor clinical outcome definitions, were previously defined. In this review, we evaluate the short and mid-term clinical outcomes and morbidity of patients treated only with non-spherical polyvinyl alcohol. Six months after the procedure, the PV decreased about 23%, IPSS changed to a mean value of 11.95 (almost 50% reduction), the QoL improved slightly more than 2 points, the Q(max) changed to a mean value of 12.63 mL/s, the PVR underwent a change of almost half of the baseline value, and the PSA decreased about 2.3 ng/mL. In the mid-term follow-up and comparing to the baseline values, we still assisted to a reduction in PV, IPSS, QoL, PVR, and PSA, and an increase in Q(max). Prostatic Artery Embolization is a safe procedure with low morbidity that shows good short- and mid-term clinical outcome in our institution. PMID:23244726

Rio Tinto, Hugo; Martins Pisco, João; Bilhim, Tiago; Duarte, Marisa; Fernandes, Lúcia; Pereira, José; Campos Pinheiro, L




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eco-Index, a project of the Rainforest Alliance, is "a searchable almanac of current and past conservation projects in Mesoamerica, with project descriptions, goals, achievements, lessons learned, and more." With current, well-presented features covering a range of biodiversity conservation issues, Eco-Index offers an excellent way for conservation researchers and practitioners to keep abreast of activity in their field. Users are encouraged to add their own project descriptions to the Eco-Index database. Available in English or Spanish.


The Healthy Eating Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To develop an index of overall diet quality.Design The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was developed based on a 10-component system of five food groups, four nutrients, and a measure of variety in food intake. Each of the 10 components has a score ranging from 0 to 10, so the total possible index score is 100.Methods\\/subjects Data from the 1989




Human Development Index Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data set traces the varying patterns of national progress in recent decades, documenting impressive long-term Human Development Index (HDI) gains even in most low-income countries. The data set also includes three innovative new measurements: the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), the Gender Inequality Index (GII) and the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). The data set is available in both CSV and SDMX file formats and contains more than 100 indicators that measure quality of life for all UN member states.

Nations, United


Review of dutasteride/tamsulosin fixed-dose combination for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability.  


Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) will usually affect older men, of whom 50% over the age 60 years and almost 90% in their nineties will be bothered enough by their symptoms that they request some type of treatment. However, symptomatic bother may also affect men in their forties with a prevalence rate of almost 18%. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) has become the most widely used and best validated questionnaire to allow the patient to quantify the severity of his LUTS/BPH symptoms. This score has become the cornerstone in demonstrating the "rate of symptom response" for the patient who has been exposed to any type BPH management. Question 8 on the IPSS score is what is defined as the "Quality of Life" question or what is also termed the "Bothersome Index." The score out of 6 as declared by the patient will reflect the degree of concern that the patient is feeling about his symptoms and the reduction of the score after treatment is a statement of their improved quality of life. There are 2 families of accepted medical therapy to treat the symptoms of BPH and potentially prevent the most worrisome long-term sequelae of progression of BPH: urinary retention or the need for surgery. When defining the impact of the main types of medical therapy, the alpha blockers have been termed the "openers" and the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors are described as the "shrinkers." Since they each offer a different mechanism of effect, the concept of combination therapy was raised and trialed many times over recent years. The final aspect of any medical therapy is the patient's satisfaction with the treatment and the side effects. In the CombAT (Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin) trial a new assessment was developed and tested called the Patient's Perception of Study Medication (PPSM) which told the investigators if the patients, given free choice, would choose to take that combination of medication to treat their problem and stay on the medication. PMID:22003286

Barkin, Jack



Review of dutasteride/tamsulosin fixed-dose combination for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability  

PubMed Central

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) will usually affect older men, of whom 50% over the age 60 years and almost 90% in their nineties will be bothered enough by their symptoms that they request some type of treatment. However, symptomatic bother may also affect men in their forties with a prevalence rate of almost 18%. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) has become the most widely used and best validated questionnaire to allow the patient to quantify the severity of his LUTS/BPH symptoms. This score has become the cornerstone in demonstrating the “rate of symptom response” for the patient who has been exposed to any type BPH management. Question 8 on the IPSS score is what is defined as the “Quality of Life” question or what is also termed the “Bothersome Index.” The score out of 6 as declared by the patient will reflect the degree of concern that the patient is feeling about his symptoms and the reduction of the score after treatment is a statement of their improved quality of life. There are 2 families of accepted medical therapy to treat the symptoms of BPH and potentially prevent the most worrisome long-term sequelae of progression of BPH: urinary retention or the need for surgery. When defining the impact of the main types of medical therapy, the alpha blockers have been termed the “openers” and the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors are described as the “shrinkers.” Since they each offer a different mechanism of effect, the concept of combination therapy was raised and trialed many times over recent years. The final aspect of any medical therapy is the patient’s satisfaction with the treatment and the side effects. In the CombAT (Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin) trial a new assessment was developed and tested called the Patient’s Perception of Study Medication (PPSM) which told the investigators if the patients, given free choice, would choose to take that combination of medication to treat their problem and stay on the medication.

Barkin, Jack



Critical review of lasers in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).  


• Laser treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia has challenged transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) due to advances in laser technology, better understanding of tissue-laser interactions and growing clinical experience. • Various lasers have been introduced including neodymium: yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG), holmium (Ho):YAG, potassium titanyl phosphate:YAG, thulium(Tm) and diode laser. Based on the different wave-length dependent laser-prostatic tissue interactions, the main techniques are coagulation, vaporization, resection and enucleation. • The present review aims to help urologists to distinguish and to critically evaluate the role of different laser methods in the treatment by using an evidence-based approach. It also details further evidence for use in specific patient groups (in retention, on anticoagulation) and addresses the issues of cost and learning curve. • Coagulation-based techniques have been abandoned; holmium ablation/resection of the prostate has been superseded by the enucleation technique Ho-laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). The short-term efficacy of the emerging laser treatments such as diode and Tm prostatectomy has been suggested by low quality studies. HoLEP and photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) represent valid clinical alternatives to TURP. HoLEP is the most rigorously analysed laser technique with durable efficacy for any prostate size and low early and late morbidity. PVP has grown in acceptance and popularity but long-term results from high quality studies are pending. PMID:21438974

Gravas, Stavros; Bachmann, Alexander; Reich, Oliver; Roehrborn, Claus G; Gilling, Peter J; De La Rosette, Jean



Carney complex and other conditions associated with micronodular adrenal hyperplasias.  


Carney complex (CNC) is a multiple neoplasia syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and is characterized by skin tumors and pigmented lesions, myxomas, schwannomas, and various endocrine tumors. Inactivating mutations of the PRKAR1A gene coding for the regulatory type I-? (RI?) subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) are responsible for the disease in most CNC patients. The overall penetrance of CNC among PRKAR1A mutation carriers is near 98%. Most PRKAR1A mutations result in premature stop codon generation and lead to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. CNC is genetically and clinically heterogeneous, with specific mutations providing some genotype-phenotype correlation. Phosphodiesterase-11A (the PDE11A gene) and -8B (the PDE8B gene) mutations were found in patients with isolated adrenal hyperplasia and Cushing syndrome, as well in patients with PPNAD. Recent evidences demonstrated that dysregulation of cAMP/PKA pathway can modulate other signaling pathways and contributes to adrenocortical tumorigenesis. PMID:21115159

Almeida, Madson Q; Stratakis, Constantine A



Neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Japan.  


A nationwide screening test for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was first initiated in Japan in 1989, over 20 years ago, and it is now 30 years since a pilot study was initiated in Sapporo in 1982. The incidence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in Japan is about 1/18,000 persons, which is similar to that in other countries. The effectiveness of early detection and treatment of CAH in Japan has been demonstrated by cost-benefit analyses. However, the false-positive rate of CAH screening in preterm infants remains high compared to screening tests for term infants. To improve the positive predictive value, we have employed 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2) analysis on dried blood spots and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to measure 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and currently use tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as a screening technique. We suggest that LC-MS/MS should be used in the future to improve the accuracy of CAH screening in Japan. PMID:23330248

Tajima, Toshihiro; Fujikura, Kaori; Fukushi, Masaru; Hotsubo, Tomoyuki; Mitsuhashi, Yu



A case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia mimicking Cushing's syndrome.  


Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by decreased adrenal hormone production due to enzymatic defects and subsequent rise of adrenocorticotrophic hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to become hyperplastic, and sometimes tumorous. As the pathophysiology is basically a defect in the biosynthesis of cortisol, one may not consider CAH in patients with hypercortisolism. We report a case of a 41-yr-old man with a 4 cm-sized left adrenal tumorous lesion mimicking Cushing's syndrome who was diagnosed with CAH. He had central obesity and acanthosis nigricans involving the axillae together with elevated 24-hr urine cortisol level, supporting the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. However, the 24-hr urine cortisol was suppressed by 95% with the low dose dexamethasone suppression test. CAH was suspected based on the history of precocious puberty, short stature and a profound suppression of cortisol production by dexamethasone. CAH was confirmed by a remarkably increased level of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone level. Gene mutation analysis revealed a compound heterozygote mutation of CYP21A2 (I173N and R357W). PMID:23166432

Kim, Hye Jeong; Kang, Mira; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Min, Yong-Ki; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Lee, Myung-Shik



Suppression of benign prostate hyperplasia by Kaempferia parviflora rhizome  

PubMed Central

Background: Kaempferia parviflora rhizome is used as a folk medicine in Thailand for the treatment of various symptoms. In the present study, the inhibitory activities of extract from K. parviflora rhizome against 5?-reductase (5?R) were subjected. Furthermore, the effects of the extract from K. parviflorar hizome in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were studied using the model mice. Materials and Methods: Preparations of extracts from the rhizomes of K. parviflora, Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber officinale, and methoxyflavones isolated from K. parviflora was used for 5?R inhibition assay. The effects of K. parviflora extract on growth suppression for the prostates and seminal vesicles were performed based on the Hershberger's method. The K. parviflora extract was administered to castrated mice for 14 days. Results: K. parviflora extract showed more potent inhibitory activity on 5?R than C. zedoaria and Z. officinale extracts. The active principles were identified as 3,5,7,3’,4’-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,7,3’,4’-tetramethoxyflavone by activity guided fractionation. Furthermore, K. parviflora extract suppressed the weights of prostates and seminal vesicles in BPH model rats by daily administration for 14 days. Conclusion: These results indicate that K. parviflora extract can be a promising agent for the treatment of BPH.

Murata, Kazuya; Hayashi, Hirotaka; Matsumura, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hideaki



A Case of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Mimicking Cushing's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by decreased adrenal hormone production due to enzymatic defects and subsequent rise of adrenocorticotrophic hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to become hyperplastic, and sometimes tumorous. As the pathophysiology is basically a defect in the biosynthesis of cortisol, one may not consider CAH in patients with hypercortisolism. We report a case of a 41-yr-old man with a 4 cm-sized left adrenal tumorous lesion mimicking Cushing's syndrome who was diagnosed with CAH. He had central obesity and acanthosis nigricans involving the axillae together with elevated 24-hr urine cortisol level, supporting the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. However, the 24-hr urine cortisol was suppressed by 95% with the low dose dexamethasone suppression test. CAH was suspected based on the history of precocious puberty, short stature and a profound suppression of cortisol production by dexamethasone. CAH was confirmed by a remarkably increased level of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone level. Gene mutation analysis revealed a compound heterozygote mutation of CYP21A2 (I173N and R357W).

