Science.gov

Sample records for hyperplasia tritium tracer

  1. Tritium tracer test to estimate aquifer recharge under irrigated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Tamoh, K.; Candela, L.

    2009-12-01

    Environmental tracers, as tritium, have been generally used to estimate aquifer recharge under natural conditions. A tritium tracer test to estimate recharge under semi-arid and irrigated conditions is presented. The test was carried out in an experimental plot under drip irrigation, located in SE Spain, with annual row crops (rotation lettuce and melon), following common agricultural practices in open air. Tritiated water was applied as an irrigation pulse, soil cores were taken at different depths and a liquid scintillation analyzer was used to measure the concentration of tritium in soil samples. Transport of tritium was simulated with SOLVEG code, a one-dimensional numerical model for simulating transport of heat, water and tritiated water in liquid and gas phase, which has been modified and adapted for this experience, including ground cover, root growth and root water uptake. One crop has been used to calibrate the modeling approach and other three crops to validate it. Results of flow and transport modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated tritium concentration profile. For the period October 2007-September 2008, total drainage obtained value was 441 mm.

  2. Predicted fate of tritium residuum from groundwater tracer experiments in the Amargosa Desert, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Brikowski, T.

    1993-07-01

    Analytic solutions are used in this study to evaluate potential groundwater transport of tritium used in goundwater tracer tests southwest of the Nevada Test Site. Possible transport from this site is of interest because initial radionuclide concentrations were high and the site is close to goundwater discharge points (12 km). Anecdotal evidence indicates that 90 percent of these tracers were removed by pumping at the completion of the tests; this study examines the probable transport of the tracers with and without the removal. Classical dispersive transport analytic solutions are used, treating the tracer test as a point slug injection. Input parameters for the solutions were measured at the site, and consideration of parameter uncertainty is incorporated in the results. With removal of the tracer, the maximum expected region with above-Safe Drinking Water Act (40 CFR 121) concentrations of tritium extends 5 km from the injection point, and does not reach any sites of public access. Detectable tritium from the tests is likely to have reached the Ash Meadows fault zone, but flow along the fault probably diluted the tracer to below detection limits before arrival at springs along the fault. Arrival at the springs would have occurred 20 to 25 years after the tests. Without removal of the tracer, the solutions indicate that tritium concentrations just above Safe Drinking Water Act standards would have reached the Ash Meadows fault zone. In this case, detectable tritium might have been found in Devil`s Hole or Longstreet Spring, the nearest points of possible public exposure.

  3. Tritium tracer movement as an analogy for pump and treat remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    There has been debate over effectiveness of groundwater pump and treat remediation. The goal of the following discussion is to present evidence from a tracer test that illustrates the difficulty in removing contaminants from fractured shale that is typical of portions of the DOE-Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This report provides a brief prelude to more detailed analysis that is in progress. Attempts to remediate groundwater contamination with pump and treat technology have been hampered by difficulties in removing contaminants in slow flow zones. There is interest in using this remediation method on the ORR because it is an existing technology. However, this setting provides a rather extreme contrast between fast flow zones (fractures) and slow flow zones (the matrix surrounding the fractures). Over the past few years, the authors have begun to develop an understanding of how contaminants move in fractures and how contaminant exchange between the fracture and matrix occurs. In particular, they have evidence from a long term tritium tracer test that has direct bearing on potential success or failure of pump and treat remediation in fractured rocks.

  4. Estimating groundwater recharge in Hebei Plain, China under varying land use practices using tritium and bromide tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Jin, M.; Nimmo, J.R.; Yang, L.; Wang, W.

    2008-01-01

    Tritium and bromide were used as applied tracers to determine groundwater recharge in Hebei Plain, North China, to evaluate the impacts of different soil types, land use, irrigation, and crop cultivation practice on recharge. Additional objectives were to evaluate temporal variability of recharge and the effect on results of the particular tracer used. Thirty-nine profiles at representative locations were chosen for investigation. Average recharge rates and recharge coefficient determined by tritium and bromide tracing for different sites were 0.00-1.05 mm/d and 0.0-42.5%, respectively. The results showed relative recharge rates for the following paired influences (items within each pair are listed with the influence producing greater recharge first): flood-irrigated cropland and non-irrigated non-cultivation land, flood irrigation (0.42-0.58 mm/d) and sprinkling irrigation (0.17-0.23 mm/d), no stalk mulch (0.56-0.80 mm/d) and stalk mulch (0.44-0.60 mm/d), vegetable (e.g. Chinese cabbage and garlic, 0.70 mm/d) and wheat-maize (0.38 mm/d), peanut (0.51 mm/d) and peach (0.43 mm/d). The results also showed greater recharge for the first year of tracer travel than for the second. Because total precipitation and irrigation were greater in the first year than in the second, this may reflect temporal variability of recharge. The method may not be applicable where the water table is shallow (less than 3 m). A comparison of the near-ideal tritium tracer with the more common but less ideal bromide showed that bromide moved approximately 23% faster than tritiated water, perhaps because of anion exclusion. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Estimating groundwater recharge in Hebei Plain, China under varying land use practices using tritium and bromide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingguo; Jin, Menggui; Nimmo, John R.; Yang, Lei; Wang, Wenfeng

    2008-07-01

    SummaryTritium and bromide were used as applied tracers to determine groundwater recharge in Hebei Plain, North China, to evaluate the impacts of different soil types, land use, irrigation, and crop cultivation practice on recharge. Additional objectives were to evaluate temporal variability of recharge and the effect on results of the particular tracer used. Thirty-nine profiles at representative locations were chosen for investigation. Average recharge rates and recharge coefficient determined by tritium and bromide tracing for different sites were 0.00-1.05 mm/d and 0.0-42.5%, respectively. The results showed relative recharge rates for the following paired influences (items within each pair are listed with the influence producing greater recharge first): flood-irrigated cropland and non-irrigated non-cultivation land, flood irrigation (0.42-0.58 mm/d) and sprinkling irrigation (0.17-0.23 mm/d), no stalk mulch (0.56-0.80 mm/d) and stalk mulch (0.44-0.60 mm/d), vegetable (e.g. Chinese cabbage and garlic, 0.70 mm/d) and wheat-maize (0.38 mm/d), peanut (0.51 mm/d) and peach (0.43 mm/d). The results also showed greater recharge for the first year of tracer travel than for the second. Because total precipitation and irrigation were greater in the first year than in the second, this may reflect temporal variability of recharge. The method may not be applicable where the water table is shallow (less than 3 m). A comparison of the near-ideal tritium tracer with the more common but less ideal bromide showed that bromide moved approximately 23% faster than tritiated water, perhaps because of anion exclusion.

  6. Artificial Recharge Rates in Granites, Basalt, Sedimentary and Alluvial Formations of Andhra Pradesh, India, Using Injection Tritium Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangarajan, R.; Muralidharan, D.; Hodlur, G. K.; Banerjee, Pallavi

    2010-05-01

    Rate of groundwater artificial recharge is a very unpredictable and complex phenomenon to understand. But it is a vital parameter to be known for groundwater budgeting and management. Percolation of a portion of the rainfall through the vadoze zone is the principal source of regional artificial recharge to the aquifer system. Tritium injection method based on the piston flow model is ideally suitable for quantifying the downward flux of moisture in the vadoes zone and for the measuring the artificial recharge rate under various hydrogeological conditions. Recharge rates due to monsoon rainfall were measured using injected tritium tracer technique in 17 watersheds / basins located in granite, basalt, sedimentary and alluvium formations of Andhra Pradesh during the last two and half decades. Recharge measurement were made at several sites in each watershed or basin area. At each site, tritiated water was injected at the depth of 60 cm below ground level before the onset of monsoon and vertical soil core profiles in 10 cm section were collected after the completion of monsoon. After laboratory process to measure the moisture content and tritium concentration, the recharge values are computed. The recharge rate measurements facilitate to demarcate favorable areas for taking up artificial recharge measures.

  7. Tritium as a tracer in coal liquefaction. 1; Hydrogen mobility of tetralin under coal liquefaction conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kabe, T.; Ishihara, A.; Daita, Y. )

    1991-08-01

    In this paper the reaction of tetralin with tritiated molecular hydrogen is carried out at 350-440{degrees} C, 20-60 kg/cm{sup 2} for 0-8 h to estimate the hydrogen mobility of tetralin itself. Under these conditions, tetralin is converted to 1-methylindan, naphthalene and n-butylbenzene, and 1-methylindan is a main product. With a rise in temperature and a passage of time, the amount of tritium transferred from the gas phase into tetralin increased and the hydrogen-exchange ratio of tetralin at 440{degrees} C, 120 min and 400{degrees}C, 480 min reached 14.3% and 13.5%, respectively. The hydrogen-exchange ratio and the amount of methylindan increased with a hydrogen/tetralin molar ratio. The addition of coal enhanced the hydrogen exchange between gas phase and tetralin. In the absence and presence of coal, tritium was observed in the isolated naphthalene. It is suggested that hydrogen in tetralin changing to naphthalene may be able to exchange with molecular hydrogen.

  8. Dating of young groundwater using tritium and gaseous tracers (SF6, SF5CF3, CFC-12, H-1301): case study from southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Dulinski, Marek; Kuc, Tadeusz; Sliwka, Ireneusz; Mochalski, Pawel; Kania, Jaroslaw; Witczak, Stanislaw

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater is an important source of potable water in many countries. While it covers ca. 50% of the global drinking water needs, in Europe this share is even higher, reaching approximately 70%. Nowadays, this strategic resource is at risk due to anthropogenic pollutants of various nature entering shallow aquifers. Proper management of groundwater resources requires thorough understanding of groundwater dynamics on time scales characteristic for the history of pollutant input to groundwater. The bomb-tritium has been used for several decades now as a tracer of choice to detect recent recharge and to quantify groundwater residence times on time scales extending from several years to several decades. The lumped-parameter modeling was the most often employed approach in this context. Since nowadays atmospheric concentrations of tritium are approaching natural levels in most parts of the world, the usage of this tracer has become more problematic. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alternative indicators of groundwater age in shallow aquifers. Anthropogenic trace gases present in the atmosphere, such as freons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), have been applied in numerous case studies as substitutes of tritium. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study aimed at quantifying mean residence time of groundwater in the recharge area of porous sandy aquifer system located in the southern Poland. The principal economic role of the aquifer, consisting of two water-bearing strata, is to provide potable water for public and private users. The yield of the aquifer is insufficient to meet all the needs and, as a consequence, licensing conflicts arise between water supply companies and industry on the amount of water available for safe exploitation. To quantify residence time distribution (RTD) functions of water parcels arriving at the production wells located in the recharge area of the aquifer, tritium along with several gaseous tracers

  9. Simulation of a field scale tritium tracer experiment in a fractured, weathered shale using discrete-fracture/matrix-diffusion and equivalent porous medium models

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, P.L.

    1996-05-01

    Simulations of a tritium tracer experiment in fractured shale saprolite, conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, were performed using 1D and 2D equivalent porous medium (EPM) and discrete-fracture/matrix-diffusion (DFMD) models. The models successfully reproduced the general shape of the breakthrough curves in down-gradient monitoring wells which are characterized by rapid first arrival, a slow-moving center of mass, and a persistent ``tail`` of low concentration. In plan view, the plume shows a large degree of transverse spreading with the width almost as great as the length. EPM models were sensitive to dispersivity coefficient values which had to be large (relative to the 3.7m distance between the injection and monitoring wells) to fit the tail and transverse spreading. For example, to fit the tail a longitudinal dispersivity coefficient, {alpha}{sub L}, of 0.8 meters for the 2D simulations was used. To fit the transverse spreading, a transverse dispersivity coefficient, {alpha}{sub T}, of 0.8 to 0.08 meters was used indicating an {alpha}{sub L}/{alpha}{sub T} ratio between 10 and 1. Transverse spreading trends were also simulated using a 2D DFMD model using a few larger aperture fractures superimposed onto an EPM. Of the fracture networks studied, only those with truncated fractures caused transverse spreading. Simulated tritium levels in all of the cases were larger than observed values by a factor of approximately 100. Although this is partly due to input of too much tritium mass by the models it appears that dilution in the wells, which were not purged prior to sampling, is also a significant factor. The 1D and 2D EPM models were fitted to monitoring data from the first five years of the experiment and then used to predict future tritium concentrations.

  10. Analysis of multicomopnent groundwater flow in karst aquifer by CFC, tritium, tracer test and modelling, case study at Skaistkalnes vicinity, Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikshe, Janis; Babre, Alise; Delina, Aija; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater in karst environments tends to have difficulties to distinguish multiple flows if several sources of water are present. Skaistkalne vicinity faces with such situation where old groundwater, fresh groundwater and inflow from river Iecava occurs. Attempts were made to distinguish groundwater residence time of multiple components of water applying CFC and tritium dating techniques supplied by tracer test and numerical model of study area. Study area covers territory between two rivers Iecava and Memele with water level difference of 7 meters and horizontal distance of 2.2 kilometres between both. Study area consists of karst affected Devonian gypsum and carbonaceous rocks covered by Quaternary low to high permeable deposits. Confined groundwater at depth of 10-25 meters where analysed by CFC's and tritium. At this depth groundwater exhibits anoxic reducing environment that has caused degradation of CFC's at similar degree in all samples. Taking it into account, mean residence time based on CFC piston flow model is 22 - 42 years and 28 - 34 years based on binary mixing model. Tritium results show signs of incensement of groundwater residence time towards discharge area. CFC combined with tritium proved increased vertical velocity in middle part between the rivers likely caused by hydrogeological window in Quaternary deposits created by karst processes. Numerical model (Delina et al. 2012) was applied and calculations yielded groundwater flow velocity rate at 0.3 - 1 m/day in area between the rivers. Investigation of CFC data resulted in possible groundwater flow rate of at a minimum of 0.2 m/day although it's not applicable to all sampled wells due to specific hydrogeological conditions. Tracer test was made between the rivers in order to distinguish main water flow paths and flow velocity. Results showed that very high permeable conduits connect rivers and karst lakes with velocity rates of 800 - 1300 m/day. Complex investigation leads to conclude that

  11. Condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Uma; Chandra, Subhash; Raju, B H V Rama Krishnam; Anitha, G; Srikanth, K Venkata; Laheji, Afshan

    2012-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH), as the name suggests, affects mandibular condyle producing overgrowth of condyle, which is characterized by a slowly progressive, usually unilateral enlargement of the mandible, facial asymmetry and deviation of chin to the unaffected side. The condition is known to be self-limiting, usually begins around puberty, but may not be recognized until later in life. This paper reports a case of severe facial asymmetry secondary to CH, which was successfully treated by high condylectomy only. PMID:23404027

  12. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Overview What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia? Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or CAH, is a disorder that affects the adrenal glands. The adrenal ...

  13. Somatotroph Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Thorner, M. O.; Perryman, R. L.; Cronin, M. J.; Rogol, A. D.; Draznin, M.; Johanson, A.; Vale, W.; Horvath, E.; Kovacs, K.

    1982-01-01

    A 21-yr-old woman with Turner's syndrome presented with signs and symptoms of acromegaly. The serum growth hormone (GH) (95±9.4 ng/ml; mean±SEM) and somatomedin C (11 U/ml) levels were elevated, and an increase in GH levels after glucose instead of normal suppression, increase after thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) administration instead of no change, and decrease after dopamine administration instead of stimulation were observed. The pituitary fossa volume was greater than normal (1,440 mm3) and the presence of a pituitary tumor was assumed. After tissue removal at transsphenoidal surgery, histological study revealed somatotroph hyperplasia rather than a discrete adenoma. Postoperatively, she remained clinically acromegalic and continued to show increased GH and somatomedin levels. A search was made for ectopic source of a growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF). Computer tomographic scan revealed a 5-cm Diam tumor in the tail of the pancreas. Following removal of this tumor, serum GH fell from 70 to 3 ng/ml over 2 h, and remained low for the subsequent 5 mo. Serum somatomedin C levels fell from 7.2 to normal by 6 wk postoperatively. There were no longer paradoxical GH responses to glucose, TRH, and dopamine. Both the medium that held the tumor cells at surgery and extracts of the tumor contained a peptide with GRF activity. The GRF contained in the tumor extract coeluted on Sephadex G-50 chromatography with rat hypothalamic GH-releasing activity. Stimulation of GH from rat somatotrophs in vitro was achieved at the nanomolar range, using the tumor extract. The patient's course demonstrates the importance of careful interpretation of pituitary histology. Elevated serum GH and somatomedin C levels in a patient with an enlarged sella turcica and the characteristic responses seen in acromegaly to TRH, dopamine, and glucose do not occur exclusively in patients with discrete pituitary tumors and acromegaly. This condition can also occur with somatotroph hyperplasia

  14. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-06-14

    A system is described for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream. 1 fig.

  15. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream.

  16. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  17. Tritium autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen distribution and diffusion within many materials may be investigated by autoradiography if the radioactive isotope tritium is used in the study. Tritium is unstable and decays to helium-3 by emission of a low energy (18 keV) beta particle which may be detected photographically. The basic principles of tritium autoradiography will be discussed. Limitations are imposed on the technique by: (1) the low energy of the beta particles; (2) the solubility and diffusivity of hydrogen in materials; and (3) the response of the photographic emulsion to beta particles. These factors control the possible range of application of tritium autoradiography. The technique has been applied successfully to studies of hydrogen solubility and distribution in materials and to studies of hydrogen damage.

  18. Atmospheric tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Oestlund, H.G.; Mason, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Research progress for the year 1979 to 1980 are reported. Concentrations of tritiated water vapor, tritium gas and tritiated hydrocarbons in the atmosphere at selected sampling points are presented. (ACR)

  19. The endometrial hyperplasias revisited.

    PubMed

    Sivridis, Efthimios; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2008-09-01

    The proliferating lesions in the endometrium form a morphological continuum extending from benign to malignant, through a transitional pre-invasive stage. Within this spectrum, several classifications of endometrial hyperplasia have been developed over the years in which the precancerous lesions gained a substantial distinction, although not without inconsistencies in definitions and terminology. The revised WHO 1994 classification explicitly recognizes cytological atypia as the defining feature for distinguishing genuine hyperplastic lesions (simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia) from those that are potentially precancerous (simple and complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia) and puts an end to the verbal anarchy by adopting a common language of communication. This taxonomy, however, was criticized for complexity and low level of reproducibility. Thus, in the name of improved reproducibility a new classification was recently proposed which (a) combines simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia within one diagnostic category known as endometrial hyperplasia and (b) defines new criteria for recognising the precancerous lesions: a monoclonal growth, known as endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN), comprising clusters of crowded glands, greater than 1 mm in diameter, having a cytologically altered epithelium. The EIN concept was challenged of not being independently tested and received with great enthusiasm by some scholars and relative skepticism by others. PMID:18726114

  20. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  1. Exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    A 60-year-old man had incidental finding of a multilobular 8 × 7 × 7-cm mass identified posterior to the urinary bladder in continuity with the prostate. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 1.87, and he denied any lower urinary tract symptoms. A transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy demonstrated benign prostatic tissue. A computed tomography-guided needle aspiration demonstrated a benign epithelium-lined cyst, likely prostatic in origin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a proliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Although prostatic hyperplasia is usually restricted to the prostate gland, hyperplastic nodules occasionally protrude outside the prostate and rarely form exophytic pelvic masses. PMID:20869104

  2. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children, but much shorter ...

  3. Epithelial hyperplasia, airways —

    Cancer.gov

    Number of respiratory epithelial cells is increased diffusely or focally. Frequently luminal protrusions are observed, sometimes forming papillae. Mucous (goblet) cell metaplastic hyperplasia is a variant, in which the respiratory epithelium of conducting airways is replaced by mucous cells either as a single or a pseudostratified layer.

  4. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  5. Tracer dating and ocean ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Thiele, G.; Sarmiento, J.L. )

    1990-06-15

    The interpretation of transient tracer observations depends on difficult to obtain information on the evolution in time of the tracer boundary conditions and interior distributions. Recent studies have attempted to circumvent this problem by making use of a derived quantity, age, based on the simultaneous distribution of two complementary tracers, such as tritium and its daughter, helium 3. The age is defined with reference to the surface such that the boundary condition takes on a constant value of zero. The authors use a two-dimensional model to explore the circumstances under which such a combination of conservation equations for two complementary tracers can lead to a cancellation of the time derivative terms. An interesting aspect of this approach is that mixing can serve as a source or sink of tracer based age. The authors define an idealized ventilation age tracer that is conservative with respect to mixing, and they explore how its behavior compares with that of the tracer-based ages over a range of advective and diffusive parameters.

  6. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, Gary J.; Weesner, Forrest J.

    1989-05-30

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  7. Magmatic tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I.; McMurtry, G.M.; Shevenell, L.; Pettit, D.R.; Stimac, J.A.; Werner, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ({sup 3}H) of deep origin (<0.1 T.U. or <0.32 pCi/kg H{sub 2}O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable {sup 3}H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics.

  8. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH. PMID:20671993

  9. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasias.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, A C; Wood, G S

    2000-06-01

    Benign hyperplastic lymphoid infiltrates of the skin (pseudolymphoma, older term) simulate lymphoma clinically and histologically. They can be divided into B-cell predominant (typical cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH), angiolymphoid hyperplasia, Kimura's disease, and Castleman's disease) and T-cell predominant (T-cell CLH, lymphomatoid contact dermatitis, and lymphomatoid drug eruption). Both types may represent exaggerated reactions to diverse external antigens (insect bite, tattoo, zoster, trauma, among others). A composite assessment of clinical presentation and behavior, routine histology, immunophenotyping, and molecular studies is essential for the diagnosis of benign cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. Treatment includes antibiotics, intralesional and systemic corticosteroids, excision, radiotherapy, and immunosuppressants. Treatment depends on the assessment and biologic behavior, which is usually benign. Molecular biologic analysis has shown that a significant proportion of cases harbor occult B- or T-cell clones (clonal CLH). Progression to overt cutaneous lymphoma has been observed in a minority of cases. Patients with clonal populations of B or T cells and persistent lesions should be closely observed for emergence of a lymphoma. PMID:10892716

  10. Tritium in Australian precipitation: A 50 year record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Hughes, Catherine E.; Crawford, Jagoda; Hollins, Suzanne E.; Chisari, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Tritium in precipitation has been measured in Australia over the past 50 years, as an essential research tool in hydro-climate studies, and to contribute to the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Tritium, a component of the water molecule (HTO), is the only true age tracer for waters. The elevated level of tritium in the environment as a result of last century’s atmospheric thermonuclear testing delivers the benefit of tracing groundwater systems over a 100 year timeframe. The concentration of tritium in Australian precipitation reached a maximum of 160 Tritium Units (TU) in 1963, during one of the most intense periods of nuclear weapons testing. From 1963 to present we observe a rapid drop in the concentration of tritium, more than expected from natural decay, and this can be attributed to the wash out of tritium into the oceans and groundwater. Spikes in the tritium level are superimposed over this general trend; the first around 1969, with levels ranging from 39.4 to 84.4 TU was due to French atmospheric weapon testing, and again in 1990, levels peaked between 6.6 and 12.9 TU, which is attributed to tritium leaking from underground tests in the French Pacific. Since 1990 the levels of tritium have declined globally and regionally. Currently the levels of tritium in Australia are stabilising to around 2-3 TU increasing with latitude across the continent, suggesting that today the tritium in precipitation is predominantly natural. The spatial distribution of tritium is presented and found to be dominated by the annual stratosphere-troposphere exchange in combination with latitude and continental effects. A precipitation amount effect is also observed for inland sites.

  11. Continuous Aqueous Tritium Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-03-29

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a custom designed system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillators coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (=25kBz/L) for tritium break-through detection int he aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium releases to the environment.

  12. Continuous aqueous tritium monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-10-01

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a unique system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillator coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (approx.25kBq/L) for tritium breakthrough detection in the aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium to the environment. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Constraining the North Atlantic circulation with tritium data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memery, Laurent; Wunsch, Carl

    1990-01-01

    The North Atlantic circulation derived from an inverse calculation by singular-value decomposition is tested against the historical record of tritium. A forward calculation of the tritium transient is performed using the circulation model, published estimates of atmospheric injection rates, and plausible estimates of the tracer history at the open boundaries of the model. The results do not agree with observations of the interior distributions of tritium. Consideration is given to the possibility of improving the agreement by modifying the atmospheric injection rates and the initial estimates of open boundary time histories, treating the boundary conditions as control variables.

  14. Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Deshingkar, S A; Barpande, S R; Bhavthankar, J D

    2011-07-01

    Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia (CHH) is a rare congenital malformation characterized by marked unilateral overdevelopment of hard and soft tissues of the face. Asymmetry in CHH is usually evident at birth and accentuated with age, especially at puberty. The affected side grows at a rate proportional to the nonaffected side so that the disproportion is maintained thr oughout the life. Multisystem involvement has resulted in etiological heterogeneity including heredity, chromosomal abnormalities, atypical forms of twinning, altered intrauterine environment, and endocrine dysfunctions; however, no single theory explains the etiology adequately. Deformities of all tissues of face, including teeth and their related tissues in the jaw, are key findings for correct diagnosis of CHH. Here an attempt has been made to present a case of CHH with its archetypal features and to supplement existing clinical knowledge. PMID:22090778

  15. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dessinioti, Cleo; Katsambas, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia consists of a heterogenous group of inherited disorders due to enzymatic defects in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone. This results in glucocorticoid deficiency, mineralocorticoid deficiency, and androgen excess. 95% of CAH cases are due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical forms range from the severe, classical CAH associated with complete loss of enzyme function, to milder, non-classical forms (NCAH). Androgen excess affects the pilosebaceous unit, causing cutaneous manifestations such as acne, androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism. Clinical differential diagnosis between NCAH and polycystic ovary syndrome may be difficult. In this review, the evaluation of patients with suspected CAH, the clinical presentation of CAH forms, with emphasis on the cutaneous manifestations of the disease, and available treatment options, will be discussed. PMID:22523607

  16. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

    2002-02-11

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

  17. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  18. Tracer Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, H.; Motomura, S.; Kamino, S.; Enomoto, S.

