Sample records for hyperplasia impact index

  1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Specific Health Status Measures in Clinical Research: How Much Change in the American Urological Association Symptom Index and the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index is Perceptible to Patients?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Barry; William O. Williford; Yuchiao Chang; Madeline Machi; Karen M. Jones; Elizabeth Walker-Corkery; Herbert Lepor

    1995-01-01

    PurposeWe assessed the relationship between changes in scores for the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom index and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) impact index with patient global ratings of improvement in a large Veterans Affairs trial comparing different pharmacological therapies for BPH.

  2. Medical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia: sexual dysfunction and impact on quality of life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DJ Carbone; S Hodges

    2003-01-01

    Therapies for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may either improve or exacerbate sexual function with an ensuing impact on quality of life. Here we review a total of 73 papers on medical therapies for BPH with a focus on the effects of different pharmacological agents on sexual function. For example, certain ?1-adrenergic receptor blockers may improve erectile function; however, ejaculatory dysfunction

  3. Impact of molecular genetics on congenital adrenal hyperplasia management.

    PubMed

    Balsamo, A; Baldazzi, L; Menabò, S; Cicognani, A

    2010-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding the enzymes involved in one of the 5 steps of adrenal steroid synthesis or the electron donor P450 oxidoreductase (POR) enzyme. Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), the principal focus of this review, accounts for about 90-95% of all CAH cases, and its biochemical and clinical severity depends on the underlying CYP21A2 gene disruption. Molecular genetic advancements have been achieved in recent years, and the aim of this review is to attempt to highlight its contribution to the comprehension and management of the disease. When possible, we will try to achieve this goal also by providing some results from our personal experience regarding: some aspects of CYP21A2 gene analysis, with basic genotype/phenotype relationships; its crucial role in both genetic counselling and in prenatal diagnosis and treatment in families at risk for 21-OHD; its help in the comprehension of the severity of the disease in patients diagnosed by neonatal screening and possibly treated before an evident salt-loss crisis or before performing adequate blood sampling; its usefulness in the definition of post ACTH 17-hydroxyprogesterone values, discriminating between non-classic, heterozygote and normal subjects; and finally the contribution of genes other than CYP21A2 whose function or dysfunction could influence 21-hydroxylase activity and modify the presentation or management of the disease. PMID:20639616

  4. Impact of interventional therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia on quality of life and sexual function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    András Hoznek; Clément-Claude Abbou

    2001-01-01

    Considering the epidemiologic impact of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the use of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment\\u000a of this condition is one of the main ambitions of contemporary urology. Compared with the prevalence of BPH and LUTS in elderly\\u000a men, only a small percentage of patients requires surgery for indications such as renal insufficiency, chronic retention,\\u000a and infection. The

  5. Application of ultrasonography and the resistive index for evaluating bladder outlet obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shinbo, Hitoshi; Kurita, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an extremely common and chronic condition that can lead to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in elderly men. Although pressure-flow studies are considered the most reliable method for evaluating BOO, they are invasive and complicated. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) is a promising alternative because of its minimal invasiveness. Recently, TRUS imaging has been shown capable of measuring the resistive index, a useful parameter for evaluating BOO and for determining proper medical intervention in patients suffering from BPH. PMID:21475953

  6. Impact of alfuzosin on sexual function in Taiwanese men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Thomas I S; Chu, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Mao-Sheng; Chen, Chih-Shou; Lee, Liang-Ming; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Chen, Wen-Hsiang; Chiang, Po-Hui

    2012-08-01

    To assess the effect of alfuzosin (XATRAL) 10 mg once daily on sexual function in men with moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), patients with suggestive symptomatic BPH, an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) >8 (range of scores, 0-35), and sexual attempts at least once per month were enrolled. All patients received alfuzosin 10 mg once daily for 24 weeks and were asked to complete the IPSS test and Male Sexual Health Questionnaire at weeks 0 (baseline), 1, 4, 12, and 24. Other assessments included the International Index of Erectile Function-five-item version (range of scores: 5-25), as well as onset of action and peak urinary flow rate (Q(max)). From September 2006 to May 2008, 279 patients were enrolled from nine centers in Taiwan. At 24 weeks, alfuzosin effectively improved LUTS and quality of life, as demonstrated by a reduction in the IPSS total score (17.3 vs. 9.9, p < 0.001) and the IPSS bother score (3.8 vs. 2.5, p < 0.001). The majority (85%) of patients perceived an improvement of urinary symptoms within 1 month of administration. In patients with an International Index of Erectile Function-five-item version score of ?16, alfuzosin significantly improved erectile disorder and satisfaction subscores at each time point (p ? 0.02). Prolonged-release alfuzosin effectively improved LUTS, quality of life, erectile function, and sexual satisfaction in men with BPH and mild to severe erectile dysfunction. Alfuzosin is an effective treatment option for the management of patients with BPH/LUTS and concomitant sexual dysfunction. PMID:22892164

  7. The economic impact of introducing transurethral microwave thermotherapy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a scenario analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. P. M. Baltussen; G. Wielink; H. J. Stoevelaar; G. J. Van der Wilt; J. L. Severens; A. J. H. A. Ament

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the economic impact of introducing transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) in the\\u000a treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Different scenarios were constructed using both randomized clinical trial\\u000a data and observational data on resource use related to BPH treatments. These include a baseline scenario, demand scenarios\\u000a reflecting the number of men who will be

  8. Mis-sizing of stent promotes intimal hyperplasia: impact of endothelial shear and intramural stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Henry Y.; Sinha, Anjan K.; Choy, Jenny S.; Zheng, Hai; Sturek, Michael; Bigelow, Brian; Bhatt, Deepak L.

    2011-01-01

    Stent can cause flow disturbances on the endothelium and compliance mismatch and increased stress on the vessel wall. These effects can cause low wall shear stress (WSS), high wall shear stress gradient (WSSG), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and circumferential wall stress (CWS), which may promote neointimal hyperplasia (IH). The hypothesis is that stent-induced abnormal fluid and solid mechanics contribute to IH. To vary the range of WSS, WSSG, OSI, and CWS, we intentionally mismatched the size of stents to that of the vessel lumen. Stents were implanted in coronary arteries of 10 swine. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was used to size the coronary arteries and stents. After 4 wk of stent implantation, IVUS was performed again to determine the extent of IH. In conjunction, computational models of actual stents, the artery, and non-Newtonian blood were created in a computer simulation to yield the distribution of WSS, WSSG, OSI, and CWS in the stented vessel wall. An inverse relation (R2 = 0.59, P < 0.005) between WSS and IH was found based on a linear regression analysis. Linear relations between WSSG, OSI, and IH were observed (R2 = 0.48 and 0.50, respectively, P < 0.005). A linear relation (R2 = 0.58, P < 0.005) between CWS and IH was also found. More statistically significant linear relations between the ratio of CWS to WSS (CWS/WSS), the products CWS × WSSG and CWS × OSI, and IH were observed (R2 = 0.67, 0.54, and 0.56, respectively, P < 0.005), suggesting that both fluid and solid mechanics influence the extent of IH. Stents create endothelial flow disturbances and intramural wall stress concentrations, which correlate with the extent of IH formation, and these effects were exaggerated with mismatch of stent/vessel size. These findings reveal the importance of reliable vessel and stent sizing to improve the mechanics on the vessel wall and minimize IH. PMID:21926337

  9. Current benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment: impact on sexual function and management of related sexual adverse events.

    PubMed

    Mirone, V; Sessa, A; Giuliano, F; Berges, R; Kirby, M; Moncada, I

    2011-09-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in older men that can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Male sexual dysfunction is also an age-related condition. Epidemiological studies have confirmed an association between BPH/LUTS and sexual dysfunction in ageing men that is independent of the effects of age, other co-morbidities and lifestyle factors. Proposed pathophysiological mechanisms for BPH/LUTS-associated sexual dysfunction include the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) pathway, rho-kinase and endothelin-1 activity, autonomic nervous system overactivity and the metabolic syndrome, and pelvic organ atherosclerosis. Both BPH/LUTS and sexual dysfunction can have a substantial negative impact on a man's quality of life. However, urologists and primary care physicians appear to under-recognise sexual dysfunction in men with BPH/LUTS. Current guidelines recommend alpha-blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, either alone or in combination, among appropriate medical treatment options for BPH/LUTS. Randomised, controlled trials demonstrate that these therapies can be associated with sexual adverse effects (AEs) such as loss of libido, erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disorders. Sexual dysfunction should be fully evaluated in men requiring treatment for BPH/LUTS using validated questionnaires. Management of sexual dysfunction in men treated for BPH/LUTS should involve assessment of co-morbidities and concomitant medications, consideration of lifestyle interventions such as weight loss and increased physical activity to improve risk factors and, if necessary, introduction of pharmacotherapies. In addition, physicians should provide patients with proper counselling on the possible sexual AEs of medical therapies for BPH/LUTS and their impact on sexual satisfaction, while being aware of the possibility that counselling in itself is likely to influence reported rates of sexual dysfunction. PMID:21718399

  10. Update on the sexual impact of treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bell, John Roger; Laborde, Eric

    2012-12-01

    There is an established link between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and erectile dysfunction (ED). The medical and surgical management of LUTS can affect erectile function (EF), cause ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) or affect libido. This article will review the effects of these therapies on sexual function. PMID:23065462

  11. The Economic Impact of Delaying 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitor Therapy in Men Receiving Treatment for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, Michael; Eaddy, Michael T.; Hogue, Susan L.; Kruep, Eric J.; Shah, Manan B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pharmacologic treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia often includes alpha-blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. Many clinicians use alpha-blockers for rapid symptom control, later adding 5-alpha reductase inhibitors to modify long-term disease progression. Delaying the addition of these medications has been shown to result in reduced clinical outcomes. The economic impact of this practice has not been widely studied or reported to date. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of delaying initiation of concomitant 5-alpha reductase inhibitor therapy (?30 days) in patients receiving alpha-blockers for lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods Using 2 nationally representative databases (Integrated Health Care Information Solutions and PharMetrics), 2 retrospective analyses were conducted involving 2636 and 4260 men, respectively, aged ?50 years treated for benign prostatic hyperplasia between 2000 and 2007. Economic outcomes (ie, the cost of therapy and the use of healthcare resources) were compared for adding 5-alpha reductase inhibitor therapy early (within <30 days of initiating an alpha-blocker) versus delaying these medications (?30 days after initiating an alpha-blocker). Results In the Integrated Health Care Information Solutions analysis, patients in the early add-on therapy group (n = 1572) had lower benign prostatic hyperplasia–related medical costs in the posttreatment period than those in the delayed-therapy group (n = 1064), $349 versus $618 (P <.0001). Similar trends were seen in the PharMetrics analysis—the medical costs in the early add-on therapy group (n = 2604) and delayed group (n = 1656) were $344 versus $449, respectively (P <.001). Pharmacy costs were $1068 for the early-treatment cohort and $989 for the delayed-treatment cohort for the Integrated Health Care Information Solutions database, yielding total costs of $1417 and $1606, respectively, for a $189 savings per patient over the initial year of treatment (P <.0001). In the PharMetrics analysis, pharmacy costs were $1391 for the early-treatment cohort and $1237 for the delayed-treatment cohort, resulting in total cost of $1735 and $1686, respectively, yielding $59 in additional costs per patient annually for those treated early (P = .8645). Conclusion These results suggest that patients receiving 5-alpha reductase inhibitor therapy within 30 days after initiating alpha-blocker treatment have lower benign prostatic hyperplasia–related medical costs than those who start combination treatment later. The increase in pharmacy costs associated with early initiation of 5-alpha reductase inhibitor therapy resulted in total costs that were similar or significantly lower than those of delayed combination users. PMID:25126348

  12. [Surgical options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: impact on sexual function and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Gu, Ren-Ze; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2011-09-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common problem among elderly males. Surgical resection of the hyperplastic tissue to relieve urinary tract obstruction remains a major option for the treatment of BPH. Operations, whether open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate, or transurethral laser resection of the prostate, will inevitably affect the sexual function of the patient. With the increased attention to patients' quality of life, more and more importance is being attached to the changes in post-BPH sexual function. This review covers the sexual function changes induced by different surgical methods and assesses the possible risk factors of BPH surgery. PMID:21961250

  13. The Impact of Systematic Prostate Biopsy on Prostate Cancer Incidence in Men With Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Undergoing Transurethral Resection of the Prostate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David K. Ornstein; Ganesh S. Rao; Deborah S. Smith; Gerald L. Andriole

    1997-01-01

    PurposeWe determined the impact of 1 or more systematic (4 to 6 cores) needle biopsies of the prostate on the incidence of prostate cancer in men undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with elevated serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and\\/or suspicious digital rectal examination.

  14. Impact of prostate-specific antigen density in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate carcinoma. Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Akda?, A; Dillio?lugil, O; Cevik, I; Ilker, Y

    1994-01-01

    In an attempt to enhance the success of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the diagnosis and staging of prostate carcinoma (PCa) the concept of PSA density (PSAD) has been introduced by Benson et al. Likewise a study to investigate the role of PSAD in 53 patients with PCa and 47 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been done. PSADs seemed to increase directly proportional to the grade in PCa and differed significantly between patient groups with BPH and localized+metastatic PCa, BPH and localized PCa, and localized PCa and metastatic PCa. Although 0.6 level for PSAD seemed to be a rational cut-off level in our study, this issue needs to be studied in multiple centers involving an increased number of patients for resolution. PMID:7519992

  15. Impact of Metabolic Syndrome on Response to Medical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cyrus, Ali; Goodarzi, Davood; Talaei, Afsaneh; Moradi, Ali; Rafiee, Mohammad; Moghimi, Mehrdad; Shahbazi, Elham; Farmani, Elaheh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on the response to medical therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) after a 3-month period of treatment. Materials and Methods This was a cohort study of 100 patients, 47 with MetS and 53 without MetS, referred to either the primary care unit or referral hospital with BPH who had moderate lower urinary tract symptoms of prostate involvement and were candidates for medical treatment. Our main outcome was response to medical treatment with prazosin 1 mg twice a day and finasteride 5 mg daily in patients with BPH on the basis of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare BPH treatment response in patients with and without MetS before and after receiving treatment. Results The mean volume of the prostate was significantly higher in MetS patients than in patients without MetS (57±32.65 mL compared with 46.00±20.19 mL, p=0.036). The control group demonstrated an 11-unit reduction in IPSS, whereas those with MetS showed a reduction in the symptom score of only 6 units (p<0.001). Regarding the components of MetS separately, triglyceride (p<0.001), fasting blood sugar (p=0.001), and waist circumference (p=0.028) significantly affected the clinical progression of BPH. The observational nature of this study may be a limitation in comparison with an interventional study. Conclusions The results of the present study showed that MetS can negatively affect the response to medical treatment of BPH. Therefore, it is necessary to consider MetS in selecting patients with BPH for drug therapy. PMID:25512816

  16. Impact of Changing Trends in Medical Therapy on Surgery for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Over Two Decades

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Young; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Myung, Soon Chul; Moon, Young Tae; Kim, Kyung Do; Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Hye-Ryoun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Following the introduction of medical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), we determined the effect of the change in trends in medical therapy on the indication and outcome of surgical intervention for BPH. Materials and Methods We compared the basic characteristics of, weight of resected tissue of, transfusions in, and postoperative complications of patients who underwent surgery between 1985 and 1989 (before the advent of medical therapy for BPH), between 1995 and 1999 (when medical therapy was developed and became widely used as alternative treatment), and between 2005 and 2009 (when medical therapy superseded surgical intervention to become first-line treatment and when combination therapy became widely adopted). Results At our institution, the mean age and BMI of patients increased over the past two decades (p<0.001). Hypertension, operation history, and other comorbidities also increased significantly (p<0.001, p=0.005, and p<0.001, respectively). The indications for surgery in 1985 to 1989, 1995 to 1999, and 2005 to 2009 were as follows: acute urinary retention in 34.7%, 20.2%, and 15.1% of patients and symptomatic deterioration in 61.1%, 72.3%, and 73.0% of patients, respectively. Prostate volume and the weight of resected tissue increased from 34.4±14.5 ml to 61.3±32.4 ml and from 7.2±6.4 g to 10.8±7.6 g, respectively, over two decades. Patients who underwent surgery in 2005 to 2009 had their catheters removed earlier (p<0.001). Secondary hemorrhage within four postoperative weeks and repeat transurethral resection of the prostate within 1 year decreased significantly (p=0.03 and p=0.003, respectively). No statistically significant change in impaired detrusor contractility was found (p=0.523). Conclusions Although patients who underwent surgery were older after widespread use of medical therapy for BPH, advancements in surgical techniques have benefitted these patients. PMID:22323970

  17. Google Scholar Metrics h5-index correlated with Impact Factor

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Google Scholar Metrics h5-index correlated with Impact Factor Michael O'Neill Complex & Adaptive Computing amongst others [3], based upon Google Scholar Metrics and journal impact factors. A positive correlation is found between the h5-index (2007-2011) and impact factors (2010), and an overall ranking

  18. Impact of Treatment With Statins on Prostate-Specific Antigen and Prostate Volume in Patients With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hun; Park, Tae Ju; Bae, Min Ho; Choi, Sung Ho; Cho, Young Sam; Joo, Kwan Joong; Kwon, Chil Hun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the impact on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume (PV) of statin medication for 1 year in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods We retrospectively investigated 791 patients in whom BPH was diagnosed. For analysis, the patients were divided into four groups according to their medications: group A, ?-blocker; group B, ?-blocker+statin; group C, ?-blocker+dutasteride; group D, ?-blockers+statin+dutasteride. To investigate changes in serum PSA, PV, and total cholesterol, we analyzed the data at the time of initial treatment and after 1 year of medication. Results After 1 year, group A showed a 1.3% increase in PSA and a 1.0% increase in PV. Group B showed a 4.3% decrease in PSA and a 1.8% decrease in PV. The difference in PV reduction between groups A and B was statistically significant (p<0.001). Group C showed a 49.1% reduction in PSA and a 22.9% reduction in PV. Group D showed a 51.6% reduction in PSA and a 24.5% reduction in PV. The difference in PV reduction between groups C and D was not statistically significant (p=0.762). By use of a multivariate logistic regression model, we found that the probability of PV reduction after 1 year was more than 14.8 times in statin users than in statin nonusers (95% confidence interval, 5.8% to 37.6%; p<0.001). Conclusions Statin administration reduced PSA and PV in BPH patients. This finding may imply the improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms and prevention of cardiovascular disease and chemoprevention of prostate cancer with statin treatment. PMID:24255756

  19. Impact of nasal continuous positive airway pressure for congenital adrenal hyperplasia with obstructive sleep apnea and bruxism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Hamada; Kazuo Chin; Takefumi Hitomi; Toru Oga; Tomohiro Handa; Tomomasa Tuboi; Akio Niimi; Michiaki Mishima

    Introduction  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders in humans. The most frequent CAH variant\\u000a is 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Patients with 21-hydroxylasedeficiency require long-term glucocorticoid replacement treatment.\\u000a Although sleep disturbance is frequently observed under glucocorticoid replacement treatment, a case of obstructive sleep\\u000a apnea(OSA) in patients with CAH has not been reported.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  A 43-year-old man with CAH who

  20. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse - www. ...

  1. The impact of transurethral procedures for benign prostate hyperplasia on male sexual function: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zong, Huan-Tao; Peng, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Chen-Chen; Zhang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    The effect of transurethral procedures for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) on male sexual function is still controversial, and we conducted this meta-analysis to compare the effects of different transurethral surgical procedures for the treatment of symptomatic BPH on male erectile function (EF) and ejaculatory function (EJF). Databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCT) that compared watchful waiting, transurethral electrovaporization (TUEVP) or holmium laser treatment (HLT) with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Trials were included if they were RCTs, contained fully available data, compared with conventional TURP for BPH, and referred to male EF and EJF. A total of 12 RCTs involving a total of 1889 subjects were selected for analysis, including 2 trials comparing TURP and watchful waiting, 6 comparing TURP with TUEVP, and 4 comparing TURP with HLT. TURP was associated with a higher occurrence of retrograde ejaculation compared with watchful waiting but not to TUEVP (P = .95) or HLT (P = .37) and associated with a lower incidence of male erectile dysfunction compared with TUEVP (P = .04) but not HLT. According to the analysis, TURP lead to a higher prevalence of retrograde ejaculation compared with watchful waiting but had less of an effect on EF than TUEVP. TURP did not have a significantly different effect on EF or EJF compared with HLT. PMID:21868751

  2. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Bienert, Igor R C; de Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho; de Andrade, Pedro Beraldo; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometricindexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement.

  3. Contribution of Endothelial Injury and Inflammation in Early Phase to Vein Graft Failure: The Causal Factors Impact on the Development of Intimal Hyperplasia in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chi-Nan; Karlöf, Eva; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lengquist, Mariette; Rotzius, Pierre; Berggren, Per-Olof; Hedin, Ulf; Eriksson, Einar E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Autologous veins are preferred conduits in by-pass surgery. However, long-term results are hampered by limited patency due to intimal hyperplasia. Although mechanisms involved in development of intimal hyperplasia have been established, the role of inflammatory processes is still unclear. Here, we studied leukocyte recruitment and intimal hyperplasia in inferior vena cava grafts transferred to abdominal aorta in mice. Methods and Results Several microscopic techniques were used to study endothelium denudation and regeneration and leukocyte recruitment on endothelium. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated denudation of vein graft endothelium 7 days post-transfer and complete endothelial regeneration by 28 days. Examination of vein grafts transferred to mice transgenic for green fluorescent protein under Tie2 promoter in endothelial cells showed regeneration of graft endothelium from the adjacent aorta. Intravital microscopy revealed recruitment of leukocytes in vein grafts at 7 days in wild type mice, which had tapered off by 28 days. At 28 and 63 days there was significant development of intimal hyperplasia. In contrast; no injury, leukocyte recruitment nor intimal hyperplasia occurred in arterial grafts. Leukocyte recruitment was reduced in vein grafts in mice deficient in E- and P-selectin. In parallel, intimal hyperplasia was reduced in vein grafts in mice deficient in E- and P-selectin and in wild type mice receiving P-selectin/E-selectin function-blocking antibodies. Conclusion The results show that early phase endothelial injury and inflammation are crucial processes in intimal hyperplasia in murine vein grafts. The data implicate endothelial selectins as targets for intervention of vein graft disease. PMID:24887332

  4. Saw Palmetto for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Bent; Christopher Kane; Katsuto Shinohara; John Neuhaus; Esther S. Hudes; Harley Goldberg; Andrew L. Avins

    2006-01-01

    In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 225 men over the age of 49 years who had moderate-to-severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia to one year of treatment with saw palmetto extract (160 mg twice a day) or placebo. The pri- mary outcome measures were changes in the scores on the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) and the maximal

  5. The HIVE impact: contributing to consistency via automatic indexing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hollie White; Craig Willis; Jane Greenberg

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that automatic subject indexing is more efficient and consistent than manual indexing; yet many organizations continue to use manual indexing because of the unacceptable quality of automatically produced results. This poster presents the results of an exploratory experiment examining consistency stemming from a machine-aided indexing approach. The HIVE vocabulary server was used to present concepts to 31

  6. Comparative analysis between impact factor and h-index for psychiatry Pascal Badora,*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Comparative analysis between impact factor and h-index for psychiatry journals Pascal Badora (journal h-index) applied to a sample of psychiatry journals and compared to IF. Method: In order of psychiatry. We studied the statistical correlation between the IF 2006 and h- index 2006. Results

  7. Comparative analysis between impact factor and h-index for pharmacology and psychiatry journals

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Comparative analysis between impact factor and h-index for pharmacology and psychiatry journals" and "Psychiatry" journals computed from the ISI Web of Science. For the two samples, the IF and the h-index is high for Psychiatry but lower for Pharmacology. The linearity test performed between the h-index and 1

  8. Potential monitoring of crop production using a satellite-based Climate-Variability Impact Index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Zhang; Bruce Anderson; Bin Tan; Dong Huang; Ranga Myneni

    2005-01-01

    The capabilities of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) present some exciting possibilities for improved and timely monitoring of crop production. A quantitative index is introduced in this paper to study the relationship between remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) and crop production. The Climate-Variability Impact Index (CVII), defined as the monthly contribution to anomalies in annual growth, quantifies the

  9. Clinical and Economic Impact of Early Versus Delayed 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitor Therapy in Men Taking Alpha Blockers for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kruep, Eric J.; Hogue, Susan L.; Eaddy, Michael T.; Chandra, Monica D.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: Recent clinical trials indicate that combining an alpha blocker for rapid symptom improvement and a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) to reduce the risk of clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may be an optimal approach to management; however, few studies have evaluated the effect of combination therapy on clinical progression in a real-world setting. The purpose of our study was to assess the clinical and economic impact of early versus delayed 5-ARI therapy in patients treated with an alpha blocker for BPH. Materials and Methods: A retrospective database analysis included men 50 years of age and older who were treated for BPH between 2003 and 2007. Clinical outcomes were evaluated for patients using 5-ARIs early (within 30 days of starting an alpha blocker) compared with those using delayed 5-ARI therapy (between 30 and 180 days after starting an alpha blocker). We assessed the likelihood of clinical progression (defined as the occurrence of acute urinary retention or prostate surgery) for each group over a one-year period following the start of alpha-blocker therapy. Data Source: The MarketScan Database, which was used to identify patients, contains medical and pharmacy claims data obtained directly from Medicare and commercial health plans and employers, representing 18 to 20 million lives annually. Results: Of 8,617 men included in the analysis, 64.5% began 5-ARI therapy within 30 days of alpha-blocker therapy (the early cohort). These patients were less likely than those receiving delayed 5-ARI treatment to have clinical progression (12.8% vs. 17.4% respectively; P < 0.0001), acute urinary retention (10.2% vs. 13.8%, P < 0.0001), and prostate surgery (5% vs. 7%, P = 0.0002). The early group also incurred lower BPH-related medical costs ($572 vs. $730, P < 0.0001). Even though BPH-related pharmacy costs were significantly higher ($1,137 vs. $1,263, P = 0.0313), their total BPH-related costs were lower ($1,834 vs. $1,867, P = 0.0068). Conclusion: These results suggest that early 5-ARI therapy for men with symptomatic BPH who receive an alpha blocker may significantly reduce the risk of clinical progression (i.e., acute urinary retention or prostate surgery) over the next 12 months as well as lower BPH-related medical costs and BPH-related total costs. PMID:21935297

  10. The Nonclassic Adrenal Hyperplasias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Didier Dewailly; Ricardo Azziz

    Nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) resulting from 11?-hydroxylase or 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is very rare and may\\u000a not even exist in women presenting with hyperandrogenism in adulthood. Consequently, screening for these disorders in hyperandrogenic\\u000a patients is not generally necessary. Alternatively, 21-hydroxylase (21-OH)-deficient NCAH has been increasingly recognized\\u000a in adolescent or adult hyperandrogenic patients. It is now widely accepted that neither clinical presentation

  11. Impact of body mass index for patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Rangelova, Elena; Ansorge, Christoph; Blomberg, John; Segersvärd, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on short and long term results after pancreaticoduodenectomies (PD). METHODS: A consecutive series of PDs performed at the Karolinska University Hospital from 2004 till 2010 were retrieved from our prospective database. The patients were divided by BMI into overweight/obese (O; BMI ? 25 kg/m2) and controls (C; BMI < 25 kg/m2). Demographics, peri-operative data, morbidity, mortality, pancreatic fistula (PF) rate, length of stay (LOS), hospital costs, histology, and survival were analyzed. An additional sub analysis of survival was performed in patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and divided in underweight, normal-weight, overweight and obese. RESULTS: A total of 367 PDs were included (O = 141/C = 226). No differences were found between O and C regarding demographics, peri-operative data, costs, morbidity or mortality. O was associated with higher intra-operative blood loss (1392 ± 115 mL vs 1121 ± 83 mL; P = 0.01), rate of PF (20% vs 9.5%; P = 0.006) and marginally longer LOS (18 ± 0.9 d vs 15 ± 1.1 d; P = 0.05). An increasing risk for PF was observed with increasing BMI. The 1, 3 and 5 years survival rate was similar in O and C in PDAC (68.7%, 26.4% and 8.8% vs 66.1%, 30.9% and 17.9% respectively; P = 0.9). When the survival was analyzed using 4 different categories of BMI (underweight, normal, overweight and obese), a trend was seen toward a difference in survival, with a worse prognosis for the underweight and obese patients compared to normal weight and overweight patients. CONCLUSION: Overweight increases the risk for intra-operative bleeding and PF, but do not otherwise alter short or long term outcome after PD for pancreatic cancer. PMID:23755369

  12. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH. PMID:20671993

  13. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH. PMID:20863043

  14. Diffuse intrapulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Anna L; Maziak, Donna E; Sekhon, Harman S

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse intrapulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia is a rare, potential precursor lesion to typical pulmonary carcinoid tumours. Fewer than 50 cases have been reported in the literature. Their pathogenesis, clinical significance and management is controversial. A patient who presented with diffuse intrapulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia associated with a primary typical carcinoid tumour of the lung is reported. PMID:24032122

  15. Impact of exposure induced refractive index changes of photoresists on the photolithographic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Andreas; Henderson, Clifford L.; Willson, C. Grant

    2001-06-01

    In many commercial and noncommercial photoresists the real and the imaginary parts of the refractive index are changed during exposure. Using a finite-difference beam-propagation algorithm, we analyze the impact of these nonlinear optical effects on the photolithographic process. Changes of the real part of the refractive index have a considerable impact on dose latitudes, sidewalls, swing curves, iso-dense bias and other process parameters. These effects become more dominant as the thickness of the resist layer increases.

  16. ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) - a new index for assessing impacts of alien species on benthic communities.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Melih Ertan; Bakir, Kerem

    2014-10-15

    Biotic indices are mainly aimed at assessing levels of deterioration caused by chemical or organic pollution. However, no biotic index to date has been developed to detect impacts of alien species on benthic communities. In this paper, a new biotic index, namely ALEX, is proposed to address the objectives of the Water Framework Directive and was tested in Mersin Bay (Levantine Sea, Turkey). Species were divided into four biogeographic groups, namely native species, casual species, established species and invasive species, and the metric considers the relative importance of these groups in samples. The index classified the ecological status of some stations which are shallow, and close to harbor and river mouths as bad or poor in February and October. The ALEX values were positively and significantly correlated with total nitrogen, silicate and silt percentage in sediment, and negatively correlated with depth and the distance from the harbor. PMID:25125285

  17. Airport delay prediction using weather-impacted traffic index (WITI) model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Klein; Chad Craun; Robert S. Lee

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new predictive model for estimating airport delay using data from weather forecast products. We use the well established Weather Impacted Traffic Index (WITI) toolset and metric. The latter quantifies the “front-end” impact of weather and traffic demand on the NAS and is well correlated with NAS delays, which makes WITI a reasonably good high-level

  18. Alternative to the Science Citation Index Impact Factor as an Assessment of Emergency Medicine's Scientific Contributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P Barnaby; E. John Gallagher

    1998-01-01

    See related article and editorialStudy objective: The Science Citation Indeximpact factor” is the only available quantitative estimate of a journal's scientific contributions. However, the derivation of this factor contains an intrinsic bias that underestimates the impact of emergency medicine journals. We wished to test the hypothesis that use of an alternative criterion standard would provide an improved profile of

  19. Evidence of Methodologic Bias in the Derivation of the Science Citation Index Impact Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. John Gallagher; Douglas P Barnaby

    1998-01-01

    See related article and editorial.Study objective: The “impact factor” published in Science Citation Index (SCI) is widely used in the scientific community to measure the relative importance of a medical journal. In contrast to all other indicators of academic growth in emergency medicine, impact factors for emergency medicine journals have remained low and unchanged since the inception of the specialty.

  20. The impact of global warming on the Southern Oscillation Index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott B. Power; Greg Kociuba

    The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)—a measure of air pressure difference across the Pacific Ocean, from Tahiti in the south-east\\u000a to Darwin in the west—is one of the world’s most important climatic indices. The SOI is used to track and predict changes\\u000a in both the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and the Walker Circulation (WC). During El Niño, for example, the WC

  1. Genetics of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Krone, Nils; Arlt, Wiebke

    2009-04-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders. It comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by the deficiency of one of four steroidogenic enzymes involved in cortisol biosynthesis or in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) that serves as electron donor to steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (CYP) type II enzymes. The biochemical and clinical phenotype depends on the specific enzymatic defect and the impairment of specific enzyme activity. Defects of steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2) and 11beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) only affect adrenal steroidogenesis, whereas 17alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17A1) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2) deficiency also impact on gonadal steroid biosynthesis. Inactivating POR gene mutations are the cause of CAH manifesting with apparent combined CYP17A1-CYP21A2 deficiency. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (ORD) has a complex phenotype including two unique features not observed in any other CAH variant: skeletal malformations and severe genital ambiguity in both sexes. PMID:19500762

  2. A teratogenic deformity index for evaluating impacts of selenium on fish populations.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A D

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes a method for using teratogenic deformities in fish as the basis for evaluating impacts of selenium contamination. Teratogenic deformities are reliable bioindicators of selenium toxicosis in fish. They are produced in response to dietary exposure of parent fish and subsequent deposition of selenium in eggs. There is a close parallel between selenium concentrations in eggs, incidence of teratogenic deformities in larvae, and magnitude of reproductive failure. Using these relationships, an index was developed for teratogenic-based assessment of impacts to fish populations. The index is composed of three ratings that signify increasing levels of terata-induced population mortality: 1, negligible impact (< 5% population mortality); 2, slight to moderate impact (5-20% population mortality); 3, major impact (> 20% population mortality). Each rating is based on the anticipated population-level impact of the corresponding degree of mortality. Teratogenic-based impact assessment provides a conclusive cause-effect linkage between the contaminant and the fish. It is particularly useful for verifying selenium-induced impacts on reproductive success because poor reproduction can be caused by many things-i.e., fluctuating water levels, nest predation, food shortages, poor recruitment, etc. The index given here should be a useful tool for evaluating the effect of selenium on fish populations. Moreover, application of this technique may save considerable time and money by identifying the most efficient use of manpower and funds early in the assessment process. PMID:9378093

  3. Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH).

    PubMed

    Nat, Laura; Poant?, Laura Irina

    2014-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumour of the liver (hepatic tumour), which is the second most prevalent tumour of the liver (the first is hepatic hemangioma). It has a higher incidence in females, 20-40 years old, but also occurs in men and even in children. It is usually asymptomatic, rarely grows or bleeds, and has no malignant potential. This tumour was once often resected because it was difficult to distinguish from hepatic adenoma, but with modem multiphase imaging it is now diagnosed strictly by imaging criteria, and not resected. We present the case of a 78 years old man who presented to emergency room (ER) with a history of dry cough, chest pain and mild dyspnea. Chest X-ray showed ascension of the right hemidiaphragm, and a homogeneous round opacity of 6/6.2 cm in the right cardiophrenic angle. The first suspicion was of pulmonary tumor, but the final diagnosis was FNH, confirmed by CT scan. We discuss the differential diagnosis and prognosis of this entity. The particularities of the case are the presentation with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary mass, and the age of the patient. PMID:25000678

  4. Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH) is the most fatal form of CAH, as it disrupts adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. Most cases of lipoid CAH are caused by recessive mutations in the gene encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Affected patients typically present with signs of severe adrenal failure in early infancy and 46,XY genetic males are phenotypic females due to disrupted testicular androgen secretion. The StAR p.Q258X mutation accounts for about 70% of affected alleles in most patients of Japanese and Korean ancestry. However, it is more prevalent (92.3%) in the Korean population. Recently, some patients have been showed that they had late and mild clinical findings. These cases and studies constitute a new entity of 'nonclassic lipoid CAH'. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc (CYP11A1), plays an essential role converting cholesterol to pregnenolone. Although progesterone production from the fetally derived placenta is necessary to maintain a pregnancy to term, some patients with P450scc mutations have recently been reported. P450scc mutations can also cause lipoid CAH and establish a recently recognized human endocrine disorder. PMID:25654062

  5. The impact of minimally invasive surgeries for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia on male sexual function: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Frieben, Ryan W; Lin, Hao-Cheng; Hinh, Peter P; Berardinelli, Francesco; Canfield, Steven E; Wang, Run

    2010-07-01

    A systematic review of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies was conducted to evaluate data for the effects of minimally invasive procedures for treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on male sexual function. The studies searched were trials that enrolled men with symptomatic BPH who were treated with laser surgeries, transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT), transurethral needle ablation of the prostate (TUNA), transurethral ethanol ablation of the prostate (TEAP) and high-intensity frequency ultrasound (HIFU), in comparison with traditional transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or sham operations. A total of 72 studies were identified, of which 33 met the inclusion criteria. Of the 33 studies, 21 were concerned with laser surgeries, six with TUMT, four with TUNA and two with TEAP containing information regarding male sexual function. No study is available regarding the effect of HIFU for BPH on male sexual function. Our analysis shows that minimally invasive surgeries for BPH have comparable effects to those of TURP on male erectile function. Collectively, less than 15.4% or 15.2% of patients will have either decrease or increase, respectively, of erectile function after laser procedures, TUMT and TUNA. As observed with TURP, a high incidence of ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) is common after treatment of BPH with holmium, potassium-titanyl-phosphate and thulium laser therapies (> 33.6%). TUMT, TUNA and neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet visual laser ablation or interstitial laser coagulation for BPH has less incidence of EjD, but these procedures are considered less effective for BPH treatment when compared with TURP. PMID:20473318

  6. [Focal nodular hyperplasia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schild, H; Thelen, M; Paquet, K J; Biersack, H J; Janson, R; Bücheler, E; Hansen, H H; Grönniger, J

    1980-10-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia was diagnosed angiographically in 14 patients and confirmed histologically. Differentiation of this benign lesion from other space-occupying diseases of the liver can be very difficult, since focal nodular hyperplasia produces a variable angiographic appearance. The typical angiogram showing radial vessels in the arterial phase and sharply demarcated foci in the parenchyma phase is found in only one third of patients. Angiographic differential diagnosis includes adenomas and carcinomas of the liver. Resection of the tumours in case of malignant tumours is not indicated. Foci at the margin of the liver, or if they are pedunculated, should be removed in case of spontaneous perforation. Tumours in the centre of the liver should be observed (computer tomography). Oral contraceptives stimulate the growth of these foci. They may diminish in size after stopping these drugs. 70% of cases of focal nodular hyperplasia remain clinically silent and were discovered accidentally or at autopsy. PMID:6263766

  7. THE GEOMETRY OF NEWTONIAN IMPACTS WITH GLOBAL DISSIPATION INDEX FOR MOVING SETS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. GLOCKER

    2002-01-01

    1 SUMMARY The paper treats a class of reflection and orthogonal projection problems in finite-degree-of- freedom dynamics, originating from the frictionless collision problem of rigid bodies with ex- ternal kinematic excitation. One special case is obtained when the restitution coefficients of all contacts are equal to each other, called an impact with global dissipation index. A geometric interpretation of this

  8. The H-Index as a Quantitative Indicator of the Relative Impact of Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, K. Marie; Hawkes, Iain; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Morand, Serge; Baylis, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of the relative impact of diseases and pathogens is important for agencies and other organizations charged with providing disease surveillance, management and control. It also helps funders of disease-related research to identify the most important areas for investment. Decisions as to which pathogens or diseases to target are often made using complex risk assessment approaches; however, these usually involve evaluating a large number of hazards as it is rarely feasible to conduct an in-depth appraisal of each. Here we propose the use of the H-index (or Hirsch index) as an alternative rapid, repeatable and objective means of assessing pathogen impact. H-index scores for 1,414 human pathogens were obtained from the Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science (WOS) in July/August 2010. Scores were compared for zoonotic/non-zoonotic, and emerging/non-emerging pathogens, and across taxonomic groups. H-indices for a subset of pathogens were compared with Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) estimates for the diseases they cause. H-indices ranged from 0 to 456, with a median of 11. Emerging pathogens had higher H-indices than non-emerging pathogens. Zoonotic pathogens tended to have higher H-indices than human-only pathogens, although the opposite was observed for viruses. There was a significant correlation between the DALY of a disease and the H-index of the pathogen(s) that cause it. Therefore, scientific interest, as measured by the H-index, appears to be a reflection of the true impact of pathogens. The H-index method can be utilized to set up an objective, repeatable and readily automated system for assessing pathogen or disease impact. PMID:21625581

  9. Parathyroid hyperplasia associated with thymoma.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, D. J.; Gunn, A.; Davidson, D. L.; Paterson, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    The case of a 65 year old female with myasthenia gravis and hypercalcaemia is presented. Failure of medical control of the myasthenia necessitated thymectomy at which time parathyroid exploration was also carried out. This revealed parathyroid hyperplasia and a thymoma. This association has not been previously documented in the literature. PMID:2608566

  10. Enhancing the h index for the objective assessment of healthcare researcher performance and impact

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vanash M; Ashrafian, Hutan; Bornmann, Lutz; Mutz, Rüdiger; Makanjuola, Jonathan; Skapinakis, Petros; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the h index (a bibliometric tool which is increasingly used to assess and appraise an individual's research performance) could be improved to better measure the academic performance and citation profile for individual healthcare researchers. Design Cohort study. Setting Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. Participants Publication lists from 1 January 2000 until 31 December 2009 for 501 academic healthcare researchers from the Faculty of Medicine. Main outcome measures The h index for each researcher was calculated over a nine-year period. The citation count for each researcher was differentiated into high (h2 upper), core (h2 centre) and low (h2 lower) visibility areas. Segmented regression model (sRM) was used to statistically estimate number of high visibility publications (sRM value). Validity of the h index and other proposed adjuncts were analysed against academic rank and conventional bibliometric indicators. Results Construct validity was demonstrated for h index, h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM value (all P < 0.05). Convergent validity of the h index and sRM value was shown by significant correlations with total number of publications (r = 0.89 and 0.86 respectively, P < 0.05) and total number of citations (r = 0.96 and 0.65, respectively, P < 0.05). Significant differences in h index and sRM value existed between non-physician and physician researchers (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study supports the construct validity of the h index as a measure of healthcare researcher academic rank. It also identifies the assessment value of our developed indices of h2 upper, h2 centre, h2 lower and sRM. These can be applied in combination with the h index to provide additional objective evidence to appraise the performance and impact of an academic healthcare researcher. PMID:23358276

  11. Monitoring Crop Yield in USA Using a Satellite-Based Climate-Variability Impact Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Anderson, Bruce; Tan, Bin; Barlow, Mathew; Myneni, Ranga

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative index is applied to monitor crop growth and predict agricultural yield in continental USA. The Climate-Variability Impact Index (CVII), defined as the monthly contribution to overall anomalies in growth during a given year, is derived from 1-km MODIS Leaf Area Index. The growing-season integrated CVII can provide an estimate of the fractional change in overall growth during a given year. In turn these estimates can provide fine-scale and aggregated information on yield for various crops. Trained from historical records of crop production, a statistical model is used to produce crop yield during the growing season based upon the strong positive relationship between crop yield and the CVII. By examining the model prediction as a function of time, it is possible to determine when the in-season predictive capability plateaus and which months provide the greatest predictive capacity.

  12. Are phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors effective for the management of lower urinary symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li Tao; Park, Jong Kwan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review the efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostate hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). METHODS: A comprehensive research was conducted to identify all publications relating to benign prostate hyperplasia and treatment with sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil. To assess the efficacy, the changes in total international prostate symptom score (IPSS), IPSS subscore including voiding, storage and quality of life (QoL), Benign prostatic hyperplasia Impact Index (BII), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) were extracted. A meta-analytical technique was used for the analysis of integrated data from the included studies to evaluate the mean difference in the results. RESULTS: Total IPSS score, IIEF and BII showed a significant improvement in trials in which LUTS/BPH with or without erectile dysfunction (ED) were compared with the placebo. For LUTS/BPH, the mean differences of total IPSS score, IIEF and BII are -2.17, 4.88 and -0.43, P < 0.00001, respectively. For LUTS/BPH with comorbid ED, the mean difference are -1.97, 4.54 and -0.52, P < 0.00001, respectively. PDE5-Is appear to improve IPSS storage, voiding and QoL subscore (mean difference = -0.71, -1.23 and -0.33, P < 0.00001, respectively). Although four doses of tadalafil (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg) failed to reach significance in Qmax (mean difference = 0.22, P = 0.10), the 5 mg dose of tadalafil significantly improved the Qmax (mean difference = 0.33, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: PED5-Is demonstrated efficacy for improving LUTS in BPH patients with or without ED and could be considered to be the first line treatment for LUTS/BPH. PMID:25664256

  13. Impact of arsenic pollution on spatial distribution of human development index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sukha Ranjan Samadder

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the impact of arsenic pollution on Human Development Index (HDI) that shows the development standard of\\u000a a society, country, or a region. HDI is the average of the three dimension indices of Education, Gross Domestic Product (GDP),\\u000a and Life Expectancy. The study area includes six peripheral administrative blocks of the district Murshidabad of West Bengal,\\u000a India. About

  14. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver.

    PubMed

    Gindhart, T D; Cimis, R J; Mosenthal, W T; Longnecker, D S

    1979-01-01

    An unusual case of adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver arose spontaneously in an 82-year-old woman. Massive fatal ascites developed during an eight-week period in the absence of cirrhosis. No drug, chemical, or hormone could be identified as the causative agent. Estrogens may play a role as possible promoters in the growth of hepatic tumors. Identifying liver tumors in women that are not associated with oral contraceptive use is valuable. PMID:215102

  15. Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Ryan C; Wu, Kevin J; Cheville, John C; Thiel, David D

    2013-01-01

    Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia (PSHA) is a rare histologic finding diagnosed incidentally on prostate biopsies, transurethral resection specimens, and radical prostatectomy specimens. PSHA has a bizarre histologic appearance and these lesions often raise concern for sarcoma; however, their clinical course is indolent and does not include extraprostatic progression. We discuss a case of PHSA discovered on prostate biopsy performed for an abnormal digital rectal examination and review the literature on this rare pathologic finding. PMID:23781384

  16. Phytotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn S. Gerber

    2002-01-01

    Phytotherapy has become a more popular treatment option among American men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The most\\u000a popular herbal agent is saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), which is derived from the berry of the American dwarf palm tree. Pygeum africanum and beta-sitosterol are also used by many patients with BPH, either alone or in combination with saw palmetto. A significant

  17. Hypoglycaemia in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Mackinnon, J; Grant, D B

    1977-01-01

    Two young children with salt-losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia developed profound hypoglycaemia. In one child hypoglycaemia occurred after a prolonged fast and in the other it was precipitated by infection. This complication may be more common than the literature suggests, and emergency treatment with glucose or hydrocortisone, given by injection, should be given to any child with the disorder who suddenly or unexpectedly collapses. PMID:879852

  18. Silodosin versus naftopidil for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a multicenter randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kenya; Aoki, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Tetsuo; Hachiya, Takahiko; Saito, Tadanori; Takahashi, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    This was a multicenter randomized trial to investigate the clinical efficacy and the impact on sexual function of alpha-1A selective silodosin and alpha-1D selective naftopidil for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A total of 97 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia who had an International Prostate Symptom Score of 8 or more were randomly assigned to receive silodosin (8?mg/day, n?=?53) or naftopidil (75?mg/day, n?=?44). Before and 4, 8 and 12?weeks after treatment, International Prostate Symptom Score and its quality of life score were used to assess lower urinary tract symptoms. Also, International Index of Erectile Function-5, and an original questionnaire were used to evaluate erectile function and ejaculation for sexually active patients, respectively. The silodosin group showed advantages in terms of voiding symptoms and quality of life of International Prostate Symptom Score when compared with the naftopidil group. Both silodosin and naftopidil showed no significant effect on International Index of Erectile Function-5. A total of 23 sexually active patients in the silodosin group experienced more ejaculatory impairment than 21 patients in the naftopidil group, with a decrease of ejaculation volume (87% vs 40%, P?=?0.003), prolonged time to ejaculation (56% vs 33%, P?=?0.027) and decrease of orgasm (50% vs 39%, P?=?0.027). These results suggest that alpha-1A selective blockers are more effective for voiding symptoms, whereas alpha-1D selective blockers offer a minor degree of ejaculatory dysfunction. PMID:23731168

  19. Sexual function in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul K. Hegarty; Nicholas J. Hegarty; John M. Fitzpatrick

    2001-01-01

    Sexual health has significant impact on quality of life among men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The degree of sexual\\u000a dysfunction matches the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Treatment of BPH affects not only LUTS, but sexual\\u000a function as well. Medical, surgical, and minimally invasive therapies differ in their effect on erectile function, ejaculation,\\u000a and sexual satisfaction. Choice

  20. A comparison of the environmental impact of different AOPs: risk indexes.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Jaime; Bayarri, Bernardí; González, Óscar; Malato, Sixto; Peral, José; Esplugas, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Today, environmental impact associated with pollution treatment is a matter of great concern. A method is proposed for evaluating environmental risk associated with Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) applied to wastewater treatment. The method is based on the type of pollution (wastewater, solids, air or soil) and on materials and energy consumption. An Environmental Risk Index (E), constructed from numerical criteria provided, is presented for environmental comparison of processes and/or operations. The Operation Environmental Risk Index (EOi) for each of the unit operations involved in the process and the Aspects Environmental Risk Index (EAj) for process conditions were also estimated. Relative indexes were calculated to evaluate the risk of each operation (E/NOP) or aspect (E/NAS) involved in the process, and the percentage of the maximum achievable for each operation and aspect was found. A practical application of the method is presented for two AOPs: photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis with suspended TiO2 in Solarbox. The results report the environmental risks associated with each process, so that AOPs tested and the operations involved with them can be compared. PMID:25558859

  1. Development of spatial water resources vulnerability index considering climate change impacts.

    PubMed

    Jun, Kyung Soo; Chung, Eun-Sung; Sung, Jin-Young; Lee, Kil Seong

    2011-11-15

    This study developed a new framework to quantify spatial vulnerability for sustainable water resources management. Four hydrologic vulnerability indices--potential flood damage (PFDC), potential drought damage (PDDC), potential water quality deterioration (PWQDC), and watershed evaluation index (WEIC)--were modified to quantify flood damage, drought damage, water quality deterioration, and overall watershed risk considering the impact of climate change, respectively. The concept of sustainability in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was applied in selecting all appropriate indicators (criteria) of climate change impacts. In the examination of climate change, future meteorological data was obtained using CGCM3 (Canadian Global Coupled Model) and SDSM (Statistical Downscaling Model), and future stream run-off and water quality were simulated using HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program - Fortran). The four modified indices were then calculated using TOPSIS, a multi-attribute method of decision analysis. As a result, the ranking obtained can be changed in consideration of climate change impacts. This study represents a new attempt to quantify hydrologic vulnerability in a manner that takes into account both climate change impacts and the concept of sustainability. PMID:21940039

  2. Assessment of the Impacts of Rice Cropping through a Soil Quality Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sione, S. M.; Wilson, M. G.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    In Entre Ríos (Argentina), rice cultivation is carried out mainly in Vertisols. Several factors, such as the use of sodium bicarbonate waters for irrigation, the excessive tillage required, and the lack of proper planning for land use, mainly regarding the crop sequence, cause serious impacts on the soil and have an effect on sustainable agriculture. Thus, the development of methodologies to detect these impacts has become a priority. The aim of this study was to standardize soil quality indicators (SQI) and integrate them into an index to evaluate the impacts of the rice production system on soil, at the farm scale. The study was conducted in farms of the traditional rice cultivation area of Entre Ríos province, Argentina. We evaluated a minimum data set consisting of six indicators: structural stability and percolation, total organic matter content (TOM), exchangeable sodium content (ESC), electrical conductivity of saturation extract (ECe) and reaction of the soil (pH). From a database from 75 production lots, we determined the reference values, i.e. limits to ensure the maintenance of long-term productivity and the allowable thresholds for each indicator. The indicators were standardized and integrated into a soil quality index. Five ranges of soil quality were established: very low, low, moderate, high and very high, depending on the values assigned to each SQI. This index allowed differentiating the impact of different crop sequences and showed that the increased participation of rice crop in the rotation resulted in a deterioration of the soil structure due to the decrease in the TOM and to the cumulative increase in ESC caused by the sodium bicarbonate water used for irrigation. Soil management strategies should aim to increase TOM values and to reduce the input of sodium to the exchange complex. A rotation with 50% to 60% of pasture and 40 to 50% of agriculture with a participation of rice lower than 20 to 25% would allow the sustainability of the production system. The use of the so called SQI, i.e. soil quality index, for rice crop production will allow generating early warning of degradation and thus adopting recovery measures.

  3. A new index for the prediction of the indentation of composites under low velocity impact loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, V.; Caprino, G.; Leone, C.

    2012-07-01

    The effectiveness of a new empirical model for the prediction of the indentation depth resulting in a glass fibre laminates subjected to a low velocity impact, was verified. CFRP indentation data, drawn from a database, were considered to validate the new model. The advantage of the new model is that the effect of the tup diameter is explicitly accounted for. Furthermore, a single material constant has to be experimentally determined and it can be assumed as an index for the indentation sensitivity. The constant was found similar for GFRP and CFRP laminates denoting independence of constraint conditions, laminate type or laminae orientation and stacking sequence.

  4. Medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Chacon; Manoj Monga

    1999-01-01

    The management of benign prostatic hyperplasia has undergone a rapid evolution over the past decade from a surgical emphasis to a medical emphasis. Great strides in the development of a-adrenergic blockers, 5a-reductase inhibitors and a variety of phytotherapeutics have fueled this evolution. This article reviews the past, present and future of the medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  5. Venous neointimal hyperplasia in polytetrafluoroethylene dialysis grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabir Roy-Chaudhury; Burnett S. Kelly; Mary Ann Miller; Anita Reaves; Janice Armstrong; Nuwan Nanayakkara; Sue C. Heffelfinger

    2001-01-01

    Venous neointimal hyperplasia in polytetrafluoroethylene dialysis grafts.BackgroundVascular access dysfunction is the most important cause of morbidity and hospitalization in the hemodialysis population in the United States at a cost of $1 billion per annum. Venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) characterized by stenosis and subsequent thrombosis accounts for the overwhelming majority of pathology resulting in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) dialysis graft failure. Despite the

  6. Probabilistically based vulnerability index of reinforced concrete buildings due to rockfall impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrouli, O.; Corominas, J.

    2009-04-01

    The assessment of the structural vulnerability of buildings which are threatened by rockfalls represents a very important part of the Quantitative Rockfall Risk assessment. The interest is mainly concentrated on the evaluation of a vulnerability rate for a structural typology, for a range of rockfall magnitudes, in order to be used as an input into the following risk equation: Risk=Hazard x Exposed elements x Vulnerability of exposed elements Up to now, the most popular approaches in practice are mainly empirically or judgmentally based, given the limited scientific background in the field of structural vulnerability evaluation due to rockfalls. The aim of the work that is presented here is to introduce a methodology for the quantified assessment of the vulnerability of reinforced concrete structures, which are subjected to potential rockfall impacts. The objective is to provide an output, in terms of a vulnerability rate, given a specific structure, rock boulder diameter and velocity at the moment of the impact. The presented methodology applies for direct rock impacts on the basement columns of reinforced concrete buildings. It is considered that only an impact on structural elements (columns, beams) may cause collapse of the structure, whether an impact on a non-structural element such as an infill wall may only result in local damage of the element itself. Here, the structural vulnerability is determined by the first type of damage, as in the case of structural collapse repairing maybe technically difficult as wells as highly costly up to the point of not applicable, while non-structural damage is maybe easier repaired. For the evaluation of the structural vulnerability of a building due to a rock impact, we have modified a methodology that we have previously developed, by introducing the probability of collapse. The vulnerability is thus obtained by combining the probability of building collapse with the impact probability. The steps are the following: 1) calculation of the probability of impact on a structural element Pimp according to the geometry of the exposed façade(s) and the rock boulder size, 2) evaluation of the extent of the effect of the initial impact, which is mainly limited to local damage, 3) assessment of the post-impact stability of the intact structure in terms of probability of collapse and 4) iteration of the previous steps for the calculation of the vulnerability rate for different rockfall magnitude scenarios. For the assessment of the extent of the local damage due to the impact at step 2, the capacity energy of one individual column is analytically calculated. Given the column energy capacity and the rock motion parameters, it is possible to determine the number of structural elements that fail. For the evaluation of the post-impact response of the building at step 3, a collapse factor is used. It is analytically calculated for each structural element, as equal to the ratio: cf= post-impact static loads / element capacity In order to calculate the probability of collapse Pc, the introduced uncertainty is the resistance of the reinforced concrete and the expression for the probabilistic analysis is: Pc= max P[cf>1] where P[cf>1] is the probability of collapse for each structural element. The vulnerability of the building is then defined as: V=Pimp x Pc The methodology is applied for a reinforced concrete structure. The obtained results are presented on a three-dimensional diagram that correlates the vulnerability of the building with the size of the rock boulder d and its velocity v. The interpretation of the vulnerability index results is made and the efficiency of the index is discussed.