Kim, Hye Jeong; Kang, Mira; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Min, Yong-Ki; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won



Role of laser therapy in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in males older than 50 years of age. 75-80% of this population is considered to have some degree of BPH causing clinical symptoms and requiring urological treatment. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) is currently the standard surgical treatment modality for BPH. In an attempt to minimize the need for hospitalization and the associated perioperative and postoperative morbidity, alternatives have been sought. Various types of laser techniques such as interstitial laser coagulation and side-firing technology have been proposed. Numerous studies have shown that laser procedures safely and effectively reduce the volume of the prostate. Intra- and postoperative bleeding are nearly unknown complications for laser procedures, whereas this is the most relevant complication for the TUR-P. Due to significant tissue edema after laser treatment, patients commonly show delayed time to void adequately and, therefore, catheter drainage is often necessary for 3 to 21 days. Retrograde ejaculation is reported to occur less (0- 10%) compared to TUR-P (greater than 60%). Urinary tract infections are very common after interstitial laser coagulation. Although not many long-term clinical data are available, various studies have shown that BPH patients improve in symptom score, flow rate and post-void residual up to 3 years after laser treatment. This paper presents a concise review of efficacy, advantages and disadvantages of the most frequently used laser techniques as well as the long-term clinical data compared to TUR-P.

de Riese, Werner T.; Sharpe, Brent A.; Aronoff, David B.; Mittemeyer, Bernhard T.



Relationship between endothelial dysfunction and nocturia with benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


Abstract Objective. There are limited data on whether there is an association between nocturia, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and endothelial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether there is an association between nocturia and endothelial dysfunction in patients with BPH. Material and methods. Forty-two men with a diagnosis of BPH and 42 age-matched controls were enrolled. All patients were assessed for frequency and duration of nocturia, and prostate volume, completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and underwent brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) evaluation. Results. There was a negative correlation between FMD and frequency of nocturia (r = -0.879, p < 0.0001). Moreover, there was a negative correlation between duration of nocturia and FMD (r = -0.890, p < 0.0001). In addition, FMD was significantly decreased in the BPH group compared with the control group (6.0 ± 0.09 to 7.8 ± 0.10%) (p = 0.0001). Conclusion. In patients with BPH, nocturia is associated with endothelial dysfunction and may be an insidious risk factor for cardiovascular disease. PMID:23323759

Inci, Mehmet; Sarli, Bahadir; Davarci, Mursel; Yalcinkaya, Fatih Rustu; Rifaio?lu, Murat Mehmet; Davran, Ramazan; Arica, Secil; Motor, Sedat; Demirba?, Onur



Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) management in the primary care setting.  


Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in up to 50% of men by age 50, and the incidence increases with age. This common clinical problem is diagnosed by history, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and physical examination by digital rectal examination (DRE). Initial management for BPH includes lifestyle modification, and smooth muscle relaxant alpha blocker therapy. Alpha blockers usually take effect quickly within 3-5 days, and have minimal side effects. Current commonly used alpha blockers include the selective alpha blockers tamsulosin (Flomax), alfusosin (Xatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo). For patients with larger prostates, the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor class (finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart)) work effectively to shrink prostate stroma resulting in improved voiding. The 5-ARI class of drugs, in addition to reducing prostate size, also reduce the need for future BPH-related surgery, and reduce the risk of future urinary retention. Drugs from the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor class may now be considered for treating BPH. Once daily 5 mg tadalafil has been shown to improve BPH-related symptoms and is currently approved to treat patients with BPH. Referral to a urologist can be considered for patients with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA), especially while on 5-ARI, failure of urinary symptom control despite maximal medical therapy, suspicion of prostate cancer, hematuria, recurrent urinary infections, urinary retention, or renal failure. Currently the primary care physician is armed with multiple treatment options to effectively treat men with symptomatic BPH. PMID:23089343

Kapoor, Anil



Probabilistic latent semantic indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing is a novel approach to automated document indexing which is based on a statistical latent class model for factor analysis of count data. Fitted from a training corpus of text documents by a generalization of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, the utilized model is able to deal with domain-specific synonymy as well as with polysemous words. In

Thomas Hofmann



TIGR Drosophila Gene Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for Genomic Resources (TIGR) placed online the Drosophila Gene Index (version 1.1) in 1999. The index is searchable by nucleotide or protein sequence, identifier (TC, ET, EST, GB), tissue, or gene product name. Note that this resource is available free of charge "only to researchers at non-profit institutions using it for non-commercial purposes."


Indexing Transitional Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various indexes have been proposed to mark when a child is on the verge of acquiring new knowledge. This article described a new method for indexing this point of transition, which is based on the specificity of children's verbal explanations. The degree to which children were specific in their verbal explanations was related to whether they benefited from instruction. In

Theresa Graham; Michelle Perry



Machine-Aided Indexing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntactic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for MAI are discussed. (Author)

C. R. Jacobs



Indexing Editorial Cartoons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses access to editorial cartoons, including the importance and worth of editorial cartoons; sources, including newspapers, museums, and special cartoon collections; indexing and classification; subject access; indexing by illustrator and subject; technology and access, including digital data; access to special collections; and access to…

Chapple-Sokol, Angie



Generalization for Estrada Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the Estrada index of Hermite matrix is firstly defined and investigated. In fact this is a natural generalization of Estrada, distance Estrada and Laplacian Estrada indices. Thus all properties about them can be handled by this new index.

Güngör, A. Dilek; Çevik, A. Sinan; Karpuz, Eylem G.; Ate?, Firat; Cangül, I. Naci



40 CFR 1508.7 - Cumulative impact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cumulative impact. 1508.7 Section 1508.7 Protection of Environment... TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.7 Cumulative impact. Cumulative impact is the impact on the environment which...



Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: an unusual association with diabetes mellitus in a child and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Hepatic hemangioma, adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia are the most frequent benign lesions of the liver, but they are all infrequent among pediatric population. The reports of focal nodular hyperplasia in children have recently increased in number, with many cases associated to drug intake, particularly to chemotherapy. We here describe, to our knowledge, the first case of focal nodular hyperplasia in association with diabetes mellitus in childhood.



Prevention of bronchial hyperplasia by EGFR pathway inhibitors in an organotypic culture model.  


Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection or prevention strategies are urgently needed to increase survival. Hyperplasia is the first morphologic change that occurs in the bronchial epithelium during lung cancer development, followed by squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive tumor. This study was designed to determine the molecular mechanisms that control bronchial epithelium hyperplasia. Using primary normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells cultured by using the 3-dimensional (3D) organotypic method, we found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands, EGF, TGF-?, and amphiregulin induced hyperplasia, as determined by cell proliferation and multilayered epithelium formation. We also found that EGF induced increased cyclin D1 expression, which plays a critical role in bronchial hyperplasia; this overexpression was mediated by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Erlotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and U0126, a MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, completely inhibited EGF-induced hyperplasia. Furthermore, a promoter analysis revealed that the activator protein-1 transcription factor regulates EGF-induced cyclin D1 overexpression. Activator protein-1 depletion by using siRNA targeting its c-Jun component completely abrogated EGF-induced cyclin D1 expression. In conclusion, we showed that bronchial hyperplasia can be modeled in vitro by using primary NHTBE cells maintained in a 3D organotypic culture. EGFR and MEK inhibitors completely blocked EGF-induced bronchial hyperplasia, suggesting that they have a chemopreventive role. PMID:21505178

Lee, Jangsoon; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Kang, Shin Myung; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Gold, Kathryn Ann; Kim, Edward S; Hittelman, Walter N; Ki Hong, Waun; Koo, Ja Seok



Disorders in cytokine gene expression in endometrial hyperplasia and effect of hormone therapy.  


We studied local expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor receptor, epithelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta2, PCNA, TNF-alpha, type I TNF receptor, Fas, FasL, IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12 genes in intact and hyperplastic endometrium. Endometrial hyperplasia was associated with reduced production of TNF-alpha (p<0.05), PCNA (p<0.05), and epithelial growth factor mRNA and enhanced production of Fas mRNA (p<0.01). The expression of TNF-R1, IL-1beta, and IL-12 genes decreased only in glandular cystic hyperplasia (p<0.05 for all genes), expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene decreased only in adenomatous hyperplasia (p<0.05). Dufaston therapy of glandular cystic hyperplasia and zoladex therapy of adenomatous hyperplasia normalized expression of Fas receptor, PCNA, and insulin-like growth factor 1 genes, while the expression of IFN-gamma and IL-6 genes, which was normal in hyperplasia, decreased (p<0.05). Zoladex therapy decreased the production of transforming growth factor beta2 (p<0.05) and IL-1beta (p<0.01) mRNA, dufaston therapy decreased production of TNF-alpha (p<0.05) and IL-4 mRNA (p<0.05). Hence, both apoptosis and proliferative activity were suppressed in endometrial hyperplasia, and hormone therapy created prerequisites for transition of the endometrium into the normal proliferation stage. PMID:16027816

Sukhikh, G T; Zhdanov, A V; Davydova, M P; Slukina, T V; Chernukha, G E; Samoilova, T E; Smetnik, V P



Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Contributes to Myeloid Hyperplasia and Increased Immunoglobulins, But Not Epidermal Hyperplasia, in RabGEF1-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Mice overexpressing the proallergic cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in the skin develop a pathology resembling atopic dermatitis. RabGEF1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab5 GTPase, is a negative regulator of IgE-dependent mast cell activation, and Rabgef1?/? and TSLP transgenic mice share many similar phenotypic characteristics, including elevated serum IgE levels and severe skin inflammation, with infiltrates of both lymphocytes and eosinophils. We report here that Rabgef1?/? mice also develop splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, myeloid hyperplasia, and high levels of TSLP. Rabgef1?/?TSLPR?/? mice, which lack TSLP/TSLP receptor (TSLPR) signaling, had levels of blood neutrophils, spleen myeloid cells, and serum IL-4, IgG1, and IgE levels that were significantly reduced compared with those in Rabgef1?/?TSLPR+/+ mice. However, Rabgef1?/?TSLPR?/? mice, like Rag1- or eosinophil-deficient Rabgef1?/? mice, developed cutaneous inflammation and epidermal hyperplasia. Therefore, in Rabgef1?/? mice, TSLP/TSLPR interactions are not required for the development of epidermal hyperplasia but contribute to the striking myeloid hyperplasia and overproduction of immunoglobulins observed in these animals. Our study shows that RabGEF1 can negatively regulate TSLP production in vivo and that excessive production of TSLP contributes to many of the phenotypic abnormalities in Rabgef1?/? mice. However, the marked epidermal hyperplasia, cutaneous inflammation, and increased numbers of dermal mast cells associated with RabGEF1 deficiency can develop via a TSLPR-independent pathway, as well as in the absence of Rag1 or eosinophils.

Tsai, Mindy; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Mukai, Kaori; Song, Chang Ho; Thompson, Lucas J.; Ziegler, Steven F.; Tam, See-Ying; Galli, Stephen J.



Index Relativity and Patron Search Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln that compared searches in two different keyword indexes with similar content where search results were dependent on search strategy quality, search engine execution, and content. Results showed search engine execution had an impact on the number of matches and that users ignored search help…

Allison, DeeAnn; Childers Scott



The role of combination medical therapy in benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


To review key trials of monotherapy and combination therapy of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonists (alpha(1)-ARAs), 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5alphaRIs) and anti-muscarinic agents in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To assess the safety and efficacy of combination therapies for LUTS associated with BPH, a search of the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases (1976-2008) was conducted for relevant trials and reviews using the terms benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms, alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonists, 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, anti-muscarinics, anticholinergics, combination therapy, alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, terazosin, dutasteride, finasteride, tolterodine, flavoxate, propiverine, oxybutynin, erectile dysfunction, sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil. Data from the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) study indicated a role for long-term use of alpha(1)-ARAs and 5alphaRIs in combination. In the MTOPS study, combination therapy with the alpha(1)-ARA doxazosin and the 5alphaRI finasteride was significantly more effective than either component alone in reducing symptoms (P=0.006 vs doxazosin monotherapy; P<0.001 vs finasteride monotherapy) and in lowering the rate of clinical progression (P<0.001 vs either monotherapy). These findings were confirmed by the 2-year preliminary results of the Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin study. In this study, combination therapy of the alpha(1)-ARA tamsulosin and the 5alphaRI dutasteride resulted in a significantly greater decrease in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) when compared with either monotherapy. Several recent trials have studied the efficacy of combining alpha(1)-ARAs and anti-muscarinic agents in the treatment of BPH. These studies have found this combination to result in statistically significant benefits in quality of life scores, patient satisfaction, urinary frequency, storage symptoms and IPSS scores. Studies have not shown an increased risk of urinary retention associated with the use of anti-muscarinics in a highly select cohort of men with BPH. The available data suggest that combination therapy can be beneficial in the treatment of BPH and associated LUTS. The greatest efficacy for the alpha(1)-ARA and 5alphaRI combination was shown in patients with larger prostate size and more severe symptoms. The combination of alpha(1)-ARAs and 5alphaRIs appears to prevent disease progression in these patients. The combination of alpha(1)-ARAs with anti-muscarinic agents is useful for relieving symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction and detrusor overactivity. Theoretic concerns regarding the risk of acute urinary retention have been refuted in several recent clinical trials; however, it must be noted that the patients in these trials were a highly select cohort of men. Men with overactive bladder and BPH who are not receiving adequate alleviation of symptoms from the first-line alpha(1)-ARAs may benefit from the addition of an anti-muscarinic agent. PMID:19002123

Greco, K A; McVary, K T



Adaptive color histogram indexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we develop an indexing scheme for medical images. In general, for a given medical image, there are objects which are clinically important amongst the rest. We name the objects as the dominant objects. Our proposed index is composed of three parts: (1) dominant objects in images are located; (2) each image will have an associated R-tree which is constructed by its dominant objects; and (3) an R-tree that clusters similar images together. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the index developed, we use images of skin lesions as the image data. Our initial experiments give promising results for image retrieval.