    In radioactive tracer technique, radioactive nuclides are used to follow the behavior of elements or chemical species in chemical and other processes. This is realized by means of radioactivity measurement. In 1913, Hevesy and Paneth succeeded in determining the extremely low solubility of lead salts by using naturally occurring 210Pb as a radioactive tracer. As various radioactive nuclides became artificially available, this technique has been widely employed in studies of chemical equilibrium and reactions as well as in chemical analysis. It is also an essential technique in biochemical, biological, medical, geological, and environmental studies. Medical diagnosis and industrial process control are the fields of its most important practical application. In this chapter, fundamental ideas concerning radioactive tracers will be described followed by their application with typical examples. Detailed description on their application to life sciences and medicine is given in Vol. 4.

  19. Sources of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water.

  20. Tritium pellet injector results

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Bauer, M.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Deleanu, L.E.; Fehling, D.T.; Milora, S.L.; Whitson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of /sup 3/He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Forde, James C; Thomas, Dominique Dana Marie; Laor, Leanna; Hossack, Tania; Woo, Henry H; Te, Alexis E; Kaplan, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which causes lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), is a common diagnosis among the ageing male population with increasing prevalence. Many risks factors, both modifiable and non-modifiable, can increase the risk of development and progression of BPH and LUTS. The symptoms can be obstructive (resulting in urinary hesitancy, weak stream, straining or prolonged voiding) or irritative (resulting in increased urinary frequency and urgency, nocturia, urge incontinence and reduced voiding volumes), or can affect the patient after micturition (for example, postvoid dribble or incomplete emptying). BPH occurs when both stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate in the transitional zone proliferate by processes that are thought to be influenced by inflammation and sex hormones, causing prostate enlargement. Patients with LUTS undergo several key diagnostic investigations before being diagnosed with BPH. Treatment options for men with BPH start at watchful waiting and progress through medical to surgical interventions. For the majority of patients, the starting point on the treatment pathway will be dictated by their symptoms and degree of bother. PMID:27147135

  2. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U.; Jacqmin, G.

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  3. Study of North Atlantic ventilation using transient tracers. Doctoral Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, S.C.

    1991-08-01

    Tritium, (3)He, and chlorofluorocarbon distributions in the North Atlantic provide constraints on the ventilation time-scales for the thermocline and abyssal water. A new model function based on a factor analysis of the WMO/IAEA precipitation data set is developed for predicting the spatial and temporal patterns of bomb-tritium in precipitation. Model atmospheric and advective tritium inputs to the North Atlantic are compared with the observed bomb-tritium inventories calculated from the 1972 GEOSECS and 1981-1983 TTO data sets. The observed growth of bomb-tritium levels in the deep North Atlantic are used, along with the tracer gradients ((3)H and (3)He) in the Deep Western Boundary Current, to estimate abyssal ventilation rates and boundary current recirculation. The surface boundary conditions for different transient tracers are found to profoundly effect thermocline ventilation rates estimates. Tracers that equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere, such as (3)He and the CFCs, have faster apparent ventilation rates and are more appropriate for estimating oxygen utilization rates than tracers that are reset slowly in the surface ocean (e.g. (3)H and (14)C). The chlorofluorocarbon data for a new section in the eastern North Atlantic are presented and used to illustrate the ventilation time-scales for the major water masses in the region. (Copyright (c) Scott C. Doney, 1991.)

  4. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  5. Tritium monitoring techniques

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, J.R.; Buckner, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    As part of their operations, the U.S. Navy is required to store or maintain operational nuclear weapons on ships and at shore facilities. Since these weapons contain tritium, there are safety implications relevant to the exposure of personnel to tritium. This is particularly important for shipboard operations since these types of environments can make low-level tritium detection difficult. Some of these ships have closed systems, which can result in exposure to tritium at levels that are below normally acceptable levels but could still cause radiation doses that are higher than necessary or could hamper ship operations. This report describes the state of the art in commercial tritium detection and monitoring and recommends approaches for low-level tritium monitoring in these environments.

  6. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  7. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of lower lip.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaganjot Kaur; Sharma, Manish; Vanaki, Srinivas S

    2011-10-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia (AH) is an uncommon, non-neoplastic swelling on the palate caused due to hyperplasia of the mucinous acini. The lesion clinically presents as a sessile tumor-like nodule resembling pleomorphic adenoma. Histopathologic findings include lobules of enlarged mucinous acini which are filled with secretory granules. The nuclei are squeezed to the basal portions, associated with focal inflammation and ductal dilatation, and a history of trauma is often elicited. Here, we report a rare case of AH of the lower lip in a 20-year-old male patient, which mimics a mucous retention cyst or mucocele. PMID:22135695

  8. Mirror image condylar hyperplasia in two siblings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lignelli, John L; Ruprecht, Axel

    2004-02-01

    A Hispanic family with an unusual clinical and radiological pattern of condylar hyperplasia is presented. Mirror images of condylar hyperplasia, malocclusion of teeth, and shift of midline of the mandible were seen in two brothers. The father had a similar abnormality of his left mandibular condyle. The condylar hyperplasia in this family indicates that mandibular condylar hyperplasias could be genetic in origin, possibly Y-linked or autosomal dominant. PMID:14970789

  9. Radiation quality of tritium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Tritium occurs from both natural and manufactured processes. In the environment, tritium can exist in the form of tritiated water (HTO) and in an organic form known as organically-bound tritium (OBT). Although, the concentrations of environmental OBT are relatively low, there is concern that current risk factors may underestimate the risk from OBT. Because tritium poses an internal hazard at cellular levels, microdosimetric techniques provide suitable tools for the study of radiation quality of tritium. In this study, microdosimetric simulations are performed for tritium uniformly distributed in a medium, and for tritium bound to biologically critical sites of dimensions from 10 nm to 2 microm. Results of local energy density are different for these two cases in microscopic regions. Based on the spatial distribution of energy deposition, dose mean lineal energies are calculated for tritium in forms of HTO and OBT. The dose mean lineal energies of OBT are about a factor of 1.7 higher than those of HTO in a wide range of target dimensions of biological interest. The results are consistent with radiobiological findings that OBT is about twice as effective as that of HTO. PMID:17132658

  10. Methods for tritium labeling

    DOEpatents

    Andres, Hendrik; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.

    1993-01-01

    Reagents and processes for reductively introducing deuterium or tritium into organic molecules are described. The reagents are deuterium or tritium analogs of trialkyl boranes, borane or alkali metal aluminum hydrides. The process involves forming these reagents in situ from alkali metal tritides or deuterides.

  11. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  12. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOEpatents

    Gentile, Charles A. , Guttadora, Gregory L. , Parker, John J.

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  13. Internal dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    Tritium is an interesting radionuclide from the perspective of internal dosimetry because of the wide variety of chemical compounds in which it can appear, its unusual routes of entry into the body, and its ability to exchange with stable hydrogen in surrounding material. In this report the internal dosimetry of tritium compounds is reviewed, with emphasis on methods of evaluating bioassay data following chronic and acute intakes. The assumptions and models used in the derivation of Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for tritium are also discussed.

  14. Internal dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1992-06-01

    Tritium is an interesting radionuclide from the perspective of internal dosimetry because of the wide variety of chemical compounds in which it can appear, its unusual routes of entry into the body, and its ability to exchange with stable hydrogen in surrounding material. In this report the internal dosimetry of tritium compounds is reviewed, with emphasis on methods of evaluating bioassay data following chronic and acute intakes. The assumptions and models used in the derivation of Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for tritium are also discussed.

  15. Tritium catalyzed deuterium tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.; Jung, J.; Gilligan, J.

    1984-04-01

    A preliminary assessment of the promise of the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium (TCD) tokamak power reactors relative to that of deuterium-tritium (D-T) and catalyzed deuterium (Cat-D) tokamaks is undertaken. The TCD mode of operation is arrived at by converting the /sup 3/He from the D(D,n)/sup 3/He reaction into tritium, by neutron capture in the blanket; the tritium thus produced is fed into the plasma. There are three main parts to the assessment: blanket study, reactor design and economic analysis and an assessment of the prospects for improvements in the performance of TCD reactors (and in the promise of the TCD mode of operation, in general).

  16. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  17. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  18. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Virk, Renu K; Khan, Ashraf

    2010-07-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign, proliferative mesenchymal lesion with possible hormonal etiology. It typically affects women in the reproductive age group. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is frequently an incidental histologic finding in breast biopsies performed for other benign or malignant lesions. Rarely, it can present as a firm, painless breast mass, which has been referred to as nodular or tumorous PASH. Grossly, tumorous PASH is a well-circumscribed, firm, rubbery mass with solid, homogenous, gray-white cut surface. On histologic examination, it is characterized by the presence of open slitlike spaces in dense collagenous stroma. The spaces are lined by a discontinuous layer of flat, spindle-shaped myofibroblasts with bland nuclei. The spindle cells express progesterone receptors and are positive for vimentin, actin, and CD34. The most important differential diagnosis on histopathology is angiosarcoma. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia discovered incidentally does not require any additional specific treatment. Tumorous PASH is treated by local surgical excision with clear margins and the prognosis is excellent, with minimal risk of recurrence after adequate surgical excision. PMID:20586640

  19. Possible parameters in the urinary excretion of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, C.N.; Lewis, B.A.; Cannon, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Because of its mobility in both physical and biological systems, tritium is interesting both as a tracer and as an issue in health physics. Because tritium is extremely difficult to contain, it is one of the major radionuclides of concern if released to the environment from nuclear facilities. Relatively very large releases are tolerated because the beta particle has low energy and, therefore, the radioisotope is not a health hazard unless deposited internally. Moreover, on release to the environment, tritium enters the hydrologic cycle and is diluted and dispersed widely through the hydrosphere. It is likely that tritium uptake and loss in humans is more complex than generally believed and may be more functionally related to physiological processes, such as the bicarbonate and electrolyte balances, than to ambient environmental conditions such as temperature. Despite the many uncertainties in the analyses of experimental data on tritium contamination and excretion, it is likely that further investigations will establish both a better understanding of the tritium health hazard and the physiological processes governing excretion and, perhaps, its indefinite recycling through metabolic pools.

  20. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  1. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    DOEpatents

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  2. [Nodular regenerative hyperplasia following liver tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Boursier, Jérôme; Foulet, Armelle; Pilette, Christophe

    2005-10-01

    We reported a case of nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealed by hemorrhage from portal hypertention and ascites in a 81 years old patient. This patient presented two years ago hepatic tuberculosis well documented by liver biopsy. If this patient do not have exhaustive etiologic research of nodular regenerative hyperplasia, the relationship between the tuberculosis infection and the developpement of this nodular regenerative hyperplasia appears highly probable and must be researched. PMID:16435515

  3. Distribution of tritium in precipitation and surface water in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Patrick A.; Visser, Ate; Moran, Jean E.; Esser, Brad K.

    2016-03-01

    The tritium concentration in the surface hydrosphere throughout California was characterized to examine the reasons for spatial variability and to enhance the applicability of tritium in hydrological investigations. Eighteen precipitation samples were analyzed and 148 samples were collected from surface waters across California in the Summer and Fall of 2013, with repeat samples from some locations collected in Winter and Spring of 2014 to examine seasonal variation. The concentration of tritium in present day precipitation varied from 4.0 pCi/L near the California coast to 17.8 pCi/L in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Concentrations in precipitation increase in spring due to the 'Spring Leak' phenomenon. The average coastal concentration (6.3 ± 1.2 pCi/L) in precipitation matches estimated pre-nuclear levels. Surface water samples show a trend of increasing tritium with inland distance. Superimposed on that trend, elevated tritium concentrations are found in the San Francisco Bay area compared to other coastal areas, resulting from municipal water imported from inland mountain sources and local anthropogenic sources. Tritium concentrations in most surface waters decreased between Summer/Fall 2013 and Winter/Spring 2014 likely due to an increased groundwater signal as a result of drought conditions in 2014. A relationship between tritium and electrical conductivity in surface water was found to be indicative of water provenance and anthropogenic influences such as agricultural runoff. Despite low initial concentrations in precipitation, tritium continues to be a valuable tracer in a post nuclear bomb pulse world.

  4. Tritium analysis at TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, D.R.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Zimmer, G.

    1995-04-01

    The tritium analytical system at TFRR is used to determine the purity of tritium bearing gas streams in order to provide inventory and accountability measurements. The system includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer and beta scintillator originally configured at Monsanto Mound Research Laboratory in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. The system was commissioned and tested between 1991 and 1992 and is used daily for analysis of calibration standards, incoming tritium shipments, gases evolved from uranium storage beds and measurement of gases returned to gas holding tanks. The low resolution mass spectrometer is enhanced by the use of a metal getter pump to aid in resolving the mass 3 and 4 species. The beta scintillator complements the analysis as it detects tritium bearing species that often are not easily detected by mass spectrometry such as condensable species or hydrocarbons containing tritium. The instruments are controlled by a personal computer with customized software written with a graphical programming system designed for data acquisition and control. A discussion of the instrumentation, control systems, system parameters, procedural methods, algorithms, and operational issues will be presented. Measurements of gas holding tanks and tritiated water waste streams using ion chamber instrumentation are discussed elsewhere.

  5. Tritium confinement, retention, and releases at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Besserer, U.; Doerr, L.; Glugla, M.

    2008-07-15

    This paper describes the tritium confinement concept and the tritium retention systems at TLK. A description of the AMOR facility for the regeneration of the HTO loaded molecular sieve beds and the operational experience gained from the regeneration of molecular sieve beds (up to 20 times each) is also presented. Finally tritium releases over this period to the environment will also be given. (authors)

  6. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    DOEpatents

    Rule, Keith; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Kivler, Paul

    1999-01-01

    A method of separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. Bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water.

  7. Monitoring of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1981-01-01

    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  8. Halon-1301, a new Groundwater Age Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to direction and time scale of groundwater flow and recharge and to assess contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and limitations of each tracer method when applied alone. There is a need for additional, complementary groundwater age tracers. We recently discovered that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate [Beyer et al, 2014]. Halon-1301 can be determined along with SF6, SF5CF3 and CFC-12 in groundwater using a gas chromatography setup with attached electron capture detector developed by Busenberg and Plummer [2008]. Halon-1301 has not been assessed in groundwater. This study assesses the behaviour of Halon-1301 in water and its suitability as a groundwater age tracer. We determined Halon-1301 in 17 groundwater and various modern (river) waters sites located in 3 different groundwater systems in the Wellington Region, New Zealand. These waters have been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 with mean residence times ranging from 0.5 to over 100 years. The waters range from oxic to anoxic and some show evidence of CFC contamination or degradation. This allows us to assess the different properties affecting the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer, such as its conservativeness in water and local contamination potential. The samples are analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6simultaneously, which allows identification of issues commonly faced when using gaseous tracers such as contamination with modern air during sampling. Overall we found in the assessed groundwater samples Halon-1301 is a feasible new groundwater tracer. No sample indicated significantly elevated

  9. Transient tracer applications in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.

    2014-10-01

    Transient tracers can be used to constrain the Inverse-Gaussian transit time distribution (IG-TTD) and thus provide information about ocean ventilation. Individual transient tracers have different time and application ranges which are defined by their atmospheric history (chronological transient tracers) or their decay rate (radioactive transient tracers). The classification ranges from tracers for highly ventilated water masses, e.g. sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the decay of Tritium (δ3H) and to some extent also dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to tracers for less ventilated deep ocean basins, e.g. CFC-12, Argon-39 (39Ar) and radiocarbon (14C). The IG-TTD can be empirically constrained by using transient tracer couples with sufficiently different input functions. Each tracer couple has specific characteristics which influence the application limit of the IG-TTD. Here we provide an overview of commonly used transient tracer couples and their validity areas within the IG-TTD by using the concept of tracer age differences (TAD). New measured CFC-12 and SF6 data from a section along 10° E in the Southern Ocean in 2012 are presented. These are combined with a similar data set of 1998 along 6° E in the Southern Ocean as well as with 39Ar data from the early 1980s in the western Atlantic Ocean and the Weddell Sea for investigating the application limit of the IG-TTD and to analyze changes in ventilation in the Southern Ocean. We found that the IG-TTD can be constrained south to 46° S which corresponds to the Subantarctic Front (SAF) denoting the application limit. The constrained IG-TTD north of the SAF shows a slight increase in mean ages between 1998 and 2012 in the upper 1200 m between 42-46° S. The absence of SF6 inhibits ventilation analyses below this depth. The time lag analysis between the 1998 and 2012 data shows an increase in ventilation down to 1000 m and a steady ventilation between 2000 m-bottom south of the SAF between 51-55° S.

  10. ARIES-I tritium system

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Tam, S.W.; Billone, M.C.; Hassanein, A.M. ); Martin, R. )

    1990-09-01

    A key safety concern in a D-T fusion reactor is the tritium inventory. There are three components in a fusion reactor with potentially large inventories, i.e., the blanket, the fuel processing system and the plasma facing components. The ARIES team selected the material combinations, decided the operating conditions and refined the processing systems, with the aiming of minimizing the tritium inventories and leakage. The total tritium inventory for the ARIES-I reactor is only 700 g. This paper discussed the calculations and assumptions we made for the low tritium inventory. We also addressed the uncertainties about the tritium inventory. 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    DOEpatents

    Rule, K.; Gettelfinger, G.; Kivler, P.

    1999-08-17

    A method is described for separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. The tritium oxide is separated by bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water. 2 figs.

  12. INL Tracer Interpretation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-03-27

    This spreadsheet application is for tracer test analysis. The analyses are based on the first temporal moment of a tracer. The governing equations are briefly discussed, and the individual steps required of the user are outlined. A series of Excel macros written in Visual Basic calculate mean residence time, swept pore volume, and flow-storage geometry from a tracer history.

  13. Tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  14. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric H; Larson, Jeffrey A; Andriole, Gerald L

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) commonly affect older men. Age-related changes associated with metabolic disturbances, changes in hormone balance, and chronic inflammation may cause BPH development. The diagnosis of BPH hinges on a thorough medical history and focused physical examination, with attention to other conditions that may be causing LUTS. Digital rectal examination and urinalysis should be performed. Other testing may be considered depending on presentation of symptoms, including prostate-specific antigen, serum creatinine, urine cytology, imaging, cystourethroscopy, post-void residual, and pressure-flow studies. Many medical and surgical treatment options exist. Surgery should be reserved for patients who either have failed medical management or have complications from BPH, such as recurrent urinary tract infections, refractory urinary retention, bladder stones, or renal insufficiency as a result of obstructive uropathy. PMID:26331999

  15. Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Udensi, Udensi K; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is a common urologic disease that affects mostly elderly men. PH can be classified as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer (PCa) based on its severity. Oxidative stress (OS) is known to influence the activities of inflammatory mediators and other cellular processes involved in the initiation, promotion and progression of human neoplasms including prostate cancer. Scientific evidence also suggests that micronutrient supplementation may restore the antioxidant status and hence improve the clinical outcomes for patients with BPH and PCa. This review highlights the recent studies on prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis, and examines the role of OS on the molecular pathology of prostate cancer progression and treatment. PMID:27609145

  16. Tritium well depth, tritium well time and sponge mechanism for reducing tritium retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B. Q.; Li, Z. X.; Li, C. Y.; Feng, K. M.

    2011-07-01

    New simulation results are predicted in a fusion reactor operation process. They are somewhat similar to, but quite different from, the xenon poisoning effects resulting from fission-produced iodine during the restart-up process of a fission reactor. We obtained completely new results of tritium well depth and tritium well time in magnetic confinement fusion energy research area. This study is carried out to investigate the following: what will be the least amount of tritium storage required to start up a fusion reactor and how long the fusion reactor needs to be operated for achieving the tritium break-even during the initial start-up phase due to the finite tritium-breeding time, which is dependent on the tritium breeder, specific structure of the breeding zone, layout of the coolant flow pipes, tritium recovery scheme and applied extraction process, the tritium retention of plasma facing component (PFC) and other reactor components, unrecoverable tritium fraction in the breeder, leakage to the inertial gas container and the natural radioactive decay time constant. We describe these new issues and answer these problems by setting up and solving a set of equations, which are described by a dynamic subsystem model of tritium inventory evolution in a fusion experimental breeder (FEB). Reasonable results are obtained using our simulation model. It is found that the tritium well depth is about 0.319 kg and the tritium well time is approximately 235 full power operation days for the reference case of the designed FEB configuration, and it is also found that after one-year operation the tritium storage reaches 0.767 kg, which is more than the least amount of tritium storage required to start up another FEB-like fusion reactor. The results show that the tritium retention in the PFC is equivalent to 11.9% of tritium well depth that is fairly consistent with the result of 10-20% deduced from the integrated particle balance of European tokamaks. Based on our experimental

  17. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  18. Tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    A tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium was tested in the laboratory using deuterium and protium. The vessel contains 0.5 kg of depleted uranium and can hold up to 18 grams of tritium. The conditions for activation, tritium loading and tritium unloading were defined. The safety aspects that included air-ingress, tritium diffusion, temperature and pressure potentials were evaluated.

  19. Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia and Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia of Infancy.

    PubMed

    Carr, Laurie L; Kern, Jeffrey A; Deutsch, Gail H

    2016-09-01

    Although incidental reactive pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (PNECH) is seen on biopsy specimens in adults with chronic lung disease, disorders characterized by marked PNECH are rare. Primary hyperplasia of neuroendocrine cells in the lung and obstructive lung disease related to remodeling or physiologic constriction of small airways define diffuse idiopathic neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) in the adult and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) in children. DIPENCH and NEHI share a similar physiology, typical imaging appearance, and increased neuroendocrine cells on biopsy. However, there are important differences related to the underlying disease mechanisms leading to disparate outcomes. PMID:27514602

  20. Polarized tritium target development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    Work began on the development of a completely sealed polarized tritium target for experiments at CEBAF. Because of the similarities between optical pumping of tritium and hydrogen, all prototype work is done with hydrogen. We constructed a test station for filling glassware with hydrogen, where we can dissociate molecular hydrogen and monitor the purity of the gas. A simple two-cell glass system was constructed, consisting of a region in which the molecular hydrogen is dissociated with an RF discharge and a region where the atoms can be optically pumped. So far, a clean discharge was obtained in the glassware. With this system, we plan to investigate ways to eliminate the discharge from the optical pumping region and test the quality of the discharge once the pumping cell is coated with drifilm.

  1. Sebaceous hyperplasia: systemic treatment with isotretinoin*

    PubMed Central

    Tagliolatto, Sandra; Santos, Octavio de Oliveira; Alchorne, Maurício Mota de Avelar; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to verify the therapeutic action of isotretinoin in the treatment of sebaceous hyperplasia. During two months, 20 patients with sebaceous hyperplasia took isotretinoin at a dosage of 1mg/kg per day. Their skin lesions were counted and photographed before and after treatment and re-evaluated two years later. The average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions before treatment was 24 per patient. At the end of two months of therapy, the number of lesions decreased to 2 per patient. The statistically analyzed data showed a reduction in the number of lesions following isotretinoin use (p < 0.05). Two years after the end of the treatment, the average number of sebaceous hyperplasia lesions was 4 per patient. There were no severe side effects. Thus, the data analysis suggests that isotretinoin is a safe and effective drug for treating the disease under study. PMID:25830991

  2. Dissecting the mechanisms of Notch induced hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Djiane, Alexandre; Krejci, Alena; Bernard, Frédéric; Fexova, Silvie; Millen, Katherine; Bray, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of the Notch pathway on proliferation depends on cellular context, being growth promotion in some, including several cancers, and growth inhibition in others. Such disparate outcomes are evident in Drosophila wing discs, where Notch overactivation causes hyperplasia despite having localized inhibitory effects on proliferation. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we have used genomic strategies to identify the Notch-CSL target genes directly activated during wing disc hyperplasia. Among them were genes involved in both autonomous and non-autonomous regulation of proliferation, growth and cell death, providing molecular explanations for many characteristics of Notch induced wing disc hyperplasia previously reported. The Notch targets exhibit different response patterns, which are shaped by both positive and negative feed-forward regulation between the Notch targets themselves. We propose, therefore, that both the characteristics of the direct Notch targets and their cross-regulatory relationships are important in coordinating the pattern of hyperplasia. PMID:23232763

  3. Evaluation of tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, T.; Ochiai, K.; Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Demonstration power plant (DEMO) fusion reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) advanced tritium breeders with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) are stable in a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures. Although the tritium release properties of tritium breeders are documented in databases for DEMO blanket design, no in situ examination under fusion neutron (DT neutron) irradiation has been performed. In this study, a preliminary examination of the tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders was performed, and DT neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAEA. Considering the tritium release characteristics, the optimum grain size after sintering is <5 μm. From the results of the optimization of granulation conditions, prototype Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles with optimum grain size (<5 μm) were successfully fabricated. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of HT gas for easier tritium handling was higher than that of HTO water. (authors)

  4. Tritium implantation in the accelerator production of tritium device

    SciTech Connect

    Kidman, R.B.

    1997-11-01

    We briefly describe the methods we have developed to compute the magnitude and spatial distribution of born and implanted tritons and protons in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (AFT) device. The methods are verified against experimental measurements and then used to predict that 16% of the tritium is implanted in the walls of the APT distribution tubes. The methods are also used to estimate the spatial distribution of implanted tritium, which will be required for determining the possible diffusion of tritium out of the walls and back into the gas stream.