  7. Development of a Shoreline Environmental Impact Index (SEII): An analysis of landscape pattern and structure metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Mark Wadley

    The goal of this study was to develop a Shoreline Environmental Impact Index (SEII) based upon landscape ecology pattern and structure metrics calculated from high resolution remotely sensed imagery This SEII would provide a tool for monitoring freshwater lakes and reservoirs in areas of rapid development. The land use/land cover information for the study was derived from National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) imagery of a portion of Lake Murray, South Carolina shoreline scanned to simulate high resolution remotely sensed imagery. The shoreline in the study area was divided into 400 landscape units. Common landscape ecology metrics were calculated for these landscape units. They were also rated on a scale from 1 to 10 by expert visual interpretation with a rating of 1 indicating no environmental impact and 10 meaning the shoreline had been severely impacted and was in need of in situ monitoring. Factor analysis of the landscape metrics calculated support previous work indicating a small number of independent, orthogonal factors are being measured by the landscape metrics (Riitters et al., 1995, Cain et al., 1997). Methods of combining landscape ecology metrics to create a meaningful Shoreline Environmental Impact Index (SEII) included multiple linear regression, multiple discriminant analysis, genetic neural networks, standard feed forward back propagation neural networks and manual combination. The ratings produced by the SEII's generated using these methods were then compared to the ratings by the experts. There was very little difference in the performance of several SEII's generated despite some differences in metrics and weighting chosen by the different methods. The ratings from all methods showed their ability to reflect the expert ratings in general. Conclusions indicate that the ability of the landscape metrics to discriminate between levels of shoreline degradation is contained within a relatively few metrics. In any of the current forms the SEII is suitable only for general indication of shoreline health.

  8. A statistical assessment of the impact of land uses on surface water quality indexes.

    PubMed

    Seeboonruang, Uma

    2012-06-30

    The release of wastewater from various land uses is threatening the quality of surface water. Different land uses pose varying degrees of danger to water resources. The hazardous extent of each activity depends on the amount and characteristics of the wastewater. The concept of the contamination potential index (CPI) of an activity is introduced and applied here. The index depends on the quantity of wastewater from a single source and on various chemicals in the waste whose concentrations are above allowable standards. The CPI concept and the land use impact assessment are applied to the surface water conditions in Nakhon Nayok Province in the central region of Thailand. The land uses considered in this study are residential area, industrial zone, in-season and off-season rice farming, and swine and poultry livestock. Multiple linear regression analysis determines the impact of the CPIs of these land uses on certain water quality characteristics, i.e., total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, phosphate, and chloride concentrations, using CPIs and previous water quality measurements. The models are further verified according to the current CPIs and measured concentrations. The results of the backward and forward modeling show that the land uses that affect water quality are off-season rice farming, raising poultry, and residential activity. They demonstrate that total dissolved solids and conductivity are reasonable parameters to apply in the land use assessment. PMID:22406854

  9. Introducing a conditional 'Willingness to Pay' index as a quantifier for environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Fragiskos; Kopsidas, Odysseas

    2012-12-01

    The optimal concentration Copt of a pollutant in the environment can be determined as an equilibrium point in the trade off between (i) environmental cost, due to impact on man/ecosystem/economy, and (ii) economic cost for environmental protection, as it can be expressed by Pigouvian tax. These two conflict variables are internalized within the same techno-economic objective function of total cost, which is minimized. In this work, the first conflict variable is represented by a Willingness To Pay (WTP) index. A methodology is developed for the estimation of this index by using fuzzy sets to count for uncertainty. Implementation of this methodology is presented, concerning odor pollution of air round an olive pomace oil mill. The ASTM E544-99 (2004) 'Standard Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity' has been modified to serve as a basis for testing, while a network of the quality standards, required for the realization/application of this 'Practice', is also presented. Last, sensitivity analysis of Copt as regards the impact of (i) the increase of environmental information/sensitization and (ii) the decrease of interest rate reveals a shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively; certain positive and negative implications (i.e., shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively) caused by socio-economic parameters are also discussed.

  10. The impact of wait list body mass index changes on the outcome after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Orci, Lorenzo A; Majno, Pietro Edoardo; Berney, Thierry; Morel, Philippe; Mentha, Gilles; Toso, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Obesity is associated with poor health outcomes in the general population, but the evidence surrounding the effect of body mass index (BMI) on postliver transplantation survival is contradictory. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of wait list BMI and BMI changes on the outcomes after liver transplantation. Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we compared survival among different BMI categories and examined the impact of wait list BMI changes on post-transplantation mortality for patients undergoing liver transplantation. Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression was carried out to adjust for confounding factors. Among 38 194 recipients, underweight patients had a poorer survival compared with normal weight (HR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.13-1.49). Conversely, overweight and mildly obese men experienced better survival rates compared with their lean counterparts (HR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.84-0.96, and HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79-0.93 respectively). Female patients gaining weight over 18.5 kg/m(2) while on the wait list showed improving outcomes (HR = 0.46, (95% CI: 0.28-0.76)) compared with those remaining underweight. This study supports the harmful impact of underweight on postliver transplant survival, and highlights the need for a specific monitoring and management of candidates with BMIs close to 18.5 kg/m(2) . Obesity does not constitute an absolute contraindication to liver transplantation. PMID:23199077

  11. Focal epithelial hyperplasia - an update.

    PubMed

    Said, Ahmed K; Leao, Jair C; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen R

    2013-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is an asymptomatic benign mucosal disease, which is mostly observed in specific groups in certain geographical regions. FEH is usually a disease of childhood and adolescence and is generally associated with people who live in poverty and of low socioeconomic status. Clinically, FEH is typically characterized by multiple, painless, soft, sessile papules, plaques or nodules, which may coalesce to give rise to larger lesions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially genotypes 13 and 32, have been associated and detected in the majority of FEH lesions. The clinical examination and social history often allow diagnosis, but histopathological examination of lesional tissue is usually required to confirm the exact diagnosis. FEH sometimes resolves spontaneously however, treatment is often indicated as a consequence of aesthetic effects or any interference with occlusion. There remains no specific therapy for FEH, although surgical removal, laser excision or possibly topical antiviral agents may be of benefit. There remains no evidence that FEH is potentially malignant. PMID:23061874

  12. Mesonephric Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix Associated with Florid Mesonephric Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Ghafar, Jamshid; Chong, Yosep; Han, Hyuck Dong; Cha, Dong Soo; Eom, Minseob

    2013-01-01

    Hyperplasia and neoplasia of mesonephric remnants in the uterine cervix are uncommon conditions that are often mis-diagnosed as usual forms of cervical adenocarcinoma. Here, we report a case of mesonephric adenocarcinoma with florid mesonephric hyperplasia of the uterine cervix in a 48-year-old female patient. The cervix was slightly enlarged eccentrically, without a definite mass-like lesion. Microscopically, the tumor cells infiltrated the cervical stroma with focal myometrial extension and were composed of predominantly round to polygonal cells arranged in ductal, tubular, or cystic structures. The remaining stroma revealed diffuse and florid mesonephric hyperplasia intertwined with tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and CD10. The Ki-67 proliferation index was slightly increased. The patient received routine adjuvant treatment and was alive and clinically free of disease at two-year follow-up.

  13. A Simplified Murine Intimal Hyperplasia Model Founded on a Focal Carotid Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Ming; Mauro, Christine R.; Yu, Peng; Favreau, John T.; Nguyen, Binh; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Ozaki, C. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Murine models offer a powerful tool for unraveling the mechanisms of intimal hyperplasia and vascular remodeling, although their technical complexity increases experimental variability and limits widespread application. We describe a simple and clinically relevant mouse model of arterial intimal hyperplasia and remodeling. Focal left carotid artery (LCA) stenosis was created by placing 9-0 nylon suture around the artery using an external 35-gauge mandrel needle (middle or distal location), which was then removed. The effect of adjunctive diet-induced obesity was defined. Flowmetry, wall strain analyses, biomicroscopy, and histology were completed. LCA blood flow sharply decreased by ?85%, followed by a responsive right carotid artery increase of ?71%. Circumferential strain decreased by ?2.1% proximal to the stenosis in both dietary groups. At 28 days, morphologic adaptations included proximal LCA intimal hyperplasia, which was exacerbated by diet-induced obesity. The proximal and distal LCA underwent outward and negative inward remodeling, respectively, in the mid-focal stenosis (remodeling indexes, 1.10 and 0.53). A simple, defined common carotid focal stenosis yields reproducible murine intimal hyperplasia and substantial differentials in arterial wall adaptations. This model offers a tool for investigating mechanisms of hemodynamically driven intimal hyperplasia and arterial wall remodeling. PMID:23159527

  14. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Paola; Barbalho, Marcella; Lima, Tiago; Quintella, Leonardo; Niemeyer-Corbellini, João Paulo; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a rare disease considered as being a vascular malformation resulting from a subjacent arteriovenous shunt. It affects mostly the head of women between 20 and 40 years old and may present spontaneous involution. PMID:26120306

  15. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Paola; Barbalho, Marcella; Lima, Tiago; Quintella, Leonardo; Niemeyer-Corbellini, João Paulo; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a rare disease considered as being a vascular malformation resulting from a subjacent arteriovenous shunt. It affects mostly the head of women between 20 and 40 years old and may present spontaneous involution. PMID:26120306

  16. Sebaceous hyperplasia: systemic treatment with isotretinoin*

    PubMed Central

    Tagliolatto, Sandra; Santos, Octavio de Oliveira; Alchorne, Maurício Mota de Avelar; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to verify the therapeutic action of isotretinoin in the treatment of sebaceous hyperplasia. During two months, 20 patients with sebaceous hyperplasia took isotretinoin at a dosage of 1mg/kg per day. Their skin lesions were counted and photographed before and after treatment and re-evaluated two years later. The average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions before treatment was 24 per patient. At the end of two months of therapy, the number of lesions decreased to 2 per patient. The statistically analyzed data showed a reduction in the number of lesions following isotretinoin use (p < 0.05). Two years after the end of the treatment, the average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions was 4 per patient. There were no severe side effects. Thus, the data analysis suggests that isotretinoin is a safe and effective drug for treating the disease under study. PMID:25830991

  17. Gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Rasika Ravindra; Deshpande, Gaurav Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Hemifacial hypertrophy is a rare developmental disorder, characterized by unilateral enlargement of facial tissues. The hemifacial hyperplasia is classified as true hemifacial hypertrophy and partial hemifacial hypertrophy. It is unilateral enlargement of viscerocranial condition in which not all structures are enlarged. We present a rare case of gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia highlighting the clinical and radiological findings with the corrective treatment offered for gingival enlargement. PMID:25624636

  18. Clinical impact of hypnotic-titration guidelines based on EEG Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring during routine anesthetic care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay W Johansen; Peter S Sebel; Jeff C Sigl

    2000-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the impact on perioperative care of routine Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring during general anesthesia throughout an entire operating room (OR) suite.Design: Open, observational trial with retrospective analysis of guideline performance. Data were analyzed from 1,552 adult patients receiving general anesthesia with surgical times of at least 1 hour and who were extubated by postanesthesia care unit

  19. Impact of fine particulate fluctuation and other variables on Beijing's air quality index.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Lu, Shaowei; Li, Shaoning; Wang, Bing

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed fluctuation in Beijing's air quality over 328 days, based on air quality grades and air quality data from 35 atmospheric monitoring stations. Our results show the air over Beijing is subject to pollution 152 days of the year, or 46.34%. Among all pollutants, fine particulates, solid or liquid, 2.5 ?m or less in size (PM2.5), appeared most frequently as the primary pollutant: 249 days, or 76% of the sample year (328 days). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and coarse particulates (PM10) cause the least pollution, appearing only 7 and 3 days, or 2 and 1% of the sample year, respectively. In Beijing, fine particulates like PM2.5 vary seasonally: 154.54?±?18.60 in winter?>?145.22?±?18.61 in spring?>?140.16?±?20.76 in autumn?>?122.37?±?13.42 in summer. Air quality is best in August and worst in December, while various districts in Beijing experience different air quality. To be specific, from south to north and from west to east, air quality tends to improve. Meteorological elements have a constraining effect on air pollutants, which means there is a linear correlation between the air quality index and humidity, rainfall, wind speed, and temperature. Under a typical pollution scenario, the higher the air quality index (AQI) value, the lower the wind speed and the greater the relative humidity; the lower the AQI value, the higher the wind speed and lower the relative humidity. Analysis of influencing factors reveals that the air pollution is mainly particulate matter produced by burning coal, vehicle emissions, volatile oils and gas, fast development of food services, emissions from the surrounding region, and natural dust clouds formed in arid areas to the northwest. Topography affects the distribution of meteorological conditions, in turn varying air quality over the region from one location to another. Human activities also exercise impact on urban air quality with dual functions. PMID:25563832

  20. Prognostic Impact of Body Mass Index Stratified by Smoking Status in Patients With Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Harry H.; Lewis, Mark A.; Shi, Qian; Khan, Maliha; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Diasio, Robert B.; Sinicrope, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Given that smoking affects body mass index (BMI) and survival, stratification by smoking status may be required to determine the true prognostic impact of BMI. Although obesity increases risk for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), the prognostic influence of obesity and its potential modification by smoking status is unknown in this disease. Patients and Methods All patients (N = 778) underwent potentially curative esophagectomy. BMI was calculated using measured height and weight at surgery and categorized as obese (? 30 kg/m2), overweight (25 to 29.9 kg/m2), or normal (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2). Cigarette smoking was categorized as never or ever. The association of BMI with disease-specific survival (DSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) was determined by Cox regression. Results Excess BMI was significantly associated with DSS in a manner that differed substantially by smoking status (P for interaction = .023). Among never smokers, obesity was significantly associated with adverse DSS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.11; 95% CI, 1.31 to 3.43; P = .002), DFS (HR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.18; P = .002), and OS (HR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.14; P = .004), as compared with normal weight, after adjusting for covariates. By contrast, among ever smokers, obesity was not prognostic, and overweight status was significantly associated with favorable survival in univariate, but not multivariate, analysis. Conclusion Obesity among never smokers was independently associated with two-fold worsening of DSS, DFS, and OS after surgery for EAC, after adjusting for known prognostic factors. These data, in one of the largest reported resected EAC cohorts, are the first to show an adverse prognostic impact of obesity in EAC. PMID:21990414

  1. Impact of Body Mass Index on Outcomes After Conformal Radiotherapy in Patients With Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, Hans, E-mail: hans.geinitz@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Thamm, Reinhard; Mueller, Tobias; Jess, Kerstin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Zimmermann, Frank B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Universitaetsspital Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Molls, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Nieder, Carsten [Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso (Norway)

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Several retrospective analyses have suggested that obese men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) have outcomes inferior to those of normal-weight men. However, a recently presented analysis for the first time challenged this association between body mass index (BMI) and treatment failure. It is therefore important to provide further data on this issue. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of 564 men treated with risk-adapted conformal EBRT at a single institution. Low-risk patients received EBRT alone, and the other patients received EBRT plus endocrine treatment. In addition, high-risk patients were treated to higher EBRT doses (74 Gy). A rectal balloon catheter for internal immobilization, which can be identified on portal images, was used in 261 patients (46%). Thus, localization did not rely on bony landmarks alone in these cases. Results: The median BMI was 26, and 15% of patients had BMI {>=}30. Neither univariate nor multivariate analyses detected any significant impact of BMI on biochemical relapse, prostate cancer-specific survival, or overall survival. The 5-year biochemical relapse rate was 21% and prostate cancerspecific survival 96%. Conclusions: The present analysis of a large cohort of consecutively treated patients suggests that efforts to reduce prostate movement and geographic miss might result in comparable outcomes in obese and normal-weight patients.

  2. The h-index (after its creator Jorge E. Hirsch) is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a

    E-print Network

    Tan, Robby T.

    H-index The h-index (after its creator Jorge E. Hirsch) is an index that attempts to measure both: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H-index To determine the h-index, citation databases or automatic tools. Clicking on "View citation overview" (see the figure below) you will find the h- index: 43. WEB OF SCIENCE

  3. Altered protein expression in serum from endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in women. The diagnosis of the disease at early or premalignant stages is crucial for the patient's prognosis. To date, diagnosis and follow-up of endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia require invasive procedures. Therefore, there is considerable demand for the identification of biomarkers to allow non-invasive detection of these conditions. Methods In this study, we performed a quantitative proteomics analysis on serum samples from simple endometrial hyperplasia, complex endometrial hyperplasia, atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and endometrial carcinoma patients, as well as healthy women. Serum samples were first depleted of high-abundance proteins, labeled with isobaric tags (iTRAQ™), and then analyzed via two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification and quantitation information were acquired by comparing the mass spectrometry data against the International Protein Index Database using ProteinPilot software. Bioinformatics annotation of identified proteins was performed by searching against the PANTHER database. Results In total, 74 proteins were identified and quantified in serum samples from endometrial lesion patients and healthy women. Using a 1.6-fold change as the benchmark, 12 proteins showed significantly altered expression levels in at least one disease group compared with healthy women. Among them, 7 proteins were found, for the first time, to be differentially expressed in atypical endometrial hyperplasia. These proteins are orosomucoid 1, haptoglobin, SERPINC 1, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, apolipoprotein A-IV, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, and histidine-rich glycoprotein. Conclusions The differentially expressed proteins we discovered in this study may serve as biomarkers in the diagnosis and follow-up of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. PMID:21489304

  4. Premature sebaceous hyperplasia in an adolescent boy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Jing-Mu; Zhang, Yi-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Sebaceous hyperplasia is a common, benign condition of the sebaceous glands in adults of middle age or older, occurring primarily on the face and neck. In adolescent or young adult patients, it is a rare entity called premature sebaceous hyperplasia (PSH). Previous reports indicate that the onset of PSH occurs during or shortly after puberty, with an average age-at-onset of 19 years. Here we present an extremely rare prepubescent case of PSH that developed on the right side of a boy's neck when he was 8 years old. PMID:21371111

  5. Impact of body mass index and albumin on morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel T. Engelman; David H. Adams; John G. Byrne; Sary F. Aranki; John J. Collins; Gregory S. Couper; Elizabeth N. Allred; Lawrence H. Cohn; Robert J. Rizzo

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Extremely thin and overly obese patients may not tolerate cardiac surgery as well as other patients. A retrospective study was conducted to determine whether the extremes of body mass index (weight\\/height2 [kg\\/m2]) and\\/or cachexia increased the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac operations. Methods: Body mass index was used to objectively measure “thinness” (body mass index 30); preoperative serum

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Body Mass Index Among Japanese Children and Impact of Maternal Factors during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Chiyori; Kondo, Naoki; Suzuki, Kohta; Sato, Miri; Ando, Daisuke; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Taichiro; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2012-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to 1) determine the distinct patterns of body mass index (BMI) trajectories in Japanese children, and 2) elucidate the maternal factors during pregnancy, which contribute to the determination of those patterns. Methodology/Principal Findings All of the children (1,644 individuals) born in Koshu City, Japan, between 1991 and 1998 were followed in a longitudinal study exploring the subjects’ BMI. The BMI was calculated 11 times for each child between birth and 12 years of age. Exploratory latent class growth analyses were conducted to identify trajectory patterns of the BMI z-scores. The distribution of BMI trajectories were best characterized by a five-group model for boys and a six-group model for girls. The groups were named “stable thin,” “stable average,” “stable high average,” “progressive overweight,” and “progressive obesity” in both sexes; girls were allocated to an additional group called “progressive average.” Multinomial logistic regression found that maternal weight, smoking, and skipping breakfast during pregnancy were associated with children included in the progressive obesity pattern rather than the stable average pattern. These associations were stronger for boys than for girls. Conclusions/Significance Multiple developmental patterns in Japanese boys and girls were identified, some of which have not been identified in Western countries. Maternal BMI and some unfavorable behaviors during early pregnancy may impact a child’s pattern of body mass development. Further studies to explain the gender and regional differences that were identified are warranted, as these may be important for early life prevention of weight-associated health problems. PMID:23272187

  7. Impact of hospital variables on case mix index as a marker of disease severity.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Carmen M; Harrington, Darrell W; Christenson, Peter; Spellberg, Brad

    2014-02-01

    Case mix index (CMI) has become a standard indicator of hospital disease severity in the United States and internationally. However, CMI was designed to calculate hospital payments, not to track disease severity, and is highly dependent on documentation and coding accuracy. The authors evaluated whether CMI varied by characteristics affecting hospitals' disease severity (eg, trauma center or not). The authors also evaluated whether CMI was lower at public hospitals than private hospitals, given the diminished financial resources to support documentation enhancement at public hospitals. CMI data for a 14-year period from a large public database were analyzed longitudinally and cross-sectionally to define the impact of hospital variables on average CMI within and across hospital groups. Between 1996 and 2007, average CMI declined by 0.4% for public hospitals, while rising significantly for private for-profit (14%) and nonprofit (6%) hospitals. After the introduction of the Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) system in 2007, average CMI increased for all 3 hospital types but remained lowest in public vs. private for-profit or nonprofit hospitals (1.05 vs. 1.25 vs. 1.20; P<0.0001). By multivariate analysis, teaching hospitals, level 1 trauma centers, and larger hospitals had higher average CMI, consistent with a marker of disease severity, but only for private hospitals. Public hospitals had lower CMI across all subgroups. Although CMI had some characteristics of a disease severity marker, it was lower across all strata for public hospitals. Hence, caution is warranted when using CMI to adjust for disease severity across public vs. private hospitals. PMID:23965045

  8. Impact of Hospital Variables on Case Mix Index as a Marker of Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Carmen M.; Harrington, Darrell W.; Christenson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Case mix index (CMI) has become a standard indicator of hospital disease severity in the United States and internationally. However, CMI was designed to calculate hospital payments, not to track disease severity, and is highly dependent on documentation and coding accuracy. The authors evaluated whether CMI varied by characteristics affecting hospitals' disease severity (eg, trauma center or not). The authors also evaluated whether CMI was lower at public hospitals than private hospitals, given the diminished financial resources to support documentation enhancement at public hospitals. CMI data for a 14-year period from a large public database were analyzed longitudinally and cross-sectionally to define the impact of hospital variables on average CMI within and across hospital groups. Between 1996 and 2007, average CMI declined by 0.4% for public hospitals, while rising significantly for private for-profit (14%) and nonprofit (6%) hospitals. After the introduction of the Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) system in 2007, average CMI increased for all 3 hospital types but remained lowest in public vs. private for-profit or nonprofit hospitals (1.05 vs. 1.25 vs. 1.20; P<0.0001). By multivariate analysis, teaching hospitals, level 1 trauma centers, and larger hospitals had higher average CMI, consistent with a marker of disease severity, but only for private hospitals. Public hospitals had lower CMI across all subgroups. Although CMI had some characteristics of a disease severity marker, it was lower across all strata for public hospitals. Hence, caution is warranted when using CMI to adjust for disease severity across public vs. private hospitals. (Population Health Management 2014;17:28–34) PMID:23965045

  9. Development of a water state index to assess the severity of impacts on and changes in natural water resources.

    PubMed

    Suridge, A K J; Brent, A C

    2008-01-01

    Lifecycle assessment (LCA) is a standardised methodology that is used to assess the impact of techno-economic systems on the natural environment. By compiling an inventory of energy and material inputs and environmental releases or outputs of a system, and evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with the inventory, one can make an informed decision regarding the sustainability of a techno-economic system in question. However, the current lifecycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodologies that form part of LCA studies do not effectively consider the impacts of techno-economic systems on ground and surface water resources in South Africa (and elsewhere). It is proposed that a microbiology based index method, similar to methods proposed for terrestrial resources, can establish the states of water resources for six classes of current economic exploitation: protected, moderate use, degraded, cultivated, plantation, and urban. It is further suggested that changes in these classes (and states) can be used meaningfully in LCIA methodologies to quantify the extent to which techno-economic interventions may alter natural water resources. Research is recommended to further improve the accuracy and reliability of the water state index. PMID:19001713

  10. Climate Change Impact on Forest Cover using Warmth Index and Minimum Temperature in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Choi; W. Lee; S. Yoo

    2009-01-01

    The objective of study was to predict the changes in regional forest distribution using the Warmth Index (WI) and minimum temperature index (MTI) in Korea. Previously, there were several trials to explain the forest cover changes in Korea using global-scale models, such as MC1 (MAPSS-CENTURY) and CEVSA (Carbon Exchange between Vegetation, Soil, and Atmosphere). However, these global vegetation models are

  11. Start | Author Index 699-28 Impact of Mineral Surface Modification on As(III) Oxidation by Mn(IV) Oxides.

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Start | Author Index 699-28 Impact of Mineral Surface Modification on As(III) Oxidation by Mn(III) mobilization. Future studies will investigate As(III) oxidation by biogenic Mn(IV) oxides. See more of

  12. Spectrum of carcinoembryonic antigen immunoreactivity from isolated ductal hyperplasias to atypical hyperplasias associated with infiltrating ductal breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, F C; Andrade, L

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To study the immunohistochemical expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in ductal hyperplasia of the breast and to investigate its putative relation with atypia and co-existing infiltrating ductal carcinoma. METHODS--Paraffin wax embedded tissue from 37 cases of isolated ductal hyperplasia (five with atypia and 32 without atypia) and 25 cases of ductal hyperplasia associated infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) (seven with atypia and 18 without atypia) was stained with a monoclonal anti-CEA antibody using a standard avidin biotin immunoperoxidase method. RESULTS--CEA immunoreactivity was observed in eight (12.8%) ductal hyperplasia cases. The percentage of CEA positivity in ductal hyperplasia cases with atypia (33.3%) was substantially higher than that observed in cases of ductal hyperplasia without atypia (8.0%). Six cases of ductal hyperplasia associated IDC reacted with CEA; in these six cases the neoplastic cells of the co-existing carcinoma were also CEA positive. The percentage of CEA immunoreactivity in ductal hyperplasia associated IDC was higher than that observed in isolated ductal hyperplasia (24.0 v 5.4%). The percentage of CEA immunoreactivity in atypical ductal hyperplasia associated IDC was similar to that observed in IDC alone (42.9 v 40.0%). CONCLUSIONS--The presence of CEA immunoreactivity has been confirmed in benign proliferative breast lesions. The prevalence of such immunoreactivity increases from 3.1% in isolated, nonatypical ductal hyperplasia to 42.9% in atypical ductal hyperplasia associated IDC. This finding and the similarity of the frequency of CEA positivity in atypical ductal hyperplasia associated IDC and in IDC alone suggests that there is a pathogenetic link between ductal hyperplasia and some types of breast cancer. Images PMID:7706519

  13. A gradient-boosted model analysis of the impact of body mass index on the short-term outcomes of critically ill medical patients

    PubMed Central

    Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Colombari, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of body mass index on the short-term prognosis of non-surgical critically ill patients while controlling for performance status and comorbidities. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis on a two-year single-center database including 1943 patients. We evaluated the impact of body mass index on hospital mortality using a gradient-boosted model that also included comorbidities and was assessed by Charlson’s comorbidity index, performance status and illness severity, which was measured by the SAPS3 score. The SAPS3 score was adjusted to avoid including the same variable twice in the model. We also assessed the impact of body mass index on the length of stay in the hospital after intensive care unit admission using multiple linear regressions. Results A low value (< 20kg/m2) was associated with a sharp increase in hospital mortality. Mortality tended to subsequently decrease as body mass index increased, but the impact of a high body mass index in defining mortality was low. Mortality increased as the burden of comorbidities increased and as the performance status decreased. Body mass index interacted with the impact of SAPS3 on patient outcome, but there was no significant interaction between body mass index, performance status and comorbidities. There was no apparent association between body mass index and the length of stay at the hospital after intensive care unit admission. Conclusion Body mass index does appear to influence the shortterm outcomes of critically ill medical patients, who are generally underweight. This association was independent of comorbidities and performance status.

  14. Scientometrics Study of Impact of Journal Indexing on the Growth of Scientific Productions of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Najari, Abbas; Yousefvand, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This study represents scientific production of Iran in medical sciences field at recent years, and the correlation between scientific productions with the number of indexed journals. Methods Data extracted from SCOPUS database between years 2000 and 2011, and Iran’s performance measured in terms of different Scientometrics indexes including self-citations, percent of cited articles, number of articles with international collaboration and contribution of Iran in medical sciences in Middle East and world. Moreover correlation between the number of articles, citations, self-citations, and H-index and number of indexed journals for 50 countries in all fields is included. Results In 2011 year, Iran contributed 32.77 percent of the Middle East, and accounted for 1.57 percent of the world scientific production. The most frequent document type was original journal article published in English. Retrieved records revealed preferred subject areas, including medicine miscellaneous (14.53 percent of Iran publications in 2011 year). In 2011, according to the number of articles and citations to them, Iran was at 17th and 23th position between 226 countries, respectively. After adjustment for 19708 journals from 50 countries, Iran’s rank based on the number of journals in medical sciences was 24th. Conclusion The number of indexed journals with number of articles, citations, self-citations, and H-index of each country showed significant correlation (P-value<0.01). In recent years, by favoring quality over quantity of researches, the new rules have proven to be more effective for discriminating Iranian scientific productions.

  15. The impact of the market index on the topology of financial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandere, Edward; Xi, Haowen

    2009-03-01

    We study the financial network generated from stock price returns correlation. The network topology has been used to explore and visualize the relationships between stocks. These networks have also been used in reconstructing less noisy correlation matrices for portfolio optimization. In this work, we explore the effect of adding the market index to the rest of stock network. We show that there is a very strong clustering around the index, both in S&P500 and DJIA. The mechanism that leads to these strong clustering as well as the implication to reconstructed correlation matrices will be explored.

  16. Fertility in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Reichman, David E; White, Perrin C; New, Maria I; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-02-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the most frequently encountered genetic steroid disorder affecting fertility. Steroid hormones play a crucial role in sexual development and reproductive function; patients with either 21- hydroxylase or 11?-hydroxylase deficiency thus face immense challenges to their fertility. Given the relevance of CAH in reproductive medicine as well as the diagnostic challenges posed by the phenotypic overlap with polycystic ovary syndrome, we review the reproductive pahophysiology of both classic and nonclassic CAH and present contemporary treatment options. PMID:24355046

  17. Giant hepatic angiomyolipoma simulating focal nodular hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Miyahara; Michio Kobayashi; Izuru Tada; Kazunari Okada; Koichi Sato; Yang Kim; Tadayasu Hiraoka; Shigeo Yokoyama

    1988-01-01

    A case of hepatic angiomyolipoma occurring in a 41-year-old woman, the eighteenth case in literature, is reported herein.\\u000a The radiographic imagings of the tumor simulated those of focal nodular hyperplasia; namely, the tumor was hyperechoic on\\u000a ultrasound, hypodense on computed tomography, hypervascular on angiography, and exhibited an uptake of technetium (Tc)-99m\\u000a phytate. The diagnosis was established after successful removal of

  18. Medical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Medical therapy for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) became an accepted standard of care in the 1990s following the reports of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies showing that finasteride, a 5-? reductase inhibitor, and terazosin, an ?-blocker, significantly improved lower urinary tract symptoms and increased peak urinary flow rates in men with BPH. This article reviews novel approaches to the pharmacological treatment of BPH. PMID:21826125

  19. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: management during critical illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Charmandari; E J Lichtarowicz-Krynska; P C Hindmarsh; A Johnston; A Aynsley-Green; C G D Brook

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDLittle is known of the optimal dose and administration schedule of hydrocortisone in critically ill patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency.AIMTo determine plasma cortisol concentrations after intravenous administration of hydrocortisone in children with CAH and to relate these to plasma cortisol concentrations achieved by endogenous secretion in the stress of critical illness in previously healthy children.METHODSPlasma

  20. Laser treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer M. Kuntz

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the role of lasers that allow acute removal of obstructing tissue in the surgical treatment of benign prostatic\\u000a hyperplasia (BPH). A MEDLINE search over the last 6 years focused on randomized trials, large case series and review articles.\\u000a A total of more than 4,000 patients were analyzed with respect to the morbidity and outcome, and the advantages and disadvantages

  1. The ultrastructure of transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E.; Barthold, S. W.

    1979-01-01

    Transmissible murine colonic hyperplasia was examined ultrastructurally by sequential sampling after inoculation with the etiologic agent, Citobacter freundii. Light-microscopic changes in the descending colon of inoculated mice were correlated with scanning and transmission electron-microsopic findings. Bacteria were attached to the surface of the mucosa between 4 and 10 days after inoculation. Hyperplasia was most severe at 16 days and thereafter underwent regression. Regression was preceded by extrusion of infected cells from the surface mucosa and replacement by immature hyperplasia epithelium. Hyperplastic epithelium throughtout the crypt resembled undifferentiated crypt cells of controls. By 45 days, the mucosa had reverted to near normal structure. The results suggest that severe mucosal proliferation with minimal inflammatory change resulted from attachment of bacteria to the surface mucosal epithelium. The hyperplastic response appeared to be a defense mechanism of replacing infected cells with newly migrated, uninfected epithelium. Images Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 7 PMID:525674

  2. Indexing variability: A case study with climate change impacts on ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Coulson; Linda Joyce

    2006-01-01

    We developed a methodology to index statistical changes in the variance of ecological measures over time. While ecological indicators are used to assess ecosystem health, vulnerability, risk and damage to ecosystems, their primary focus has been on changes to the mean of the ecological state or process. Little work has been done on incorporating variability into ecological indices. The methodology

  3. Sexual Dysfunction and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) Associated with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond C. Rosen; Francois Giuliano; Culley C. Carson

    2005-01-01

    Sexuality is an essential aspect of a couple's relationship and has a significant impact on life satisfaction. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition that commonly affects older men and is often associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction. Men with moderate-to-severe LUTS are at increased risk for sexual dysfunction, including moderate-to-severe erectile dysfunction (ED), ejaculatory dysfunction

  4. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Kaicheng; Gao, Shan; Wu, Hao; Luo, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months). When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation's responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April-October). The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages. PMID:26184243

  5. Cellulose crystallinity index: measurement techniques and their impact on interpreting cellulase performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John O Baker; Michael E Himmel; Philip A Parilla; David K Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Although measurements of crystallinity index (CI) have a long history, it has been found that CI varies significantly depending on the choice of measurement method. In this study, four different techniques incorporating X-ray diffraction and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were compared using eight different cellulose preparations. We found that the simplest method, which is also the most widely

  6. Tackling climate change impacts in the context of sustainability: the livelihood index as an integrative framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissner, Tabea K.; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Climate change will have consequences for human livelihoods, deriving from multiple direct and indirect impacts. Knowledge on sectoral impacts is increasing, e.g. the water the sector, however this knowledge remains fragmented and an integrative framework to assess the consequences of sectoral climate impacts on human livelihoods is missing. Further, adaptation needs to adapt to the expected climate impacts should be linked to goals of sustainable development. We introduce a modelling framework to quantify relevant livelihood dimensions, based on an extensive, interdisciplinary literature review. The applied fuzzy methodology allows translating the concept of livelihoods into a measurable framework, while retaining relationships and processes along the chain of aggregation. The framework includes a range of aspects including natural, infrastructural as well as societal resources. A quantification of these requirements can provide insights to several important issues in human-environmental systems. On the one hand it allows linking and integrating sectoral climate impacts, enabling cross-sectoral comparison. On the other hand, it paves the way towards addressing issues of sustainability, by focussing on the fulfilment of needs, which is a core component of the sustainability concept. On the basis of several climate change scenarios, we exemplify our approach by calculating the consequences of changes in water availability for human livelihoods over the course of the century. We present results from a global assessment at country-level, as well as more detailed insight from several country case studies at sub-national resolution.

  7. Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder intestinal abnormalities, ranging from lymphoid nodular hyperplasia to aphthoid ulceration. Histology showed

  8. Impact factor, H index, peer comparisons, and Retrovirology: is it time to individualize citation metrics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuan-Teh Jeang

    2007-01-01

    There is a natural tendency to judge a gift by the attractiveness of its wrapping. In some respect, this reflects current mores of measuring the gravitas of a scientific paper based on the journal cover in which the work appears. Most journals have an impact factor (IF) which some proudly display on their face page. Although historically journal IF has

  9. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a Turkish family.

    PubMed

    Gökahmeto?lu, Selma; Ferahba?, Ayten; Canöz, Özlem

    2014-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferative condition that is more frequently found in children of certain ethnic groups. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 13 and 32 genotypes has been consistently detected in these lesions. In this study a daughter, mother and father had FEH, and HPV 13 was shown by sequence analysis in the lesions of these patients. Cryotherapy was applied to the lesions and the lesions improved, but did not recover properly. In conclusion, HPV genotyping should be performed in FEH cases. PMID:25551850

  10. Telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia: a variant of hepatocellular adenoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Paradis; Asmae Benzekri; Delphine Dargère; Ivan Bièche; Ingrid Laurendeau; Valerie Vilgrain; Jacques Belghiti; Michel Vidaud; Claude Degott; Pierre Bedossa

    2004-01-01

    Background & Aims: “Telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia” designate atypical lesions considered as variants of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). However, because “telangiectatic FNH” share several morphologic patterns with hepatocellular adenomas, classification of such lesions deserve further clarification. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to reconsider the classification of telangiectatic FNH with the help of a molecular approach. Methods: Ten

  11. Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia: angiography, CT, sonography, and scintigraphy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Rogers; L. A. Mack; P. C. Freeny; M. L. Johnson; P. J. Sones

    1981-01-01

    Eleven patients with focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver underwent a combination of radiologic procedures, including sonography, computed tomography (CT), hepatic scintigraphy, and angiography. This paper describes the radiologic findings in this group of patients and reviews the current literature. In the present series, sonography was the most sensitive (100%) method for detection of focal nodular hyperplasia, while CT was

  12. Inhibitory effects of TripTripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside on benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hai-Nan; Xu, Yuan; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Wang, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside (GTW) against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group I, vehicle control group (sham-operated and treated with vehicle); Group II, BPH group; Group III, BPH rats treated with finasteride at a dose of 5 mg·kg(-1); and Groups IV and V, BPH rats treated with GTW at dose levels of 10 and 20 mg·kg(-1), respectively. The drugs were administered orally once a day for 14 days. Prostate weight, prostatic index, and the testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in serum and prostate, and the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were measured; prostate tissues were taken for histopathological examination; and serum biochemical analysis was also performed. The BPH rats displayed an increase in prostate weight, prostatic index with increased testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, and increased serum PSA levels. GTW treatment at both doses resulted in significant reductions in prostate weight, prostatic index, testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, and serum PSA levels, compared with BPH group. Histopathological examination also indicated that GTW treatment at both doses inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Serum biochemical analysis showed that the liver and renal functions were normal. In conclusion, GTW inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats, without host toxicity, providing a basis for the development of GTW as a novel therapy for BPH. PMID:26073338

  13. The Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Changes on Disability Transitions and Mortality in Brazilian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Drumond Andrade, Flávia Cristina; Mohd Nazan, Ahmad Iqmer Nashriq; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006), were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages. PMID:23691319

  14. Polycystic Ovaries Associated with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lucis, O. J.; Hobkirk, R.; Hollenberg, C. H.; MacDonald, S. A.; Blahey, P.

    1966-01-01

    Polycystic ovaries were found in a 16-year-old female with congenital absence of vagina, male-like external genitalia, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Masculinization was sufficiently severe to cause the patient to be reared as a male. Biochemical studies of ovarian tissue revealed hyperactivity and an imbalance of enzyme systems concerned with steroid-hormone biosynthesis, which led to production of large amounts of androgens. The pathway towards estrogens was preserved but less efficient than normal. Urinary steroid metabolites before and after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy revealed an absence of Porter-Silber chromogens and tetrahydrocortisone. Excretion of aldosterone was normal and that of corticosterone slightly higher than normal. The patterns of urinary 17-ketosteroids, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol and pregnanetriolone were similar to those commonly seen in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Urinary estrogens after panhysterectomy were low, being in the post-menopausal range. The pathogenesis of polycystic ovaries and their possible contribution to masculinization are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5901591

  15. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: biochemical and molecular perspectives.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Anurupa; Shirwalkar, Heena

    2003-07-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a disorder occurring in both sexes and is the commonest cause of ambiguous genitalia. It is a group of autosomal recessive disorders in which, on the basis of an enzyme defect the bulk of steroid hormone production by adrenal cortex shifts from corticosteroids to androgens. Autosomal recessive mutations in the CYP21, CYP17, CYP11B1 and 3betaHSD genes that encode steroidogenic enzymes, in addition to mutations in the gene encoding the intracellular cholesterol transport protein steroidogenic acute regulatory protein StAR can cause CAH. Each of the defects causes different biochemical consequences and clinical features. Deficiencies in 21 hydroxylase (21-OH) and 11beta-Hydroxylase (11beta-OH) are the two most frequent causes of CAH. All the biochemical defects impair cortisol secretion, resulting into compensatory hypersecretion of ACTH and consequent hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex. Research in recent years has clarified clinical, biochemical and genetic problems in diagnosis and treatment of the disorders. Expanding knowledge of the gene mutations associated with each of these disorders is providing valuable diagnostic tools in addition to the biochemical profile and phenotype. Genotyping is useful in selecting instances to provide genetic counseling and to clarify ambiguous cases. PMID:15255373

  16. Effect of combination treatment on patient-related outcome measures in benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical utility of dutasteride and tamsulosin

    PubMed Central

    Djavan, Bob; Dianat, Seyed Saeid; Kazzazi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia, the fourth most commonly diagnosed medical condition in the elderly, is a major underlying cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Medical therapy is usually the first therapeutic option. Combination therapy is increasingly used for better symptom relief and outcome. Methods: We searched the literature using the MEDLINE database for the efficacy of combination therapy in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia in terms of symptom improvement and impact on quality of life. Results: Combination therapy with dutasteride and tamsulosin not only provides better symptom improvement and improved urinary flow rate, but is also associated with a more favorable impact on quality of life and patient satisfaction with treatment than monotherapy. Combination therapy also reduces the risk of events related to disease progression, such as acute urinary retention and benign prostatic hyperplasia-related surgery. Conclusion: Combination therapy with dutasteride and tamsulosin is highly efficacious as medical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:22915969

  17. Impact of Body Mass Index on Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Zubair M.; Perlmutter, Adam E.; Piacente, Pamela M.; Wilding, Gregory; Tan, Wei; Kim, Hyung L.; Mohler, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Obesity is a major comorbidity in the Western world and influences outcomes of patient care. A minimally invasive approach towards radical cystectomy has been increasing in popularity. We sought to determine the influence of body mass index (BMI) on robot-assisted radical cystectomy. Methods: Fifty-one consecutive patients underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy for bladder cancer from October 2005 to April 2007 and were categorized into 3 groups based on their weight: normal (BMI <25), over-weight (BMI=25 to 29) and obese (BMI= 30 to 39.9). Effect of BMI on intraoperative, pathologic, and postoperative outcomes was assessed by retrospective review of the robot-assisted radical cystectomy database. Results: Mean BMI was 28.0, and 71% of the patients were overweight or obese. BMI did not correlate with age, sex, or American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score. Overweight and obese patients had similar operative times and estimated blood loss compared with patients with normal BMI. Overweight and obese patients with bulky disease (pT3–4) had significantly higher rates of positive surgical margins (P=0.05). Complication rates were similar. Conclusion: Robotic-assisted radical cystectomy can be considered for patients of all body mass indices. Wider excision should be performed in patients with higher BMI. PMID:18765045

  18. Assessing the impact of a fistula after a pancreaticoduodenectomy using the Post-operative Morbidity Index

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Benjamin C; Christein, John D; Behrman, Stephen W; Callery, Mark P; Drebin, Jeffrey A; Kent, Tara S; Pratt, Wande B; Lewis, Russell S; Vollmer, Charles M

    2013-01-01

    Background The Post-operative Morbidity Index (PMI) is a quantitative utility measure of a complication burden created by severity weighting. The Fistula Risk Score (FRS) is a validated model that predicts whether a patient will develop a post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF). These novel tools might provide further discrimination of the ISGPF grading system. Methods From 2001 to 2012, 1021 pancreaticoduodenectomies were performed at four institutions. POPFs were categorized by ISGPF standards. PMI scores were calculated based on the Modified Accordion Severity Grading System. FRS scores were assigned according to the relative influence of four recognized factors for developing a clinically relevant POPF (CR-POPF). Results In total, 231 patients (22.6%) developed a POPF, of which 54.1% were CR-POPFs. The PMI differed significantly between the ISGPF grades and patients with no or non-fistulous complications (P < 0.001). 64.9% of POPFs and 84.0% of CR-POPFs contributed the highest Accordion grade to the PMI. Overall, the FRS correlated well with PMI (R2 = 0.81, P < 0.001). Conclusion These data quantitatively reinforce the ISGPF grades that were developed qualitatively around the concept of clinical severity. CR-POPFs usually reflect the patient's highest Accordion score whereas biochemical POPFs are often superseded. The correlation between FRS and PMI indicates that risk factors for a fistula contribute to overall pancreaticoduodenectomy morbidity. PMID:23869603

  19. Quantifying the impact of climate change on drought regimes using the Standardised Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Katie; Warren, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    The study presents a methodology to characterise short- or long-term drought events, designed to aid understanding of how climate change may affect future risk. An indicator of drought magnitude, combining parameters of duration, spatial extent and intensity, is presented based on the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). The SPI is applied to observed (1955-2003) and projected (2003-2050) precipitation data from the Community Integrated Assessment System (CIAS). Potential consequences of climate change on drought regimes in Australia, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Spain, Portugal and the USA are quantified. Uncertainty is assessed by emulating a range of global circulation models to project climate change. Further uncertainty is addressed through the use of a high-emission scenario and a low-stabilisation scenario representing a stringent mitigation policy. Climate change was shown to have a larger effect on the duration and magnitude of long-term droughts, and Australia, Brazil, Spain, Portugal and the USA were highlighted as being particularly vulnerable to multi-year drought events, with the potential for drought magnitude to exceed historical experience. The study highlights the characteristics of drought which may be more sensitive under climate change. For example, on average, short-term droughts in the USA do not become more intense but are projected to increase in duration. Importantly, the stringent mitigation scenario had limited effect on drought regimes in the first half of the twenty-first century, showing that adaptation to drought risk will be vital in these regions.

  20. [The Voice Handicap Index: impact of the translation in French on the validation].

    PubMed

    Woisard, V; Bodin, S; Puech, M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this prospective investigation was to validate a French version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). A population of 52 normal subjects and 63 patients with voice disorders replied to the questionnaire at the day of their first consultation and ten to thirty days after the consultation (before any treatment). Reproducing the methodology of the American authors, the test-retest reliability and the internal consistency reliability were measured. The validity and the sensibility related to a non dysphonic population were also analysed. Regarding the normal subjects, the maximum scores for total score and subscale scores were 20 (total), 12 (physical), 7 (functional), 6 (Emotional). These scores are statistically different when compared with pathological subjects (p < 0.00001). Test-Retest stability of the pathological subjects was found to be satisfactory for both total score and subscale scores (r > 0.87). From this data set, the critical difference scores were derived for the VHI total score (15 points), for the physical subscale (9 points) and for the functional and emotional.subscales (6 points each). As for as the internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's alpha is correct (r > 7) for the pathological subjects. Yet, the analysis of the validity reply by reply, reveals some abnormalities. In conclusion, the validity of the French translation of the VHI is confirmed but the results prompt us to improve the quality of the translation. PMID:15856833

  1. A review of the use of tadalafil in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in men with and without erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hatzimouratidis, Konstantinos

    2014-08-01

    Epidemiological data link erectile dysfunction (ED) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), two highly prevalent conditions in aging men, assuming common pathophysiological pathways. Tadalafil 5 mg once daily has been approved for the treatment of men with LUTS with or without comorbid ED. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge on the epidemiological and pathophysiological links between ED and LUTS and to focus on tadalafil as a new treatment option in men with BPH-associated LUTS. A Medline search was completed using the Medical Subject Headings (MESH® keywords) 'prostatic hyperplasia' and 'phosphodiesterase inhibitors'. This search revealed 125 relevant references (entire Medline database up to 11 March 2014). The efficacy of tadalafil 5 mg once daily for the treatment of LUTS has been reported by several well-designed studies. Tadalafil improves significantly the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the voiding and storage subscores, the IPSS Quality of Life (QoL) and the BPH Impact Index (BII). Its efficacy is irrelevant to the erectile function status of the patients. However, in the majority of these studies tadalafil is not associated with improvement in maximum urine flow or post-void residual volume (PVR). Its safety profile is well established and no new or unexpected adverse events other than those reported in ED studies have been recorded. Tadalafil is today a new treatment alternative to other established drugs for LUTS such as the ?-adrenergic antagonists or 5?-reductase inhibitors. However, it is not just an alternative, since sexual adverse events associated with these drugs are avoided and tadalafil is the only drug that can treat both ED and LUTS at the same time. PMID:25083163

  2. Cellulose crystallinity index: measurement techniques and their impact on interpreting cellulase performance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although measurements of crystallinity index (CI) have a long history, it has been found that CI varies significantly depending on the choice of measurement method. In this study, four different techniques incorporating X-ray diffraction and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were compared using eight different cellulose preparations. We found that the simplest method, which is also the most widely used, and which involves measurement of just two heights in the X-ray diffractogram, produced significantly higher crystallinity values than did the other methods. Data in the literature for the cellulose preparation used (Avicel PH-101) support this observation. We believe that the alternative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR methods presented here, which consider the contributions from amorphous and crystalline cellulose to the entire XRD and NMR spectra, provide a more accurate measure of the crystallinity of cellulose. Although celluloses having a high amorphous content are usually more easily digested by enzymes, it is unclear, based on studies published in the literature, whether CI actually provides a clear indication of the digestibility of a cellulose sample. Cellulose accessibility should be affected by crystallinity, but is also likely to be affected by several other parameters, such as lignin/hemicellulose contents and distribution, porosity, and particle size. Given the methodological dependency of cellulose CI values and the complex nature of cellulase interactions with amorphous and crystalline celluloses, we caution against trying to correlate relatively small changes in CI with changes in cellulose digestibility. In addition, the prediction of cellulase performance based on low levels of cellulose conversion may not include sufficient digestion of the crystalline component to be meaningful. PMID:20497524

  3. Energy absorption during impact on the proximal femur is affected by body mass index and flooring surface.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Shivam; Levine, Iris C; Laing, Andrew C

    2014-07-18

    Impact mechanics theory suggests that peak loads should decrease with increase in system energy absorption. In light of the reduced hip fracture risk for persons with high body mass index (BMI) and for falls on soft surfaces, the purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of participant BMI, gender, and flooring surface on system energy absorption during lateral falls on the hip with human volunteers. Twenty university-aged participants completed the study with five men and five women in both low BMI (<22.5 kg/m(2)) and high BMI (>27.5 kg/m(2)) groups. Participants underwent lateral pelvis release experiments from a height of 5 cm onto two common floors and four safety floors mounted on a force plate. A motion-capture system measured pelvic deflection. The energy absorbed during the initial compressive phase of impact was calculated as the area under the force-deflection curve. System energy absorption was (on average) 3-fold greater for high compared to low BMI participants, but no effects of gender were observed. Even after normalizing for body mass, high BMI participants absorbed 1.8-fold more energy per unit mass. Additionally, three of four safety floors demonstrated significantly increased energy absorption compared to a baseline resilient-rolled-sheeting system (% increases ranging from 20.7 to 28.3). Peak system deflection was larger for high BMI persons and for impacts on several safety floors. This study indicates that energy absorption may be a common mechanism underlying the reduced risk of hip fracture for persons with high BMI and for those who fall on soft surfaces. PMID:24837217

  4. Methotrexate loaded SAE coated coronary stents reduce neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine coronary model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y; Salu, K; Liu, X; Li, S; Wang, L; Verbeken, E; Bosmans, J; De Scheerder, I

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of stent based methotrexate delivery on neointimal hyperplasia. Methods: Stainless steel coronary stents and biological polymer coated (SAE) stents were randomly implanted in coronary arteries of pigs with a stent to artery ratio of 1.1:1. The pigs were killed after five days (10 stents) or four weeks (20 stents). Second, stainless steel coronary stents were dip coated in a 10 mg/ml methotrexate–SAE polymer solution, resulting in a total load of 150 ?g methotrexate/stent. SAE coated stents and methotrexate loaded stents were randomly implanted in porcine coronary arteries with a stent to artery ratio of 1.2:1 and followed up to four weeks. Results: SAE coated stents and bare stents elicited a similar tissue response at five days. At four weeks, neointimal hyperplasia induced by the coated stents was less pronounced than with the bare stents (1.32 (0.66) v 1.73 (0.93) mm2, p > 0.05). In vitro drug release studies showed that 50% of the methotrexate was released in 24 hours, and all drug was released within four weeks. No impact on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation or viability was observed in in vitro cell cultures. At four weeks the arteries with methotrexate loaded stents had decreased peristrut inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia (1.22 (0.34) v 2.25 (1.28) mm2, p < 0.01). Conclusions: SAE coating had an excellent biocompatibility with vascular tissue. Stent based delivery of methotrexate in the SAE coating effectively reduced neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine coronary stent model, potentially due to reduced peristrut inflammation. PMID:14729797

  5. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Treatment and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kamoun, Mahdi; Feki, Mouna Mnif; Sfar, Mohamed Habib; Abid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of autosomal recessive disorders where there is impairment of cortisol biosynthesis. CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 95% of cases and shows a wide range of clinical severity. Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapies are the mainstays of treatment of CAH. The optimal treatment for adults with CAH continues to be a challenge. Important long-term health issues for adults with CAH affect both men and women. These issues may either be due to the disease or to steroid treatment and may affect final height, fertility, cardiometabolic risk, bone metabolism, neuro-cognitive development and the quality-of-life. Patients with CAH should be regularly followed-up from childhood to adulthood by multidisciplinary teams who have knowledge of CAH. Optimal replacement therapy, close clinical and laboratory monitoring, early life-style interventions, early and regular fertility assessment and continuous psychological management are needed to improve outcome. PMID:24251136

  6. Optimizing the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Elterman, Dean S.; Kaplan, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges facing primary care physicians and specialists as the population ages is the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). While as many as 18% of men in their 40s report bother from an enlarged prostate, that figure rises dramatically, whereby 50% of men in their 50s and 90% of men in their 90s will complain of bothersome symptoms related to an enlarged prostate. Studies have shown that BPH is a progressive disease, which if left untreated can result in worsening of symptoms, acute urinary retention and renal failure. Until about 20 years ago the only management option available to urologists was surgery. In the early 1990s medical therapy emerged as the predominant treatment for BPH. Therapy may be tailored to target symptoms and progression of disease. PMID:22496710

  7. Phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A minireview.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Ester; Laudato, Massimiliano; Griffo, Michele; Capasso, Raffaele

    2014-07-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition affecting older men, with an incidence that is age-dependent. Histological BPH, which typically develops after the age of 40 years, ranges in prevalence from >50% at 60 years to as high as 90% by 85 years of age. Typical symptoms include increased frequency of urination, nocturia, urgency, hesitancy, and weak urine stream. Conventional medicines used for the treatment of BPH include alpha blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. This articles review the mode of action, the efficacy, and the safety, including herb-drug interactions of the most common botanicals (Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica, and Cucurbita pepo) and nutraceuticals (isoflavones, lycopene, selenium, and ?-Sitosterol) in controlling the lower urinary tract symptoms associated to BPH. PMID:25165780

  8. Langerhans Cell Hyperplasia From Molluscum Contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Hatter, Alyn D; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis, which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics, which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine whether molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion, demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. Polymerase chain reaction on biopsy-proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion has been performed. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. The authors report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histological lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive "driver" in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  9. Value of an aggregate index in describing the impact of trends in antimicrobial resistance for Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, David M; Chambers, Catharine; Purych, Dale; Chong, Mei; George, Diana; Marra, Fawziah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug resistance indexes (DRIs) quantify the cumulative impact of antimicrobial resistance on the likelihood that a given pathogen will be susceptible to antimicrobial therapy. OBJECTIVE: To derive a DRI for community urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli in British Columbia for the years 2007 to 2010, and to examine trends over time and across patient characteristics. METHODS: Indication-specific utilization data were obtained from BC PharmaNet for outpatient antimicrobial prescriptions linked to diagnostic information from physician payment files. Resistance data for E coli urinary isolates were obtained from BC Biomedical Laboratories (now part of LifeLabs Medical Laboratory Services). DRIs were derived by multiplying the rate of resistance to a specific antimicrobial by the proportional rate of utilization for that drug class and aggregating across drug classes. Higher index values indicate more resistance. RESULTS: Adaptive-use DRIs remained stable over time at approximately 18% (95% CI 17% to 18%) among adults ?15 years of age and approximately 28% (95% CI 26% to 31%) among children <15 years of age. Similar results were observed when proportional drug use was restricted to the baseline year (ie, a static-use model). Trends according to age group suggest a U-shaped distribution, with the highest DRIs occurring among children <10 years of age and adults ?65 years of age. Males had consistently higher DRIs than females for all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The stable trend in adaptive-use DRIs over time suggests that clinicians are adapting their prescribing practices for urinary tract infections to local resistance patterns. Results according to age group reveal a higher probability of resistance to initial therapy among young children and elderly individuals. PMID:25798152

  10. Impact of Human Development Index on the profile and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ambuj; Roe, Matthew T; Neely, Megan L; Cyr, Derek D; Zamoryakhin, Dmitry; Fox, Keith A A; White, Harvey D; Armstrong, Paul W; Ohman, E Magnus; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of national economic and human development status on patient profiles and outcomes in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes trial (TRILOGY ACS) population (51 countries; 9301 patients). Outcome measures compared baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes through 30?months by 2010 country-level United Nations Human Development Indices (HDIs) and per-capita gross national income. Results TRILOGY ACS enrolled 3659 patients from 27 very-high HDI countries, 3744 from 18 high-HDI countries and 1898 from 6 medium-HDI countries. Baseline characteristics of groups varied significantly, with the medium-HDI group having a lower mean age (63.0?years, vs 65.0 and 68.0?years for high-HDI and very-high HDI, respectively; p<0.001), lower baseline Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score and lower rate of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (58.0%, vs 62.2% and 83.9% among high-HDI and very-high HDI, respectively). Medium-HDI and high-HDI patients had lower unadjusted 30-month rates for the composite of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke (17.6%, 16.9% and 23.1% for medium-HDI, high-HDI and very-high HDI, respectively); this difference disappeared after adjusting for baseline characteristics. Adjusted HRs for the composite endpoint were lower in lower-income/middle-income countries vs upper-income/middle-income (0.791(95% CI 0.632 to 0.990)) and high-income countries (0.756 (95% CI 0.616 to 0.928)), with differences largely attributable to myocardial infarction rates. Conclusions Clinical patient profiles differed substantially by country HDI groupings. Lower unadjusted event rates in medium-HDI countries may be explained by younger age and lower comorbidity burden among these countries’ patients. This heterogeneity in patient recruitment across country HDI groupings may have important implications for future global ACS trial design. Trial registration number NCT00699998. PMID:25538134

  11. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krone, Nils; Dhir, Vivek; Ivison, Hannah E; Arlt, Wiebke

    2007-02-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders, which are usually due to inactivating mutations in single enzymes involved in adrenal steroid biosynthesis. The characteristics of the biochemical and clinical phenotype depend on the specific enzymatic defect. In 21-hydroxylase and 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency only adrenal steroidogenesis is affected, whereas a defect in 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase or 17alpha-hydroxylase also involves gonadal steroid biosynthesis. Recently, mutations in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase were identified as the cause of CAH with apparent combined 17alpha-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase deficiency, thereby illustrating the impact of redox regulation enzymes on steroidogenesis. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (ORD) has a complex phenotype including two unique features not observed in any other CAH variant, skeletal malformations and severe genital ambiguity in both sexes. Despite invariably low circulating androgens, females with ORD may present with virilized genitalia and mothers may suffer from virilization during pregnancy. This apparently contradictory finding may be explained by the existence of an alternative pathway in human androgen biosynthesis, with important implications for physiology and pathophysiology. This review discusses the biochemical and clinical presentation and the genetic and functional basis of the currently known CAH variants, with a specific focus on ORD. PMID:17223983

  12. Unravelling the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Anelia; Stratakis, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review This review discusses the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia (MAH). It focuses on the role of genetic defects in cAMP signaling related molecules, namely PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A and PDE8B in the predisposition for tumor formation. It also discusses the involvement of cAMP signaling and related pathways, and their impact on the adrenocortical phenotype formation. Recent findings Molecular defects in the phosphodiesterases (PDE) family are the most recently discovered genetic defects predisposing to various adrenocortical tumor formation. In contrast to GNAS and PRKAR1A, defects in PDE genes are associated more frequently with incomplete penetrance. Summary Recent findings indicate the importance of cAMP signaling for normal adrenocortical functioning and the sensitivity of the adrenal gland to subtle alterations in cAMP levels. Identifying low-penetrance mutations in more than one PDEs in patients with MAH is suggestive for a complementary role of the different PDEs in the adrenal gland, and possible involvement of other members of this gene family in adrenocortical signaling PMID:18438169

  13. Pelvic ultrasound evaluation for benign prostatic hyperplasia: prediction of obstruction.

    PubMed

    Rukstalis, Daniel B

    2014-05-01

    Global improvements in water quality, management of infectious diseases, and other medical therapeutics have resulted in a growing population of healthy aging men. One obligate anatomic consequence of aging for these men is the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with secondary bladder outlet obstruction. Although the voiding symptoms associated with the change in bladder health over time predominantly impact the quality of a man's daily experience, there are also significant medical consequences of BPH that require intervention. It is a challenge to distinguish men who are at risk for these medical consequences from the much larger population of older men with voiding symptoms (lower urinary tract symptoms, LUTS). A variety of national guidelines have been developed to establish a diagnostic paradigm for meeting this challenge, but all suffer from inadequate sensitivity for the early identification of men at risk for permanent bladder injury. It is likely that the application of a thorough pelvic ultrasound designed to identify the pertinent anatomic aspects of both the bladder and prostate will improve the sensitivity of these diagnostic paradigms, with subsequent improvement in the outcomes for men with BPH/LUTS. PMID:24658830

  14. Condylar Hyperplasia and Facial Asymmetry: Report of Five Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Divya Mehrotra; Satish Dhasmana; Mala Kamboj; Gautam Gambhir

    2011-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia of mandible is overdevelopment of condyle, unilaterally or bilaterally, leading to facial asymmetry,\\u000a mandibular deviation, malocclusion and articular dysfunction. This is a series of five such patients managed at our centre.