Ng, Vincent; Cheung, David W.; Fu, Ada



On confinement index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The smallest integer t for which the Wilson loop Wt fails to exhibit area law is known as the confinement index of a given field theory. The confinement index provides us with subtle information on the vacuum properties of the system. We study the behavior of the Wilson and 't Hooft loops and compute the confinement index in a wide class of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. All possible electric and magnetic screenings are taken into account. The results found are consistent with the ? periodicity, and whenever such a check is available, with the factorization property of Seiberg-Witten curves.

Konishi, Kenichi; Ookouchi, Yutaka



Laser Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Dosimetric and Thermodynamic Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most commonly occurring neoplastic disease in the aging human male. Currently, surgical treatment of BPH is the primary therapeutic method. However, due to surgical complications, less invasive methods of treatment are desirable. In recent years, thermal coagulation of the hyperplastic prostate by a laser has received a considerable amount of attention. Nevertheless, the optimum laser irradiation parameters that lead to a successful and safe treatment of BPH have not been determined. This dissertation studies the physics of laser coagulation of prostate from both basic science and practical perspectives. Optical properties of prostatic tissue are determined over a spectrum of wavelengths. Knowledge of these properties allows for selection of appropriate laser wavelengths and provides a basis for performing dose equivalency studies among various types of lasers. Furthermore, knowledge of optical properties are needed for development of computer simulation models that predict the extent of thermal injury during laser irradiation of prostate. A computer model of transurethral heating of prostate that can be used to guide the clinical studies in determining an optimum dosimetry is then presented. Studies of the effects of non-laser heating devices, optical properties, blood perfusion, surface irrigation, and beam geometry are performed to examine the extent of heat propagation within the prostate. An in vitro model for transurethral laser irradiation of prostate is also presented to examine the effects of an 810 nm diode laser, thermal boundary conditions, and energy deposition rate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Results of these studies suggest that in the presence of laminar irrigation, the convective boundary condition is dominated by thermal diffusion as opposed to the bulk motion of the irrigation fluid. Distinct phases of thermal events are also identified during the laser irradiation. The in vivo studies of transurethral laser irradiation of prostate in canine models are also performed to search for an optimum dosimetry that will result in a maximum zone of coagulation necrosis.

Anvari, Bahman



Characterisation of inflammatory cells in benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


Inflammation is a common finding in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and may be classified as acute, chronic active or chronic inactive prostatitis. The aim of the present study was to localise the different types of inflammatory cells in prostatic lesions to determine the sequence of events in the cellular reaction. We have carried out immunohistological characterisation of the inflammatory cells, using CD45RO and CD3 antibodies to detect T-lymphocytes, CD20 antibodies to detect B-lymphocytes, CD68 to detect macrophages, kappa and lambda immunoglobulin light chains, and antibodies against prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). Macrophages accumulated in the lumen and glandular epithelial layers of damaged prostatic glands and were found in the periglandular cuff of inflammatory cells in acute and chronic active prostatitis. Lymphocytes also accumulated in large numbers in the glandular epithelial layers and around the glands, indicating an association with macrophages. B-lymphocytes were scanty, if at all present, in acute and chronic active prostatitis, but were prominent within well-organised follicle centres in chronic active prostatitis. Cells positive for light chains were few and scattered in prostatic tissue. PSA and PSAP activity was lost in recently damaged prostatic glandular epithelium and reappeared only in regenerating secretory epithelium, indicating leakage as a result of damage. We suggest that the initial response to prostatic injury is cellular, and probably related to leakage into the periglandular tissues of PSA, PSAP and other antigenic molecules normally present in prostatic secretion. Macrophages respond, followed by recruitment of T-lymphocytes which participate in the inflammatory response and accumulate around the damaged glands. B-cell activity appears to be a late event. PMID:9842422

Anim, J T; Udo, C; John, B



Update in minimal invasive therapy in benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


Last decade several new treatment modalities for minimal invasive therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia have been developed, both ablative and non-ablative. In this review the authors describe the different techniques and clinical studies of bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), transurethral resection in saline (TURis), the different laser therapies for the prostate, transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT), high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), transurethral needle ablation (TUNA), hot water induced thermotherapy (WIT), prostatic stents, intraprostatic ethanol injections and botulinum toxin A injections. The different bipolar systems and photoselective vaporisation might replace the ''gold standard'', monopolar TURP, in the near future. The holmium laser enucleation of the prostate is also a real challenger of the ''gold standard'', but the technique is difficult to learn. The TUMT definitively found its place as alternative to TURP, especially because it can be performed in an outpatient setting without the need of anaesthesia. Therefore it is also suitable in patients at high risk. The long-term data on TUNA and HIFU is disappointing and therefore these treatment modalities did not stand the test of time. WIT seemed to be a promising therapy, but durability is questionable. Intraprostatic ethanol injections are safe and effective in small series, but larger series are needed to confirm its efficacy. Intraprostatic botulinum toxin A injections are the first treatment of BPH to target both the increase in smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) and the excessive growth (static component) of BPH. This approach of BPH is very promising but more studies with long-term follow up are needed. PMID:19773727

Van Hest, P; D'Ancona, F



Nonclassic Lipoid Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Masquerading as Familial Glucocorticoid Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Context: Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from resistance to the action of ACTH on the adrenal cortex. Affected individuals are deficient in cortisol and, if untreated, are likely to succumb to hypoglycemia and/or overwhelming infection. Mutations of the ACTH receptor (MC2R) and the melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP), FGD types 1 and 2 respectively, account for approximately 45% of cases. Objective: A locus on chromosome 8 has previously been linked to the disease in three families, but no underlying gene defect has to date been identified. Design: The study design comprised single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and mutation detection. Setting: The study was conducted at secondary and tertiary referral centers. Patients: Eighty probands from families referred for investigation of the genetic cause of FGD participated in the study. Interventions: There were no interventions. Results: Analysis by single-nucleotide polymorphism array of the genotype of one individual with FGD previously linked to chromosome 8 revealed a large region of homozygosity encompassing the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene, STAR. We identified homozygous STAR mutations in this patient and his affected siblings. Screening of our total FGD patient cohort revealed homozygous STAR mutations in a further nine individuals from four other families. Conclusions: Mutations in STAR usually cause lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder characterized by both gonadal and adrenal steroid deficiency. Our results demonstrate that certain mutations in STAR (R192C and the previously reported R188C) can present with a phenotype indistinguishable from that seen in FGD.

Metherell, Louise A.; Naville, Danielle; Halaby, George; Begeot, Martine; Huebner, Angela; Nurnberg, Gudrun; Nurnberg, Peter; Green, Jane; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.; Krone, Nils P.; Lin, Lin; Racine, Michael; Berney, Dan M.; Achermann, John C.; Arlt, Wiebke; Clark, Adrian J. L.



Targeting androgen receptor to suppress macrophage-induced EMT and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) development.  


Early studies suggested macrophages might play roles in inflammation-associated benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) development, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we first showed that CD68(+) macrophages were identified in both epithelium and the stromal area of human BPH tissues. We then established an in vitro co-culture model with prostate epithelial and macrophage cell lines to study the potential impacts of infiltrating macrophages in the BPH development and found that co-culturing prostate epithelial cells with macrophages promoted migration of macrophages. In a three-dimensional culture system, the sphere diameter of BPH-1 prostate cells was significantly increased during coculture with THP-1 macrophage cells. Mechanism dissection suggested that expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as N-cadherin, Snail, and TGF-?2, were increased, and administration of anti-TGF-?2 neutralizing antibody during co-culture suppressed the EMT and THP-1-mediated growth of BPH-1 cells, suggesting THP-1 might go through EMT to influence the BPH development and progression. Importantly, we found that modulation of androgen receptor (AR) in BPH-1 and mPrE cells significantly increased THP-1 and RAW264.7 cell migration, respectively, and enhanced expression levels of EMT markers, suggesting that AR in prostate epithelial cells might play a role in promoting macrophage-mediated EMT in prostate epithelial cells. Silencing AR function via an AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, decreased the macrophage migration to BPH-1 cells and suppressed EMT marker expression. Together, these results provide the first evidence to demonstrate that prostate epithelial AR function is important for macrophage-mediated EMT and proliferation of prostate epithelial cells, which represents a previously unrecognized role of AR in the cross-talk between macrophages and prostate epithelial cells. These results may provide new insights for a new therapeutic approach to battle BPH via targeting AR and AR-mediated inflammatory signaling pathways. PMID:22915828

Lu, Tianjing; Lin, Wen-Jye; Izumi, Kouji; Wang, Xiaohai; Xu, Defeng; Fang, Lei-Ya; Li, Lei; Jiang, Qi; Jin, Jie; Chang, Chawnshang



IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections  

PubMed Central

Background Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. Results As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4R? expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4R?-/- mice. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections.

Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M; Fick, Lizette CE; Leeto, Mosiuoa; Dewals, Benjamin; Horsnell, William GC; Brombacher, Frank



Endometrial hyperplasia: efficacy of a new treatment with a vaginal cream containing natural micronized progesterone.  


Seventy-eight premenopausal women affected by benign endometrial hyperplasia (60 simple and 18 complex) were treated from the 10th to the 25th day of the menstrual cycle with a vaginal cream containing 100 mg of natural micronized progesterone in polyethylene glycol base. The treatment lasted 3 months in 58 patients and 6 in the other 16 patients. Four patients were lost from the study. We observed a total of 67 complete regressions (90.5%) of which 58 (78.3%) occurred in the first 3 months and 9 (11.5%) after 6 months of treatment. Simple hyperplasia showed a significantly higher response to treatment in comparison with the complex type (P < 0.001). The most frequent endometrial pattern detected in the patients in whom hyperplasia regressed was of a secretive type. Recurrence of hyperplasia occurred in 1 out of 58 (1.72%) patients at the 3rd month and in 3 out of 49 (6.1%) patients at the 6th month after treatment. There were no significant differences between the two hystological groups in the percentage of recurrence. During treatment we observed a significant reduction of the amount, duration and frequency of the menstrual bleeding. Minimal side-effects were observed. In conclusion, for its effectiveness and safety, vaginal administration of natural micronized progesterone seems to be an interesting approach to benign endometrial hyperplasia, particularly indicated in women also affected by metabolic disorders. PMID:7715472

Affinito, P; Di Carlo, C; Di Mauro, P; Napolitano, V; Nappi, C



Modulating vascular intimal hyperplasia using HSV-1 mutant requires activated MEK.  