  5. Hyperplasia in glands with hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Marx, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Five syndromes share predominantly hyperplastic glands with a primary excess of hormones: neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, from homozygous mutated CASR, begins severely in utero; congenital non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis, from mutated TSHR, varies from severe with fetal onset to mild with adult onset; familial male-limited precocious puberty, from mutated LHR, expresses testosterone oversecretion in young boys; hereditary ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, from mutated FSHR, expresses symptomatic systemic vascular permeabilities during pregnancy; and familial hyperaldosteronism type IIIA, from mutated KCNJ5, presents in young children with hypertension and hypokalemia. The grouping of these five syndromes highlights predominant hyperplasia as a stable tissue endpoint and as their tissue stage for all of the hormone excess. Comparisons were made among this and two other groups of syndromes, forming a continuum of gland staging: predominant oversecretions express little or no hyperplasia; predominant hyperplasias express little or no neoplasia; and predominant neoplasias express nodules, adenomas, or cancers. Hyperplasias may progress (5 of 5) to neoplastic stages while predominant oversecretions rarely do (1 of 6; frequencies differ P<0.02). Hyperplasias do not show tumor multiplicity (0 of 5) unlike neoplasias that do (13 of 19; P<0.02). Hyperplasias express mutation of a plasma membrane-bound sensor (5 of 5), while neoplasias rarely do (3 of 14; P<0.002). In conclusion, the multiple distinguishing themes within the hyperplasias establish a robust pathophysiology. It has the shared and novel feature of mutant sensors in the plasma membrane, suggesting that these are major contributors to hyperplasia. PMID:26407873

  6. Isotretinoin as monotherapy for sebaceous hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Clara; Shahsavari, Maryam; Stevens, Gloria; Liskanich, Ronald; Horowitz, David

    2010-06-01

    Sebaceous hyperplasia is a common benign lesion composed of sebaceous glands. It is characterized as yellow or flesh-toned papules with central umbilication. The authors report the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian female with a longstanding history of sebaceous hyperplasia refractory to treatment on her face. Isotretionoin was used as an alternative therapy and was found to be effective. PMID:20645535

  7. A prototype wearable tritium monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Surette, R. A.; Dubeau, J.

    2008-07-15

    Sudden unexpected changes in tritium-in-air concentrations in workplace air can result in significant unplanned exposures. Although fixed area monitors are used to monitor areas where there is a potential for elevated tritium in air concentrations, they do not monitor personnel air space and may require some time for acute tritium releases to be detected. There is a need for a small instrument that will quickly alert staff of changing tritium hazards. A moderately sensitive tritium instrument that workers could wear would bring attention to any rise in tritium levels that were above predetermined limits and help in assessing the potential hazard therefore minimizing absorbed dose. Hand-held instruments currently available can be used but require the assistance of a fellow worker or restrict the user to using only one hand to perform some duties. (authors)

  8. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Merke, Deborah P; Poppas, Dix P

    2014-01-01

    The management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia involves suppression of adrenal androgen production, in addition to treatment of adrenal insufficiency. Management of adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia is especially challenging because changes in the hormonal milieu during puberty can lead to inadequate suppression of adrenal androgens, psychosocial issues often affect adherence to medical therapy, and sexual function plays a major part in adolescence and young adulthood. For these reasons, treatment regimen reassessment is indicated during adolescence. Patients with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia require reassessment regarding the need for glucocorticoid drug treatment. No clinical trials have compared various regimens for classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults, thus therapy is individualised and based on the prevention of adverse outcomes. Extensive patient education is key during transition from paediatric care to adult care and should include education of females with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia regarding their genital anatomy and surgical history. Common issues for these patients include urinary incontinence, vaginal stenosis, clitoral pain, and cosmetic concerns; for males with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia, common issues include testicular adrenal rest tumours. Transition from paediatric to adult care is most successful when phased over many years. Education of health-care providers on how to successfully transition patients is greatly needed. PMID:24622419

  9. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Gary L.; Meikrantz, David H.; Ely, Walter E.; Tuggle, Dale G.; Grafwallner, Ervin G.; Wickham, Keith L.; Maltrud, Herman R.; Baker, John D.

    1992-01-01

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  10. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  11. Biological tracer method

    DOEpatents

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Palumbo, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

  12. Biological tracer method

    DOEpatents

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. 2 figs.

  13. Estimation of recharge rates to the sand and gravel aquifer using environmental tritium, Nantucket Island, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knott, Jayne Fifield; Olimpio, Julio C.

    1986-01-01

    Estimation of the average annual rate of ground-water recharge to sand and gravel aquifers using elevated tritium concentrations in ground water is an alternative to traditional steady-state and water-balance recharge-rate methods. The concept of the tritium tracer method is that the average annual rate of ground-water recharge over a period of time can be calculated from the depth of the peak tritium concentration in the aquifer. Assuming that ground-water flow is vertically downward and that aquifer properties are reasonably homogeneous, and knowing the date of maximum tritium concentration in precipitation and the current depth to the tritium peak from the water table, the average recharge rate can be calculated. The method, which is a direct-measurement technique, was applied at two sites on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. At site 1, the average annual recharge rate between 1964 and 1983 was 26.1 inches per year, or 68 percent of the average annual precipitation, and the estimated uncertainty is ?15 percent. At site 2, the multilevel water samplers were not constructed deep enough to determine the peak concentration of tritium in ground water. The tritium profile at site 2 resembles the upper part of the tritium profile at site 1 and indicates that the average recharge rate was at least 16 .7 inches per year, or at least 44 percent of the average annual precipitation. The Nantucket tritium recharge rates clearly are higher than rates determined elsewhere in southeastern Massachusetts using the tritium, water-table-fluctuation, and water-balance (Thornthwaite) methods, regardless of the method or the area. Because the recharge potential on Nantucket is so high (runoff is only 2 percent of the total water balance), the tritium recharge rates probably represent the effective upper limit for ground-water recharge in this region. The recharge-rate values used by Guswa and LeBlanc (1985) and LeBlanc (1984) in their ground-water-flow computer models of Cape Cod are

  14. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  15. TFTR tritium operations lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; Raftopoulos, S.; LaMarche, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor which is the progenitor for full D-T operating tokamaks has successfully processed > 81 grams of tritium in a safe and efficient fashion. Many of the fundamental operational techniques associated with the safe movement of tritium through the TFTR facility were developed over the course of many years of DOE tritium facilities (LANL, LLNL, SRS, Mound). In the mid 1980`s The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at LANL began reporting operational techniques for the safe handling of tritium, and became a major conduit for the transfer of safe tritium handling technology from DOE weapons laboratories to non-weapon facilities. TFTR has built on many of the TSTA operational techniques and has had the opportunity of performing and enhancing these techniques at America`s first operational D-T fusion reactor. This paper will discuss negative pressure employing `elephant trunks` in the control and mitigation of tritium contamination at the TFTR facility, and the interaction between contaminated line operations and {Delta} pressure control. In addition the strategy employed in managing the movement of tritium through TFTR while maintaining an active tritium inventory of < 50,000 Ci will be discussed. 5 refs.

  16. Recovery of tritium from water

    SciTech Connect

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.; Lentz, J.E. . Mound)

    1988-09-01

    The pilot-scale Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) system developed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound facility has evolved into a fully operational tritium recovery system. This has resulted from the evaluation of recent developments in AECL/CRNL hydrophobic exchange catalyst in the CECE system. Data obtained during recent tests led to the design and installation of an aqueous tritium recovery facility. Operation of the Tritium Aqueous Waste Recovery System makes possible the recovery of tritium from low-level tritiated aqueous waste streams.

  17. Recovery of tritium from water

    SciTech Connect

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.; Lentz, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The pilot-scale Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) system developed at the US Department of Energy's Mound facility has evolved into a fully operational tritium recovery system. This has resulted from the evaluation of recent developments in AECL/ORNL hydrophobic exchange catalyst in the CECE system. Data obtained during recent tests led to the design and installation of an aqueous tritium recovery facility. Operation of the Tritium Aqueous Waste Recovery System makes possible the recovery of tritium from low-level tritiated aqueous waste streams. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  19. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Unresolved Issues.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; Poppas, Dix; Ghizzoni, Lucia; New, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a family of disorders that comes from enzymatic deficiencies in cortisol production, with 21-hydroxylase deficiency causing ∼90% of cases. Distinction is made between the severe classical form and milder nonclassical form of CAH. Molecular genetic analysis is used to confirm the hormonal diagnosis. A high rate of genotype-phenotype disconcordance has been found in 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The goal of treatment is to replace with synthetic glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and suppress adrenal androgen production. The treatment of patients affected with nonclassical CAH, particularly males, remains controversial. Variable synthetic glucocorticoids are used and new modes of glucocorticoid delivery are under investigation. To improve height, growth hormone and other adjuvant therapies are employed. Long-term outcomes of genital surgery using modern techniques in females affected with classical CAH continue to be investigated. Prenatal treatment with dexamethasone is available to avoid ambiguous genitalia in these females. Although studies have shown its safety to mother and fetus, prenatal treatment is still regarded as experimental. Currently, prenatal diagnosis of CAH can only be obtained through invasive methods. Recently, the detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has made it possible to make this diagnosis earlier and noninvasively. PMID:27211889

  20. Tritium and Stable Isotopes of Precipitation and Surface Water in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, P.; Moran, J. E.; Visser, A.; Esser, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Tritium (3H) and stable isotopes (2H and 18O) are effective natural tracers of water molecules through the hydrologic system. The strong topographic gradient in California results in distinct isotopic signatures that are particularly effective in watershed studies. Past studies of meteoric tritium distribution within the United States have focused on large-scale trends, at low spatial resolution. Globally, tritium in precipitation is monitored by the International Atomic Energy Agency contributing to the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database. The two tritium monitoring stations in California contributing to the GNIP database were discontinued in 1976 (Santa Maria) and 1993 (Menlo Park). Surface water studies have focused on time series in major rivers nationwide or localized studies. Our study focuses on high spatial resolution water isotope data collection in California. Over 140 tritium and stable water isotope samples were collected from surface water and direct precipitation during the 2013 Summer/Fall and 2014 Winter/Spring flow regimes and analyzed by helium accumulation and noble gas mass spectrometry. Surface water samples are collected as a proxy for precipitation and to investigate trends related to water residence times. Tritium concentrations in precipitation show strong spatial trends, with higher concentrations at inland high elevation locations. Surface water tritium trends with spatial location (latitude and longitude) and elevation (reflecting the precipitation signal) and distance downstream (reflecting water residence times). A local meteoric water line (MWL) for California is developed from stable isotope data and analyzed in comparison to the global MWL. Results have implications for tritium tracer and water provenance studies.

  1. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  2. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  3. Tritium recycling (processing) facility design

    SciTech Connect

    Metzler, J.; Le, T.

    1995-10-01

    The maintenance of a nuclear weapons capability requires the periodic replacement of tritium contained in each of the weapons in the nuclear weapons stockpile because the radioactive decay of tritium reduces its quantity by about 5.5 percent per year. The Tritium Recycling Plant (TRP) performs the activities necessary to recover, purify, and recycle tritium returned from the field. Tritium is contained in vessels called reservoirs. The TRP also has the capability to conduct environmental tests to ensure the reliability and quality of the reservoirs. Currently, the U.S. has no source of new tritium. The proposed new TRP is an option the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) is considering that could be collocated with the new Tritium Supply Plant if it is built at Oak Ridge, Pantex, Nevada Test Site, or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It will comply with applicable environment, safety and health, (ES&H) regulations and orders. If the new Tritium Supply Plant is built at the Savannah River Site, the existing TRP would be upgraded, as necessary. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. BEATRIX-II: In situ tritium test

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.E. ); Kuraswa, T. ); Miller, J.M. . Chalk River Nuclear Labs.); Slagle, O.D. )

    1990-01-01

    The BEATRIX-II irradiation experiment is an in-situ tritium release experiment being carried out in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor to evaluate the tritium release characteristics of fusion solid breeder materials. A sophisticated tritium gas handling system has been developed to continuously monitor the tritium recovery from the specimens and facilitate tritium removal from the experiment's sweep gas flow stream. The in-situ recovery experiment accommodates two different in-reactor specimen canisters with individual gas streams and temperature monitoring/control. Ionization chambers have been specifically designed to respond to the rapid changes in the tritium release rate at the anticipated tritium concentrations. Two ceramic electrolysis cells have proved effective in reducing the moisture in the gas streams to hydrogen/tritium. A tritium getter system, capable of reducing the tritium level by a factor greater than 4000, is used to reduce the tritium in the sweep gas to a level acceptable for release.

  5. Tritium activities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; LaMarche, P.

    1995-07-01

    There have been many significant changes in the status of tritium activities in the US since the 4th Tritium Conference in October, 1991. The replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at Savannah River Site and the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are now operational with tritium. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has initiated a highly successful experimental campaign studying DT plasmas, and has produced more than 10 Megawatts (MW) of fusion power in a D-T plasma. Sandia National Laboratory has ceased tritium operations at the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) and many of the activities previously performed there have been transferred to Los Alamos and Savannah River. The tritium laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has reduced the tritium inventory to <5 grams. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos continues to be at the forefront of tritium technology and safety development for the fusion energy program.

  6. Tritium transport and control in the FED

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The tritium systems for the FED have three primary purposes. The first is to provide tritium and deuterium fuel for the reactor. This fuel can be new tritium or deuterium delivered to the plant site, or recycled DT from the reactor that must be processed before it can be recycled. The second purpose of the FED tritium systems is to provide state-of-the-art tritium handling to limit worker radiation exposure and to minimize tritium losses to the environment. The final major objective of the FED tritium systems is to provide an integrated system test of the tritium handling technology necessary to support the fusion reactor program. Every effort is being made to incorporate available information from the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium systems, and the tritium handling information generated within DOE for the past 20 years.

  7. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluent which has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion for analysis by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, a toluene-based cocktail showed the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%). In another technique, the sensitivity of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium in aqueous solutions was measured. The most efficient solid scintillator had a 2% tritium detection efficiency. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency.

  8. Tritium Production from Palladium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Schwab, M.J.; Thoma, D.J.; Teter, D.F.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1998-04-19

    A number of palladium alloys have been loaded with deuterium or hydrogen under low energy bombardment in a system that allows the continuous measurement of tritium. Long run times (up to 200 h) result in an integration of the tritium and this, coupled with the high intrinsic sensitivity of the system ({approximately}0.1 nCi/l), enables the significance of the tritium measurement to be many sigma (>10). We will show the difference in tritium generation rates between batches of palladium alloys (Rh, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Be, B, Li, Hf, Hg and Fe) of various concentrations to illustrate that tritium generation rate is dependent on alloy type as well as within a specific alloy, dependent on concentration.

  9. Removal of tritium from TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Collins, J.; Hosea, J.; Kamperschroer, J.; Nagy, A.; Owens, D.K.; Raftopoulos, S.; Skinner, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    Operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with a mixture of deuterium and tritium fueling has permitted the opportunity to measure the retention of tritium in the graphite limiter and other internal hardware. The use of discharge cleaning techniques and venting to remove the tritium was investigated. The tritium was introduced into TFTR by neutral beam injection and by gas puffing. The graphite limiter is subject to erosion and codeposition. While short term retention was high, the retention averaged over the 1993-1995 D-T campaign was 52% {+-} 15%. The tritium removal techniques resulted in lowering the in-vessel inventory from 16.4 kCi at the end of 1995 operation to 7.2 kCi at the start of the 1996 experimental program. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Tritium practices past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Gede, V.P.; Gildea, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    History of the production and use of tritium, as well as handling techniques, are reviewed. Handling techniques first used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory made use of glass vacuum systems and relatively crude ion chambers for monitoring airborne activity. The first use of inert atmosphere glove boxes demonstrated that uptake through the skin could be a serious personnel exposure problem. Growing environmental concerns in the early 1970's resulted in the implementation by the Atomic Energy Commission of a new criteria to limit atmospheric tritium releases to levels as low as practicable. An important result of the new criteria was the development of containment and recovery systems to capture tritium rather than vent it to the atmosphere. The Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Tritium Research Laboratory containment and decontamination systems are presented as a typical example of this technology. The application of computers to control systems is expected to provide the greatest potential for change in future tritium handling practices.

  11. Tritium-field betacells

    SciTech Connect

    Walko, R.J.; Lincoln, R.C.; Baca, W.E. ); Goods, S.H. ); Negley, G.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Betavoltaic power sources operate by converting the nuclear decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electricity. Since they are not chemically driven, they could operate at temperatures which would either be to hot or too cold for typical chemical batteries. Further, for long lived isotopes, they offer the possibility of multi-decade active lifetimes. Two approaches are being investigated: direct and indirect conversion. Direct conversion cells consist of semiconductor diodes similar to photovoltaic cells. Beta particle directly bombard these cells, generating electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor which are converted to useful power. Many using low power flux beta emitters, wide bandgap semiconductors are required to achieve useful conversion efficiencies. The combination of tritium, as the beta emitter, and gallium phosphide (GaP), as the semiconductor converter, was evaluated. Indirect conversion betacells first convert the beta energy to light with a phosphor, and then to electricity with photovoltaic cells. An indirect conversion power source using a tritium radioluminescent (RL) light is being investigated. Our analysis indicates that this approach has the potential for significant volume and cost savings over the direct conversion method. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Atypical ductal hyperplasia: interobserver and intraobserver variability.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rohit K; Mehta, Rutika; Dimitrov, Rosen; Larsson, Lisbeth G; Musto, Paul M; Hodges, Kurt B; Ulbright, Thomas M; Hattab, Eyas M; Agaram, Narasimhan; Idrees, Muhammad T; Badve, Sunil

    2011-07-01

    Interobserver reproducibility in the diagnosis of benign intraductal proliferative lesions has been poor. The aims of the study were to investigate the inter- and intraobserver variability and the impact of the addition of an immunostain for high- and low-molecular weight keratins on the variability. Nine pathologists reviewed 81 cases of breast proliferative lesions in three stages and assigned each of the lesions to one of the following three diagnoses: usual ductal hyperplasia, atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Hematoxylin and eosin slides and corresponding slides stained with ADH-5 cocktail (cytokeratins (CK) 5, 14. 7, 18 and p63) by immunohistochemistry were evaluated. Concordance was evaluated at each stage of the study. The interobserver agreement among the nine pathologists for diagnosing the 81 proliferative breast lesions was fair (κ-value=0.34). The intraobserver κ-value ranged from 0.56 to 0.88 (moderate to strong). Complete agreement among nine pathologists was achieved in only nine (11%) cases, at least eight agreed in 20 (25%) cases and seven or more agreed in 38 (47%) cases. Following immunohistochemical stain, a significant improvement in the interobserver concordance (overall κ-value=0.50) was observed (P=0.015). There was a significant reduction in the total number of atypical ductal hyperplasia diagnosis made by nine pathologists after the use of ADH-5 immunostain. Atypical ductal hyperplasia still remains a diagnostic dilemma with wide variation in both inter- and intraobserver reproducibility among pathologists. The addition of an immunohistochemical stain led to a significant improvement in the concordance rate. More importantly, there was an 8% decrease in the number of lesions classified as atypical ductal hyperplasia in favor of usual hyperplasia; in clinical practice, this could lead to a decrease in the number of surgeries carried out for intraductal proliferative lesions. PMID:21532546

  13. A decade of tritium technology development and operation at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, L.; Besserer, U.; Bekris, N.; Bornschein, B.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Demange, D.; Cristescu, I.; Cristescu, I. R.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, G.; Schaefer, P.; Weite, S.; Wendel, J.

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has been designed to handle relevant amounts of tritium for the development of tritium technology for fusion reactors. This paper describes the tritium technology development and experience gained during the upgrade of facilities, interventions, replacement of failed components and operation of the TLK since its commissioning with tritium in 1994. (authors)

  14. [Therapeutic problem. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia].

    PubMed

    Bunse, T; Kuhn, A; Groth, W; Mahrle, G

    1993-04-01

    A 35-year-old female patient suffered from angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia for 9 years, with multiple, exophytic tumours on her left pinna and the surrounding skin. Systemic treatment with gamma interferon and glucocorticoids, intralesional injections of glucocorticoids and argon laser therapy had no effect. After the tumours had been pared away by electrocautery the patient was free of symptoms for 1 year and then developed a small local recurrence. Recurrences are common in angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia. Malignant transformation has not been observed. We therefore regard non-radical surgery as the therapy of choice. PMID:8482602

  15. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  16. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  17. Assessment of Halon-1301 as a groundwater age tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, M.; van der Raaij, R.; Morgenstern, U.; Jackson, B.

    2015-06-01

    Groundwater dating is an important tool to assess groundwater resources in regards to their dynamics, i.e. direction and timescale of groundwater flow and recharge, contamination risks and manage remediation. To infer groundwater age information, a combination of different environmental tracers, such as tritium and SF6, are commonly used. However, ambiguous age interpretations are often faced, due to a limited set of available tracers and their individual restricted application ranges. For more robust groundwater dating multiple tracers need to be applied complementarily (or other characterisation methods need to be used to complement tracer information). It is important that additional, groundwater age tracers are found to ensure robust groundwater dating in future. We have recently suggested that Halon-1301, a water soluble and entirely anthropogenic gaseous substance, may be a promising candidate, but its behaviour in water and suitability as a groundwater age tracer had not yet been assessed in detail. In this study, we determined Halon-1301 and inferred age information in 17 New Zealand groundwater samples and various modern (river) water samples. The samples were simultaneously analysed for Halon-1301 and SF6, which allowed for identification of issues such as contamination of the water with modern air during sampling. All analysed groundwater sites had also been previously dated with tritium, CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6, and exhibited mean residence times ranging from modern (close to 0 years) to over 100 years. The investigated groundwater samples ranged from oxic to highly anoxic. All samples with available CFC data were degraded and/or contaminated in one or both of CFC-11 and CFC-12. This allowed us to make a first attempt of assessing the conservativeness of Halon-1301 in water, in terms of presence of local sources and its sensitivity towards degradation, which could affect the suitability of Halon-1301 as groundwater age tracer. Overall we found Halon-1301

  18. Tritium Elimination System Using Tritium Gas Oxidizing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimasa, Michiko; Awagakubo, Sayuri; Takahashi, Miho; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka; Ichimasa, Yusuke

    2005-07-15

    In order to eliminate atmospheric tritium gas (HT) released from tritium handling apparatus, we proposed to use the HT oxidizing ability (hydrogenase enzyme) of bacterial strains isolated from surface soils instead of a high temperature precious metal catalyst. Among the isolated strains with high HT oxidation activity, several strains were selected to develop a tritium elimination (detritiation) system. Bioreactors were made of bacterial cells grown on agar medium on a cartridge filter and stored in a refrigerator until use. The detritiation ability of these bioreactors at room temperature was investigated during the intentional HT release experiments carried out in the Cassion Assembly for Tritium Safety Study (CATS) in TPL/JAERI. When HT contaminated air from the CATS was introduced into the biological detritiation system, in which three bioreactors were connected in series, 86% of HT in air was removed as tritiated water in these bioreactors at a flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3}/min for 2 hours.

  19. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, Otto A.; Stencel, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  20. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  1. Composition containing aerogel substrate loaded with tritium

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ellefson, Robert E.; Gill, John T.; Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

  2. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls. PMID:19307127

  3. The global distribution of natural tritium in precipitation simulated with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model and comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauquoin, A.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Risi, C.; Fourré, É.; Stenni, B.; Landais, A.

    2015-10-01

    The description of the hydrological cycle in Atmospheric General Circulation Models (GCMs) can be validated using water isotopes as tracers. Many GCMs now simulate the movement of the stable isotopes of water, but here we present the first GCM simulations modelling the content of natural tritium in water. These simulations were obtained using a version of the LMDZ General Circulation Model enhanced by water isotopes diagnostics, LMDZ-iso. To avoid tritium generated by nuclear bomb testing, the simulations have been evaluated against a compilation of published tritium datasets dating from before 1950, or measured recently. LMDZ-iso correctly captures the observed tritium enrichment in precipitation as oceanic air moves inland (the so-called continental effect) and the observed north-south variations due to the latitudinal dependency of the cosmogenic tritium production rate. The seasonal variability, linked to the stratospheric intrusions of air masses with higher tritium content into the troposphere, is correctly reproduced for Antarctica with a maximum in winter. LMDZ-iso reproduces the spring maximum of tritium over Europe, but underestimates it and produces a peak in winter that is not apparent in the data. This implementation of tritium in a GCM promises to provide a better constraint on: (1) the intrusions and transport of air masses from the stratosphere, and (2) the dynamics of the modelled water cycle. The method complements the existing approach of using stable water isotopes.

  4. Perfluorocarbon tracer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon tracer technology developments at Brookhaven is described, including the latest identified as well as available PFTs and air sampling and analysis tools, to demonstrate their utility in a number of different atmospheric tracer experiments as well as in other applications, and to provide food-for-thought on new ways in which the PFTs can be applied in other research objectives. All of the important tools are described, but emphasis is given to the latest developments in the technology.

  5. Perspectives of transient tracer applications and limiting cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.; Bullister, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Currently available transient tracers have different application ranges that are defined by their temporal input (chronological transient tracers) or their decay rate (radioactive transient tracers). Transient tracers range from tracers for highly ventilated water masses such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) through tritium (3H) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) up to tracers for less ventilated deep ocean basins such as argon-39 (39Ar) and radiocarbon (14C). In this context, highly ventilated water masses are defined as water masses that have been in contact with the atmosphere during the last decade. Transient tracers can be used to empirically constrain the transit time distribution (TTD), which can often be approximated with an inverse Gaussian (IG) distribution. The IG-TTD provides information about ventilation and the advective/diffusive characteristics of a water parcel. Here we provide an overview of commonly used transient tracer couples and the corresponding application range of the IG-TTD by using the new concept of validity areas. CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 data from three different cruises in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean as well as 39Ar data from the 1980s and early 1990s in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Weddell Sea are used to demonstrate this method. We found that the IG-TTD can be constrained along the Greenwich Meridian south to 46° S, which corresponds to the Subantarctic Front (SAF) denoting the application limit. The Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) describes the limiting water layer in the vertical. Conspicuous high or lower ratios between the advective and diffusive components describe the transition between the validity area and the application limit of the IG-TTD model rather than describing the physical properties of the water parcel. The combination of 39Ar and CFC data places constraints on the IG-TTD in the deep water north of the SAF, but not beyond this limit.

  6. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade for Fusion Tritium and Nuclear Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masashi; Taylor, Chase N.; Kolasinski, Robert D.; Buchenauer, Dean A.

    2015-11-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials [M. Shimada et.al., Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of tritium plasma-driven permeation and optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... germline and somatic mutations are associated with both primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and meningioma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jan;100(1):E119-28. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-2648. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Faucz FR, Zilbermint M, Lodish ...

  8. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH): a brief review.