  15. Foveolar hyperplasia at the gastric cardia: prevalence and associations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Voutilainen; M Juhola; M Fa?rkkila?; P Sipponen

    2002-01-01

    Aims: In the gastric antrum and body, foveolar hyperplasia is a feature of reactive gastritis resulting from—for example, duodenogastric bile reflux and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and clinical relevance of gastric cardiac foveolar hyperplasia.Methods: The study population was drawn from a consecutive series of 1698 patients sent

  16. Analysis of arterial intimal hyperplasia: review and hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite a prodigious investment of funds, we cannot treat or prevent arteriosclerosis and restenosis, particularly its major pathology, arterial intimal hyperplasia. A cornerstone question lies behind all approaches to the disease: what causes the pathology? Hypothesis I argue that the question itself is misplaced because it implies that intimal hyperplasia is a novel pathological phenomenon caused by new mechanisms. A simple inquiry into arterial morphology shows the opposite is true. The normal multi-layer cellular organization of the tunica intima is identical to that of diseased hyperplasia; it is the standard arterial system design in all placentals at least as large as rabbits, including humans. Formed initially as one-layer endothelium lining, this phenotype can either be maintained or differentiate into a normal multi-layer cellular lining, so striking in its resemblance to diseased hyperplasia that we have to name it "benign intimal hyperplasia". However, normal or "benign" intimal hyperplasia, although microscopically identical to pathology, is a controllable phenotype that rarely compromises blood supply. It is remarkable that each human heart has coronary arteries in which a single-layer endothelium differentiates early in life to form a multi-layer intimal hyperplasia and then continues to self-renew in a controlled manner throughout life, relatively rarely compromising the blood supply to the heart, causing complications requiring intervention only in a small fraction of the population, while all humans are carriers of benign hyperplasia. Unfortunately, this fundamental fact has not been widely appreciated in arteriosclerosis research and medical education, which continue to operate on the assumption that the normal arterial intima is always an "ideal" single-layer endothelium. As a result, the disease is perceived and studied as a new pathological event caused by new mechanisms. The discovery that normal coronary arteries are morphologically indistinguishable from deadly coronary arteriosclerosis continues to elicit surprise. Conclusion Two questions should inform the priorities of our research: (1) what controls switch the single cell-layer intimal phenotype into normal hyperplasia? (2) how is normal (benign) hyperplasia maintained? We would be hard-pressed to gain practical insights without scrutinizing our premises. PMID:17974015

  17. Tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast.

    PubMed

    Wieman, Stephanie M; Landercasper, Jeffrey; Johnson, Jeanne M; Ellis, Richard L; Wester, Susan M; Lambert, Pamela J; Ross, Lauren A

    2008-12-01

    Tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a rare benign proliferative disease of the breast. The majority of the literature reports of PASH have not contained detailed descriptions of the imaging characteristics of PASH. A 10-year retrospective study of patients with tumoral PASH and a 20-year Ovid MEDLINE search were performed to determine whether specific imaging and needle biopsy results could characterize PASH preoperatively. We identified 22 patients with tumoral PASH. Seventeen (77%) of 22 women had a palpable lump and 14 (72%) of 21 had a density on mammography. Ultrasound (US) findings included mixed or hypoechoic echogenicity in 83 per cent and ill-defined borders in 62 per cent. Eight (36%) patients had lesions with a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification of 4 or 5. The sensitivity of preoperative core needle biopsy (CNB) to identify PASH was 83 per cent. A review of the literature revealed that 90 per cent of patients with PASH had some malignant imaging characteristics and 95 per cent had a mass on mammography. The imaging characteristics of PASH exhibited marked variability. Excision of PASH after CNB may be considered for patients with symptoms, enlarging lesions, or lesions classified as BI-RADS 4 or 5. PASH diagnosed by CNB allows selected patients to avoid excision. PMID:19097540

  18. A Case of Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Ghasemi, Mahmoud; Hovsepian, Silva

    2012-01-01

    Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), a rare disorder of steroid biosynthesis, is the most severe form of CAH. In this disorder the synthesis of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex steroids is impaired which result in adrenal failure, severe salt wasting crisis and hyperpigmentation in phenotypical female infants irrespective of genetic sex. In this report, we presented a 28-day-old phenotypic female infant, which referred with lethargy, failure to thrive and electrolyte abnormalities. Considering the clinical and biochemical findings, lipoid CAH was diagnosed and replacement therapy with standard doses of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid and sodium chloride was initiated. During follow-up, she had good clinical condition, but at 6 years of age, she refers with hypertension and adrenal insufficiency because of arbitrary drug discontinuation by mother. In ultrasonography an abdominal mass (the testicles) was reported. Chromosome study showed 46XY pattern. Orchiectomy was performed. We recommended that in cases with clinical presentation of adrenal insufficiency if there is not the facility to determine the karyotype, repeated ultrasonography perform during follow-up. In addition, investigating the genetic bases of the disorder would help us to determine the pathogenesis of lipoid CAH in our community. It would be helpful in prenatal diagnosis and treatment of the disorder to prevent its related comorbidities. PMID:22891154

  19. Neointimal hyperplasia associated with synthetic hemodialysis grafts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Terry, Christi M.; Shiu, Yan-Ting E.; Cheung, Alfred K.

    2008-01-01

    Stenosis is a major cause of failure of hemodialysis vascular grafts and is primarily caused by neointimal hyperplasia (NH) at the anastomoses. The objective of this article is to provide a scientific review of the biology underlying this disorder and a critical review of the state-of-the-art investigational preventive strategies in order to stimulate further research in this exciting area. The histology of the NH shows myofibroblasts (that are probably derived from adventitial fibroblasts), extracellular matrices, pro-inflammatory cells including foreign-body giant cells, a variety of growth factors and cytokines, and neovasculature. The contributing factors of the pathogenesis of NH include surgical trauma, bioincompatibility of the synthetic graft, and the various mechanical stresses that result from luminal hypertension and compliance mismatch between the vessel wall and graft. These mechanical stimuli are focal in nature and may have a significant influence on the preferential localization of the NH. Novel mechanical graft designs and local drug delivery strategies show promise in animal models in preventing graft NH development. Successful prevention of graft stenosis would provide a superior alternative to the native fistula as hemodialysis vascular access. PMID:18668026

  20. Transurethral microwave thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Rubeinstein, Jonathan N; McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) remains the gold standard for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In general, while this procedure is safe, patients require a spinal, epidural, or general anesthesia and often several days of hospital stay; the potential morbidity and mortality limits the use of TURP in high-risk patients. Pharmacotherapy has been recommended as a first-line therapy for all patients with mild to moderate symptoms. Patients are often times enthusiastic if they are offered a one-time method to treat lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to BPH, provided that the method offers reduced risk and allows an efficacy equal to that of medical therapy. One such method is transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT). TUMT involves the insertion of a specially designed urinary catheter with a microwave antenna, which heats the prostate and destroys hyperplastic prostate tissue. TUMT allows the avoidance of general or regional anesthesia, and results in minimal blood loss and fluid absorption. In this review, the authors discussed the current indications and outcome of TUMT, including the history of the procedure, the mechanism of action, the indications for TUMT, the pre-operative considerations, the patient selection, the results in terms of efficacy, by comparing TUMT vs. Sham, TUMT vs. Alpha-blocker and TUMT vs. TURP. Finally, the complications are presented, as well as other uses and future directions of the procedure. The authors concluded that TUMT is a safe and effective minimally invasive alternative to treatment of symptomatic BPH. PMID:15745533

  1. Alfuzosin 10 mg Once Daily Increases the Chances of Successful Trial without Catheter after Acute Urinary Retention Secondary to Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Y. Tiong; M. J. B. Tibung; M. Macalalag; M. K. Li; D. Consigliere

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of Alfuzosin XL 10 mg once daily for the acute management of acute urinary retention (AUR) with placebo in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to determine the predictors that impact this. Methods: 67 patients presenting with an initial episode of spontaneous AUR secondary to BPH were catheterized and were then prospectively randomized to

  2. Impact of body mass index on estradiol depletion by aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiler, G; Königsberg, R; Hadji, P; Fitzal, F; Maroske, M; Dressel-Ban, G; Zellinger, J; Exner, R; Seifert, M; Singer, C; Gnant, M; Dubsky, P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) has an impact on survival outcome in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Obesity is associated with an increased body aromatisation and may be a cause of insufficient estradiol depletion. Methods: Sixty-eight postmenopausal oestrogen receptor-positive patients with early breast cancer were prospectively included in this study. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol were analysed immediately in the clinical routine lab and in a dedicated central lab before (T1) and 3 months after start with aromatase inhibitors (T2). Results: A total of 40 patients were normal or overweight (non-obese: BMI 18.5–29.9?kg?m?2) and 28 were obese (BMI?30?kg?m?2). Aromatase inhibitors significantly suppressed estradiol serum levels (T1: 19.5?pg?ml?1, T2: 10.5?pg?ml?1, P<0.01) and increased FSH serum levels (T1: 70.2?mIU?ml?1, T2: 75.7?mIU?ml?1, P<0.05). However, after 3 months of AI treatment, estradiol levels of obese patients were nonsignificantly higher compared with non-obese patients (12.5?pg?ml?1 vs 9.0?pg?ml?1, P=0.1). This difference was reflected by significantly lower FSH serum levels in obese compared with non-obese patients (65.5?mIU?ml?1 vs 84.6?mIU?ml?1, P<0.01). The significant effects of BMI on FSH serum levels could be detected both in the routine as well as in the dedicated central lab. Conclusion: Aromatase inhibitors are less efficient at suppressing estradiol serum levels in obese when compared with non-obese women. PMID:24002592

  3. Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia in Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fuss, Ivan J.; Friend, Julia; Yang, Zhiqong; He, Ping; Hooda, Lubna; Boyer, James; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Kleiner, David E.; Heller, Theo; Strober, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) are subject to the development of a liver disease syndrome known as nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH). The purpose of this study was to define the characteristics and course of this complication of CVID. Methods CVID patients were evaluated by retrospective and prospective clinical course review. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated for evidence of NRH and studied via RT-PCR for cytokine analysis. Results NRH in our CVID patient population occurred in approximately 5% of the 261 patients in our total CVID study group, initially presenting in most cases with an elevated alkaline phosphatase level. While in some patients the disease remained static, in a larger proportion a more severe disease developed characterized by portal hypertension, the latter leading to hypersplenism with neutropenia and thrombocytopenia and, in some cases, to ascites. In addition, a substantial proportion of patients either developed or presented initially with an autoimmune hepatitis-like (AIH-like) liver disease that resulted in severe liver dysfunction and, in most cases to death due to infections. The liver histologic findings in these AIH-like patients were characterized by underlying NRH pattern with superimposed interface hepatitis, lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis. Immunologic studies of biopsies of NRH patients demonstrated the presence of infiltrating T cells producing IFN-?, suggesting that the NRH is due to an autoimmune process. Conclusion Overall, these studies provide evidence that NRH may not be benign but, can be a severe and potentially fatal disease complication of CVID that merits close monitoring and intervention. PMID:23420139

  4. [Pathophysiology and therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Sampson, Natalie; Madersbacher, Stephan; Berger, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) are among the most frequent medical disorders of elderly men and cause a number of annoying symptoms of the lower urinary tract (LUTS), leading to reduced quality of life and severe complications, including acute urinary retention. Nodular overgrowth of the epithelium and in particular the fibromuscular tissue is observed in the transition zone and periurethral areas. In particular, functional and phenotypic transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is a hallmark of the tissue remodeling in the benign hyperplastic prostate. BPH/BPE have a complex pathophysiology with a multitude of endocrine and local factors involved. Two risk factors, namely aging and circulating androgens, contribute significantly to risk of BPH/BPE. One of the primary initiating mechanisms appears to be a consequence of age-related changes in systemic sex steroid hormone levels accompanied by alterations in local androgen metabolism. This results in the disruption of the delicate balance of interacting growth factor signaling pathways and stromal/epithelial interactions generating a growth promoting and tissue remodeling microenvironment that leads to an increase in prostate volume. Secondarily, altered cytokine and chemoattractant production by the remodeled stroma promotes local inflammation that may further contribute to disease progression via lymphocyte-derived inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Local hypoxia as a result of increased oxygen demands of proliferating cells may induce low levels of reactive oxygen species promoting neovascularization and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation. Medical therapies for LUTS due to BPH/BPE have changed little over the past 15 years with mainstay treatments being alpha-adrenoreceptor blockade and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. We provide an in depth view of the mechanisms underlying BPH/BPE and relate new research findings to the clinical picture with the prospect of novel therapeutic targets, including selective hormone antagonists/agonists, anti-stromal therapy, vitamin-D analogues and approaches to redress the redox imbalance. PMID:18726663

  5. Prostate . Author manuscript Inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia: a 282 patients'

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Prostate . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia: a 282 patients Taille Abstract Introduction and objectives Prostatic inflammation could be a key component in prostate enlargement and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression. Our aim

  6. A hybrid fuzzy-ontology based intelligent system to determine level of severity and treatment recommendation for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Torshizi, Abolfazl Doostparast; Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein Fazel; Torshizi, Ghazaleh Doostparast; Eghbali, Kamyar

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with application of fuzzy intelligent systems in diagnosing severity level and recommending appropriate therapies for patients having Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Such an intelligent system can have remarkable impacts on correct diagnosis of the disease and reducing risk of mortality. This system captures various factors from the patients using two modules. The first module determines severity level of the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and the second module, which is a decision making unit, obtains output of the first module accompanied by some external knowledge and makes an appropriate treatment decision based on its ontology model and a fuzzy type-1 system. In order to validate efficiency and accuracy of the developed system, a case study is conducted by 44 participants. Then the results are compared with the recommendations of a panel of experts on the experimental data. Then precision and accuracy of the results were investigated based on a statistical analysis. PMID:24184111

  7. Aroma-impact compounds in dried spice as a quality index using solid phase microextraction with olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maikhunthod, Bussayarat; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-12-15

    A systematic experimental procedure is used to identify the aroma-impact compounds, leading to a shelf quality index based on head space solid-phase microextraction. Dried (ground) fennel seeds, having shelf life of 6 months (0.5Y) and 5 years (5Y), were used as a spice model for assessment of comparative aroma quality. Aroma-impact odorants were analysed by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) in parallel with comprehensive two-dimensional GC-flame ionisation detection (GC×GC-FID) using a polar/non-polar phase combination for the GC×GC column set. Tentative identification of aroma-impact odorants involved correlating data from the GC-O/FID system with GC×GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis by means of retention indices. Major compounds responsible for aroma perception were limonene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, estragole and trans-anethole, and showed an average decrease of 30-50% NIF from 0.5Y to 5Y. Monoterpenes which represent 'freshness', e.g. ?-pinene and ?-myrcene, exhibited identifiable aroma-impact only for the 0.5Y product. Sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene oxides are suggested as an aging index, being present in increased amounts in 5Y. p-Anisaldehyde odour intensity for both samples remained the same (aroma perception sweet creamy, floral odour and Chinese seasoning powder). PMID:23993622

  8. Impact of body mass index on complications following pancreatectomy: Ten-year experience at National Cancer Center in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Tai; Deng, Qian; Che, Xu; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Chen, Yu-Heng; Zhao, Dong-Bin; Tian, Yan-Tao; Zhang, Ya-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes following pancreatic resection in the Chinese population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected data was conducted at the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China National Cancer Center. Individuals who underwent pancreatic resection between January 2004 and December 2013 were identified and included in the study. Persons were classified as having a normal weight if their BMI was < 24 kg/m2 and overweight/obese if their BMI was ? 24 kg/m2 as defined by the International Life Sciences Institute Focal Point in China. A ?2 test (for categorical variables) or a t test (for continuous variables) was used to examine the differences in patients’ characteristics between normal weight and overweight/obese groups. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of postoperative complications, operative difficulty, length of hospital stay, and cost with BMI, adjusting for age, sex, and type of surgery procedures. RESULTS: A total of 362 consecutive patients with data available for BMI calculation underwent pancreatic resection for benign or malignant disease from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013. Of the 362 patients, 156 were overweight or obese and 206 were of normal weight. One or more postoperative complications occurred in 35.4% of the patients following pancreatic resection. Among patients who were overweight or obese, 42.9% experienced one or more complications, significantly higher than normal weight (29.6%) individuals (P = 0.0086). Compared with individuals who had normal weight, those with a BMI ? 24.0 kg/m2 had higher delayed gastric emptying (19.9% vs 5.8%, P < 0.0001) and bile leak (7.7% vs 1.9%, P = 0.0068). There were no significant differences seen in pancreatic fistula, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, reoperation, readmission, or other complications. BMI did not show a significant association with intraoperative blood loss, operative time, length of hospital stay, or cost. CONCLUSION: Higher BMI increases the risk for postoperative complications after pancreatectomy in the Chinese population. The findings require replication in future studies with larger sample sizes.

  9. Role of Metabolic Environment on Nitric Oxide Mediated Inhibition of Neointimal Hyperplasia in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is well known to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. Previously, we reported that NO was more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a type 2 diabetic environment than control. We also found that NO was ineffective in an uncontrolled type 1 diabetic environment; however, insulin restored the efficacy of NO. Thus, the goal of this study was to more closely evaluate the effect of insulin and glucose on the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments using different doses of insulin as well as pioglitazone. Type 1 diabetes was induced in male Lean Zucker (LZ) rats with streptozotocin (60mg/kg IP). Groups included control, moderate glucose control, and tight glucose control. Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats fed Purina 5008 chow were used as a type 2 diabetic model. Groups included no therapy, insulin therapy, or pioglitazone therapy. After 4 weeks of maintaining group assignments, the carotid artery injury model was performed. Treatment groups included: control, injury, and injury plus NO. 2 weeks following arterial injury, in the type 1 diabetic rats, NO most effectively reduced the neointimal area in the moderate and tightly controlled groups (81% and 88% vs. 33%, respectively, p=0.01). In type 2 diabetic rats, the metabolic environment had no impact on the efficacy of NO (81%–82% reduction for all groups). Thus, in this study, we show NO is effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic environments. A greater understanding of how the metabolic environment may impact the efficacy of NO may lead to the development of more effective NO-based therapies for patients with diabetes. PMID:24333562

  10. Rebouissou et al 1 Molecular pathogenesis of focal nodular hyperplasia and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ,version1 #12;Rebouissou et al 3 Focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas are benign liver hyperplasia (FNH), first described by Edmondson, are the second most frequent benign liver tumors afterRebouissou et al 1 Molecular pathogenesis of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma

  11. Efficacy and safety of a dual inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase types 1 and 2 (dutasteride) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus G Roehrborn; Peter Boyle; J. Curtis Nickel; Klaus Hoefner; Gerald Andriole

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To study the efficacy and safety of dutasteride, a dual inhibitor of the 5-alpha-reductase isoenzymes types I and II.Methods. A total of 4325 men (2951 completed) with clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia, moderate to severe symptoms (American Urological Association-Symptom Index score of 12 points or greater), a peak flow rate of 15 mL\\/s or less, a prostate volume of 30

  12. Serenoa Repens, lycopene and selenium: a triple therapeutic approach to manage benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, L; Bitto, A; Squadrito, F; Marini, H; Irrera, N; Morgia, G; Passantino, A; Altavilla, D

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a major health concern that is likely to have an increasing impact in line with the gradual aging of the population. BPH is characterized by smooth muscle and epithelial proliferation primarily within the prostatic transition zone that can cause a variety of problems for patients, the most frequent are the lower urinary tract symptoms. BPH is thought to involve in disruption of dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-supported homeostasis between cell proliferation and cell death, and, as a result, proliferative processes predominate and apoptotic processes are inhibited. Phytotherapeutic supplements, mainly based on Saw Palmetto-derived Serenoa Repens (SeR), are numerous and used frequently. Serenoa Repens reduces inflammation and decreases in vivo the androgenic support to prostatic cell growth. Furthermore, SeR stimulates the apoptotic machinery; however, data supporting efficacy is limited, making treatment recommendations difficult. Besides SeR, selenium (Se), an essential trace element mainly functioning through selenoproteins and able to promote an optimal antioxidant/oxidant balance, and lycopene (Ly), a dietary carotenoid synthesized by plants, fruits, and microorganisms with a strong antioxidant activity, has been shown to exert beneficial effects in prostate disease. SeR is frequently associated with Ly and Se, in order to increase its therapeutic activity in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It has been shown that the Ly-Se-SeR association has a greater and enhanced antiinflammatory activity that might be of particular interest in the treatment of BPH. The Ly-Se-SeR association is also more effective than SeR alone in reducing prostate weight and hyperplasia, in augmenting the pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-9 and blunting the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 mRNA. In addition, Ly-Se-SeR more efficiently suppresses the EGF and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expressions in hyperplastic prostates. Therefore, SeR particularly when combined with Se and Ly may have a greater potential for the management of benign prostate hyperplasia. PMID:23432584

  13. Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia: CT and sonographic spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Shirkhoda; M. C. Farah; E. Bernacki; B. Madrazo; J. Roberts

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen patients with pathologically proven focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver had abdominal computed tomography (CT) (15) and ultrasound (11). In seven patients, the lesions were incidentally found during gallbladder or renal examination, whereas the other eight had a primary neoplasm and the liver was studied for possible metastasis. In 11 unenhanced CT scans, the ratio of isodense to

  14. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: Radiologic findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohkan Shamsi; Arthur De Schepper; Hendrik Degryse; Filip Deckers

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the results of ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 24 cases (28 lesions) of proven focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is presented. While US exhibited nonspecific features, CT frequently showed characteristic features: hypodensity on precontrast scans (69%), transient immediate enhancement after bolus injection (96%), and homogeneity (85%). A scar was noted in

  15. Diagnosis and management of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Venturi; F. Piscaglia; G. Vidili; S. Flori; R. Righini; R. Golfieri; L. Bolondi

    2007-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign tumor of the liver, after hemangioma. It is generally found incidentally and is most common in reproductive-aged women, but it also affects males and can be diagnosed at any age. Patients are rarely symptomatic, but FNH sometimes causes epigastric or right upper quadrant pain. The main clinical task is to

  16. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver: diagnosis by liver biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Qizilbash, A. H.; Castelli, M.

    1980-01-01

    Specimens of liver obtained by needle biopsy from two patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed features of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. In one patient the nodularity was apparent on gross examination of the specimen. Portal hypertension was present in the other patient. The cause and pathogenesis of the disorder are poorly understood. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:7388707

  17. Microwave applicators for thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a primer.

    PubMed

    Bolmsjö, M B; Vrba, T

    2000-12-01

    Microwave thermotherapy for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is becoming increasingly more common. This article provides an introduction to the functional principles of microwave antennas for delivery of energy to the prostatic gland. Different antenna designs (monopole, dipole, and helical coil types) and impedance matching are discussed. PMID:11108559

  18. INDUCTION OF PROSTATE APOPTOSIS BY DOXAZOSIN IN BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NATASHA KYPRIANOU; JUAN P. LITVAK; ANDREW BORKOWSKI; RICHARD ALEXANDER; STEPHEN C. JACOBS

    1998-01-01

    PurposeThe molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of the alpha 1 blocker, doxazosin, on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of doxazosin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in the prostatic glandular epithelium and stroma of patients with BPH.

  19. Managing benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer – the challenges today

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Marberger

    2010-01-01

    Many men who reach average life expectancy will experience benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer and together these conditions account for a considerable amount of ill-health and distress for men and their partners. Although there is considerable overlap across BPH and prostate cancer in symptom and risk profiles, management approaches are very different for each condition and appropriate diagnostic

  20. Apoptotic versus proliferative activities in human benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasha Kyprianou; Huacheng Tu; Stephen C Jacobs

    1996-01-01

    Cell growth in the normal prostate is regulated by a delicate balance between cell death and cell proliferation (ie, apoptotic v proliferative activity). Disruption of the molecular mechanisms that regulate these two processes may underline the abnormal growth of the gland leading to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In this study, the incidence of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and cell proliferation

  1. Pulmonary Nodular Lymphoid Hyperplasia Associated with Sjögren's Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moo-Kon Song; Young-Mi Seol; Young-Eun Park; Yun-Seong Kim; Min-Ki Lee; Chang-Hun Lee; Yeon-Ju Jeong

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) is a term first suggested by Kradin and Mark to describe one or more pulmonary nodules or localized lung infiltrates consisting of reactive lymphoid proliferation. To date, there have been only a few cases of pulmonary NLH reported associated with autoimmune disorders. There is no case of NLH associated with Sjögren's syndrome from Korea in

  2. Mistaken gender identity in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder. PMID:24891708

  3. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  4. Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia: angiography, CT, sonography, and scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.V. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle); Mack, L.A.; Freeny, P.C.; Johnson, M.L.; Sones, P.J.

    1981-11-01

    Eleven patients with focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver underwent a combination of radiologic procedures, including sonography, computed tomography (CT), hepatic scintigraphy, and angiography. This paper describes the radiologic findings in this group of patients and reviews the current literature. In the present series, sonography was the most sensitive (100%) method for detection of focal nodular hyperplasia, while CT was able to detect only seven (78%) of nine cases. Arteriographic findings were felt to be characteristic in nine (82%) of 11 cases. Hepatic scintigraphy demonstrated normal colloid uptake in six (55%) of 11 lesions. In this series, an accurate radiologic diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia was made in 73% of cases. Hepatic scintigraphy is the pivotal examination. Normal colloid uptake by a focal hepatic mass is virtually diagnostic. However, in the patients in whom the colloid scan shows decreased or absent uptake, angiography may show findings diagnostic of focal nodular hyperplasia in up to 75% of cases, thus avoiding the need for liver biopsy or surgery.

  5. Imaging Modalities for Focal Nodular Hyperplasia and Hepatocellular Adenoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacomina W. van den Esschert; Thomas M. van Gulik; Saffire S. K. S. Phoa

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: There are several imaging modalities available for the detection of focal liver lesions. Differentiation between focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is important because of the consequences for management. However, differentiation based on imaging alone still shows limitations. Methods: We reviewed the literature for typical features of FNH and HCA on radiologic and nuclear imaging with emphasis

  6. Negative Impact and Positive Value in Caregiving: Validation of the COPE Index in a Six-Country Sample of Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balducci, Cristian; Mnich, Eva; McKee, Kevin J.; Lamura, Giovanni; Beckmann, Anke; Krevers, Barbro; Wojszel, Z. Beata; Nolan, Mike; Prouskas, Constantinos; Bien, Barbara; Oberg, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study attempts to further validate the COPE Index on a large sample of carers drawn from six European countries. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey, with approximately 1,000 carers recruited in each of six countries by means of a common standard evaluation protocol. Our saturation recruitment of a designated…

  7. The impact of futures trading on underlying stock index volatility: the case of the FTSE Mid 250 contract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren Butterworth

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of futures trading in the FTSE Mid 250 index on the underlying spot market using symmetric and asymmetric GARCH methods. Tests for the presence of asymmetries suggest a symmetric model adequately captures the response of volatility to news. Results indicate that following the onset of futures trading the quantity of information flowing into the market

  8. The Occupational Mix Adjustment to the Medicare Hospital Wage Index: Why the Rural Impact Is Less than Expected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Kristin L.; Slifkin, Rebecca; Holmes, George M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural hospitals are heavily dependent on Medicare for their long-term financial solvency. A recent change to Medicare prospective payment system reimbursement--the occupational mix adjustment (OMA) to the wage index--has attracted a great deal of attention in rural policy circles. Purpose: This paper explores variation in the OMA across…

  9. Impact of protein standardization of milk powder with lactose or permeate on whey protein nitrogen index and heat classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vandna Sikand; Phillip S. Tong; John Walker

    2008-01-01

    Whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI) is a well-known method of classifying nonfat dry milk powder (NFDM) based on its heat treatment.\\u000a This classification scheme provides one criterion for the selection of NFDM for food applications. However, the effects of\\u000a variation in NFDM composition on WPNI are not well documented. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of

  10. The impact of age, body mass index, and fish intake on the EPA and DHA content of human erythrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Sands; Kimberly J. Reid; Sheryl L. Windsor; William S. Harris

    2005-01-01

    n?3 FA are beneficial for cardiovascular health, reducing platelet aggregation, TG levels, and the risk of sudden death from\\u000a myocardial infarction. The percentage of EPA + DHA in red blood cells (RBC), also known as the Omega-3 Index, has recently\\u000a been proposed as a risk marker for death from coronary heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this study was to

  11. Economics of different treatment options of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ilker, Y; Tarcan, T; Akda?, A

    1996-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has an important impact on the national health economics and can be managed in a large spectrum of modalities from simple follow-up to surgery. In this study, we aimed to compare different treatment options of BPH in terms of cost effectiveness in Turkey. The first evaluation of a BPH patient has a cost of $200. The cost of TURP or open prostatectomy (OP) in our hospital including all the expenses is $740. Finasteride has an annual cost nearly equal to TURP and OP. Considering the expenses of the close follow-up studies and regular visits, one-year lasting Finasteride treatment is two times more expensive than surgery. In comparison with medical treatment options, TURP as the gold standard of treatment of BPH is cost effective when long-term expenses are considered. PMID:9119638

  12. Qianliening capsule inhibits benign prostatic hyperplasia angiogenesis via the HIF-1? signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIN, JIUMAO; ZHOU, JIANHENG; XU, WEI; HONG, ZHENFENG; PENG, JUN

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in the progression and development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and has become a promising target for BPH treatment. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) signaling pathway promotes the process of angiogenesis, contributing to the growth and progression of a number of hyperplasia diseases, including BPH. Qianliening capsule (QC) is a traditional Chinese formula that has been used clinically in China to treat BPH for a number of years. Recently, QC was demonstrated to inhibit prostatic cell growth and induce apoptosis in vivo and in vitro via regulating the epidermal growth factor/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway and mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis pathway. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-BPH effect remain largely unknown. To further elucidate the mechanism of QC activity in BPH treatment, a rat BPH model established by injecting testosterone following castration was established and the effect of QC on prostatic tissue angiogenesis was evaluated, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. QC was shown to reduce the prostatic index in BPH rats, but without affecting the body weight, demonstrating that QC is effective in the treatment of BPH and without apparent toxicity. In addition, QC treatment significantly reduced the intraprostatic microvessel density, indicating antiangiogenesis activity in vivo. In addition, treatment with QC inhibited the expression of HIF-1? in BPH rats, as well as the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Therefore, for the first time, the present study hypothesized that QC inhibits angiogenesis in prostatic tissue of BPH rats via the inhibition of the HIF-1? signaling pathway, which may be one of the mechanisms in which QC treats BPH. PMID:24944609

  13. Minimally invasive surgery for coronoid hyperplasia: endoscopically assisted intraoral coronoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Robiony, Massimo; Casadei, Matteo; Costa, Fabio

    2012-11-01

    The term hyperplasia of the coronoid process of the mandible defines an abnormal elongation of the coronoid process consisting of histologically normal bone. The main clinical finding of hyperplasia of the coronoid process is a progressive painless difficulty in opening the mouth owing to the contact with the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone or medial surface of the zygomatic arch. Computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction is essential and is the gold standard for an accurate diagnosis. The etiology remains unknown, although several theories have been suggested. The main aim of treatment was to restore mouth opening, and this article introduces and illustrates the advantages of endoscopic assistance for coronoidectomy through the classic "intraoral" approach and emphasize this minimally invasive approach. PMID:23147302

  14. Pictures of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas.

    PubMed

    Sempoux, Christine; Balabaud, Charles; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2014-08-27

    This practical atlas aims to help liver and non liver pathologists to recognize benign hepatocellular nodules on resected specimen. Macroscopic and microscopic views together with immunohistochemical stains illustrate typical and atypical aspects of focal nodular hyperplasia and of hepatocellular adenoma, including hepatocellular adenomas subtypes with references to clinical and imaging data. Each step is important to make a correct diagnosis. The specimen including the nodule and the non-tumoral liver should be sliced, photographed and all different looking areas adequately sampled for paraffin inclusion. Routine histology includes HE, trichrome and cytokeratin 7. Immunohistochemistry includes glutamine synthase and according to the above results additional markers such as liver fatty acid binding protein, C reactive protein and beta catenin may be realized to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenoma subtypes. Clues for differential diagnosis and pitfalls are explained and illustrated. PMID:25232451

  15. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in two Chinese females.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Li, Y; Zhou, Y; Zeng, X

    2012-08-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia, or Heck's disease, is a relatively rare virus-induced benign disease. To the best of the authors' knowledge it has not been reported in an ethnic Chinese population. The authors report two cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in Chinese patients, which were clinically and histologically in accord with FEH. In particular, the lesions in one case were located on the gingival mucosa, which is rarely affected by FEH. DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded specimens from the two patients was tested for the presence of human papilloma virus followed by speci?c polymerase chain reaction testing for 16, 18, 13, and 32 subtypes in order to con?rm the clinical diagnosis. PMID:22154527

  16. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years.

  17. Dust evolution in the transition towards the denser ISM: impact on dust temperature, opacity, and spectral index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, M.; Ysard, N.; Jones, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Variations in the observed dust emission and extinction indicate a systematic evolution of grain properties in the transition from the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) to denser molecular clouds. Aims: The differences in the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) observed from the diffuse ISM to denser regions, namely an increase in the spectral index at long wavelengths, an increase in the FIR opacity, and a decrease in temperature, are usually assumed to be the result of changes in dust properties. We investigate if evolutionary processes, such as coagulation and accretion, are able to change the dust properties of grains in a way that is consistent with observations. Methods: We use a core-mantle grain model to describe diffuse ISM-type grains, and using a discrete-dipole approximation, we calculate how the accretion of mantles and coagulation into aggregates vary the grain optical properties. We calculate the dust SED and extinction using DustEM and the radiative transfer code CRT. Results: We show that the accretion of an aliphatic carbon mantle on diffuse ISM-type dust leads to an increase in the FIR opacity by a factor of about 2 and in the FIR/submm spectral index from 1.5 to 1.8, and to a decrease in the temperature by about 2 K. We also show that the coagulation of these grains into aggregates further decreases the temperature by 3 K and increases the spectral index up to a value of ~2. The FIR opacity is increased by a factor of 3 (7) for these aggregates (with an additional ice-mantle) compared to the diffuse ISM-dust. Conclusions: Dust evolution in the ISM resulting from coagulation and accretion, leads to significant changes in the optical properties of the grains that can explain the observed variations in the dust SED in the transition from the diffuse ISM to denser regions.

  18. Assessing the true role of coauthors in the h-index measure of an author scientific impact

    E-print Network

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    A method based on the classical principal component analysis leads to demonstrate that the role of co-authors should give a h-index measure to a group leader higher than usually accepted. The method rather easily gives what is usually searched for, i.e. an estimate of the role (or "weight") of co-authors, as the additional value to an author papers' popularity. The construction of the co-authorship popularity H-matrix is exemplified and the role of eigenvalues and the main eigenvector component are discussed. An example illustrates the points and serves as the basis for suggesting a generally practical application of the concept.

  19. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia successfully treated with oral steroids.

    PubMed

    Fasanmade, Adekunmi; Anjum, Kashif; Hughes, Ceri; Dunnill, Giles; Thomas, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a rare benign vascular lesion most commonly affecting the head and neck region. This article reports a case of a 26-year-old white woman with rapidly enlarging nodules of the upper lip and cheek treated successfully with oral corticosteroids and cetirizine. Morbidity and cosmetic deformity associated with radical surgery to the face and possible consequences of radiation treatment were avoided. There were no long-term complications. PMID:19907735

  20. The role of combination medical therapy in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K A Greco; K T McVary

    2008-01-01

    To review key trials of monotherapy and combination therapy of ?1-adrenergic receptor antagonists (?1-ARAs), 5?-reductase inhibitors (5?RIs) and anti-muscarinic agents in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To assess the safety and efficacy of combination therapies for LUTS associated with BPH, a search of the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases (1976–2008) was conducted

  1. Benign prostate hyperplasia: evaluation of treatment response with DCE MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Heverhagen; H. von Tengg-Kobligk; K. T. Baudendistel; G. Jia; H. Polzer; H. Henry; A. L. Levine; T. J. Rosol; M. V. Knopp

    2004-01-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a major disease and its non-surgical therapy a major area of interest. The purpose of this study was to establish perfusion parameters in beagles with BPH using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and to investigate changes due to the effects of finasteride treatment. Twelve male beagles (mean age 4.4±0.9,years) were divided into a control and treatment

  2. New Advances in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Laser Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Mandeville; Ehud Gnessin; James E. Lingeman

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the past decade, numerous techniques for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia have emerged. Laser therapy,\\u000a in particular, has gained widespread popularity among urologists. Since its inception in 1996, holmium laser enucleation of\\u000a the prostate (HoLEP) has been evaluated rigorously in the treatment of glands of all sizes. HoLEP has produced superior relief\\u000a of bladder outlet obstruction as compared

  3. Overview of interventional treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2012-10-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) remains the gold standard surgical intervention for men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, there are other, newer technologies that have also demonstrated safety and efficacy at least equivalent to that of TURP (e.g., Holmium laser, photoselective vaporization of the prostate). These minimally invasive techniques may be particularly useful for selected patient populations (e.g., those on anticoagulant therapy). PMID:23092781

  4. [Castelman's angiofollicular hyperplasia of multifocal form Apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Horschowski, N; Harle, J R; Durand, J M; Sainty, D; Fossat, C; David, M; Sauch, F; Weiller, P J; Mongin, M

    1986-01-01

    Castelman described as angiofollicular hyperplasia (AFH) a benign lymphovascular hyperplasia forming a single tumour, classically situated in the mediastinum. A multifocal lymph node form of AFH was individualised by Leibetseder and Turner about 10 years ago (MAFH). This is a rare syndrome, the clinical and biological characteristics of which are almost identical to angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy (AIL). The only difference is in the histology of the ganglia which shows changes of AFH. We report two cases of MAFH. In one patient with histological confirmation of splenic involvement the evolution was subacute. In the second case, the histological features of the lesions were observed to change during successive biopsies: appearances of AFH changed to typical AIL. This observation suggests that MAFH may be a disorder of the immune system. Usually considered as benign lymphatic hyperplasia with a chronic evolution, the long-term development of lymphoma poses the problem of the evolutionary potential of this condition, which may be likened to AIL in which lymphomatous transformation is also recognised. PMID:3813299

  5. The University of Tennessee experience with the Indigo 830e laser device for the minimally invasive treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: interim analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Greenberger; Mitchell S. Steiner

    1998-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign tumor in men and is responsible for urinary symptoms in the\\u000a majority of men older than 50 years of age. Although transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the gold standard,\\u000a its complications have impacted upon its utility. As a consequence, new pharmacologic and minimally invasive approaches to\\u000a the management of

  6. Hepatic hyperplasia and cancer in rats: Metabolic alterations associated with cell growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KN Rao; RH Kelly; N Chandar; EP Brady; B Rao; H Shinozuka; PK Eagon

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We showed previously that the peroxisome proliferators di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), clofibrate, and 4- chloro-6-(2,3 xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio (N-beta-hydroxyl)acetamide (BR931) alter hepatic sex steroid metabolism and receptor expression during induction of hepatic hyperplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats. The aim of this study was to identify metabolic changes associated with cell growth during hyperplasia and HCC. METHODS: Hepatic hyperplasia was

  7. Analyzing the Impact of Increasing Mechanical Index and Energy Deposition on Shear Wave Speed Reconstruction in Human Liver.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yufeng; Palmeri, Mark L; Rouze, Ned C; Rosenzweig, Stephen J; Abdelmalek, Manal F; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2015-07-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) has found success in liver fibrosis staging. This work evaluates hepatic SWEI measurement success as a function of push pulse energy using two mechanical index (MI) values (1.6 and 2.2) over a range of pulse durations. Shear wave speed (SWS) was measured in the livers of 26 study subjects with known or potential chronic liver diseases. Each measurement consisted of eight SWEI sequences, each with different push energy configurations. The rate of successful SWS estimation was linearly proportional to the push energy. SWEI measurements with higher push energy were successful in patients for whom standard push energy levels failed. The findings also suggest that liver capsule depth could be used prospectively to identify patients who would benefit from elevated output. We conclude that there is clinical benefit to using elevated acoustic output for hepatic SWS measurement in patients with deeper livers. PMID:25896024

  8. Index-based tool for preliminary ranking of social and environmental impacts of hydropower and storage reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Larson

    2007-01-01

    The Finchaa-Amerti-Neshe multipurpose hydropower and irrigation project, located in the Blue Nile River basin about 250km north-west of Addis Ababa, is a major energy and irrigation development in Ethiopia. As such, the project is expected to provide nationwide benefits. Economic merits and the extent of environmental and socio-economic impacts were evaluated during pre-feasibility and feasibility studies. Additional assessment was performed

  9. Particle sizing calibration with refractive index correction for light scattering optical particle counters and impacts upon PCASP and CDP data collected during the Fennec campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, P. D.; Dean, A. R.; Williams, P. I.; Minikin, A.; Pickering, M. A.; Petzold, A.

    2012-01-01

    Optical particle counters (OPCs) are used regularly for atmospheric research, measuring particle scattering cross sections to generate particle size distribution histograms. This manuscript presents two methods for calibrating OPCs with case studies based on a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP), both of which are operated on the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 research aircraft. A method is also provided for modification of OPC bin boundaries when the scattering properties of measured particles are different to those of the calibration particles due to differences in refractive index or shape. This method provides mean diameters and widths for OPC bins based upon Mie-Lorenz theory or any other particle scattering theory, without the need for smoothing, despite the highly nonlinear and non-monotonic relationship between particle size and scattering cross section. By calibrating an OPC in terms of its scattering cross section the optical properties correction can be applied with minimal information loss and full propagation of uncertainty. Analysis of multiple calibrations has shown that for the PCASP the bin centres differ by up to 30% from the manufacturer's nominal values and can change by approximately 20% when routine maintenance is performed. The CDP has been found to differ from the manufacturer's specification by 15-64% and over the course of the Fennec project in the Sahara the variability of calibration was always less than the 2-? calibration uncertainty or 10%. As would be expected from Mie-Lorenz theory the impact of the refractive index corrections has been found to be largest for absorbing materials and the impact on Saharan dust measurements made as part of the Fennec project has been found to be up to a factor of 3 for the largest particles which could be measured by CDP. Software tools have been developed as part of this work and are now made available as open source resources for the community via the SourceForge repository.

  10. Adrenal Medullary Hyperplasia Is a Precursor Lesion for Pheochromocytoma in MEN2 Syndrome12

    PubMed Central

    Korpershoek, Esther; Petri, Bart-Jeroen; Post, Edward; van Eijck, Casper H.J.; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Belt, Eric J.T.; de Herder, Wouter W.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Dinjens, Winand N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenal medullary hyperplasias (AMHs) are adrenal medullary proliferations with a size < 1 cm, while larger lesions are considered as pheochromocytoma (PCC). This arbitrary distinction has been proposed decades ago, although the biological relationship between AMH and PCC has never been investigated. Both lesions are frequently diagnosed in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) patients in whom they are considered as two unrelated clinical entities. In this study, we investigated the molecular relationship between AMH and PCC in MEN2 patients. Molecular aberrations of 19 AMHs and 13 PCCs from 18 MEN2 patients were determined by rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene mutation analysis and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis for chromosomal regions 1p13, 1p36, 3p, and 3q, genomic areas covering commonly altered regions in RET-related PCC. Identical molecular aberrations were found in all AMHs and PCCs, at similar frequencies. LOH was seen for chromosomes 1p13 in 8 of 18 (44%), 1p36 in 9 of 15 (60%), 3p12-13 in 12 of 18 (67%), and 3q23-24 in 10 of 16 (63%) of AMHs, and for chromosome 1p13 in 13 of 13 (100%), 1p36 in 7 of 11 (64%), 3p12-13 in 4 of 11 (36%), and 3q23-24 in 11 of 12 (92%) of PCCs. Our results indicate that AMHs are not hyperplasias and, in clinical practice, should be regarded as PCCs, which has an impact on diagnosis and treatment of MEN2 patients. We therefore propose to replace the term AMH by micro-PCC to indicate adrenal medullary proliferations of less than 1 cm. PMID:25379023

  11. Adrenal medullary hyperplasia is a precursor lesion for pheochromocytoma in MEN2 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Korpershoek, Esther; Petri, Bart-Jeroen; Post, Edward; van Eijck, Casper H J; Oldenburg, Rogier A; Belt, Eric J T; de Herder, Wouter W; de Krijger, Ronald R; Dinjens, Winand N M

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal medullary hyperplasias (AMHs) are adrenal medullary proliferations with a size < 1 cm, while larger lesions are considered as pheochromocytoma (PCC). This arbitrary distinction has been proposed decades ago, although the biological relationship between AMH and PCC has never been investigated. Both lesions are frequently diagnosed in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) patients in whom they are considered as two unrelated clinical entities. In this study, we investigated the molecular relationship between AMH and PCC in MEN2 patients. Molecular aberrations of 19 AMHs and 13 PCCs from 18 MEN2 patients were determined by rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene mutation analysis and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis for chromosomal regions 1p13, 1p36, 3p, and 3q, genomic areas covering commonly altered regions in RET-related PCC. Identical molecular aberrations were found in all AMHs and PCCs, at similar frequencies. LOH was seen for chromosomes 1p13 in 8 of 18 (44%), 1p36 in 9 of 15 (60%), 3p12-13 in 12 of 18 (67%), and 3q23-24 in 10 of 16 (63%) of AMHs, and for chromosome 1p13 in 13 of 13 (100%), 1p36 in 7 of 11 (64%), 3p12-13 in 4 of 11 (36%), and 3q23-24 in 11 of 12 (92%) of PCCs. Our results indicate that AMHs are not hyperplasias and, in clinical practice, should be regarded as PCCs, which has an impact on diagnosis and treatment of MEN2 patients. We therefore propose to replace the term AMH by micro-PCC to indicate adrenal medullary proliferations of less than 1 cm. PMID:25379023

  12. Particle sizing calibration with refractive index correction for light scattering optical particle counters and impacts upon PCASP and CDP data collected during the Fennec campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, P. D.; Dean, A. R.; Williams, P. I.; Dorsey, J. R.; Minikin, A.; Pickering, M. A.; Petzold, A.

    2012-05-01

    Optical particle counters (OPCs) are used regularly for atmospheric research, measuring particle scattering cross sections to generate particle size distribution histograms. This manuscript presents two methods for calibrating OPCs with case studies based on a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP), both of which are operated on the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 research aircraft. A probability density function based method is provided for modification of the OPC bin boundaries when the scattering properties of measured particles are different to those of the calibration particles due to differences in refractive index or shape. This method provides mean diameters and widths for OPC bins based upon Mie-Lorenz theory or any other particle scattering theory, without the need for smoothing, despite the highly nonlinear and non-monotonic relationship between particle size and scattering cross section. By calibrating an OPC in terms of its scattering cross section the optical properties correction can be applied with minimal information loss, and performing correction in this manner provides traceable and transparent uncertainty propagation throughout the whole process. Analysis of multiple calibrations has shown that for the PCASP the bin centres differ by up to 30% from the manufacturer's nominal values and can change by up to approximately 20% when routine maintenance is performed. The CDP has been found to be less sensitive than the manufacturer's specification with differences in sizing of between 1.6 ± 0.8 ?m and 4.7 ± 1.8 ?m for one flight. Over the course of the Fennec project in the Sahara the variability of calibration was less than the calibration uncertainty in 6 out of 7 calibrations performed. As would be expected from Mie-Lorenz theory, the impact of the refractive index corrections has been found to be largest for absorbing materials and the impact on Saharan dust measurements made as part of the Fennec project has been found to be up to a factor of 3 for the largest particles measured by CDP with diameters of approximately 120 ?m. In an example case, using the calibration and refractive index corrections presented in this work allowed Saharan dust measurement from the PCASP, CDP and a Cloud Imaging Probe to agree within the uncertainty of the calibration. The agreement when using only the manufacturer's specification was poor. Software tools have been developed to perform these calibrations and corrections and are now available as open source resources for the community via the SourceForge repository.

  13. Impact of Pretreatment Body Mass Index on Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Ping-Ching [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Chi-Cheng [Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Chen-Kan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tsang, Ngan-Ming, E-mail: ss0122@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kai-Ping [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Yen, Tzu-Chen [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Liao, Chun-Ta [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ji-Hong; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of pretreatment body mass index (preT BMI) with outcomes of head-and-neck cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: All 1,562 patients diagnosed with head-and-neck cancer and treated with curative-intent RT to a dose of 60 Gy or higher were retrospectively studied. Body weight was measured both at entry and at the end of RT. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis (DM) were analyzed by preT BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2} vs. {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}). The median follow-up was 8.6 years. Results: Patients with lower preT BMI were statistically significantly associated with poorer CSS and OS than those with higher preT BMI. There was no significant difference between preT BMI groups in terms of LRC and DM. Body weight loss (BWL) during radiation did not influence survival outcomes. However, in the group with higher preT BMI, CSS, OS, and DM-free survival of patients with less BWL during radiation were statistically longer when compared with greater BWL. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that higher preT BMI positively influenced survival outcomes for patients with head-and-neck cancer. Patients with higher preT BMI who were able to maintain their weight during radiation had significantly better survival than patients with greater BWL.

  14. Dust evolution in the transition towards the denser ISM: impact on dust temperature, opacity, and spectral index

    E-print Network

    Köhler, Melanie; Jones, Anthony P

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the observed dust emission and extinction indicate a systematic evolution of grain properties in the transition from the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) to denser molecular clouds. The differences in the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) observed from the diffuse ISM to denser regions, namely an increase in the spectral index at long wavelengths, an increase in the FIR opacity, and a decrease in temperature, are usually assumed to be the result of changes in dust properties. We investigate if evolutionary processes, such as coagulation and accretion, are able to change the dust properties of grains in a way that is consistent with observations. We use a core-mantle grain model to describe diffuse ISM-type grains, and using DDA we calculate how the accretion of mantles and coagulation into aggregates vary the grain optical properties. We calculate the dust SED and extinction using DustEM and the radiative transfer code CRT. We show that the accretion of an aliphatic carbon mantle on diffu...