Outcomes of cardiovascular procedures, such as angioplasty and stent or bypass grafting are limited by failure, predominantly caused by pathological smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, known as intimal hyperplasia. Local delivery of a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus (HSV) is known to block vascular SMC proliferation while allowing for re-endothelialization. However, the mechanism this mutant virus uses to prevent SMC hyperplasia is unknown. The Ras signaling cascade is activated in SMCs undergoing hyperplasia leading to phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In this study we tested the hypothesis that MAPK kinase (MEK) activity is the molecular basis by which SMCs are susceptible to mutant HSV. We show that genetically engineered herpes simplex-1 viruses (HSV-1) can target proliferating SMCs. We demonstrate that the molecular basis of this HSV-1 anti-proliferative effect is MEK activation in SMCs. We demonstrate efficacy and practicality of the MEK-dependent HSV-1 for the treatment of intimal hyperplasia in a clinically relevant in vivo model. Important to this strategy is the ability to modulate the effects by controlling viral dose. These results propel genetically engineered HSV-1 therapy towards clinical evaluation in treatment of intimal hyperplasia. PMID:22418062

Skelly, C L; He, Q; Spiguel, L; McCormick, S; Weichselbaum, R



The Index of Refraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson plan, students explore the refraction of light at the boundary between materials: they learn about the refractive indices of various materials and measure the index of refraction of plastic or gelatin.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Audio Indexing for Individualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Article describes a new development in indexing audiotapes called Zimdex. The system was developed in response to the problem of individualizing review materials for candidates studying the mathematics of life insurance. (Author/HB)

Rahmlow, Harold F.; And Others



Vegetation Index for Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The calculation of a Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NOAA AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data using spectral channels 1 and 2 is reported. NOAA AVHRR data are useful for land surface properties of importance in global and mesosca...

M. Eckardt W. Tonn



Indexing the Human Genome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this taped lecture methodologies for first-level analysis of human gene products are described and evaluated as tools required for indexing the human genome. In particular, he explores the utility of the technqiue of two dimensional gel electrophoresis...



CAD Centre - Index Searcher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A searchable index of the CAD Centre, a postgraduate teaching and research unit in design manufacture and engineering management, with research focused on design methods and computer support of the design process for engineering applications.



Techniques for video indexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data model for long objects (such as video files) is introduced, to support general referencing structures, along with various system implementation strategies. Based on the data model, various indexing techniques for video are then introduced. A set of basic functionalities is described, including all the frame level control, indexing, and video clip editing. We show how the techniques can be used to automatically index video files based on closed captions with a typical video capture card, for both compressed and uncompressed video files. Applications are presented using those indexing techniques in security control and viewers' rating choice, general video search (from laser discs, CD ROMs, and regular disks), training videos, and video based user or system manuals.

Chen, C.-Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Liu, Larry J.; Chang, Martin C.



The Evaluation of the Impact of Age, Skin Tags, Metabolic Syndrome, Body Mass Index, and Smoking on Homocysteine, Endothelin-1, High-sensitive C-reactive Protein, and on the Heart  

PubMed Central

Background: Skin tags (STs) are small, pedunculated skin-colored or brown papules that occur around any site where skin folds occur. The literature is short of comprehensive and controlled clinical studies aimed to evaluate the atherogenic risk factors in patients with STs. Aim of Work: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of age, STs, metabolic syndrome (METs), body mass index (BMI), and smoking on homocysteine (Hcy), endothelin-1 (ET-1), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and on cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: This study included 30 cardiac patients with STs, 30 non-cardiac patients with STs, and 30 healthy controls with neither heart disease nor STs. History of smoking, measurement of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, STs number, color, acanthosis nigricans, estimation of serum level of fasting glucose, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, high-dense lipoproteins (HDL), Hcy, ET-1, Hs-CRP, and the presence of the METs were elicited in the three groups. Results: Regarding the Hcy, ET-1, and Hs-CRP, the cardiac-STs group showed the highest levels and the control group showed the least (P < 0.001). The percents of patients with METs were 56.7% in the cardiac-STs, 40% in the non-cardiac-STs, and 0% in the control group (P < 0.001). Mean BMI exceeded the limit of obesity in the cardiac-STs group (30.9 ± 3.9) and the non-cardiac-STs group (32.6 ± 6) and was normal in the control group (24.7 ± 2.8). Hyperpigmented STs were present in 66.7% of the cardiac-STs group. Multivariate regression analysis for the independent effectors on Hcy level were the presence of STs (P < 0.001), METs (P = 0.001), and BMI (P = 0.024). Regarding ET-1, the effectors were the presence of STs and METs (P = 0.032). For Hs-CRP, effectors were the presence of STs (P < 0.001) and smoking (P = 0.040). Multivariate logistic regression of the predictors of cardiac disease showed that the independent predictors of the occurrence of cardiac disease were BMI (P < 0.001), STs (P = 0.002), and METs (P = 0.037). Conclusion: STs may act as a physical sign of underlying raised cardiac atherogenic factors. This may indicates an ongoing risk on coronary circulation which may indicate further corrective action, hopefully early enough. The association of ST with obesity and METs represents a Bermuda Triangle that act against the heart.

El Safoury, Omar Soliman; Ezzat, Marwa; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud F; Shoukry, Nadia; Badawy, Ehssan



The Bibliographical Star Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bibliographical Star Index (BSI) is a bibliographical survey of astrophysical papers on stars that were published in 12 journals from 1950 to 1972 or have been published in about 40 journals since 1972. Difficulties that prevented complete coverage of the stellar literature are discussed, along with limitations of and errors in the BSI. The contents of the BSI for the period from 1950 to 1978 are summarized, and the availability of the index is briefly noted.

Ochsenbein, F.


The nurse stress index  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of the Nurse Stress Index (NSI): a self-report method of identifying sources of stress for groups of senior nurses (from sister\\/charge nurse level upwa30-item Index was shown to have acceptable levels of internal reliability (alpha =0.90) and split-half reliability (coefficient = 0.89). Content validity was ensured by involving nurses throughout the development, however, a number

Philip E. Harris



Calculating a Biodiversity Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn how scientists calculate a biodiversity index using a page from the phone book as their data source. The printable five-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about biodiversity and how living and non-living things are connected, step-by-step directions for calculating a biodiversity index, and a worksheet that includes brainstorming questions and areas for recording answers.


Using Indexes as "Memory Assists."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of two research projects conducted at Temple University that investigated the usefulness of indexes as "memory assists" in locating specific items: title searching in the Social Science Index and the Humanities Index and author searches in those indexes and the Social Science Citation Index. Comparative performances are tabulated.…

Clever, Elaine C.



Strong Impact of Nocturia on Sleep Quality in Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Purpose Nocturia is a bothersome symptom that impacts sleep quality in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study was performed to evaluate the impact of nocturia on sleep quality. Materials and Methods A total of 58 male patients with LUTS/BPH were enrolled. LUTS/BPH patients without nocturia were included in the control group. The inclusion criteria were eight or more points on the International Prostate System Score (IPSS) including more than one episode of nocturia and a prostate volume larger than 20 ml. IPSS, prostate volume, uroflowmetry, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) from each patient were recorded. Results Patients with nocturia showed a higher mean global PSQI (8.5±0.4) than patients without nocturia (4.82±0.4) (p<0.01). Patients with nocturia showed a higher percentage of severe sleep disorders (74.1%) than patients without nocturia (35.3%) (p<0.01). The regression coefficient between the number of episodes of nocturia and mean global PSQI was 0.42 (p<0.01). Conclusions Patients with nocturia showed poor sleep quality, and this was related to the number of episodes of nocturia. This suggests that nocturia has a strong impact on sleep quality in patients with LUTS/BPH.

Doo, Seung Whan; Lee, Hong Jun; Ahn, Jin; Kim, Jae Heon; Yun, Jong Hyun; Yang, Won Jae



The spectrum of histologic changes in thyroid hyperplasia: a clinicopathologic study of 300 cases.  


Thyroid hyperplasia is a physiologic response of follicular epithelium to hormonal changes that result in disturbances in the feedback mechanism of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The most common manifestation of this process is the so-called sporadic goiter (diffuse or nodular hyperplasia), a condition that may be associated with a variety of stimuli. Some of the histologic changes that can be observed in hyperplasia of the thyroid can sometimes lead to an incorrect diagnosis of malignancy. We studied 300 consecutive cases of hyperplasia of the thyroid to evaluate morphologic features that could potentially be mistaken for neoplastic conditions. Florid papillary hyperplasia of follicular epithelium was observed in 13% of cases, in several instances closely resembling the papillary structures of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Foci displaying nuclear clearing closely resembling "Orphan-Annie" nuclei were present in 15% of cases. Nuclear grooves and pseudonuclear inclusions were also identified focally in 8% of cases. Cytologic atypia was observed in 7% of cases, including nuclear enlargement, multinucleation, and nuclear pleomorphism with prominent nucleoli. Mitoses were observed in 6% of cases and averaged 1 to 2 per 20 high-power fields. This finding was usually seen in the more cellular areas in cases characterized by a solid, microfollicular pattern of growth. Psammoma bodies were observed focally in 4 cases (1.3%). Infiltration of adjacent skeletal muscle by benign hyperplastic follicles was seen in 3 cases (1%). Another unexpected finding in 2 cases was the identification of small clusters of normal thyroid follicles within the sinuses of lymph nodes located adjacent to the gland (>1%). The present study confirms that thyroid hyperplasia can sometimes display features that may be confused for a malignant neoplastic process. Awareness of such features and their recognition are of importance to avoid a misdiagnosis of malignancy. PMID:18495207

Perez-Montiel, Maria Delia; Suster, Saul



Pasireotide, an IGF-I action inhibitor, prevents growth hormone and estradiol-induced mammary hyperplasia.  


Mammary hyperplasia increases breast cancer risk. Tamoxifen prevents breast cancer in women with atypical hyperplasia, but has serious side effects. As estradiol action requires IGF-I, direct inhibition of IGF-I action theoretically might be an efficacious alternative to tamoxifen. After hypophysectomy and oophorectomy, 21-day-old female rats were treated with GH and E?. After 7 days all terminal end buds (TEBs) and 75% of ducts became hyperplastic. Co-treatment with pasireotide, a somatostatin analog that blocks GH secretion and IGF-I action in the mammary gland, prevented hormone-induced hyperplasia. The number and size of TEBs and moderately or floridly hyperplastic ducts was reduced by pasireotide (P < 0.01). In contrast, the same concentration of octreotide, which has a more selective somatostatin receptor subtype binding profile, was less effective than pasireotide. Tamoxifen inhibited hyperplasia when used alone with GH + E?, but did not add to the inhibitory effect of pasireotide when the two treatments were combined. Both pasireotide and tamoxifen acted via the IGF-I receptor signaling pathway and both were found to inhibit mammary cell proliferation and stimulate apoptosis. The number of epithelial cells expressing phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 in response to GH and E? was reduced by pasireotide, as was staining intensity. These results support the concept that IGF-I inhibition, in this case by pasireotide, inhibits E? and GH-induced mammary hyperplasia. As tamoxifen did not further increase the inhibitory effect of pasireotide, the peptide appears to be at least as effective as tamoxifen in preventing GH + E?-induced mammary hyperplasia. PMID:20890664

Kleinberg, David L; Ameri, Pietro; Singh, Baljit



[Detection of papilloma virus in Heck's focal epithelial hyperplasia and the differential diagnosis of white-sponge nevus].  


Clinical, histological, and electron microscopical findings helped in to differentiating hyperplasia of a Turkish boy's oral mucosa as Heck's disease, and the hyperplasia of a young German man's oral mucosa as white sponge nevus. Electron microscopic investigations confirmed the presence of papillomavirus in the lesions of FEH. PMID:6274826

Kuhlwein, A; Nasemann, T; Jänner, M; Schaeg, G; Reinel, D



Ileo-caeco-colic intussusception due to extensive benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the ileo-caecal region (a case report).  


An unusual case of extensive benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the ileo-caecal region causing ileo-caeco-colic intussusception is presented here, with a review of relevant literature. The diagnosis of intussusception was reached with the help of an abdominal ultrasound and barium enema. Histopathology of the resected specimen, revealed lymphoid hyperplasia. PMID:1784034

Redkar, R G; Sathe, S S; Dalvi, A N; Kulkarni, B A; Supe, A N; Chandrashekhar; Vora, I M



Mutation analysis of papillary tubal hyperplasia associated with ovarian atypical proliferative serous tumor and low-grade serous carcinoma.  