    PubMed

    Jaunoo, S S; Thrush, S; Dunn, P

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign entity of the breast and typically found incidentally. It warrants thorough investigation in order to exclude more sinister pathology masquerading as this form of benign breast disease and can often be managed expectantly without the need for surgical intervention. We provide a brief review of the literature on PASH, discussing its clinicopathological features and management. PMID:20887819

  9. Condylar hyperplasia following unilateral temporomandibular joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Machon, V; Levorova, J; Hirjak, D; Foltan, R

    2015-06-01

    Total joint replacement of the temporomandibular joint (TJR) can be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications. We report herein the occurrence of a postoperative open bite malocclusion, the result of condylar hyperplasia affecting the non-operated joint at 1 year after unilateral total joint replacement. PMID:25662429

  10. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia. Report of nine cases.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, Constantino; Vega-Memije, Elisa; Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela; Cardiel-Nieves, Maritza; Juárez-Luna, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (MEH) is also known as focal epithelial hyperplasia, Heck's disease or multifocal papillomavirus-induced epithelial hyperplasia. It is characterised by the presence of multiple lesions in the oral mucosa of children and it has been associated with the presence of the human papillomavirus. The aim of this study was to determine the clinico-pathological features of the cases diagnosed as MEH in the Service of Dermatology of the Hospital Manuel Gea González (SDHMGG). The files of the SDHMGG were reviewed and all cases diagnosed as MEH were retrieved. Nine MEH cases were found. Most of the patients were 20 year-old or younger (67%) and females were more commonly affected (78%). All patients presented multiple lesions and always, close relatives with similar lesions were found. Lesions were located most commonly in the buccal mucosa, lower lip and commissures. MEH is a soft tissue intraoral condition that needs treatment solely of the traumatised lesions or those with cosmetic problems. Remaining lesions will disappear with the age of the patients. It is suggested that this entity should be named multifocal epithelial hyperplasia since this name describes better the clinico-pathological and microscopic features of the disease. PMID:16264387

  11. Micro and bulk analysis of prostate tissues classified as hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, W. M.; Banaś, A.; Banaś, K.; Cinque, G.; Dyduch, G.; Falkenberg, G.; Kisiel, A.; Marcelli, A.; Podgórczyk, M.

    2007-07-01

    BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) is the most common benign neoplasm (non cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland), whose prevalence increases with age. The gland, when increased in size, exerts pressure on the urethra, causing obstruction to urine flow. The latter may result in severe urinary tract and kidney conditions. In this work prostate samples from patients diagnosed with BPH were analyzed using synchrotron radiation. Micro-analysis of the hyperplastic samples was carried out on the L-beam line at HASYLAB, DESY (Germany), while bulk analysis on selected samples was performed at the DRX2 beamline at LNF, Frascati (Italy). Microanalysis with a mono-energetic beam 15 μm in diameter confirmed that concentrations of certain elements, such as S, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn, are good indicators of pathological disorders in prostate tissue that may be considered effective tracers of developing compliant. The concentrations of Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn are higher in hyperplastic tissues, as compared to normal ones, while for sulphur the opposite is observed. Additionally, Fe and S K-edge XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy experiments were carried out in order to determine the chemical speciation of these elements in our samples.

  12. Overview of tritium: characteristics, sources, and problems.

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Momoshima, N

    1993-12-01

    Tritium has certain characteristics that present unique challenges for dosimetry and health-risk assessment. For example, in the gas form, tritium can diffuse through almost any container, including those made of steel, aluminum, and plastics. In the oxide form, tritium can generally not be detected by commonly used survey instruments. In the environment, tritium can be taken up by all hydrogen-containing molecules, distributing widely on a global scale. Tritium can be incorporated into humans through respiration, ingestion, and diffusion through skin. Its harmful effects are observed only when it is incorporated into the body. Several sources contribute to the inventory of tritium in our environment. These are 1) cosmic ray interaction with atmospheric molecules; 2) nuclear reactions in the earth's crust; 3) nuclear testing in the atmosphere during the 1950s and 1960s; 4) continuous release of tritium from nuclear power plants and tritium production facilities under normal operation; 5) incidental releases from these facilities; and 6) consumer products. An important future source will be nuclear fusion facilities expected to be developed for the purpose of electricity generation. The principal health physics problems associated with tritium are 1) the determination of the parameters for risk estimation with further reduction of their uncertainties (e.g., relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate dependency); 2) risk estimation from complex exposures to tritium in gas form, tritium in oxide form, tritium surface contamination, and other tritium-contaminated forms, with or without other ionizing radiations and/or nonionizing radiations; 3) the dose contributions of elemental tritium in the lung and from its oxidized tritium in the gastrointestinal tract; 4) prevention of tritium (in oxide form) intake and enhancement of tritium (oxide form) excretion from the human body; 5) precise health effects information for low-level tritium exposure; and 6) public

  13. Real-time tritium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, M.E.

    1981-09-15

    A real-time image of a tritium-containing titanium film has been made by detecting the secondary electrons produced by tritium ..beta.. decay with a simple two-element electrostatic lens and microchannel plate image intensifier. The obtained image indicates that a resolution of better than 100 ..mu..m is currently obtainable and suggests that image magnification to enhance resolution should be possible.

  14. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-12-31

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  15. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  16. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  17. Primer on tritium safe handling practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This Primer is designed for use by operations and maintenance personnel to improve their knowledge of tritium safe handling practices. It is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. It is presented in general terms for use throughout the DOE Complex. After reading it, one should be able to: describe methods of measuring airborne tritium concentration; list types of protective clothing effective against tritium uptake from surface and airborne contamination; name two methods of reducing the body dose after a tritium uptake; describe the most common method for determining amount of tritium uptake in the body; describe steps to take following an accidental release of airborne tritium; describe the damage to metals that results from absorption of tritium; explain how washing hands or showering in cold water helps reduce tritium uptake; and describe how tritium exchanges with normal hydrogen in water and hydrocarbons.

  18. Tritium diffusion in V4Cr-4Ti alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hashizume, K.; Masuda, J.; Otsuka, K. T.; Tanabe, T.; Hatano, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Nagasaka, T.; Muroga, T.

    2008-07-15

    Characteristics of the tritium diffusion coefficient DT in V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, including a bending in the Arrhenius plot of DT, are examined. Based on a trap model, the possible trap sources and their binding energies for tritium in the alloy are evaluated using the experimental data of DT in pure V, which are measured with a tritium tracer method, and the literature data of protium diffusion in V-Ti and V-Cr alloys. The result of the evaluation suggests the presence of two trap sources in the alloy. The first would be attributed to a trap at each substitutional alloying atom which is likely to be Ti. The binding energy E{sub B} of 0.08 eV gives the best fit to the observed value of DT above 300 K The bending in the Arrhenius plot below 300 K is caused by a second trap site with a higher E and a lower concentration than those of each alloying atom. The trap is probably formed by the alloying atoms presence to neighboring Ti atoms. The contribution of Cr atom to the trap effect seems to be rather small in this alloy. (authors)

  19. Laser-assisted isotope separation of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Herman, Irving P.; Marling, Jack B.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for laser-assisted isotope separation of tritium, using infrared multiple photon dissociation of tritium-bearing products in the gas phase. One such process involves the steps of (1) catalytic exchange of a deuterium-bearing molecule XYD with tritiated water DTO from sources such as a heavy water fission reactor, to produce the tritium-bearing working molecules XYT and (2) photoselective dissociation of XYT to form a tritium-rich product. By an analogous procedure, tritium is separated from tritium-bearing materials that contain predominately hydrogen such as a light water coolant from fission or fusion reactors.

  20. Recent progresses in tritium radioecology and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Davis, P.; Raskob, W.; Melintescu, A.

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, some aspects of recent progress in tritium radioecology and dosimetry are presented, with emphasis on atmospheric releases to terrestrial ecosystems. The processes involved in tritium transfer through the environment are discussed, together with the current status of environmental tritium models. Topics include the deposition and reemission of HT and HTO, models for the assessment of routine and accidental HTO emissions, a new approach to modeling the dynamics of tritium in mammals, the dose consequences of tritium releases and aspects of human dosimetry. The need for additional experimental data is identified, together with the attributes that would be desirable in the next generation of tritium codes. (authors)

  1. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26351501

  2. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sabrina; da Silva Fabris, André Luis; Ferreira, Gabriel Ramalho; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Francisconi, Giovanna Barbosa; Souza, Francisley Avila; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel

    2014-05-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a pathologic condition that causes overdevelopment of the condylar head and neck as well as the mandible. Slowly progressive unilateral enlargement of the head and the neck of the condyle causes crossbite malocclusion, facial asymmetry, and shifting of the midpoint of the chin to the unaffected side. The etiology and the pathogenesis of CH remain uncertain. The diagnosis is made by clinical and radiologic examinations and bone scintigraph. A difference in uptake of 10% or more between condyles is regarded as indicative of CH, and the affected condyles had a relative uptake of 55% or more. When the diagnosis of active CH is established, the treatment consists of removal of the growth center by a partial condylectomy. The authors present the case of a 46-year-old male patient with right active type II CH or hemimandibular hyperplasia who underwent a high condylectomy. PMID:24820728

  3. How tritium illuminates catchment structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M.; Morgenstern, U.; McDonnell, J.

    2012-04-01

    Streams contain water which has taken widely-varying times to pass through catchments, and the distribution of ages is likely to change with the flow. Part of the water has 'runoff' straight to the stream with little delay, other parts are more delayed and some has taken years (in some cases decades) to traverse the deeper regolith or bedrock of the catchment. This work aims to establish the significance of the last component, which is important because it can cause catchments to have long memories of contaminant inputs (e.g. nitrate). Results of tritium studies on streams world-wide were accessed from the scientific literature. Most of the studies assumed that there were just two age-components present in the streams (i.e. young and old). The mean ages and proportions of the components were found by fitting simulations to tritium data. It was found that the old component in streams was substantial (average was 50% of the annual runoff) and had considerable age (average mean age was 10 years) (Stewart et al., 2010). Use of oxygen-18 or chloride variations to estimate streamflow mean age usually does not reveal the age or size of this old component, because these methods cannot detect water older than about four years. Consequently, the use of tritium has shown that substantial parts of streamflow in headwater catchments are older than expected, and that deep groundwater plays an active and sometimes even a dominant role in runoff generation. Difficulties with interpretation of tritium in streams in recent years due to interference from tritium due to nuclear weapons testing are becoming less serious, because very accurate tritium measurements can be made and there is now little bomb-tritium remaining in the atmosphere. Mean ages can often be estimated from single tritium measurements in the Southern Hemisphere, because there was much less bomb-tritium in the atmosphere. This may also be possible for some locations in the Northern Hemisphere. Age determination on

  4. Metformin for endometrial hyperplasia: a Cochrane protocol

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Naomi S; Oliver, Thomas R W; Shiwani, Hunain; Saner, Juliane R F; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Atiomo, William

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous lesion of the endometrium, commonly presenting with uterine bleeding. If managed expectantly, it frequently progresses to endometrial carcinoma, rates of which are increasing dramatically worldwide. However, the established treatment for endometrial hyperplasia (progestogens) involves multiple side effects and leaves the risk of recurrence. Metformin is the most commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agent in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has also been linked to the reversal of endometrial hyperplasia and may therefore contribute to decreasing the prevalence of endometrial carcinoma without the fertility and side effect consequences of current therapies. However, the efficacy and safety of metformin being used for this therapeutic target is unclear and, therefore, this systematic review will aim to determine this. Methods and analysis We will search the following trials and databases with no language restrictions: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; PubMed; Google Scholar; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO International Trials Registry Platform portal; OpenGrey and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). We will include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of use of metformin compared with a placebo or no treatment, conventional medical treatment (eg, progestogens) or any other active intervention. Two review authors will independently assess the trial eligibility, risk of bias and extract appropriate data points. Trial authors will be contacted for additional data. The primary review outcome is the regression of endometrial hyperplasia histology towards normal histology. Secondary outcomes include hysterectomy rate; abnormal uterine bleeding; quality of life scores and adverse reactions to treatments. Ethics and dissemination

  5. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Masannat, Yazan A; Whitehead, Stephen; Hawley, Ian; Apthorp, Lesley; Shah, Elizabeth F

    2010-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a rare benign proliferating breast condition. It was first reported in 1986 when Vuitch, Rosen, and Erlandson described nine cases of benign well-circumscribed, breast masses that simulated vascular lesions consisting of mammary stromal proliferations (Vuitch et al. (1986)). Since then there have been few reported cases of PASH in the literature (Taira et al. (2005)). We describe a large PASH, mimicking inflammatory carcinoma in a young lady that was excised with excellent cosmetic results. PMID:21318179

  6. Fibro-epithelial hyperplasia mimicking mucocele.

    PubMed

    Jain, K; Singh, B D; Dubey, A; Avinash, A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chronic local irritation have been seen commonly in the form of fibroma or mucocele in children. We report a ten year old girl with the chief complaint of swelling in the lower right region of labial mucosa which was diagnosed clinically as mucocele and histologically as fibro-epithelial hyperplasia. Surgical excision was done under local anesthesia with no post-operative complication. PMID:25552222

  7. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: A clinical review.

    PubMed

    Skinder, Danielle; Zacharia, Ilana; Studin, Jillian; Covino, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an increasingly common diagnosis seen in men over age 50 years. Primary care providers must be aware of patient presentation, diagnostic tests, appropriate lifestyle modifications, treatment options, and potential complications in order to properly manage and educate patients with BPH. If left untreated, BPH can significantly decrease a man's quality of life; however, many pharmacologic and surgical treatments are available to control the symptoms. PMID:27367595

  8. Overview of Recent Tritium Experiments in TPE

    SciTech Connect

    Masashi Shimada; T. Otsuka; R. J. Pawelko; P. Calderoni; J. P. Sharpe

    2010-10-01

    Tritium retention in plasma-facing components influences the design, operation, and lifetime of fusion devices such as ITER. Most of the retention studies were carried out with the use of either hydrogen or deuterium. Tritium Plasma Experiment is a unique linear plasma device that can handle radioactive fusion fuel of tritium, toxic material of beryllium, and neutron-irradiated material. A tritium depth profiling method up to mm range was developed using a tritium imaging plate and a diamond wire saw. A series of tritium experiments (T2/D2 ratio: 0.2 and 0.5 %) was performed to investigate tritium depth profiling in bulk tungsten, and the results shows that tritium is migrated into bulk tungsten up to mm range.

  9. Linear accelerator for tritium production

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, R.W.; Billen, J.H.; Chan, K.C.; Genzlinger, R.; Gray, E.R.; Nath, S.; Rusnak, B.; Schrage, D.L.; Stovall, J.E.; Takeda, H.; Wood, R.; Wangler, T.P.; Young, L.M.

    1996-06-01

    For many years now, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop a conceptual design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The APT accelerator will produce high energy protons which will bombard a heavy metal target, resulting in the production of large numbers of spallation neutrons. These neutrons will be captured by a low-{ital Z} target to produce tritium. This paper describes the latest design of a room-temperature, 1.0 GeV, 100 mA, cw proton accelerator for tritium production. The potential advantages of using superconducting cavities in the high-energy section of the linac are also discussed and a comparison is made with the baseline room-temperature accelerator. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Modeling Tritium Life cycle in Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hussey, D.; Saunders, P.; Morey, D.; Pitt, N.; Wilson, J.; Claes, B.

    2006-07-01

    The mathematical development of a tritium model for nuclear power plants is presented. The model requires that the water and tritium material balance be satisfied throughout normal operations and shutdown. The model results obtained at the time of publishing include the system definitions and comparison of the model predictions of tritium generations compared to the observed plant data of the Braidwood station. A scenario that models using ion exchange resin to remove coolant boron demonstrates the tritium concentration levels are manageable. (authors)

  11. Design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sherohman, J.W.; Roberts, D.H.; Levine, B.H.

    1982-05-05

    The design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory for deuterium-tritium fuel processing for laser fusion targets has been accomplished with the intent of providing redundant safeguard systems. The design of the tritium laboratory is based on a combination of tritium handling techniques that are currently used by experienced laboratories. A description of the laboratory in terms of its interrelated processing systems is presented to provide an understanding of the design features for safe operation.

  12. Effects of tritium on material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The effecs of tritium on deformation and fracture of metals are reviewed with emphasis on similarities and differences between tritium and the other hydrogen isotopes. Helium generated by radioactive decay of tritium introduces time dependent property changes not observed with protium or deuterium. On-going studies and topics for further investigations are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, Saravana C.; Senthilnathan, S.; Kumar, Lokesh D.; Mohan, Anand C. S.; Taranath, M.

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is (CH) an uncommon malformation of the mandible involving change in size and morphology of the condylar neck and head. CH is an anomaly that usually occurs unilaterally and equally affects in both men and women. Hyperplasia of the condyle ‘differentiated into hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and CH. Here, we are presenting a case of 17-year-old male patient with unilateral CH and its review of the literature. PMID:24818099

  14. Tracer water transport and subgrid precipitation variation within atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Eagleson, Peter S.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1988-01-01

    A capability is developed for monitoring tracer water movement in the three-dimensional Goddard Institute for Space Science Atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM). A typical experiment with the tracer water model follows water evaporating from selected grid squares and determines where this water first returns to the Earth's surface as precipitation or condensate, thereby providing information on the lateral scales of hydrological transport in the GCM. Through a comparison of model results with observations in nature, inferences can be drawn concerning real world water transport. Tests of the tracer water model include a comparison of simulated and observed vertically-integrated vapor flux fields and simulations of atomic tritium transport from the stratosphere to the oceans. The inter-annual variability of the tracer water model results is also examined.

  15. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.; Fox, E.; Kane, M.; Staack, G.

    2011-01-07

    Effects of tritium gas exposure on various polymers have been studied over the last several years. Despite the deleterious effects of beta exposure on many material properties, structural polymers continued to be used in tritium systems. Improved understanding of the tritium effects will allow more resistant materials to be selected. Currently polymers find use mainly in tritium gas sealing applications (eg. valve stem tips, O-rings). Future uses being evaluated including polymeric based cracking of tritiated water, and polymer-based sensors of tritium.

  16. Tritium hazard via the ingestion pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model that allows for the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase the total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound to loose ratio of tritium in the diet. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    SciTech Connect

    Najera, Larry

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  18. Tracer for circulation determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, H.; Santos, S.; Wysong, R. D.

    1985-03-19

    An improved tracer particle is described comprising an ion exchange core having a polymer coating thereon, the coated ion exchange core having a reaction site capable of reacting with a compound containing an oxirane group, said coated ion exchange core having been treated with a compound containing an oxirane group to react with said coated ion exchange core causing an increase in mass of the tracer particle. Preferably, the ion exchange core is labelled with a radionuclide. These particles have improved characteristics including improved stability against leaching and improved handling properties. Such particles are useful in circulatory determinations involving the injection of the particles as a suspension in a physiologically acceptable carrier or medium into the circulatory system of animals.

  19. Tritium pellet injection sequences for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.; Attenberger, S.E.; Singer, C.E.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium pellet injection into neutral deuterium, beam heated deuterium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is shown to be an attractive means of (1) minimizing tritium use per tritium discharge and over a sequence of tritium discharges; (2) greatly reducing the tritium load in the walls, limiters, getters, and cryopanels; (3) maintaining or improving instantaneous neutron production (Q); (4) reducing or eliminating deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron production in non-optimized discharges; and (5) generally adding flexibility to the experimental sequences leading to optimal Q operation. Transport analyses of both compression and full-bore TFTR plasmas are used to support the above observations and to provide the basis for a proposed eight-pellet gas gun injector for the 1986 tritium experiments.

  20. Adrenal steroidogenesis and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Turcu, Adina F; Auchus, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids (primarily aldosterone), glucocorticoids (primarily cortisol), and adrenal androgens (primarily dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate) occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal-recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-Hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for more than 90% of CAH cases and, when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. PMID:26038201

  1. OTC tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    Earlier this year, tamsulosin, an alpha blocker previously only available on prescription, became available for sale by pharmacists as a treatment for functional symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men aged 45-75 years (Flomax Relief MR - Boehringer Ingelheim). A television advert for the over-the-counter (OTC) product claims that it is a "simple and effective" treatment that can relieve symptoms within 1 week, allowing the user to "take control of your annoying pee problems".¹ Here we review the evidence on tamsulosin and assess whether its availability as an OTC product confers worthwhile advantages. PMID:20926447

  2. Models for studying benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mahapokai, W; Van Sluijs, F J; Schalken, J A

    2000-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases affecting aging man. Attempts have been made to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis and, to that end, experimental models have been developed. To date, in vitro and in vivo models have been used, depending on the concept of the study. Spontaneous animal models are limited to the chimpanzee and the dog. Ethical and financial factors restrict the applicability of these models. The hormonal-induced canine BPH model is a good alternative that closely resembles human BPH in many aspects. The experimental models currently used for studying BPH are reviewed. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2000) 3, 28-33 PMID:12497158

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. PMID:27241964

  4. Adrenal Steroidogenesis and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Adrenal steroidogenesis is a dynamic process, reliant on de novo synthesis from cholesterol, under the stimulation of ACTH and other regulators. The syntheses of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens occur in separate adrenal cortical zones, each expressing specific enzymes. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive enzymatic defects in cortisol biosynthesis. 21-hydroxylase (21OHD) deficiency accounts for over 90% of CAH cases and when milder or nonclassic forms are included, 21OHD is one of the most common genetic diseases. This review discusses in detail the epidemiology, genetics, diagnostic, clinical aspects and management of 21OHD. PMID:26038201

  5. One-stage treatment of hemimandibular hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    da Costa Araújo, Fábio Andrey; de Santana Santos, Thiago; de Oliveira E Silva, Emanuel Dias; Filho, José Rodrigues Laureano

    2012-11-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH) is a rare, self-limiting process manifesting between the first and third decades of life. HH causes facial asymmetry and derangement of the occlusion. Management involves resection of the condylar head and orthognathic surgery. This paper describes the case of a 38-year-old woman with spontaneous onset HH over a span of approximately 30 years. The condition was managed with resection of the condyle with simultaneous orthognathic surgery. The patient is currently satisfied with her appearance and function, and there are no signs of recurrence after 2 years. PMID:23172505

  6. Observation of tritium distribution in iron oxide with tritium micro autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, K.; Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Yamanishi, T.; Okuno, K.

    2008-07-15

    To clarify the tritium permeation behavior, tritium distribution in iron oxidized in high temperature water was observed with tritium micro autoradiography. It was found that tritium was distributed homogeneously in the iron metal. However the oxide surface (magnetite) was found to contain a very low concentration of tritium. The inner layer of oxide could strongly effect the tritium permeation. From a comparison with the permeation experiment that had been reported in Ref. 1, it was suggested that tritium would mainly diffuse other path except the oxide lattice. According to the chemical form of tritium, which was released from iron surface into water, two assumptions were suggested. One is based on the different combination of tritium on the water-surface interface. The other is based on the oxidation mechanism. (authors)

  7. Tritium Burn-up Depth and Tritium Break-Even Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Yue; Deng, Bai-Quan; Huang, Jin-Hua; Yan, Jian-Cheng

    2006-08-01

    Similarly to but quite different from the xenon poisoning effects resulting from fission-produced iodine during the restart-up process of a fission reactor, we introduce a completely new concept of the tritium burn-up depth and tritium break-even time in the fusion energy research area. To show what the least required amount of tritium storage is used to start up a fusion reactor and how long a time the fusion reactor needs to be operated for achieving the tritium break-even during the initial start-up phase due to the finite tritium breeding time that is dependent on the tritium breeder, specific structure of breeding zone, layout of coolant flow pipe, tritium recovery scheme, extraction process, the tritium retention of reactor components, unrecoverable tritium fraction in breeder, leakage to the inertial gas container, and the natural decay etc., we describe this new phenomenon and answer this problem by setting up and by solving a set of equations, which express a dynamic subsystem model of the tritium inventory evolution in a fusion experimental breeder (FEB). It is found that the tritium burn-up depth is 317 g and the tritium break-even time is approximately 240 full power days for FEB designed detail configuration and it is also found that after one-year operation, the tritium storage reaches 1.18 kg that is more than the least required amount of tritium storage to start up three of FEB-like fusion reactors.

  8. Tracer tomography (in) rocks!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Jimenez Parras, Santos; Bayer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physical behavior of fractured aquifers is rigorously controlled by the presence of interconnected conductive fractures, as they represent the main pathways for flow and transport. Ideally, they are simulated as a discrete fracture network (DFN) in a model to capture the role of fracture system geometry, i.e. fracture length, height, and width (aperture/transmissivity). Such network may be constrained by prior geological information or direct data resources such as field mapping, borehole logging and geophysics. With the many geometric features, however, calibration of a DFN to measured data is challenging. This is especially the case when spatial properties of a fracture network need to be calibrated to flow and transport data. One way to increase the insight in a fractured rock is by combining the information from multiple field tests. In this study, a tomographic configuration that combines multiple tracer tests is suggested. These tests are conducted from a borehole with different injection levels that act as sources. In a downgradient borehole, the tracer is recorded at different levels or receivers, in order to maximize insight in the spatial heterogeneity of the rock. As tracer here we chose heat, and temperature breakthrough curves are recorded. The recorded tracer data is inverted using a novel stochastic trans-dimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure. An initial DFN solution is generated and sequentially modified given available geological information, such as expected fracture density, orientation, length distribution, spacing and persistency. During this sequential modification, the DFN evolves in a trans-dimensional inversion space through adding and/or deleting fracture segments. This stochastic inversion algorithm requires a large number of thousands of model runs to converge, and thus using a fast and robust forward model is essential to keep the calculation efficient. To reach this goal, an upwind coupled finite difference method is employed

  9. Tracers and Tracer Testing: Design, Implementation, Tracer Selection, and Interpretation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    G. Michael Shook; Shannon L.; Allan Wylie

    2004-01-01

    Conducting a successful tracer test requires adhering to a set of steps. The steps include identifying appropriate and achievable test goals, identifying tracers with the appropriate properties, and implementing the test as designed. When these steps are taken correctly, a host of tracer test analysis methods are available to the practitioner. This report discusses the individual steps required for a successful tracer test and presents methods for analysis. The report is an overview of tracer technology; the Suggested Reading section offers references to the specifics of test design and interpretation.

  10. Calibration of a transient transport model to tritium measurements in rivers and streams in the Western Lake Taupo catchment, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M. A.; Toews, M.; Morgenstern, U.; Stewart, M.; Daughney, C.; Hadfield, J.

    2012-08-01

    Here we present a general approach of calibrating transient transport models to tritium concentrations in river waters developed for the MT3DMS/MODFLOW model of the Western Lake Taupo catchment, New Zealand. Tritium is a time-dependent tracer with radioactive half-life of 12.32 yr. In the transport model, the tritium input (measured in rain) passes through the groundwater system, and the modelled tritium concentrations are compared to the measured tritium concentrations in the river outlets for the Waihaha, Whanganui, Whareroa, Kuratau and Omori river catchments from 2000-2007. For the Kuratau River, tritium was also measured between 1960 and 1970, which allowed us to fine-tune the transport model. In order to incorporate all surface flows from rivers to small streams, an 80 m uniform grid cell size was selected in the steady-state MODFLOW model for the model area of 1072 km2. The groundwater flow model was first calibrated to groundwater levels and stream flow observations. Then, the transport model was calibrated to the measured tritium concentrations in the river waters. The MT3DMS model results show good agreement with the measured tritium values in all five river catchments. Finally, the calibrated MT3DMS model is applied to simulate groundwater ages that are used to construct groundwater age distributions for the river catchments.