  15. Tomotherapy treatment plan quality assurance: The impact of applied criteria on passing rate in gamma index method

    SciTech Connect

    Bresciani, Sara; Di Dia, Amalia; Maggio, Angelo; Cutaia, Claudia; Miranti, Anna; Infusino, Erminia; Stasi, Michele [Medical Physics Division, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCCS), 10060 Candiolo (Italy)] [Medical Physics Division, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCCS), 10060 Candiolo (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Pretreatment patient plan verification with gamma index (GI) metric analysis is standard procedure for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the variability of the local and global gamma index obtained during standard pretreatment quality assurance (QA) measurements for plans performed with Tomotherapy unit. The QA measurements were performed with a 3D diode array, using variable passing criteria: 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm, each with both local and global normalization.Methods: The authors analyzed the pretreatment QA results for 73 verifications; 37 were prostate cancer plans, 16 were head and neck plans, and 20 were other clinical sites. All plans were treated using the Tomotherapy Hi-Art System. Pretreatment QA plans were performed with the commercially available 3D diode array ArcCHECK™. This device has 1386 diodes arranged in a helical geometry spaced 1 cm apart. The dose measurements were acquired on the ArcCHECK™ and then compared with the calculated dose using the standard gamma analysis method. The gamma passing rate (%GP), defined as the percentage of points satisfying the condition GI < 1, was calculated for different criteria (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm) and for both global and local normalization. In the case of local normalization method, the authors set three dose difference threshold (DDT) values of 2, 3, and 5 cGy. Dose difference threshold is defined as the minimum absolute dose error considered in the analysis when using local normalization. Low-dose thresholds (TH) of 5% and 10% were also applied and analyzed.Results: Performing a paired-t-test, the authors determined that the gamma passing rate is independent of the threshold values for all of the adopted criteria (5%TH vs 10%TH, p > 0.1). Our findings showed that mean %GPs for local (or global) normalization for the entire study group were 93% (98%), 84% (92%), and 66% (61%) for 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm criteria, respectively. DDT was equal to 2 cGy for the local normalization analysis cases. The authors observed great variability in the resulting %GP. With 3%/3 mm gamma criteria, the overall passing rate with local normalization was 4.6% less on the average than with global one, as expected. The wide difference between %GP calculated with global or local approach is also confirmed by an unpaired t-test statistical analysis.Conclusions: The variability of %GP obtained confirmed the necessity to establish defined agreement criteria that could be universal and comparable between institutions. In particular, while the gamma passing rate does not depend on the choice of threshold, the choice of DDT strongly influences the gamma passing rate for local calculations. The difference between global and local %GP was statistically significant for prostate and other treatment sites when DDT was changed from 2 to 3 cGy.

  16. Natal Tooth Associated with Fibrous Hyperplasia – A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Munjal, Deepti; Dhingra, Renuka; Malik, Narender Singh; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth at about 6 months of age is a significant stage in child’s life and is an emotional event for parents. However, a tooth present in the oral cavity of newborn can lead to a lot of delusions. Natal and neonatal teeth are of utmost importance not only for a dentist but also for a paediatrician due to parent’s anxiety, folklore superstitions and numerous associated complications with it. This paper reports a rare case, wherein a natal tooth has led to the development of a reactive fibrous hyperplasia in an 8-week-old infant. PMID:26023656

  17. Diffuse pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia involving the chest wall.

    PubMed

    Al-Ayoubi, Adnan M; Ralston, Jonathan S; Richardson, S Russ; Denlinger, Chadrick E

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is characterized by a diffuse hypertrophy of neuroendocrine cells along the distal bronchioles. This condition is characterized by obstructive lung physiology and the development of small carcinoid tumors. We present a case of DIPNECH in a patient undergoing surgery for a primary lung adenocarcinoma. Interestingly, the chest wall also demonstrated involvement of DIPNECH indicated by the presence of small carcinoid tumors. The absence of any lung carcinoid tumor greater than 5 mm and the absence of lymph node metastases render the chest wall involvement unlikely to represent metastatic disease. PMID:24384190

  18. Natal tooth associated with fibrous hyperplasia - a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Harsimran Singh; Munjal, Deepti; Dhingra, Renuka; Malik, Narender Singh; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Eruption of tooth at about 6 months of age is a significant stage in child's life and is an emotional event for parents. However, a tooth present in the oral cavity of newborn can lead to a lot of delusions. Natal and neonatal teeth are of utmost importance not only for a dentist but also for a paediatrician due to parent's anxiety, folklore superstitions and numerous associated complications with it. This paper reports a rare case, wherein a natal tooth has led to the development of a reactive fibrous hyperplasia in an 8-week-old infant. PMID:26023656

  19. A huge benign prostatic hyperplasia presenting with renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Basatac, Cem; Cicek, Mehmet Cagatay

    2015-01-01

    Although transurethral resection of the prostate is still standard of care in many patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia, traditional open prostatectomy (OP) seems as a widely applied method in larger glands. In spite of the fact that holmium laser enucleation can be performed in large glands, upper limits of prostate size in this method are not clearly identified in the current literature. In this case, we aim to report feasibility and efficacy of OP in huge prostate size measured as 680 ml by transrectal ultrasound and review the current literature. PMID:26034239

  20. Pituitary Lactotroph Hyperplasia and Chronic Hyperprolactinemia in Dopamine D2 Receptor-Deficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele A Kelly; Marcelo Rubinstein; Sylvia L Asa; Ge Zhang; Carmen Saez; James R Bunzow; Richard G Allen; Robert Hnasko; Nira Ben-Jonathan; David K Grandy; Malcolm J Low

    1997-01-01

    Dopamine secreted from hypophysial hypothalamic neurons is a principal inhibitory regulator of pituitary hormone secretion. Mice with a disrupted D2 dopamine receptor gene had chronic hyperprolactinemia and developed anterior lobe lactotroph hyperplasia without evidence of adenomatous transformation. Unexpectedly, the mutant mice had no hyperplasia of the intermediate lobe melanotrophs. Aged female D2 receptor ?\\/? mice developed uterine adenomyosis in response

  1. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia: a previously unreported complication of ear piercing.

    PubMed

    Okman, Jonathan S; Bhatti, Tricia R; Jackson, Oksana A; Rubin, Adam I

    2014-01-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia is a rare, benign vascular lesion characterized by discrete, painful papules. Although the exact etiology is unknown, trauma precedes many cases. We present a case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia in the earlobes of a 15-year-old girl after ear piercing. PMID:25424213

  2. Total urogenital sinus mobilization in the repair of cloacal anomalies and congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alaa F. Hamza; Hesham A. Soliman; Sameh A. Abdel Hay; Ashraf A. Kabesh; Mossad M. Elbehery

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Urogenital sinus mobilization has facilitated markedly the vaginal reconstruction in cases of cloacal anomalies. Application of the same technique in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia has resulted in cosmetic and functional improvement. Methods: Total urogenital sinus mobilization was used as a part of the repair in 9 patients: 6 with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (4 high and 2 mid vaginal

  3. Histologic Influence of Doxazosin and Finasteride in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Accompanying Chronic Inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Soo Park; Jeong Yun Shim

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the influence of doxazosin and finasteride on histologic findings in benign prostatic hyperplasia accompanied by prostatitis, and to examine the factors related with prostate carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: Prostate tissue from 17 cases of prostatic hyperplasia were divided into three groups; group 1: no medication history, group 2: both doxazosin and finasteride for at least 6 months

  4. A New 3-D Automated Computational Method to Evaluate In-Stent Neointimal Hyperplasia in

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    of the coronary artery. Our experiments over OCT cross-sections taken from 7 patients presenting varying degreesA New 3-D Automated Computational Method to Evaluate In-Stent Neointimal Hyperplasia in In (PCI) and quantification of in-stent neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) are important. In this paper, we

  5. Targeted transurethral microwave thermotherapy versus alpha-blockade in benign prostatic hyperplasia: outcomes at 18 months

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Djavan; Christian Seitz; Claus G Roehrborn; Mesut Remzi; Mitra Fakhari; Matthias Waldert; Ali Basharkhah; Bernhard Planz; Mike Harik; Michael Marberger

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. To compare directly the efficacy, safety, and durability of targeted transurethral microwave thermotherapy with that of alpha-blocker treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia.Methods. In a randomized, controlled clinical trial, 52 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia received terazosin treatment and 51 underwent microwave treatment under topical anesthesia. The patient evaluation

  6. Imaging findings in pancreatic neoplasia and nodular hyperplasia in 19 cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silke Hecht; DOMINIQUE G. PENNINCK; J H Keatin

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic neoplasia in cats is rare and associated with a poor prognosis, but pancreatic nodular hyperplasia is a common incidental finding. The purpose of this study was to describe radiographic and ultrasonographic findings in cats with pancreatic neoplasia or nodular hyperplasia. Fourteen cats (age 3-18 years) were diagnosed with malignant pancreatic tumors: carcinoma\\/adenocarcinoma (n = 11), lymphoma (n = 1),

  7. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  8. Effect of the consumption of tomato paste on plasma prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Edinger, M S; Koff, W J

    2006-08-01

    The consumption of tomatoes and tomato products has been associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. We observed a decrease of 10.77% in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia who were submitted to daily ingestion of tomato paste. This was an experimental rather than a controlled study with a sample of 43 men ranging in age from 45 to 75 years, all with histological diagnoses of benign prostate hyperplasia and plasma PSA levels of 4-10 ng/mL. All patients received 50 g of tomato paste once a day for 10 consecutive weeks and PSA levels were analyzed before, during and after the consumption of tomato paste. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare PSA levels before, during and after the consumption of tomato paste. The mean +/- SD PSA level was 6.51 +/- 1.48 ng/mL at baseline and 5.81 +/- 1.58 ng/mL (P = 0.005) after 10 weeks. Acceptance was good in 88.3, regular in 9.3, and poor in 2.3% of the patients. Dietary ingestion of 50 g of tomato paste per day for 10 weeks significantly reduced mean plasma PSA levels in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia, probably as a result of the high amount of lycopene in tomato paste. This was not a prostate cancer prevention study, but showed some action of tomato paste in prostate biology. The development of prostate cancer is typically accompanied by an increase in plasma PSA levels, thus any intervention that affects plasma PSA levels can suggest an impact in the progression of disease. PMID:16906286

  9. 15/01/08 12:01The impact of gated Communities on property values: evidence of changes in real estate markets -Los ... -Cybergeo Page 1 of 23http://www.cybergeo.eu/index6225.html

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    estate markets -Los ... - Cybergeo Page 1 of 23http://www.cybergeo.eu/index6225.html Cybergeo Systemic Renaud LE GOIX The impact of gated Communities on property values: evidence of changes in real estate on how gated communities, as private means of providing public infrastructure and security, real estate

  10. The -Catenin Pathway is Activated in Focal Nodular Hyperplasia but not in Cirrhotic FNH-like Nodules

    E-print Network

    : Focal nodular hyperplasias (FNHs) are benign liver lesions considered to be a hyperplastic responseForReview Only The -Catenin Pathway is Activated in Focal Nodular Hyperplasia but not in Cirrhotic, Tania; University of Leuven Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Inserm U889 Key Words: Focal nodular hyperplasia

  11. Tranilast suppresses the vascular intimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in rabbits fed on a high-cholesterol diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juichi Fukuyama; Kiyoshi Ichikawa; Shuichiro Hamano; Nobuo Shibata

    1996-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is a serious problem after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In this study, we assessed the effect of tranilast on vascular intimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in rabbits fed on a high-cholesterol diet. In this animal model, intimal hyperplasia more severe than that in rabbits fed on a normal diet was observed. In addition, medial thickening and lipid deposits

  12. Lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphoma in KSHV K1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Berkova, Zuzana; Wang, Shu; Sehgal, Lalit; Patel, Keyur Pravinchandra; Prakash, Om; Samaniego, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Growing evidence supports the involvement of human herpervirus 8, Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), in the pathology of primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma, but the exact mechanism of KSHV contribution to the oncogenic process remains elusive. We studied transgenic mice expressing the ORF K1 of KSHV, whose position in the KSHV genome corresponds to known lymphoproliferative genes of other herpesviruses. K1 protein was previously shown to contain a constitutively active ITAM domain, involved in activation of Akt and pro-survival signaling, and to inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis by interfering with binding of FasL. All this pointed to a possible role of K1 in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated cancers. K1 transgenic mice (80-90%) developed lymphoid hyperplasia and splenomegaly at 8 and 10 months of age, 25% had confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma, and 50% developed abdominal and/or hepatic tumors by 18 months of age. Histological examination showed loss of splenic architecture and increased cellularity. Lymph nodes showed disrupted architecture with effaced follicles and other pathological changes, including signs of angiofollicular lymphoid hyperplasia. One of the livers showed signs of angiosarcoma. In summary, our histology results revealed pathological changes in K1 transgenic mice similar to lymphoma, Castleman's disease, and angiosarcoma, suggesting that K1 may contribute to the development of KSHV-associated cancers. PMID:25301266

  13. Adrenal Nodular Hyperplasia in Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shuch, Brian; Ricketts, Christopher J.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Valera, Vladimir A.; Chen, Clara C.; Gautam, Rabi; Gupta, Gopal N.; Macias, Gabriela S. Gomez; Merino, Maria J.; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Linehan, W Marston

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is characterized by cutaneous leiomyomas, uterine fibroids, and aggressive papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC). A number of our HLRCC patients were found to have atypical adrenal nodules and which were further evaluated to determine if these adrenal nodules were associated with HLRCC. Methods HLRCC patients underwent a comprehensive clinical and genetic evaluation. Clinical presentation, anatomic and functional imaging, endocrine evaluation, pathologic examination and the results from germline mutation testing were reviewed. Results Twenty of 255 HLRCC patients (7.8%) were found to have primary adrenal lesions. Among these, three were found to have bilateral adrenal lesions and four were found to have multiple nodules. Two patients had ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. A total of 27 adrenal lesions were evaluated. The imaging characteristics of five (18.5%) of these lesions were not consistent with adenoma by non-contrast CT criteria. PET imaging was positive in 7 of 10 cases (70%). Twelve nodules were surgically resected from ten adrenal glands. Pathologic examination revealed macronodular adrenal hyperplasia in all specimens. Conclusions Unilateral and bilateral adrenal nodular hyperplasia was detected in a subset of patients affected with HLRCC. A functional endocrine evaluation is recommended when an adrenal lesion is discovered. Imaging frequently demonstrates lesions that are not typical of adenomas and PET imaging may be positive. To date, no patient has been found to have adrenal malignancy and active surveillance of HLRCC adrenal nodules appears justified. PMID:22982371

  14. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: experience at intersex clinic, AIIMS.

    PubMed

    Menon, P S; Virmani, A; Sethi, A K; Verma, I C; Rohatgi, M; Gupta, D K; Gupta, A K

    1992-01-01

    During 1981-88, 63 cases of female pseudohermaphroditism (FPH) were seen at the Intersex clinic at AIIMS, of whom 34 (54%) were diagnosed as due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Though ambiguity was present at birth in most cases, only one child was brought immediately after birth, while 14 presented after one year. Family history of affected siblings and fetal wastage was present in 10. Salt wasting symptoms were present in 13 (38.2%), evidence of early virilization in 10 (29.4%) and generalised hyperpigmentation in 7 (20.6%). Clitoromegaly was present in 30 children with labial fusion in 10 and scrotalisation of labia in 6. The urogenital opening was single in 25 (73.5%). Buccal smear was positive for sex chromatin in 19. Chromosomal pattern showed 46 XX in 33. Dyselectrolytemia was present in 16 children. Bone age was advanced in all. Adrenal hyperplasia could be documented in 3 on CT scan. All the girls were put on hydrocortisone or prednisolone, and fluodrocortisone was given only to children with salt wasting CAH. Children with CAH are being brought to medical attention much too late and investigative and therapeutic facilities are grossly inadequate. There is a need to educate primary care physicians for early case detection and provide minimum diagnostic and therapeutic facilities in regional centres. PMID:1452272

  15. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary symptoms: Evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mobley, David; Feibus, Allison; Baum, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common conditions affecting middle-aged men. This condition can be microscopic, macroscopic, symptomatic, or asymptomatic. Up to 15% to 25% of men aged 50-65 years have lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) consisting of nocturia, urgency, frequency, a sensation of not completely emptying the bladder, stop-start urination, straining to urinate, a need to urinate soon after voiding, and weak urinary stream. These symptoms usually are associated with benign enlargement of the prostate gland that is of sufficient severity to interfere with a man's quality of life. Although LUTS is often associated with BPH, LUTS can also be due to various unrelated syndromes such as heart failure, urinary tract infections, and diabetes. Most men will have benign hyperplasia of the prostate gland and this benign growth compresses the urethra resulting in LUTS. This article will discuss the evaluation, pharmacological management, minimally invasive treatment, and surgical therapy of this common condition affecting millions of American men. PMID:25823641

  16. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Implications for Pharmacologic Treatment and Perioperative Care.

    PubMed

    Leedahl, David D; Vo, Phil H; Maxson, Pamela M; Lovely, Jenna K

    2012-07-13

    This review provides an update on the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and the pharmacologic considerations for perioperative care. By age 85 years, approximately 90% of men have prostate histologic characteristics consistent with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Pharmacologic treatment with an alpha(1) receptor antagonist may reduce symptoms and, when given in combination with a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, may decrease the risk of urinary retention and the need for surgical intervention. Transurethral resection of the prostate has been the historical standard when surgical intervention is indicated. However, recent evidence suggests that Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate may have similar efficacy with less risk of complications and with decreased catheterization time. Prostatic urological operations may have perioperative complications, including urethral bleeding, acute urinary retention, urinary tract infection, urge incontinence, and venous thromboembolism. Pharmacist recommendations for the appropriate use of laxatives, antibiotics, anticoagulation, and urinary antispasmodics are key components of perioperative management. Surgical interventions improve symptoms but may have complications, providing the pharmacist an opportunity to improve perioperative care. PMID:22797835

  17. Perinatal exposure to the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A induces mammary intraductal hyperplasias in adult CD-1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Maffini, Maricel V.; Schaeberle, Cheryl M.; Ucci, Angelo A.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Rubin, Beverly S.; Soto, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are routinely exposed to bisphenol-A (BPA), an estrogenic compound that leaches from consumer products. Given the sensitivity of the developing organism to hormones, exposure of fetuses and infants is a concern. Here, CD-1 mice were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of BPA during gestation and the lactational period (gestational day 8 through postnatal day 16). At 3, 9 and 12–15 months of age, mammary glands from exposed offspring were examined for structural changes. BPA-exposed females demonstrated altered mammary phenotypes including the appearance of alveolar buds. Additionally, intraductal hyperplasias were observed exclusively in BPA–exposed females. These lesions had the appearance of “beaded” ducts, with epithelial cells present inside the ductal lumen and increased proliferation indexes compared to normal ducts. Similar structures have also been observed following exposure to other estrogens. These results are further evidence that perinatal BPA exposure can alter the morphology of the rodent mammary gland in adulthood. PMID:18938238

  18. Association of the Apolipoprotein E 2 Allele with Concurrent Occurrence of Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Tatiana I.; Krikunova, Ludmila I.; Ryabchenko, Nikolay I.; Mkrtchyan, Liana S.; Khorokhorina, Vera A.; Salnikova, Lyubov E.

    2015-01-01

    Genes encoding proteins with antioxidant properties may influence susceptibility to endometrial hyperplasia (EH) and endometrial carcinoma (ECa). Patients with EH (n = 89), EH concurrent with ECa (n = 76), ECa (n = 186), and healthy controls (n = 1110) were genotyped for five polymorphic variants in the genes involved in metabolism of lipoproteins (APOE Cys112Arg and Arg158Cys), iron (HFE Cys282Tyr and His63Asp), and catecholamines (COMT Val158Met). Patients and controls were matched by ethnicity (all Caucasians), age, body mass index (BMI), and incidence of hypertension and diabetes. The frequency of the APOE E 2 allele (158Cys) was higher in patients with EH + ECa than in controls (P = 0.0012, PBonferroni = 0.018, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.49–4.45). The APOE E 4 allele (112Arg) was more frequently found in patients with EH than in controls and HFE minor allele G (63Asp) had a protective effect in the ECa group, though these results appeared to be nonsignificant after correction for multiple comparisons. The results of the study indicate that E 2 allele might be associated with concurrent occurrence of EH and ECa. PMID:25741405

  19. Common questions about the diagnosis and management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ryan; Williams, Pamela M

    2014-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition that increases in prevalence with age. A history should include onset, duration, and severity of lower urinary tract symptoms and medication use to rule out other causes of symptoms. Physical examination includes a digital rectal examination and assessment for bladder distention or neurologic impairment. Recommended tests include serum prostate-specific antigen measurement and urinalysis to help identify infection, genitourinary cancer, or calculi as an alternative cause of lower urinary tract symptoms. BPH severity is assessed using validated, self-administered symptom questionnaires such as the American Urological Association Symptom Index or International Prostate Symptom Score. Mild or nonbothersome symptoms do not require treatment. Bothersome symptoms are managed with lifestyle modifications, medications, and surgery. Alpha blockers are first-line medications for BPH. Surgical referral is indicated if BPH-related complications develop, medical therapy fails, or the patient chooses it. Dietary supplements, such as saw palmetto, pygeum, cernilton, and beta sitosterols, and acupuncture are not recommended for the management of BPH. PMID:25611711

  20. Qianliening capsule treats benign prostatic hyperplasia via suppression of the EGF/STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIN, JIUMAO; ZHOU, JIANHENG; XU, WEI; ZHONG, XIAOYONG; HONG, ZHENFENG; PENG, JUN

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a pathological overgrowth of the human prostate. It may cause increased resistance to urine flow through the urethra and occasionally kidney damage, bladder stones and urinary tract infections, and therefore affect the quality of life. Qianliening capsule (QC) is a traditional Chinese formula that has been used clinically in China to treat BPH for a number of years. However, the mechanism of its anti-BPH effect remains largely unknown. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of QC in a rat model of BPH, established by the injection of testosterone following castration, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of action. We observed that QC treatment significantly and dose-dependently decreased the prostatic volume (PV) and prostatic index (PI; P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ameliorated the histological damage of the prostate tissue in the BPH rats. In addition, treatment with QC inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), as well as the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin D1 and Bcl-2. Our results suggest that suppression of the EGF/STAT3 pathway may be one of the mechanisms by which QC treats BPH. PMID:23737867

  1. A Case Report of Adrenocortical Adenoma Mimicking Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in a Young Girl.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qingfeng; Lv, Zhibao; Xu, Weijue; Liu, Jiangbin; Wu, Yibo; Xi, Zhengjun

    2015-06-01

    Adrenal cortical tumors are rare in children. Secondary tumors associated with untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have also been reported in pediatric population. It is difficult for pediatricians to differentiate these 2 lesions.We described a 4.5-year-old girl who presented with symptoms and signs of virilization. Bone age was 9.5 years. Genetic analysis of CYP21A2 and CYP11B1 revealed a heterozygous mutation of CYP11B1 at c.1157C>T (A386V). No germline p53 gene mutation including R337H was detected.The patient was first misdiagnosed as CAH and treated with hydrocortisone for 3 months. Diagnosis of an adrenal cortical tumor was confirmed by laboratory data and abdominal computed tomography. After resection of the tumor, serum steroids normalized and clinical signs receded. The child received no additional treatment and remains disease free after 12 months of close observation. Histological examination showed neoplasia cells with predominantly eosinophilic cytoplasm and few atypical mitotic figures. The proliferation-associated Ki-67 index was <1% detected by immunohistochemistry.Neoplasm is a rare but significant cause of precocious puberty (PP). The possibility of neoplasms should always be considered early to avoid delayed cancer diagnosis and treatment in cases of PP. PMID:26107677

  2. Arterial Levels of Oxygen Stimulate Intimal Hyperplasia in Human Saphenous Veins via a ROS-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Joddar, Binata; Firstenberg, Michael S.; Reen, Rashmeet K.; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Khan, Mahmood; Childers, Rachel C.; Zweier, Jay L.; Gooch, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous veins used as arterial grafts are exposed to arterial levels of oxygen partial pressure (pO2), which are much greater than what they experience in their native environment. The object of this study is to determine the impact of exposing human saphenous veins to arterial pO2. Saphenous veins and left internal mammary arteries from consenting patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were cultured ex vivo for 2 weeks in the presence of arterial or venous pO2 using an established organ culture model. Saphenous veins cultured with arterial pO2 developed intimal hyperplasia as evidenced by 2.8-fold greater intimal area and 5.8-fold increase in cell proliferation compared to those freshly isolated. Saphenous veins cultured at venous pO2 or internal mammary arteries cultured at arterial pO2 did not develop intimal hyperplasia. Intimal hyperplasia was accompanied by two markers of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS): increased dihydroethidium associated fluorescence (4-fold, p<0.05) and increased levels of the lipid peroxidation product, 4-hydroxynonenal (10-fold, p<0.05). A functional role of the increased ROS saphenous veins exposed to arterial pO2 is suggested by the observation that chronic exposure to tiron, a ROS scavenger, during the two-week culture period, blocked intimal hyperplasia. Electron paramagnetic resonance based oximetry revealed that the pO2 in the wall of the vessel tracked that of the atmosphere with a ~30 mmHg offset, thus the cells in the vessel wall were directly exposed to variations in pO2. Monolayer cultures of smooth muscle cells isolated from saphenous veins exhibited increased proliferation when exposed to arterial pO2 relative to those cultured at venous pO2. This increased proliferation was blocked by tiron. Taken together, these data suggest that exposure of human SV to arterial pO2 stimulates IH via a ROS-dependent pathway. PMID:25799140

  3. Molecular Cytogenetic Comparison of Apocrine Hyperplasia and Apocrine Carcinoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Chris; Damiani, Stefania; Wells, Dagan; Chaggar, Ranbir; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2001-01-01

    The relationship of apocrine metaplasia to invasive breast cancer is controversial. Different authors have reported that apocrine differentiation in proliferative lesions may be a risk factor, a precursor lesion, or have no association with malignancy. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic alterations in benign apocrine hyperplasia with apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive apocrine carcinomas of the breast using comparative genomic hybridization. The mean number of alterations in apocrine hyperplasia was 4.1 (n = 10) compared to 10.2 in apocrine DCIS (n = 10) and 14.8 (n = 4) in invasive carcinoma. The most common alterations in apocrine hyperplasia were gains of 2q, 13q, and 1p and losses of 1p, 17q, 22q, 2p, 10q, and 16q. Apocrine DCIS and invasive carcinomas showed gains of 1q, 2q, 1p, and losses of 1p, 22q, 17q, 12q, and 16q as their most common DNA copy number changes. Apocrine hyperplasia is considered to be a benign lesion and its relationship to invasive carcinoma remains unclear. Our data suggest that some apocrine hyperplasias may be clonal proliferations. The mean number of alterations are lower in apocrine hyperplasia, however the changes show considerable overlap with those identified in in situ and invasive apocrine carcinoma. These alterations are also commonly seen in nonapocrine breast cancer. The data are consistent with apocrine hyperplasia as a putative nonobligate precursor of apocrine carcinoma. PMID:11141494

  4. Prostate hyperplasia caused by long-term obesity is characterized by high deposition of extracellular matrix and increased content of MMP-9 and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Silva, Silas Amâncio; Gobbo, Marina Guimarães; Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Rafacho, Alex; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Góes, Rejane Maira; Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown a positive association of cancer and obesity, but the morphological and molecular mechanisms involved in this relationship are still unknown. This study analysed the impact of long-term obesity on rat prostate, focusing on stromal changes. Male adult Wistar rats were treated with high-fat diet to induce obesity, while the control group received a balanced diet. After 30 weeks of feeding, the ventral prostate was analysed by immunohistochemistry for cell proliferation, smooth muscle ?-actin, vimentin, chondroitin sulphate and metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and 9). The content of androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptors (ERs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured by Western blotting, and activity of catalase and Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) were quantified by enzymatic assay. Long-term obesity decreased testosterone plasma levels by 70% and resulted in stromal prostate hyperplasia, as evidenced by increased collagen fibres. Such stromal hyperplasia was associated with increased number of blood vessels and raised VEGF content, and increased expression of chondroitin sulphate, vimentin, ?-actin and MMP-9. In spite of the high cell density in prostate, the proliferative activity was lower in the prostates of obese rats, indicating that hyperplasia was established during the early phases in this obesity model. AR levels increased significantly, whereas the ER? decreased in this group. Moreover, the levels of catalase and GST were changed considerably. These findings indicate that long-term obesity, besides disturbing the antioxidant control, causes intense stromal remodelling and release of factors that create an environment that can promote proliferative disorders in the gland, culminating with diffuse hyperplasia. PMID:25529509

  5. Diagnosis and management of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Venturi, A; Piscaglia, F; Vidili, G; Flori, S; Righini, R; Golfieri, R; Bolondi, L

    2007-09-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign tumor of the liver, after hemangioma. It is generally found incidentally and is most common in reproductive-aged women, but it also affects males and can be diagnosed at any age. Patients are rarely symptomatic, but FNH sometimes causes epigastric or right upper quadrant pain. The main clinical task is to differentiate it from other hypervascular hepatic lesions such as hepatic adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, or hypervascular metastases, but invasive diagnostic procedures can generally be avoided with the appropriate use of imaging techniques. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is more sensitive and specific than conventional ultrasonography (US) or computed tomography (CT), but Doppler US and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) can greatly improve the accuracy in the diagnosis of FNH. Once a correct diagnosis has been made, in most cases there is no indication for surgery, and treatment includes conservative clinical follow-up in asymptomatic patients. PMID:23396642

  6. Mandible condylar hyperplasia: a review of diagnosis and treatment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Olate, Sergio; Netto, Henrique Duque; Rodriguez-Chessa, Jaime; Alister, Juan Pablo; de Albergaria-Barbosa, Jose; de Moraes, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a bone disease characterized by the increased development of one mandibular condyle. It regularly presents as an active growth with facial asymmetry generally without pain. Statistically it affects more women in adolescence, although it does not discriminate by age or gender. Its best-known consequence is asymmetric facial deformity (AFD), which combined with alteration of the dental occlusion with unilateral crossbite or open bite. It is not known when CH begins and how long it lasts; diagnostic examinations are described and are efficient in some research about diagnosis. Protocol treatment is not well studie and depends on the criteria described in this paper. The aim of this research is to provide up-to-date information about the diagnosis of this disease and to analyze the treatment protocol, visualizing the CH and AFD presented. PMID:24179565

  7. Screening and diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Basilicata (Italy).

    PubMed

    Cordova, R A; Vignola, G

    1999-01-01

    Research of the frequency of 21-OH enzyme deficiency, autosomal recessive disease, caused by aberrations in the short arm of chromosome 6 was performed in order to prevent CAH (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia) manifested by: 1) possible cerebral damage 2) errors of sex attribution 3) behavioral hyperandrogenism 4) metabolic damage. Radioimmunoassay was used where there is competition between a radioactive and a non-radioactive antigens for a fixed number of antibody binding sites. In an 18 month period of screening 6,000 newborns we found one positive case of CAH which we confirmed by dosaging steroids such as, 4-androstenedione, testosterone, ACTH, PRA and electrolytic activity on the serum. We ascertained that an incidence of 1:6,000 in a 18 month period is high enough to deserve attention. PMID:11400742

  8. Diagnosis and management of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Marumudi, Eunice; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Surana, Vineet; Shabir, Iram; Joseph, Angela; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2013-08-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is among the most common genetic disorders. Deficiency of adrenal steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene accounts for about 95% cases of CAH. This disorder manifests with androgen excess with or without salt wasting. It also is a potentially life threatening disorder; neonatal screening with 17-hydroxyprogesterone measurement can diagnose the condition in asymptomatic children. Carefully monitored therapy with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid supplementation will ensure optimal growth and development for children with CAH. Genital surgery may be required for girls with CAH. Continued care is required for individuals with CAH as adults to prevent long-term adverse consequences of the disease, including infertility, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. PMID:23624029

  9. Management of the Adult with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Auchus, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), most commonly due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD), has been studied by pediatric endocrinologists for decades. Advances in the care of these patients have enabled many of these children to reach adulthood. In contrast to the course and management of the disease in childhood, little is known about CAH in adults. In many patients, the proclivity to salt-wasting crises decreases. Linear growth ceases, and reproductive function becomes an issue. Most importantly, management must minimize the potential for long-term consequences of conventional therapies. Here we review the existing literature regarding comorbidities of adults with 21OHD, goals of treatment, and approaches to therapy, with an emphasis on need for improved management strategies. PMID:20613954

  10. Iris mammillations in two female siblings with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Peyman, Mohammadreza; Ong, Ming Jew; Iqbal, Tajunisah; Subrayan, Visvaraja

    2010-01-01

    Iris mammillations are dark brown, smooth, mound- or dome-shaped protuberances that are typically found on the anterior iris surface and are presumed to be congenital in origin. This congenital anomaly is usually unilateral and can be hereditary or sporadic. Lisch nodules in neurofibromatosis, tapioca melanoma of the iris, inflammatory iris granulomata and Cogan–Reese syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In this case report, the authors present a case of a bilateral iris mammillations in two siblings with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). To our knowledge, this is the first case where bilateral iris mammilations have been found to be associated with a systemic condition. Iris mammillations can be considered as one of the clinical signs in CAH in view of the pathogenesis discussed. Detailed ocular examination in CAH may reveal an increased incidence. PMID:22802477

  11. [Benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction: an update].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have confirmed that benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are correlated, independent of age or comorbidities as diabetes. Although researchers have not yet established a direct causal relationship between the two problems, several pathophysiological factors may serve to explain it, which include the alteration in nitric oxide bioavailability, increased autonomic activity, a1-adrenergic receptor hyperactivity, imbalance of RhoA/Rho-kinase, and metabolic syndrome X. Men seeking care for BPH should always be screened for sexual function and complaints of ED. PDE5 inhibitors show promise as a future treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to BPH. Further investigation is required for future therapies and possible preventative strategies. PMID:23862240

  12. Management considerations for the adult with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Auchus, Richard J

    2015-06-15

    The congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH) are a group of genetic defects in cortisol biosynthesis, most commonly steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). With the advent of cortisone therapy in the 1960s and newborn screening in the 1990s, most children with 21OHD now reach adulthood. The needs and concerns of adults with 21OHD overlap with those of children, but the focus and approach shift as these patients reach adulthood. Cohort studies suggest that adults with 21OHD experience significant health concerns such as infertility, obesity, short stature, neoplasia, and bone loss, as well as reduced quality of life. Nevertheless, the spectrum of health status and disease severity is broad, but only some of the reasons for these disparities are known. This review will summarize the current state of knowledge and suggested approaches to management adults with classic 21OHD, plus a few major considerations for adults with nonclassic 21OHD. PMID:25643980

  13. [Interpretation of results of clinical trials in benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Millán Rodríguez, F; Rodríguez Vallejo, J M; Carballido Rodríguez, J

    2002-01-01

    The random clinical trial (RCT) is the most suitable study to evaluate the treatment effectiveness in the benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although most of the urologists will not collaborate in a RCT development, they will treat BPH patients, so it is very important to know if a CRT in BPH is well designed and their conclusions are correct. The aim of this article is to give the basic elements of analysis that urologists need in order to evaluate the quality and the level of evidence of a RCT in BPH. This article emphasizes the three main elements of a RCT: to check if the study has been correctly performed (internal validity), to evaluate if the treatment achieves an important clinical improvement (relevance of the results) and the applicability of the results in our patients (external validity). The article shows that to analyse these elements common sense and clinical judgment are needed rather than statistical knowledge. PMID:11899738

  14. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, David D; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH as a causal factor for prostate cancer development could improve the accuracy of prognostication and expedite intervention, potentially reducing the number of men who die from prostate cancer. PMID:23165396

  15. Idiopathic Myointimal Hyperplasia of the Mesenteric Veins Diagnosed Preoperatively.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, Kirk J; Fogt, Franz; Kann, Brian R; Osterman, Mark T

    2015-07-01

    Idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of the mesenteric veins (IMHMV) of the colon is a very rare disease that in previously reported cases was often mistaken for inflammatory bowel disease because of similar clinical characteristics. In our review of the literature, we found a total of 15 cases described, generally featuring sigmoid and rectal colitis and symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hematochezia refractory to treatment with immunosuppressants. In all previously reported cases, the diagnosis was achieved only after surgical resection of the affected area. Herein, we report a case of IMHMV that was diagnosed preoperatively based on clinical information and endoscopy with biopsies. This led to the withdrawal of immunosuppression before a carefully planned surgical resection, with confirmation of the diagnosis in the resected tissue. To our knowledge, our case of IMHMV is the first to be diagnosed preoperatively. PMID:25626629

  16. Long-term healing of photodynamic therapy: treatment of experimental intimal hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMuraglia, Glenn M.; ChandraSekar, N. R.; Flotte, Thomas J.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    1994-07-01

    A study was performed to determine whether intimal hyperplasia can be chronically inhibited and the artery wall integrity maintained after cells are depleted from the artery with photodynamic therapy. Utilizing chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine or saline for control, limited balloon injury of the common carotid artery was performed before irradiation with 675 mm laser light. Results demonstrated carotid inhibition of intimal hyperplasia in PDT treated arteries without aneurysm formation or artery dilatation. By 4 weeks there was reendothelialization of the intima of the PDT arteries and repopulation of the adventitia with myofibroblasts. This data was encouraging in that PDT can chronically inhibit intimal hyperplasia without precipitating a weakness in the arterial wall.

  17. Relative Path Impact Index (RPII): a morphometric approach to quantify the effect of anthropogenic features on surface flow processes in agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, P.; Prosdocimi, M.; Sofia, G.; Preti, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2014-12-01

    Soil erosion in cultivated land is one of the main critical issue because of its significant economic consequences, especially whether it occurs in hilly and mountainous environments. Among the cultivated lands, vineyards deserve a particular attention. In fact, they not only represent one of the most important crop in terms of income and employment, but they also constitute the form of agricultural land use that causes the highest soil loss. In these cultivated lands, the construction of terraces is one of the most widely used system for soil and water conservation measures. However, while favoring agricultural activities, terraces may cause local instabilities as well, if they are not properly maintained. Terraced fields are also served by agricultural roads and the construction of these anthropogenic features can have deep effects on water flows and instabilities. In fact, the plane surface of roads can intercept the overland and the subsurface flow and can modify the natural flow directions expanding the drainage network. The main objective of this work is to use high-resolution topography derived from lidar technology for a hydro-geomorphological analysis of terraced vineyards. We considered few case studies located in Italy. At first, the Relative Path Impact Index (RPII) is used to identify likely sections of terraces and agricultural roads subject to potential landsliding or erosion. Statistical thresholds of RPII are then defined to label the most critical areas. Afterwards, using the index and the defined thresholds, different scenarios of soil conservation measures are simulated, to establish the optimal solution for erosion reduction. The results prove the effectiveness of high-resolution topography in the analysis of surface erosion in terraced vineyards, when the surface water flow is the main factor triggering the instabilities. This preliminary analysis can help in scheduling a suitable planning to mitigate the consequences of the anthropogenic alterations induced by the terraces and agricultural roads. Tarolli, P., Sofia, G., Calligaro, S., Prosdocimi, M., Preti, F., Dalla Fontana, G. (2014). Vineyards in terraced landscapes: new opportunities from lidar data, Land Degradation & Development, doi:10.1002/ldr.2311.

  18. Nerve hyperplasia: a unique feature of ketamine cystitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an emerging association between ketamine abuse and the development of urological symptoms including dysuria, frequency and urgency, which have a neurological component. In addition, extreme cases are associated with severe unresolving bladder pain in conjunction with a thickened, contracted bladder and an ulcerated/absent urothelium. Here we report on unusual neuropathological features seen by immunohistology in ketamine cystitis. Results In all cases, the lamina propria was replete with fine neurofilament protein (NFP+) nerve fibres and in most patients (20/21), there was prominent peripheral nerve fascicle hyperplasia that showed particular resemblance to Morton’s neuroma. The nerve fascicles, which were positive for NFP, S100 and the p75 low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), were generally associated with a well-developed and in places, prominent, epithelial membrane antigen+/NGFR+ perineurium. This peripheral nerve fascicle hyperplasia is likely to account for the extreme pain experienced by ketamine cystitis patients. Urothelial damage was a notable feature of all ketamine cystitis specimens and where urothelium remained, increased NGFR expression was observed, with expansion from a basal-restricted normal pattern of expression into the suprabasal urothelium. Conclusions The histological findings were distinguishing features of ketamine cystitis and were not present in other painful bladder conditions. Ketamine cystitis afflicts predominantly young patients, with unknown long-term consequences, and requires a strategy to control severe bladder pain in order to remove a dependency on the causative agent. Our study indicates that the development of pain in ketamine cystitis is mediated through a specific neurogenic mechanism that may also implicate the urothelium. PMID:24252413

  19. The Pain and Sleep Questionnaire three-item index (PSQ-3): A reliable and valid measure of the impact of pain on sleep in chronic nonmalignant pain of various etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Ayearst, Lindsay E; Harsanyi, Zoltan; Michalko, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is among the more common complaints reported by chronic pain patients. Because pain-related sleep disturbance may serve as a marker for the assessment of responses to treatment for chronic pain, inclusion of a measure designed to assess the impact of pain on sleep in clinical trial protocols is important, if not necessary. Measures typically used for this purpose lack scales specifically designed for the assessment of the impact of pain on sleep or are based on a single item. Single-item scales lack reliability and, therefore, validity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the psychometric properties of the five-item Pain and Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) Index, which is embedded in the eight-item inventory, by applying an accepted methodology using retrospective analyses in controlled clinical trials in which the measure had been administered among patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. METHODS: Data were pooled from nine independent, single-site, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials conducted over a period of approximately 10 years, the majority of which were cross-over designs. A cross-validation approach was adopted with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted to evaluate the underlying structure and dimensionality of the measure. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Mean score differences were used to assess the ability of the index to detect important treatment changes. Correlation coefficients were calculated between index scores and scores from other health-related outcome measures to evaluate the criterion validity of the index. Finally, predictive validity was assessed using multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Pooling the data resulted in a sample of 605 patients (65.5% female; mean age 55.7 years). Findings suggested a revised three-item PSQ Index (PSQ-3). The PSQ-3 demonstrated high internal consistency across samples (ranging from 0.82 to 0.93) and was sensitive to detecting meaningful treatment effects within different chronic pain categories. Moderate to strong correlations (r>0.40) between the PSQ-3 and other health-related outcome measures provided preliminary evidence for criterion-related validity. Results of multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the PSQ-3 accounted for between 29% and 40% of the variance in scores from other health-related outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: Results support the scoring of a revised three-item index for the assessment of the impact of pain on sleep. The revised index demonstrated acceptable levels of internal consistency and preliminary support for the structural, criterion-related and predictive validity of the index was achieved. PMID:22891194

  20. Selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists in benign prostatic hyperplasia: rationale and clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Chapple, C R

    1996-01-01

    Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in older men and has a significant impact on their daily lives. Transurethral resection of the prostate is currently the most effective remedy for BPH but is not suitable for all patients. There is now clear evidence for the efficacy of alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, particularly selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists, in the treatment of BPH. Inhibition of alpha-adrenoceptors significantly increases urinary flow and improves symptoms in BPH. alpha 1-Adrenoceptor antagonists have a place in the management of BPH patients with mild to moderate disease, who are bothered by their symptoms, or for those awaiting or wishing to delay surgery. Treatment with selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists is generally better tolerated than nonselective-alpha-blockers. alpha 1-Selective adrenoceptor antagonists with a long half-life such as terazosin, doxazosin and tamsulosin, as a modified release formulation, permit once-daily dosing. Tamsulosin is the first subtype-specific (cloned alpha 1c/functional alpha 1A) adrenoceptor antagonist in clinical practice. Initial reports suggest that it gives no clinically relevant lowering of blood pressure and that its (vasodilatory) side effect profile is minimal. The scientific rationale behind the therapeutic use of alpha-adrenergic blockade as treatment for BPH and the trials data relating to the various agents which are available for clinical use are reviewed in the context of the contemporary literature. PMID:8647139

  1. Metabolic Syndrome and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Evidence of a Potential Relationship, Hypothesized Etiology, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Briganti, Alberto; Suardi, Nazareno; Castiglione, Fabio; Gallina, Andrea; Capitanio, Umberto; Montorsi, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is highly prevalent in older men and causes substantial adverse effects on health. The pathogenesis of this disease is not totally clear. Recent reports have suggested a possible relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and BPH. Single components of MetS (obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance) as well as the syndrome itself may predispose patients to a higher risk of BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This may stem from changes in insulin resistance, increased autonomic activity, impaired nitrergic innervation, increased Rho kinase activity, pro-inflammatory status, and changes in sex hormones that occur in association with MetS. However, the exact underlying mechanisms that regulate the potential relationship between MetS and BPH/LUTS still need to be clarified. Increased physical activity and dietary strategies may help in decreasing the incidence of MetS and its impact on BPH/LUTS. However, differences in the definitions used to address the examined predictors and endpoints preclude the possibility of arriving at definitive conclusions. PMID:21927696

  2. Serial assessment of the index of microcirculatory resistance during primary percutaneous coronary intervention comparing manual aspiration catheter thrombectomy with balloon angioplasty (IMPACT study): a randomised controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hoole, Stephen P; Jaworski, Catherine; Brown, Adam J; McCormick, Liam M; Agrawal, Bobby; Clarke, Sarah C; West, Nick E J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Utilising a novel study design, we evaluated serial measurements of the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to assess the impact of device therapy on microvascular function, and determine what proportion of microvascular injury is related to the PPCI procedure, and what is an inevitable consequence of STEMI. Design 41 patients undergoing PPCI for STEMI were randomised to balloon angioplasty (BA, n=20) or manual thrombectomy (MT, n=21) prior to stenting. Serial IMR measurements, corrected for collaterals, were recorded at baseline and at each stage of the procedure. Microvascular obstruction (MVO) and infarct size at 24?h and 3?months were measured by troponin and cardiac MRI (CMR). Results IMR did not change significantly following PPCI, but patients with lower IMR values (<32, n=30) at baseline had a significant increase in IMR following PPCI (baseline: 21.2±7.9 vs post-stent: 33.0±23.7, p=0.01) attributable to prestent IRA instrumentation (baseline: 21.7±8.0 vs post-BA or MT: 36.9±25.9, p=0.006). Post-stent IMR correlated with early MVO on CMR (p=0.01). There was no significant difference in post-stent IMR, presence of early MVO or final infarct size between patients with BA and patients treated with MT. Conclusions Patients with STEMI and less microcirculatory dysfunction may be susceptible to acute iatrogenic microcirculatory injury from prestent coronary devices. MT did not appear to be superior to BA in maintaining microcirculatory integrity when the guide wire partially restores IRA flow during PPCI. Trial registration number ISRCTN31767278. PMID:26019882

  3. Mapping the Duration and Severity of Drought Impacts on Grasslands in the Southern Great Plains through a Water-related Vegetation Index Derived from MODIS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, G.; Wagle, P.; Bajgain, R.; Basara, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Grasslands in the Southern Great Plains of the United States are sensitive to drought. Previous studies have utilized a variety of methods and indices to monitor drought and assess the impacts. These drought indices were based on climate data such as precipitation and surface air temperature. However, water-related vegetation indices such as land surface water index (LSWI) have not been widely used as an indicator of drought severity at large scales. In this study, we analyzed land surface temperature (LST) data (MYD11A2) and LSWI data (MOD09A1) from 2006 and 2007 (H10V05, covering parts of Oklahoma and Kansas) to assess drought. First, LST data from an entire year were used to define and map the temperature-defined plant growing season (start and end dates as well as duration of LST > 5 °C). Second, LSWI data from within the LST-based growing season were used to assess vegetation growing condition and delineate the LSWI-based growing season (between the first date and the last date when LSWI > 0). The number of days with LSWI < 0 within the LSWI-based growing season is around zero in a year without summer droughts (e.g. 2007), but increases substantially in a year with severe summer droughts (e.g. 2006), varying between 100 to 150 day. Four levels (severe drought, moderate drought, abnormally dry, and no drought) of drought indicators were used to define the drought severity of grasslands based on the length of the LSWI-based growing season and the total number of LSWI < 0. Preliminary results revealed that the frequency of LSWI < 0 within the LSWI-defined growing season corresponded well with the drought condition in 2006. The LSWI-based approach developed in this study, at a spatial resolution of 500-m and a temporal resolution of 8-day, may provide an additional drought indicator in the Southern Great Plains.

  4. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma: incidental finding of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ang; Liu, Wendy; Qian, Hong-Gang; Leng, Jia-Hua; Hao, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is a rare disease that forms a mass-like lesion and is characterized by the proliferation of non-neoplastic, polyclonal lymphocytes forming follicles. We recently encountered 2 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of liver, both of which were asymptomatic and mimicked hepatocellular carcinoma by various imaging modalities. Based on the clinical impression of hepatocellular carcinoma, surgical resections were performed. Microscopic findings revealed that both lesions consisted of an aggregation of lymphocytes consisting of predominantly B-cells, with multiple lymphoid follicles positive for CD10 and negative for bcl-2, consistent with the diagnosis of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Polyclonality of both lesions was further confirmed by B cell receptor gene rearrangement study. The incidence of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the liver is exceedingly rare, and it is difficult to differentiate such lesions from hepatic malignancies based upon clinical grounds. The clinicopathological findings and literature review of this report may be helpful to improve the clinical decision-making.

  5. Long-term 6-year experience with finasteride in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin C Lowe; John D McConnell; Perry B Hudson; Nicholas A Romas; Rex Boake; Michael Lieber; Mostafa Elhilali; Jack Geller; Juliane Imperto-McGinely; Gerald L Andriole; Reginald C Bruskewitz; Patrick C Walsh; Georg Bartsch; John N Nacey; Sukrut Shah; Frances Pappas; Amy Ko; Thomas Cook; Elizabeth Stoner; Joanne Waldstreicher

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivesTo summarize the 6-year clinical trial data with finasteride. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a chronic and progressive disease and therefore assessment of long-term safety and efficacy is important.

  6. Dutasteride: a potent dual inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, Xavier

    2004-08-01

    Dutasteride is a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor that inhibits both types 1 and 2 isozymes of 5alpha-reductase, the enzyme responsible for converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in the prostate and other tissues. Dihydrotestosterone is the primary cause of prostate growth and has been proven to play a key role in the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Dutasteride has been investigated in three multicenter studies involving 4325 men aged 50 years and above with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Data from these two-year, placebo-controlled studies demonstrated that dutasteride 0.5 mg once daily reduced the risk of both acute urinary retention and the need for benign prostatic hyperplasia-related surgical intervention, improved benign prostatic hyperplasia-related symptoms, decreased prostate volume and increased maximum urinary flow rates with a low incidence of generally mild to moderate adverse events. PMID:15510237

  7. Multfocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia in a Chinese man masquerading as miliary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Cai, Hou-Rong; Mark, Eugene J; Miao, Li-Yun; Wu, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Qiang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Meng, Fan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Multifocal Micronodular Pneumocyte Hyperplasia (MMPH) is a rare and histologically, distinctive pulmonary manifestation of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) characterized by numerous and extensive proliferative lesions of type II pneumocytes similar to atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) or non-mucinous adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). We reported MMPH in a 38-year-old Chinese man with TSC masquerading for 16 months as miliary tuberculosis and discussed the differential diagnosis. PMID:25973120

  8. Experience of Long-Term Afala Treatment in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Gudkov

    2009-01-01

    The use of ultralow doses of antibodies to prostate-specific antigen (afala) for long-term treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia\\u000a in patients with moderate symptoms rapidly and effectively reduces irritative and obstructive symptoms, significantly decreases\\u000a residual urine volume, and increases the rate of urination. Afala therapy is indicated for patients with stage I-II benign\\u000a prostatic hyperplasia of moderately pronounced symptoms.

  9. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: a rational approach to treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Mowat, A P; Gutjahr, P; Portmann, B; Dawson, J L; Williams, R

    1976-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in a 3 year old child has been successfully treated by ligation of the hepatic artery branches supplying the lesion. The prominence of the abnormal vasculature in the lesion and its possible aetiological involvement is stressed. Because of the risks of partial hepatectomy, hepatic artery ligation is suggested as the treatment of choice for focal nodular hyperplasia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:964681

  10. The fibromyalgia bladder index.

    PubMed

    Brand, Kaye; Littlejohn, Geoffrey; Kristjanson, Linda; Wisniewski, Stan; Hassard, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an existing outcome measure, the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Index (ICSI/ICPI), is a valid, reliable, and clinically relevant instrument to assess the sensory urinary symptoms in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). Ninety women with American College of Rheumatology 90 FM and who had at least two sensory bladder symptoms participated in the study. All underwent urological screening to exclude lower urinary tract pathology. All participants completed the following: ICSI/ICPI, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36, King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), and Vulval Symptom Assessment Scale. Assessment was made for internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Factor analysis was used to assess the internal structure of the scale. Factor analysis displayed two separate components of symptom and problem combinations as distinct from the original ICSI/ICPI developed for the interstitial cystitis population. The eight items of the index configured differently and formed two subscales of a newly developed Fibromyalgia Bladder Index. The two subscales of this index include the Bladder Urgency and Pain Subscale and the Bladder Frequency and Nocturia Subscale. This index has high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.81), test-retest reliability showing intraclass correlation of 0.85, and high concurrent validity through correlations between the Fibromyalgia Bladder Index and the KHQ (0.735, p = 0.000) and the FIQ (0.433, p = 0.000). This more specific configuration of the ICSI/ICPI better reflects FM bladder symptomatology. The Fibromyalgia Bladder Index is a validated FM-specific instrument that captures information about the sensory bladder symptoms and their impact in this fibromyalgia population. This instrument should allow for better understanding and management of this important fibromyalgia-associated problem. PMID:17476564

  11. Immigration Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Striving to become the "immigration resource directory on the net," the Immigration Index is a newly launched Website dedicated to news and information about immigration worldwide. Along with breaking headlines from a variety of news sources about immigration-related issues such as asylum, migration, trafficking and women, and much more, the site contains a fully annotated collection of links to immigration materials all around the World Wide Web. Only a month old, some of the categories in the Index's hierarchy still need some filling in. In time, however, the Immigration Index promises to become an invaluable resource for interested parties.