We present a patient with ovarian atypical proliferative serous tumor and low-grade serous carcinoma, related to KRAS mutation. Bilateral fallopian tubes had papillary tubal hyperplasia, providing additional evidence that it is the putative precursor of low-grade serous tumors. Mutation analysis of papillary tubal hyperplasia has not been done in previous literature. PMID:23711666

Huang, Wen-Chih; Tsai, Chien-Chen; Wei, Ming-Chow; Kuo, Kuan-Ting



Adrenal myelolipomas composed with adrenal nodular hyperplasia in the same gland.  


Adrenal myelolipoma is a benign neoplasm composed of an admixture of hemopoietic elements and mature adipose tissue. The incidence of adrenal myelolipoma is reported as between 4% and 5% of adrenal incidentaloma. The association of an adrenal myelolipoma and adrenal nodular hyperplasia or adrenal adenoma is rare. Four cases of adrenal myelolipomas in the material of 702 incidentally discovered adrenal lesions treated in our center are presented in this paper (in a group of 294 operated patients). Two myelolipomas have been reported as isolated adrenal masses and two - in association with adrenocortical nodular hyperplasia. PMID:22535606

Babinska, Anna; Na?ecz, Adam; Swiatkowska-Stodulska, Renata; Sworczak, Krzysztof



Imaging findings of localized lymphoid hyperplasia of the pancreas: a case report.  


We report here on a case of localized lymphoid hyperplasia of the pancreas in a 70-year-old man which manifested as double lesions (uncinate process and tail) in the organ. The lesions were incidentally detected as hypoechoic lesions on ultrasonography and they appeared as delayed enhancing lesions on the contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and MRI. Total pancreatectomy was performed, because malignant tumor could not be excluded according to the preoperative imaging studies and the endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy failed. Pathology revealed localized lymphoid hyperplasia. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. He has been alive for 18 months after surgery. PMID:21852913

Kim, Jin Woong; Shin, Sang Soo; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Choi, Yoo Duk



Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson lesion) of the hypopharynx and larynx.  


Masson lesion is characterized by a benign intravascular papillary hyperplasia and subsequent thrombosis. Clinically, this lesion can be misdiagnosed as mucocele, hemangioma, Kaposi sarcoma, angiosarcoma, pyogenic granuloma, and several other lesions. In this article, we report a case of intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the hypopharynx and larynx, which caused dysphagia in an 18-year-old female patient. The lesion was excised entirely via a lateral pharyngotomy approach. We discuss the clinical and histopathologic features, differential diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon entity. PMID:19105147

Güvenç, M Güven; Dereköylü, Levent; Korkut, Nazim; Oz, Ferhan; Oz, Büge



IL-1 induces IGF-dependent epithelial proliferation in organ development and reactive hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation and reactivation of developmental signaling pathways are both hallmarks of adenocarcinomas. However, developmental biology and inflammation are generally thought of as distinct and are believed to represent separate paths to carcinogenesis. Here, we show that the inflammatory cytokine IL-1? plays a critical role in prostate development by activating insulin-like growth factor signaling; this process is reiterated during inflammatory reactive hyperplasia to elicit epithelial proliferation. The appearance of developmental signals during hyperplasia supports the hypothesis that reactivation of developmental signaling plays a role in the hyperplasic reaction to inflammation and suggests that there may be a conserved link between inflammatory signaling and canonical developmental pathways.

Jerde, Travis J.; Bushman, Wade



Diffuse duodenal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia: a large cohort of patients etiologically related to Helicobacter pylori infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gastrointestinal tract is a rare disorder, often associated with immunodeficiency syndromes.\\u000a There are no published reports of its association with Helicobacter pylori infection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From March 2005 till February 2010, we prospectively followed all patients with diffuse duodenal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia\\u000a (DDNLH). Patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with targeted biopsies, colonoscopy, and small bowel video capsule\\u000a endoscopy. Duodenal nodular

Mehnaaz S Khuroo; Naira S Khuroo; Mohammad S Khuroo



The Medical Home Concept and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Comfortable Habitat!  

PubMed Central

Patient-centered interdisciplinary health care for children with chronic medical disorders represents an evolution from the traditional “stop and go” treatment for acute illnesses. This model for health care delivery has been called the “medical home,” a concept that was originally developed in pediatrics for the care of children with special needs. Patient and family-centered, comprehensive, interdisciplinary, culturally effective, and readily accessible health care delivery is desirable for the care of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. As children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) become adolescents and young adults, transfer of this health care delivery model to adult endocrinologists is appropriate.

Witchel, Selma Feldman



Representational Indeterminancy and Enterprise Search: The Importance of Subject Indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed research examines the impact that adding context – via the use of subject indexes – to a query has on search results. This design science research is motivated by the need for a solution to the well-documented failure of enterprise search. Preliminary experimental data is presented that indicates that the use of subject indexes to augment full-text search

Gregory Schymik



The Satoyama Index: A biodiversity indicator for agricultural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural development to meet rapidly growing demands for food and biofuel and the abandonment of traditional land use have had major impacts on biodiversity. Habitat diversity is one of the most important factors influencing biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. In this study we propose an ecological index of ecosystem or habitat diversity in agricultural landscapes – the Satoyama Index (SI) –

Taku Kadoya; Izumi Washitani



Total flavan glycoside from Abacopteris penangiana rhizomes and its acid hydrolysate: characterisation and anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia potential.  


This study was conducted to characterise the flavonoid components of total flavan glycoside from Abacopteris penangiana rhizomes (TFA) and its acid hydrolysate (AHT) through HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis, and to investigate the hypothesis that TFA and AHT exhibit anti-benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) potential in castrated rats with testosterone-induced BPH. HPLC-MS/MS analysis indicated that TFA is rich in flavan-4-ol glycosides and AHT mainly contains 3-deoxygenated anthocyanidin. After 4 weeks of administration, TFA and AHT successfully decreased the prostate index and prostate specific antigen plasma concentrations in the rats. Histoarchitectural improvement in the prostate gland was also observed. Reduced dihydrotestosterone, VEGF, bFGF, EGF, and KGF levels were observed both in TFA- and AHT-treated rats. Furthermore, the prostatic expression of Blc-2 was inhibited, whereas that of Bax and p53 was activated by TFA and AHT. In conclusion, TFA and AHT have anti-BPH properties. Hence, plants with flavan glycosides have potential use in the treatment of BPH. PMID:23442644

Wei, Han; Wu, Guanghua; Shi, Du; Song, Shanshan; Zhang, Xuenong; Lei, Yongfang; Ruan, Jinlan



Habitat Suitability Index Models: Brewer's Sparrow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document is part of the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model series, which provides habitat information useful for impact assessment and habitat management for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri). Several types of habitat information are provided. A Habitat Use Information Section can be used to drive quantitative relationships between key environmental variables and habitat suitability. The HSI Model Section documents a habitat model and information pertinent to its application. The model synthesizes the habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application and is scaled to produce an index value between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat).

Short, Henry L.



Internet Corruption Perception Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Corruption Perception Index is provided by Transparency International and Goettingen University, Germany. The goal of the site to "rank countries by the extent of corruption in public administration." The ranking can then be used to help assess country risks. The Internet Corruption Perception Index is published annually and is based on "surveys undertaken by Gallup International, the World Competitiveness Yearbook, assessments by Political & Economic Risk Consultancy in Hong Kong, DRI/McGraw Hill Global Risk Service, Political Risk Services in Syracuse, USA, and data gathered from internet sources directly." The index for 1997 covers 52 countries, including both developed and developing countries. Recently added to the site is the report on the bribery propensity of leading exporting nations; this section investigates the "propensity to pay bribes for the acquisition of contracts in international trade." At the site, visitors can provide their own input on a country's bribery propensity.



Indexing Degenerate Strings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we give the first, to our knowledge, structure and corresponding algorithm for indexing of factors of DNA and RNA sequences, where the text is degenerate i.e. contain sets of characters. The presented structure indexes so called k-factors, the factors of the degenerate text whose length does not exceed a given constant k. Our solution is based on the application of finite automata, the index is represented by Truncated Generalized Factor Automaton (TGFA). The size of TGFA is bounded from up by linear function of the length of text and it enables to find list occ(u) of all occurrences of for a given pattern u in degenerate text x~ in time |u|+|occ(u)|

Vorá?ek, Michal; Vagner, Ladislav; Flouri, Tomáš



Negative acoustic index metamaterial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic metamaterials utilizing periodic deep subwavelength resonators can attain negative acoustic properties unavailable in nature. We have developed a negative acoustic index metamaterial for water that combines Helmholtz and rod-spring resonators to control effective bulk modulus and mass density, respectively. Effective properties extracted from full-wave simulations of our metamaterial show that negative real components of bulk modulus and density occur simultaneously, resulting in a negative real component of the acoustic index. Experimental measurements on a sample of this metamaterial confirm that the real components of the acoustic index and bulk modulus attain negative values, but the density does not become negative. The primary causes of this are identified and potential solutions are presented.

Fok, L.; Zhang, X.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the NEC Research Institute, ResearchIndex was created to improve the dissemination, functionality, usability, and efficiency of online scientific literature by demonstrating and providing "algorithms, techniques, and software that can be used in other digital libraries." The current demonstration database indexes over 150,000 computer science articles containing over 2 million citations. Searchable by keyword only, database returns feature several options. Users can review a list of citations to a given paper with links to the full text articles (Postscript or .pdf format), view related articles, and sign up to have new citations for selected articles emailed to them. In the future, users should also be able to review a dynamically created and continuously updated bibliography. Additional resources at the site include a collection of papers about citation indexing, digital libraries, Web analysis, and neural networks. Users may also submit papers to the database and subscribe to be notified when additional databases become available at the site.


Sustainability index for Taipei  

SciTech Connect

Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years.

Lee, Y.-J. [Taoyuan City Government, No. 7, Hsien Fu Road, Taoyuan City, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail:; Huang Chingming [Guangzhou Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail:



Low glycaemic-index foods.  


Accumulating data indicate that a diet characterized by low glycaemic-index (GI) foods not only improves certain metabolic ramifications of insulin resistance, but also reduces insulin resistance per se. Epidemiological data also suggest a protective role against development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. A major disadvantage in this connection is the shortage of low-GI foods, and many common starchy staple foods, such as bread products, breakfast cereals and potato products, have a high GI. Studies in our laboratory show that it is possible to significantly lower the GI of starchy foods, for example by choice of raw material and/or by optimizing the processing conditions. Such low-GI foods may or may not influence glucose tolerance at a subsequent meal. Consequently, certain low-GI breakfasts capable of maintaining a net increment in blood glucose and insulin at the time of the next meal significantly reduced post-prandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following a standardized lunch meal, whereas others had no 'second-meal' impact. These results imply that certain low-GI foods may be more efficient in modulating metabolism in the long term. Although the literature supports a linear correlation between the GI and insulinaemic index (II) of foods, this is not always the case. Consequently, milk products elicited elevated IIs, indistinguishable from a white bread reference meal, despite GIs in the lower range. This inconsistent behaviour of milk products has not been acknowledged, and potential metabolic consequences remain to be elucidated. PMID:10889806

Björck, I; Liljeberg, H; Ostman, E



Construct validation of patient global impression of severity (PGI-S) and improvement (PGI-I) questionnaires in the treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Background Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in aging men are often associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). While regulatory evaluations of treatment benefit require an assessment of specific symptoms, a simpler approach to measuring patients’ perceptions of severity and symptom change may be particularly useful for clinical practice. The aim of this study was to provide evidence of the validity of the 1-item Patient Global Impression of Severity (PGI-S) and Improvement (PGI-I) questionnaires for use as outcome measures in the treatment of BPH-LUTS. Methods This was a secondary analysis of data from 4 randomized placebo-controlled 12-week trials evaluating tadalafil for the treatment of BPH-LUTS (N=1694). Visit 2 (V2 [beginning of a 4-week placebo lead-in period]) and endpoint assessments included International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS Quality of Life Index (IPSS-QoL), BPH Impact Index (BII), and peak urine flow (Qmax). PGI-S was only administered at V2 and PGI-I only at endpoint. Associations between the PGI-S or the PGI-I and the other assessments were analyzed by calculating Spearman rank correlation coefficients and performing analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.43, 0.43, 0.53, and ?0.09, between the PGI-S and IPSS, IPSS-QoL, BII, and Qmax baseline results (all P<0.001). Similar results were seen across race, ethnicity, and baseline severity (moderate LUTS versus severe LUTS). IPSS, IPSS-QoL, BII baseline scores (P <0.001) and Qmax values (P=0.003) were significantly different among the 4 PGI-S severity levels. Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.56, 0.53, 0.47 and ?0.15 between the PGI-I and change in IPSS, IPSS-QoL, BII scores, and Qmax values from baseline to endpoint (all P<0.001). Similar results were seen across race, ethnicity, and baseline severity. Change in IPSS, IPSS-QoL, BII scores, and Qmax values (P<0.001) were significantly different among the PGI-I levels (i.e., patient perception of change in urinary symptoms). Conclusions This study demonstrated patients’ overall perceptions of their severity and change in BPH-LUTS can be captured in a way that is simple, valid, and easily administered in a research setting or clinical practice. Clinical parameters are weakly associated with patients’ perception of urinary symptoms, emphasizing the importance of a patient-reported assessment in the evaluation of BPH-LUTS treatment benefit.