  11. Scoping calculations for groundwater transport of tritium from the Gnome Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

    1994-08-01

    Analytic solutions are employed to investigate potential groundwater transport of tritium from a radioactive tracer site near the Project Gnome site in southeastern New Mexico. The tracer test was conducted in 1963 and introduced significant quantities of radionuclides to the transmissive and laterally continuous Culebra dolomite. Groundwater in the Culebra near Gnome travels toward a regional discharge point at the Pecos River, a distance of about 10 to 15 km, depending on flow path. Groundwater transport of radionuclides from the Gnome site is therefore of interest due to the proximity of the accessible environment and the 31-year time period during which migration is likely to have occurred. The analytical stochastic solutions used incorporate the heterogeneity observed in the Culebra by treating transmissivity as a spatially correlated random field. The results indicate that significant spreading of tritium will occur in the Culebra dolomite as a result of the combination of relatively high transmissivity, high spatial variability, and high spatial correlation of transmissivity. Longitudinal spreading may cause a very small fraction of tritium mass to arrive at the Pecos River within the 31 years since the tracer test. However, dilution and transverse dispersion will act to distribute this mass over a very large volume, thereby reducing groundwater concentrations. Despite the high degree of spreading, the calculations indicate that most of the tritium remains near the source. At present, the center of mass is estimated to have moved approximately 260 m downgradient of the test location and about 95 percent of the mass is estimated to have remained within about 1 km downgradient.

  12. What Are the Treatments for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Treatments for CAH ... pepubs/cah.pdf (PDF - 751 KB) [top] Screening, Technology and Research in Genetics ... Endocrine Society. (2010). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to steroid 21- ...

  13. Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia: A Rare Cause of Idiopathic Gigantomastia

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mélissa; Lee, James; Aldekhayel, Salah

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Gigantomastia remains a rare clinical diagnosis with significant physical and psychological impacts on patients. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with idiopathic breast enlargement. Further histological analysis of the breast tissue revealed pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. This is the first reported case of diffuse breast enlargement resulting from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. PMID:26495214

  14. Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pakistani Patient.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zafaruddin; Tahir, Muzamil; Ashraf, H Shahzad; Khan Niazi, FazaluRehman; Khan, Munazza; Mustafa, Sadaf; Höti, Naseruddin

    2014-01-01

    "Giant hyperplasia" of the prostate is a rare pathology of the prostate gland. We report one such case, in which a successful retropubic prostatectomy was performed on an elderly male patient in Pakistan. The weight of the resected prostate was 700 g, which is the eighth largest prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia reported. PMID:26955540

  15. Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia: A Rare Cause of Idiopathic Gigantomastia.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mélissa; Lee, James; Aldekhayel, Salah; Dionisopoulos, Tassos

    2015-09-01

    Gigantomastia remains a rare clinical diagnosis with significant physical and psychological impacts on patients. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with idiopathic breast enlargement. Further histological analysis of the breast tissue revealed pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. This is the first reported case of diffuse breast enlargement resulting from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. PMID:26495214

  16. Genetics of primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares; Alencar, Guilherme Asmar; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Almeida, Madson Queiroz; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Lacroix, André

    2015-01-01

    ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome (CS), accounting for <2% of all endogenous CS cases; however it is more frequently identified incidentally with sub-clinical cortisol secretion. Recently, cortisol secretion has been shown to be regulated by ectopic corticotropin, which is in turn produced by clusters of steroidogenic cells of the hyperplastic adrenal nodules. Hence, the term 'ACTH-independent' is not entirely appropriate for this disorder. Accordingly, the disease is designated primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH) in this review article. The means by which cortisol production is regulated in PMAH despite the suppressed levels of ACTH of pituitary origin is exceedingly complex. Several molecular events have been proposed to explain the enhanced cortisol secretion, increased cell proliferation, and nodule formation in PMAH. Nonetheless, the precise sequence of events and the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition remain unclear. The purpose of this review is therefore to present new insights on the molecular and genetic profile of PMAH pathophysiology, and to discuss the implications for disease progression. PMID:25472909

  17. Conditional Deletion of Pten Causes Bronchiolar Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E.; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R.; Loudy, Dave E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (PtenΔ/Δ) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as indicated by β-tubulin and FOXJ1 expression in ciliated cells and by CCSP expression in nonciliated cells, cell proliferation (detected by expression of Ki-67, phospho-histone-H3, and cyclin D1) was increased and associated with activation of the AKT/mTOR survival pathway. Deletion of Pten caused papillary epithelial hyperplasia characterized by a hypercellular epithelium lining papillae with fibrovascular cores that protruded into the airway lumens. Cell polarity, as assessed by subcellular localization of cadherin, β-catenin, and zonula occludens-1, was unaltered. PTEN is required for regulation of epithelial cell proliferation in the lung and for the maintenance of the normal simple columnar epithelium characteristics of bronchi and bronchioles. PMID:17921358

  18. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giulio; Cavazza, Alberto; Spagnolo, Paolo; Sverzellati, Nicola; Longo, Lucia; Jukna, Agita; Montanari, Gloria; Carbonelli, Cristiano; Vincenzi, Giada; Bogina, Giuseppe; Franco, Renato; Tiseo, Marcello; Cottin, Vincent; Colby, Thomas V

    2016-06-01

    The term diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) may be used to describe a clinico-pathological syndrome, as well as an incidental finding on histological examination, although there are obvious differences between these two scenarios. According to the World Health Organization, the definition of DIPNECH is purely histological. However, DIPNECH encompasses symptomatic patients with airway disease, as well as asymptomatic patients with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia associated with multiple tumourlets/carcinoid tumours. DIPNECH is also considered a pre-neoplastic lesion in the spectrum of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours, because it is commonly found in patients with peripheral carcinoid tumours.In this review, we summarise clinical, physiological, radiological and histological features of DIPNECH and critically discuss recently proposed diagnostic criteria. In addition, we propose that the term "DIPNECH syndrome" be used to indicate a sufficiently distinct patient subgroup characterised by respiratory symptoms, airflow obstruction, mosaic attenuation with air trapping on chest imaging and constrictive obliterative bronchiolitis, often with nodular proliferation of neuroendocrine cells with/without tumourlets/carcinoid tumours on histology. Surgical lung biopsy is the diagnostic gold standard. However, in the appropriate clinical and radiological setting, transbronchial lung biopsy may also allow a confident diagnosis of DIPNECH syndrome. PMID:27076588

  19. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  20. Polycystic Ovaries Associated with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lucis, O. J.; Hobkirk, R.; Hollenberg, C. H.; MacDonald, S. A.; Blahey, P.

    1966-01-01

    Polycystic ovaries were found in a 16-year-old female with congenital absence of vagina, male-like external genitalia, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Masculinization was sufficiently severe to cause the patient to be reared as a male. Biochemical studies of ovarian tissue revealed hyperactivity and an imbalance of enzyme systems concerned with steroid-hormone biosynthesis, which led to production of large amounts of androgens. The pathway towards estrogens was preserved but less efficient than normal. Urinary steroid metabolites before and after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy revealed an absence of Porter-Silber chromogens and tetrahydrocortisone. Excretion of aldosterone was normal and that of corticosterone slightly higher than normal. The patterns of urinary 17-ketosteroids, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol and pregnanetriolone were similar to those commonly seen in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Urinary estrogens after panhysterectomy were low, being in the post-menopausal range. The pathogenesis of polycystic ovaries and their possible contribution to masculinization are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5901591

  1. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  2. Modeling of the anthropogenic tritium transient, and its decay product Helium-3, in the Mediterranean Sea, using a high-resolution regional model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayache, Mohamed; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Beranger, Karine; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Palmieri, Julien; Le-Vu, Briac; Roether, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    This numerical study provides, for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, a simulation of the anthropogenic tritium invasion and its decay product helium-3. The simulation is starting in 1950 and go up to 2011. It thus covers a 60-year period spanning the entire tritium transient generated by the atmospheric nuclear-weapon tests performed in the 1950s and early 1960s. The tritium is known as a passive tracer, which allows a good representation/signature of the upper water stratification, as well as, the high mixing in convection areas and the spreading at intermediate/deep levels. The tracer simulation is done using a high resolution regional model NEMO-MED12 (Beuvier et al., JGR, 2012) with at surface prescribed tritium concentration according to the temporal evolution derived from observations (see Roether et al., OS, 2013). Several measurement of tritium and helium-3 performed along large scale transects in the Mediterranean Sea during the last decades allow a comparison of the simulated results with numerous in situ sections from cruises of Meteor M5/6, M31/1, M44/4, M51/2, M84/3, and Poseidon 234. The results show that the parameterization used for the tritium boundary conditions generates realistic results. Besides we calculate the tracer-age distributions according to the relationship between tritium and its radioactive decay product helium-3. In the eastern basin, the tracer simulation results highlight the weak formation of Adriatic Deep Water (ADW) in the Adriatic Sea followed by a week contribution to the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDW) in the Ionian sub-basin while it shows a good representation of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) signal from the Aegean Sea followed by a great contribution to the EMDW. In the western basin, the particularly intense deep convection event of winter 2005 in the Gulf of Lions during the Western Mediterranean Transition (WMT) is well simulated. However the spreading of the recently ventilated deep water to

  3. Stratospheric Tracer Spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, P. H.; Vanneste, J.

    2004-01-01

    The combined effects of advection and diffusion on the equilibrium spatial structure of a tracer whose spatial variation is maintained by a large-scale forcing are considered. Motivated by the lower stratosphere, the flow is taken to be large-scale, time-dependent, and purely horizontal but varying in the vertical, with the vertical shear much larger than horizontal velocity gradients. As a result, the ratio α between horizontal and vertical tracer scales is large. (For the lower stratospheric surf zone α has been shown to be about 250.) The diffusion parameterizes the mixing effects of small-scale processes.The three space dimensions and the large range between the forcing scale and the diffusive scale mean that direct numerical simulation would be prohibitively expensive for this problem. Instead, an ensemble approach is used that takes advantage of the separation between the large scale of the flow and the small scale of the tracer distribution. This approach, which has previously been used in theoretical investigations of two-dimensional flows, provides an efficient technique to derive statistical properties of the tracer distributions such as horizontal-wavenumber spectrum.First, the authors consider random-strain models in which the velocity gradient experienced by a fluid parcel is modeled by a random process. The results show the expected k-1 Batchelor spectrum at large scales, with a deviation from this form at a scale that is larger by a factor α than the diffusive scale found in the absence of vertical shear. This effect may be crudely captured by replacing the diffusivity κ by an “=uivalent diffusivity” α2κ, but the diffusive dissipation is then substantially overestimated, and the spectrum at large k is too steep. This may be attributed to the failure of the equivalent diffusivity to capture the variability of the vertical shear.The technique is then applied to lower-stratospheric velocity fields. For realistic values of the diffusivity κ

  4. Radiological training for tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This program management guide describes a recommended implementation standard for core training as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The standard is to assist those individuals, both within DOE and Managing and Operating contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the core training recommended by the RCM. This training may also be given to radiological workers using tritium to assist in meeting their job specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  5. Sample preparation for quantitation of tritium by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L; Dingley, Karen H; Roberts, Mark L; Velsko, Carol A; Love, Adam H

    2002-12-15

    The capability to prepare samples accurately and reproducibly for analysis of tritium (3H) content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) greatly facilitates isotopic tracer studies in which attomole levels of 3H can be measured in milligram-sized samples. A method has been developed to convert the hydrogen of organic samples to a solid, titanium hydride, which can be analyzed by AMS. Using a two-step process, the sample is first oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. In the second step, the water is transferred within a heated manifold into a quartz tube, reduced to hydrogen gas using zinc, and reacted with titanium powder. The 3H/1H ratio of the titanium hydride is measured by AMS and normalized to standards whose ratios were determined by decay counting to calculate the amount of 3H in the original sample. Water, organic compounds, and biological samples with 3H activities measured by liquid scintillation counting were utilized to develop and validate the method. The 3H/1H ratios were quantified in samples that spanned 5 orders of magnitude, from 10(-10) to 10(-15), with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10(-15), which is equivalent to 0.02 dpm tritium/mg of material. Samples smaller than 2 mg were analyzed following addition of 2 mg of a tritium-free-hydrogen carrier. Preparation of organic standards containing both 14C and 3H in 2-mg organic samples demonstrated that this sample preparation methodology can also be applied to quantify both of these isotopes from a single sample. PMID:12510750

  6. Development of a tritium monitor combined with an electrochemical tritium pump using a proton conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    2015-03-15

    The detection of low level tritium is one of the key issues for tritium management in tritium handling facilities. Such a detection can be performed by tritium monitors based on proton conducting oxide technique. We tested a tritium monitoring system composed of a commercial proportional counter combined with an electrochemical hydrogen pump equipped with CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-α} as proton conducting oxide. The hydrogen pump operated at 973 K under electrolysis conditions using tritiated water vapor (HTO). The proton conducting oxide extracts tritium molecules (HT) from HTO and tritium concentration is measured by the proportional counter. The advantage of the proposed tritium monitoring system is that it is able to convert HTO into molecular hydrogen.

  7. Tracer testing for reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Brigham, W.E.; Abbaszadeh-Dehghani, M.

    1987-05-01

    When a reservoir is studied in detail for an EOR project, well-to-well tracers should be used as a tool to help understand the reservoir in a quantitative way. Tracers complement the more traditional reservoir evaluation tools. This paper discusses the concepts underlying tracer testing, the analysis methods used to produce quantitative results, and the meaning of these results in terms of conceptual picture of the reservoir. Some of the limitations of these analysis methods are discussed, along with ongoing research on tracer flow.

  8. Tritium calorimeter setup and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, David E.

    2002-12-17

    The LBNL tritium calorimeter is a stable instrument capable of measuring tritium with a sensitivity of 25 Ci. Measurement times range from 8-hr to 7-days depending on the thermal conductivity and mass of the material being measured. The instrument allows accurate tritium measurements without requiring that the sample be opened and subsampled, thus reducing personnel exposure and radioactive waste generation. The sensitivity limit is primarily due to response shifts caused by temperature fluctuation in the water bath. The fluctuations are most likely a combination of insufficient insulation from ambient air and precision limitations in the temperature controller. The sensitivity could probably be reduced to below 5 Ci if the following improvements were made: (1) Extend the external insulation to cover the entire bath and increase the top insulation. (2) Improve the seal between the air space above the bath and the outside air to reduce evaporation. This will limit the response drift as the water level drops. (3) Install an improved temperature controller, preferably with a built in chiller, capable of temperature control to {+-}0.001 C.

  9. Tritium Retention and Removal in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2009-02-19

    Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy. Tritium is an important source term in safety assessments, it is expensive and in short supply. Tritium can be continuously retained in a tokamak by codeposition with eroded carbon or beryllium and JET and TFTR with carbon plasma facing components showed a tritium retention level that would be unacceptable in ITER or future fusion reactors. Asdex-U and Alcator C-mod have shown reduced hydrogenic retention with tungsten clad and molybdenum plasma facing components. Once the tritium inventory approaches the administrative limit, tritium must be removed to permit continued D-T plasma operations. Several candidate techniques are being considered and need to be proven at a relevant speed and efficiency in contemporary tokamaks. Projections for ITER are discussed.

  10. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  11. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  12. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  13. Tritium Removal from Carbon Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; J.P. Coad; G. Federici

    2003-11-24

    Tritium removal is a major unsolved development task for next-step devices with carbon plasma-facing components. The 2-3 order of magnitude increase in duty cycle and associated tritium accumulation rate in a next-step tokamak will place unprecedented demands on tritium removal technology. The associated technical risk can be mitigated only if suitable removal techniques are demonstrated on tokamaks before the construction of a next-step device. This article reviews the history of codeposition, the tritium experience of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) and the tritium removal rate required to support ITER's planned operational schedule. The merits and shortcomings of various tritium removal techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on oxidation and laser surface heating.

  14. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  15. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-11-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  16. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  17. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-07-25

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide.

  18. Recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, W.A.

    1984-10-17

    This invention relates to the recovery of tritium from various tritiated molecules by reaction with uranium. More particularly, the invention relates to the recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules by reaction with uranium wherein the reaction is conducted in a reactor which permits the reaction to occur as a moving front reaction from the point where the tritium enters the reactor charged with uranium down the reactor until the uranium is exhausted.

  19. Tritium radioluminescent devices, Health and Safety Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, R.J.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document consolidates available information on the properties of tritium, including its environmental chemistry, its health physics, and safe practices in using tritium-activated RL lighting. It also summarizes relevant government regulations on RL lighting. Chapters are divided into a single-column part, which provides an overview of the topic for readers simply requiring guidance on the safety of tritium RL lighting, and a dual-column part for readers requiring more technical and detailed information.

  20. Multiple tracers of shallow ground-water flow and recharge in hilly loess

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, R.; Keller, C.K.; Smith, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    Vertical profiles of tritium and nitrate pore-water concentrations were determined to {approximately}8 m depth across two loess hillslopes. Mean recharge fluxes, estimated from chloride mass balance, are 5--10 times larger at the mid- and toe-slope positions than at the top-slope; the magnitudes of the values compare reasonably with results from other methods. The tritium and nitrate profiles exhibit multiple peaks which indicate that piston flow is not the sole flow process in this system. Results of a simple 1-D mixing model suggest that infiltration-exfiltration cycles in zones of plant root activity explain the shallow tritium peaks. Deeper peaks result from preferential vertical and/or lateral flow. The importance of these dispersive processes is underlined by great dilution of observed tritium concentrations, relative to expected concentrations assuming piston flow. In this setting, chloride is useful as a recharge estimator while tritium and nitrate serve as tracers of landscape-scale water movement.

  1. Microwave Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Carl, J. R.; Raffoul, George

    2005-01-01

    Microwave ablation in the form of microwave energy applied to a heart muscle by a coaxial catheter inserted in a vein in the groin area can be used to heat and kill diseased heart cells. A microwave catheter has been developed to provide deep myocardial ablation to treat ventricular tachycardia by restoring appropriate electrical activity within the heart and eliminating irregular heartbeats. The resulting microwave catheter design, which is now being developed for commercial use in treating ventricular tachycardia, can be modified to treat prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inasmuch as the occurrence of BPH is increasing currently 350,000 operations per year are performed in the United States alone to treat this condition this microwave catheter has significant commercial potential.

  2. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia: Relevance in Oral Pathology.

    PubMed

    Sarangarajan, R; Vedam, V K Vaishnavi; Sivadas, G; Krishnaraj, R; Sarangarajan, Anuradha; Shanmugam, K T

    2015-07-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH), a neglected entity by oral pathologist possesses utmost importance in the field of research. Of all the investigative challenges, PEH, a reactive epithelial proliferation is seen secondary to lesions with infectious, inflammatory, reactive, and degenerative origin. Small sized samples, incomplete excision, improper orientation, and dense inflammatory changes render diagnostic confront to the oral pathologist in exclusion of frankly invasive malignant lesions like squamous cell carcinoma from lesions exhibiting PEH. The diagnosis can occasionally be difficult as they mimic other lesions also, on clinic-pathological assessment. Thus, this article gives an insight regarding the various concepts of etiopathogenesis, histopathology, differential diagnosis, and malignant potential of PEH. A combined effort of a clinician and pathologist benefits every patient to rule out malignancy and render appropriate treatment as the only local conservative approach is essential to remove PEH associated lesions. PMID:26229388

  3. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia causing massive breast enlargement.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Anita Geraldine; Tiang, Stephen; Harvey, Nathan; McClure, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign mesenchymal proliferative process, initially described by Vuitch et al. We report an unusual case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with a 6-week history of bilateral massive, asymmetrical, painful enlargement of her breasts, without a history of trauma. On clinical examination, both breasts were markedly enlarged and oedematous, but there were no discrete palpable masses. Preoperative image-guided core biopsies and surgery showed PASH. PASH is increasingly recognised as an incidental finding on image-guided core biopsy performed for screen detected lesions. There are a few reported cases of PASH presenting as rapid breast enlargement. In our case, the patient presented with painful, asymmetrical, massive breast enlargement. Awareness needs to be raised of this entity as a differential diagnosis in massive, painful breast enlargement. PMID:26475873

  4. Langerhans cell hyperplasia from molluscum contagiosum

    PubMed Central

    Hatter, Alyn D.; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine if molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on biopsy proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. We report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histologic lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive “driver” in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  5. Langerhans Cell Hyperplasia From Molluscum Contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Hatter, Alyn D; Zhou, Xin; Honda, Kord; Popkin, Daniel L

    2015-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) carries a prognosis, which ranges from benign to potentially fatal. There is currently little framework to decipher metrics, which predict the benign versus aggressive nature of LCH. We wanted to determine whether molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) DNA could be isolated from a cutaneous lesion, demonstrating Langerhans cell hyperplasia resembling LCH in a patient with both. Polymerase chain reaction on biopsy-proven MCV and the hyperplastic lesion has been performed. Two specific regions within the MCV genome were detected from both biopsies. The authors report our findings and suggest that some MCV can produce histological lesions resembling LCH, similar to the literature on scabies mimicking LCH. Efforts to find a reactive "driver" in LCH may significantly inform the clinical scenario. PMID:25140667

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major factor impacting male health. Clinical evaluation to assess the presence and degree of voiding dysfunction and/or the role of BPH in its presence has an increasingly broad spectrum of treatment goals. The goals of the evaluation of such men are to identify the patient’s voiding or, more appropriately, urinary tract problems, both symptomatic and physiologic; to establish the etiologic role of BPH in these problems; to evaluate the necessity for and probability of success and risks of various therapeutic approaches; and to present the results of these assessments to the patient so he can make an informed decision about management recommendations and available alternatives. PMID:16985961

  7. Clinical Evaluation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    McVary, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common neoplastic condition afflicting men and constitutes a major factor impacting male health. Clinical evaluation to assess the presence and degree of voiding dysfunction and/or the role of BPH in its presence has an increasingly broad spectrum of treatment goals. The goals of the evaluation of such men are to identify the patient’s voiding or, more appropriately, urinary tract problems, both symptomatic and physiologic; to establish the etiologic role of BPH in these problems; to evaluate the necessity for and probability of success and risks of various therapeutic approaches; and to present the results of these assessments to the patient so he can make an informed decision about management recommendations and available alternatives. PMID:16985968

  8. Steroid 21 hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nimkarn, Saroj; Lin-Su, Karen; New, Maria I

    2011-10-01

    Steroid 21 hydroxylase deficiency is the most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The severity of this disorder depends on the extent of impaired enzymatic activity, which is caused by various mutations of the 21 hydroxylase gene. This article reviews adrenal steroidogenesis and the pathophysiology of 21 hydroxylase deficiency. The three forms of CAH are then discussed in terms of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment, and genetic basis. Prenatal diagnosis and treatment are also reviewed. The goal of therapy is to correct the deficiency in cortisol secretion and suppress androgen overproduction. Glucocorticoid replacement has been the mainstay of treatment for CAH, but new treatment strategies continue to be developed and studied. PMID:21981961

  9. Tritium deformation interactions in FCC austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chene, J.

    2008-07-15

    Hydrogen deformation interactions are known to control the environmental degradation effects (H and He embrittlement, stress corrosion cracking,...) associated with the presence of H and its isotopes in structural materials. Different types of interaction have been investigated: trapping on stress field and strain-induced defects, enhanced diffusion along dislocation networks, transport by moving dislocation. For several reasons, the quantification of these interactions is a major challenge in nuclear systems involving the presence of tritium: prevention of tritium-induced damage, tritium inventory, management of tritiated waste... This paper reports recent results on the quantitative characterization of tritium deformation interactions in fee materials. (authors)

  10. Distribution of bomb tritium in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.; Ostlund, G.

    1986-12-15

    A global picture of the water column inventories of bomb-produced tritium is constructed from the GEOSECS data set. This picture is compared with that obtained by combining the bomb tritium input function of Weiss and Roether (1980) with the bomb radiocarbon calibrate lateral redistribution model of Broecker et al. (1985). While differences between the calculated and observed distribution exist, they are surprisingly small. Tritium distributions calculated using the lateral redistribution model provide predictions of the changes to be expected in the next few decades. Such predictions are essential to the design of sound strategies for continued monitoring of the tritium transient.

  11. Tritium removal and separation technology developments

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnett, I.; Busigin, A.; Shapiro, A.

    2008-07-15

    Recent increased interest from regulators and the public has led more organizations to consider the environmental impact and safety considerations of tritium handling. Examples include the significance of the tritium isotope separation system on ITER licensing, remediation of ground water from power utilities and government facilities and concerns of high tritium concentrations within operational CANDU reactors. GE Healthcare, formerly Amersham pic, has been producing tritium-labelled chemicals since the late 1940's. GE's manufacturing site located near Cardiff, UK has installed a tritium waste treatment and enrichment facility to radically reduce tritium discharges to the environment. This facility employs a continuous processing plant that recovers tritium from a complex mixture of tritiated organic and aqueous waste compounds. Two isotope separation techniques are used to achieve a final pure tritium product, which is used in the manufacturing of labelled compounds. Building upon this experience, together with Special Separations Applications Inc. (SSAI), GE has developed a large-scale diffusion-based isotope separation process as an alternative to conventional cryogenic distillation. Having a tritium inventory an order of magnitude lower than conventional cryogenic distillation, this process is attractive for heavy water detritiation, applicable to single and multi-unit CANDU reactors and research reactors as well as fusion applications. Additionally, the new process has advantages of being cryogen-free, less complex, simple to operate and having improved conventional and radiological safety. (authors)

  12. Modeling of Tritium Retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, W.; Brooks, J.N.; Budny, R.V.; Hogan, J.T.; Hosea, J.; Skinner, C.H.; et al.

    1998-08-19

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium retention experience is reviewed and the data related to models of plasma surface interactions. Over 3.5 years of TFTR deuterium-tritium operations, approximately 51% of the tritium injected into TFTR was retained in the torus. Most of this was subsequently recovered by glow discharges and air ventilation. Co-deposition rates for representative conditions in tritium operation were modeled with the BBQ code. The calculations indicate that known erosion mechanisms and subsequent co-deposition are sufficient to account for the order of magnitude of retention.