  12. Steatohepatitis secondary to long-term glucocorticoid treatment for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xianzhong; Thung, Swan N; Grewal, Priya

    2013-11-01

    A 24-year-old woman with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was referred for evaluation of elevated liver enzyme activities over the preceding 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with CAH at the age 12 when she presented with irregular menses and hirsutism. Since then, she had been on dexamethasone to maintain a normal menstrual cycle and prevent hirsutism and acne. She had no history of chronic liver disease and drank alcohol socially. An extensive workup for other treatable causes of liver disease was unrevealing. Therefore, a liver biopsy was performed, which revealed extensive ballooned degenerative hepatocytes containing Mallory-Denk hyalines. The ballooned hepatocytes were located predominantly in centrilobular areas and without any accompanying steatosis. Even though the histopathologic features are most compatible with alcoholic and/or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, it was not supported by the patient's medical history and clinical presentation. The patient had a normal body mass index and only occasional alcohol use. Based on the biopsy finding and clinical presentation, we postulated that the abnormal liver enzyme and pathological features seen on the liver biopsy were secondary to CAH and long-term use of glucocorticoid. A few studies have shown that patients with CAH often develop metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance, particularly women treated with glucocorticoid for several years. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing steatohepatitis secondary to CAH and prolonged glucocorticoid treatment. It is important to be aware that steatohepatitis can develop in these patients due to long-term glucocorticoid use and potentially lead to progressive liver damage. Furthermore, in patients with CAH who develop abnormal liver enzyme activities a liver biopsy is warranted to assess for steatohepatitis and any associated fibrosis. If indeed fibrosis is already present, a consultation with the endocrinologist should be undertaken in an effort to lower the dose of the glucocorticoids as much as possible while still controlling the symptoms of the disease. PMID:24222096

  13. Late clinical presentation of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in older children: findings from national paediatric surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Rachel L; Khalid, Javaria M; Oerton, Juliet M; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Kelnar, Christopher J; Dezateux, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the clinical presentation and sequelae, including salt-wasting crises of newly-diagnosed congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in children aged over 1?year in a contemporary population without screening. To appraise the potential benefit of newborn screening for late-presenting CAH. Design Active national surveillance undertaken in Great Britain prospectively from 2007–2009 through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Setting England, Wales and Scotland. Patients Children first presenting aged 1–15?years with clinical features of CAH and elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Results Fifty-eight children (26 [45%] boys) aged 1–15?years were reported; 50 (86%) had 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Diagnosis was precipitated by secondary sexual characteristics (n=38 [66%]; median age 5.8 [IQR] 4.8, 7.6) years, genital virilisation (8 girls; 3.2 [IQR 1.3, 7.3] years) or an affected sibling (n=8; 10.0 [IQR 7.4, 13.3] years). At least 33 (57%) children had advanced bone age and 13 (30%) were obese (body mass index ?95th centile). No child had experienced a salt-wasting crisis. Conclusions In Great Britain, 30 children aged 1–15?years present annually for the first time with CAH. Older children frequently manifest prematurely advanced epiphyseal and pubertal maturation and genital virilisation, which are often irreversible and likely to have long-lasting consequences for adult health and wellbeing. Almost one-third of affected children are obese before commencing steroid therapy. Newborn screening offers the potential to avoid serious clinical manifestations in older children with unrecognised CAH; however, it may also detect some children who would otherwise remain asymptomatic and for whom the benefit from treatment is uncertain. PMID:24043550

  14. Quality of life, social situation, and sexual satisfaction, in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Falhammar, Henrik; Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Thorén, Marja

    2014-09-01

    To determine quality of life (QoL) in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). CAH males with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 30), 19-67 years old, were compared with controls (n = 32). QoL was assessed using questionnaires on general living conditions and sexual issues, and the psychological well-being index (PGWB) form. Fewer CAH males than controls were students (3 vs. 25 %, P = 0.028) and more had blue-collar work (57 vs. 33 %, P = 0.023). Patients were less interested in sports (47 vs. 72 %, P = 0.034) and art/literature/film (10 vs. 47 %, P = 0.004). PGWB total score was 82.7 ± 13.7 versus 87.0 ± 11.1 (P = NS), but hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate treated scored lower than controls and prednisolone treated. Glucocorticoid over-treated had lower QoL than those with poor control (PGWB total score 77.1 ± 13.5 vs. 92.4 ± 11.1, P = 0.026) and controls (P = 0.025). Total PGWB score was positively correlated with adrenal androgens and steroid precursors. Subscale scores indicated that patients with late diagnosis were more depressive (12.1 ± 2.8 vs. 13.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.011) and had a lower self-control (11.3 ± 3.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.0, P = 0.019) compared with controls. Sexual satisfaction was similar in spite of more patients being sexually inactive (27 vs. 6 %, P = 0.040). Adult CAH males differed from controls with respect to type of occupation and spare time interests but had similar QoL despite being less sexually active. Optimizing glucocorticoid therapy might further improve QoL. Some disadvantages found in patients diagnosed late will hopefully not be seen in patients diagnosed by neonatal screening, but this has yet to be studied. PMID:24408051

  15. Increased Risk of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in Sleep Apnea Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wei-Po; Liu, Mu-En; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Chou, Yii-Her; Chang, Wei-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep apnea (SA) is a common sleep disorder characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH). Chronic IH induces systemic inflammatory processes, which can cause tissue damage and contribute to prostatic enlargement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and SA in a Taiwanese population. Methods The study population was identified from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and contained 202 SA patients and 1010 control patients. The study cohort consisted of men aged ?30 years who were newly diagnosed with SA between January 1997 and December 2005. Each patient was monitored for 5 years from the index date for the development of BPH. A Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for BPH in the SA and control patients. Results During the 5-year follow-up, 18 SA patients (8.9%) and 32 non-SA control patients (3.2%) developed BPH. The adjusted HR for BPH was 2.35-fold higher in the patients with SA than in the control patients (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28–4.29, P<.01). We further divided the SA patients into 4 age groups. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the highest adjusted HR for BPH in the SA patients compared with the control patients was 5.59 (95% CI?=?2.19–14.31, P<.001) in the patients aged between 51 and 65 years. Conclusion Our study results indicate that patients with SA are associated with increased longitudinal risk of BPH development, and that the effects of SA on BPH development are age-dependent. PMID:24667846

  16. Anti-proliferative effects of qianliening capsules on prostatic hyperplasia in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, XIAOYONG; LIN, JIUMAO; ZHOU, JIANHENG; XU, WEI; HONG, ZHENFENG

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies by our group showed that Qianliening capsules (QC), a clinically proven effective traditional Chinese formulation that has long been used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is capable of inhibiting BPH in vivo and in vitro via the promotion of apoptosis, suppression of the EGFR/STAT3 signaling pathway and regulating the expression of sex hormones as well as their receptors. However, the mechanism of its anti-BPH activity has remained to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effect of QC in vivo and in vitro. Castrated male Sprage-Dawley (SD) rats where subcutaneously injected with testosterone propionate and the WPMY-1 cell line was stimulated with basic fibroblast growth factor in order to generate BPH in vivo and in vitro separately, both of which were then subjected to QC treatment. Finasteride was used as a positive control drug for the in vivo study. In the present study, it was found that treatment with QC or finasteride significantly reduced the prostatic index (PI=prostate wet weight/body weight × 100) in a rat model of BPH (P<0.05). In addition, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses showed that QC or finasteride treatment significantly inhibited model construction-induced upregulation of expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in prostatic tissues of rats with BPH (P<0.05). The in vitro study further proved that QC exhibited anti-proliferative properties via G1/S cell cycle arrest in the WPMY-1 cell line, as evidenced by colony formation, flow cytometric cell cycle, immunoblot and RT-PCR analyses. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that inhibition of cell proliferation via G1/S cell cycle arrest may be one of the underlying mechanisms of the effect of QC on BPH. PMID:25825141

  17. Diagnosing Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia of the Liver Is Thwarted by Low Interobserver Agreement

    PubMed Central

    Jharap, Bindia; van Asseldonk, Dirk P.; de Boer, Nanne K. H.; Bedossa, Pierre; Diebold, Joachim; Jonker, A. Mieke; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Verheij, Joanne; Wendum, Dominique; Wrba, Fritz; Zondervan, Pieter E.; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Reinisch, Walter; Mulder, Chris J. J.; Bloemena, Elisabeth; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) of the liver is associated with several diseases and drugs. Clinical symptoms of NRH may vary from absence of symptoms to full-blown (non-cirrhotic) portal hypertension. However, diagnosing NRH is challenging. The objective of this study was to determine inter- and intraobserver agreement on the histopathologic diagnosis of NRH. Methods Liver specimens (n=48) previously diagnosed as NRH, were reviewed for the presence of NRH by seven pathologists without prior knowledge of the original diagnosis or clinical background. The majority of the liver specimens were from thiopurine using inflammatory bowel disease patients. Histopathologic features contributing to NRH were also assessed. Criteria for NRH were modified by consensus and subsequently validated. Interobserver agreement was evaluated by using the standard kappa index. Results After review, definite NRH, inconclusive NRH and no NRH were found in 35% (23-40%), 21% (13-27%) and 44% (38-56%), respectively (median, IQR). The median interobserver agreement for NRH was poor (? = 0.20, IQR 0.14-0.28). The intraobserver variability on NRH ranged between 14% and 71%. After modification of the criteria and exclusion of biopsies with technical shortcomings, the interobserver agreement on the diagnosis NRH was fair (? = 0.45). Conclusions The interobserver agreement on the histopathologic diagnosis of NRH was poor, even when assessed by well-experienced liver pathologists. Modification of the criteria of NRH based on consensus effort and exclusion of biopsies of poor quality led to a fairly increased interobserver agreement. The main conclusion of this study is that NRH is a clinicopathologic diagnosis that cannot reliably be based on histopathology alone. PMID:26054009

  18. UK Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The UK Index provides a searchable index of resources in or about the United Kingdom. The Quick Reference section offers links to News Resources in the UK such as the BBC, weather information, UK record charts, and UK related USENET newsgroups. The Foreign & Commonwealth Office provides good advice for travelers. The search engine allows the selection of categories such as arts or business to restrict the search to pages included in one category or a combination of categories.

  19. TMJ function after partial condylectomy in active mandibular condylar hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Olate, Sergio; Martinez, Felipe; Uribe, Francisca; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; de Moraes, Marcio

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is a frequent pathology that causes severe facial asymmetries. The partial condylectomy generally halts the disease. The aim of this research was to examine post-condylectomy TMJ function; 14 patients were included in this study, 6 male and 8 female. The average age was 21 years old. In all, the partial condylectomy was performed with preauricular or endaural access and the osteotomy were performed with drills, saw or an ultrasonic system. The patients were assessed with 3 or more time after surgery and were considering maximum mouth opening, right and left lateralities, presence of pain, noises, alterations in the facial nerve (VII) and esthetic alteration from the scar. The analysis was performed with the visual analog scale (VAS) and with a 7 cm metallic rule. Data analysis was descriptive plus chi-square test considering p value < 0.05 for statistical differences. With an average of 11 month after surgery, the results showed that the open mouth (over 35 mm) and lateralities (average 9 mm for the both right and left side) were normal and without statistical differences between the right or left side. Noise was observed in 3 patients and pain was observed in two patients with level 2 and 1 (VAS score). Scar was not related to problem with patient and the temporal branch of facial nerve was observed with limitations but without problem for patients. It can be concluded that the condylectomy is a safe and effective procedure with low morbidity for patients. PMID:24753777

  20. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21-hydroxylase deficiency) without demonstrable genetic mutations.

    PubMed

    Nimkarn, S; Cerame, B I; Wei, J Q; Dumic, M; Zunec, R; Brkljacic, L; Skrabi?, V; New, M I; Wilson, R C

    1999-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is the most common inherited defect of adrenal steroid biosynthesis. At least 36 mutations in the CYP21 gene, which is mapped to chromosome 6p21.3, have been described. We performed genetic analysis of the CYP21 gene in a patient with classic 21-OHD CAH and her family. The entire exonic coding regions and intronic regions, as well as the -1 kb 5' upstream promoter region, were thoroughly sequenced and analyzed. Despite extensive sequencing, no mutation was found in this 3.7 kb area. The 11beta-hydroxylase defect, closely mimicking the clinical and biochemical phenotype of classic 21-OHD, was excluded by directly sequencing 2.6 kb covering the entire coding of the CYP11B1 gene. Herein we describe a phenotypically and hormonally affected patient with classic simple virilizing 21-OHD CAH who lacks a mutation in the entire CYP21 gene and coding region of the CYP11B1 gene. PMID:9920112

  1. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Classification of Studies Employing Psychological Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Stephanie A.; Litvak, Margarita; Robbins, Natashia M.; Sandberg, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1) catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2) classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as the research design and conceptual model guiding analysis and interpretation of data. The majority of studies (68%) investigated endpoints related to psychosexual differentiation. The preponderance of studies (76%) examined a direct relationship (i.e., inferring causality) between prenatal androgen exposure and psychological outcomes. Findings are discussed in relation to the observed imbalance between theoretical interest in the role of prenatal androgens in shaping psychosexual differentiation and a broader conceptual model that examines the role of other potential factors in mediating or moderating the influence of CAH pathophysiology on psychological outcomes in both affected females and males. The latter approach offers to identify factors amenable to clinical intervention that enhance both health and quality of life outcomes in CAH as well as other disorders of sex development. PMID:20976294

  2. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: An overview of existing treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Neelima; Bhagwat, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common condition in aging men, associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A better understanding of the prostate physiology, function, and pathogenesis has led to the development of promising agents, useful in the management of LUTS in men. The specific approach used to treat BPH depends upon number of factors like age, prostrate size, weight, prostate-specific antigen level, and severity of the symptoms. 5?-reductase inhibitors decrease the production of dihydrotestosterone within the prostate, which results in decreased prostate volume, increased peak urinary flow rate, improvement of symptoms, decreased risk of acute urinary retention, and need for surgical intervention. ?1-adrenergic receptor (?1-AR) antagonists decrease LUTS and increase urinary flow rates in men with symptomatic BPH, but do not reduce the long-term risk of urinary retention or need for surgical intervention. Clinical efficacy of either 5?-reductase inhibitor or ?1-AR antagonist has been further improved by using combination therapy; however, long-term outcomes are still awaited. Many more potential new therapies are under development that may improve the treatment of BPH. This article gives a brief account of rationale and efficacy of different treatment options presently available in the management of BPH. PMID:21455413

  3. Hypokalaemia in a hyperthyroid domestic shorthair cat with adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Fryers, Adele; Elwood, Clive

    2014-10-01

    A 13-year-old female domestic shorthair cat presented with polyphagia and weight loss. Marked systolic hypertension was found on examination. Elevated total thyroxine levels confirmed hyperthyroidism, and hypokalaemia was also documented. A euthyroid state and normotension were achieved following 4 weeks of treatment with carbimazole and amlodipine. Despite potassium supplementation, the hypokalaemia worsened. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed left adrenomegaly. Plasma aldosterone concentrations were initially in the lower half of the reference interval and, when repeated 2 months later, were undetectable. Urea and creatinine remained in the lower half of the reference interval throughout treatment, and urine specific gravity suggested good urine concentrating ability. The fractional excretion of potassium confirmed a renal source of potassium loss. Blood gas analysis was unremarkable. It was theorised that an aldosterone precursor was causing signs of mineralocorticoid excess and undetectable plasma aldosterone levels. Treatment with an aldosterone receptor antagonist successfully increased the serum potassium concentration. Owing to difficulties administering medication and associated effects on life quality the cat was euthanased. Adrenal hyperplasia was apparent on post-mortem histopathology. PMID:24621855

  4. Photoselective vaporization of the prostate for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Te, Alexis

    2011-09-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) commonly occurs in older men. Traditionally, the gold standard for treatment of BPH has been the electrocautery-based transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, TURP is associated with several complications and side effects. Therefore, there is an interest in a number of emerging minimally invasive therapies as alterative treatment options. Advancements in laser technology have led to the introduction of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) using the GreenLight™ laser (American Medical Systems, MN, USA). PVP uses a 532-nm laser to remove obstructive prostatic tissue. The laser energy is selectively absorbed by hemoglobin in the prostate tissue and results in tissue destruction. The GreenLight PVP laser system has gone through several evolutions from the original 60-W laser to the most recent 180-W GreenLight XPS™ system with MoXy™ Fiber. With the increasing use of GreenLight to treat BPH, there is a need to review the evidence regarding its use. We review the clinical implications of using GreenLight laser therapy for the treatment of BPH. PMID:22026624

  5. Acupuncture for benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Yu, Jinna; Liu, Zhishun; Peng, Weina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate commonly encountered in older men. BPH has been treated with acupuncture inside and outside China, but its effects are uncertain. This review aims to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for BPH. Methods and analysis Seven databases will be searched from their inception: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the VIP Database and Wanfang Database. Randomised controlled clinical trials using acupuncture to treat BPH will be included. Outcome measures included urological symptom scores, urodynamic measures and quality-of-life scales. Adverse events will be assessed and reported for safety evaluation. Study selection and data extraction will be performed by two independent reviewers. Quality assessment (assessment of risk of bias) and data synthesis will be implemented using Review Manager (RevMan) software (V.5.2.3). Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not necessary because this systematic review will not include specific patient data. Updates will be conducted if there is enough new evidence that may cause any change in review conclusions. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42014013645. PMID:25838507

  6. What do we know about phytotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Allkanjari, Olta; Vitalone, Annabella

    2015-04-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common urological diseases in aging men. Because of its long latency, BPH is a good target for prevention. The aim of the study has been to review the various options of treatment, currently available, in the field of phytotherapy. Watchful waiting, pharmacological therapy, and surgery are also helpful, depending on the severity of the disease. Although drug therapy (alpha1-blockers, 5alpha-reductase inhibitors) and surgery (prostatectomy, transurethral resection, etc.) seem to be most effective for patients with moderate-severe BPH, herbal medicines (i.e., Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica) are also commonly used in patients with mild-moderate symptoms. On the basis of preclinical studies several mechanisms of action have been postulated, including 5alpha-reductase inhibition, alpha-adrenergic antagonism, dihydrotestosterone and estrogen receptor inhibition. Randomized clinical trials indicate significant efficacy in improving urinary symptoms and mild adverse effects for some phytotherapeutic agents, while further clinical evidence is needed for others (e.g., Epilobium spp., Secale cereale, Roystonea regia). Healthcare professionals should be constantly informed about BPH phytotherapy, taking into account the risk/benefit profile of the use of medicinal plants in the management of BPH. PMID:25703069

  7. Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia: role of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gacci, M; Carini, M; Salvi, M; Sebastianelli, A; Vignozzi, L; Corona, G; Maggi, M; McVary, K T; Kaplan, S A; Oelke, M; Serni, S

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have highlighted a strong association between benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED), particularly in elderly men. Many epidemiological trials, such as in vitro and in vivo studies, have reported the emerging role of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hypertension, in the development and progression of urinary and sexual symptoms. Moreover, many authors have focused their studies on the identification of all the shared pathogenetic mechanisms of LUTS/BPH and ED, including alteration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate and RhoA-ROCK pathways or vascular and neurogenic dysfunction. All these are potential targets for proposed phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is). Therefore, several trials have recently been designed to evaluate the role of PDE5-Is alone or in combination with conventional treatment for BPH, such as ?-adrenergic blockers, in men affected by LUTS/BPH, with or without ED. Different PDE5-Is are in clinical use worldwide and currently six of them are licensed for the oral treatment of ED. All these compounds differ in pharmacokinetic factors, with influence on drug action, and subsequently in the overall safety and efficacy profile. PMID:24811735

  8. Clinical and molecular review of atypical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Sahakitrungruang, Taninee

    2015-03-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders. It comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by the mutations in the genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes that involved cortisol synthesis. More than 90% of cases are caused by a defect in the enzyme 21-hydroxylase. Four other enzyme deficiencies (cholesterol side-chain cleavage, 17?-hydroxylase [P450c17], 11?-hydroxylase [P450c11?], 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in the steroid biosynthesis pathway, along with one cholesterol transport protein defect (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), and one electrontransfer protein (P450 oxidoreductase) account for the remaining cases. The clinical symptoms of the different forms of CAH result from the particular hormones that are deficient and those that are produced in excess. A characteristic feature of CAH is genital ambiguity or disordered sex development, and most variants are associated with glucocorticoid deficiency. However, in the rare forms of CAH other than 21-hydroxylase deficiency so-called "atypical CAH", the clinical and hormonal phenotypes can be more complicated, and are not well recognized. This review will focus on the atypical forms of CAH, including the genetic analyses, and phenotypic correlates. PMID:25883920

  9. Therapy monitoring in congenital adrenal hyperplasia by dried blood samples.

    PubMed

    Wieacker, Isabelle; Peter, Michael; Borucki, Katrin; Empting, Susann; Roehl, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Mohnike, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    Careful monitoring of the therapy is crucial for patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in order to prevent the effects of increased androgen production as well as life-threatening salt-wasting crisis. The key metabolite, 17?-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) can be detected in serum, saliva or dried blood. In clinical practice there are challenges due to discomfort of venous blood sampling and complicated retrieval of saliva during infancy. Furthermore, the immunoassay method is limited in its specificity due to cross-reactions. In this observational study we prospectively examined over a period of 5 years, 20 patients with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency using standard immunoassays for serum samples (radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in dried blood spots. Bland-Altman plots show goodness of agreement between both the methods for the desirable therapeutic concentration range of 17-OHP. LC-MS/MS is characterized by a high accuracy in the therapeutic concentration range of 17-OHP <100 nmol/L (r=0.91). Dried blood samples are convenient and reliable specimen for 17-OHP measured by LC-MS/MS. This method could be used for home monitoring of hydrocortisone replacement therapy both in salt-waster and simple virilizer CAH. PMID:25781526

  10. Androgen Receptor Roles in the Development of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Kouji; Mizokami, Atsushi; Lin, Wen-Jye; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a major cause of lower urinary tract symptoms, with an increased volume of transitional zone and associated with increased stromal cells. It is known that androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a key role in development of BPH, and that blockade of this signaling decreases BPH volume and can relieve lower urinary tract symptoms, but the mechanisms of androgen/AR signaling in BPH development remain unclear, and the effectiveness of current drugs for treating BPH is still limited. The detailed mechanisms of androgen/AR signaling need to be clarified, and new therapies are needed for better treatment of BPH patients. This review focuses on roles of AR in epithelial and stromal cells in BPH development. In epithelial cells, AR may contribute to BPH development via epithelial cell–stromal cell interaction with alterations of epithelial–mesenchymal transition, leading to proliferation of stromal cells. Data from several mouse models with selective knockout of AR in stromal smooth-muscle cells and/or fibroblasts indicate that the AR in stromal cells can also promote BPH development. In prostatic inflammation, AR roles in infiltrating macrophages and epithelial and stromal cells have been linked to BPH development, which has led to discovery of new therapeutic targets. For example, targeting AR with the novel AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9 offers a potential therapeutic approach against BPH development. PMID:23570837

  11. Clonal analysis of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver.

    PubMed Central

    Gaffey, M. J.; Iezzoni, J. C.; Weiss, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver (FNH) may represent a hyperplastic response to a vascular malformation, but the precise etiology remains unclear. We performed a clonal analysis of ten FNHs from nine patients by patterns of X chromosome inactivation. DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification for a highly polymorphic region of the human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA). Predigestion of tumor DNA with the methylation-sensitive, restriction enzyme HpaII allowed for selective amplification of the methylated (inactivated) allele. Of the nine patients analyzed, seven were heterozygous for the HUMARA polymorphism and informative for analysis. One informative patient had two lesions, for a total of eight FNHS. Amplification of lesional DNA after HpaII digestion demonstrated clonality in six of the eight informative cases. Paired tissue samples from different lesional areas were available in four of the six FNHs with evidence of clonality. In three of the four cases, DNA extracted from the two tissue samples showed both evidence of clonality and an identical pattern of X chromosome inactivation. In the remaining case, one sample showed evidence of clonality whereas the other was nonclonal. Three hepatic adenomas from two informative patients were also analyzed for comparative purposes, all of which showed evidence of clonality after HpaII digestion. The current study illustrates that most cases of FNH show a uniform pattern of X chromosome inactivation consistent with clonality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8644851

  12. Clinical and molecular review of atypical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders. It comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by the mutations in the genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes that involved cortisol synthesis. More than 90% of cases are caused by a defect in the enzyme 21-hydroxylase. Four other enzyme deficiencies (cholesterol side-chain cleavage, 17?-hydroxylase [P450c17], 11?-hydroxylase [P450c11?], 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in the steroid biosynthesis pathway, along with one cholesterol transport protein defect (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), and one electrontransfer protein (P450 oxidoreductase) account for the remaining cases. The clinical symptoms of the different forms of CAH result from the particular hormones that are deficient and those that are produced in excess. A characteristic feature of CAH is genital ambiguity or disordered sex development, and most variants are associated with glucocorticoid deficiency. However, in the rare forms of CAH other than 21-hydroxylase deficiency so-called "atypical CAH", the clinical and hormonal phenotypes can be more complicated, and are not well recognized. This review will focus on the atypical forms of CAH, including the genetic analyses, and phenotypic correlates. PMID:25883920

  13. Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Harada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tadao K; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuri, Takashi; Takasu, Kosho; Tsubura, Airo; Shikata, Nobuaki

    2014-09-01

    Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH) is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected. PMID:25580104

  14. The Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype Promotes Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Paz; Castro, Patricia; Tsang, Susan; Ittmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by increased tissue mass in the transition zone of the prostate, which leads to obstruction of urine outflow and considerable morbidity in a majority of older men. Senescent cells accumulate in human tissues, including the prostate, with increasing age. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines is increased in these senescent cells, a manifestation of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Multiplex analysis revealed that multiple cytokines are increased in BPH, including GM-CSF, IL-1?, and IL-4, and that these are also increased in senescent prostatic epithelial cells in vitro. Tissue levels of these cytokines were correlated with a marker of senescence (cathepsin D), which was also strongly correlated with prostate weight. IHC analysis revealed the multifocal epithelial expression of cathepsin D and coexpression with IL-1? in BPH tissues. In tissue recombination studies in nude mice with immortalized prostatic epithelial cells expressing IL-1? and prostatic stromal cells, both epithelial and stromal cells exhibited increased growth. Expression of IL-1? in prostatic epithelial cells in a transgenic mouse model resulted in increased prostate size and bladder obstruction. In summary, both correlative and functional evidence support the hypothesis that the senescence-associated secretory phenotype can promote the development of BPH, which is the single most common age-related pathology in older men. PMID:24434012

  15. Outline of JUA clinical guidelines for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Homma, Yukio; Gotoh, Momokazu; Yokoyama, Osamu; Masumori, Naoya; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Yamanishi, Tomonori; Ishizuka, Osamu; Seki, Narihito; Kamoto, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Atsushi; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2011-11-01

    The Japanese Urological Association has developed Clinical Guidelines for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) for men with suspected BPH, which have been abridged and translated into English. This article is a shortened version of the English translation. The Guidelines were formulated on the basis of evidence retrieved from the PubMed database between 1995 and 2009, as well as other relevant sources. The target patients of these Guidelines are men with suspected BPH, and the target users are urologists. A mandatory assessment should include a medical history, a physical examination, the completion of symptom and quality of life questionnaires, urinalysis, prostate ultrasonography, measurement of serum prostate specific antigen and postvoid residual urine, and an uroflowmetry. Optional tests include a bladder diary, the measurement of serum creatinine, and upper urinary tract ultrasonography. Care should be taken to not overlook coexisting diseases such as an infection or malignancy that may obscure the diagnosis. Treatment should consist of conservative therapy or the use of medications such as ?(1) -adrenoceptor antagonists, or both. The use of 5?-reductase inhibitors or anticholinergic agents should be considered in patients with an enlarged prostate (>30 mL) or overactive bladder symptoms (overactive bladder symptom score ? 6), respectively. Surgical intervention is indicated when non-surgical treatments fail to provide sufficient symptomatic relief and bladder outlet obstruction is highly suspected. PMID:22050351

  16. Micro and bulk analysis of prostate tissues classified as hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, W. M.; Bana?, A.; Bana?, K.; Cinque, G.; Dyduch, G.; Falkenberg, G.; Kisiel, A.; Marcelli, A.; Podgórczyk, M.

    2007-07-01

    BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) is the most common benign neoplasm (non cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland), whose prevalence increases with age. The gland, when increased in size, exerts pressure on the urethra, causing obstruction to urine flow. The latter may result in severe urinary tract and kidney conditions. In this work prostate samples from patients diagnosed with BPH were analyzed using synchrotron radiation. Micro-analysis of the hyperplastic samples was carried out on the L-beam line at HASYLAB, DESY (Germany), while bulk analysis on selected samples was performed at the DRX2 beamline at LNF, Frascati (Italy). Microanalysis with a mono-energetic beam 15 ?m in diameter confirmed that concentrations of certain elements, such as S, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn, are good indicators of pathological disorders in prostate tissue that may be considered effective tracers of developing compliant. The concentrations of Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn are higher in hyperplastic tissues, as compared to normal ones, while for sulphur the opposite is observed. Additionally, Fe and S K-edge XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy experiments were carried out in order to determine the chemical speciation of these elements in our samples.

  17. Suppression of benign prostate hyperplasia by Kaempferia parviflora rhizome

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Kazuya; Hayashi, Hirotaka; Matsumura, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Kaempferia parviflora rhizome is used as a folk medicine in Thailand for the treatment of various symptoms. In the present study, the inhibitory activities of extract from K. parviflora rhizome against 5?-reductase (5?R) were subjected. Furthermore, the effects of the extract from K. parviflorar hizome in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) were studied using the model mice. Materials and Methods: Preparations of extracts from the rhizomes of K. parviflora, Curcuma zedoaria and Zingiber officinale, and methoxyflavones isolated from K. parviflora was used for 5?R inhibition assay. The effects of K. parviflora extract on growth suppression for the prostates and seminal vesicles were performed based on the Hershberger's method. The K. parviflora extract was administered to castrated mice for 14 days. Results: K. parviflora extract showed more potent inhibitory activity on 5?R than C. zedoaria and Z. officinale extracts. The active principles were identified as 3,5,7,3’,4’-pentamethoxyflavone and 5,7,3’,4’-tetramethoxyflavone by activity guided fractionation. Furthermore, K. parviflora extract suppressed the weights of prostates and seminal vesicles in BPH model rats by daily administration for 14 days. Conclusion: These results indicate that K. parviflora extract can be a promising agent for the treatment of BPH. PMID:24174827

  18. Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia with congenital portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yuki; Shimono, Taro; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Shintaku, Haruo; Tokuhara, Daisuke

    2014-12-01

    Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a rare benign tumor in children. Vascular anomalies have been identified as pathological features of FNH, but the etiology remains unclear. We describe a rare case including the time course of formation of hepatic FNH in response to congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS). A 4-month-old girl was identified on newborn mass screening to have hypergalactosemia, but no inherited deficiencies in galactose-metabolizing enzymes were found. Ultrasonography and per-rectal portal scintigraphy showed intrahepatic PSS of the right lobe as a cause of the hypergalactosemia. At age 12 months, the patient had elevated hepatic enzymes and small hypoechoic hepatic lesions around the shunt. On abdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography spoke-wheel sign and central stellate scar were seen, which are typical features of hepatic FNH without biopsy. Congenital intrahepatic PSS should be evaluated on abdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and observed over time because of its potential to develop into hepatic FNH. PMID:25521987

  19. Impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hellmuth; P. Kabat

    2003-01-01

    Even without the impacts of climate change, water managers face prodigious challenges in meeting sustainable development goals. Growing populations need affordable food, water and energy. Industrial development demands a growing share of water resources and contaminates those same resources with its untreated wastes. Nature is at the back of the queue, but preserving enough flows to sustain aquatic ecosystems is

  20. Jung Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    Compiled by Matthew Clapp of the University of Georgia, the Jung Index is a collection of more than 300 online resources about and related to the life and work of Carl Jung, the Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist who founded analytic psychology. Resources are indexed into ten major topic areas and include sections such as Research Resources, Jungian Psychology, and Psychoanalysis, among others. A What's New? section, a What's Cool? section, and the JungNet Newsletter keep frequent visitors up to date on the latest and greatest resources in analytic psychology. In addition, the site provides a glossary of Jungian terms, a gallery of Jungian images, and a moderated forum for Jungian discussion.

  1. Personalized Medicine for Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bechis, Seth K.; Otsetov, Alexander G.; Ge, Rongbin; Olumi, Aria F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affects over 50 percent of men by age 60 and is the cause of millions of dollars of healthcare expenditure for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary obstruction. Despite the widespread use of medical therapy, there is no universal therapy that treats all men with symptomatic BPH, and at least 30% of patients do not respond to medical management and a subset require surgery. Significant advances have been made in understanding the natural history and development of the prostate, such as elucidating the role of the enzyme 5? reductase Type 2 (5AR2), and advances in genomics and biomarker discovery offer the potential for a more targeted approach to therapy. We review the current understanding of BPH progression as well as key genes and signaling pathways implicated in the process such as 5? reductase. We also explore the potential of biomarker screening and gene-specific therapies as tools to risk stratify BPH patients and identify those with symptomatic or medically resistant forms. Materials and Methods A PubMed® literature search of current and past peer-reviewed literature on prostate development, lower urinary tract symptoms, BPH pathogenesis, targeted therapy, biomarkers, epigenetics, 5AR2 and personalized medicine was performed. An additional Google Scholar™ search was conducted to broaden the scope of the review. Relevant reviews and original research articles were examined as well as their cited references, and a synopsis of original data was generated with the goal of informing the practicing urologist of these advances and their implications. Results BPH is associated with a state of hyperplasia of both the stromal and epithelial compartments, with 5AR2 and androgen signaling playing key roles in development and maintenance of the prostate. Chronic inflammation, multiple growth factor and hormonal signaling pathways, and medical comorbidities play an intricate role in prostate tissue homeostasis as well as its evolution into the clinical state of BPH. Resistance to medical therapy with finasteride may occur through silencing of the 5AR2 gene by DNA methylation, leading to a state in which 30% of adult prostates do not express 5AR2. Novel biomarkers such as single nucleotide polymorshisms may be used to risk stratify patients with symptomatic BPH and identify those at risk of progression or failure of medical therapy. Several inhibitors of the androgen receptor and other signaling pathways have recently been identified which appear to attenuate BPH progression and may offer alternative targets for medical therapy. Conclusions Progressive worsening of LUTS and bladder outlet obstruction secondary to BPH is the result of multiple pathways including androgen receptor signaling, pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factor signals. New techniques in genomics, proteomics and epigenetics have led to the discovery of aberrant signaling pathways, novel biomarkers, DNA methylation signatures and potential gene-specific targets. As personalized medicine continues to grow, the ability to risk stratify patients with symptomatic BPH, identify those at higher risk of progression, and seek alternative therapies for those likely to fail conventional options will become the standard of targeted therapy. PMID:24582540

  2. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the thyroid followed by systemic autoimmune diseases: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is a benign nodular lesion characterized by marked proliferation of non-neoplastic, polyclonal lymphocytes forming follicles. The lesion is found in various organs such as skin, orbit, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and liver. However, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the thyroid gland is extremely rare. Here, we present an interesting case of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the thyroid, which suggests the nature of the disease. Case presentation A 74-year-old Japanese man was referred to our institute because of a growing well-demarcated irregular-shaped mass in the right lobe of the thyroid. Malignant lymphoma was suspected by cytology, and right lobectomy was conducted. A final diagnosis of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia was made by the intimate investigation of the surgical specimen, with evidence of polyclonal and non-neoplastic lymphatic proliferations forming follicles with an active germinal center. After an initial uneventful postoperative course, our patient developed severe symptoms of systemic rheumatic arthritis, and alterations in autoimmune reaction, including clinically overt chronic thyroiditis, were identified. Conclusions Our case demonstrated important clinical information on reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the thyroid, and suggested the importance of differential diagnosis, and possible close correlation between systemic autoimmune disorder and the disease. PMID:25005726

  3. Laser Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Dosimetric and Thermodynamic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, Bahman

    1993-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most commonly occurring neoplastic disease in the aging human male. Currently, surgical treatment of BPH is the primary therapeutic method. However, due to surgical complications, less invasive methods of treatment are desirable. In recent years, thermal coagulation of the hyperplastic prostate by a laser has received a considerable amount of attention. Nevertheless, the optimum laser irradiation parameters that lead to a successful and safe treatment of BPH have not been determined. This dissertation studies the physics of laser coagulation of prostate from both basic science and practical perspectives. Optical properties of prostatic tissue are determined over a spectrum of wavelengths. Knowledge of these properties allows for selection of appropriate laser wavelengths and provides a basis for performing dose equivalency studies among various types of lasers. Furthermore, knowledge of optical properties are needed for development of computer simulation models that predict the extent of thermal injury during laser irradiation of prostate. A computer model of transurethral heating of prostate that can be used to guide the clinical studies in determining an optimum dosimetry is then presented. Studies of the effects of non-laser heating devices, optical properties, blood perfusion, surface irrigation, and beam geometry are performed to examine the extent of heat propagation within the prostate. An in vitro model for transurethral laser irradiation of prostate is also presented to examine the effects of an 810 nm diode laser, thermal boundary conditions, and energy deposition rate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Results of these studies suggest that in the presence of laminar irrigation, the convective boundary condition is dominated by thermal diffusion as opposed to the bulk motion of the irrigation fluid. Distinct phases of thermal events are also identified during the laser irradiation. The in vivo studies of transurethral laser irradiation of prostate in canine models are also performed to search for an optimum dosimetry that will result in a maximum zone of coagulation necrosis.

  4. Tryptase immunoreactive mast cell hyperplasia in bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Lyle, R E; Tryka, A F; Griffin, W S; Taylor, B J

    1995-06-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the most common cause of chronic lung disease in prematurely born infants, is histologically characterized by various degrees of airway and alveolar septal fibrosis. Tryptase, a serine protease specific to mast cells, has been shown to have potent fibroblast mitogenic properties and in addition has been shown to be increased in adult fibrotic lung disorders. Based on this analogy, the distribution of pulmonary mast cells exhibiting tryptase immunoreactivity was investigated by immunoperoxidase staining in autopsy specimens of infants dying with BPD. Morphologically normal lung specimens from similarly aged infants dying of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) served as controls. Tryptase-positive mast cell counts were performed at 250x from at least 10 random fields in bronchial, peribronchiolar, and alveolar regions. Compared to controls, in lung sections exhibiting typical histologic features of long-standing BPD, tryptase positive cells were significantly increased in bronchial (23.9 +/- 3.6 vs 14.4 +/- 2.3) and peribronchiolar (15.3 +/- 3.2 vs 4.63 +/- 0.6) regions compared to controls (P < 0.05, Student's t test). In particular, alveolar regions exhibiting moderate to severe degrees of septal fibrosis exhibited a dramatic increase in the number of tryptase-positive cells (9.83 +/- 1.89 vs 0.34 +/- 0.18, P = 0.003). These findings of a tryptase-positive mast cell hyperplasia in BPD suggest potential roles of mast cells as well as tryptase in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:7567212

  5. Karyometry in atypical endometrial hyperplasia: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Peter H; Garcia, Francisco AR; Trimble, Cornelia L; Kauderer, James; Curtin, John; Lim, Peter C; Hess, Lisa M; Silverberg, Steven; Zaino, Richard J; Yozwiak, Michael; Bartels, Hubert G; Alberts, David S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Treatment for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) is based on pathologic diagnosis. About 40% of AEH is found to be carcinoma at surgery. This study's objective is to derive an objective characterization of nuclei from cases diagnosed as AEH or superficially invasive endometrial cancer (SIEC). Methods Cases from GOG study 167A were classified by a central pathology committee as AEH (n=39) or SIEC (n=39). High resolution digitized images of cell nuclei were recorded. Features of the nuclear chromatin pattern were computed. Classification rules were derived by discriminant analysis. Results Nuclei from cases of AEH and SIEC occupy the same range on a progression curve for endometrial lesions. Cases of AEH and SIEC both comprise nuclei of two phenotypes: hyperplastic characteristics and premalignant/neoplastic characteristics. The principal difference between AEH and SIEC is percentage of premalignant/neoplastic nuclei. When this percentage approaches 50-60% superficial invasion is likely. SIEC may develop already from lesions at the low end of the progression curve. Conclusions AEH comprises cases which may constitute a low risk group involving <40% of AEH cases. These cases hold a percentage of <20% of nuclei of a preneoplastic phenotype. AEH cases from the central and high end of progression have >40 % of nuclei of preneoplastic phenotype. Nuclei of the preneoplastic phenotype in AEH lesions are almost indistinguishable from nuclei in SIEC, where this percentage exceeds 60%. The percentage of nuclei of the preneoplastic phenotype in AEH lesions might serve as criterion for assessment of risk for the development of invasive disease. PMID:22155796

  6. [Clinical features and StAR gene mutations in children with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Xie, Ting; Zheng, Ji-Peng; Huang, Yong-Lan; Fan, Chun; Wu, Dong-Yan; Tan, Min-Yi; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Cheng, Jing; Liu, Li

    2015-05-01

    This article reported the clinical manifestations, steroid profiles and adrenal ultrasound findings in two unrelated Chinese girls with lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH). Direct DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were used to identify the mutations of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene. The two patients with 46,XX karyotype, presented hyperpigmentation, growth retardation, and hyponatremia. Steroid profiles analysis revealed elevated plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, decreased or normal serum cortisol levels and low levels of androgens. Ultrasound examinations revealed that enlarged adrenals in patient 1 and normal adrenals in patient 2. Direct DNA sequencing of StAR gene showed a reported homozygous for c.772C>T(p.Q258X) in patient 1. Compound heterozygous for c.367G>A(p.E123K) and IVS4+2T>A (both novel mutations) were found in patient 2, inherited from her mother and father respectively. The amino acid of mutant position of the novel p.E123K was highly conserved in ten different species and was predicted to have impacts on the structure and function of StAR protein by the PolyPhen-2 prediction software. RFLP analysis revealed three bands (670, 423 and 247 bp) in patient 2 and her father and two bands (423 and 247 bp) in her mother and 50 controls. It is concluded that LCAH should be considered in girls with early onset of adrenal insufficiency and that steroid profiles, karyotype analysis, adrenal ultrasound and StAR gene analysis may be helpful for the definite diagnosis of LCAH. PMID:26014698

  7. Evaluation of silodosin in comparison to tamsulosin in benign prostatic hyperplasia: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Satabdi; Hazra, Avijit; Kundu, Anup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men. Selective alfa1-adrenergic antagonists are now first-line drugs in the medical management of BPH. We conducted a single-blind, parallel group, randomized, controlled trial to compare the effectiveness and safety of the new alfa1-blocker silodosin versus the established drug tamsulosin in symptomatic BPH. Materials and Methods: Ambulatory male BPH patients, aged above 50 years, were recruited on the basis of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Subjects were randomized in 1:1 ratio to receive either tamsulosin 0.4 mg controlled release or silodosin 8 mg once daily after dinner for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure was reduction in IPSS. Proportion of subjects who achieved IPSS <8, change in prostate size as assessed by ultrasonography and changes in peak urine flow rate and allied uroflowmetry parameters, were secondary effectiveness variables. Treatment emergent adverse events were recorded. Results: Data of 53 subjects – 26 on silodosin and 27 on tamsulosin were analyzed. Final IPSS at 12-week was significantly less than baseline for both groups. However, groups remained comparable in terms of IPSS at all visits. There was a significant impact on sexual function (assessed by IPSS sexual function score) in silodosin arm compared with tamsulosin. Prostate size and uroflowmetry parameters did not change. Both treatments were well-tolerated. Retrograde ejaculation was encountered only with silodosin and postural hypotension only with tamsulosin. Conclusions: Silodosin is comparable to tamsulosin in the treatment of BPH in Indian men. However, retrograde ejaculation may be troublesome for sexually active patients. PMID:25538330

  8. Population Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Two excellent bibliographic resources for population studies are the "Population Index" from the Office of Population Research at Princeton University, and "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" from the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Population Index" is a quarterly publication that has been available since 1935. It "covers all fields of interest to demographers, including fertility, mortality, population size and growth, migration, nuptiality and the family, research methodology, projections and predictions, historical demography, and demographic and economic interrelations. Input is derived from original publications including monographs, journal articles, other serial publications, working papers, doctoral dissertations, machine-readable data files, and relevant acquisitions lists and bibliographies." About 3,500 citations are produced annually. Full text for the Index is available at the "Population Index" Web site for 1986-present (Vol. 52-present). Indexes can be searched by author, subject matter, geographical region, or publication year. There is now an experimental free text search capability for the 1994-present issues. "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" is a no frills "practical tool for population professionals who need a single source for the quick location of organizations that publish and distribute or post population or family planning documents." It contains hundreds of citations, providing organization addresses, phone and FAX numbers, and Internet addresses when available. The Guide is updated every six months and is maintained by Ruth Sandor, Director of the Library of the Center for Demography and Ecology. Office of Population Research, Princeton University: http://opr.princeton.edu/ "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide": gopher://cde2.ssc.wisc.edu:70/00/addazlis gopher to: cde2.ssc.wisc.edu select: Population Organizations: Finder's Guide Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/

  9. Diagnostic use of cytokeratins, CD34, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule staining in focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Imran; Iyer, Anita; Marginean, Celia E; Yeh, Matthew M; Ferrell, Linda; Qin, Lihui; Bifulco, Carlo B; Jain, Dhanpat

    2009-05-01

    Cytokeratins 7 and 19 and neuronal cell adhesion molecule (CD56) are differentially expressed in the hepatocytes and biliary epithelium. CD34 is an endothelial marker that is expressed in hepatic sinusoids in conditions associated with altered vascular flow and neoplasms. Distinct staining patterns using these markers have been shown in resected specimens of focal nodular hyperplasia, telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia, and hepatic adenoma. The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic use of these markers in needle biopsies. Needle biopsies from focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 21), telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia (n = 2), and hepatic adenoma (n = 14) were included in the study. These cases represent typical examples of each entity that have been diagnosed on the basis of clinical, imaging, and histologic features. Corresponding resection specimens available in 9 cases were also included in the study for comparison. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 4-mum-thick formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections using antibodies against cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, neuronal cell adhesion molecule, and CD34. The staining patterns and intensity for each marker were analyzed in a blinded fashion, and the patterns were recorded as focal nodular hyperplasia-like, hepatic adenoma-like, or indeterminate for each case. Presence of normal tissue was also recorded in each case. The hepatic adenoma-like pattern is characterized by strong cytokeratin 7 positivity in hepatocytes in patches with a gradual decrease in the staining intensity as the cells differentiate toward mature hepatocytes. Hepatic adenomas lack bile ducts and ductules as highlighted by cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule stains. The focal nodular hyperplasia-like pattern is characterized by milder and focal cytokeratin 7 staining of hepatocytes. Cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule show a strong staining of bile ductules in the fibrous septa. Normal liver shows cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule staining of bile ducts, whereas the hepatocytes are generally negative. Of the 21 focal nodular hyperplasia cases, 20 cases (95.2%) showed a focal nodular hyperplasia-like pattern, whereas 13 (92.2%) of 14 hepatic adenoma cases showed a hepatic adenoma-like pattern. Both cases of telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia showed a hepatic adenoma-like pattern. CD34 stain showed areas of diffuse endothelial staining in 2 cases of hepatic adenoma, 3 cases of focal nodular hyperplasia, and both cases of telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia, whereas the remaining cases showed staining of endothelial cells only in the inflow areas of the sinusoids. A mixed (diffuse and inflow) pattern of CD34 staining was seen in 1 focal nodular hyperplasia, 1 hepatic adenoma, and 2 telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia cases. For statistical analysis, the telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia were considered as variants of hepatic adenoma. The findings were found to be highly statistically significant (P < .05) for cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule stains. An inflow staining pattern favors a diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia; however, overall, CD34 stain was not helpful in differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatic adenoma. Corresponding resection specimens (hepatic adenoma = 5, focal nodular hyperplasia = 2) showed staining patterns that were identical to the biopsy, whereas resections of the telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia cases showed both focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatic adenoma-like areas. Considering that telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia is now thought to be a variant of hepatic adenoma, the staining patterns correctly identified all cases, except one case each of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatic adenoma. In summary, a combination of cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule immunostains performed on needle biopsies of liver shows distinctive patterns simi

  10. Recombinant human erythropoietin increases cerebral cortical width index and neurogenesis following ischemic stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhongmin; Wang, Peiji

    2012-01-01

    The cerebral cortical expansion index refers to the ratio between left and right cortex width and is recognized as an indicator for cortical hyperplasia. Cerebral ischemia was established in CB-17 mice in the present study, and the mice were subsequently treated with recombinant human erythropoietin via subcutaneous injection. Results demonstrated that cerebral cortical width index significantly increased. Immunofluorescence detection showed that the number of nuclear antigen antibody/5-bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells at the infarction edge significantly increased. Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between neurological scores and cortical width indices in rats following ischemic stroke. These experimental findings suggested that recombinant human erythropoietin promoted cerebral cortical hyperplasia, increased cortical neurogenesis, and enhanced functional recovery following ischemic stroke. PMID:25745447

  11. Recombinant human erythropoietin increases cerebral cortical width index and neurogenesis following ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhongmin; Wang, Peiji

    2012-03-15

    The cerebral cortical expansion index refers to the ratio between left and right cortex width and is recognized as an indicator for cortical hyperplasia. Cerebral ischemia was established in CB-17 mice in the present study, and the mice were subsequently treated with recombinant human erythropoietin via subcutaneous injection. Results demonstrated that cerebral cortical width index significantly increased. Immunofluorescence detection showed that the number of nuclear antigen antibody/5-bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells at the infarction edge significantly increased. Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between neurological scores and cortical width indices in rats following ischemic stroke. These experimental findings suggested that recombinant human erythropoietin promoted cerebral cortical hyperplasia, increased cortical neurogenesis, and enhanced functional recovery following ischemic stroke. PMID:25745447

  12. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of 3 cases with human papillomavirus DNA sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, S E; Tokman Yildirim, Benay; Sarisoy, S

    2011-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a benign proliferative viral infection of the oral mucosa that is related to Human Papil-lomavirus (HPV), mainly subtypes 13 and 32. Although this condition is known to exist in numerous populations and ethnic groups, the reported cases among Caucasians are relatively rare. It presents as asymptomatic papules or nodules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Histopathologically, it is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, fusion, and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges and the cells named mitozoids. The purpose of this case report was to present 3 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a pediatric age group. Histopathological and clinical features of cases are discussed and DNA sequencing analysis is reported in which HPV 13, HPV 32, and HPV 11 genomes are detected. PMID:22353414

  13. Hyperplasia of the coronoid process in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (Bechterew disease).

    PubMed

    Wenghoefer, Matthias; Martini, Markus; Allam, Jean-Piere; Novak, Natalja; Reich, Rudolf; Bergé, Stefaan J

    2008-07-01

    Although involvement of the temporomandibular joint in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS, Bechterew disease) has been described previously, hyperplasia of the mandibular coronoid process in those patients has not been reported yet. Case notes were studied, and records were made of age, sex, clinical symptoms, radiography, and treatment in all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of coronoid hyperplasia presenting at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Bonn, between 1995 and 2007. Sixteen cases of coronoid hyperplasia were recruited, of which 12 were bilateral and 4 were unilateral. Four patients had AS, 3 of them were HLA-B27-positive. Temporomandibular joint symptoms are frequently seen in patients with AS. Nevertheless, it must be considered that a limitation of jaw mobility in those patients might also be caused by an elongation of the mandibular coronoid process. PMID:18650743

  14. Mouth opening limitation caused by coronoid hyperplasia: a report of four cases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Hak-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Coronoid process hyperplasia is a rare condition that causes mouth opening limitation, otherwise known as trismus. The elongated coronoid processes impinge on the medial surfaces of the zygomatic arches when opening the mouth, which limits movement of the mandible and leads to trismus. Patients with trismus due to coronoid process hyperplasia do not have any definite symptoms such as temporomandibular joint pain or sounds upon clinical examination, and no significant abnormal signs are observed on panoramic radiographs or magnetic resonance images of the temporomandibular joint. Thus, the diagnosis of trismus is usually very difficult. However, computed tomography can help with the diagnosis, and the condition can be treated by surgery and postoperative physical therapy. This paper describes four cases of patients who visited our clinic for trismus and were subsequently diagnosed with coronoid process hyperplasia. Three were successfully treated with a coronoidectomy and postoperative physical therapy. PMID:25551096

  15. Impacts of including forest understory brightness and foliage clumping information from multiangular measurements on leaf area index mapping over North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Pisek; Jing M. Chen; Krista Alikas; Feng Deng

    2010-01-01

    A new leaf area index (LAI) data set in 10 day intervals with consideration of the understory reflectance and foliage clumping effects over North America for 1 year is developed. The data set brings effectively together measurements from multiple sensors with complementary capabilities (SPOT-VEGETATION, Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, POLDER). First, the temporal consistency analysis indicated the new product is on par

  16. The importance of prostatic measuring by transrectal ultrasound in surgical management of patients with clinically benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daimantas Milonas

    Summary. Objective. To study wheather transrectal ultrasound volume determination of the whole prostate and of the transition zone alone correlates to resected or enucleated weight in patients operated upon with transurethral resection of the prostate and retropubic or suprapubic prostatectomy because of presumed benign prostatic hyperplasia. Material and methods. The study comprised 120 patients with symptomatic benign pro- static hyperplasia.

  17. Treatment of simple and complex endometrial non-atypical hyperplasia with natural progesterone: response rate to different doses.

    PubMed

    Marra, Chiara; Penati, Cristina; Ferrari, Luisa; Cantù, Maria Grazia; Bargossi, Lorena; Fruscio, Robert

    2014-08-11

    Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the response rate to natural progesterone in non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia and to identify the lowest effective dose. A total of 197 patients of childbearing age with simple or complex hyperplasia were retrospectively identified. The women were treated with a cyclic administration of progesterone at different dosages (100 versus 200 versus 300?mg daily). Endometrial biopsies were performed at 6, 12, 18 months. In comparing progesterone to a regimen of no therapy, a significantly higher remission rate was observed in the progesterone group than in the latter (95 versus 75%, p?=?0.05 for simple hyperplasia; 89 versus 35%, p?hyperplasia). Out of 60 women with simple hyperplasia, remission was observed in 9/11 (81.8%), 40/41 (97.5%) and 8/8 (100%) patients treated, respectively, with progesterone 100, 200 and 300?mg daily. Out of 72 women with complex hyperplasia, remission was observed in 3/5 (60%), 49/53 (92.4%) and 12/14 (85.7%) patients treated with progesterone 100, 200 and 300?mg daily, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the response rate in the two groups, neither with simple nor with complex hyperplasia. In conclusion, progesterone increased the regression rate of both simple and complex hyperplasia. PMID:25111756

  18. Beneficial Effect of a Short-Acting NO Donor for the Prevention of Neointimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Charles G.; Najjar, Samer F.; Kapadia, Muneera R.; Murar, Jozef; Eng, Jason; Lyle, Brian; Aalami, Oliver O.; Jiang, Qun; Hrabie, Joseph A.; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-based therapies effectively inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in animal models of arterial injury and bypass grafting, but are not available clinically. We created a simple, effective, locally-applied NO-eluting therapy to prevent restenosis following vascular procedures. We investigated the efficacy of perivascular delivery of two different distinctly different diazeniumdiolate NO donors, 1-[2-(carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (PROLI/NO), (short half-life) and diazeniumdiolated poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN/NO), (long half-life), in powder or gel form (30% poloxamer 407), at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia using the rat carotid artery injury model. Two weeks post-injury, all of the NO-eluting therapies successfully reduced neointimal hyperplasia. However, most dramatically, PROLI/NO powder reduced intimal area by 91.2% (P<0.05) versus injury alone. PROLI/NO powder was noted to reduce the medial area (40.2% vs. injury alone, P<0.05), while other groups showed no such effect. Three days post-injury, each NO treatment group significantly reduced cellular proliferation. However, inflammatory markers revealed a distinct pattern: PAN/NO groups displayed increased leukocyte infiltration (P<0.05) whereas PROLI/NO groups displayed less macrophage infiltration (P<0.05). In conclusion, perivascular delivery of diazeniumdiolate NO donors in powder or gel form effectively inhibits neointimal hyperplasia. Application of short-acting PROLI/NO powder most effectively inhibited neointimal hyperplasia and inflammation and may represent a simple, clinically applicable NO-eluting therapy to prevent neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis following open vascular interventions. PMID:18045549

  19. Beneficial effect of a short-acting NO donor for the prevention of neointimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Charles G; Najjar, Samer F; Kapadia, Muneera R; Murar, Jozef; Eng, Jason; Lyle, Brian; Aalami, Oliver O; Jiang, Qun; Hrabie, Joseph A; Saavedra, Joseph E; Keefer, Larry K; Kibbe, Melina R

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-based therapies effectively inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in animal models of arterial injury and bypass grafting, but are not available clinically. We created a simple, effective, locally applied NO-eluting therapy to prevent restenosis after vascular procedures. We investigated the efficacy of perivascular delivery of two distinctly different diazeniumdiolate NO donors, 1-[2-(carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (PROLI/NO) (short half-life) and diazeniumdiolated poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN/NO) (long half-life), in powder or gel form (30% poloxamer 407), at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia using the rat carotid artery injury model. Two weeks postinjury, all of the NO-eluting therapies successfully reduced neointimal hyperplasia. However, most dramatically, PROLI/NO powder reduced intimal area by 91.2% (p<0.05) versus injury alone. PROLI/NO powder was noted to reduce the medial area (40.2% vs injury alone, p<0.05), whereas other groups showed no such effect. Three days postinjury, each NO treatment group significantly reduced cellular proliferation. However, inflammatory markers revealed a distinct pattern: PAN/NO groups displayed increased leukocyte infiltration (p<0.05), whereas PROLI/NO groups displayed less macrophage infiltration (p<0.05). In conclusion, perivascular delivery of diazeniumdiolate NO donors in powder or gel form effectively inhibits neointimal hyperplasia. Application of short-acting PROLI/NO powder most effectively inhibited neointimal hyperplasia and inflammation and may represent a simple, clinically applicable NO-eluting therapy to prevent neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis after open vascular interventions. PMID:18045549

  20. Accelerated intimal hyperplasia in aortocoronary internal mammary vein grafts in minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Aron Frederik; Dorge, Hilmar; Hinz, Jose; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Stojanovic, Tomislav; Seipelt, Ralf; Didilis, Vassilios; Schoendube, Friedrich Albert

    2008-01-01

    Background More than 50% of aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts are occluded 10 years after surgery. Intimal hyperplasia is the initial critical step in the progression toward occlusion. Internal mammary veins, which are physiologically prone to less hydrostatic pressure, may undergo an accelerated progression to intimal hyperplasia and thus be suitable for investigation of the mechanisms of aortocoronary vein graft disease. Methods Six minipigs underwent aortocoronary bypass grafting using standard cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. Mammary vein were grafted in a reversed manner from ascending aorta to left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The proximal LAD was ligated, rendering the anterior left ventricle vein graft-dependent. Minipigs were killed after 4 weeks, and vein grafts were harvested. Histological and immunohistological investigation were performed with respect to morphometric analysis, endothelial damage/dysfunction (v-Willebrand-factor (vWF)), smooth muscle cells (?-smooth actin) and proliferation rate (proliferation marker Ki 67). Results Mean intimal area of vein grafts was increased compared to ungrafted mammary veins. Intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts was characterized by massive accumulation of smooth muscle cells with a high proliferation rate and endothelial perturbation. Significant (p = 0.001) intimal hyperplasia of the grafted mammary vein compared to the ungrafted mammary vein was found. These changes were absent in ungrafted mammary veins. Conclusion The present study demonstrates a pig model of aortocoronary vein graft intimal hyperplasia which is characterized by an accelerated progression within internal mammary veins. The model is suitable to investigate the pathophysiology of aortocoronary vein graft intimal hyperplasia as well as therapeutic approaches. PMID:18445288

  1. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia associated with primary lymphoma in the urinary bladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Montironi, Rodolfo; Santoni, Matteo; Goteri, Gaia; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Scarpelli, Marina

    2015-07-01

    A case of pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the urothelium associated with primary extranodal marginal-type lymphoma of the urinary bladder in an 81-year-old man is described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of a primary lymphoma of the bladder associated with pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the urothelium, closely mimicking the nested variant of urothelial carcinoma. The lesion enters in the differential diagnosis with a collision tumor, which has been described rarely in the bladder. PMID:25912755

  2. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver, CREST syndrome and primary biliary cirrhosis: an overlap syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, R F; Babbs, C; Warnes, T W

    1989-01-01

    Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver (NRHL) has been found in association with collagen vascular diseases, after drug therapy, with autoimmune disease, and with a variety of haematological disorders. The association of NRHL with the syndrome of Calcinosis cutis, Raynaud's phenomenon, oesophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia (CREST syndrome) has only been reported on two previous occasions. The liver disease usually associated with CREST syndrome is primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and recently nodular hyperplasia of the liver has been reported in patients with early stage PBC. We present a case of NRHL with CREST syndrome and serological and biochemical features of PBC, a newly recognised overlap syndrome. Images Figure PMID:2583572

  3. Local hyperthermia in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Assessment of 100 patients.

    PubMed

    Serrate Aguilera, R; Ruis Espina, G; Regié Aldosa, R; Prats López, J; Franco de Castro, A

    1991-01-01

    This study includes our first 100 patients who received local prostatic hyperthermia treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Subjective symptoms such as nycturia, stream, urgency, and objective facts like urine flow and postmicturition residue were monitored before treatment and 3 months after. The clinical (subjective) symptoms improved in 76 patients. Urinary flow increased in 63 patients, and the postmicturition urinary residue decreased in 32 patients. We were able to show that local prostatic hyperthermia is a valid option for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia although it is still too early to assess the long-term results. PMID:1720737

  4. Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia by transurethral laser ablation in patients treated with warfarin anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Bolton, D M; Costello, A J

    1994-01-01

    Transurethral laser ablation of the prostate gland was used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia in 10 patients on warfarin anticoagulant therapy who had either significant clinical symptoms or who were in urinary retention. Anticoagulant therapy did not require alteration at any stage during treatment. All patients noticed improvements in symptom score assessments, flow rates and residual urine volumes following this procedure, and no significant complications were encountered. The hemostatic nature of neodymium:YAG laser energy as applied in this procedure appears to result in a technical improvement upon conventional transurethral resection for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients taking warfarin anticoagulant therapy. PMID:7504746

  5. The effect of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench extract on experimental prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Skaudickas, D; Kondrotas, A J; Kevelaitis, E; Venskutonis, P R

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench) on the prostate gland of rats using an experimental model of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The animals were administered 50 mg/kg of extract preparation for 4 and 8 weeks and the prostate mass and structural degenerative changes were evaluated in the course of the experiment. The administration of E. purpurea extract to rats with hyperplasia for 4 and 8 weeks gradually and significantly reduced the prostate mass and reversed the degenerative changes in the structure of the prostate gland. The present investigation suggests extract of purple coneflower prevents the development of BPH. PMID:19288499

  6. Attenuation fluctuations and local dermal reflectivity are indicators of immune cell infiltrate and epidermal hyperplasia in skin inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Choudhury, Niloy; Levitz, David; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses responsible for skin homeostasis. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of psoriasis remains under investigated. To elucidate the spatial-temporal morphological evolution of psoriasis we undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to non-invasively document dermal alterations due to immune cell infiltration and epidermal hyperplasia in an Imiquimod (IMQ) induced model of psoriasis-like inflammation in DBA2/C57Bl6 hybrid mice. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a three parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(z) = ? exp(-mu;z +?(z)). Ensemble averaging of the fit parameters over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed that the local dermal reflectivity ?, decreased significantly in response to 6 day IMQ treatment (p = 0.0001), as did the standard deviation of the attenuation fluctuation std(?(z)), (p = 0.04), in comparison to cream controls and day 1 treatments. No significant changes were observed in the average dermal attenuation rate, ?. Our results suggest these label-free OCT-based metrics can be deployed to investigate new therapeutic targets in animal models as well as aid in clinical staging of psoriasis in conjunction with the psoriasis area and severity index.