New Air Quality Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 23, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the release of a new Air Quality Index, which is used by state and local agencies for reporting on daily air quality to the public, especially in major cities. The new Index has been revised to enhance public understanding of air quality and associated health effects, and it reflects updated health information on several pollutants. In addition to the full text of the new AQI Rule (105 p.), several related documents are offered at the site. These include the AQI fact sheet, Air Quality Guide, Ozone Health Effects Booklet, and Guideline for Reporting of Daily Air Quality.

Standards., United S.


Nuclear standards: Master index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standards writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remarks column which reflect the current status of the standard (see legend). The ''Nuclear Energy Standards KWIC Index'' of NE standards, also published by the Performance Assurance Project Office, should be consulted for information on standards when the assigned numbers are not known.

Not Available



Nuclear Standards Master Index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standard writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remark column which reflects the current status of the standard (see legend). This January 1984 issue covers July through December 1983. The Nuclear Energy Standards KWIC Index of NE standards, also published by the Nuclear Standards Program Information Center, should be consulted for information on standards when the assigned numbers are not known.

Not Available



TIGR Drosophila Gene Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TIGR, The Institute for Genomic Research, has announced the release of the Drosophila Gene Index (DGI). The Drosophila Gene Index, which may be searched by Nucleotide or Protein Sequence, Identifier (TC, ET, EST, GB) Tissue, cDNA Library Name or cDNA Library Identifier(cat#), or Gene Product Name, contains some 50,500 total sequences (ET, EST, TC, and singletons). Data may be requested free of charge by "researchers at non-profit institutions using it for non-commercial purposes;" instructions are provided on-site.



Effects of silodosin and tamsulosin on the urethra and cardiovascular system in young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia.  


We examined whether the effects (efficacy on the urethra and hypotension) of silodosin (alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor antagonist) and tamsulosin (alpha(1A+1D)-adrenoceptor antagonist) in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia altered with age. We used young and old dogs, diagnosed as having benign prostatic hyperplasia by veterinarian's palpation. Under anesthesia, the increase in intraurethral pressure evoked by hypogastric nerve stimulation was measured, together with the level of systemic mean blood pressure. Each drug was administered intravenously in progressively increasing doses. At the end of the experiment, the prostate was isolated from each dog, then weighed and investigated pathologically to confirm benign prostatic hyperplasia. The wet weight of the prostate was greater in old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia than in young dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia. By light microscopy, hyperplasia in the prostatic epithelium was confirmed in both groups. Silodosin (0.3-300 microg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the hypogastric nerve stimulation-induced increase in intraurethral pressure (without significant hypotensive effects) in both young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tamsulosin (0.3-300 microg/kg) also dose-dependently inhibited the intraurethral pressure increase in both groups, but it had a hypotensive effect that was significantly greater in old than in young dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In conclusion, as regards the effect of silodosin on intraurethral pressure, potency was similar between young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and it was without significant hypotensive effects. We therefore suggest that silodosin might be a good medication for lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in all age groups. PMID:19389393

Kobayashi, Shinya; Tomiyama, Yoshitaka; Tatemichi, Satoshi; Hoyano, Yuji; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Yamazaki, Yoshinobu



Air Quality Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from Air Quality Index: A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health by the U.S. EPA, learn about common pollutants in the air we breathe, their health effects, and how their levels are reported.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Gradient-Index Optics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SAIC has performed an effort to advance the state of the art in gradient-index (GRIN) nanolayered polymer optics. The goal of this study was to take significant risks off the table with regard to practical high-performance GRIN optical designs. The DARPA ...

N. Shatz



Air Quality Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Air Quality Index (AQI) site contains tutorials about the difference between clean and dirty air, what the AQI is and the colors and numbers used to describe it, the effect of air pollution on health, and what people can do about pollution. There are also online games, which test understanding of the tutorials and a section containing teacher materials.


On indexing mobile objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how to index mobile objects in one and two di- mensions using efficient dynamic external memory data structures. The problem is motivated by real life appli- cations in traffic monitoring, intelligent navigation and mobile communications domains. For the l-dimensional case, we give (i) a dynamic, external memory algo- rithm with guaranteed worst case performance and lin- ear space

George Kollios; Dimitrios Gunopulos; Vassilis J. Tsotras



Miller Indexes Examples Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 3-D animation is a visualization of the Miller indices (Miller indexes) showing approximately 24 various possible planes. The 3 intercepts are shown along with the plane notation. This would be useful for understanding reciprocal lattice vectors, specifically in crystallographic studies for electrical engineering.



A Social Capital Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; Del Pozo, Mónica



Negative acoustic index metamaterial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic metamaterials utilizing periodic deep subwavelength resonators can attain negative acoustic properties unavailable in nature. We have developed a negative acoustic index metamaterial for water that combines Helmholtz and rod-spring resonators to control effective bulk modulus and mass density, respectively. Effective properties extracted from full-wave simulations of our metamaterial show that negative real components of bulk modulus and density occur

L. Fok; X. Zhang



Nuclear standards master index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standards writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remarks column which reflects the current status of the standard.

Not Available



Nuclear Standards Master Index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standards writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remarks column which reflects the current status of the standard.

Not Available



Nuclear Standards master index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standards writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remarks column which reflects the current status of the standard.

Not Available



Leaf area index measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf area index (LAI) is a key structural characteristic of forest ecosystems because of the role of green leaves in controlling many biological and physical processes in plant canopies. Accurate LA1 estimates are required in studies of ecophysiology , atmosphere-ecosystem interactions, and global change. The objective of this paper is to evaluate LA1 values obtained by several research teams using

Jing M. Chen; Paul Steven Plummer; M. Rich; Stith T. Gower; John M. Norman



Index: FOI Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This cumulative index provides a listing, by topic, of the following Freedom of Information Center reports: reports 1 through 340, summary papers S1 through S38, and opinion papers 001 through 0017. Subject titles include, among many others, "Academic Freedom,""Book Censorship,""Consumer Protection,""Gag Orders,""Press Councils,""TV News," and…

Atkins, Jeanni


Biographical Index of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This inventory lists for more than 16,000 astronomers and other persons with relation to astronomy their dates of life and biographical resources (books, papers, encyclopedic entries, obituaries, etc.). Besides professional and amateur astronomers, the index contains numerous mathematicians, physicists, geodesists, geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists, globe and instrument makers, pioneers of space flight, patrons of astronomy, and others.

Wilhelm Brüggenthies; Wolfgang R. Dick



Indexes of Biographies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website allows the learner to choose an important person who contributed to science, alphabeticallly or chronologically. This index contains many people who not only contributed to astronomy but to the other sciences as well as mathematics. For each person there is an account of his or her life, educational background, and famous works.




Practical modified Gini index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gini index is the most common method for estimating the level of income inequality in countries. In this article, we suggest a simple modification that takes into account the moderating effect of in-kind government benefits. Unlike other studies that use micro-level data that are rarely available for many countries or over a period of time, the proposed Modified Gini

Miki Malul; Daniel Shapira; Amir Shoham



The COPD Helplessness Index  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychologic factors affect how patients with COPD respond to attempts to improve their self-management skills. Learned helplessness may be one such factor, but there is no validated measure of helplessness in COPD. Methods: We administered a new COPD Helplessness Index (CHI) to 1,202 patients with COPD. Concurrent validity was assessed through association of the CHI with established psychosocial measures and COPD severity. The association of helplessness with incident COPD exacerbations was then examined by following subjects over a median 2.1 years, defining COPD exacerbations as COPD-related hospitalizations or ED visits. Results: The CHI demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach ? = 0.75); factor analysis was consistent with the CHI representing a single construct. Greater CHI-measured helplessness correlated with greater COPD severity assessed by the BODE (Body-mass, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise) Index (r = 0.34; P < .001). Higher CHI scores were associated with worse generic (Short Form-12, Physical Component Summary Score) and respiratory-specific (Airways Questionnaire 20) health-related quality of life, greater depressive symptoms, and higher anxiety (all P < .001). Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, helplessness was prospectively associated with incident COPD exacerbations (hazard ratio = 1.31; P < .001). After also controlling for the BODE Index, helplessness remained predictive of COPD exacerbations among subjects with BODE Index ? median (hazard ratio = 1.35; P = .01), but not among subjects with higher BODE Index values (hazard ratio = 0.93; P = .34). Conclusions: The CHI is an internally consistent and valid measure, concurrently associated with health status and predictively associated with COPD exacerbations. The CHI may prove a useful tool in analyzing differential clinical responses mediated by patient-centered attributes.

Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knight, Sara J.; Blanc, Paul D.; Eisner, Mark D.



Ovarian Adrenal Rest Tumor in a Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patient with Adrenocorticotropin Hypersecretion following Adrenalectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Ovarian adrenal rest tumors (OARTs) are rare in contrast to testicular adrenal rest tumors. We report a case of OART in a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who developed Nelson’s syndrome after bilateral adrenalectomy. Methods: We describe the clinical, imaging, and laboratory findings of the patient and review the relevant literature regarding OART and the possible interaction between ACTH

Dov Tiosano; Euvgeni Vlodavsky; Shlomo Filmar; Zeev Weiner; Dorit Goldsher; Rachel Bar-Shalom



Doxycycline Prevents Intimal Hyperplasia In Vitro and May Improve Patency of the Internal Thoracic Artery  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The development of intimal hyperplasia and graft failure is an important problem in cardiac surgery. A fundamental process in intimal hyperplasia is the degradation of extracellular matrix by metalloproteases which induces the vascular smooth-muscle cells migration and sets the scene for graft atherosclerosis. This study investigated whether doxycycline, a metalloproteases inhibitor, can prevent the intimal hyperplasia occurrence in cultured human internal mammary artery, thus extending graft patency. Methods. Segments of internal mammary artery from 20 consecutive patients were prepared and cultured for 2 weeks in serum-supplemented medium (control) or in medium supplemented with 10?5?M and 10?6?M doxycycline concentrations. Tissues were fixed, sectioned, and stained, and neointimal thickness was measured by computer-aided image analysis. Further sections were cultured and prepared for gel enzymography to measure the matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 levels. Results. At the end of the culture period, neointimal thickness was significantly (P = 0.001) dose-dependently reduced in samples treated with doxycycline when compared with controls. Gelatin enzymography demonstrated a reduction in values for both latent and active forms of metalloproteases. Conclusions. Doxycycline, in a model of internal mammary artery intimal hyperplasia, has a specific role in inhibiting metalloproteases activity and may prevent graft stenosis.