  13. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.

    1991-07-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic {sup 3}He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering {sup 3}He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Tritium percolation, convection, and permeation in fusion solid breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Liu, Y.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Models are developed to describe the percolation of released tritium through the breeder interconnected porosity to the purge stream, convection of tritium by the helium purge stream, and leakage or permeation of tritium through the structural material to the primary coolant system. Important parameters in the models are tritium generation rate, breeder microstructure, tritium species in the gas phase, temperatures, tritium diffusivities and permeabilities, and effectiveness of oxide barriers.

  15. Validation test for CAP88 predictions of tritium dispersion at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Michelotti, Erika; Green, Andrew; Whicker, Jeffrey; Eisele, William; Fuehne, David; McNaughton, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Gaussian plume models, such as CAP88, are used regularly for estimating downwind concentrations from stack emissions. At many facilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) requires that CAP88 be used to demonstrate compliance with air quality regulations for public protection from emissions of radionuclides. Gaussian plume models have the advantage of being relatively simple and their use pragmatic; however, these models are based on simplifying assumptions and generally they are not capable of incorporating dynamic meteorological conditions or complex topography. These limitations encourage validation tests to understand the capabilities and limitations of the model for the specific application. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has complex topography but is required to use CAP88 for compliance with the Clean Air Act Subpart H. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the CAP88 predictions against ambient air measurements using released tritium as a tracer. Stack emissions of tritium from two LANL stacks were measured and the dispersion modeled with CAP88 using local meteorology. Ambient air measurements of tritium were made at various distances and directions from the stacks. Model predictions and ambient air measurements were compared over the course of a full year's data. Comparative results were consistent with other studies and showed the CAP88 predictions of downwind tritium concentrations were on average about three times higher than those measured, and the accuracy of the model predictions were generally more consistent for annual averages than for bi-weekly data. PMID:23803672

  16. TRITIUM EFFECTS ON WELDMENT FRACTURE TOUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M; Michael Tosten, M; Scott West, S

    2006-07-17

    The effects of tritium on the fracture toughness properties of Type 304L stainless steel and its weldments were measured. Fracture toughness data are needed for assessing tritium reservoir structural integrity. This report provides data from J-Integral fracture toughness tests on unexposed and tritium-exposed weldments. The effect of tritium on weldment toughness has not been measured until now. The data include tests on tritium-exposed weldments after aging for up to three years to measure the effect of increasing decay helium concentration on toughness. The results indicate that Type 304L stainless steel weldments have high fracture toughness and are resistant to tritium aging effects on toughness. For unexposed alloys, weldment fracture toughness was higher than base metal toughness. Tritium-exposed-and-aged base metals and weldments had lower toughness values than unexposed ones but still retained good toughness properties. In both base metals and weldments there was an initial reduction in fracture toughness after tritium exposure but little change in fracture toughness values with increasing helium content in the range tested. Fracture modes occurred by the dimpled rupture process in unexposed and tritium-exposed steels and welds. This corroborates further the resistance of Type 304L steel to tritium embrittlement. This report fulfills the requirements for the FY06 Level 3 milestone, TSR15.3 ''Issue summary report for tritium reservoir material aging studies'' for the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign (ESC). The milestone was in support of ESC L2-1866 Milestone-''Complete an annual Enhanced Surveillance stockpile aging assessment report to support the annual assessment process''.

  17. Tritium waste control: April-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1982-05-17

    Progress reports are presented for the following: electrolysis of tritiated water; impurity removal from combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) feed water; gas generation measurements on tritiated waste materials; fixation of aqueous tritiated waste in polymer-impregnated concrete; management of high specific activity tritiated liquid wastes; and tritium assay of low specific activity (LSA) laboratory and LSA shoe cover waste. Some of the highlights are as follows: (1) gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritium waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated, tritiated waste vacuum pump oil; (2) the drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages showed that the maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 1.25 x 10/sup -5/, and the maximum total permeation is 122 mCi after 5.5 y. These two values represent a 9 to 20% increase for the past six months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and the control (non-PITC) remains very low. Two assays were performed on low specific activity, tritium-contaminated waste generated at Mound. In one, four LSA drums were assayed for total tritium content by leaching the contents with water. The tritium content of all four drums was well within the LSA limit of less than 25 Ci per drum. In the second study a drum of discarded shoe covers from tritium-handling areas was filled with a measureed quantity of water for leaching tritium from the shoe covers. The minimum amount of tritium within the drum was determined. An annual average estimate of tritium removed and buried as LSA shoe cover trash was also made.

  18. The Fischa-Dagnitz spring, Southern Vienna Basin: a multi tracer time series study re-assessing earlier conceptual assumptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckow, Axel; Gerber, Christoph; Kralik, Martin; Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Purtschert, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The gravel aquifer of the Southern Vienna Basin is a very important backup drinking water resource for the city of Vienna. A discharge location, the Fischa-Dagnitz spring in the Southern Vienna Basin, Austria, was re-investigated in 2011, five years after the gas exchange tracer test published in (Stolp et al., 2010), and sampled for stable isotopes 18O/2H, tritium, 3He, SF6 and 85Kr (Gerber et al., 2012). Additionally, new tritium time series data (Davis et al., 1967), previously not considered in Stolp et al. (2010), were included. These show a higher and earlier tritium peak of >300 TU in 1965 in the discharge of the Fischa-Dagnitz spring as compared to 221 TU in 1972 considered in Stolp et al. (2010). The new 3He, SF6 and 85Kr gas tracer data from 2011 confirm the earlier finding for 3He of Stolp et al. (2010) and indicate a more recent equilibration with the atmosphere than the water bound tracers 18O, 2H and tritium. A new modelling attempt using the Lumpy code (Suckow, 2012) confirmed the discrepancy between the tritium data and the gaseous tracers 3He, SF6 and 85Kr. No steady-state combination of local recharge (represented by an exponential model) and Schwarza river infiltration flowing through the gravel aquifer (represented by a parallel dispersion model) can equally well explain both the tritium time series and the gas tracer results. A revised conceptual model proposes that a pinching of the aquifer at unconformities in the gravel body or a fault zone known in the gravel body forces groundwater along the flow path closer to the surface and exposes it to the atmosphere. This would tend to reset the "dating" clock for the gaseous tracers 3He, SF6 and 85Kr, which can equilibrate quickly with the atmosphere, but not for tritium, which marks the transport behaviour of the water itself. These findings are of importance also for other multi-tracer assessments of groundwater movement in phreatic aquifer systems. References: Davis, G.H., Payne, B.R., Dincer, T

  19. Development of a tritium recovery system from CANDU tritium removal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Draghia, M.; Pasca, G.; Porcariu, F.

    2015-03-15

    The main purpose of the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) is to reduce to a maximum possible extent the release of tritium from the facility following a tritium release in confinement boundaries and also to have provisions to recover both elemental and vapors tritium from the purging gases during maintenance and components replacement from various systems processing tritium. This work/paper proposes a configuration of Tritium Recovery System wherein elemental tritium and water vapors are recovered in a separated, parallel manner. The proposed TRS configuration is a combination of permeators, a platinum microreactor (MR) and a trickle bed reactor (TBR) and consists of two branches: one branch for elemental tritium recovery from tritiated deuterium gas and the second one for tritium recovery from streams containing a significant amount of water vapours but a low amount, below 5%, of tritiated gas. The two branches shall work in a complementary manner in such a way that the bleed stream from the permeators shall be further processed in the MR and TBR in view of achieving the required decontamination level. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed TRS in comparison with state of the art tritium recovery system from tritium processing facilities is also discussed. (authors)

  20. Computational modeling and analysis of airflow in a tritium storage room

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Konecni, S.; Whicker, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CFX-5.5, was utilized to assess flow field characteristics, and to simulate tritium gas releases and subsequent transport in a storage room in the tritium handling facility at Los Alamos. This study was done with mesh refinement and results compared. The results show a complex, ventilation-induced flow field with vortices, velocity gradients, and stagnant air pockets. This paper also explains the timedependent gas dispersion results. The numerical analysis method used in this study provides important information that is possible to be validated with an experimental technique of aerosol tracer measurement method frequently used at Los Alamos. Application of CFD can have a favorable impact on the design of ventilation systems and worker safety with consideration to facility costs.

  1. Tritium labeling of detonation nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Girard, Hugues A; El-Kharbachi, Abdelouahab; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Petit, Tristan; Bergonzo, Philippe; Rousseau, Bernard; Arnault, Jean-Charles

    2014-03-18

    For the first time, the radioactive labeling of detonation nanodiamonds was efficiently achieved using a tritium microwave plasma. According to our measurements, the total radioactivity reaches 9120 ± 120 μCi mg(-1), with 93% of (3)H atoms tightly bonded to the surface and up to 7% embedded into the diamond core. Such (3)H doping will ensure highly stable radiolabeled nanodiamonds, on which surface functionalization is still allowed. This breakthrough opens the way to biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies of nanodiamonds, while this approach can be scalable to easily treat bulk quantities of nanodiamonds at low cost. PMID:24492594

  2. Role of epithelial hyperplasia in regression following photorefractive keratectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, C. A.; Holden, B. A.; Epstein, D.; Tengroth, B.; Fagerholm, P.; Hamberg-Nyström, H.

    1996-01-01

    AIM--To determine the relation between epithelial hyperplasia and regression of effect after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). METHODS--Seventy unilaterally treated patients with PRK were examined. All eyes had been treated with the Summit excimer laser 27 (SD 7) months previously with zone diameters of 4.1 to 5.0 mm. The untreated fellow eyes served as controls. Epithelial thickness was measured centrally with a thin slit optical pachometer and manifest subjective refraction was performed. RESULTS--The epithelium was 21% thicker in the treated eye (p < 0.0001). The relation between refractive regression and epithelial hyperplasia was significant (r = 0.41; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--Epithelial hyperplasia after PRK correlated with the myopic shift (including hyperopia reduction) after treatment with the Summit laser. A model is proposed suggesting that both subepithelial and epithelial layers contribute to regression in the Summit treated eyes with 18 microns of epithelial hyperplasia contributing each dioptre of regression. PMID:8759267

  3. Axon and muscle spindle hyperplasia in the myostatin null mouse

    PubMed Central

    Elashry, Mohamed I; Otto, Anthony; Matsakas, Antonios; El-Morsy, Salah E; Jones, Lisa; Anderson, Bethan; Patel, Ketan

    2011-01-01

    Germline deletion of the myostatin gene results in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the tension-generating (extrafusal) fibres in skeletal muscle. As this gene is expressed predominantly in myogenic tissues it offers an excellent model with which to investigate the quantitative relationship between muscle and axonal development. Here we show that skeletal muscle hyperplasia in myostatin null mouse is accompanied by an increase in nerve fibres in major nerves of both the fore- and hindlimbs. We show that axons within these nerves undergo hypertrophy. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the age-related neural atrophic process is delayed in the absence of myostatin. Finally, we show that skeletal muscle hyperplasia in the myostatin null mouse is accompanied by an increase in the number of muscle spindles (also called stretch receptors or proprioceptors). However, our work demonstrates that the mechanisms regulating intrafusal fibre hyperplasia and hypertrophy differ from those that control the aetiology of extrafusal fibres. PMID:21208206

  4. New Developments in Our Understanding of Neointimal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Timmy; Ul Haq, Naveed

    2015-11-01

    The vascular access remains the lifeline for the hemodialysis patient. The most common etiology of vascular access dysfunction is venous stenosis at the vein-artery anastomosis in arteriovenous fistula and at the vein-graft anastomosis in arteriovenous grafts (AVG). This stenotic lesion is typically characterized on histology as aggressive venous neointimal hyperplasia in both arteriovenous fistula and AVG. In recent years, we have advanced our knowledge and understanding of neointimal hyperplasia in vascular access and begun testing several novel therapies. This article will (1) review recent developments in our understanding of the pathophysiology of neointimal hyperplasia development in AVG and fistula failure, (2) discuss atypical factors leading to neointimal hyperplasia development, (3) highlight key novel therapies that have been evaluated in clinical trials, and (4) discuss future opportunities and challenges to improve our understanding of vascular access dysfunction and translate this knowledge into novel and innovative therapies. PMID:26524947

  5. Ortho-surgical management of condylar hyperplasia: Rare case reports

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Virendra; Verma, Ajay; Attresh, Gyanander; Batra, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia of the mandible is a clinical condition of over-development and growth because of excessive cellular growth of one condylar part of the mandible leading to facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation and enlargement of condyle. The elongation of the condylar neck in turn leads to malocclusion and articular dysfunction. In the past the interceptive and corrective procedures of growth and deformity in condylar hyperplasia were either condylectomy or high condylotomy. However, the deformity ceases after growth is completed. Therefore, other surgical procedures have to be undertaken to correct the manifested deformity of condylar hyperplasia. Further it has to be stressed that no single procedure can completely correct the deformity. So in addition to condylectomy, other orthognathic surgical procedures both on body and ramus and also on maxilla can be undertaken to correct the canting of occlusion. Two rare cases of unilateral hyperplasia encountered in our hospital are presented which required different lines of treatment. PMID:25298720

  6. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Leslie D.

    1982-01-01

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  7. Imaging of tritium implanted into graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, M.E.; Causey, R.A.

    1988-05-01

    The extensive use of graphite in plasma-facing surfaces of tokamaks such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, which has planned tritium discharges, makes two-dimensional tritium detection techniques important in helping to determine torus tritium inventories. We have performed experiments in which highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples were first tritium implanted with fluences of approx.10/sup 16/ T/cm/sup 2/ at energies approx. <25 eV and then the near-surface implant distributions were detected in two dimensions using tritium imaging. A portion of the sample was masked off during the implant in order to produce a well-defined implant boundary. Heating of the HOPG samples to temperatures as high as 500 /sup 0/C resulted in no discernible motion of tritium along the basal plane, but did show that significant desorption of the implanted tritium occurred. The current results indicate that tritium in quantities of 10/sup 12/ T/cm/sup 2/ in tritiated components could be readily detected by imaging at lower magnifications.

  8. The transient distributions of nuclear weapon-generated tritium and its decay product 3 He in the Mediterranean Sea, 1952-2011, and their oceanographic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roether, W.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Fourré, E.; Sültenfuß, J.

    2013-10-01

    We present a comprehensive account of tritium and 3He in the Mediterranean Sea since the appearance of the tritium generated by the atmospheric nuclear-weapon testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, based on essentially all available observations. Tritium in surface waters rose to 20-30 TU in 1964 (TU = 1018 × [3H]/H]), a factor of about 100 above the natural level, and thereafter declined 30-fold up to 2011. The decline was largely due to radioactive tritium decay, which produced significant amounts of its stable daughter 3He. We present the scheme by which we separate the tritiugenic part of 3He and the part due to release from the sea floor (terrigenic part). We show that the tritiugenic component can be quantified throughout the Mediterranean waters, typically to a ± 0.15 TU equivalent, mostly because the terrigenic part is low in 3He. This fact makes the Mediterranean unique in offering a potential for the use of tritiugenic 3He as a tracer. The transient distributions of the two tracers are illustrated by a number of sections spanning the entire sea and relevant features of their distributions are noted. By 2011, the 3He concentrations in the top few hundred metres had become low, in response to the decreasing tritium concentrations combined with a flushing out by the general westward drift of these waters. Tritium-3He ages in Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) were obtained repeated in time at different locations, defining transit times from the LIW source region east of Rhodes. The ages show an upward trend with the time elapsed since the surface-water tritium maximum, which arises because the repeated observations represent increasingly slower moving parts of the full transit time spectrum of LIW. The transit time dispersion revealed by this new application of tritium-3He dating is considerable. We find mean transit times of 12 ± 2 yr up to the Strait of Sicily, 18 ± 3 yr up to the Tyrrhenian Sea, and 22 ± 4 yr up into the Western Mediterranean

  9. The transient distributions of nuclear weapon-generated tritium and its decay product 3He in the Mediterranean Sea, 1952-2011, and their oceanographic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roether, W.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Fourré, E.; Sültenfuß, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present a comprehensive account of tritium and 3He in the Mediterranean Sea since the appearance of the tritium generated by the atmospheric nuclear-weapon testing in the 1950's and early 1960's, based on essentially all available observations. Tritium in surface waters rose to 20-30 TU in 1964 (TU = 1018 · [3H]/[H]), a factor of about 100 above the natural level, and thereafter declined 30-fold up to 2011. The decline was largely due to radioactive tritium decay, which produced significant amounts of its stable daughter 3He. We present the scheme by which we separate the tritiugenic part of 3He and the part due to release from the sea floor (terrigenic part). We show that the tritiugenic component can be quantified throughout the Mediterranean waters, typically to a ±0.15 TU equivalent, mostly because the terrigenic part is low in 3He. This fact makes the Mediterranean unique in offering a potential for the use of tritiugenic 3He as a tracer. The transient distributions of the two tracers are illustrated by a number of sections spanning the entire sea and relevant features of their distributions are noted. By 2011, the 3He concentrations in the top few hundred meters had become low, in response to the decreasing tritium concentrations combined with a flushing out by the general westward drift of these waters. Tritium-3He ages in Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) were obtained repeated in time at different locations, defining transit times from the LIW source region east of Rhodes. The ages show an upward trend with the time elapsed since the surface-water tritium maximum, which arises because the repeated observations represent increasingly slower moving parts of the full transit time spectrum of LIW. The transit time dispersion found by this new application of tritium-3He dating is considerable. We find mean transit times of 12 ± 2 yr up to the Strait of Sicily, 18 ± 3 yr up to the Tyrrhenian Sea, and 22 ± 4 yr up into the Western Mediterranean. We

  10. An update of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    New, Maria I

    2004-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a family of autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations that encode for enzymes involved in one of the various steps of adrenal steroid synthesis. These defects result in the absence or the decreased synthesis of cortisol from its cholesterol precursor. The anterior pituitary secretes excess adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) via feedback regulation by cortisol, which results in overstimulation of the adrenals and causes hyperplasia. Symptoms due to CAH can vary from mild to severe depending on the degree of ensymatic defect. In the classical form of CAH, there is a severe enzymatic defect owing to mutations in the CYP21 gene. Classically affected female fetuses undergo virilization of the genitalia prenatally and present with genital ambiguity at birth; however, prenatal treatment of CAH with dexamethasone to prevent ambiguity has been successfully utilized for over a decade. In the less severe, late-onset form of CAH, prenatal virilization does not occur. The milder enzyme deficiency was termed nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC21OHD) in 1979 and was later found to be the most common autosomal recessive disorder in humans. Disease frequency of NC21OHD varies between ethnic groups with the highest ethnic-specific disease frequency in Ashkenazi Jews at 1/27. NC21OHD is diagnosed by serum elevations of 17-OHP that plot on a nomogram between the range for unaffected individuals and levels observed for classical CAH and is typically confirmed with molecular genetic analysis. Similar to classical CAH, nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency may cause premature development of pubic hair, advanced bone age, accelerated linear growth velocity and diminished final height in both males and females. Severe cystic acne has also been attributed to nonclassical CAH. Women may present with symptoms of androgen excess, including hirsutism, temporal baldness, and infertility. Menarche in females may be normal or delayed and

  11. Tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-10-01

    A tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium was tested in the laboratory using deuterium and protium. The vessel contains 0.5 kg of depleted uranium and can hold up to 18 grams of tritium. The conditions for activation, tritium loading and tritium unloading were defined. The safety aspects that included air-ingress, tritium diffusion, temperature and pressure potentials were evaluated. Air ingress did not cause any temperature surge when the uranium was fully hydrided, but created a temperature peak of 200 {degree}C when the uranium was dehydrided. Accumulation of non-reactive gases such as argon and moisture in the air blocked further air ingress. Only a flow-through type of air ingress could damage the vessel. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  12. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  13. Uptake of atmospheric tritium by market foods

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Y.; Tanaka-Miyamoto, K.; Iwakura, T. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper uptake of tritium by market foods from tritiated water vapor in the air is investigated using cereals and beans purchased in Deep River, Canada. The concentrations of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) range from 12 to 79% and from 10 to 38% respectively, of that estimated for atmospheric water vapor of the sampling month. The specific activity ratios of OBT to TFWT were constant for cereals, but variable for beans. The elevated OBT was shown to be the result of isotopic exchange of labile hydrogen by the fact that washing the foods with tritium free-water reduced their tritium contents to levels characteristic of their production sites.

  14. Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.

    2008-07-15

    Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

  15. Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-26

    This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with focal nodular hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lowell, Jeffrey A; Hassan, Anjum; Howard, Todd K

    2002-01-01

    Background Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon liver tumour that typically requires no therapeutic intervention. Case outline A 43-year-old woman with a 20-year history of oral contraceptive use presented with symptomatic bilateral liver masses. Biopsy revealed hepatocellular carcinoma in the right hemiliver and focal nodular hyperplasia in the left hemiliver.At operation,the patient was noted to have multiple liver nodules bilaterally, and all intraoperative biopsies were consistent with focal nodular hyperplasia including a biopsy taken from the region that demonstrated carcinoma preoperatively. Because of the earlier biopsy results and the patient's preoperative symptoms, a right hemihepatectomy was performed. Final pathology revealed hepatocellular carcinoma directly adjacent to an area of focal nodular hyperplasia, as well as multiple other areas of hyperplastic liver tumour. Discussion Although focal nodular hyperplasia is believed to be benign, few studies have followed patients with this tumour beyond three years. Longer-term follow-up studies are needed to determine the natural history of focal nodular hyperplasia, potentially focussing on a subset of patients with either diffuse tumours or prolonged oral contraceptive use. PMID:18332941

  17. Results of ground-water tracer tests using tritiated water at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water tracer test were conducted at two sites in the radioactive-waste disposal area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 1977 to 1982. The purpose of the tests was to determine if the regolith beds had weathered sufficiently to permit the substantial flow of water across them. About 50 curies of tritium dissolved in water were used as the tracer in one site, and about 100 curies at the other. Results demonstrated that ground water is able to flow through joints in the weathered bedding and that the direction of the water-table gradient is the primary factor governint flow direction. Nevertheless, the substantial lateral spread of the plume as it developed showed that bedding-plane openings can still exert a significant secondary influence on flow direction in weathered rock. About 3,500 water samples from the injection and observation wells were analyzed for tritium during the test period. Concentrations detected spanned 11 orders of magnitude. Measurable concentrations were still present in the two injection wells and most observation wells 5 years after the tracer was introduced. Matrix diffusion may have played a significant role in these tests. The process would account for the sustained concentrations of tritium at many of the observation wells, the long-term residual concentrations at the injection and observation wells, and the apparent slow movement of the centers of mass across the two well fields. The process also would have implications regarding aquifer remediation. Other tracer tests have been conducted in the regolith of the Conasauga Group. Results differ from the results described in this report.

  18. TRITIUM RESERVOIR STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J

    2005-11-10

    The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.

  19. Tracer airflow measurement system (TRAMS)

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Duo

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for measuring fluid flow in a duct is disclosed. The invention uses a novel high velocity tracer injector system, an optional insertable folding mixing fan for homogenizing the tracer within the duct bulk fluid flow, and a perforated hose sampling system. A preferred embodiment uses CO.sub.2 as a tracer gas for measuring air flow in commercial and/or residential ducts. In extant commercial buildings, ducts not readily accessible by hanging ceilings may be drilled with readily plugged small diameter holes to allow for injection, optional mixing where desired using a novel insertable foldable mixing fan, and sampling hose.