  7. Plasmakinetic resection technology for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Kwong, Joey S W; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Ruan, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Tong-Zu; Weng, Hong; Guo, Yi; Xu, Chang; Yan, Jin-Zhu; Meng, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Xing-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare plasmakinetic resection of the prostate (PKRP) with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in terms of efficacy and safety. Published RCTs were searched from PubMed, Embase, Science Citation Index, and Cochrane Library up to April 10, 2014. After methodological quality assessment and data extraction, meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. 18 reports of 16 RCTs were included in this analysis. Meta-analyses showed that PKRP significantly improved Qmax at 12 months, but no significant difference was found for other efficacy outcomes. In terms of safety, treatment of PKRP was associated with reduced drop in serum sodium, lower TUR syndrome, reduced need of blood transfusion, clot retention, and shorter catheterization time and hospital stay; in contrast, there were no significant differences in the analysis of operative time, postoperative fever, and long-term postoperative complications. In summary, current evidence suggests that, although PKRP and TURP are both effective for BPH, PKRP is associated with additional potential benefits in efficacy and more favorable safety profile. It may be possible that PKRP may replace the TURP in the future and become a new standard surgical procedure. PMID:26156138

  8. Combination of tadalafil and finasteride for improving the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia: critical appraisal and patient focus

    PubMed Central

    Elkelany, Osama O; Owen, Ryan C; Kim, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    The evidence suggests that combination therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) using an ?-blocker and a 5?-reductase inhibitor has become well accepted. The combination of daily tadalafil and an ?-blocker has also demonstrated benefit. This paper addresses combination therapy with daily tadalafil and finasteride for the treatment of BPH-LUTS. Our results demonstrate that use of tadalafil and finasteride represents a logical extension of combination therapies. We analyze a landmark study by Casabé et al that demonstrates improved voiding symptoms as assessed by International Prostate Symptom Scores with a combination of tadalafil and finasteride compared with finasteride and placebo. Study patients had moderate to severe LUTS and prostate volumes >30 g. The additional benefit of improved erectile function as assessed by International Index of Erectile Function-erectile function domain scores with the addition of tadalafil was a secondary benefit. We propose that the ideal patient for combination therapy with tadalafil and finasteride has a prostate volume >30 g and desires additional benefit over monotherapy. For these men, improved erectile function without sexual side effects was a secondary benefit. PMID:25848297

  9. Plasmakinetic resection technology for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng; Kwong, Joey S.W.; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Ruan, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Tong-Zu; Weng, Hong; Guo, Yi; Xu, Chang; Yan, Jin-Zhu; Meng, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Xing-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare plasmakinetic resection of the prostate (PKRP) with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in terms of efficacy and safety. Published RCTs were searched from PubMed, Embase, Science Citation Index, and Cochrane Library up to April 10, 2014. After methodological quality assessment and data extraction, meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. 18 reports of 16 RCTs were included in this analysis. Meta-analyses showed that PKRP significantly improved Qmax at 12 months, but no significant difference was found for other efficacy outcomes. In terms of safety, treatment of PKRP was associated with reduced drop in serum sodium, lower TUR syndrome, reduced need of blood transfusion, clot retention, and shorter catheterization time and hospital stay; in contrast, there were no significant differences in the analysis of operative time, postoperative fever, and long-term postoperative complications. In summary, current evidence suggests that, although PKRP and TURP are both effective for BPH, PKRP is associated with additional potential benefits in efficacy and more favorable safety profile. It may be possible that PKRP may replace the TURP in the future and become a new standard surgical procedure. PMID:26156138

  10. NAC1, a potential stem cell pluripotency factor expression in normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masako; Nakayama, Kentaro; Yeasmin, Shamima; Katagiri, Atsuko; Iida, Kouji; Nakayama, Naomi; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of NAC1 in the development of endometrial cancer. NAC1 expression and localization were assessed with immunohistochemistry in the normal cyclic human endometrium, hyperplastic endometrium, and endometrial cancer. Expression of NAC1 in the glandular cells was significantly higher in the early and mid proliferative phases than in the other menstrual phases, endometrial hyperplasia, and endometrial carcinoma. NAC1 expression was down-regulated during endometrial carcinogenesis. There were significant correlations between positive NAC1 expression and pathological grade (P=0.037). No significant associations were found between NAC1 expression and the other clinicopathological characteristics including patient age, FIGO staging, depth of myometrial invasion, pelvic lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular space invasion, menopause, or body mass index. NAC1 gene knockdown inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in Ishikawa, HHUA, and JHEM2 cell lines, all of which overexpressed NAC1. Ectopic overexpression of the NAC1 gene stimulated cell proliferation in the HEC1B, and JHEM1 endometrial cancer cell lines, which have lower endogenous NAC1 expression. Endometrial carcinomas with NAC1 overexpression are clinically aggressive, high-grade carcinomas. Therefore, detection of NAC1 overexpression in endometrial cancers may identify patients who will benefit from NAC1 targeted therapy. PMID:20372782

  11. Indexing and Querying Avishek Anand

    E-print Network

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Indexing and Querying Avishek Anand #12;Avishek Anand Inverted Indexing basics revisited Indexing Static Collections Dictionaries Forward Index Inverted Index Organisation Scalable Indexing Indexing Dynamic Collections Inverted Index Construction and Maintenance 2 #12;Avishek Anand

  12. PTEN Sequence Analysis in Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Carcinoma in Slovak Women

    PubMed Central

    Gbelcová, H.; Bakeš, P.; Priš?áková, P.; Šišovský, V.; Hojsíková, I.; Straka, ?.; Kone?ný, M.; Markus, J.; D'Acunto, C. W.; Ruml, T.; Böhmer, D.; Danihel, ?.; Repiská, V.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Loss of PTEN function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different tumors, particularly endometrial carcinoma (ECa). ECa is the most common neoplasia of the female genital tract. Our study evaluates an association between the morphological appearance of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma and the degree of PTEN alterations. A total of 45 endometrial biopsies from Slovak women were included in present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples with simple hyperplasia (3), complex hyperplasia (5), atypical complex hyperplasia (7), endometrioid carcinomas G1 (20) and G3 (5), and serous carcinoma (5) were evaluated for the presence of mutations in coding regions of PTEN gene, the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in endometrial carcinoma. 75% of the detected mutations were clustered in exons 5 and 8. Out of the 39 mutations detected in 24 cases, 20 were frameshifts and 19 were nonsense, missense, or silent mutations. Some specimens harboured more than one mutation. The results of current study on Slovak women were compared to a previous study performed on Polish population. The two sets of results were similar.

  13. Early Androgen Effects on Spatial and Mechanical Abilities: Evidence From Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheri A. Berenbaum; Kristina L. Korman Bryk; Adriene M. Beltz

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable controversy about the origins of sex differences in cognitive abilities, particularly the male superiority in spatial abilities. We studied effects of early androgens on spatial and mechanical abilities in adolescents and young adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). On tests of three-dimensional mental rotations, geography, and mechanical knowledge, females with CAH scored higher than their unaffected sisters,

  14. Localized Palmar-Plantar Epidermal Hyperplasia: A Previously Undefined Dermatologic Toxicity to Sorafenib

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW BELDNER; MICHAEL JACOBSON; GENE E. BURGES; DEBORAH DEWAAY; JOHN C. MAIZE; UZAIR B. CHAUDHARYa

    The development of multitargeted tyrosine kinase in- hibitors has provided significant advances in the treat- ment of renal cell carcinoma. This case describes initial therapy for managing renal cell cancer with the admin- istration of sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We report the development of localized pal- mar-plantar epidermal hyperplasia, a rare but signifi- cant cutaneous adverse event from

  15. Association of adenoid hyperplasia and bacterial biofilm formation in children with adenoiditis in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Der Lin; Mang-Hung Tsai; Cheng-Wen Lin; Mao-Wang Ho; Chin-Yuan Wang; Yung-An Tsou; Ming-Ching Kao; Ming-Hsui Tsai; Chih-Ho Lai

    The adenoid is a bacterial reservoir that contributes to chronic otolaryngologic infections. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common pathogen in the adenoid. The increase of antibiotic resistance in S. aureus has become an important issue in public health. The aim of this study was to compare adenoid hyperplasia and biofilm formation\\u000a in children with S. aureus adenoiditis in Taiwan.

  16. Treatment of nonatypical and atypical endometrial hyperplasia with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Wildemeersch; M. Dhont

    2003-01-01

    Objective: A “frameless” intrauterine drug delivery system that releases 14 ?g\\/d of levonorgestrel was used to treat nonatypical and atypical endometrial hyperplasia in 12 women. Study Design: This noncomparative study had up to 3 to 4 years of follow-up. Results: The cure rate was 100%, as confirmed by repeat endometrial biopsy. Conclusion: This method could be considered an alternative to

  17. Intimal Hyperplasia of the Infant Parasellar Carotid Artery A Potential Developmental Factor in Atherosclerosis and SIDS

    E-print Network

    Müller, Gerd B.

    artery. A possible contribution of neonatal intimal cushions to the origin of sudden infant death for the occurrence of neonatal intimal hyperplasia. This study provides a topographic and morphometric analysis of intracranial arteries in neonates18­21 and infants.22­24 The extracranial carotid system and its intracranial

  18. Neutrophil accumulation promotes intimal hyperplasia after photochemically induced arterial injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Watanabe, Shinji; Kondo, Kazunao; Hara, Hideaki; Nakashima, Mitsuyoshi; Umemura, Kazuo

    2005-09-27

    The role of leukocytes in the pathogenesis of coronary arterial disease has become a focus for clinical research. The aim of this study was to determine whether neutrophil accumulation would participate in the development of intimal hyperplasia after endothelial injury in mice, and whether d-myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytic acid) which inhibits the binding of L- and P-selectin to sialyl Lewis(X) could inhibit the development of intimal hyperplasia. Endothelial injury was inflicted in one femoral artery via the photochemical reaction between systemically injected rose bengal and transillumination with green light (wavelength: 540 nm). Scanning electron microscopic observation at 3 days after the injury showed an increase in the number of leukocytes adhering to the injury site. Histological observation at 21 days showed that in the neutropenia group administered anti-neutrophil antibody and in the phytic acid-treated group the progression of intimal hyperplasia was significantly attenuated by comparison with the corresponding control groups. These results suggest that neutrophil accumulation contributes to the initiation and/or development of intimal hyperplasia and L- and/or P-selectin may participate in their mechanisms. PMID:16140293

  19. Effect of Doxazosin on Oxidative Stress-Related Proteins in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo A. Calò; Elisa Pagnin; Paul A. Davis; Michele Lodde; Christine Mian; Andrea Semplicini; Armin Pycha

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Oxidative stress can induce cell mutations or proliferation which then can progress to carcinogenesis or remodeling. The same oxidative stress-mediated mechanism could participate in prostate cell proliferation and remodeling present in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Doxazosin induces prostate epithelial and stromal cell apoptosis through production of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), but cellular mechanisms are not completely clarified.

  20. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of the Prostate as Minimally Invasive Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Preliminary Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianfranco Savoca; Stefano De Stefani; Ignazio Gattuccio; Daniele Paolinelli; Fulvio Stacul; Emanuele Belgrano

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of a minimally invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) consisting of percutaneous ethanol injection inside the prostate under ultrasound surveillance.Material and Methods: Transperineal ethanol injection into the prostate was performed in 8 patients who were affected by obstructive BPH according to AUA symptom score, impaired urinary flow, and volume of postvoiding

  1. Seminal Plasma Prostate-Specific Antigen Level in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yavuz Narin; Kenan Karademir

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the role of the seminal plasma PSA level in the prediction of the response to ?-blocker treatment in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Materials and Methods: 18 male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms were enrolled in the study. After their blood was sampled for PSA, ejaculates of all the subjects were obtained. Serum and seminal plasma

  2. Treatment of a Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Nd:YAG Laser – Own Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Pypno; W. Husiatynski

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of visual laser ablation (VLAP) and interstitial laser coagulation (ILCP) versus transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).Patients and Methods: Altogether 259 consecutive patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were treated by VLAP (n = 117), ILCP (n = 30) or TURP (n = 112). VLAP was carried out using both contact and

  3. Drug Insight: 5?-reductase inhibitors for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Marberger

    2006-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common problem among older men, which is characterized by an enlarged prostate, lower urinary tract symptoms, and decreased flow of urine. It is a progressive disease that can lead to complications such as acute urinary retention (AUR) or a need for BPH-related surgery in some men. Dihydrotestosterone is the primary androgen involved in both

  4. Medical Therapy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Review of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Clifford; R. D. T. Farmer

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To review the existing evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of medical therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) indicative of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To assess randomised controlled trials investigating the six ?–adrenergic receptor antagonists (?–blockers), prazosin, alfuzosin, indoramin, terazosin, doxazosin, and tamsulosin, that benefit patients by relaxing prostatic smooth muscle, and the anti–androgen, finasteride, that mediates its

  5. Effectiveness and safety of doxazosin in hypertensive patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Becerril; R. Jimenez; P. Astasio; P. Ortega; A. Gil

    2000-01-01

    To assess the safety and effectiveness of doxazosin in hypertensive patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Open, prospective, non comparative, multicenter study. We included patients with BPH and hypertension. BPH was defined as having an International Prostatic Symptoms Score (I-PSS) above 7 and an increase in the prostate size. Patients were treated with doxazosin as monotherapy for 16 weeks. The

  6. Open Prostatectomy in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: 10Year Experience in Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Mearini; M. Marzi; L. Mearini; A. Zucchi; M. Porena

    1998-01-01

    This study reports the experience of 47 Italian urology units together with the urology unit at the University of Perugia concerning open surgery in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Until 20–25 years ago, open surgery was the most common approach. In the late 1970s the development of endoscopes and their methodology has led to a gradual reduction in

  7. Doxazosin in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Normotensive Patients: A Multicenter Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Fawzy; Karl Braun; George P. Lewis; Michael Gaffney; Kathleen Ice

    1995-01-01

    A 16-week, double-blind, placebo controlled, dose titration study was done on 100 normotensive patients age 45 years or older to determine the efficacy and safety of doxazosin, a selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Of the 41 efficacy evaluable patients 88 percent underwent dose titration to a maximum of 8 mg. doxazosin once daily.

  8. Polymorphisms of MLH1 in benign prostatic hyperplasia and sporadic prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichiro Tanaka; Mohd S. Zaman; Shahana Majid; Jan Liu; Kazumori Kawakami; Hiroaki Shiina; Takashi Tokizane; Angela V. Dahiya; Saunak Sen; Koichi Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Mismatch repair is one of several DNA repair pathways of which defects may lead to cancer. We hypothesize that polymorphisms of the MLH1 gene can be a risk factor for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. The genetic distribution of MLH1 polymorphisms that lead to amino acid changes at codons 132, 219, 384, and 723 were analyzed in BPH

  9. Efficacy of Doxazosin in the Treatment of Acute Urinary Retention due to Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Prieto; Jesús Romero; Cristóbal López; Manuel Ortiz; Juan Jose Pacheco

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of modified-release doxazosin 4 mg in the treatment of patients with acute urinary retention (AUR) due to benign prostate gland hyperplasia (BPH). An evaluation is made of the number of patients recovering spontaneous micturition after catheter removal, micturition quality, and the number of patients suffering new AUR episodes or who require surgery in the 2

  10. Experience with the Peponen ® capsule in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hamvas; Gy. Corradi; M. Hegedüs; D. Frang

    1991-01-01

    Sixty patients in Stages I and II of benign prostatic hyperplasia were treated with Peponen capsule. Out of them 26 took the drug for 10 months, 22 for at least 7, and 12 for at least 4 months. The daily dosage was\\u000a 32 capsules in the first month and 31 capsule for the rest of the time. On the ground

  11. Nodular Epithelial Hyperplasia after Photorefractive Keratectomy Followed by Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Liberdade Cezaro; Ghanem, Vinícius Coral; Ghanem, Ramon Coral

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a case of nodular epithelial hyperplasia and stromal alterations in a patient with keratoconus who was submitted to topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) followed by corneal collagen cross-linking. Debridement of the epithelial nodule was performed. After a 2-year followup, a new topography-guided PRK was indicated. PMID:23691390

  12. Triphasic Helical CT of Hepatic Focal Nodular Hyperplasia: Incidence of Atypical Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chul Soon Choi; Patrick C. Freeny

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The objective of this paper is to assess the findings of focal nodular hyper- plasia of the liver as depicted by triphasic helical CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Triphasic helical CT scans (arterial, portal vein, and delayed phase scans) in 12 patients with hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia were reviewed to assess the frequency of findings on each phase. The final

  13. Approach to the Adult with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah P. Merke

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of autosomal recessive disorders where there is impairment of cortisol biosynthesis. CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 95% of cases and shows a wide range of clinical severity. Treatment of the classic or severe form of CAH is targeted at replacing cortisol and aldosterone and effectively controlling excess androgen symptoms by using

  14. Gender Change from Female to Male in Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg; Rhoda S. Gruen; Maria I. New; Jennifer J. Bell; Akira Morishima; Mona Shimshi; Yvette Bueno; Ileana Vargas; Susan W. Baker

    1996-01-01

    The psychoendocrinology of the development of normal gender identity and its variations is poorly understood. Studies of gender development in individuals born with endocrinologically well-characterized intersex conditions are heuristically valuable for the disaggregation of factors that are acting in concert during normal development. Four 46,XX individuals with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and atypical gender identity entered a comprehensive research

  15. Cognitive Outcome in Adult Women Affected by Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Malouf; Claude J. Migeon; Kathryn A. Carson; Loredana Petrucci; Amy B. Wisniewski

    2006-01-01

    Background: Some research suggests that girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), who are exposed to higher than normal levels of prenatal androgens, perform better on spatial tasks, worse on verbal tasks and have a greater incidence of left-handedness than unaffected controls, all of which suggests the development of a more male-typical cognitive pattern. However, research in all three areas has

  16. The relationship of tonsillar hyperplasia and asthma in a group of asthmatic children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ömer Ceran; Sibel Aka; Devrim Öztemel; Burcu Uyanik; Tamay Özkozaci

    2004-01-01

    Background: The decline of infections in childhood may contribute to the rising severity and prevalence of atopic disorders in developed countries. With this regard, we examined the relationship of frequent tonsillitis and consequent tonsillar hyperplasia with the development of asthma. Methods: Sixty-seven asthmatic children (ages 3–14) who had no signs or symptoms of acute tonsillitis were included. The control group

  17. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water inhibits intimal hyperplasia in arterialized vein grafts in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiang; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Masutani, Kosuke; Peng, Ximei; Sun, Qing; Stolz, Donna B.; Pribis, John P.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sun, Xuejun; Bermudez, Christian A.; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Nakao, Atsunori

    2012-01-01

    Aims Arterialized vein grafts often fail due to intimal hyperplasia. Hydrogen potently protects organs and cells from many insults via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the efficacy of oral administration of hydrogen-rich water (HW) for prevention of intimal hyperplasia. Methods and results The inferior vena cava was excised, stored in cold Ringer solution for 2 h, and placed as an interposition graft in the abdominal aorta of syngeneic Lewis rats. HW was generated by immersing a magnesium stick in tap water (Mg + 2H2O ? Mg (OH)2 + H2). Beginning on the day of graft implantation, recipients were given tap water [regular water (RW)], HW or HW that had been subsequently degassed water (DW). Six weeks after grafting, the grafts in the rats given RW or DW had developed intimal hyperplasia, accompanied by increased oxidative injury. HW significantly suppressed intimal hyperplasia. One week after grafting, the grafts in HW-treated rats exhibited improved endothelial integrity with less platelet and white blood cell aggregation. Up-regulation of the mRNAs for intracellular adhesion molecules was attenuated in the vein grafts of the rats receiving HW. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 was also significantly inhibited in grafts receiving HW. In rat smooth muscle cell (A7r5) cultures, hydrogen treatment for 24 h reduced smooth muscle cell migration. Conclusion Drinking HW significantly reduced neointima formation after vein grafting in rats. Drinking HW may have therapeutic value as a novel therapy for intimal hyperplasia and could easily be incorporated into daily life. PMID:22287575

  18. Sensitivity and Reproducibility of a Family-level Macroinvertebrate Index used to Assess Acid Mine Impacts on Streams in the Western Allegheny Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.

    2005-05-01

    We report on the performance of a family-level multimetric index, the MAIS (Macroinvertebrate Aggregate Index for Streams) for assessing acid mine impaired (AMD) sites in the Western Allegheny Plateau (Ohio). Two sampling protocols were compared, one utilizing three collection techniques (kick net, dip net and Surber samples), the other using two (kick and dip net). Including Surber samples tended to increase the MAIS score, changing the classification of four out of 52 sampling events (7.7%), but substantially increased processing time. MAIS scores were positively correlated with water pH (R = -0.77) and other indicators of AMD (acidity, sulfates, conductivity, total Al, total Mn). MAIS scores at some sites were consistent over 2-3 years of repeated sampling, others were more variable. Nineteen of the 26 sites that were sampled multiple times were categorized the same each year (73%), whereas 7 were classified differently in at least one year (27%). Since rainfall, flow regime and disturbance events varied over the three years, we cannot identify whether this variation reflects sampling error or actual changes in the assemblages at each site. Nevertheless, a benefit of repeated, annual evaluation is a statistically strong baseline condition against which future changes can be assessed.

  19. The Impact of Multiple Master Patient Index Records on the Business Performance of Health Care Organizations: A Qualitative Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banton, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to explore and examine the factors that led to the creation of multiple record entries, and present a theory on the impact the problem has on the business performance of health care organizations. A sample of 59 health care professionals across the United States participated in an online…

  20. The impact of rational and irrational sentiments of individual and institutional investors on DJIA and S&P500 index returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Verma; Hasan Baklaci; Gökçe Soydemir

    2008-01-01

    We examine the relative effects of rational and irrational investor sentiments on Dow Jones Industrial Average and S&P500 returns. The impact of rational sentiments on stock market returns is found to be greater than that of irrational sentiments. There are immediate positive responses of stock market returns to irrational sentiments corrected by negative responses in the upcoming periods. There are

  1. Teaching Physiology with Citation Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    Explains use of the Citation Index in writing term papers by assigning an older publication as a starting point in a literature search. By reading the original research report and following its subsequent use by other researchers, the student discovers the impact of the original research. (CS)

  2. Name: Department: GID #: Index #

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Name: Department: GID #: Index #: (Current Index used to pay salary) In order to participate % of salary from my grant fund(s): % Index #: Beginning (mo./yr.): % Index #: Ending (mo./yr.): % Index #: % Index #: Total % (must have a minimum of 10% FTE to participate in the program) Do you have sufficient

  3. Subtype selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Forray; Noble

    1999-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is highly prevalent in the male population beyond the age of 60. Impairment of urinary flow due to prostate enlargement gives rise to symptoms of 'prostatism' that have a detrimental impact on the quality of life. The current trend in the management of symptomatic BPH favours pharmacotherapy as a first line option, while the number of surgical procedures being performed has experienced a steady decline during the last ten years. Among the pharmacological treatments, the use of alpha1-adrenoceptor blockers has demonstrated to be an effective treatment option for BPH. These agents reduce the adrenergic tone to the prostate and increase urinary flow, with a concomitant reduction of lower urinary tract symptoms. The alpha1-blockers currently approved include compounds such as alfuzosin, terazosin and doxazosin, originally developed for the treatment of hypertension, and more recently tamsulosin, an alpha1-subtype selective drug. The blockade of alpha1-adrenoceptors present in vascular smooth muscle is largely responsible for the most prominent side effects of current drugs, which can be severe and require patients dose titration. The limitation imposed by side effects naturally raises the possibility that complete blockade of prostatic alpha1 receptors is not attained at the maximum tolerated dose. The extensive efforts by the pharmaceutical industry towards the development of uroselective alpha1-blockers, is the subject of this review. Advances in the molecular cloning of genes encoding three alpha1-adrenoceptors led to the identification of the alpha1A-subtype as the predominant receptor responsible for the contraction of prostate smooth muscle. In preclinical animal models, selective alpha1A-antagonists have consistently been found to have minimal cardiovascular effects, thus providing a pharmacological rationale for uroselectivity. It has also become apparent, however, that uroselectivity can emerge in a poorly understood manner from the pharmacodynamic properties of compounds without alpha1A-subtype selectivity. Clinical experience with tamsulosin, an alpha1A/alpha1D selective drug, has failed to demonstrate a significant improvement in efficacy beyond that demonstrated for non-subtype selective alpha1-blockers, and gives support to the notion that alpha1A-selective antagonists might achieve greater efficacy for the treatment of BPH. Given the demonstrated uroselectivity of alpha1A-selective antagonists in preclinical models, it is anticipated that third generation alpha1-blockers will exhibit improved urinary flow efficacy and be better tolerated than tamsulosin. The extent to which the improvement in urinary flow will translate to the relief of symptoms of prostatism, however, remains to be demonstrated in randomised placebo-controlled clinical trials of alpha1A-selective antagonists. PMID:11139841

  4. Population impact of increased body mass index and attenuated beta-cell function on worsening of glucose metabolism in subjects with normal glucose tolerance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Keishi; Oka, Rie; Yagi, Kunimasa; Hayashi, Kenshi; Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Shimbo, Takuro; Aizawa, Toru

    2014-01-01

    The population attributable fraction (PAF) of risk factors for the worsening of glucose metabolism in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) has not been calculated. Our aim was to obtain the PAF of increased body mass index (BMI) and attenuated beta-cell function (BCF) on worsening of glucose metabolism in subjects with NGT. We longitudinally analyzed 604 Japanese adults. The follow-up glucose tolerance status was determined 3.7 years later: 430 participants remained in the NGT category and 102 had progressed to impaired fasting glucose, 67 to impaired glucose tolerance, and 5 to diabetes mellitus. A product of ISIMatsuda and Stumvoll-1, i.e., oral disposition index (DIO), was used as a measure of BCF. The optimal cutoff baseline BMI and DIO values for the prediction of the worsening of glucose metabolism were > 23.1 and < 7.299 kg/m(2), respectively. Isolated increased BMI (iBMIHIGH), isolated low DI (iDIOLOW), and "BMIHIGH and DIOLOW (BMIHIGH/DIOLOW)" were all independently related to the worsening, and the PAF values (95 % CI) for worsening due to iBMIHIGH, iDIOLOW, and BMIHIGH/DIOLOW were 12.9 (3.2-18.4) %, 10.9 (5.0-13.9) %, and 31.4 (22.7-36.3) %, respectively. As much as 55 % of the worsening of glucose metabolism in the NGT subjects was attributable to increased BMI and/or attenuated BCF. The optimal cutoff for BMI was as low as 23.1 kg/m(2) in this population. We believe that these data should form the basis of future public health strategies for the prevention of diabetes in Japan. PMID:24356951

  5. Impact of Radiatively Interactive Dust Aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 Climate Model: Sensitivity to Dust Particle Shape and Refractive Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter R.; Nowottnick, Edward Paul; Randles, Cynthia A.; Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Smith, Jamison A.; Bardeen, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the radiative effects of dust aerosols in the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. GEOS-5 is improved with the inclusion of a sectional aerosol and cloud microphysics module, the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). Into CARMA we introduce treatment of the dust and sea salt aerosol lifecycle, including sources, transport evolution, and sinks. The aerosols are radiatively coupled to GEOS-5, and we perform a series of multi-decade AMIP-style simulations in which dust optical properties (spectral refractive index and particle shape distribution) are varied. Optical properties assuming spherical dust particles are from Mie theory, while those for non-spherical shape distributions are drawn from a recently available database for tri-axial ellipsoids. The climatologies of the various simulations generally compare well to data from the MODIS, MISR, and CALIOP space-based sensors, the ground-based AERONET, and surface measurements of dust deposition and concentration. Focusing on the summertime Saharan dust cycle we show significant variability in our simulations resulting from different choices of dust optical properties. Atmospheric heating due to dust enhances surface winds over important Saharan dust sources, and we find a positive feedback where increased dust absorption leads to increased dust emissions. We further find that increased dust absorption leads to a strengthening of the summertime Hadley cell circulation, increasing dust lofting to higher altitudes and strengthening the African Easterly Jet. This leads to a longer atmospheric residence time, higher altitude, and generally more northward transport of dust in simulations with the most absorbing dust optical properties. We find that particle shape, although important for radiance simulations, is a minor effect compared to choices of refractive index, although total atmospheric forcing is enhanced by greater than 10 percent for simulations incorporating a spheroidal shape distribution versus ellipsoidal or spherical shapes.

  6. Socioeconomic Status and Overweight Prevalence in Polish Adolescents: The Impact of Single Factors and a Complex Index of Socioeconomic Status in Respect to Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    KOWALKOWSKA, Joanna; WADOLOWSKA, Lidia; WERONIKA WUENSTEL, Justyna; S?OWI?SKA, Ma?gorzata Anna; NIED?WIEDZKA, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI) were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards. Results The odds ratio (OR) for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years) with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P < 0.05) by Polish standards and 0.22 (95%CI:0.05-0.95; P < 0.05) by international standards, in comparison to the reference group (low SESI). In total girls who had mothers with higher education level, the OR adjusted for age was 0.44 (95%CI:0.21-0.90; P <0.05) by Polish standards and 0.35 (95%CI:0.15-0.81; P < 0.05) by international standards, in comparison to the reference group (maternal elementary education). The other single SES factors were not significant for overweight prevalence Conclusions The relationship between socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls. PMID:25909059

  7. Climate change and financial adaptation in Africa. Investigating the impact of climate change on the robustness of index-based microinsurance in Malawi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Hochrainer; Reinhard Mechler; Georg Pflug

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of crop insurance for the case of Malawi and explores the potential impact of climate\\u000a change on the viability of the Malawi weather insurance program making use of scenarios of climate change-induced variations\\u000a in rainfall patterns. The analysis is important from a methodological and policy perspective. By combining catastrophe insurance\\u000a modeling with climate modeling, the

  8. Metformin Hydrochloride in Patients With Atypical Hyperplasia or In Situ Breast Cancer to Placebo in Decreasing Atypical Cells in Patients With Atypical Hyperplasia or in Situ Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies metformin hydrochloride to see how well it works compared to placebo in decreasing atypical cells in patients with atypical hyperplasia or in situ breast cancer.

  9. Ontario University Non-Salary Price Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    An Ontario university non-salary price index is presented that attempts to measure the impact of inflation on non-salary expenditure. Using 1970-71 as the base year (in which the index equals 100), the changes in prices of non-salary expenditures for 1976-77 are shown. The non-salary expenditures covered include books and periodicals, furniture…

  10. Spatial function in adolescents and young adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: clinical phenotype and implications for the androgen hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Rovet, Joanne F

    2015-04-01

    Females with the classic form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are said to perform better than unaffected female controls on tests of mental rotation or other visuospatial abilities, but findings are conflicting. We studied 31 adolescents and young adults with CAH and 19 unaffected sibling controls, who were given standardized spatial tests and tests of other sexually differentiated cognitive functions (verbal fluency, perceptual speed). The possible role of CAH subtype (salt-wasting or simple-virilizing) was evaluated. Only females with the more severe, salt-wasting form of CAH, but not females with the simple-virilizing form, performed significantly better than sex-matched sibling controls on measures of mental rotation. Subtype differences were not significant for verbal fluency or perceptual speed. Severity of prenatal genital virilization, but not postnatal age when medication was started, predicted accuracy on the Mental Rotations Test. Results are consistent with the possibility of an organizational effect of androgens in the central nervous system that impacts the development of spatial abilities. Implications for the timing of the hypothetical critical period are discussed. PMID:25686803

  11. Modelling ultrasound-induced mild hyperthermia of hyperplasia in vascular grafts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts frequently develop occlusive neointimal hyperplasia as a result of myofibroblast over-growth, leading to graft failure. ePTFE exhibits higher ultrasound attenuation than native soft tissues. We modelled the selective absorption of ultrasound by ePTFE, and explored the feasibility of preventing hyperplasia in ePTFE grafts by ultrasound heating. Specifically, we simulated the temperature profiles of implanted grafts and nearby soft tissues and blood under ultrasound exposure. The goal was to determine whether ultrasound exposure of an ePTFE graft can generate temperatures sufficient to prevent cell growth on the graft without damaging nearby soft tissues and blood. Methods Ultrasound beams from two transducers (1.5 and 3.2 MHz) were simulated in two graft/tissue models, with and without an intra-graft cellular layer mimicking hyperplasia, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The resulting power deposition patterns were used as a heat source for the Pennes bioheat equation in a COMSOL® Multiphysics heat transfer model. 50°C is known to cause cell death and therefore the transducer powers were adjusted to produce a 13°C temperature rise from 37°C in the ePTFE. Results Simulations showed that both the frequency of the transducers and the presence of hyperplasia significantly affect the power deposition patterns and subsequent temperature profiles on the grafts and nearby tissues. While neither transducer significantly raised the temperature of the blood, the 1.5-MHz transducer was less focused and heated larger volumes of the graft and nearby soft tissues than the 3.2-MHz transducer. The presence of hyperplasia had little effect on the blood's temperature, but further increased the temperature of the graft and nearby soft tissues in response to either transducer. Skin cooling and blood flow play a significant role in preventing overheating of the native tissues. Conclusions Modelling shows that ultrasound can selectively heat ePTFE grafts and produce temperatures that cause cell death on the graft. The temperature increase in blood is negligible and that in the adjacent soft tissues may be minimized by skin cooling and using appropriate transducers. Therefore, ultrasound heating may have the potential to reduce neointimal hyperplasia and failure of ePTFE vascular grafts. PMID:22054016

  12. The use of a single daily dose of tadalafil to treat signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gacci, Mauro; Salvi, Matteo; Sebastianelli, Arcangelo; Vignozzi, Linda; Corona, Giovanni; McVary, Kevin T; Kaplan, Steven A; Maggi, Mario; Carini, Marco; Oelke, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    A strong and independent association between lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) and erectile dysfunction (ED) has been widely evidenced in several clinical epidemiologic studies. Preclinical animal models have provided a great deal of information on potential common pathogenic mechanisms underlying these two clinical identities. Although the efficacy of the most commonly used treatments for LUTS/BPH is well defined, the negative impact of these treatments on sexual function - in particular, on ED - has triggered the search for new treatment options. In this regard, a new role for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in the treatment of LUTS/BPH and ED has been claimed. Tadalafil is one of the most extensively investigated phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for this new indication. All evidence reported to date suggests that tadalafil 5 mg once daily is a safe and effective treatment option for both LUTS/BPH and ED. PMID:24400241

  13. The use of a single daily dose of tadalafil to treat signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gacci, Mauro; Salvi, Matteo; Sebastianelli, Arcangelo; Vignozzi, Linda; Corona, Giovanni; McVary, Kevin T; Kaplan, Steven A; Maggi, Mario; Carini, Marco; Oelke, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    A strong and independent association between lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) and erectile dysfunction (ED) has been widely evidenced in several clinical epidemiologic studies. Preclinical animal models have provided a great deal of information on potential common pathogenic mechanisms underlying these two clinical identities. Although the efficacy of the most commonly used treatments for LUTS/BPH is well defined, the negative impact of these treatments on sexual function – in particular, on ED – has triggered the search for new treatment options. In this regard, a new role for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in the treatment of LUTS/BPH and ED has been claimed. Tadalafil is one of the most extensively investigated phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for this new indication. All evidence reported to date suggests that tadalafil 5 mg once daily is a safe and effective treatment option for both LUTS/BPH and ED. PMID:24400241

  14. An Early Study on the Mechanisms that Allow Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts to Resist Intimal Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather L. Prichard; Roberto J. Manson; Louis DiBernardo; Laura E. Niklason; Jeffrey H. Lawson; Shannon L. M. Dahl

    Intimal hyperplasia is one of the prominent failure mechanisms for arteriovenous fistulas and arteriovenous access grafts.\\u000a Human tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) were implanted as arteriovenous grafts in a novel baboon model. Ultrasound\\u000a was used to monitor flow rates and vascular diameters throughout the study. Intimal hyperplasia in the outflow vein of TEVGs\\u000a was assessed at the anastomosis and at juxta-anastomotic

  15. Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesions were focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:24693305

  16. Effects of silodosin and tamsulosin on the urethra and cardiovascular system in young and old dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinya Kobayashi; Yoshitaka Tomiyama; Satoshi Tatemichi; Yuji Hoyano; Mamoru Kobayashi; Yoshinobu Yamazaki

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether the effects (efficacy on the urethra and hypotension) of silodosin (?1A-adrenoceptor antagonist) and tamsulosin (?1A+1D-adrenoceptor antagonist) in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia altered with age. We used young and old dogs, diagnosed as having benign prostatic hyperplasia by veterinarian's palpation. Under anesthesia, the increase in intraurethral pressure evoked by hypogastric nerve stimulation was measured, together with the

  17. Concentration of Dihydrotestosterone and 3?-Androstanediol in Naturally Occurring and Androgen- Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Ronald J.; Gazak, John M.; Quebbeman, James F.; Wilson, Jean D.

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that dihydrotestosterone accumulation in the prostate may be involved in the pathogenesis of prostatic hyperplasia in man and dog. However, the fact that the administration of 10 mg dihydrotestosterone/d to castrated, mongrel dogs (0.5 mg/kg body wt) causes little growth in the prostate, whereas identical doses of 3?- androstanediol regularly induce prostatic hyperplasia (> 14 g weight) has raised the possibility that the dihydrotestosterone accumulation may be the result rather than the cause of the pathology. To investigate the mechanism of this phenomenon, we measured the levels of dihydrotestosterone and 3?-androstanediol in prostates from 75 dogs. In both naturally occurring and 3?-androstanediol-induced prostatic hyperplasia, the levels of dihydrotestosterone were high (>5 ng/g), whereas in immature glands and glands from dihydrotestosterone-treated animals, levels were similar (2.1 and 2.6 ng/g, respectively). 3?-Androstanediol levels were no different in animals treated with dihydrotestosterone or 3?-androstanediol. Therefore, because exogenous 3?-androstanediol is a better precursor of prostatic dihydrotestosterone than exogenous dihydrotestosterone itself, the effects of treatment with larger doses (2.5 mg/kg per d) of dihydrotestosterone and 3?-androstanediol for 12 wk were examined. In these amounts, dihydrotestosterone was as effective as 3?-androstanediol in inducing the development of prostatic hyperplasia and in elevating prostatic dihydrotestosterone concentration. Because dihydrotestosterone accumulates in spontaneous prostatic hyperplasia, because the administration of sufficient amounts of dihydrotestosterone to the castrated dog can induce the development of prostatic hyperplasia, and because 3?-androstanediol induces the development of hyperplasia via conversion to dihydrotestosterone, we conclude that accumulation of dihydrotestosterone is the cause of canine prostatic hyperplasia. Images PMID:90055

  18. Tonsillotomy or tonsillectomy?—a prospective study comparing histological and immunological findings in recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Reichel; Doris Mayr; Jan Winterhoff; Richard de la Chaux; Hjalmar Hagedorn; Alexander Berghaus

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the differences in histological and immunological findings in children with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar\\u000a hyperplasia and assessed the risk for relapsing tonsillar hyperplasia or recurrent tonsillitis after tonsillotomy in a prospective\\u000a clinical study. Sixty-four children with recurrent tonsillitis underwent traditional (total) blunt dissection tonsillectomy\\u000a between October 2003 and July 2004. Partial tonsillectomy (tonsillotomy) using CO2-laser technique was performed

  19. The impact of ankle brachial index and pulse wave velocity on cardiovascular risk according to SCORE and Framingham scales and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Wo?nicka-Le?kiewicz, L; Posadzy-Ma?aczy?ska, A; Juszkat, R

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of ankle brachial index (ABI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in patients with or without coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension (HT) in cardiovascular risk prediction. We studied 200 patients randomized to one of four groups: CAD+HT+; CAD+HT-; CAD-HT+; CAD-HT- (Department of Hypertensiology, Angiology and Internal Diseases, Poznan, Poland: 2009-2012). We evaluated: patient age, lipids profile, ABI and PWV. The cardiovascular risks according to SCORE and Framingham scales were assessed. Statistical calculations were performed in StatSoft Statistica 10. The most interesting aspects of this study were: logistic regression model evaluated the simultaneously influence of ABI and PWV on cardiovascular risk by the SCORE scale and logistic regression model evaluated the influence of ABI and PWV on cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham scale. They showed the possibility (SCORE) of more accurate estimation of cardiovascular risk in an individual patient and graduation of this risk in the exemplary patients. Analysis of the assessment of both: ABI and PWV in predicting of cardiovascular risk according to SCORE and Framingham scales using a logistic regression model indicates that the Framingham scale is less precise than the SCORE scale because it underestimates the real high cardiovascular risk.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 25 September 2014; doi:10.1038/jhh.2014.80. PMID:25252689

  20. Developmental Programming: Impact of Prenatal Testosterone Excess and Postnatal Weight Gain on Insulin Sensitivity Index and Transfer of Traits to Offspring of Overweight Females

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, V.; Veiga-Lopez, A.; Abbott, D. H.; Recabarren, S. E.; Herkimer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women and is exacerbated by obesity. Exposure of ewes to excess testosterone (T) from d 30–90 of gestation culminates in anovulation, functional hyperandrogenism, LH excess, and polyfollicular ovaries, features similar to those of women with PCOS, with some reproductive defects programmed by androgenic actions of T and others not. Excess weight gain during postnatal life increases the severity of these reproductive defects. Prenatal T-treated ewes also manifest reduced insulin sensitivity, a feature found in more than 70% of PCOS women. We tested the hypotheses that reduced insulin sensitivity of prenatal T-treated ewes is programmed by androgenic actions of T, and excess postnatal weight gain exaggerates this defect. In addition, we tested whether disruptive effects of excess weight gain on insulin sensitivity index are transferred to female offspring. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using iv glucose tolerance tests. Results revealed that disruptive effects of prenatal T excess on insulin sensitivity were programmed by androgenic action of T and postnatal overfeeding-impaired insulin sensitivity in both T-treated and controls and that prenatal T-treated sheep tend to manifest such overfeeding impairments earlier than controls. Importantly, offspring of overweight controls also manifest defects in insulin dynamics supportive of intergenerational transfer of obesity-related traits. The findings are of relevance in the context of developmental programming of insulin resistance by prenatal steroids and excess weight gain. PMID:19966179

  1. Journal Information Journal Impact Factor

    E-print Network

    Krejcí, Pavel

    Journal Information Journal Impact Factor 5-Year Journal Impact Factor Journal Self Cites Journal Cites Impact Factor 5-Year Impact Factor Immediacy Index Citable Items Cited Half- life Citing Half Used in Impact Factor Calculation 12 Impact Factor 0.222 Self Cites 16 (6% of 240) Self Cites to Years

  2. Journal Information Journal Impact Factor

    E-print Network

    Krejcí, Pavel

    Journal Information Journal Impact Factor 5-Year Journal Impact Factor Journal Self Cites Journal Mark Journal Title ISSN Total Cites Impact Factor 5-Year Impact Factor Immediacy Index Citable Items Used in Impact Factor Calculation 51 Impact Factor 0.300 Self Cites 39 (4% of 834) Self Cites to Years

  3. Rapatar, a nanoformulation of rapamycin, decreases chemically-induced benign prostate hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Antoshina, Elena E.; Trukhanova, Lubov S.; Gorkova, Tatiana G.; Shipaeva, Elena V.; Salimov, Ramiz M.; Belitsky, Gennady A.; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.; Yakubovskaya, Marianna G.; Chernova, Olga B.

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common age-related disease in men. Here we tested the efficacy of Rapatar, a micellar nanoformulation of rapamycin, in two rat models of BPH: testosterone-induced and sulpiride-induced hyperplasia in ventral lobes and lateral/dorsal lobes, respectively. We found that Rapatar prevented hypertrophic and hyperplastic abnormalities and degenerative alterations in both BPH models. Rapatar normalized weight of the lateral lobes in sulpiride-induced BPH, the most relevant animal model of human BPH. Unlike Finasteride, a standard therapy of BPH, Rapatar reduced inflammation caused by sulpiride. No obvious side effects of Rapatar were detected. Our data provide a rationale for clinical trials of Rapatar in patients suffering from BPH. PMID:25991667

  4. Nitric Oxide and Nanotechnology: A Novel Approach to Inhibit Neointimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Muneera R; Chow, Lesley W; Tsihlis, Nick D; Ahanchi, Sadaf S; Eng, Jason W; Murar, Jozef; Martinez, Janet; Popowich, Daniel A; Jiang, Qun; Hrabie, Joseph A; Saavedra, Joseph E; Keefer, Larry K; Hulvat, James F; Stupp, Samuel I; Kibbe, Melina R

    2008-01-01

    Objective Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia following arterial interventions in several animal models. However, to date NO-based therapies have not been used in the clinical arena. Our objective was to combine nanofiber delivery vehicles with NO chemistry to create a novel, more potent NO-releasing therapy that can be used clinically. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate perivascular application of spontaneously self-assembling NO-releasing nanofiber gels, and our hypothesis was that this application will prevent neointimal hyperplasia. Methods Gels consisted of a peptide amphiphile, heparin, and a diazeniumdiolate NO donor (1-[N-(3-Aminopropyl)-N-(3-ammoniopropyl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate [DPTA/NO] or disodium 1-[(2-Carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate [PROLI/NO]). Nitric oxide release from the gels was evaluated by the Griess reaction, and scanning electron microscopy confirmed nanofiber formation. In vitro, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and cell death were assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation and Guava PCA. For the in vivo work, gels were modified by reducing free water content. Neointimal hyperplasia following peri-adventitial gel application was evaluated using the rat carotid artery injury model at 14 days (n=6 per group). Inflammation and proliferation were examined in vivo with immunofluorescent staining against CD45, ED1 and Ki67 at 3 days (n=2 per group), and graded by blinded observers. Endothelialization was assessed by Evans blue injection at 7 days (n=3 per group). Results Both DPTA/NO and PROLI/NO, in combination with the peptide amphiphile and heparin, formed nanofiber gels and released NO for 4 days. In vitro, DPTA/NO inhibited VSMC proliferation and induced cell death to a greater extent than PROLI/NO. However, the DPTA/NO nanofiber gel only reduced neointimal hyperplasia by 45% (intima/media [I/M] area ratio 0.45±0.07) whereas the PROLI/NO nanofiber gel reduced neointimal hyperplasia by 77% (I/M area ratio 0.19±0.03, P<.05) versus control (injury alone I/M area ratio 0.83±0.07; P<.05). Both DPTA/NO and PROLI/NO nanofiber gels significantly inhibited proliferation in vivo (1.06±0.30, 0.19±0.11 vs injury alone, 2.02±0.20, P<.05), yet had minimal effect on apoptosis. Only the PROLI/NO nanofiber gel inhibited inflammation (monocytes and leukocytes). Both NO-releasing nanofiber gels stimulated re-endothelialization. Conclusions Perivascular application of NO-releasing self-assembling nanofiber gels is an effective and simple therapy to prevent neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury. Our study demonstrates that the PROLI/NO nanofiber gel most effectively prevents neointimal hyperplasia and resulted in less inflammation than the DPTA/NO nanofiber gel. This therapy has great clinical potential to prevent neointimal hyperplasia following open vascular interventions in patients. PMID:18178471

  5. Left ventricular failure due to a rare variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sonal; Muranjan, Mamta N; Lahiri, Keya R

    2012-09-01

    "Hypertensive" variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is rare. The authors describe an interesting case of a 6-y-old boy who presented with an acute respiratory illness and progressive breathlessness since 1 y. Genital hyperpigmentation was noticed since 2 y of age; the onset of pubarche and increasing penile size at 4 y. He was admitted in congestive cardiac failure with a blood pressure of 150/100 mm Hg. Facial acne; slight facial, pubic hair and penile enlargement were additionally noted. Chest radiograph revealed cardiomegaly. Basal ACTH and 17-OHP levels were high. A diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (11?-hydroxylase deficiency) was made due to hypertension with virilized genitalia. Cardiac failure was controlled with fluid restriction and diuretics; he was started on prednisolone, spironolactone and nifedipine. This case is presented for its rarity where hypertension can cause complication of cardiac failure, if diagnosis is delayed despite early features of pseudoprecocious puberty. PMID:22231770

  6. Early hepatocellular carcinoma macroscopically resembling adenomatous hyperplasia: pathological resemblance to carcinoma-in-situ.