Mannacio, Vito; Di Tommaso, Luigi; Antignano, Anita; Di Tommaso, Ettorino; Stassano, Paolo; Vosa, Carlo



Psychiatric Manifestations in Young Females with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a syndrome of prenatal and\\/or post- natal androgen excess secondary to genetic deficits in the cytochrome p450 enzymes of the cortisol synthesis pathway. Women with CAH may suffer from different degrees of androgenization. This study documented psychi- atric manifestations in young women born with CAH in Taiwan. Methods: From July 1, 2005 to February

Hsin-Yi Liang; Hsueh-Ling Chang; Ching-Yen Chen; Pei-Yeh Chang; Fu-Sung Lo; Li-Wei Lee


Nodular Epithelial Hyperplasia after Photorefractive Keratectomy Followed by Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking  

PubMed Central

This study describes a case of nodular epithelial hyperplasia and stromal alterations in a patient with keratoconus who was submitted to topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) followed by corneal collagen cross-linking. Debridement of the epithelial nodule was performed. After a 2-year followup, a new topography-guided PRK was indicated.

Salerno, Liberdade Cezaro; Ghanem, Vinicius Coral; Ghanem, Ramon Coral



Exuberant type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia associated with spontaneous pneumothorax: secondary reactive change mimicking adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of pulmonary and pleural histological changes is recognized in the setting of spontaneous pneumothorax. In this study, we describe a previously unreported lesion that was encountered in four males, 24–41 years of age. In addition to reactive eosinophilic pleuritis, subpleural emphysematous blebs, prominent eosinophilic exudate and lung atelectasis, the histology comprised exuberant type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia, which

Konstantin Shilo; Thomas V Colby; William D Travis; Teri J Franks



In vitro gene amplification for prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed Central

A simple, rapid, non-radioactive method for detecting homozygous deletions/conversions of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene is described. In our experience this method will be useful for first trimester prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 17% of families of a child with the salt losing form. This test includes an internal control to monitor the success of amplification. Images

Rumsby, G; Honour, J W



Early Androgen Effects on Spatial and Mechanical Abilities: Evidence From Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable controversy about the origins of sex differences in cognitive abilities, particularly the male superiority in spatial abilities. We studied effects of early androgens on spatial and mechanical abilities in adolescents and young adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). On tests of three-dimensional mental rotations, geography, and mechanical knowledge, females with CAH scored higher than their unaffected sisters,

Sheri A. Berenbaum; Kristina L. Korman Bryk; Adriene M. Beltz



Taenia taeniaeformis: Fate and proliferation of mucosal cells during gastric hyperplasia in larvae infected rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fate and proliferation of gastric mucosal cells during hyperplasia of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs inoculated Wistar rats were investigated using PCNA immunohistochemistry, BrdU labeling and other histopathologic staining techniques. Results revealed marked cell proliferation in gastric corpus and antral mucosa of infected rats as evidenced by increased lengths of proliferative zones and indices of BrdU labeling. The gastropathy in corpus was

J. T. Lagapa; Y. Oku; N. Nonaka; M. Kamiya



Diffuse Histiocytic Proliferation Mimicking Mesothelial Hyperplasia in Endocervicosis of the Female Pelvic Peritoneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of a diffuse histiocytic proliferation that mimicked mesothelial hyperplasia in the pelvic peritoneum of premenopausal women with endocervicosis are presented. The lesions were found incidentally on laparoscopic examination for pelvic pain and appeared as small friable excrescenses attached to the serosal surface of the pelvis. Histologic examination revealed a dense proliferation of round to oval cells with abun

Robert Ruffolo; Saul Suster



Steroid Disorders in Children: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research team and laboratories have concentrated on two inherited endocrine disorders, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and apparent mineralocorticoid excess, in thier investigations of the pathophysiology of adrenal steroid hormone disorders in children. CAH refers to a family of inherited disorders in which defects occur in one of the enzymatic steps required to synthesize cortisol from cholesterol in the adrenal

Maria I. New



Beta-Cell Hyperplasia in Macrosomic Infants and Fetuses of Nondiabetic Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that macrosomic infants of nondiabetic mothers have beta-cell hyperplasia in their pancreases. Pancreatic tissues were examined from 10 macrosomic fetuses and liveborn infants and from 10 comparison cases matched for gestational age and gender. None of the mothers had a history of diabetes and all had normal glucose screening during

Halit Pinar; Tonguc Pinar; Don B. Singer



Upregulated TRPC1 Channel in Vascular Injury In Vivo and Its Role in Human Neointimal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occlusive vascular disease is a widespread abnormality leading to lethal or debilitating outcomes such as myocardial infarction and stroke. It is part of atherosclerosis and is evoked by clinical procedures including angioplasty and grafting of saphenous vein in bypass surgery. A causative factor is the switch in smooth muscle cells to an invasive and proliferative mode, leading to neointimal hyperplasia.

B. Kumar; K. Dreja; S. S. Shah; A. Cheong; S.-Z. Xu; P. Sukumar; J. Naylor; A. Forte; M. Cipollaro; D. McHugh; P. A. Kingston; A. M. Heagerty; C. M. Munsch; A. Bergdahl; A. Hultgårdh-Nilsson; M. F. Gomez; K. E. Porter; P. Hellstrand; D. J. Beech



Pancreatic islet cell hyperplasia associated with experimental ulcerative colitis in rats.  


Ulcerative colitis in Buffalo rats was induced by acetic acid introduced into sigmoid colon. In specimens of the colon and head of the pancreas obtained via laparotomy after seven-day colitis ulcerosa and simultaneously the pancreatic islet cell hyperplasia were histologically observed. Further investigations, especially immunological studies, of these amazing findings are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of the abore relationship. PMID:8935150

Bednarz, W; Wojczys, R; Doli?ski, J


Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver with the lumbo-costovertebral syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital lumbar hemia is uncommon in children; only 42 cases have been reported. A newborn girl with congenital superior lumbar hernia associated with lumbo-costovertebral syndrome is described. Associated features include focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, absent right kidney and hydrocephalus.

Ahmed H Al-Salem; Hussain Abu-Srair; Sayed Qaissaruddin



[Giant lymphoid hyperplasia of mediastinum (Castleman's syndrome). Two cases (author's transl)].  


The authors report the cases of two patients with localized lymph node hyperplasia of angio-follicular type. One presents the plasma cell type, biological abnormalities and a shoulder-hand syndrome; the patient recovers after removal surgery. The other, of hyaline vascular type, is asymptomatic. PMID:6266022

Baudesson, D; Borrelly, J; Duprez, A



Microsoft Academic Search

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is the seventh member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. It is produced by mesenchymal cells and its activity is specific for epithelial cells, controlling epithelial homeostasis and wound repair in a paracrine manner. Although KGF has been implicated in a number of hyperplastic pathologies, it has not previously been investigated in gingival hyperplasia (GH),

Swarga Jyoti Das; Irwin Olsen



Neointimal Hyperplasia after Stenting in a Human Mammary Artery Organ Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the use of stents has limited the incidence of restenosis, in-stent restenosis remains an important problem. In-stent restenosis is the result of a healing process that induced neointimal hyperplasia through mechanisms that are still not understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the histological consequences of the healing process following stent implantation. Internal mammary arteries from atheroslerotic

P. Guérin; F. Rondeau; G. Grimandi; M. F. Heymann; D. Heymann; P. Pillet; O. Al Habash; G. Loirand; P. Pacaud; D. Crochet



Relation of epidermal growth factor receptor expression to goblet cell hyperplasia in nasal polyps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system regulates mucin production in airway epithelium, we hypothesized a role for this system in mucus hypersecretion that occurs in nasal polyposis. Objective: We examined the relationship between goblet cell hyperplasia, EGFR expression, and inflammatory mediators produced by eosinophils and neutrophils in nasal polyp tissues. Methods: Nasal polyp tissue samples from 8

Pierre-Regis Burgel; Estelle Escudier; Andre Coste; Trang Dao-Pick; Iris F. Ueki; Kiyoshi Takeyama; Jae Jeong Shim; Andrew H. Murr; Jay A. Nadel



Risk factors for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer among women with abnormal bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify independent risk factors for endometrial neoplasia in women with abnormal perimenopausal or postmenopausal bleeding and to use those factors to develop and test a predictive model.Methods: We conducted a case-control study of women with abnormal perimenopausal or postmenopausal bleeding who had endometrial samplings; cases had endometrial cancer or complex hyperplasia and controls had benign endometrial histologies. Multivariate

Anne M Weber; Jerome L Belinson; Marion R Piedmonte



Adenovirus-expressed human hyperplasia suppressor gene induces apoptosis in cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperplasia suppressor gene (HSG), also called human mitofusin 2, is a novel gene that markedly suppresses the cell proliferation of hyperproliferative vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rat arteries. This gene encodes a mitochondrial mem- brane protein that participates in mitochondrial fusion and contributes to the maintenance and operation of the mitochondrial network. In this report, we showed that

Lina Wu; Zhixin Li; Yingmei Zhang; Pei Zhang; Xiaohui Zhu; Jing Huang; Teng Ma; Tian Lu; Quansheng Song; Qian Li; Yanhong Guo; Jian Tang; Dalong Ma; Kuang-Hueih Chen; Xiaoyan Qiu


Reactive Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the liver in a patient with colon cancer: report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) of the liver is very rarely reported, and we encountered two cases of RLH of the liver in a patient with colon cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: In the first case, a 77-year-old woman was admitted for the surgical removal of a ascending colon cancer. A hepatic tumor in the left lobe was concurrently revealed by computed

Hiroki Takahashi; Hirozumi Sawai; Yoichi Matsuo; Hitoshi Funahashi; Mikinori Satoh; Yuji Okada; Hiroshi Inagaki; Hiromitsu Takeyama; Tadao Manabe



Sonography of focal foveolar hyperplasia causing gastric obstruction in an infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A young infants is presented with a mass partially obstructing the distal stomach. Sonography demonstrated the superficial\\u000a origin of the lobulated lesion which proved to be focal foveolar hyperplasia, the most common cause of a gastric polypoid\\u000a mass in adults but rare in children.

W. H. McAlister; M. E. Katz; J. M. Perlman; E. D. Tack



Multiplex Minisequencing of the 21Hydroxylase Gene as a Rapid Strategy to Confirm Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a frequent autosomal recessive disease, with a wide range of clinical manifestations, most commonly attributable to mutations in the 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21). Large gene deletions, large gene conversions, a small 8-base- pair deletion, and eight point mutations in CYP21 ac- count for 95% of all enzyme deficiencies. We devel- oped a new strategy for

Nils Krone; Andreas Braun; Stefanie Weinert; Michael Peter; Adelbert A. Roscher; Carl-Joachim Partsch; Wolfgang G. Sippell



Health Problems in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21Hydroxylase Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the introduction of life-saving glucocorticoid replacement 60 years ago, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) has evolved from being perceived as a paediatric disorder to being recognized as a lifelong, chronic condition affecting patients of all age groups. Increasing evidence suggests that patients with CAH have an increased risk to develop health problems during adult life, with signs and symptoms of

Nicole Reisch; Wiebke Arlt; Nils Krone



Leptin-enhanced neointimal hyperplasia is reduced by mTOR and PI3K inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Despite the use of the sirolimus (rapamycin) drug-eluting coronary stent, diabetics are at increased risk of developing in-stent restenosis for unclear reasons. Hyperleptinemia, which often coexists with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is an independent risk factor for progression of coronary artery disease. It has not been determined whether elevated circulating leptin decreases the efficacy of the sirolimus drug-eluting stent in inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia, the process underlying restenosis after stenting. Here we show that leptin activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in primary murine vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and stimulates VSMC proliferation in a PI3K-dependent fashion. Exogenous leptin, administered at levels comparable to those found in obese humans, promotes neointimal VSMC hyperplasia in a murine femoral artery wire injury model. Leptin significantly increases the dose of the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus that is required for effective inhibition of neointimal formation. Combination therapy with LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, and sirolimus effectively inhibits leptin-enhanced neointimal hyperplasia. These data show that, in the setting of hyperleptinemia, higher doses of an mTOR inhibitor, or combination therapy with mTOR and PI3K inhibitors, inhibits neointimal hyperplasia after arterial injury. These studies may explain the higher rates of restenosis observed in diabetics treated with a sirolimus-eluting coronary stent and suggest a potential novel therapeutic approach for inhibiting in-stent restenosis in such patients.