  20. [Pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Oelke, M; Martinelli, E

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is indicated when men suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) but there are no absolute indications for prostate surgery or severe bladder outlet obstruction. Phytotherapy can be used in men with mild to moderate LUTS and alpha-blockers can quickly and effectively decrease the LUTS and symptomatic disease progression. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-I) are an alternative to alpha-blockers when men experience bothersome side effects from alpha-blockers or erectile dysfunction. If patients predominantly have bladder storage symptoms and a small prostate, muscarinic receptor antagonists are a viable treatment option. The combination of alpha-blocker plus muscarinic receptor antagonist is more efficacious in reducing LUTS than the single drugs alone. The 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) can significantly decrease LUTS and disease progression (e.g. acute urinary retention and need for prostate surgery) in men with larger prostates (> 30-40 ml). The combination of 5ARI plus alpha-blocker can reduce LUTS and disease progression more effectively than drug monotherapy. Combination therapy with PDE5-I (tadalafil) plus 5ARI (finasteride) reduces LUTS more substantially than 5ARI alone and, additionally, PDE5-Is reduce the sexual side effects during 5ARI treatment. PMID:26676726

  1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: from Bench to Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Ju

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease, especially in old men, and often results in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This chronic disease has important care implications and financial risks to the health care system. LUTS are caused not only by mechanical prostatic obstruction but also by the dynamic component of obstruction. The exact etiology of BPH and its consequences, benign prostatic enlargement and benign prostatic obstruction, are not identified. Various theories concerning the causes of benign prostate enlargement and LUTS, such as metabolic syndrome, inflammation, growth factors, androgen receptor, epithelial-stromal interaction, and lifestyle, are discussed. Incomplete overlap of prostatic enlargement with symptoms and obstruction encourages focus on symptoms rather than prostate enlargement and the shifting from surgery to medicine as the treatment of BPH. Several alpha antagonists, including alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, have shown excellent efficacy without severe adverse effects. In addition, new alpha antagonists, silodosin and naftopidil, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are emerging as BPH treatments. In surgical treatment, laser surgery such as photoselective vaporization of the prostate and holmium laser prostatectomy have been introduced to reduce complications and are used as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy. The status of TURP as the gold standard treatment of BPH is still evolving. We review several preclinical and clinical studies about the etiology of BPH and treatment options. PMID:22468207

  2. Nonclassical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cuhaci, Neslihan; Aydın, Cevdet; Yesilyurt, Ahmet; Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency due to mutation of the CYP21A2 gene. Patients with nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH) are usually asymptomatic at birth and typically present in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood with symptoms of excessive androgen secretion. Subfertility is relative in NC-CAH, but the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is higher. Here, we report a previously undiagnosed female who gave birth to a normal male child and is planning to become pregnant again. Case Report. A 32-year-old female was referred to our clinic for obesity. Her medical history revealed that she had had three pregnancies. She was planning to become pregnant again. Her laboratory results revealed that she had NC-CAH. Since her husband is the son of her aunt and she had miscarriages and intrauterin exitus in her history, their genetic analyses were performed. Conclusion. Since most patients with NC-CAH have a severe mutation, these patients may give birth to a child with the classical CAH (C-CAH) if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Females with NC-CAH who desire pregnancy must be aware of the risk of having an infant with C-CAH. PMID:26558116

  3. Tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast.

    PubMed

    Wieman, Stephanie M; Landercasper, Jeffrey; Johnson, Jeanne M; Ellis, Richard L; Wester, Susan M; Lambert, Pamela J; Ross, Lauren A

    2008-12-01

    Tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a rare benign proliferative disease of the breast. The majority of the literature reports of PASH have not contained detailed descriptions of the imaging characteristics of PASH. A 10-year retrospective study of patients with tumoral PASH and a 20-year Ovid MEDLINE search were performed to determine whether specific imaging and needle biopsy results could characterize PASH preoperatively. We identified 22 patients with tumoral PASH. Seventeen (77%) of 22 women had a palpable lump and 14 (72%) of 21 had a density on mammography. Ultrasound (US) findings included mixed or hypoechoic echogenicity in 83 per cent and ill-defined borders in 62 per cent. Eight (36%) patients had lesions with a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification of 4 or 5. The sensitivity of preoperative core needle biopsy (CNB) to identify PASH was 83 per cent. A review of the literature revealed that 90 per cent of patients with PASH had some malignant imaging characteristics and 95 per cent had a mass on mammography. The imaging characteristics of PASH exhibited marked variability. Excision of PASH after CNB may be considered for patients with symptoms, enlarging lesions, or lesions classified as BI-RADS 4 or 5. PASH diagnosed by CNB allows selected patients to avoid excision. PMID:19097540

  4. A case of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Ghasemi, Mahmoud; Hovsepian, Silva

    2012-07-01

    Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), a rare disorder of steroid biosynthesis, is the most severe form of CAH. In this disorder the synthesis of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex steroids is impaired which result in adrenal failure, severe salt wasting crisis and hyperpigmentation in phenotypical female infants irrespective of genetic sex. In this report, we presented a 28-day-old phenotypic female infant, which referred with lethargy, failure to thrive and electrolyte abnormalities. Considering the clinical and biochemical findings, lipoid CAH was diagnosed and replacement therapy with standard doses of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid and sodium chloride was initiated. During follow-up, she had good clinical condition, but at 6 years of age, she refers with hypertension and adrenal insufficiency because of arbitrary drug discontinuation by mother. In ultrasonography an abdominal mass (the testicles) was reported. Chromosome study showed 46XY pattern. Orchiectomy was performed. We recommended that in cases with clinical presentation of adrenal insufficiency if there is not the facility to determine the karyotype, repeated ultrasonography perform during follow-up. In addition, investigating the genetic bases of the disorder would help us to determine the pathogenesis of lipoid CAH in our community. It would be helpful in prenatal diagnosis and treatment of the disorder to prevent its related comorbidities. PMID:22891154

  5. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Yau, Mabel; Barhan, Ariella; Zaidi, Mone; Lo, Y M Dennis; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is genital ambiguity noted at birth in affected females, which leads to psychological and psychosexual issues in adult life. Attempts to correct genital ambiguity through surgical intervention have been partially successful. Fetal hyperandrogenemia and genital ambiguity have been shown to be preventable by prenatal administration of low-dose dexamethasone initiated before the 9th week of gestation. In 7 of 8 at-risk pregnancies, the unaffected fetus is unnecessarily exposed to dexamethasone for weeks until the diagnosis of classical CAH is ruled out by invasive procedures. This therapeutic dilemma calls for early prenatal diagnosis so that dexamethasone treatment can be directed to affected female fetuses only. We describe the utilization of cell-free fetal DNA in mothers carrying at-risk fetuses as early as 6 gestational weeks by targeted massively parallel sequencing of the genomic region including and flanking the CYP21A2 gene. Our highly personalized and innovative approach should permit the diagnosis of CAH before genital development begins, therefore restricting the purposeful administration of dexamethasone to mothers carrying affected females. PMID:26683339

  6. Hemimandibular hyperplasia: classification and treatment algorithm revisited.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meibang; Chan, Fuan Chiang; Jin, Xiaolei; Xu, Jiajie; Lu, Jianjian; Zhang, Chao; Teng, Li

    2014-03-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH) is a developmental asymmetry characterized by three-dimensional enlargement of one half of the mandible. The hyperplastic side usually involves the condyle, condylar neck, ramus, and body, with the anomaly terminating abruptly at the symphysis. The malformation results in the clinical presentation of ipsilateral enlargement of the mandible and tilted occlusal plane, associated with a deviated chin to the contralateral side. Since the first case report of HH in the English literature in 1836, various terminology and classifications were used. In this study, the authors classified the patients into typical and atypical types of HH on the basis of clinical and radiologic observations in an effort to achieve a simplified and efficient surgical management on the basis of the severity of deformity. Accordingly, surgical treatments are designed respectively on the basis of the authors' classification and treatment algorithm. In addition, in view of potential complications arising from condylectomy, none of the patients had undergone condylectomy as part of the surgical treatment. The authors present their experience on the basis of this proposed classification and treatment algorithm with functional and aesthetic outcomes as the end points of this study. PMID:24448522

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Guneyli, Serkan; Ward, Emily; Thomas, Stephen; Yousuf, Ambereen Nehal; Trilisky, Igor; Peng, Yahui; Antic, Tatjana; Oto, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition in middle-aged and older men and negatively affects the quality of life. An ultrasound classification for BPH based on a previous pathologic classification was reported, and the types of BPH were classified according to different enlargement locations in the prostate. Afterwards, this classification was demonstrated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The classification of BPH is important, as patients with different types of BPH can have different symptoms and treatment options. BPH types on MRI are as follows: type 0, an equal to or less than 25 cm3 prostate showing little or no zonal enlargements; type 1, bilateral transition zone (TZ) enlargement; type 2, retrourethral enlargement; type 3, bilateral TZ and retrourethral enlargement; type 4, pedunculated enlargement; type 5, pedunculated with bilateral TZ and/or retrourethral enlargement; type 6, subtrigonal or ectopic enlargement; type 7, other combinations of enlargements. We retrospectively evaluated MRI images of BPH patients who were histologically diagnosed and presented the different types of BPH on MRI. MRI, with its advantage of multiplanar imaging and superior soft tissue contrast resolution, can be used in BPH patients for differentiation of BPH from prostate cancer, estimation of zonal and entire prostatic volumes, determination of the stromal/glandular ratio, detection of the enlargement locations, and classification of BPH types which may be potentially helpful in choosing the optimal treatment. PMID:27015442

  8. Measurement of the reaeration coefficients of the North Fork Licking River at Utica, Ohio by radioactive tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hren, Janet

    1983-01-01

    Reaeration coefficients of the North Fork Licking River at Utica, Ohio were measured by the radioactive-tracer method. The tests were conducted on a 2.1-mile reach on September 23 and October 7, 1981, during low-flow conditions. Krypton-85 gas and tritium were the radioopactive tracers, which were used in conjunction with rhodamine-WT dye. The reaertion coefficients determined on September 23 were 3.09 days-1 (subreach 1-2) and 3.32 days-1 (subreach 2-3). On October 7, the values were 2.04 days -1 and 2.23 days-1 respectively.

  9. PDRD (SR13046) TRITIUM PRODUCTION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Sheetz, S.

    2013-09-30

    Utilizing the results of Texas A&M University (TAMU) senior design projects on tritium production in four different small modular reactors (SMR), the Savannah River National Laboratory’s (SRNL) developed an optimization model evaluating tritium production versus uranium utilization under a FY2013 plant directed research development (PDRD) project. The model is a tool that can evaluate varying scenarios and various reactor designs to maximize the production of tritium per unit of unobligated United States (US) origin uranium that is in limited supply. The primary module in the model compares the consumption of uranium for various production reactors against the base case of Watts Bar I running a nominal load of 1,696 tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) with an average refueling of 41,000 kg low enriched uranium (LEU) on an 18 month cycle. After inputting an initial year, starting inventory of unobligated uranium and tritium production forecast, the model will compare and contrast the depletion rate of the LEU between the entered alternatives. This is an annual tritium production rate of approximately 0.059 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU (g-T/kg-LEU). To date, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license has not been amended to accept a full load of TPBARs so the nominal tritium production has not yet been achieved. The alternatives currently loaded into the model include the three light water SMRs evaluated in TAMU senior projects including, mPower, Holtec and NuScale designs. Initial evaluations of tritium production in light water reactor (LWR) based SMRs using optimized loads TPBARs is on the order 0.02-0.06 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU used. The TAMU students also chose to model tritium production in the GE-Hitachi SPRISM, a pooltype sodium fast reactor (SFR) utilizing a modified TPBAR type target. The team was unable to complete their project so no data is available. In order to include results from a fast reactor, the SRNL

  10. Tritium emission reduction at Darlington tritium removal facility using a Bubbler System

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanam, K.; Leilabadi, A.; El-Behairy, O.; Williams, G. I. D.; Vogt, H. K.

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station operates a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) to reduce and maintain low tritium levels in the Moderator and Heat Transport heavy water systems of Ontario's CANDU fleet by extracting, concentrating, immobilizing and storing as a metal tritide. Minimizing tritium releases to the environment is of paramount importance to ensure that dose to the public is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and to maintain credibility with the Public. Tritium is removed from the Cryogenic Distillation System to the Tritium Immobilization System (TIS) glove box via a transfer line that is protected by a rupture disc and relief valve. An overpressure event in 2003 had caused the rupture disc to blow, resulting in the release of a significant quantity of elemental tritium into the relief valve discharge line, which ties into the contaminated exhaust system. As a result of a few similar events occurring over a number of years of TRF operation, the released elemental tritium would have been converted to tritium oxide in the presence of a stagnant moist air environment in the stainless steel discharge line. A significant amount of tritium oxide hold-up in the discharge line was anticipated. To minimize any further releases to the environment, a Bubbler System was designed to remove and recover the tritium from the discharge line. This paper summarizes the results of several Bubbler recovery runs that were made over a period of a month. Approximately 3500 Ci of tritium oxide and 230 Ci of elemental tritium were removed and collected. The tritium contained in the water produced from the Bubbler system was later safely recovered in the station's downgraded D{sub 2}O clean-up and recovery system. (authors)

  11. Cinacalcet HCl prevents development of parathyroid gland hyperplasia and reverses established parathyroid gland hyperplasia in a rodent model of CKD

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gerald; Davis, James; Shatzen, Edward; Colloton, Matthew; Martin, David

    2012-01-01

    Background. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) represents an adaptive response to progressively impaired control of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is characterized by parathyroid hyperplasia and excessive synthesis and secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hyperplasia in uremic rats can be prevented by calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) activation with the calcimimetic cinacalcet (Sensipar®/Mimpara®); however, it is unknown, how long the effects of cinacalcet persist after withdrawal of treatment or if cinacalcet is efficacious in uremic rats with established sHPT. Methods. We sought to determine the effect of cinacalcet discontinuation in uremic rats and whether cinacalcet was capable of influencing parathyroid hyperplasia in animals with established sHPT. Results. Discontinuation of cinacalcet resulted in reversal of the beneficial effects on serum PTH and parathyroid hyperplasia. In rats with established sHPT, cinacalcet decreased serum PTH and mediated regression of parathyroid hyperplasia. The cinacalcet-mediated decrease in parathyroid gland size was accompanied by increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Prevention of cellular proliferation with cinacalcet occurred despite increased serum phosphorus and decreased serum calcium. Conclusions. The animal data provided suggest established parathyroid hyperplasia can be reversed by modulating CaSR activity with cinacalcet and that continued treatment may be necessary to maintain reductions in PTH. PMID:22036941

  12. Analysis of arterial intimal hyperplasia: review and hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite a prodigious investment of funds, we cannot treat or prevent arteriosclerosis and restenosis, particularly its major pathology, arterial intimal hyperplasia. A cornerstone question lies behind all approaches to the disease: what causes the pathology? Hypothesis I argue that the question itself is misplaced because it implies that intimal hyperplasia is a novel pathological phenomenon caused by new mechanisms. A simple inquiry into arterial morphology shows the opposite is true. The normal multi-layer cellular organization of the tunica intima is identical to that of diseased hyperplasia; it is the standard arterial system design in all placentals at least as large as rabbits, including humans. Formed initially as one-layer endothelium lining, this phenotype can either be maintained or differentiate into a normal multi-layer cellular lining, so striking in its resemblance to diseased hyperplasia that we have to name it "benign intimal hyperplasia". However, normal or "benign" intimal hyperplasia, although microscopically identical to pathology, is a controllable phenotype that rarely compromises blood supply. It is remarkable that each human heart has coronary arteries in which a single-layer endothelium differentiates early in life to form a multi-layer intimal hyperplasia and then continues to self-renew in a controlled manner throughout life, relatively rarely compromising the blood supply to the heart, causing complications requiring intervention only in a small fraction of the population, while all humans are carriers of benign hyperplasia. Unfortunately, this fundamental fact has not been widely appreciated in arteriosclerosis research and medical education, which continue to operate on the assumption that the normal arterial intima is always an "ideal" single-layer endothelium. As a result, the disease is perceived and studied as a new pathological event caused by new mechanisms. The discovery that normal coronary arteries are

  13. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  14. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  15. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  16. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  17. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  18. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

  19. Development of tritium technologies at KAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.; Koo, D.; Lee, J.; Park, J.; Yim, S.P.; Yoon, C.; Lim, J.; Choi, W.; Ahn, H.; Kang, H.; Kim, I.; Paek, S.; Yunn, S.H.; Jung, K.J.

    2015-03-15

    Korea has been operating a CANDU nuclear power plant since 1983. Tritium generated in the heavy water of the plant is removed by the Wolsong TRF (Tritium Removal Facility) and measurement campaigns of tritium near the power plant have shown the efficiency of the TRF system. The HANARO reactor uses heavy water as both reflector and moderator. In HANARO the tritiated water removal system consists of compressors, condensers, and adsorption beds. A tritium behavior analysis code (TRIBAC) for a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) is under development at KAERI. The TRIBAC computer software has been equipped with models for tritium production, purification, and leakage, as well as chemisorption and tritium behavior, in the hydrogen production system. Korea takes part into the ITER program and is responsible for the supply of an SDS (Tritium Storage and Delivery System). Within this program Korea has launched an experimental program to study the physico-chemical properties of metal and their hydrides in which hydrogen isotope gases can be stored and removed safely.

  20. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  1. Groundwater surface water interaction study using natural isotopes tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Kim, Yong Chul; Cho, Soo Young; Lee, Kil Yong

    2015-04-01

    Tritium and stable isotopes are a component of the water molecule, they are the most conservative tracer for groundwater study. And also, radon is natural radioactive nuclide and well dissolved in groundwater. Therefore, these isotopes are used natural tracer for the study of surface water and groundwater interaction of water curtain greenhouse area. The study area used groundwater as a water curtain for warming tool of greenhouse during the winter, and is associated with issues of groundwater shortage while being subject to groundwater-river water interaction. During the winter time, these interactions were studied by using Rn-222, stable isotopes and H-3. These interaction was monitored in multi depth well and linear direction well of groundwater flow. And dam effect was also compared. Samples were collected monthly from October 2013 to April 2014. Radon and tritium were analyzed using Quantulus low background liquid scintillation counter and stable isotopes were analyzed using an IRIS (Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectroscopy ; L2120-i, Picarro). During the winter time, radon concentration was varied from 0.07 Bq/L to 8.9 Bq/L and different interaction was showed between dam. Surface water intrusion was severe at February and restored April when greenhouse warming was ended. The stable isotope results showed different trend with depth and ranged from -9.16 ‰ to -7.24 ‰ for δ 18O value, while the δD value was ranged from -57.86 ‰ to -50.98 ‰. The groundwater age as dated by H-3 was ranged 0.23 Bq/L - 0.59 Bq/L with an average value of 0.37 Bq/L.

  2. Tritium monitor with improved gamma-ray discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Cox, S.A.; Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.

    1982-10-21

    Apparatus and method are presented for selective measurement of tritium oxide in an environment which may include other radioactive components and gamma radiation, the measurement including the selective separation of tritium oxide from a sample gas through a membrane into a counting gas, the generation of electrical pulses individually representative by rise times of tritium oxide and other radioactivity in the counting gas, separation of the pulses by rise times, and counting of those pulses representative of tritium oxide. The invention further includes the separate measurement of any tritium in the sample gas by oxidizing the tritium to tritium oxide and carrying out a second separation and analysis procedure as described above.

  3. Tritium monitor with improved gamma-ray discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Samson A.; Bennett, Edgar F.; Yule, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for selective measurement of tritium oxide in an environment which may include other radioactive components and gamma radiation, the measurement including the selective separation of tritium oxide from a sample gas through a membrane into a counting gas, the generation of electrical pulses individually representative by rise times of tritium oxide and other radioactivity in the counting gas, separation of the pulses by rise times, and counting of those pulses representative of tritium oxide. The invention further includes the separate measurement of any tritium in the sample gas by oxidizing the tritium to tritium oxide and carrying out a second separation and analysis procedure as described above.

  4. Redesigning TRACER trial after TRITON.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L

    2015-10-15

    Designing of smart clinical trials is critical for regulatory approval and future drug utilization. Importantly, trial design should be reconsidered if the interim analyses suggest unexpected harm, or conflicting results were yielded from the other trials within the same therapeutic area. With regard to antiplatelet agents, the perfect example is redesigning of the ongoing PRoFESS trial by eliminating aspirin from clopidogrel arm after the earlier MATCH trial results became available. The goal was to aseess the unchanged TRACER trial design in light of the evidence yielded from the earlier completed TRITON trial. TRACER was designed as a triple versus dual antiplatelet trial in NSTEMI patients with no previous long-term outcome data supporting such aggressive strategy. TRITON data represented dual versus dual antiplatelet therapy, and became available before TRACER enrollment starts revealing prasugrel front-loaded early vascular benefit predominantly in STEMI patients with the growing over time bleeding and cancer risks. Moreover, large prasugrel NSTEMI TRITON cohort exhibited trend towards excess mortality in experimental arm warning against aggressive TRACER design. The long-term TRITON results in general, and especially in the NSTEMI patients challenge unchanged TRACER trial design. Applying dual, rather than triple antiplatelet therapy protocol modification should be considered in TRACER to minimize bleeding, cancer, and non-cardiovascular death risks. PMID:26126053

  5. Tracer Verification of Trajectory Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haagenson, Philip L.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa; Syumanich, Marina; Seaman, Nelson L.

    1987-03-01

    Perfluorocarbon tracer data collected during the Cross Appalachian Tracer Experiment (CAPTEX '83) are used to determine the accuracy of three trajectory models: an isentropic, an isobaric, and a dimensional sigma model. The root-mean-square separation between model trajectories and trajectories derived from the surface tracer concentration is used to evaluate the models and assess the validity of isobaric, isentropic, isosigma, and mean transport vector assumptions. The root-mean-square data suggest that wind flow corresponding approximately to the low to middle boundary layer is the most appropriate for simulating the transport of boundary layer pollutants, and that the isentropic and isosigma transport assumptions are more realistic than the isobaric assumption, The results also indicate that synoptic type and the diurnal variation of mixing and wind shell within the boundary layer can affect the magnitude of root-mean-square separation between tracer trajectory and transport model trajectories. The uncertainty of the trajectory error suggested by the root-mean- square separation is approximately 50 km. Comparison of the tracer study with a theoretical study suggests that surface tracer data are useful for quantifying the magnitude of error in trajectory model calculations of boundary layer transport.

  6. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.; Petti, D.A.

    2005-07-15

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility, a US DOE National User Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), comprises capabilities and infrastructure to support both tritium and non-tritium research activities important to the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Research thrusts include (1) interactions of tritium and deuterium with plasma-facing-component (PFC) materials, (2) fusion safety issues [PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, tritium behavior in fusion systems], and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. This paper updates the status of STAR and the capabilities for ongoing research activities, with an emphasis on the development, testing and integration of the infrastructure to support tritium research activities. Key elements of this infrastructure include a tritium storage and assay system, a tritium cleanup system to process glovebox and experiment tritiated effluent gases, and facility tritium monitoring systems.

  7. Tritium technology programs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium technology in the United States has advanced considerably since the 1988 Tritium Conferences in Toronto. This advance has come in facilities, processing and safety related technologies and in an ever increasing commitment to compliance related issues. The major laboratories in the US tritium programs continue to be (Westinghouse) Savannah River Site, EG G Mound, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Each of these Laboratories have made some significant changes in their programs and/or facilities in the past four years. 11 refs, 1 fig.

  8. Clinical and pathological aspects of epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gîrtan, Mihaela; Stăniceanu, Florica; Zurac, Sabina; Laba, Elisabeta; Forna, Norina

    2008-01-01

    In many cases, the oral health status indicates the general status of the body. 90% of the disorders of the body also manifest at the level of the oral cavity, which means that the dentist can draw the attention of a certain health problem. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a high prevalence of the lesions of the oral mucous, especially lichen planus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis or oral candidiasis. We present here a case of diabetes mellitus with hyperplasic lesion at the level of the inferior vestibule, extended to the right jugal mucosa. The lesion appeared pursuant to the application of removable prosthetics. The biopsy specimen was examined using normal and special staining (HE Hematoxiline - eosine, Van Gieson VG) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In the HE stain, an epithelial hyperplasia was noticed as a result of the proliferation of the basal cells, associated with hyperkeratosis (parakeratosis or orthokeratosis). A moderated inflammatory limphoplasmocitary infiltrate, composed by lymphocytes and plasma cells, was present within the hyperplasic chorion. The immunohistochemical reactions revealed Ki-67 positive nuclei in the basal and suprabasal strata (indicating an increased proliferating activity); rare p53 positive nuclei in the basal stratum (indicating a suppressive action on the cell proliferation); CD3/CD8 positive cells in the inflammatory infiltrate (indicating an important number of T suppressor lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate). In conclusion, diabetes mellitus is a disease which frequently determines major modifications at the level of the oral cavity. Interdisciplinary collaboration between the pathologist and the dentist is necessary for adequate diagnosis and successful treatment. PMID:20201276

  9. Current Laser Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient. PMID:21165192

  10. [Interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Muschter, R; Hessel, S; Hofstetter, A; Keiditsch, E; Rothenberger, K H; Schneede, P; Frank, F

    1993-07-01

    We report on the new method of interstitial laser coagulation for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The procedure is based on the interstitial application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation, delivered through a new light guide system. Such light applicators coagulate constant tissue volumes in a homogeneous manner, as proven by in vitro studies in different tissues, including surgically removed prostate adenoma. The extent of the coagulation is determined by laser power and irradiation time. At 5 W, for example, and during a 10-min period, this zone reached a diameter of up to 20 mm. Temperatures generated in the process were over 100 degrees C, as measured by time/space resolution. These results were confirmed by in vivo studies in canine prostates. In the course of 7 weeks, the coagulated areas formed scars with degeneration and fibrosis, accompanied by marked shrinking. Neighbouring organs were not affected. The method was successfully transferred to clinical practice. The application of the light guides to the lateral lobes was performed percutaneously from the perineum under transrectal ultrasound guidance. The median lobe was punctured transurethrally under direct vision. Twenty-seven patients with an average age of 67.7 years were treated between July 1991 and March 1992. At the time of evaluation 15 patients had a follow-up of more than 2 months. They experienced a mean increase of peak flow rate from 6.6 to 15.2 ml/s and a mean decrease of residual volume from 206 to 38 ml. This was accompanied by a marked lessening of symptoms. The average prostate weight decreased from 63 to 44 g. Sexually active patients did not experience retrograde ejaculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7690498

  11. Transport of tritium in SS316 at moderate temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Naoe, S.; Torikai, Y.; Penzhorn, R. D.; Akaishi, K.; Watanabe, K.; Matsuyama, M.

    2008-07-15

    From tritium release experiments with stainless steel 316 carried out at several temperatures and tritium depth profiles of tritium-depleted specimen information on the transport of tritium by two diverse techniques was obtained. The results could be interpreted by a one dimensional diffusion model. The activation energy for the diffusion of tritium through stainless steel was found to be 61.3 kJ/mol. (authors)

  12. Tritium laboratory with multiple purposes at NIPNE Magurele Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Matei, L.; Postolache, C.

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Laboratory from NIPNE (Romania)) is part of Radioisotope Research and Production Center. The Tritium Laboratory has been in operation since 1960, and carries out R and D activities involving tritium sources in gaseous, liquids and solid state, provides specialized service to CANDU NPP Cernavoda (Romania)), and provides tritium assay services to internal and external customers. The paper presents the activities and perspectives of Tritium Laboratory and its performances in accordance with Quality System Management. (authors)

  13. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1992-03-31

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium. 2 figs.

  14. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, George A.; Nelson, David A.; Molton, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium.

  15. Persistent mammary hyperplasia in FVB/N mice.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Ana I; Shyamala, G; Galvez, Jose J; Thordarson, Gudmundur; Wakefield, Lalage M; Cardiff, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    The inbred FVB/N mouse strain is widely used for creating transgenic mice. Over the past decade, persistent mammary hyperplasia has been detected in many multiparous FVB/N female mice sent to the University of California, Davis (UCD) Mutant Mouse Pathology Laboratory (MMPL) by a number of different laboratories. However, the experimental details concerning most specimens were not always available. To confirm these empiric findings, experiments were carried out to evaluate the mammary glands of FVB/N mice under controlled conditions. Persistent mammary hyperplasia that related to parity was found. Weeks after their first to fourth pregnancy, 10 FVB/N female mice from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) colony were studied and the mammary glands were evaluated. The percentage of fat pad filled was estimated, using image analysis. Serum samples and the pituitary gland from other FVB/N mice from the LBNL were assayed for prolactin concentration. Multiparous FVB/N females consistently had persistent mammary hyperplasia. Four of seven females in the LBNL colony had hyperplasia after three pregnancies. A few foci of squamous nodules and sporadic carcinomas also were observed. Thus, some FVB/N females may have persistent mammary hyperplasia after three pregnancies without detectable pituitary abnormalities. Mammary carcinomas also may develop sporadically. These background phenotypes must be considered when interpreting the effect of genetic manipulation in FVB/N mice. PMID:14524420

  16. Evaluation of Heat as a Tracer in a Forced-Gradient Test at the MADE Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, A.; Tick, G. R.; Keasberry, A.; Zheng, C.