    PubMed

    Wakasa, K; Haba, T; Hamada, T; Sasaki, M; Sakurai, M

    1997-01-01

    The pathological features of 11 nodules of early hepatocellular carcinoma (EHCC) were studied. Their macroscopic features resembled those of adenomatous hyperplasia and differed from those of advanced hepatocellular carcinomas (AHCC). The EHCC extended along the hepatic lobular structure and lacked expansive growth. The endothelial cells in the sinusoids of EHCC did not react to Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA1) like adenomatous hyperplasia or other liver parenchyma, whereas the endothelial cells in the AHCC did react to UEA1. Immunohistochemically, CD68-positive Kupffer cells were noted in the sinusoids of EHCC, whereas in the AHCC Kupffer cells were not seen. Tumor emboli in the portal vein and intrahepatic metastases were not identified in EHCC, which seemed to be carcinoma-in-situ or a microinvasive stage of hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:9051692

  7. Prostatic urethral lift: A minimally invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Cindy; Chin, Peter; Rashid, Prem; Woo, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The procedure may be performed under local, spinal, or general anesthesia. The PUL procedure involves the delivery of implants that retract obstructing prostate lobes. Unlike other benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment options including pharmacological therapy, and the current invasive gold-standard transurethral resection of the prostate, the PUL procedure achieves quantifiable improvements in functional outcomes and quality of life, in the absence of major adverse events. Furthermore, improvement in LUTS may be attained while preserving erectile and ejaculatory function. Adverse effects associated with the PUL procedure are mild to moderate, and are transient in nature. The PUL procedure provides an alternative for men seeking treatment for bothersome LUTS, with fewer side-effects. PMID:26157759

  8. Transarterial embolization as a therapeutic option for focal nodular hyperplasia in four patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Vogl; Ahmed Own; Renate Hammerstingl; Petra Reichel; Jörn O. Balzer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of transarterial embolization (TAE) for the treatment of focal nodular\\u000a hyperplasia (FNH). Four women with the diagnosis of FNH underwent superselective transarterial embolization with contour particles\\u000a between 2001 and 2004. The indications were progressive increase in size in three of the patients and abdominal pain in the\\u000a fourth patient. No

  9. Study of Three Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Treated by Bilateral Adrenalectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonja A. Warinner; Donald Zimmerman; Geoffrey B. Thompson; Clive S. Grant

    2000-01-01

    .   Medical management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients has led to suboptimal results in most cases. High glucocorticoid\\u000a doses, often needed to suppress adrenal androgen production, may lead to signs of Cushing syndrome. Incompletely suppressed\\u000a androgen levels commonly lead to premature closure of growth centers, acne, virilization, precocious puberty, irregular or\\u000a absent menses, and decreased fertility in female CAH

  10. Nodular Leydig cell hyperplasia in a boy with familial male-limited precocious puberty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Werber Leschek; Wai-Yee Chan; David A. Diamond; Martin Kaefer; Janet Jones; Kevin M. Barnes; Gordon B. Cutler

    2001-01-01

    In boys with familial male-limited precocious puberty, an activating mutation of the luteinizing hormone receptor causes Leydig cell hyperplasia, resulting in excess testosterone production. There are no reports of Leydig cell masses in boys with familial male-limited precocious puberty. We describe a 10-year-old boy with familial male-limited precocious puberty who developed Leydig cell nodules. (J Pediatr 2001;138:949-51)

  11. Neonatal Coronoid Hyperplasia: A Report of a Case and Concepts to Promote Early Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wallender, Aaron; Ahson, Imran; Steinberg, Barry

    2015-08-01

    Limited mouth opening in the neonatal patient is primarily caused by either soft tissue or hard tissue pathologic features. Differentiation between the two can usually be elicited by physical examination with the patient under anesthesia. Limited opening from soft tissue pathologic features can be increased with stretching. In contrast, osseous pathologic features will produce an anatomic stop. Syndromic cases with hard tissue pathologic features are primarily due to coronoid hyperplasia. Our aims are to help clinicians evaluate and identify mandibular hypomobility in the pediatric patient resulting from coronoid hyperplasia and to promote early treatment to improve long-term oral function. We present the case of a 2-month-old male who was born premature at 30 weeks by emergency cesarean section. Examination revealed multiple anomalies, including significant trismus with a maximal opening of 4 mm. A computed tomography scan revealed significant bilateral coronoid hyperplasia. At the age of 90 days, the patient underwent bilateral coronoidectomies with endoscopic guidance under general anesthesia. After resection, the patient was able to open his mouth to 25 mm. This opening was maintained with postoperative physiotherapy. Clinical problems can arise from the potential sequelae of neonatal trismus. Acutely, these problems can range from feeding difficulty and potential malnutrition to aspiration and emergent airway compromise. Long-term consequences include growth restrictions because of malnutrition, speech delay, muscle contracture and atrophy, facial asymmetry, and the risk of infection owing to poor oral hygiene. Information is limited about neonatal treatment of condylar hyperplasia in the published data. Treatment tends to be delayed owing to a late diagnosis and referral, and patients are prone to developing relapse. Postoperative physical therapy will help to prevent relapse and allows for maintenance of the improved jaw range of motion. PMID:25865712

  12. A case with combined rare inborn metabolic disorders: congenital adrenal hyperplasia and ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo-Mi; Lee, Beom Hee; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Lim, Han Hyuk; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2013-09-15

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common urea cycle disorder and demonstrates X-linked inheritance. In female OTC deficiency, phenotypes are variable according to X-inactivation patterns. These disorders develop separately, and their co-morbidity is extremely rare. We report one girl with CAH showing recurrent hyperammonemia and hepatitis after 2 years-of-age due to additional OTC deficiency. PMID:23769969

  13. Gender Development in Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia as a Function of Disorder Severity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg; Curtis Dolezal; Susan W. Baker; Anke A. Ehrhardt; Maria I. New

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal-onset classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in 46,XX individuals is associated with variable masculinization\\/defeminization\\u000a of the genitalia and of behavior, presumably both due to excess prenatal androgen production. The purpose of the current study\\u000a was threefold: (1) to extend the gender-behavioral investigation to the mildest subtype of 46,XX CAH, the non-classical (NC)\\u000a variant, (2) to replicate previous findings on moderate

  14. Stent Coating With Titanium-Nitride-Oxide for Reduction of Neointimal Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Windecker; Isabella Mayer; Gabriella De Pasquale; Willibald Maier; Olaf Dirsch; Philip De Groot; Ya-Ping Wu; Georg Noll; Boris Leskosek

    Background—Coronary stents prevent constrictive arterial remodeling but stimulate neointimal hyperplasia. Stainless steel induces a metallic foreign body reaction, which is absent for titanium. The hypothesis of the present study was that titanium renders the stent surface biologically inert, with reduced platelet and fibrinogen binding. Methods and Results—Twelve pigs were instrumented with a stainless steel and 2 titanium-nitride-oxide- coated stents (TiNOX

  15. Laser Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Patients on Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Berger; Gregoire Robert; Aurelien Descazeaud

    2010-01-01

    Because the number of patients requiring oral anticoagulation (OA) is steadily growing, more and more patients requiring surgical\\u000a treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are on OA. Laser treatment of BPH was said to offer a higher quality of hemostasis\\u000a than transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Thus, laser was considered an interesting tool for BPH surgery in patients\\u000a on

  16. Alpha adrenergic blockers in the treatment of benign hyperplasia of the prostate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. L. Kumar; S. Dewan

    2000-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common benign tumor in men has been attributed to age and male androgen functions. Of\\u000a the various management options for treatment of BPH, medical therapy is the first line treatment modality involving either\\u000a blockade of alpha adrenergic receptors or inhibition of 5-alpha reductase. Amongst these, the alpha-1 blockers are used most\\u000a frequently. The association of

  17. Clinical significance of ? 1 -adrenoceptor selectivity in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Pool; Roger S. Kirby

    2001-01-01

    Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists have beenshown to provide effective relief from symptomsof benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) withattendant improvements in quality of life.Although the a1A-adrenoceptorsubtype predominates over other subtypes ofa1 adrenoceptors in the prostategland, there is no evidence that a subselectivea-adrenoceptor antagonist provides aclinical advantage over a selectivea1-adrenoceptor antagonist in thetreatment of patients with BPH. Thepharmacokinetic profiles ofa1A-adrenoceptorantagonists and their documented penetration ofthe

  18. Use of prostatic stents for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in high-risk patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Lam; Michael A. Volpe; Steven A. Kaplan

    2001-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a frequent disease in men and a major cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).\\u000a Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or open surgery remains the gold standard of treatment for symptomatic BPH.\\u000a However, 10% to 15% of patients with BPH cannot undergo surgery due to grave concomitant diseases. For patients presenting\\u000a with contraindications to

  19. Effects of doxazosin in patients with mild, intermediate, and severe benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Mobley; Norma Dias; Marcia Levenstein

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, drug therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been reserved for patients with mild or moderate symptoms. The objective of this analysis was to compare responses to an alpha1-adrenergic receptor blocker, doxazosin, in patients with severe, intermediate, and mild disease. Data were analyzed from patients with symptomatic BPH who were enrolled in two 16-week, double-masked, placebo-controlled studies of doxazosin.

  20. Hormonal treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: Pros and cons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert J. Wise; Edward Ostad

    2001-01-01

    The recognition that dihydrotestosterone is a “major player” in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) provided\\u000a an impetus for the development of a 5a-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. During the past 5 years, a number of publications\\u000a have noted that alpha blockers appear more efficacious than finasteride. This article reviews the role of hormones (particularly\\u000a finasteride) in the treatment of lower

  1. Morning vs evening dosing with doxazosin in benign prostatic hyperplasia: efficacy and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RS Kirby; CR Chapple; K Sethia; M Flannigan; EJG Milroy; P Abrams

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty-three patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomized to doxazosin or placebo, with morning or evening dosing, to compare the effect of dosing time on the efficacy and safety of doxazosin treatment. After 24 weeks of treatment, the mean International Prostate Symptom Score had decreased by 6.8 units in the doxazosin group compared with 4.5 units

  2. Storage (Irritative) and Voiding (Obstructive) Symptoms as Predictors of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Progression and Related Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claus G Roehrborn; John D McConnell; Brian Saltzman; Donald Bergner; Todd Gray; Perinchery Narayan; Thomas J Cook; Amy O Johnson-Levonas; Wilson A Quezada; Joanne Waldstreicher

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the utility of voiding and filling symptom subscores in predicting features of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) progression, including acute urinary retention (AUR) and prostate surgery.Methods: The Proscar Long-term Efficacy and Safety Study (PLESS) was a 4-year study designed to evaluate the effects of finasteride versus placebo in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), clinical evidence of

  3. Case study: Transitional care for a patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia and recurrent urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Bradway, Christine; Bixby, M Brian; Hirschman, Karen B; McCauley, Kathleen; Naylor, Mary D

    2013-01-01

    Chronic urologic conditions, including benign prostatic hyperplasia, recurrent urinary tract infections, and urinary incontinence, are common in older adults. This article highlights the urologic and transitional care needs of an elderly, cognitively impaired male during and after an acute hospitalization. Collaboration between the patient, his family, the advanced practice nurse, primary care providers, and outpatient urology office are described. The importance of mutual goal setting and a focused plan for transitional care are discussed. PMID:24079115

  4. In vitro gene amplification for prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Rumsby, G; Honour, J W

    1990-01-01

    A simple, rapid, non-radioactive method for detecting homozygous deletions/conversions of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene is described. In our experience this method will be useful for first trimester prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 17% of families of a child with the salt losing form. This test includes an internal control to monitor the success of amplification. Images PMID:2277381

  5. Testicular adrenal rest tumours in postpubertal males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: sonographic and MR features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nike M. M. L. Stikkelbroeck; Harold M. Suliman; Barto J. Otten; Ad R. M. M. Hermus; Johan G. Blickman; Gerrit J. Jager

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of testicular adrenal rest tumours in patients with congenital\\u000a adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and to describe sonographic and MR features of these lesions. Seventeen postpubertal male CAH patients\\u000a underwent scrotal sonography, with colour Doppler, and in 16 of them pre- and postcontrast enhanced T1- and T2-weighted MR\\u000a images of the testes

  6. Benign prostatic hyperplasia evaluation, association with sexual dysfunction, treatment, and practice patterns according to physician specialty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boback M. Berookhim; Matthew L. Steinway; Natan Bar-Chama; Allen D. Seftel

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated a significant link between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and sexual dysfunction (SD). Patients\\u000a presenting with lower urinary tracts symptoms (LUTS) secondary to BPH should also be evaluated for comorbid SD, especially\\u000a given the increasing basic science evidence demonstrating a common pathway for these two conditions. Therapy for BPH may exacerbate\\u000a SD and should be selected carefully,

  7. Genetic linkage studies between congenital adrenal hyperplasia and the HLA blood group system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Grosse-Wilde; Jochen Weil; Ekkehard Albert; Siegfried Scholz; Frank Bidlingmaier; Wolfgang G. Sippel; Dietrich Knorr

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen families with one or two children suffering from congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were not only typed for their HLA-A,B, and D antigens but also tested biochemically forCAH heterozygosity after ACTH stimulation. The lod score analysis showed a close genetic linkage betweenCAH andHLA, indicating that theC-21-hydroxylase deficiency gene(s) causing CAH in the homozygous deficient state are-located in close proximity to

  8. Antidepression medication improves quality of life in elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and depression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lina; Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Huizhen; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Wei; Qian, Yuying; Wang, Jieyu; Feng, Ming; Li, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We aim to explore the influence of an antidepression medication on symptom scores and quality of life in elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia accompanied by depression. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial which included 94 elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia accompanied by depression in Xuan Wu Hospital and Beijing Boai Hospital during August 2008 to May 2012. The study was designed to compare outcomes related to patient quality of life (QoL). The patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, consisting of a control group (n = 47) and a therapy group (n = 47), and were followed up for 3 months. The pre-treatment and post-treatment changes among patients in the two groups were compared using their respective IPSS symptom scores, HAM-D scores, and scores on the Short Form 36 Health Survey. Following treatment, the patient IPSS symptom scores in the therapy group were significantly lower than those in the control group (10.74 ± 4.72 vs. 16.42 ± 8.09, respectively; t = 4.157, P < 0.05). Additionally, each measured dimension of QoL was significantly higher in the therapy group [total score (69.12 ± 3.92) vs. (61.30 ± 3.51), P < 0.05]. The results show antidepression medication can improve the symptoms and quality of life among elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia accompanied by depression. Our findings suggest that an antidepression medication should be included when treating elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  9. Islet cell hyperplasia in transgenic mice overexpressing EAT\\/mcl-1, a bcl-2 related gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Matsushita; Hajime Okita; Atsushi Suzuki; Kouji Shimoda; Mariko Fukuma; Taketo Yamada; Fumihiko Urano; Takahiro Honda; Makoto Sano; Shiro Iwanaga; Satoshi Ogawa; Jun-ichi Hata; Akihiro Umezawa

    2003-01-01

    EAT\\/mcl-1 (EAT), a bcl-2 related anti-apoptotic gene, is up-regulated at the early stage of differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells; cells which serve as a model for early embryogenesis. We generated transgenic mice for the human EAT gene driven by the EF1? promoter in order to elucidate its functional role in vivo. Histologically, these mice exhibited hyperplasia of Langerhans islet

  10. development index (HDI)

    E-print Network

    HDI rank a Human development index (HDI) value Life expectancy at birth (years) Adult literacy rate per capita (PPP US$) Life expectancy index Education index GDP index GDP per capita (PPP US$) rank development index (HDI) value Life expectancy at birth (years) Adult literacy rate (% aged 15 and above) Com

  11. Impacts of including forest understory brightness and foliage clumping information from multiangular measurements on leaf area index mapping over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisek, Jan; Chen, Jing M.; Alikas, Krista; Deng, Feng

    2010-09-01

    A new leaf area index (LAI) data set in 10 day intervals with consideration of the understory reflectance and foliage clumping effects over North America for 1 year is developed. The data set brings effectively together measurements from multiple sensors with complementary capabilities (SPOT-VEGETATION, Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, POLDER). First, the temporal consistency analysis indicated the new product is on par with other available LAI data sets currently used by the community. Second, with the removal of the background (understory in forests, moss, litter, and soil) effect on the forest overstory LAI retrieval, slightly different LAI reductions were found between needleleaf and broadleaf forests. This is caused by the more clumped nature of needleleaf forests, especially at higher LAI values, which allows more light to penetrate through the overstory canopy, making the understory more visible for equal LAI as compared to broadleaf forests. This is found over a representative set of 105 CEOS Benchmark Land Multisite Analysis and Intercomparison of Products sites in North America used for indirect validation. Third, the data set was directly validated and compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Collection 5 LAI product using results from the BigFoot project for available forest test sites. This study demonstrates that the fusion of data inputs between multiple sensors can indeed lead to improved products and that multiangle remote sensing can help us to address effectively the issues (separating the signal from the understory and overstory, foliage clumping) that could not be solved via the means of the conventional mono-angle remote sensing.

  12. Offshore wind farms as productive sites or ecological traps for gadoid fishes?--impact on growth, condition index and diet composition.

    PubMed

    Reubens, Jan T; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Zenner, Annemie N; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2013-09-01

    With the construction of wind farms all across the North Sea, numerous artificial reefs are created. These windmill artificial reefs (WARs) harbour high abundances of fish species which can be attracted from elsewhere or can be the result of extra production induced by these wind farms. To resolve the attraction-production debate in suddenly altered ecosystems (cf. wind farms), the possible consequences of attraction should be assessed; thereby bearing in mind that ecological traps may arise. In this paper we investigated whether the wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea act as ecological traps for pouting and Atlantic cod. Length-at-age, condition and diet composition of fish present at the windmill artificial reefs was compared to local and regional sandy areas. Fish data from the period 2009-2012 were evaluated. Mainly I- and II-group Atlantic cod were present around the WARs; while the 0- and I-group dominated for pouting. For Atlantic cod, no differences in length were observed between sites, indicating that fitness was comparable at the WARs and in sandy areas. No significant differences in condition index were observed for pouting. At the WARs, they were slightly larger and stomach fullness was enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. Also diet differed considerably among the sites. The outcome of the proxies indicate that fitness of pouting was slightly enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. No evidence was obtained supporting the hypothesis that the WARs act as an ecological trap for Atlantic cod and pouting. PMID:23800713

  13. Myoid hamartoma of the breast with focal chondromyoxid metaplasia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SU, CHIN-CHENG; CHEN, CHIH-JUNG; KUO, SHOU-JEN; CHEN, DAR-REN

    2015-01-01

    Hamartomas of the breast, also known as fibroadenolipomas, lipofibroadenomas or adenolipomas, are benign lesions. Hamartomas account for between 0.04 and 1.15% of all benign breast tumors in females. Myoid hamartoma of the breast (MHB) is extremely rare. The present study describes a case of MHB in a 44-year-old female. Screening mammography revealed a lobulated partial indistinct isodense mass measuring ~3.8 cm in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Sonographic examinations revealed a 2–3-cm mass in the left breast, which was fairly well circumbscribed and demonstrated complex scattered echogenic areas and isoechoic tissue. A core needle biopsy demonstrated fibrocystic changes, with small focal ductule aggregations. As malignancy could not be excluded, a partial mastectomy was performed using a circumareolar incision. The mass was histopathologically diagnosed as MHB with focal chondromyoxid metaplasia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. The histological diagnosis was based upon the findings of the well-circumscribed tumor, which was composed of entrapped mammary ducts, fat cells and myoid stromal components, with focal chondromyxoid metaplasia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. The tumor cells exhibited diffuse cluster of differentiation 34-positive immunoreactivity, which was consistent with a diagnosis of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. PMID:25789043

  14. Leoligin, the major lignan from Edelweiss, inhibits intimal hyperplasia of venous bypass grafts

    PubMed Central

    Reisinger, Ute; Schwaiger, Stefan; Zeller, Iris; Messner, Barbara; Stigler, Robert; Wiedemann, Dominik; Mayr, Tobias; Seger, Christoph; Schachner, Thomas; Dirsch, Verena M.; Vollmar, Angelika M.; Bonatti, Johannes O.; Stuppner, Hermann; Laufer, Günther; Bernhard, David

    2009-01-01

    Aims Despite the lower patency of venous compared with arterial coronary artery bypass grafts, ?50% of grafts used are saphenous vein conduits because of their easier accessibility. In a search for ways to increase venous graft patency, we applied the results of a previous pharmacological study screening for non-toxic compounds that inhibit intimal hyperplasia of saphenous vein conduits in organ cultures. Here we analyse the effects and mechanism of action of leoligin [(2S,3R,4R)-4-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran-3-yl]methyl (2Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoat, the major lignan from Edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum Cass.). Methods and results We found that leoligin potently inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G1-phase. Leoligin induced cell death neither in SMCs nor, more importantly, in endothelial cells. In a human saphenous vein organ culture model for graft disease, leoligin potently inhibited intimal hyperplasia, and even reversed graft disease in pre-damaged vessels. Furthermore, in an in vivo mouse model for venous bypass graft disease, leoligin potently inhibited intimal hyperplasia. Conclusion Our data suggest that leoligin might represent a novel non-toxic, non-thrombogenic, endothelial integrity preserving candidate drug for the treatment of vein graft disease. PMID:19228707

  15. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in the gastrointestinal tract in adult patients: A review.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Andreia

    2014-11-16

    Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract is characterized by the presence of multiple small nodules, normally between between 2 and 10 mm in diameter, distributed along the small intestine (more often), stomach, large intestine, or rectum. The pathogenesis is largely unknown. It can occur in all age groups, but primarily in children and can affect adults with or without immunodeficiency. Some patients have an associated disease, namely, common variable immunodeficiency, selective IgA deficiency, Giardia infection, or, more rarely, human immunodeficiency virus infection, celiac disease, or Helicobacter pylori infection. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia generally presents as an asymptomatic disease, but it may cause gastrointestinal symptoms like abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, bleeding or intestinal obstruction. A diagnosis is made at endoscopy or contrast barium studies and should be confirmed by histology. Its histological characteristics include markedly hyperplasic, mitotically active germinal centers and well-defined lymphocyte mantles found in the lamina propria and/or in the superficial submucosa, distributed in a diffuse or focal form. Treatment is directed towards associated conditions because the disorder itself generally requires no intervention. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is a risk factor for both intestinal and, very rarely, extraintestinal lymphoma. Some authors recommend surveillance, however, the duration and intervals are undefined. PMID:25400867

  16. Induction by cholera toxin of synchronous divisions in vivo in the epidermis resulting in hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Kuroki, T

    1981-01-01

    Intracutaneous injection of cholera toxin, exotoxin of Vibrio cholerae, into the dorsal skin of mice, rats, and hamsters at doses of greater than 0.1 ng evoked an acute reaction at the site of injection, which was characterized histologically by an edematous reaction in the dermis and mitotic stimulation in the epidermis. Mitotic and labeling induces of basal cells of the mouse epidermis showed two peaks at 24 and 48 hr after injection, thereby producing epidermal hyperplasia. The thickness of the intrafollicular epidermis increased progressively from 32 hr after toxin injection, being greatest on day 4 and decreasing to normal on day 7. The epidermis on day 4 after injection of 1.0 ng of toxin was about 4- to 6-fold thicker than normal or phosphate buffer-treated control skin. This sequence of events indicated that cholera toxin induced two successive synchronous divisions of the epidermal cells and produced temporary hyperplasia without interfering with epidermal differentiation. The complete structure and function of the cholera toxin are required for induction of epidermal hyperplasia: no mitotic stimulation was induced by injection of the A and B units of the cholera toxin molecule or by preincubation of the toxin with anti-cholera toxin antibody and with the membrane receptor, GM1 ganglioside. Five other agents known to increase the level of intracellular cyclic AMP by different means (dibutyryl cyclic AMP, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, theophylline, isoproterenol, and prostaglandin E1) did not produce a skin reaction. Images PMID:6171825

  17. Suitable reference genes for the analysis of direct hyperplasia in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Soichi [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Ohashi, Kazuo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)], E-mail: ohashi@abmes.twmu.ac.jp; Utoh, Rie [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Tatsumi, Kohei; Shima, Midori [Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan); Okano, Teruo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)

    2008-12-26

    The liver is capable of undergoing a proliferative growth, known as direct hyperplasia, in which the naive liver increases in size due to stimulation with primary mitogens. To produce accurate gene expression data, housekeeping genes (HKGs) that are stably expressed need to be determined. In the present study, liver regeneration was promoted via the direct hyperplasia mode by inducing mice with 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene. Gene expression levels of nine commonly used HKGs were analyzed in the liver of different timing during the regeneration. The stability of gene expression was assessed using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder. Using these analyses, we identified that PPIA and RPL4 showed the most stable expression regardless of the status of the liver regeneration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the use of PPIA and RPL4 were the most optimal in providing reliable normalization of gene expression when assessing liver regeneration attributed to direct hyperplasia.

  18. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: results of treatment and options in management.

    PubMed Central

    Pain, J A; Gimson, A E; Williams, R; Howard, E R

    1991-01-01

    Twenty two patients (19 females) with focal nodular hyperplasia were seen between 1973 and 1989. Five were children, and all the adults were aged under 42 years (median 33 years). Fourteen patients (64%) were symptomatic on presentation. Twelve of the 14 adult women had taken the oral contraceptive pill. Twelve patients, nine of whom were symptomatic, underwent hepatic resection shortly after presentation. There were no deaths or major complications, and all remain well on follow up. Four patients underwent either hepatic artery embolisation or ligation. After an interval of six to 10 years they were asymptomatic and only one has histological evidence of residual focal nodular hyperplasia. Of five patients initially treated conservatively, two were asymptomatic and have remained so for three and 13 years. One of the three symptomatic patients became symptom free after stopping the contraceptive pill. The management of focal nodular hyperplasia requires a flexible approach. Lesions which are asymptomatic can be observed with regular ultrasound and treated if they enlarge or become symptomatic. Symptomatic patients who present while taking the contraceptive pill can also have a trial of conservative treatment. Other symptomatic patients, including those who previously took the pill, are best treated by surgical resection, and, where this is not possible, by embolisation. PMID:2040476

  19. Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast with associated atypical lobular hyperplasia: a previously unrecognized association with management implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Huo, Lei; Arribas, Elsa; Middleton, Lavinia P

    2015-02-01

    Adenomyoepitheliomas of breast are rare tumors. We report for the first time a case of an adenomyoepithelioma of the breast with associated lobular neoplasia. A 53-year-old woman had an annual screening mammogram, which identified areas of asymmetry in her left breast at 4-5-o'clock position. Resection of the masses revealed a well-circumscribed, gray-white, firm discrete nodule (0.8 × 0.4 × 0.3 cm). The tumor was composed of both adenomyoepithelial cell hyperplasia and focal atypical lobular hyperplasia. The 2 cell populations had some overlapping histologic features. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a biphasic proliferation with approximately equal parts of luminal epithelial cells with clear and rounded appearance and myoepithelial cells. The myoepithelial component of the proliferation expressed myosin, p63, CK5/6, S-100, and dimly expressed E-cadherin. The epithelial component of the proliferation strongly expressed E-cadherin. In the areas of atypical lobular hyperplasia, there was distinct loss E-cadherin expression. Awareness of this association is highly important to provide these patients adequate follow-up and treatment. PMID:25631879

  20. Ovarian Leydig Cell Hyperplasia: An Unusual Case of Virilization in a Postmenopausal Woman

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Jaya M.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Cannon, Anthony J.; Mardekian, Stacey K.; Kenyon, Lawrence C.; Jabbour, Serge A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To report an unusual case of ovarian Leydig cell hyperplasia resulting in virilization in a postmenopausal woman. Methods. Patient's medical history and pertinent literature were reviewed. Results. A 64-year-old woman presented with virilization with worsening hirsutism, deepening of her voice, male musculature, and male pattern alopecia. Her pertinent past medical history included type 1 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Her pertinent past surgical history included hysterectomy due to fibroids. On further work-up, her serum total testosterone was 506?ng/dL (nl range: 2–45) and free testosterone was 40?pg/mL (nl range: 0.1–6.4). After ruling out adrenal causes, the patient underwent an empiric bilateral oophorectomy that showed Leydig cell hyperplasia on pathology. Six weeks postoperatively, serum testosterone was undetectable with significant clinical improvement. Conclusion. Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism can be the result of numerous etiologies ranging from normal physiologic changes to ovarian or rarely adrenal tumors. Our patient was found to have Leydig cell hyperplasia of her ovaries, a rarely reported cause of virilization. PMID:25045549

  1. A Novel Approach against Vascular Intimal Hyperplasia Through the Suppression of Girdin

    PubMed Central

    Miyachi, Hiroki; Takahashi, Masahide

    2015-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is an impediment to patency in both arteries after percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) and veingraft. It is well known that migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) influence the vascular remodeling process, there are no therapies to prevent intimal hyperplasia of post-PTA arteries and vein grafts. Girdin (girders of actin filaments), also known as G?-interacting vesicle associated protein (GIV) is a novel actin-binding Akt substrate.Girdin is highly expressed in limited types of cells such as smooth muscle cells, neuroblasts, and cancer cells. Girdin is involved in the cell migration, proliferation and remodeling of actin filaments. This study revealed that Girdin is involved with intimal hyperplasia in carotid arteries after balloon injury and vein grafts and vascular SMCs migration and proliferation. There are suggestions that Girdin has pivotal roles in migration and proliferation of vascular SMCs and that gene therapy targeting Girdin could be a novel therapeutic strategy for restenosis after PTA and vein graft failure.

  2. Inhibitory effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    YANG, BI-CHENG; JIN, LI-LI; YANG, YI-FANG; LI, KUN; PENG, DAN-MING

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. Rape pollen is an apicultural product that is composed of nutritionally valuable and biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract (SFE-CO2) in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in the experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone for a period of 30 days. Rape pollen SFE-CO2 was administered daily by oral gavage concurrently with the testosterone injections. Animals were sacrificed at the scheduled termination and the prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5?-reductase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were also measured. BPH-induced animals exhibited an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone, DHT, 5?-reductase and COX-2 expression levels. However, rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment resulted in significant reductions in the prostate index and testosterone, DHT, 5?-reductase and COX-2 levels compared with those in BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also demonstrated that rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment suppressed testosterone-induced BPH. These observations indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 inhibits the development of BPH in rats and these effects are closely associated with reductions in DHT, 5?-reductase and COX-2 levels. Therefore, the results of the present study clearly indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 extract may be a useful agent in BPH treatment. PMID:24944593

  3. Combined tadalafil and ?-blocker therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with erectile dysfunction: a multicenter, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Yong; Park, Sung Yul; Jeong, Tae Yoong; Moon, Hong Sang; Kim, Yong Tae; Yoo, Tag Keun; Choi, Hong Yong; Park, Hae Young; Lee, Seung Wook

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated the safety of tadalafil 5 mg taken once a day in terms of hypotensive side effects and whether it improves lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and restores sexual function in patients with erectile dysfunction who are receiving concomitant ?-blocker (AB) therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A total of 158 LUTS/BPH patients receiving AB therapy for ?3 months were given tadalafil 5 mg once a day. Before treatment with tadalafil (V1), and 4 weeks (V2) and 12 weeks (V3) after starting tadalafil, blood pressure, heart rate, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximal urine flow rate (Qmax), postvoiding residual urine volume, and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) score were measured. Of the 158 LUTS/BPH patients, a total of 119 completed the trial. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate did not change. IPSS and IIEF-5 scores improved significantly, but Qmax and postvoiding residual urine volume did not; however, in the 39 men with a low baseline Qmax (?10 mL/s), Qmax rose significantly from 7.97 ± 1.44 mL/s (baseline) to 8.91 ± 1.60 mL/s (V3; P = .012). The remaining patients (baseline Qmax >10 mL/s) did not change. At V2 and V3, adverse side effects were observed in 10 men (7.30%) and 6 men (5.04%), respectively. Facial flushing was the most common adverse side effect (6 men at V2 and 4 men at V3), followed by headache (2 men each at V2 and V3) and dizziness (2 men at V2). Two patients dropped out of the study because of adverse side effects. In conclusion, tadalafil 5 mg once a day in combination with AB appeared to have few adverse effects on hypotensive events and can improve LUTS and restore sexual function. PMID:21868753

  4. Peripheral mononuclear leukocyte DNA damage, plasma prolidase activity, and oxidative status in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gecit, Ilhan; Meral, Ismail; Aslan, Mehmet; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Celik, Hakim; Task?n, Abdullah; Kaba, Mehmet; Pirincci, Necip; Gunes, Mustafa; Taken, Kerem; Demir, Halit; Uyuklu, Mehmet; Ceylan, Kadir

    2015-07-01

    Objectives Prolidase plays a major role in collagen turnover, matrix remodeling, and cell growth. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may be associated with an increased extracellular matrix deposition. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the plasma prolidase activity, oxidative status, and peripheral mononuclear leukocyte DNA damage in patients with BPH. Patients and methods Twenty-six male patients with BPH and 24 healthy male subjects were included in this study. Blood samples were collected from antecubital vein after an overnight fasting period, and the plasma was separated. Plasma prolidase activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined. The peripheral lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage was determined using an alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay). Results The plasma prolidase activity, TOS levels, OSI values, and peripheral mononuclear leukocyte DNA damage were significantly higher (P < 0.001), while the TAC levels were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in patients with BPH than controls. In BPH patients, the prolidase activity was significantly associated with TAC levels (r = -0.366, P < 0.05), TOS levels (r = 0.573, P < 0.001), and OSI (r = 0.618, P < 0.001) and peripheral mononuclear leukocyte DNA damage (r = 0.461, P < 0.001). Conclusions Our results showed that BPH might be associated with an increased oxidative stress, and also an increased plasma prolidase activity. Increased prolidase activity might play an important role in the etiopathogenesis and/or progression of BPH. PMID:25551736

  5. Rare and severe complications of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We report the case of a patient with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency who presented with unusual anatomical and biochemical features, namely massively enlarged adrenal glands, adrenogenital rest tissue and an unexpected endocrine profile. The contribution of the adrenocortical cells in the adrenals and testicles was determined by a cosyntropin stimulation test before and after adrenalectomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of such a case in the literature. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to the emergency room with an Addisonian crisis. He had been diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the neonatal period. He acknowledged poor adherence to treatment and irregular medical assistance. Physical examination revealed marked cutaneous and gingival hyperpigmentation, hypotension, and hard nodules in the upper pole of both testicles. Blood analysis showed mild anemia and hyponatremia and no evidence of acute infection. Endocrine evaluation showed very low cortisol levels, low dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate and elevated corticotropin, 11-deoxycortisol and delta-4-androstenedione. The concentration of 17-hydroxyprogesterone was 20,400ng/dL. After the cosyntropin stimulation test the pattern was similar and there was no significant increase in cortisol or 17-hydroxyprogesterone. The abdominal computed tomography scan revealed grossly enlarged and heterogeneous adrenal glands (left, 12cm; and right, six cm). A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed and pathologic examination revealed adrenal myelolipomas with nodular cortical hyperplasia. The sonogram showed bilateral heterogeneous masses on the upper pole of both testes which corresponded to the nodular hyperplasia of adrenal rest tissues. The genetic study revealed compound heterozigoty (mutations R124H and R356W), suggestive of a phenotypically moderate disease. We performed a cosyntropin stimulation test after adrenalectomy. The steroidogenic profile displayed the same unusual features, indicating an important contribution from the adrenogenital cells. Conclusion This case illustrates that congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency can progress to severe acute and chronic complications. The masses in the patient’s adrenal glands and testicles resulted from chronically elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone and growth of adrenocortical cells. The basal and stimulated steroid profile, before and after adrenalectomy, revealed an unexpected pattern, suggesting significant contribution of the testicular adrenal cells to the steroidogenesis. PMID:23388220

  6. September Consumer Price Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Missner, Emily D.

    On Tuesday October 19, 1999, the US Department of Labor released its September 1999 Consumer Price Index (CPI), which showed a rise of 0.4 percent, the third monthly rise in a row. Wall Street breathed a sigh of relief at the news of the report as recent anxiety over the rising CPI and the threat of interest rates had sent the Nasdaq plunging. Tuesday, after the release of the report, stocks jumped over 200 points. The higher prices of tobacco and apparel boosted the CPI, and industries such as transportation, food, and lodging also showed the effects of inflation. The following nine resources include news briefs, commentary, and documents examining the impact of the September CPI as well as some of the unease about the US economy and inflation.

  7. Impact of a nurse-directed, coordinated school health program to enhance physical activity behaviors and reduce body mass index among minority children: A parallel-group, randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kynna; Giger, Joyce Newman; Norris, Keth; Suro, Zulma

    2013-01-01

    Background Underserved children, particularly girls and those in urban communities, do not meet the recommended physical activity guidelines (>60 min of daily physical activity), and this behavior can lead to obesity. The school years are known to be a critical period in the life course for shaping attitudes and behaviors. Children look to schools for much of their access to physical activity. Thus, through the provision of appropriate physical activity programs, schools have the power to influence apt physical activity choices, especially for underserved children where disparities in obesity-related outcomes exist. Objectives To evaluate the impact of a nurse directed, coordinated, culturally sensitive, school-based, family-centered lifestyle program on activity behaviors and body mass index. Design, settings and participants: This was a parallel group, randomized controlled trial utilizing a community-based participatory research approach, through a partnership with a University and 5 community schools. Participants included 251 children ages 8–12 from elementary schools in urban, low-income neighborhoods in Los Angeles, USA. Methods The intervention included Kids N Fitness©, a 6-week program which met weekly to provide 45 min of structured physical activity and a 45 min nutrition education class for parents and children. Intervention sites also participated in school-wide wellness activities, including health and counseling services, staff professional development in health promotion, parental education newsletters, and wellness policies for the provision of healthy foods at the school. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health School Physical Activity and Nutrition Student Questionnaire measured physical activity behavior, including: daily physical activity, participation in team sports, attending physical education class, and TV viewing/computer game playing. Anthropometric measures included height, weight, body mass index, resting blood pressure, and waist circumference. Measures were collected at baseline, completion of the intervention phase (4 months), and 12 months post-intervention. Results Significant results for students in the intervention, included for boys decreases in TV viewing; and girls increases in daily physical activity, physical education class attendance, and decreases in body mass index z-scores from baseline to the 12 month follow-up. Conclusions Our study shows the value of utilizing nurses to implement a culturally sensitive, coordinated, intervention to decrease disparities in activity and TV viewing among underserved girls and boys. PMID:23021318

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pronghorn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Cook, John G.; Armbruster, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  9. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  10. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  11. Index Theorem. Nicolae Teleman

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Local3 Index Theorem. Nicolae Teleman Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche, Universita' Politecnica Index Theorem. 6 5 K-Theory Local Symbol Index Class. 8 6 Review of Hochschild and Cyclic Homology. 10 6 of H,loc , with Alexander-Spanier Co-homology. . . . . . 18 9 Connes-Moscovici Local Index Theorem. 19

  12. boolean queries Inverted index

    E-print Network

    Lu, Jianguo

    boolean queries Inverted index query processing Query optimization boolean model September 9, 2014 1 / 39 #12;boolean queries Inverted index query processing Query optimization Outline 1 boolean queries 2 Inverted index 3 query processing 4 Query optimization 2 / 39 #12;boolean queries Inverted index

  13. Tools for Printing Indexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Louis Bentley; Brian W. Kernighan

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper describes a set of programs for processing and printing the index for a book or a manual. The input consists of lines containing index terms and page numbers. The programs collect multiple occurrences of the same terms, compress runs of page numbers, create permutations (e.g., 'index, book' from 'book index'), and sort them into proper alphabetic order.

  14. Perforating elastic fibers ('elastic fiber trapping') in the differentiation of keratoacanthoma, conventional squamous cell carcinoma and pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kabeer; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Lal, Karan; Molina, David; Elston, Dirk M

    2014-02-01

    Keratoacanthoma (KA), an epithelial neoplasm occurring in sun-exposed skin of the elderly, is considered a well-differentiated form of conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that often follows a course of spontaneous regression. Distinguishing KA from conventional SCC or pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia ensures proper diagnosis, treatment and management. For some time, perforating elastic fibers have been utilized in differentiating KA from SCC. This phenomenon may also occur in association with scars and hypertrophic lupus erythematosus (LE). To assess the diagnostic utility of perforating elastic fibers, we compared their incidence in KA, SCC, scars with overlying pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia, hypertrophic LE, hypertrophic lichen planus (LP) and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC). A retrospective case search identified 359 lesions and the presence of perforating elastic fibers was evaluated using routinely stained sections. This phenomenon was documented in all studied groups except hypertrophic LP. The incidence was found to be 71% in KA, 37% in SCC, and was lowest in inflammatory conditions with associated pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia (hypertrophic LP 0%, hypertrophic LE 5.9% and LSC 28.2%). The observed frequency in pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia overlying scars (57.8%) vs. KA (71%) was not statistically different. Although elastic fiber trapping has potential value as a diagnostic criterion for KA, dermatopathologists should consider its limitations. Its diagnostic utility was greatest in distinguishing KA from hypertrophic LE and hypertrophic LP. Conversely, elastic trapping is not helpful differentiating pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia from recurrent/persistent KA following surgery. PMID:24138600

  15. Optimization of local methylprednisolone delivery to inhibit inflammatory reaction and neointimal hyperplasia of coated coronary stents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanming; Wang, Lan; Verweire, Ineke; Qiang, Beiping; Liu, Xiaoshun; Verbeken, Erik; Schacht, Etienne; De Scheerder, Ivan

    2002-09-01

    Polymer coating can optimize the surface characteristics of metallic coronary stents and serve as a vehicle for local drug delivery. Major problems, however, include the lack of biocompatibility of the polymers used and the limited amount of drug that can be loaded onto the stent. Stainless-steel stents were spray-coated or spray-coated combined with a barrier coating using a fluorinated polymethacrylate PFM-P75 impregnated with different methylprednisolone concentrations. When spray-coated with highly concentrated methylprednisolone ( 33%) fluorinated polymethacrylate PFM-P75, the surface became progressively more rough. Adding a barrier coating, however, could decrease these surface irregularities of methylprednisolone-loaded PFM-P75 spray-coated stents. In vitro, most of the methylprednisolone was released in the first 48 hours. A barrier coating could dramatically slow down the drug release from 80% to 13% during the first 48 hours. Histomorphometric analysis showed that the inflammatory response and neointimal hyperplasia of methylprednisolone-loaded stents were lower than in control stents. Neointimal hyperplasia of methylprednisolone-loaded PFM-P75 stents spray-coated with a barrier coating was decreased compared to the non-barrier-coated methylprednisolone-loaded stents. In conclusion, spray coating enables the use of high methylprednisolone concentrations. A barrier coating could significantly slow down the methylprednisolone release. Methylprednisolone-loaded PFM-P75-coated stents could significantly inhibit the inflammatory response and neointimal hyperplasia. The response to methylprednisolone was related to the dose used and the release time of the drug. PMID:12205348

  16. Clinical, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization of Macronodular Adrenocortical Hyperplasia of the Zona Reticularis: A New Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ghayee, Hans K.; Rege, Juilee; Watumull, Lori M.; Nwariaku, Fiemu E.; Carrick, Kelley S.; Rainey, William E.; Miller, Walter L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia classically presents with progressive hypercortisolemia and Cushing syndrome. We describe a 29-yr-old man with massive macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia without hypercortisolemia but rather markedly elevated and nonsuppressible production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). Objective: To characterize the clinical and molecular features of this case and to determine whether the tissue biochemically resembles the zona reticularis or fetal adrenal. Setting: University clinic, hospital, and laboratories. Design: Static and dynamic blood and urine testing were performed preoperatively. Tissue was studied by light microscopy, immunoblot, RNA microarray, and enzyme assay. Participant: A 29-yr-old man with incidentally discovered bilateral adrenal enlargement. Intervention: Bilateral adrenalectomy. Main Outcome Measures: Molecular studies compared with control samples. Results: Hypercortisolism and 21-hydroxylase deficiency were excluded. DHEA, DHEAS, and 17-hydroxypregnenolone were markedly elevated and did not suppress with dexamethasone 2 mg/d for 4 d. Homogenates of the adrenals demonstrated high 17-hydroxylase, good 17,20-lyase, and low or absent 21-hydroxylase and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. Immunoblots confirmed robust expression of cytochrome P450c17 and AKR1C3 but not P450c21. Microarray analysis demonstrated high CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 expression but low or absent HSD3B1, HSD3B2, and CYP21A2 expression. Expression of mRNA for cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) and AKR1C3, markers of the zona reticularis, were markedly elevated. Conclusion: This is the first case of macronodular hyperplasia of the adrenal zona reticularis confirmed with studies of enzyme activity, mRNA expression, and protein identification. We speculate that this condition can be clinically silent in men but might cause severe hyperandrogenemia in women. PMID:21084398

  17. Experience of treating high risk prostate hyperplasia patients with a HPS120 laser

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and safety of 120 watt PVP surgery for the high risk prostate hyperplasia patients. Methods 120 watt PVP surgery was performed on 120 cases of high risk prostate hyperplasia patients. The assessment included the operation time, energy consumed, hemoglobin changes, and serum salt concentration, whether to keep urinary catheter, hospitalization time, and complications after the operation. International Prostate Symptom Scoring (IPSS), the maximum urine flow rate (Qmax) and residual urine volume (RUV) were conducted preoperatively and postoperatively for the patients. Results There were 30% of patients taking oral anti-coagulant drug (n?=?36), 88 cases with abnormal ECGs. All the patient’s internal diseases, include the cardiovascular disease (42/120), the hypertension (56/120), the respiratory system diseases (51/120), the cerebrovascular diseases (39/120), anemia (24/120), liver or kidney dysfunction (16/120), diabetes (18/120), hypoproteinemia (15/120) were under controlled. The average age, prostate volume and energy consumed was 82.8?±?8.6 (70–96) years, 66.1?±?25.3 (30–160) ml, and 224?±?85 (31–596) kJ respectively. The average follow-up time was 20.8?±?3.2 (18–24) months. The incidence of bladder neck contracture and urethral stricture were 1.7% and 0.8% respectively, no prostate cancer occurred during the subsequent follow-up period. Conclusions 120 watt PVP surgery can safely and effectively alleviate the urination parameters of high risk prostate hyperplasia patients. The surgical process is safe and effective, and is not affected by the various internal diseases or the use of oral anti-coagulant drugs. PMID:24286544

  18. Pituitary hyperplasia: case series and literature review of an under-recognised and heterogeneous condition

    PubMed Central

    Earls, Peter; McCormack, Ann I

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pituitary hyperplasia (PH) occurs in heterogeneous settings and remains under-recognised. Increased awareness of this condition and its natural history should circumvent unnecessary trans-sphenoidal surgery. We performed an observational case series of patients referred to a single endocrinologist over a 3-year period. Four young women were identified with PH manifesting as diffuse, symmetrical pituitary enlargement near or touching the optic apparatus on MRI. The first woman presented with primary hypothyroidism and likely had thyrotroph hyperplasia given prompt resolution with thyroxine. The second and third women were diagnosed with pathological gonadotroph hyperplasia due to primary gonadal insufficiency, with histopathological confirmation including gonadal-deficiency cells in the third case where surgery could have been avoided. The fourth woman likely had idiopathic PH, though she had concomitant polycystic ovary syndrome which is a debated cause of PH. Patients suspected of PH should undergo comprehensive hormonal, radiological and sometimes ophthalmological evaluation. This is best conducted by a specialised multidisciplinary team with preference for treatment of underlying conditions and close monitoring over surgical intervention. Learning points Normal pituitary dimensions are influenced by age and gender with the greatest pituitary heights seen in young adults and perimenopausal women.Pituitary enlargement may be seen in the settings of pregnancy, end-organ insufficiency with loss of negative feedback, and excess trophic hormone from the hypothalamus or neuroendocrine tumours.PH may be caused or exacerbated by medications including oestrogen, GNRH analogues and antipsychotics.Management involves identification of cases of idiopathic PH suitable for simple surveillance and reversal of pathological or iatrogenic causes where they exist.Surgery should be avoided in PH as it rarely progresses. PMID:26124954

  19. Continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion (CSHI) in a young adolescent with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

    PubMed

    Tuli, Gerdi; Rabbone, Ivana; Einaudi, Silvia; di Gianni, Valeria; Tessaris, Daniele; Gioia, Elisa; Lala, Roberto; Cerutti, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive enzymatic defect caused by mutations or deletions of the cytochrome P450 21-hydroxylase CYP21 gene. Oral therapy with glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids is administered to prevent adrenal crisis and to control hyperandrogenism. During puberty this type of therapy is difficult to manage owing to physiological and hormonal changes and poor compliance. We describe a case of a pubertal boy affected by CAH, in whom continuous subcutaneous infusion of hydrocortisone led to improved metabolic control and compliance. PMID:21932600

  20. [Experience in the use of doxazosin in patients with benign hyperplasia of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Lopatkin, N A; Loran, O B; Pushkar', D Iu; Perepanova, T S; Tevlin, K P

    1998-01-01

    Selective alpha-1-adrenoblockers are thought promising in current conservative treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The trial of doxazosin (cardura)--a selective alpha-blocker--included 78 BPH patients with obstructive urination. All the patients received a single daily dose of doxazosin 4-8 mg (mean 5.7 mg). 60 patients on placebo served as control. The comparison of the effects observed in the study vs control group has demonstrated that doxazosin has a favourable effect on BPH: it improved quality of life, relieved obstructive symptoms, reduced amount of residual urine. There is objective urodynamic evidence on decreased infravesical obstruction. PMID:9644978

  1. What do I tell patients about saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Kane, Christopher J; Raheem, Omer A; Bent, Stephen; Avins, Andrew L

    2011-08-01

    Saw palmetto is widely used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although there is passionate support for herbal and complementary therapies for LUTS, clinical evidence is mixed. Because there is a well-recognized, profound placebo effect in tests of efficacy for agents treating LUTS, it is imperative that all therapies be tested in placebo-controlled trials. This article reviews evidence of the efficacy and safety of saw palmetto for men with LUTS caused by BPH, with particular emphasis on published randomized clinical trials and the upcoming Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urologic Symptoms (CAMUS) trial. PMID:21798388

  2. "It was an overwhelming thing": parents' needs after infant diagnosis with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Boyse, Kyla L; Gardner, Melissa; Marvicsin, Donna J; Sandberg, David E

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes the experiences and expressed needs of parents following diagnosis of their newborn with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Six parents (four mothers and two fathers) were interviewed about how they learned about CAH and its management, followed by qualitative data analysis. Coding of transcripts revealed several themes, including health communication problems, a lack of medical home and decision support, and a desire for parent-to-parent social support. Findings have implications for how family-centered health care is delivered following an unexpected newborn diagnosis. PMID:24491814

  3. Vacuum-assisted biopsy diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia and patient management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ancona; M. Capodieci; A. Galiano; F. Mangieri; V. Lorusso; G. Gatta

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  This study sought to evaluate the accuracy of vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) in the diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia\\u000a (ADH) by determining the rate of VAB underestimation compared with definitive histology. In addition, an attempt was made\\u000a to identify parameters that could help determine the most appropriate patient management.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We retrospectively reviewed 1,776 VAB procedures performed between November 1999

  4. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate: a paradigm shift in benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Holmium laser enucleation (HoLEP) was developed in the 1990s as a more efficient and cost effective method of benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery than laser vaporization and resection techniques. As a true anatomical enucleation it mimics open prostatectomy and is as durable. There is a significant body of level 1 evidence in support of HoLEP, including 2 meta-analyses and 14 randomized trials which compare HoLEP with a number of other procedures. This review describes the development of and summarizes the evidence for HoLEP. PMID:24082919

  5. Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia: Diagnostic Sequence and Literature Review of an Orofacial Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Guledgud, Mahima V.; Patil, Karthikeya; Saikrishna, Degala; Yelamali, Tejesh

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia or Masson's tumor is a rare reactive disease of vascular origin characterized by exuberant proliferation of endothelial cells notably occurring within blood vessels of head, neck, and extremities. The importance of this entity is its ability to mimic a variety of diseases both benign and malignant in the orofacial region. Here, we present a case of Masson's tumor within the masseter muscle in a 40-year-old female with emphasis on the sequential investigative procedures performed to diagnose this entity. PMID:24891960

  6. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the bladder: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jazaerly, Tarek; Jaratli, Hayan; Sakr, Wael; Almardini, Nour; Urabi, Muaz; Dhar, Nivedita; Giorgadze, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), also known as Masson's tumor, is a benign unusual vascular lesion thought to arise from an organizing thrombus. Histologically, IPEH is characterized by papillary fronds lined by proliferating endothelium that may mimic angiosarcoma, and therefore the correct diagnosis may prevent unnecessary radical procedures. Involvement of the bladder is extremely rare, with only three cases reported in the literature. We report a case of IPEH arising in the bladder of a patient with history of prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. PMID:23210010

  7. Technical Aspects of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myong; Lee, Hahn-Ey

    2013-01-01

    Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is a minimally invasive procedure and a size-independent treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with excellent long-term surgical outcome. HoLEP has become an alternative to conventional transurethral resection of the prostate or open prostatectomy owing to its efficacy and safety. Although HoLEP is known to have a steep learning curve, very few articles have addressed the technical aspects of HoLEP. Herein, we described detailed techniques and tips for HoLEP as performed at Seoul National University Hospital in a step-by-step manner with extensive review of the literature. PMID:24044089

  8. Reversible infertility, pharmaceutical and spontaneous, in a male with late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia, due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kalachanis, I; Rousso, D; Kourtis, A; Goutzioulis, F; Makedos, G; Panidis, D

    2002-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a 35-year-old man with 5-year duration infertility. History, clinical examination, and laboratory tests have established the diagnosis of late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia, due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Treatment with dexamethasone resulted in improvement of sperm quality, and 4 months later a pregnancy was achieved. Two years after the patient fathered his first child, and while he had discontinued dexamethasone treatment, he succeeded at a second pregnancy. The authors conclude that (1) late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia presents with significant variation during the patient's lifetime; (2) glucocorticoid administration is necessary in infertile men with nonclassic form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency; and (3) in cases of male infertility of unknown origin, the patient must be scrutinized for congenital adrenal hyperplasia, especially the nonclassic form. PMID:11789681

  9. Ischemia in pelvic organs as an independent pathogenic factor in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary bladder dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kirpatovskii, V I; Mudraya, I S; Mkrtchyan, K G; Revenko, S V; Efremov, G D; Nadtochii, O N; Kabanova, I V

    2015-04-01

    Blood supply to the pelvic organs of outbred male rats was diminished by graduated constriction of the distal part of the inferior vena cava. Deficiency of intramural blood supply in prostate and urinary bladder was revealed by bioimpedance harmonic analysis according to the magnitude of first cardiac peak in the bioimpedance spectrogram. In 1-1.5 months, the histological examination revealed the glandular-stromal form of progressive benign prostatic hyperplasia in all ischemic rats. The development of hyperplasia was not accompanied by the changes in testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol in blood and prostatic tissue. Assessment of vesical functional status by recording the intravesical pressure during infusion cystometry revealed an increase in the amplitude of spontaneous fluctuations of detrusor tone and intravesical pressure during bladder filling, which can be considered as indicator of detrusor hyperactivity. The data conclude that chronic ischemia of pelvic organs is an individual pathogenic factor in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated urinary disorders. PMID:25896589

  10. Title: Efficiency of neonatal screening for congenital adrenal1 hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in children born in mainland2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Title: Efficiency of neonatal screening for congenital adrenal1 hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase. Neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-31 hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) is mainly intended to prevent death due to salt wasting but32 remains controversial, because of the number

  11. Prevention of intimal hyperplasia using short-period vascular heating without surrounding tissue injury: in vitro/in vivo experiments and thermal conduction calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, Eriko; Kaneko, Kenji; Futami, Hikaru; Yamashita, Erika; Arai, Tsunenori

    2005-04-01

    We have been proposed novel short-term (<10s) heating balloon using the combination of light-heat conversion mechanism and heated contrast medium irrigation in the balloon to improve dilatation characteristics of balloon angioplasty. Our new balloon angioplasty had suppressed intimal hyperplasia in rabbit model. We designed following experiments to understand the mechanism of suppression of intimal hyperplasia in our new thermal balloon angioplasty. We also aimed to obtain the suitable heating condition in our angioplasty to suppress intimal hyperplasia. We studied influence of the short-term heating on smooth muscle cells (SMCs) lethality in vitro. We investigated number of SMCs reduction in media in order to prevent intimal hyperplasia. We applied to our heating balloon dilatation to chronic rabbit model using normal iliac artery to study relation between heating condition and hyperplasia suppression. We estimated temperature history of the rabbit vascular wall by thermal conduction calculation. We related the estimated temperature history to the hyperplasia suppression effect in the chronic rabbit model. Finally, we obtained the relation between number of SMCs decreases and intimal hyperplasia suppression. We obtained that the short-term heating with 10s laser irradiation corresponding to estimated temperature of 50°C in the media and prevented intimal hyperplasia in the rabbit chronic model. In this case, we estimated about 30 percents of SMCs cellular lethality in media.