Shan, Jian; Nguyen, Thomas B.; Totary-Jain, Hana; Dansky, Hayes; Marx, Steven O.; Marks, Andrew R.



Effect of endovascular stent strut geometry on vascular injury, myointimal hyperplasia, and restenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Early restenosis and the development of myointimal hyperplasia in stented blood vessels have been attributed to deep vascular injury with fracture of the internal elastic lamina (IEL). The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the vascular wall response to superficial injury (without IEL rupture) after balloon angioplasty and intravascular stent placement in porcine arteries and the determination

Timothy M. Sullivan; Stephen D. Ainsworth; Eugene M. Langan; Spence Taylor; Bruce Snyder; David Cull; Jerry Youkey; Martine Laberge



Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21Hydroxylase Deficiency: Alterations in Cortisol Pharmacokinetics at Puberty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, treatment with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid sub- stitution is not always satisfactory. Suboptimal control is often ob- served in pubertal patients, despite adequate replacement doses and adherence to treatment. We investigated whether the pubertal pro- cess is associated with alterations in cortisol pharmacokinetics re- sulting in a loss of control of the



Association Between Cyclooxygenase2 Expression in Atypical Hyperplasia and Risk of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with atypical hyperplasia are at high risk for the develop- ment of breast cancer, with a cumulative incidence approaching 25% at 20 years after biopsy examination ( 1 , 2 ). Clinical practice would benefit from the identification of additional predictive fea- tures for women with atypia that will enable better risk stratification for these women and from the

Daniel W. Visscher; V. Shane Pankratz; Marta Santisteban; Carol Reynolds; Ari Ristimäki; Robert A. Vierkant; Wilma L. Lingle; Marlene H. Frost; Lynn C. Hartmann


Association of adenoid hyperplasia and bacterial biofilm formation in children with adenoiditis in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adenoid is a bacterial reservoir that contributes to chronic otolaryngologic infections. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common pathogen in the adenoid. The increase of antibiotic resistance in S. aureus has become an important issue in public health. The aim of this study was to compare adenoid hyperplasia and biofilm formation\\u000a in children with S. aureus adenoiditis in Taiwan.

Chia-Der Lin; Mang-Hung Tsai; Cheng-Wen Lin; Mao-Wang Ho; Chin-Yuan Wang; Yung-An Tsou; Ming-Ching Kao; Ming-Hsui Tsai; Chih-Ho Lai


Medical Therapy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the existing evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of medical therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) indicative of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To assess randomised controlled trials investigating the six ?–adrenergic receptor antagonists (?–blockers), prazosin, alfuzosin, indoramin, terazosin, doxazosin, and tamsulosin, that benefit patients by relaxing prostatic smooth muscle, and the anti–androgen, finasteride, that mediates its

G. M. Clifford; R. D. T. Farmer



[Ultrastructural characteristics of the endometrial cells in proliferative-type dyshormonal glandular hyperplasia].  


Four morphofunctional cell types are distinguished ultrastructurally in the glandular epithelium of endometrium with dyshormonal glandular hyperplasia of the medium proliferative stage: proliferating, secreting, ciliary, endocrine. The cells of every type may undergo degeneration. The possibility of the cell proliferation with predominantly endocrine differentiation is noted. PMID:6497695

Lomakina, I I; Skripnik, S V; Serezhin, B S; Zhigulina, G A



Transposition angioplasty: a technique for the correction of proximal anastomotic neointimal hyperplasia in femoral distal bypasses.  


Neointimal hyperplasia at the proximal anastomosis of a femorodistal bypass can be managed by dividing the autogenous vein graft and transposing the proximal anastomosis from the common femoral to the deep femoral artery. The method obviates repeat dissection of the graft and femoral arteries in the groin. PMID:3375996

Andros, G; Harris, R W; Dulawa, L B; Oblath, R W



Clinical and Subclinical ACTH-Independent Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia and Aberrant Hormone Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is a very rare cause of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome (CS). In this review, the clinical characteristics, the pathophysiology, and the management of AIMAH are described. AIMAH typically presents with overt CS, but subclinical oversecretion of cortisol has been increasingly described. The diagnosis is suspected by adrenal nodular enlargement on conventional imaging following the demonstration of

Stavroula Christopoulos; Isabelle Bourdeau; André Lacroix



Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver, CREST syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis: an overlap syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver (NRHL) has been found in association with collagen vascular diseases, after drug therapy, with autoimmune disease, and with a variety of haematological disorders. The association of NRHL with the syndrome of Calcinosis cutis, Raynaud's phenomenon, oesophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia (CREST syndrome) has only been reported on two previous occasions. The liver disease usually

R F McMahon; C Babbs; T W Warnes



Clinical Variability of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11?-Hydroxylase Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in 18 Jewish families from Morocco, Tunis, Turkey and Iran revealed 26 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11?-hydroxylase deficiency. The clinical expression of androgen excess varied widely in the affected females, and range from solely enlarged clitoris in the mildest forms to severely hypertrophied clitoris with penile urethra and fused labial-scrotal folds in the most extreme forms

Ariel Rösler; Esther Leiberman; Joseph Sack; Hedy Landau; Abraham Benderly; Shimon W. Moses; Tirza Cohen



Growth Patterns and Final Height in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to Classical 21Hydroxylase Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Longitudinal growth and bone age (BA) development are the most important clinical parameters for monitoring adequate glucocorticoid replacement in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Aim of the Study: To analyze the growth pattern of patients treated for CAH of the salt wasting (SW) and simple virilizing (SV) clinical forms; to evaluate final height as compared to reference data

Gábor Hargitai; János Sólyom; Tadej Battelino; Jan Lebl; Zuzanna Pribilincová; Roland Hauspie; József Kovács; Franz Waldhauser; Herwig Frisch



Gender Dysphoria and Gender Change in Chromosomal Females with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the literature on studies and case reports on gender identity and gender identity problems, gender dysphoria, and gender change in chromosomal females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, raised male or female. The large majority (94.8%) of the patients raised female (N= 250) later developed a gender identity as girls and women and did not feel gender dysphoric. But

Arianne B. Dessens; Froukje M. E. Slijper; Stenvert L. S. Drop



Gender Change from Female to Male in Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychoendocrinology of the development of normal gender identity and its variations is poorly understood. Studies of gender development in individuals born with endocrinologically well-characterized intersex conditions are heuristically valuable for the disaggregation of factors that are acting in concert during normal development. Four 46,XX individuals with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and atypical gender identity entered a comprehensive research

Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg; Rhoda S. Gruen; Maria I. New; Jennifer J. Bell; Akira Morishima; Mona Shimshi; Yvette Bueno; Ileana Vargas; Susan W. Baker



Habitat Suitability Index Models: Black Crappie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Characteristics and habitat requirements of the black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) are described in a review of Habitat Suitability Index models. This is one in a series of publications to provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Numerous literature sources have been consulted in an effort to consolidate scientific data on species-habitat relationships. These data have subsequently been synthesized into explicit Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The models are based on suitability indices indicating habitat preferences. Indices have been formulated for variables found to affect the life cycle and survival of each species. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models are designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities. The HSI technique is a corollary to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures.

Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Krieger, Douglas A.; Bacteller, Mary; Maughan, O. Eugene



An index of factorial simplicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An index of factorial simplicity, employing the quartimax transformational criteria of Carroll, Wrigley and Neuhaus, and Saunders, is developed. This index is both for each row separately and for a factor pattern matrix as a whole. The index varies between zero and one. The problem of calibrating the index is discussed.

Henry F. Kaiser



Fiber optic refractive index monitor  


A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

Weiss, Jonathan David (Albuquerque, NM)



Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water inhibits intimal hyperplasia in arterialized vein grafts in rats  

PubMed Central

Aims Arterialized vein grafts often fail due to intimal hyperplasia. Hydrogen potently protects organs and cells from many insults via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the efficacy of oral administration of hydrogen-rich water (HW) for prevention of intimal hyperplasia. Methods and results The inferior vena cava was excised, stored in cold Ringer solution for 2 h, and placed as an interposition graft in the abdominal aorta of syngeneic Lewis rats. HW was generated by immersing a magnesium stick in tap water (Mg + 2H2O ? Mg (OH)2 + H2). Beginning on the day of graft implantation, recipients were given tap water [regular water (RW)], HW or HW that had been subsequently degassed water (DW). Six weeks after grafting, the grafts in the rats given RW or DW had developed intimal hyperplasia, accompanied by increased oxidative injury. HW significantly suppressed intimal hyperplasia. One week after grafting, the grafts in HW-treated rats exhibited improved endothelial integrity with less platelet and white blood cell aggregation. Up-regulation of the mRNAs for intracellular adhesion molecules was attenuated in the vein grafts of the rats receiving HW. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 was also significantly inhibited in grafts receiving HW. In rat smooth muscle cell (A7r5) cultures, hydrogen treatment for 24 h reduced smooth muscle cell migration. Conclusion Drinking HW significantly reduced neointima formation after vein grafting in rats. Drinking HW may have therapeutic value as a novel therapy for intimal hyperplasia and could easily be incorporated into daily life.

Sun, Qiang; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Masutani, Kosuke; Peng, Ximei; Sun, Qing; Stolz, Donna B.; Pribis, John P.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sun, Xuejun; Bermudez, Christian A.; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Nakao, Atsunori



Retracted Science and the Retraction Index ?  

PubMed Central

Articles may be retracted when their findings are no longer considered trustworthy due to scientific misconduct or error, they plagiarize previously published work, or they are found to violate ethical guidelines. Using a novel measure that we call the “retraction index,” we found that the frequency of retraction varies among journals and shows a strong correlation with the journal impact factor. Although retractions are relatively rare, the retraction process is essential for correcting the literature and maintaining trust in the scientific process.

Fang, Ferric C.; Casadevall, Arturo




Microsoft Academic Search

FTSE US ACTIVEBETA INDEX SERIES PERFORMANCE (USD TOTAL RETURN) The FTSE US ActiveBeta Index Series offers an efficient, transparent and cost-effective capture of the systematic sources of active equity returns, and provides the ability to capture them either independently or in combination. The Index Series comprises the FTSE US ActiveBeta Momentum Index, the FTSE US ActiveBeta Value Index and the


Medieval Feminist Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The librarians and scholars who maintain the Medieval Feminist Index (MFI) compile citations for journal articles, book reviews, and essays relating to women, sexuality, and gender during the Middle Ages (450 CE to 1500 CE). Currently, MFI contains over 2500 citations from over 350 journals and essay collections, covering publications in English, French, German, and Spanish from 1994 through 1997. The entire MFI is searchable by title, author, subject, source, and date. In addition to these standard search fields, the descriptive indexing provides searchable fields for geographic region, century, and article type to facilitate detailed cross-field searches. Searching the MFI is quite simple, but users should note the following peculiarities: vague or allusive titles are appended with a summary sentence to enhance description; subject headings are controlled by a customized thesaurus, which can be viewed but not browsed; and some full citation records supply abstracts, but abstracts are not searchable by keyword.


Intrauterine crowding decreases average birth weight and affects muscle fiber hyperplasia in piglets.  


High prolificacy of sows and increased fetal survival lead to greater incidence of intrauterine crowding (IUC), which may then affect pre- and postnatal development of the progeny. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of IUC, using unilaterally hysterectomized-ovariectomized gilts (UHO), on organ and muscle development of their progeny at birth. In the study, 7 UHO and 7 intact control (Con) Swiss Large White gilts were used. At farrowing, if available, 3 male and 3 female progeny with a low (>0.8 and <1.2 kg), medium (>1.2 and <1.4 kg), and high (>1.6 kg) birth weight (BtW) were killed. Internal organs and brain were weighed, and semitendinosus (STN), psoas major (PM), and rhomboideus (RH) muscles were collected. Histological analyses were performed in PM