  12. The diagnosis and management of pre-invasive breast disease: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) – current definitions and classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E Pinder; Ian O Ellis

    2003-01-01

    Intraductal epithelial proliferations of the breast are at present classified into three groups; distinction is made histologically and clinically between usual epithelial hyperplasia and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and between ADH and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Although evidence indicates that these boundaries are not ideal on a morphological, immunohistochemical, or genetic basis, this three-tier system is accepted and used

  13. High Prevalence of Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors, Impaired Spermatogenesis, and Leydig Cell Failure in Adolescent and Adult Males with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NIKE M. M. L. STIKKELBROECK; BARTO J. OTTEN; ARIFA PASIC; GERRIT J. JAGER

    In male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, testic- ular tumors, or so-called adrenal rest tumors, have been de- scribed, but their presence in well controlled patients is thought to be rare. In this study, the prevalence of testicular tumors in 17 adolescent and adult male patients with congen- ital adrenal hyperplasia (age, 16 - 40 yr) was investigated. In 16

  14. Napsin A is possibly useful marker to predict the tumorigenic potential of lung bronchiolo-alveolar hyperplasia in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Yokohira, Masanao; Kishi, Sosuke; Yamakawa, Keiko; Nakano, Yuko; Ninomiya, Fumiko; Kinouch, Shigemi; Tanizawa, Junko; Saoo, Kousuke; Imaida, Katsumi

    2014-03-01

    There are 2 types of bronchiolo-alveolar hyperplasia found in rat lungs. One is 'inflammatory hyperplasia' with a potential to recover in future with removal of the stimulating insult and the other is 'latent tumorigenic hyperplasia' as an independent preneoplastic lesion for adenocarcinoma. In the present experiment, we focused on rat lung bronchiolo-alveolar hyperplasia induced by 4-(methyl-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which decreases with time after induction and reverts to normal, or by N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine (DHPN), with tumorigenic potential to progress to adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Though NNK is a typical carcinogen inducing lung adenocarcinoma in female A/J mice, the tumorigenic potential by NNK in rats is weak. Differences between hyperplasias induced by DHPN and by NNK were here examined immunohistochemically. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded lung samples with hyperplastic and inflammatory lesions were obtained from rats exposed to DHPN or NNK and from lung inflammation models induced with fine particles like CuO, NiO and quartz. The 19 markers were examined immunohistochemically. Napsin A, in the inflammatory lesions and hyperplasia induced by NNK, was positive for macrophages and secretions in the alveoli spaces but less so in the walls of the alveoli. In the proliferative lesions including hyperplasia induced by DHPN, strong positive staining for napsin A was observed in the walls of the alveoli. Thus high expression was suggested to be possibly useful for detecting tumorigenic potential of rat lung hyperplasia. PMID:24295539

  15. Index des mots-cls Keywords index

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Index des mots-clés Keywords index A Abies, 823 Abies alba, 265 acacia, 93 Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. grandis, 445 E. tereticornis, 445 early fire, 185 earlywood, 511 ecology, 823 ecophysiology, 823 grandis, 675 F Fagus sylvatica L., 761 fertility, 233 fiber, property, 491 fibre biometry, 283 finite

  16. Insulin enhances the effect of nitric oxide at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a rat model of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Varu, Vinit N.; Ahanchi, Sadie S.; Hogg, Melissa E.; Bhikhapurwala, Hussein A.; Chen, Amy; Popowich, Daniel A.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Martinez, Janet; Jiang, Qun; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Hrabie, Joseph A.; Keefer, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes confers greater restenosis from neointimal hyperplasia following vascular interventions. While localized administration of nitric oxide (NO) is known to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia, the effect of NO in type 1 diabetes is unknown. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of NO following arterial injury, with and without exogenous insulin administration. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from lean Zucker (LZ) rats were exposed to the NO donor, DETA/NO, following treatment with different glucose and/or insulin concentrations. DETA/NO inhibited VSMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner to a greater extent in VSMC exposed to normal-glucose vs. high-glucose environments, and even more effectively in normal-glucose/high-insulin and high-glucose/high-insulin environments. G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and cell death were not responsible for the enhanced efficacy of NO in these environments. Next, type 1 diabetes was induced in LZ rats with streptozotocin. The rat carotid artery injury model was performed. Type 1 diabetic rats experienced no significant reduction in neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury and treatment with the NO donor PROLI/NO. However, daily administration of insulin to type 1 diabetic rats restored the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia (60% reduction, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that NO is ineffective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in an uncontrolled rat model of type 1 diabetes; however, insulin administration restores the efficacy of NO at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia. Thus insulin may play a role in regulating the downstream beneficial effects of NO in the vasculature. PMID:20562340

  17. Pulmonary endocrine cell hyperplasia and papilloma in rats induced by intratracheal injections of extract from particulate air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Ohyama, K; Kusano, T; Usuda, Y; Nozawa, A; Hayashi, H; Ohji, H; Kitamura, H; Kanisawa, M

    1997-02-01

    We investigated the effect of intratracheal injections of an extract of suspended particulate matter (SPM) obtained from the urban ambient air of Tokyo, upon the development of proliferative lesions of pulmonary endocrine cells (PECs) in the rat. We also examined the modification effects of nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or both of them on the PEC lesions. Male F344 rats were divided into six experimental groups of 5 animals each. Twenty animals were treated with intratracheal instillations of SPM admixed with carbon once a week for 4 weeks with or without additional gaseous exposure (6 ppm nitrogen dioxide or 4 ppm sulfur dioxide) 16 hrs a day for 11 months. Five animals were given intratracheal injections of carbon suspended in saline and the other five were untreated. The subcardiac lobes of the right lung were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, and embedded in paraffin. PEC hyperplasias and papillomas were counted in 200 serial sections, 4 microns thick. The average incidences of PEC hyperplasia in the untreated animals and in those treated with carbon were 194 and 200/cm3, respectively. The average incidences of PEC hyperplasia in the animals exposed to SPM tar only, SPM tar plus nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, SPM tar with nitrogen dioxide and SPM tar with sulfur dioxide were 376, 378, 372 and 349/cm3, respectively. These were significantly higher than the levels of the control animals, and additional gaseous stimuli had no effect on the incidence of PEC hyperplasia. Besides PEC hyperplasia, a few PEC papillomas were found in the animals treated with SPM tar, regardless of gaseous exposure, but in the control animals no papilloma was evident. Thus, compounds in airborne particulates are considered to be responsible for the development of PEC hyperplasias and papillomas. PMID:9085076

  18. Randomized crossover comparison of tamsulosin and alfuzosin in patients with urinary disturbances caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkan Karada?; Sedat Öner; Yasemin U. Budak; Özcan Atahan

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of alfuzosin (Alf) and tamsulosin (Tam) in patients with lower\\u000a urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  One hundred men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) who were admitted to our urology department with lower urinary tract\\u000a symptoms (LUTS) were enrolled in this randomized

  19. Primary hyperparathyroidism: four- to eight-year postoperative follow-up demonstrating persistent functional insignificance of microscopic parathyroid hyperplasia and decreased autonomy of parathyroid hormone release.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, T S; Duarte, B; Reitz, R E; Princenthal, R; Seaton, J F; Badder, E M; Graham, W P

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were studied four to eight years after their initial operation. In six patients, both the pathologist and surgeon agreed on the diagnosis of solitary adenoma; in 16 patients, the surgeon diagnosed solitary adenoma and the pathologist parathyroid hyperplasia (microscopic hyperplasia). In 16 patients, primary chief cell hyperplasia was agreed upon by the pathologist and surgeon. In the 16 patients with microscopic hyperplasia, there have been no long-term recurrences of hypercalcemia, but, in two patients, plasma parathyroid hormone levels are high. Parathyroid hormone--total calcium regression curves demonstrate significant preoperative correlation in solitary adenoma, p less than 0.01, and primary chief cell hyperplasia, p less than 0.05. After operation, significant correlations were not found between parathyroid hormone and total calcium. T-testing slope differences of pre- and postoperative parathyroid hormone--total calcium regression curves demonstrates a significant (p less than 0.01) shift to the right of the microscopic hyperplasia patients after operation, moving them to a broader range of total calcium per picogram parathyroid hormone. We conclude that 1) in primary hyperparathyroidism, positive regulation of total calcium by autonomously released parathyroid hormone exists in patients with solitary adenoma and chief cell hyperplasia; 2) autonomously functioning parathyroid tissue has been removed by operation for solitary adenoma with coexistent microscopic parathyroid hyperplasia. In this four- to eight-year follow-up period, it is clear that microscopic parathyroid hyperplasia is not associated with recurrent hypercalcemia. Two functionally distinct forms of parathyroid suppression are suggested; positively regulated microscopic hyperplasia and negatively regulated pathologically suppressed glands. PMID:7283504

  20. Neointimal hyperplasia in allogeneic and autologous venous grafts is not different in nature.

    PubMed

    Albert, Busch; Elena, Hartmann; Nicole, Wagner; Süleyman, Ergün; Ralph, Kickuth; Richard, Kellersmann; Udo, Lorenz

    2015-07-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia, transplant rejection and thus immunogenicity of allografts are possible reasons for poorer patency rates in cryopreserved venous allografts for peripheral bypass surgery in comparison with autologous venous grafts. To expand the limited knowledge from human allografts, we histologically investigated allogeneic and autologous venous grafts in arterial location. Specimens of allogeneic and autologous venous graft stenosis, harvested 6 months after bypass implantation, were immunohistochemically characterized. Examination of the lesions showed a uniform morphological pattern. A continuous endothelial layer, tissue fibrosis and a thickened neointima with monocytes and dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells were seen in both conduits with very low cell turnover and the absence of acute and chronic inflammation. Neoangiogenesis with CD34-positive endothelium was abundant in the vessel media. The morphological patterns of allogeneic and autologous neointima formation are similar. Consequently, neointimal hyperplasia in venous grafts may reflect a uniform physiological host response of non-immunological factors with the reasons for poorer clinical outcome of cryopreserved allografts yet to be elucidated. PMID:25787768

  1. Antrodan, a ?-glucan obtained from Antrodia cinnamomea mycelia, is beneficial to benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Lin, Yi-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y

    2015-02-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), one of the most common disease usually occurring in men in their 50s, has now become an atypical direct cause of mortality. Currently, phytotherapeutic agents are emerging and are frequently used as a complementary alternative treatment of BPH. ?-glucan has shown a diversity of bioactivities involving anticancer, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Antrodia cinnamomea exhibits a diversity of biological activities. Only a few literature references have cited the biomedicinal effects of antrodan, which is a unique ?-glucan present in A. cinnamomea mycelia. We hypothesized that antrodan could be beneficial to BPH. Using the Sprague-Dawley rat model, we performed this present experiment. Results indicated that antrodan alleviated most of the pathophysiological manifestations that can be elicited by BPH, by alleviating the prostatic epithelial hyperplasia and collagen deposition, increasing the total cholesterol biosynthesis and conversion into HDL, and suppressing the production of LDL and ROS and the upregulation of IL-1, COX-2 and CD68. Antrodan also effectively suppressed the serum level testosterone and DHT and downregulated aromatase, estradiol and the expression of the androgen receptor. More importantly, antrodan downregulated N-cadherin and vimentin and upregulated E-cadherin, underlying the effective inhibition on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Conclusively, the ?-glucan antrodan present in the A. cinamomea mycelia is beneficial to the BPH therapy. PMID:25537160

  2. Holmium laser for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: old wine in a new bottle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelius, Thomas; de Riese, Werner T. W.

    2003-06-01

    Urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia affect 70% of men older than 70 years. Complications are common problems and a significant cause of morbidity in this population, placing a considerable burden on health services. In the early 1990s laser treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia became widely used after the introduction of the side-firing neodym: YAG laser. However, because of technical limitations and inferior results compared to classical transurethral resection of the prostate many Urologists became desinterested in this device. With the introduction of the holmium: YAG laser a new laser generation became available for use in Urology. Beside several other applications the holmium: YAG laser can be used for incision, ablation, resection, and more recently enucleation of the prostate. In this paper we reviewed the current literature regarding the holmium: YAG laser resection and enucleation of the prostate compared to transurethral resection of the prostate and open prostatectomy. The holmium: YAG laser technique is an effective and durable surgical alternative to standard transurethral resection of the prostate. Interestingly, enucleation of the prostate with this device seems to be a safe and effective procedure for large prostatic adenomas, it may become an attractive alternative to open prostatectomy.

  3. A Density Test for the Intraoperative Differentiation of Parathyroid Hyperplasia from Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chiu-An; Rieder, Sidney V.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, instant, and reliable test called the Density Test, based on the difference in density between the normal and the diseased parathyroid tissue, was performed intraoperatively in 73 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Whereas the normal parathyroid tissue floated, the diseased tissue invariably sank in a mannitol solution with a density range between 1.049 and 1.069. With the aid of this test, a diagnosis of adenoma was made in 66 patients and of primary hyperplasia in the remaining seven. In every case the diagnosis was subsequently confirmed. Forty-two of the 66 patients with an adenoma (64%) had a unilateral exploration of the neck. The Density Test saved these patients from an unnecessary contralateral exploration by the finding of an adenoma and a normal second gland in the same side of the neck. These data show that the Density Test is useful in the intraoperative diagnosis of a diseased from a normal parathyroid tissue. Tissue that sinks within the density range of 1.049 and 1.069 is without exception diseased and should therefore be either partially or completely excised even if the gland is of average size or only of slight enlargement. If it does not sink, it is virtually certain to be normal and should be spared. The Density Test provides a valuable clue in the differentiation of primary parathyroid hyperplasia from neoplasia. PMID:619801

  4. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat’s prostate hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg-1 testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg-1 nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg-1 nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg-1 testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg-1 almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly. PMID:25992248

  5. Robust and regional 3D facial asymmetry assessment in hemimandibular hyperplasia and hemimandibular elongation anomalies.

    PubMed

    Walters, M; Claes, P; Kakulas, E; Clement, J G

    2013-01-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH) and hemimandibular elongation (HE) anomalies present with facial asymmetry and deranged occlusion. Currently, diagnosis and assessment of the facial dysmorphology is based on subjective clinical evaluation, supported by radiological scans. Advancements in objective assessments of facial asymmetry from three-dimensional (3D) facial scans facilitate a re-evaluation of the patterns of facial dysmorphology. Automated, robust and localised asymmetry assessments were obtained by comparing a 3D facial scan with its reflected image using a weighted least-squares superimposition. This robust superimposition is insensitive to severe asymmetries. This provides an estimation of the anatomical midline and a spatially dense vector map visualising localised directional differences between the left and right hemifaces. Analysis was conducted on three condylar hyperplasia phenotypes confirmed by clinical and CT evaluation: HH; HE; and hybrid phenotype. The midline extraction revealed chin point displacements in all cases. The upper lip philtrum and nose tip deviation to the affected side and a marked asymmetry of the mid face was noted in cases involving HE. Downward and medial rotation of the mandible with minor involvement of the midface was seen in the HH associated deformity. The hybrid phenotype case exhibited asymmetry features of both HH and HE cases. PMID:22749574

  6. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5?-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., ?-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated ?-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. PMID:21806658

  7. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat's prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg(-1) almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly. PMID:25992248

  8. Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa) oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Crean, Joanne; de Almeida Borges, Vinícius Raphael; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Tajber, Lidia; Boylan, Fabio; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2013-01-01

    The oil of babassu tree nuts (Orbignya speciosa) is a potential alternative for treatment and prophylaxis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Improved results can be obtained by drug vectorization to the hyperplastic tissue. The main objective of this work was the preparation and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle and clay nanosystems containing babassu oil (BBS). BBS was extracted from the kernels of babassu tree nuts and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. BBS-clay nanosystems were obtained by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone, Viscogel B8®, and BBS at a 2:1:1 mass ratio and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. The PLGA-BBS nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation-solvent evaporation method. Mean diameter, polydispersity, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopic images of the nanosystems were analyzed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed successful formation of the nanocomposite. PLGA nanoparticles containing BBS were obtained, with a suitable size that was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Both nanostructured systems showed active incorporation yields exceeding 90%. The two systems obtained represent a new and potentially efficient therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23990721

  9. Expression and clinical significance of ghrelin in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma of egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Younes, Sheren Fouad; Aiad, Hayam; Kandil, Mona; El Kalashy, Fatma Samir

    2015-05-01

    Endometrial carcinoma ranks the seventh most common malignant tumor worldwide. The distinction between atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrial carcinoma, especially the well-differentiated grade, is particularly difficult with overlapping distinguishing criteria and small biopsy. Ghrelin is 28 amino acid peptide that is synthesized by gastric mucosa and is expressed in a variety of normal and tumor tissues. In endometrial tissue, it is expressed during the menstrual cycle, involved in the uterine development and cyclic growth. Data regarding role of Ghrelin in endometrial carcinoma are contradictory. In the present study, immunohistochemical expression of Ghrelin was evaluated in 55 endometrioid carcinoma cases, as well as 26 endometrial hyperplasia cases. The relationship between Ghrelin expression and clinicopathologic features of endometrioid carcinoma was studied as well. Ghrelin loss or reduced expression was significantly related to endometrioid carcinoma, especially the well-differentiated type, compared with AEH and EIN (p?=?0.000 and 0.006, respectively). Ghrelin loss was also related to poorly differentiated histologic grades of endometrioid carcinoma (p?=?0.04). Ghrelin loss is helpful in differentiation between AEH and EIN from endometrioid adenocarcinoma, especially the well-differentiated grade. It could be also related to poor differentiation. PMID:25569277

  10. [Serum metabolomics analysis on benign prostate hyperplasia in mice based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Geng, Yue; Sun, Fengxia; Ma, Yu; Deng, Ligang; Lü, Jianyun; Li, Teng; Wang, Congcong

    2014-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) increasingly becomes a common factor affecting the quality of life of aging men. Its pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated. Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) was employed to detect the changes of serum metabolites in normal mice, benign prostatic hyperplasia model mice and BPH model mice with finasteride intervention. The serum metabolite profiles of the three groups of mice were analyzed. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used for group differentiation and biomarker selection. The results showed good distinction among the three groups of mice serum metabolite spectra. Three potential biomarkers, 1-hexadecanoyl-SN-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine and (Z)-13-docosenamide, were discovered and identified. They all indicated the occurrence of benign prostatic hypertrophy is closely related to the disorders of lipid metabolism. Coinpared with the control group, the contents of the first two substances were significantly increased in the serum of BPH model mice, and significantly decreased after intervened by finasteride. The contents of (Z)-13-docosenamide decreased significantly in the serum of model group, and increased after intervened by finasteride. Compared with the control group, the contents of three biomarkers in finasteride group did not recover completely and had significant differences. This study is conductive to open new avenues of diagnosis and medical treatment for BPH. PMID:25902635

  11. The impact of obesity on benign and malignant urologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chu, Katrina F; Rotker, Katherine; Ellsworth, Pamela

    2013-07-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index ? 30 kg/m² in adults by the National Institutes of Health, is associated with an increased risk for a number of health conditions, including hypertension, unfavorable lipid level, and diabetes mellitus. During the past 2 decades of the twentieth century, the prevalence of obesity has increased in the United States. In 2009 to 2010, 36% of adults were obese, including 41 million women and > 37 million men. In addition, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a constellation of interrelated cardiac risk factors including visceral obesity, impaired insulin action (ie, insulin resistance), atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, and systemic inflammation, has been increasing in the United States. More recently, there has been greater interest in the effects of obesity and MetS on a variety of benign and malignant urologic conditions. Obesity/MetS has been shown to have an effect on urolithiasis; benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms; female incontinence and pelvic prolapse; male hypogonadism; and male sexual function and infertility. These urologic diseases have a considerable impact on patients' quality of life. From a urologic cancer standpoint, obesity/MetS has been demonstrated to play a role in prostate cancer and in renal cell cancer; its role in bladder cancer remains ill defined. Furthermore, dietary or lifestyle modifications may improve outcomes in many of these urologic disease processes. Thus, it is imperative for physicians to understand these relationships in order to better screen obese patients and be aware of the potential impact of weight loss on affected benign and malignant urologic conditions. PMID:23933894

  12. The Effects of Chlormadinone Acetate on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Erectile Functions of Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Prospective Multicenter Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Ohashi, Yasuo; Fuji, Kohzo; Tsuji, Hidenori; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Ohtani, Mikinobu; Furuya, Ryoji; Boku, Eitetsu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of chlormadinone acetate (CMA), progesterone-derived antiandrogen, on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile functions of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods. A multicenter, single-cohort prospective study was conducted. A total of 114 patients received CMA for 16 weeks. The endpoints were changes in International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), IPSS-QOL, International Index of Erectile Function-5, Qmax prostate volume, and residual urine volume. Results. Significant improvements were observed in IPSS from week 8 to week 48 (32 weeks after treatment). IPSS-QOL improvements were also significant from week 8 to week 48. Qmax increased to a maximum at Week 16 and remained elevated throughout the study. Moreover, a decrease of 25% in prostate volume was observed at Week 16. IPSS, QOL, and Qmax changes during the study were not different between the previously treated and untreated patients. IPSS storage subscore changes differed between the age groups. Few severe adverse reactions were observed, except for erectile dysfunction. Conclusions. CMA rapidly and significantly reduced prostate volume and improved voiding and storage symptoms and QOL. Our results suggest that CMA is safe and beneficial, especially for elderly patients with LUTS associated with BPH. PMID:23762042

  13. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in the treatment of non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-hydroxylase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kalani, Amir; Thomas, Nithin; Sacerdote, Alan; Bahtiyar, Gül

    2013-01-01

    Non-classic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) has been associated with insulin resistance (IR). Therapies such as metformin, thiazolidinediones and lifestyle alterations improve IR and also ameliorate the biochemical and clinical abnormalities of NCAH, much as they do in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). More recently, bariatric surgery, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), has also been associated with improvement in IR and amelioration of PCOS and may, therefore, be beneficial in NCAH. We report a case of a 39-year-old, deaf-mute, obese woman with NCAH due to 11-hydroxylase deficiency who underwent RYGBP followed by improvement of NCAH manifestations. She was initially treated with metformin and pioglitazone, which lowered serum 11-deoxycortisol from 198?ng/dl (<51) to 26?ng/dl. Five weeks after undergoing RYGBP her body mass index fell from 44.18?kg/m2 to 39.54?kg/m2 and, despite not taking metformin or pioglitazone, serum 11-deoxycortisol remained normal at <40?ng/dl. Concurrently and subsequently, her NCAH symptoms, for example, alopecia, hirsutism and irregular menses normalised as well. We conclude that RYGBP, like other interventions that reduce IR, may be another way of treating non-classic 11-hydroxylase deficiency in selected patients. PMID:23513016

  14. Anti-proliferative effects of qianliening capsules on prostatic hyperplasia in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiaoyong; Lin, Jiumao; Zhou, Jianheng; Xu, Wei; Hong, Zhenfeng

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies by our group showed that Qianliening capsules (QC), a clinically proven effective traditional Chinese formulation that has long been used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is capable of inhibiting BPH in vivo and in vitro via the promotion of apoptosis, suppression of the EGFR/STAT3 signaling pathway and regulating the expression of sex hormones as well as their receptors. However, the mechanism of its anti?BPH activity has remained to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the anti?proliferative effect of QC in vivo and in vitro. Castrated male Sprage?Dawley (SD) rats where subcutaneously injected with testosterone propionate and the WPMY?1 cell line was stimulated with basic fibroblast growth factor in order to generate BPH in vivo and in vitro separately, both of which were then subjected to QC treatment. Finasteride was used as a positive control drug for the in vivo study. In the present study, it was found that treatment with QC or finasteride significantly reduced the prostatic index (PI=prostate wet weight/body weight x 100) in a rat model of BPH (P<0.05). In addition, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?PCR) and western blot analyses showed that QC or finasteride treatment significantly inhibited model construction?induced upregulation of expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 in prostatic tissues of rats with BPH (P<0.05). The in vitro study further proved that QC exhibited anti?proliferative properties via G1/S cell cycle arrest in the WPMY?1 cell line, as evidenced by colony formation, flow cytometric cell cycle, immunoblot and RT?PCR analyses. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that inhibition of cell proliferation via G1/S cell cycle arrest may be one of the underlying mechanisms of the effect of QC on BPH. PMID:25825141

  15. Indexing Valid Time Intervals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tolga Bozkaya Meral Ozsoyoglu

    1998-01-01

    To support temporal operators and to increase the efficiency of temporal queries,indexing based on temporal attributes is required. We consider the problem of indexing thetemporal dimension in valid time databases. We assume that the temporal information of dataobjects are represented as valid time intervals that have to be managed dynamically by anefficient index structure. Unlike the time intervals in transaction

  16. Dow Jones Internet Indexes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dow Jones Indexes has created the Dow Jones Internet Index (DJII) to bring "an ordered perspective" to "the seeming chaos of Internet stocks." The new index includes companies that generate a minimum of 50 percent of their revenues from the Internet. Complete documentation of DJII components, data, historical values, and news are provided on-site.

  17. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  18. Sebaceous Hyperplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a small risk of leaving scars: Burning (cautery) Freezing (cryosurgery) Applying topical chemicals Applying a drug activated by light (photodynamic therapy) Laser treatment Cutting out the lesions (excision) Trusted Links ...

  19. Regenerative hyperplasia is not required for liver tumor induction in female B6C3F1 mice exposed to trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Melnick, R L; Kohn, M C; Dunnick, J K; Leininger, J R

    1998-01-01

    Chloroform (TCM), a water disinfection by-product, induced liver tumors in female mice when administered by gavage in corn oil but not when given in drinking water at comparable daily doses. Because short-term studies showed that the gavage doses also induced liver toxicity, it has been suggested that the liver tumor response occurs secondary to cytotoxicity and consequent regenerative hyperplasia induced by oxidative metabolism of TCM to the toxic dihalocarbonyl intermediate. This study compares dose-response relationships of gavage-administered chlorinated/brominated trihalomethanes for hepatotoxicity, replicative DNA synthesis, and hepatocarcinogenicity in female B6C3F1 mice. The liver tumor data were obtained from previously published studies. Because bromine is a better leaving group than chlorine, metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) should produce the same intermediates as would be formed from TCM. Hence, the toxicity and carcinogenicity of BDCM was expected to be qualitatively similar to that of TCM. Dose responses for liver weight, serum sorbitol dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, hepatocyte degeneration, and hepatocyte labeling index (LI, a measure of replicative DNA synthesis) in female mice were similar following 3 weeks of gavage administration (once per day, 5 days per week) with TCM, BDCM, or chlorodibromomethane (CDBM). Fits of composite data for these trihalomethanes to a Hill equation model revealed sigmoidal dose responses for ALT activity and hepatocyte LI and a nearly linear low-dose response for liver tumor incidence. For this family of chemicals, the mouse liver tumor response was not associated with an elevated hepatocyte LI at doses of approximately 1 mmol/kg or less. High incidences of liver tumors were observed with BDCM and CDBM at doses that had a marginal effect or no effect on the hepatocyte LI. Thus, the carcinogenic effects of trihalomethanes are not simply a consequence of cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia. The possible contributions from other activation pathways, including GSH conjugation and reductive metabolism, need to be considered in assessments of the carcinogenicity of the trihalomethanes. PMID:9465273

  20. The psychometric validation of a US English satisfaction measure for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Libby Black; Alyson Grove; Betsy Morrill

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to validate the US English Patient Perception of Study Medication (PPSM) questionnaire, which measures patient satisfaction with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) treatment and was administered to men with BPH lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) enrolled in a multi-national clinical trial. METHODS: Patients with moderate to severe BPH symptoms completed three disease-specific measures:

  1. Doxazosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. A review of the safety profile in older patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Kirby; A Jardin

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the safety of doxazosin in older patients (?65 y) with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as reported in seven international clinical trials. Data from seven double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trials, in both normotensive and hypertensive patients with BPH were collated and analysed. Data on doxazosin were available for 341 men 65 y and

  2. Observational Multicentric Trial Performed with Doxazosin: Evaluation of Sexual Effects on Patients with Diagnosed Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aldo Franco De Rose; Giorgio Carmignani; Carlo Corbu; Matteo Giglio; Paolo Traverso; Angelo Naselli; Emanuele Belgrano; Costanzo Catuogno; Dario Fontana; Armando Maver; Vincenzo Mirone; Giovanni Muzzonigro; Daniele Di Trapani; Fabio Bonini

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of our study is to verify the effects of doxazosin on sexual function in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods: We enrolled 102 patients with BPH, selected by nine Italian Urology Departments. Patients were evaluated with the International Prostatic Symptom Score (I-PSS) and divided into two groups: those with intact sexual activity and those

  3. Reproducibility of uroflow measurement: experience during a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of doxazosin in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Feneley; William D. Dunsmuir; Jenny Pearce; Roger S. Kirby

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the interindividual and intraindividual variation of uroflow measurements in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Methods. A total of 147 men with clinical evidence of BPH underwent two uroflow measurements at each of two screening visits prior to recruitment into a placebo-controlled study of doxazosin in the treatment of BPH. The maximum and mean flow rates were determined

  4. Soluble and nuclear type I and II androgen-binding sites in benign hyperplasia and cancer of the human prostate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Castagnetta; G. Carruba; E. Fecarotta; M. Lo Casto; R. Cusimano; M. Pavone-Macaluso

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for the assessment of the androgen receptor (AR) status in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) tissues. Evaluation of AR was carried out in both soluble and nuclear fractions by a standard competition method, using tritiated mibolerone as radioligand. Based on our experience with breast and endometrial cancer, this approach focused on both

  5. MANAGEMENT OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA IN HIGH RISK PATIENTS: LONG-TERM EXPERIENCE WITH THE MEMOTHERM STENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. GESENBERG; R. SINTERMANN

    1998-01-01

    PurposeOf all patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) 10 to 15% cannot undergo surgery due to grave concomitant diseases. Successful treatment should avoid catheterization to maintain quality of life. We report on our long-term experience with the Memotherm* stent implanted in high risk patients with BPH.

  6. Effect of doxazosin on stretch-activated adenosine triphosphate release in bladder urothelial cells from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Sun; Jennifer MaLossi; Stephen C Jacobs; Toby C Chai

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. Recent data suggest that the bladder urothelium may have a sensory function by way of release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during stretch, which then acts as a sensory neurotransmitter. Because benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can give rise to irritative (hypersensory) voiding patterns, we questioned whether the bladder urothelium from patients with BPH released more ATP during in vitro stretch

  7. Pygeum africanum extract for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A review of 25 years of published experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Christine Andro; Jean-Pierre Riffaud

    1995-01-01

    Pygeum africanum bark extract has been used to treat mild and moderate symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in France since 1969. The extract has several potentially relevant pharmacologic properties: modulation of age-related hypercontractility of the bladder detrusor muscle; anti-inflammatory activity, including inhibition of chemotactic activity of leukotrienes; inhibition of fibroblast proliferation; and improvement of prostatic histology and secretion. The constituents

  8. Virtual endoscopy of the nasopharynx in the evaluation of its normal anatomy and alterations due to lymphoid hyperplasia: preliminary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignazio Pandolfo; Silvio Mazziotti; Giorgio Ascenti; Sergio Vinci; Ignazio Salamone; Giovanni Colletti; Alfredo Blandino

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of virtual endoscopy in establishing the anatomic appearance of nasopharynx, both normal and affected by lymphoid hyperplasia. Thirty-seven patients affected by chronic rhinosinusal and otomastoid pathology, all studied by rhinoscopy, were examined with multislice computed tomography (CT) and virtual endoscopy of the nasopharynx. Rhinoscopy showed a completely normal nasopharynx

  9. Familial Glucocorticoid Receptor Haploinsufficiency by NonSense Mediated mRNA Decay, Adrenal Hyperplasia and Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Bouligand; Brigitte Delemer; Annie-Claude Hecart; Geri Meduri; Say Viengchareun; Larbi Amazit; Séverine Trabado; Bruno Fève; Anne Guiochon-Mantel; Jacques Young; Marc Lombès; Pieter H. Reitsma

    2010-01-01

    Primary glucocorticoid resistance (OMIM 138040) is a rare hereditary disease that causes a generalized partial insensitivity to glucocorticoid action, due to genetic alterations of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Investigation of adrenal incidentalomas led to the discovery of a family (eight affected individuals spanning three generations), prone to cortisol resistance, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, arterial hypertension and hypokalemia. This phenotype exacerbated over

  10. Alopecia universalis, hypothyroidism and pituitary hyperplasia: polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III in a patient in remission from treated Hodgkin lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K I Quintyne; N Barratt; L ODonoghue; F Wallis; R K Gupta

    2010-01-01

    We herein report a case of a 33-year-old man in remission from Hodgkin lymphoma, who presented with reduced potency and hair loss. Initial endocrine tests revealed autoimmune hypothyroidism. An MRI of his pituitary gland at onset revealed hyperplasia. He tolerated replacement endocrine therapy with good response, but with no improvement in his alopecia universalis. A repeat MRI, 6 months after

  11. B-Cell Cutaneous Lymphoid Hyperplasia Representing Progressive Transformation of Germinal Center: A Report of 2 Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaru Kojima; Shinji Sakurai; Ken Shimizu; Hideaki Itoh

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) is a reactive polyclonal benign lymphoproliferative process predominantly composed of B cells or T cells, either localized or disseminated. The authors report histomorphologic, immunophenotypic, and genotypic findings of 2 cases of B-cell CLH demonstrating progressive transformation of germinal center (PTGC). Histologically, most of the lymphoid follicles were PTGCs with a few hyperplastic germinal centers. PTGC was

  12. Prenatal Androgens and Gender-Typed Behavior: A Study of Girls with Mild and Severe Forms of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servin, Anna; Nordenstrom, Anna; Larsson, Agne; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Examined gender-typed behavior and interests in 2- to 10-year-old girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and in unaffected girls matched for age. Found that, compared with unaffected girls, girls with CAH were more interested in masculine toys and less interested in feminine toys and were more likely to report having male playmates and…

  13. Normal Bone Mineral Density and Lean Body Mass, but Increased Fat Mass, in Young Adult Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NIKE M. M. L. STIKKELBROECK; WIM J. G. OYEN; GERT-JAN VAN DER WILT; R. M. M. HERMUS; BARTO J. OTTEN

    Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia attributable to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are treated with glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid administration, even in substitution doses, may cause decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine BMD, lean mass, and fat mass in young adult male (M, n 15) and female (F, n 15) patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, who had

  14. Synergistic Inhibitory Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor and Heparin on Intimal Hyperplasia After Rat Aorta Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jang Sang Park; Seung Nam Kim; Jong Man Won; Yong Bok Koh; In Chul Kim

    1996-01-01

    The respective efficacies of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and standard heparin were investigated with respect to their inhibitory effects on intimal hyperplasia after balloon denudation of rat aorta. Local angiotensin II effects in the artery wall may participate in regulation of the vascular response to arterial injury, apparently independent of the plasma renin and angiotensin system. ACE inhibitors have been

  15. Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy on Prostate Volume and Vascularity in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Pilot Study in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Leoci, Raffaella; Aiudi, Giulio; Silvestre, Fabio; Lissner, Elaine; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a result of urogenital aging. Recent studies suggest that an age-related impairment of the blood supply to the lower urinary tract plays a role in the development of BPH and thus may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of BPH. The canine prostate is a model for understanding abnormal growth of the human prostate gland. We studied the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) in dogs to modify prostate blood flow and evaluated its effect on BPH. METHODS PEMF (5 min, twice a day for 3 weeks) was performed on 20 dogs affected by BPH. Prostatic volume, Doppler assessment by ultrasonography, libido, semen quality, testosterone levels, and seminal plasma volume, composition and pH were evaluated before and after treatment. RESULTS The 3 weeks of PEMF produced a significant reduction in prostatic volume (average 57%) without any interference with semen quality, testosterone levels or libido. Doppler parameters showed a reduction of peripheral resistances and a progressive reduction throughout the trial of the systolic peak velocity, end-diastolic velocity, mean velocity, mean, and peak gradient of the blood flow in the dorsal branch of the prostatic artery. The pulsatility index and the resistance index did not vary significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS The efficacy of PEMF on BPH in dogs, with no side effects, suggests the suitability of this treatment in humans and supports the hypothesis that impairment of blood supply to the lower urinary tract may be a causative factor in the development of BPH. Prostate 74:1132–1141, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. The Prostate published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24913937

  16. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) in compare to medroxyprogesterone acetate as a therapy for endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Ghahiri, Attaollah; Tavakoli, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate the comparison of insertion of levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing intrauterine system versus oral medroxyprogesterone acetate on endometrial hyperplasia in a randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 women with the initial histopathological diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia in two groups received LNG or medroxyprogesterone (10 mg/d orally) for 12 days a month for 3 months). Endometrial biopsy was obtained for all patients after 3 months of treatment. Response to treatment was defined based on the histopathology of the post treatment pipelle endometrial specimens in three categories of resolution, persistence and progression. Results: Treatment response rate in patients in the LNG group was 89.3% (25 of 28 patients), versus 70.4% (19 of 27 patients) in patients in the medroxyprogesterone group. The rate of persistence was 10.7% (3 of 28 patients) and 22.2% (6 of 27 patients) in LNG and medroxyprogesterone groups respectively. No progression of endometrial hyperplasia observed in any of the patients in LNG group, but progression of endometrial hyperplasia was observed in 7.4% (2 of 27 patients) in the medroxyprogesterone group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding the response to treatment (P = 0.15). Side effects such as bloating, weight gain, fatigue and hair loss were comparable between the groups (P > 0.05). Hirsutism was significantly more in the medroxyprogesterone group than LNG group (P = 0.013). Conclusion: Results showed that the use of LNG for treating endometrial hyperplasia for 3 months was associated with high-treatment response rate and the low proportion of patients with progression compared to the use of medroxyprogesterone. PMID:25422650

  17. Surface Papillary Epithelial Hyperplasia (Rough Mucosa) is a Helpful Clue for Identification of Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chi, Angela C; Neville, Brad W

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate surface papillary epithelial hyperplasia, a microscopic finding that corresponds to the clinical finding of rough or stippled mucosa, as a predictor of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). We conducted a retrospective review of minor salivary gland neoplasms submitted to our biopsy service from 1991 to 2013. Our review was limited to lesions involving the oral cavity/soft palate with the following diagnoses: PLGA, pleomorphic adenoma (PA), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). A total of 202 minor salivary gland neoplasms were included in the study. Among cases in which surface epithelium was present for evaluation (n = 112), surface papillary epithelial hyperplasia was evident in 30 % of PLGA and 1 % of non-PLGA (i.e., MEC, ACC, PA). The greater frequency of surface papillary epithelial hyperplasia in the PLGA versus non-PLGA cases and in the benign versus malignant cases was significant (p = .0001 and p = .041, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of papillary epithelial hyperplasia for PLGA were 30 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 11.97-54.27 %) and 99 % (95 % CI 94-99.82 %), respectively. The clinical presentation of PLGA appeared relatively nonspecific, with all analyzed tumor types exhibiting a predilection for females, middle-aged to older adults, palatal location, pink/tan/normal color, and firm consistency. In conclusion, papillary epithelial hyperplasia was evident in only a minority of PLGA. However, when present within the context of a palatal salivary gland neoplasm, it appears to indicate a high probability of PLGA. Accordingly, rough mucosa may be a useful clinical pearl for identification of PLGA. PMID:25322702

  18. Early Androgen Effects on Spatial and Mechanical Abilities: Evidence from Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Korman Bryk, Kristina L.; Beltz, Adriene M.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable controversy about the origins of sex differences in cognitive abilities, particularly the male superiority in spatial abilities. We studied effects of early androgens on spatial and mechanical abilities in adolescents and young adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). On tests of 3D mental rotations, geography, and mechanical knowledge, females with CAH scored higher than their unaffected sisters, and males with CAH scored lower than their unaffected brothers. Exploratory regression analyses suggest that androgens affect spatial ability in females directly and through male-typed activity interests. Findings indicate that early androgens influence spatial and mechanical abilities, and that androgen effects on abilities may occur in part through effects on sex-typed activity interests. PMID:22289044

  19. Von Meyenburg complexes mimicking metastatic disease at laparotomy for focal nodular hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bieze, Matthanja; Verheij, Joanne; Phoa, Saffire S; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman presented with symptoms of fatigue and increasing abdominal discomfort. MRI with the hepatobiliary contrast Gd-EOB-DTPA (Primovist) was performed showing a 6?cm lesion in segment 2/3 of the liver typical for focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Because of severe complaints attributed to the lesion, the patient was scheduled for resection. At laparotomy multiple small white lesions were found throughout the liver with enlarged locoregional lymph nodes. Macroscopically, the findings could be consistent with widespread metastases and the surgeon felt compelled to determine the nature of these lesions before continuing resection. Final diagnosis revealed multiple bile duct hamartomas and an FNH lesion as was expected. PMID:23814126

  20. Measurement of benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment effects on male sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Skolarus, TA; Wei, JT

    2010-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the leading cause of lower urinary tract symptoms among the aging male population. Epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical studies indicate that many of these men also suffer from declining sexual function, especially those undergoing treatment for their BPH-related urinary symptoms. Although urinary symptoms and quality of life may improve with BPH therapy, the resulting effects on sexual function vary by medical, surgical and minimally invasive approaches and have not been consistently reported. As comprehensive, validated instruments to measure male sexual function are now available for routine use in the clinical setting, urologists and primary care providers caring for patients with BPH have the opportunity to monitor both urinary and sexual function before, during and after BPH therapy. Herein, we describe the relationship between BPH and its treatments on male sexual function, the role of new measures for sexual functioning and opportunities for future work to improve the care of men suffering from both maladies. PMID:19536125

  1. [Transvaginal ultra sonography in atypical hyperplasia and early cancer of endometrium (diagnostic significance and prognostic evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Mkrtchian, B B; Tokhunts, K A

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the article was determination of diagnostic significance and prognostic evaluation of transvaginal ultra sonography ( TV US) in atypical hyperplasia and early stage of endometrium cancer a complex examination of 58 different age women was carried out. The examination revealed negative prognostic value of endometrial thickness from 12 to 14 mm in reproductive and perimenopausal periods; and endometrial thickness from 9 mm to 12 mm in menopausal period. Endometrial thickness more than 19 mm is pathognomic for early stage of endometrium cancer. The comparative assessment of TV US prognostic evaluation and hysteroscopy showed relatively high frequency of false-negative results obtained by using TV US (14,3% vs. 5,5%). PMID:17525490

  2. Human benign prostatic hyperplasia in organ culture: studies on iododeoxyuridine uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, J.R.; O'Donoghue, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Prostate tissue architecture and function may be retained in vitro using organ culture. However, the application of the technique is limited due to the lack of simple means for measuring tissue response, for instance to factors controlling cell growth. It is confirmed in this study that measuring the uptake of the radioactive precursor of DNA, 5-(/sup 125/I)-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, is simple, rapid, and reproducible provided the heterogeneity of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is taken into account. Factors affecting the reproducibility (numbers of replicate explants and dishes), specificity (removal of unbound radioactivity and uptake into killed tissue), and sensitivity (radioactive concentration and exposure period) of this technique were investigated. A particular advantage of this approach is that histological assessments are made on the same tissue used for biochemical measurements. Furthermore, the method is sufficiently simple to permit serial investigations chronologically concerning factors, such as hormones, controlling BPH cell growth.

  3. The Role of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonists for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Medical therapy is the preferred first-line approach in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The magnitude of the improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms observed in response to combination therapy (?-blocker plus 5-? reductase inhibitors) does not approach that achieved with prostatectomy. Various drugs have been under consideration, including BXL628, lonidamine, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, all of which have had unacceptable side effects. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist cetrorelix is associated with dose-dependent symptom improvement and reduction of prostate volume. Elucidating the mechanism for cetrorelix-mediated improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms will likely contribute to unraveling the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract symptoms in men. PMID:17192797

  4. Menarche and subsequent ovarian function in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, I A; Read, G F

    1982-01-01

    The mean age at menarche in 6 girls on treatment for congenital adrenal hyperplasia from infancy was 13.6 years (range 12.6-14.5 years). Menarche or regular menses did not occur until plasma testosterone concentrations were within normal limits. This was achieved using single daily dexamethasone, 0.25-0.75 mg/day. The potency of this glucocorticoid in suppressing adrenal steroid biosynthesis relative to cortisol is about 80:1. The onset of regular, ovulatory menstrual cycles, as judged by daily salivary progesterone profiles, was achieved within 2-3 years of menarche using this treatment regimen. Such patients have a good prognosis for normal fertility. PMID:7106698

  5. Phenomenological model of laser-tissue interaction with application to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangmin; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Yunhe; Burke, Dan; Konchada, Vamsi; Sweet, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Laser-tissue interaction is a multi-physics phenomenon not yet mathematically describable and computationally predictable. It is a challenge to model the laser-tissue interaction for real time laser Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) simulation which requires the laser-tissue interaction model to be computationally efficient and accurate. Under the consideration and enforcement of the thermodynamic first law and treating the laser-tissue interaction as a gray-box, utilizing the sensitivity analysis of some key parameters that will affect the laser intensity on the tissue surface with respect to the tissue vaporization rate, a phenomenological model of laser-tissue interaction is developed. The developed laser-tissue interaction model has been implemented for a laser BPH simulator and achieves real time performance (more than 30 frames per second). The model agrees well with the available experimental data. PMID:21335893

  6. PPAR?: A Molecular Link between systemic metabolic disease and benign prostate hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Strand, Douglas W.; Franco, Omar E.; Clark, Peter E.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2011-01-01

    The emergent epidemic of metabolic syndrome and its complex list of sequelae mandate a more thorough understanding of benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) in the context of systemic metabolic disease. Here we discuss the nature and origins of BPH, examine its role as a component of LUTS and review retrospective clinical studies that have drawn associations between BPH/LUTS and type II diabetes, inflammation and dyslipidemia. PPAR? signaling, which sits at the nexus of systemic metabolic disease and BPH/LUTS through its regulation of inflammation and insulin resistance is proposed as a candidate for molecular manipulation in regard to BPH/LUTS. Finally, we introduce new cell and animal models that are being used to study the consequences of obesity, diabetes and inflammation on benign prostatic growth. PMID:21645960

  7. Clinical value of prostate segmentation and volume determination on MRI in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Brian; Türkbey, Bar??; Truong, Hong; Bernardo, Marcelino; Periaswamy, Senthil; Choyke, Peter L

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant pathological enlargement of the prostate, which occurs primarily in the transitional zone. BPH is highly prevalent and is a major cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in aging males, although there is no direct relationship between prostate volume and symptom severity. The progression of BPH can be quantified by measuring the volumes of the whole prostate and its zones, based on image segmentation on magnetic resonance imaging. Prostate volume determination via segmentation is a useful measure for patients undergoing therapy for BPH. However, prostate segmentation is not widely used due to the excessive time required for even experts to manually map the margins of the prostate. Here, we review and compare new methods of prostate volume segmentation using both manual and automated methods, including the ellipsoid formula, manual planimetry, and semiautomated and fully automated segmentation approaches. We highlight the utility of prostate segmentation in the clinical context of assessing BPH. PMID:24675166

  8. Bartholin’s Gland Bilateral Nodular Hyperplasia: A Case Report Study

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh Jahromi, Mojgan; Sari Aslani, Fatemeh; Samsami Dehghani, Alamtaj; Mahmoodi, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tumors which originate from the Bartholin’s glands (BGs) are very rare. Many solid masses that arise from the BGs are carcinoma, though these benign solid lesions are rare. Case Presentation: To the best of the reporter’s knowledge, about 35 cases have been reported in the English literature so far, most of which accompanied with signs or symptoms of Bartholin’s duct cyst. In this paper we report a 43-year-old woman with bilateral solid masses in the BGs, incidentally detected during anterior-posterior colpoperineoplasty. The masses were then excised. Discussion: The histopathological examination showed increased number of acini with preserved duct-acinar connection, consistent with nodular hyperplasia. The patient had used oral contraceptive pill for four years. PMID:25068065

  9. Liver-derived systemic factors drive ?-cell hyperplasia in insulin resistant states

    SciTech Connect

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Kawamori, Dan; Dirice, Ercument; Liew, Chong Wee; Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Hu, Jiang; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Qian, Weijun; Wagers, Amy J.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2013-02-21

    Integrative organ cross-talk regulates key aspects of energy homeostasis and its dysregulation may underlie metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. To test the hypothesis that cross-talk between the liver and pancreatic islets modulates ?-cell growth in response to insulin resistance, we used the Liver-specific Insulin Receptor Knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a unique model that exhibits dramatic islet hyperplasia. Using complementary in vivo parabiosis and transplantation assays, and in vitro islet culture approaches, we demonstrate that humoral, non-neural, non-cell autonomous factor(s) induce ?-cell proliferation in LIRKO mice. Furthermore, we report that a hepatocyte-derived factor(s) stimulates mouse and human ?-cell proliferation in ex vivo assays, independent of ambient glucose and insulin levels. These data implicate the liver as a critical source of ?-cell growth factors in insulin resistant states.

  10. Open prostatectomy in benign prostatic hyperplasia: 10-year experience in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mearini, E; Marzi, M; Mearini, L; Zucchi, A; Porena, M

    1998-12-01

    This study reports the experience of 47 Italian urology units together with the urology unit at the University of Perugia concerning open surgery in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Until 20-25 years ago, open surgery was the most common approach. In the late 1970s the development of endoscopes and their methodology has led to a gradual reduction in open surgery operations, which decreased rapidly with the introduction of mini-invasive endoscopic techniques. Therefore, open surgery for BPH is declining, though still performed. Skill in traditional surgery is mandatory because, until an alternative is devised, indications for open surgery still exist and cannot be ignored. The survey shows the indications and contraindications, complications and results of a 10-year nationwide experience. Guidelines for open surgery in patients with BPH have been drawn up. PMID:9831789

  11. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with liposarcomatous differentiation and intraductal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Ayadi-Kaddour, Aïda; Zeddini, Abdelfatteh; Braham, Emna; Ismail, Olfa; Mlika, Mona; Guelmami, Karim; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasm. 10 to 20% of phyllodes tumor show malignant transformation, often in the form of stroma, which usually shows fibrosarcomatous differentiation and rarely heterologous sarcomatous elements. Liposarcomatous differentiation is not common among phyllodes tumors. The correct diagnosis of heterologous liposarcomatous differentiation in a malignant PT requires identification of the biphasic component of the tumor. We reported a case of malignant phyllodes tumor which initially transformed into liposarcoma, in addition to a very rare intraductal hyperplasia and flat epithelial atypia. The patient was a 75-year-old woman, with a lump in the left breast without axillary lymphadenopathy. She also have a positive family history of breast carcinoma. She underwent surgery and still alive and disease free after one year. PMID:25061020

  12. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto A., E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

  13. Clinical value of prostate segmentation and volume determination on MRI in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Brian; Türkbey, Bar??; Truong, Hong; Bernardo, Marcelino; Periaswamy, Senthil; Choyke, Peter L.

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant pathological enlargement of the prostate, which occurs primarily in the transitional zone. BPH is highly prevalent and is a major cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in aging males, although there is no direct relationship between prostate volume and symptom severity. The progression of BPH can be quantified by measuring the volumes of the whole prostate and its zones, based on image segmentation on magnetic resonance imaging. Prostate volume determination via segmentation is a useful measure for patients undergoing therapy for BPH. However, prostate segmentation is not widely used due to the excessive time required for even experts to manually map the margins of the prostate. Here, we review and compare new methods of prostate volume segmentation using both manual and automated methods, including the ellipsoid formula, manual planimetry, and semiautomated and fully automated segmentation approaches. We highlight the utility of prostate segmentation in the clinical context of assessing BPH. PMID:24675166

  14. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia - experience from a tertiary centre in South India.

    PubMed

    Belinda, George; Vinay, D; Moolechery, J; Mathew, V; Anantharaman, R; Ayyar, V; Bantwal, G

    2012-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzyme deficiency which leads to defects in biosynthesis of steroid precursors. Most common is 21 hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical spectrum varies from non-classical CAH to classic CAH, and it may be simple virilising form or salt-wastinfg type. 29 patients were included in our study from January 2012 to October 2012. 76% were females. Male babies typically presented with adrenal crisis between 3(rd) to 6(th) week of life. Around 20% of females were identified and appropriately treated only after late adolescence. Short stature was seen in 1/3(rd) of patients. 1/3(rd) of patients had suppressed 17 OHP levels suggestive of over-replacement therapy which may contribute to final reduction in adult height. PMID:23565438

  15. Giant pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia presenting in the breast of a prepubertal child.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Tarig; Young, Philippa; Kozyar, Olexandra; Davies, Eleri; Dojcinov, Stefan; Mansel, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Large benign lesions of the breasts are rare in children. We present a case of a 35?cm mass, weighing 2.7?kg in a 13-year-old girl with small developing breasts. Despite the enormity of the lesion, the patient managed to keep it concealed from her parents for 8?months. While initially suspicious of sarcoma a diagnosis of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia was suggested radiologically and confirmed histologically. Excision with reduction mammoplasty was performed, care taken not to disrupt the remaining breast tissue to facilitate future breast development. 18?months on, the cosmetic appearance of the breasts is good, with healthy underlying breast tissue developing. To the best of our knowledge this case is the largest documented breast tumour of this type in a patient of this age and illustrates the challenge of treating such tumours in the developing breast. PMID:26002664

  16. Dimensions of the Epilepsy Foundation Concerns Index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Loring; Glenn J. Larrabee; Kimford J. Meador; Gregory P. Lee

    2005-01-01

    We performed principal component analysis (PCA) of the Epilepsy Foundation Concerns Index scale in 189 patients undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery. We identified a five-factor solution in which there were no varimax-rotated factors consisting of fewer than two questions. Factor 1 reflects affective impact on enjoyment of life, Factor 2 reflects general autonomy concerns, Factor 3 reflects fear of seizure

  17. Effects of coconut oil on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Arruzazabala, María; Molina, Vivian; Más, Rosa; Carbajal, Daisy; Marrero, David; González, Víctor; Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2007-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the benign uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland, leading to difficulty with urination. Saw palmetto lipid extracts (SPLE), used to treat BPH, have been shown to inhibit prostate 5a-reductase, and some major components, such as lauric, myristic and oleic acids also inhibit this enzyme. Coconut oil (CO) is also rich in fatty acids, mainly lauric and myristic acids. We investigated whether CO prevents testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia (PH) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were distributed into seven groups (10 rats each). A negative control group were injected with soya oil; six groups were injected with testosterone (3 mg kg(-1)) to induce PH: a positive control group, and five groups treated orally with SPLE (400 mg kg(-1)), CO or sunflower oil (SO) (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)). Treatments were given for 14 days. Rats were weighed before treatment and weekly thereafter. Rats were then killed and the prostates were removed and weighed. CO (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)), SPLE (400 mg kg(-1)) and SO at 800 mg kg(-1), but not at 400 mg kg(-1), significantly reduced the increase in prostate weight (PW) and PW:body weight (BW) ratio induced by testosterone (% inhibition 61.5%, 82.0%, 43.8% and 28.2%, respectively). Since CO and SPLE, but not SO, contain appreciable concentrations of lauric and myristic acids, these results could be attributed to this fact. In conclusion, this study shows that CO reduced the increase of both PW and PW:BW ratio, markers of testosterone-induced PH in rats. PMID:17637195

  18. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency - management in adults.

    PubMed

    Ambroziak, Urszula; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Ginalska-Malinowska, Maria; Ma?unowicz, Ewa Maria; Grzechoci?ska, Barbara; Kami?ski, Pawe?; Bablok, Leszek; Przedlacki, Jerzy; Bar-Andziak, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is one of the most common autosomal recessive hereditary diseases. The impairment of cortisol synthesis leads to excessive stimulation of the adrenal glands by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), adrenal hyperplasia, and excessive androgen synthesis. The syndrome is characterised by a considerable correlation between the genotype and the phenotype with the type of CYP21A2 gene mutation affecting the severity of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The clinical manifestations of CAH in adults result from adrenocortical and adrenomedullary insufficiency, hyperandrogenism, and the adverse effects of glucocorticosteroids used for the treatment of the condition. Non-classic CAH may sometimes be asymptomatic. In patients with classic CAH obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, and hyperleptinaemia are more often seen than in the general population. These abnormalities promote the development of metabolic syndrome and its sequelae, including endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease. Long-term glucocorticosteroid treatment is also a known risk factor for osteoporosis. Patients with CAH require constant monitoring of biochemical parameters (17a-hydroxyprogesterone [17-OHP] and androstenedione), clinical parameters (body mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, and lipids), and bone mineral density by densitometry. The principal goal of treatment in adults with CAH is to improve quality of life, ensure that they remain fertile, reduce the manifestations of hyperandrogenisation in females, and minimise the adverse effects of glucocorticosteroid treatment. Patients with classic CAH require treatment with glucocorticosteroids and, in cases of salt wasting, also with a mineralocorticosteroid. Radical measures, such as bilateral adrenalectomy, are very rarely needed. Asymptomatic patients with non-classic CAH require monitoring: treatment is not always necessary. Medical care for patients with CAH should be provided by reference centres, as the management of such patients requires collaboration between an endocrinologist, diabetologist, gynaecologist, andrologist, urologist, and psychologist. PMID:20205117

  19. [Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency--management in adults].

    PubMed

    Ambroziak, Urszula; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Ginalska-Malinowska, Maria; Ma?unowicz, Ewa Maria; Grzechoci?ska, Barbara; Kami?ski, Pawe?; Bablok, Leszek; Przedlacki, Jerzy; Bar-Andziak, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is one of the most common autosomal recessive hereditary diseases. The impairment of cortisol synthesis leads to excessive stimulation of the adrenal glands by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), adrenal hyperplasia, and excessive androgen synthesis. The syndrome is characterised by a considerable correlation between the genotype and the phenotype with the type of CYP21A2 gene mutation affecting the severity of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The clinical manifestations of CAH in adults result from adrenocortical and adrenomedullary insufficiency, hyperandrogenism, and the adverse effects of glucocorticosteroids used for the treatment of the condition. Non-classic CAH may sometimes be asymptomatic. In patients with classic CAH obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, and hyperleptinaemia are more often seen than in the general population. These abnormalities promote the development of metabolic syndrome and its sequelae, including endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease. Long-term glucocorticosteroid treatment is also a known risk factor for osteoporosis. Patients with CAH require constant monitoring of biochemical parameters (17a-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione), clinical parameters (body mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, and lipids), and bone mineral density by densitometry. The principal goal of treatment in adults with CAH is to improve quality of life, ensure that they remain fertile, reduce the manifestations of hyperandrogenisation in females, and minimise the adverse effects of glucocorticosteroid treatment. Patients with classic CAH require treatment with glucocorticosteroids and, in cases of salt wasting, also with a mineralocorticosteroid. Radical measures, such as bilateral adrenalectomy, are very rarely needed. Asymptomatic patients with non-classic CAH require monitoring: treatment is not always necessary. Medical care for patients with CAH should be provided by reference centres, as the management of such patients requires collaboration between an endocrinologist, diabetologist, gynaecologist, andrologist, urologist, and psychologist. PMID:22127631

  20. Phenotypic profiling of parents with cryptic nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia: findings in 145 unrelated families

    PubMed Central

    Nandagopal, Radha; Sinaii, Ninet; Avila, Nilo A; Van Ryzin, Carol; Chen, Wuyan; Finkielstain, Gabriela P; Mehta, Sneha P; McDonnel, Nazli B; Merke, Deborah P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To comprehensively phenotype parents identified with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) by family genetic studies, termed here as cryptic NCCAH and to define the incidence of cryptic NCCAH in the parents of a large cohort of patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Design Genotyping was performed on 249 parents of 145 unrelated congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH) patients. Parents with two CYP21A2 mutations underwent extensive evaluation. Results Of the 249 parents, ten (4%; seven females and three males) were identified as having cryptic NCCAH. The majority was of ethnicities previously reported to have a higher incidence of NCCAH. Cosyntropin stimulation performed in eight parents provided biochemical confirmation (17-hydroxyprogesterone range 56–364 nmol/l) and cortisol response was % 500 nmol/l in three parents (38%). Of the seven women (27–54 years) with cryptic NCCAH, four had prior infertility, two reported irregular menses, two had treatment for hirsutism, one had androgenic alopecia. Men were asymptomatic. All cryptic NCCAH parents reported normal puberty and had normal height. Adrenal hypertrophy and a small adrenal myelolipoma were observed in two parents; testicular adrenal rest tissue was not found. Conclusions Parents diagnosed with NCCAH by genetic testing are mostly asymptomatic. Temporary female infertility and suboptimal cortisol response were commonly observed. Ongoing glucocorticoid therapy is not indicated in adults with CAH identified by family genotype studies unless symptomatic, but glucocorticoid stress coverage should be considered in select cases. Parents of a child with CAH have a 1:25 risk of having NCCAH; if the mother of a child with CAH has infertility, evaluation for NCCAH is indicated. PMID:21444649