    2011-12-01

    Tracer tests conducted at the Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Columbus Air Force Base in Mississippi have contributed significantly to the understanding of contaminant transport processes in highly-heterogeneous media. Previous experiments have revealed a network of interconnected preferential flow paths within the underlying aquifer. Only solute tracers including bromide and tritium have been used in previous experiments. In this new study, a forced-gradient experiment based on heated water injection was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of heat as a substitute for a solute tracer to study aquifer heterogeneity at the MADE site. We injected a pulse of heated water, recorded the breakthrough curves, and used numerical modeling to characterize the heat transport behavior and its relationship to subsurface heterogeneity. The results were compared with those from a previous experiment based on the bromide tracer. This research suggests heat can be a cheaper and environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional solute tracers, and improves our understanding of contaminant transport processes in highly-heterogeneous systems.

  17. A 1600 Liter Tritium Hydride Storage Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.

    2001-07-26

    Titanium was selected for evaluation as a tritium storage material. Titanium-deuterium desorption isotherm data at 550, 600, 649, 700, ad 760 degrees C are presented and were used to evaluate storage vessel design loading limits.

  18. Tritium target manufacturing for use in accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, P.; Monnin, C.; Van Rompay, M.; Ballanger, A.

    2001-07-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium target on copper substrate, and going to more sophisticated devices. A wide range of possible uses is covered, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets for higher lifetimes, or large size rotating targets for accelerators used in boron neutron therapy. Activity of targets lies in the 1 to 1000 Curie, diameter of targets being up to 30 cm. Special targets are also considered, including surface layer targets for lowering tritium desorption under irradiation, or those made from different kinds of occluders such as titanium, zirconium, erbium, scandium, with different substrates. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output, or lifetime and stability, or thermal behavior.

  19. Tritium Inventory in Aries-AT

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, Glen Reed

    2001-02-01

    This report documents an investigation into the tritium inventory expected in the ARIES-AT fusion reactor. ARIES-AT features silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix as its primary construction. It uses the same fusion power core as the previous ARIES-RS. Based on experimental results of several researchers, consideration was given to swelling, sputtering, film coatings, erosion, and implantation. Estimates were made of tritium inventory using the TMAP4 code. About 700 g of tritium may be expected in the machines, two thirds of which would reside in the first wall. Under assumed accident conditions that involve firs wall temperatures up to 1000°C, evolution of retained tritium may be expected to vary from 0.8 to nearly 40 percent depending on the temperature of the first wall.

  20. Tritium Inventory in ARIES-AT

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, Glen R.

    2001-02-28

    This report documents an investigation into the tritium inventory expected in the ARIES-AT fusion reactor. ARIES-AT features silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix as its primary construction. It uses the same fusion power core as the previous ARIES-RS. Based on experimental results of several researchers, consideration was given to swelling, sputtering, film coatings, erosion, and implantation. Estimates were made of tritium inventory using the TMAP4 code. About 700 g of tritium may be expected in the machine, two thirds of which would reside in the first wall. Under assumed accident conditions that involve first wall temperatures up to 1000 C, evolution of retained tritium may be expected to vary from 0.8 to nearly 40 percent depending on the temperature of the first wall.

  1. Tritium Measurements in Slovenia - Chronology Till 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Jasmina Kozar; Vaupotic, Janja; Kobal, Ivan

    2005-07-15

    Almost all the analyses of tritium in Slovenia have been performed by the tritium laboratory at the Jozef Stefan Institute. Nearly 90 % of its measurements have been covered by two national programs, both approved by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration: the radioactive monitoring program in the environs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the program of global radioactive contamination monitoring in the environment. These programs include samples of groundwaters, surface waters, precipitation and drinking waters, as well as liquid and gaseous effluents from KNPP. Tritium was determined in some research projects and in hydrological studies of thermal waters, groundwater and coalmine waters. Tritium in the Karst region was mapped as well as the springs of entire territory of Slovenia. Around 5500 samples have been analyzed up to 2004.

  2. Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Mike Patterson

    2010-10-01

    Idaho National Laboratory developed the Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) for tritium permeation in the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR). All the component models in the VHTR were developed and were embedded into the MATHLAB SIMULINK package with a Graphic User Interface. The governing equations of the nuclear ternary reaction and thermal neutron capture reactions from impurities in helium and graphite core, reflector, and control rods were implemented. The TPAC code was verified using analytical solutions for the tritium birth rate from the ternary fission, the birth rate from 3He, and the birth rate from 10B. This paper also provides comparisons of the TPAC with the existing other codes. A VHTR reference design was selected for tritium permeation study from the reference design to the nuclear-assisted hydrogen production plant and some sensitivity study results are presented based on the HTGR outlet temperature of 750 degrees C.

  3. Tritium Depth Profiles in 316 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torikai, Yuji; Murata, Daiju; Penzhorn, Ralf-Dieter; Akaishi, Kenya; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Matsuyama, Masao

    To investigate the behavior of hydrogen uptake and release by 316 stainless steel (SS316), as-received and finely polished stainless steel specimens were exposed at 573 K to tritium gas diluted with hydrogen. Then tritium concentration in the exposed specimens was measured as a function of depth using a chemical etching method. All the tritium concentration profiles showed a sharp drop in the range of 10 μm from the top surface up to the bulk. The amount of tritium absorbed into the polished specimens was three times larger than that into the as-received specimen. However, the polishing effects disappeared by exposing to the air for a long time.

  4. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, J. J.; Klein, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  5. Tritium measurements with a tandem accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.

    1990-06-01

    Tritium concentrations ( 3H: 2H) of less than 10 -15 are readily measurable with almost any tandem accelerator and with an overall detection efficiency as high as 4.5%. The isobar, 3He, and other potential sources of interference (mainly 6Li, 2H and 1H) can all be removed by an absorber in front of the triton detector, so there is little need for analyzing elements other than the negative-and positive-ion magnets found on most tandems. The technique is particularly well suited for detecting tritium in deuterium absorbed in a metal and testing for cold fusion. We caution that tritium can occur in commercial deuterium and heavy water from sources other than cold fusion; one sample was observed to have a tritium-to-deuterium ratio of 10 -10.

  6. The hazards of tritium--revisited.

    PubMed

    Fairlie, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Tritium (3H) is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, with a half-life of 12.3 years. It is created naturally in the atmosphere, and in higher annual rates in nuclear reactors and in nuclear weapon tests. This article surveys the properties of tritium, its biokinetics and its biological effectiveness. The safety levels of tritium have been a subject of dispute for many years, as many scientists consider that its doses and risks, as promulgated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection are, too low and should be at least doubled. Recent reports and evidence of increased cancer risks near nuclear installations that release tritium are discussed; these are of interest in view of new proposals to expand civil nuclear power. PMID:19065871

  7. Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Carlson, R.V.; Coffin, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  9. Energy Metabolism and Human Dosimetry of Tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Takeda, H.; Melintescu, A.; Trivedi, A

    2005-07-15

    In the frame of current revision of human dosimetry of {sup 14}C and tritium, undertaken by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, we propose a novel approach based on energy metabolism and a simple biokinetic model for the dynamics of dietary intake (organic {sup 14}C, tritiated water and Organically Bound Tritium-OBT). The model predicts increased doses for HTO and OBT comparing to ICRP recommendations, supporting recent findings.

  10. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, L.D.

    1980-03-13

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  11. Recommended tritium surface contamination release guides

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Draper, D.G.; Foulke, J.D.; Hafner, R.S.; Jalbert, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E.; Myers, D.S.; Strain, C.D. )

    1991-03-01

    This document was prepared to provide scientific basis for recommended changes in specific limits for tritium surface contamination in DOE Order 5480.11. A summary of the physical and biological characteristics of tritium has been provided that illustrate the unique nature of this radionuclide when compared to other pure beta emitters or to beta-gamma emitting radionuclides. This document is divided into nine sections. The introduction and the purpose and scope are addressed in Section 1.0 and Section 2.0, respectively. Section 3.0 contains recommended interpretation of terms used in this document. Section 4.0 addresses recommended methods for evaluating surface contamination. Biological and physical characteristics of tritium compounds are discussed in Section 5.0, as they relate to tritium radiotoxicity. Scenarios and dose calculations for selected, conservatively limiting cases of tritium intake are given and discussed in Section 6.0 and Section 7.0. Section 8.0 provides conclusions on the information given and recommendations for changes in the surface contamination limits for total tritium to 1 {times} 10{sup 6} dpm per 100 cm{sup 2}. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I.

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  13. A tritium vessel cleanup experiment in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Caorlin, M.; Kamperschroer, J.; Owens, D.K.; Voorhees, D.; Mueller, D.; Ramsey, A.T.; La Marche, P.H.; Barnes, C.W.; Loughlin, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    A simple tritium cleanup experiment was carried out in TFTR following the initial high power deuterium-tritium discharges in December 1993. A series of 34 ohmic and deuterium neutral beam fueled shots was used to study the removal of tritium implanted into the wall and limiters. A very large plasma was created in each discharge to ``scrub`` an area as large as possible. Beam-fueled shots at 2.5 to 7.5 MW of injected power were used to monitor tritium concentration levels in the plasma by detection of DT-neutrons. The neutron signal decreased by a factor of 4 during the experiment, remaining well above the expected T-burnup level. The amount of tritium recovered at the end of the cleanup was about 8% of the amount previously injected with high power DT discharges. The experience gained suggests that measurements of tritium inventory in the torus are very difficult to execute and require dedicated systems with overall accuracy of 1%.

  14. Management of tritium European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ene, D.; Andersson, K.; Jensen, M.; Nielsen, S.; Severin, G.

    2015-03-15

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will produce tritium via spallation and activation processes during operational activities. Within the location of ESS facility in Lund, Sweden site it is mandatory to demonstrate that the management strategy of the produced tritium ensures the compliance with the country regulation criteria. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the different aspects of the tritium management in ESS facility. Besides the design parameter study of the helium coolant purification system of the target the consequences of the tritium releasing into the environment were also analyzed. Calculations show that the annual release of tritium during the normal operations represents a small fraction from the estimated total dose. However, more refined calculations of migration of activated-groundwater should be performed for higher hydraulic conductivities, with the availability of the results on soil examinations. With the assumption of 100% release of tritium to the atmosphere during the occurring of the extreme accidents, it was found as well that the total dose complies with the constraint. (authors)

  15. Tritium control: October 1982-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1983-10-07

    Surveys in gloveboxes indicated surface activity on stainless steel and its apparent dependence on time and atmospheric tritium levels. Surveys in fumehoods were completed to investigate the extent of surface contamination on surfaces of various materials. Gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritiated waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated tritiated waste vacuum pump oil. In addition, the pressure change of hydrogen cover gas over tritiated water on cement-plaster was determined. The test program to measure and compare the release of tritium from tritiated concrete with and without styrene impregnation continued. Tritium permeation data from small test blocks are given. The drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages continued. The maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 5.1 x 10/sup -5/, and the maximum total permeation is 179 mCi after 8.5 yr. These two values represent a 13% increase for the past 6 months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and from the control (non-PITC) remains very low. The Emergency Containment System (ECS), an automatically actuated system developed at Mound to remove tritium from room air, has been modified and upgraded to support new applications. The leakage rate in the ECS area has been lowered, a fast-start system installed for greater conversion efficiency at startup, and the alumina beds regenerated.

  16. Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lynn W; Trahan, William R; Snow, Jesse E

    2013-01-01

    Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia (LJSGH) is a recently described benign condition that affects the gingiva of children and young adults. Clinically distinctive, LJSGH presents as a localized area of erythema on the attached gingiva, with a subtly papillary surface architecture. The lesions are generally biopsied because of the lack of resolution with conservative oral hygiene therapeutic measures and esthetic concerns. The histopathology has a characteristic appearance of subtle papillary epithelial hyperplasia, acute inflammation, and numerous engorged capillary vascular spaces in the lamina propria, although clinical correlation is necessary to make the diagnosis. The purposes of this paper were to: introduce localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia to the pediatric dental community; document its clinical and histologic features and treatment and the follow-up of three cases; and discuss the most common clinical differential diagnoses. PMID:23930637

  17. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in children.

    PubMed

    Moran, C A; Mullick, F G; Ishak, K G

    1991-05-01

    Sixteen cases of nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in children are presented. The patients, 10 girls and 6 boys, were between the ages of 7 months and 13 years, with a median of 6 years. Clinically, nine children presented with hepatomegaly or splenomegaly, with and without signs of portal hypertension. A history of anticonvulsant drug therapy was obtained in four patients. Associated conditions in the remaining three cases were Donohue's syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and angiomyolipoma of the kidney. In five patients a clinical diagnosis of primary intra-abdominal tumor was made. Follow-up showed that six patients died of causes unrelated to the nodular hyperplasia. Two patients were asymptomatic when last seen 5 and 18 years after the initial diagnosis of nodular hyperplasia. Both patients underwent shunt surgery. No follow-up was available for eight patients. The importance of recognizing this entity in the pediatric age group, as well as its histopathologic differential diagnosis, is stressed. PMID:2035739

  18. Hereditary Gingivo-Alveolar Hyperplasia: A Report of Two Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Prasetyono, Theddeus O.H.; Ekaputri, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Gingival hyperplasia is characterized by fibrotic gingival overgrowth. The lesion may bury all the crown of the teeth and lead to impairment in masticatory functions and aesthetic disfigurement. This inherited disease is considered rare. We presented two cases of gingival hyperplasia in two siblings: an 11-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy, whose mother had also suffered from the disease. The two siblings presented with generalized gingival overgrowth involving the maxillary and mandibular arches and covering almost all of the teeth. We performed surgery to reduce the excessive gingivo-alveolar tissue and disclosed most of the teeth. The patients showed functional and aesthetic improvement. The last follow-up through a phone call, which was conducted 12 months after the surgery, revealed no recurrent hyperplasia. PMID:25692435

  19. Evaluation of Parameter Uncertainty Reduction in Groundwater Flow Modeling Using Multiple Environmental Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; Gardner, P.

    2013-12-01

    Calibration of groundwater flow models for the purpose of evaluating flow and aquifer heterogeneity typically uses observations of hydraulic head in wells and appropriate boundary conditions. Environmental tracers have a wide variety of decay rates and input signals in recharge, resulting in a potentially broad source of additional information to constrain flow rates and heterogeneity. A numerical study was conducted to evaluate the reduction in uncertainty during model calibration using observations of various environmental tracers and combinations of tracers. A synthetic data set was constructed by simulating steady groundwater flow and transient tracer transport in a high-resolution, 2-D aquifer with heterogeneous permeability and porosity using the PFLOTRAN software code. Data on pressure and tracer concentration were extracted at well locations and then used as observations for automated calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method and the PEST code. Optimization runs were performed to estimate parameter values of permeability at 30 pilot points in the model domain for cases using 42 observations of: 1) pressure, 2) pressure and CFC11 concentrations, 3) pressure and Ar-39 concentrations, and 4) pressure, CFC11, Ar-39, tritium, and He-3 concentrations. Results show significantly lower uncertainty, as indicated by the 95% linear confidence intervals, in permeability values at the pilot points for cases including observations of environmental tracer concentrations. The average linear uncertainty range for permeability at the pilot points using pressure observations alone is 4.6 orders of magnitude, using pressure and CFC11 concentrations is 1.6 orders of magnitude, using pressure and Ar-39 concentrations is 0.9 order of magnitude, and using pressure, CFC11, Ar-39, tritium, and He-3 concentrations is 1.0 order of magnitude. Data on Ar-39 concentrations result in the greatest parameter uncertainty reduction because its half-life of 269

  20. Defining groundwater transport times near ASR facilities using geochemical tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. F.

    2001-12-01

    Determining groundwater transport and travel times between recharge facilities and wells has become increasingly important in managing Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) projects. This is especially true in the State of California where water reuse rules that consider groundwater travel time in the permitting process are being discussed. Fundamental geochemical approaches for investigating transport include tritium/helium-3 dating and the addition of sulfur hexafluoride tracer in controlled experiments. When combined, groundwater flow can be imaged with time scales on the order of days to decades. The Orange County Water District recharges to their groundwater basin approximately 250,000 acre-ft of surface water annually from a series of spreading ponds and a 9-km section of the Santa Ana River. Sulfur hexafluoride gas was injected into the Santa Ana River over a period of 2 weeks, tagging approximately 3,000 acre-ft of recharged water. Groundwater flow and transport from the river has been determined for more than three years. Results of the gas tracer experiment demonstrate that linear groundwater flow velocities range from less than 1 km/yr to more than 5 km/yr and that the groundwater flow system is stratified. These results will be used to verify and refine numerical models of transport near the ASR facilities in Orange County and have been used to establish flowlines so that in situ water quality changes can be quantified.

  1. [Intimal hyperplasia within a vascular anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Kur'ianov, P S; Razuvaev, A S; Vavilov, V N

    2008-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) appears to rank high amongst plausible causes of reconstructed arteries restenosis. It always occurs in the area of a surgical intervention on a vessel in response to a mechanical lesion. IH is the cause of thrombosis in 15 to 50% of cases following vascular reconstruction during the first year after the operation (with the exception of early thromboses, which are probably caused by an improperly performed interventional technique). Of a wide variety of clinical situations leading to development of IH in the vascular wall, for the purposes of the present review, we singled out the problem concerning the onset and development of this tissue reaction in intervascular anastomoses, which is currently one of the most important issues. Analysing the publications on the problem concerned showed that amongst significantfactors influencing the development of IH in the anastomosis, the investigators single out different parameters of the anastomoses, configuration (either an end-to-end or an end-to-side anastomosis, the use of special inserts and patches within the latter), as well as the use of autologous or synthetic conduits, blanket suture or interrupted suture, peculiarities of local haemodynamics (linear blood flow rate, distribution of parietal fraction forces, zones of stagnation and flow separation), etc. To a certain degree, the published data are rather controversial. There remain many problems, which are either unaddressed as yet, or insufficiently studied, if at all. For instance, while establishing an anastomosis between a bypass graft and an artery, surgeons often resort to endarterectomy. It is not known whether or not this technique would influence the IH pattern in the anastomosis concerned. Neither is it clear whether the high velocity flow exerts a direct damaging action upon the endothelium, whether it promotes the development of IH in the area of the lesion, and if affirmative, then what the mechanisms of this effect really are

  2. Smoking habits and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Fu, Shi; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Qi; Gu, Meng; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have warned against the promoting effects of cigarette smoking on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In contrast, some have argued that smoking confers a protective effect regarding BPH, while others have observed an aggravated effect. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to determine whether cigarette use is associated with BPH risk. To identify articles from observational studies of relevance, a search was performed concurrent to March 21, 2016, on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, and EMBASE databases. Random-effect model, according to the heterogeneity, was calculated to reveal the relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eight articles were included in this meta-analysis, representing data for 44,100 subjects, of which 5221 (11.8%) had BPH as defined according to the criteria. Seven reports are concerned with analysis between nonsmokers and ex-smokers, in which no significant difference was observed (RR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.94–1.05). Another meta-analysis of 7 studies indicated an observable trend, but without significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and current smokers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41). Between groups of heavy (6 articles; RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84–1.24) and light smokers (5 articles; RR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.71–1.15), again no significant difference appears. Finally, we combined individuals as never-smokers and ever-smokers and still found no significant difference between the 2 groups of patients (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92–1.15). Sensitivity analysis was displayed and confirmed the stability of the present results. Combined evidence from observational studies shows no significant association between cigarette smoking and BPH risk, either for ex-smokers or for current smokers. The trend of elevated BPH risk from smoking was observed only in current smokers compared with nonsmokers, while marginal significance was observed in comparing ever-smokers with

  3. Stripper system performance in the replacement tritium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site in the United States was designed and built to handle kilogram levels of tritium. The RTF was started up in January 1994. All the design objectives were achieved. To minimize tritium release to the environment, the tritium handling process is installed inside nitrogen-atmosphere gloveboxes. Any tritium that might leak from the process to the gloveboxes is recovered by stripper systems. The tritium concentration in the gloveboxes is normally maintained at below 0.1 Ci/m{sup 3}. During a large tritium leak from the process to the glovebox, the stripper system lowered the tritium concentration in the glovebox from about 8,000 Ci/m{sup 3} to about 100 Ci/m{sup 3} in one hour. After that the tritium concentration decreased very slowly. It required 5 days of stripping before the concentration was down to about 10 Ci/m{sup 3}.

  4. Estimates of tracer-based piston-flow ages of groundwater from selected sites-National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 1992-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Shapiro, Stephanie D.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Widman, Peggy K.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Wayland, Julian E.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents selected age data interpreted from measured concentrations of environmental tracers in groundwater from 1,399 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program groundwater sites across the United States. The tracers of interest were chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He). Tracer data compiled for this analysis primarily were from wells representing two types of NAWQA groundwater studies - Land-Use Studies (shallow wells, usually monitoring wells, in recharge areas under dominant land-use settings) and Major-Aquifer Studies (wells, usually domestic supply wells, in principal aquifers and representing the shallow, used resource). Reference wells (wells representing groundwater minimally impacted by anthropogenic activities) associated with Land-Use Studies also were included. Tracer samples were collected between 1992 and 2005, although two networks sampled from 2006 to 2007 were included because of network-specific needs. Tracer data from other NAWQA Program components (Flow System Studies, which are assessments of processes and trends along groundwater flow paths, and various topical studies) were not compiled herein. Tracer data from NAWQA Land-Use Studies and Major-Aquifer Studies that previously had been interpreted and published are compiled herein (as piston-flow ages), but have not been reinterpreted. Tracer data that previously had not been interpreted and published are evaluated using documented methods and compiled with aqueous concentrations, equivalent atmospheric concentrations (for CFCs and SF6), estimates of tracer-based piston-flow ages, and selected ancillary data, such as redox indicators, well construction, and major dissolved gases (N2, O2, Ar, CH4, and CO2). Tracer-based piston-flow ages documented in this report are simplistic representations of the tracer data. Tracer-based piston-flow ages are a convenient means of conceptualizing groundwater age. However, the piston

  5. Expectant management of focal nodular hyperplasia during pregnancy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Kivnick, S; Greenspoon, J S; Kanter, M H; Gee, C; Fullman, H J

    1992-04-01

    A patient with unresectable focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver completed an uncomplicated pregnancy. Although there is a risk of hepatic rupture during pregnancy, expectant management may be an option for some cases of focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:1593563

  6. Steroid hormone receptors in prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khalid, B A; Nurshireen, A; Rashidah, M; Zainal, B Y; Roslan, B A; Mahamooth, Z

    1990-06-01

    One hundred and six prostatic tissue samples obtained from transurethral resection were analysed for androgen and estrogen receptors. In 62 of these, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were also assayed. Steroid receptors were assayed using single saturation dose 3H-labelled ligand assays. Ninety percent of the 97 prostatic hyperplasia tissues and six of the nine prostatic carcinoma tissues were positive for androgen receptors. Estrogen receptors were only present in 19% and 33% respectively. Progesterone receptors were present in 70% of the tissues, but glucocorticoid receptors were present in only 16% of prostatic hyperplasia and none in prostatic carcinoma. PMID:1725553

  7. Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium (T) permeation leakage to surroundings is a great safety concern in fission and fusion reactor systems. T permeation potentially occurs from T contaminated water through cooling tubes or storage tank made of metals which dissolve some T evolved by water corrosion. In order to understand behaviors of hydrogen uptake and permeation in pure α-iron (αFe) during water corrosion around room temperature, hydrogen permeation experiments for an αFe membrane have been conducted by means of tritium tracer techniques. The present study suggests that hydrogen produced by water corrosion of αFe is trapped in product oxide layers to delay hydrogen uptake in αFe for a moment. However, the oxide layers do not work as a sufficient barrier for hydrogen uptake. Some of hydrogen dissolved in αFe normally diffuses and permeates through the bulk in the early stage of permeation. In a later stage, hydrogen permeation could be apparently stopped by the disappearance of concentration difference of tritium. Hydrogen partial pressure at the water/αFe interface could be ranged from 0.7 to 9.5 kPa around room temperature.

  8. Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of

  9. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, Paul W.

    1997-05-01

    A reliable supply of tritium is necessary to maintain the United States' nuclear defense capability. Because tritium decays to ^3He at the rate of 5.5 percent per year, it must be replenished continously. To make the required amount of tritium using an accelerator, neutrons will be generated by high-energy proton reactions with tungsten and lead, moderated in light water, and captured in ^3He. The plant will be operational in 2007 at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. It will consist of a proton linear accelerator, tritium-production target/blankets, tritium-extraction, and conventional balance-of-plant systems. The accelerator will be a radio-frequency linac operating at 100 percent duty factor. It will have a combination of normal-conducting copper structures to accelerate a 100-mA beam to 217 MeV followed by superconducting niobium cavities to boost the beam energy to 1700 MeV. After acceleration, a high-energy transport system will expand the beam to a rectangular, 16-cm wide by 160-cm high distribution and deliver it to one of two identical target/blanket assemblies where tritium production and extraction will take place. Inside a target/blanket the proton beam will strike heavy-water cooled tungsten rods to produce neutrons. The tungsten will be surrounded by a decoupler consisting of aluminum tubes containing ^3He to reduce parasitic capture. Additional lead modules with aluminum tubes containing ^3He will lie outside the central region. The lead will produce additional neutrons from spallation and (n,xn) reactions. Light water coolant continuously circulated through the lead will moderate the neutrons to low energy, where they will be efficiently captured by ^3He gas to produce tritium. Tritium will be removed by continuous separation using permeation through a heated palladium-silver alloy membrane. Once separated, standard cryogenic distillation techniques will be used to isotopically purify the tritium. This presentation

  10. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. PMID:26551587

  11. Helium irradiation effects on tritium retention and long-term tritium release properties in polycrystalline tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobuta, Y.; Hatano, Y.; Matsuyama, M.; Abe, S.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hino, T.

    2015-08-01

    DT+ ion irradiation with energy of 0.5 and 1.0 keV was performed on helium pre-irradiated tungsten and the amount of retained tritium and the long-term release of retained tritium in vacuum was investigated using an IP technique and BIXS. Tritium retention and long-term tritium release were significantly influenced by helium pre-irradiation. The amount of retained tritium increased until it reached 1 × 1017 He/cm2, and at 1 × 1018 He/cm2 it became smaller compared to 1 × 1017 He/cm2. The amount of retained tritium in tungsten without helium pre-irradiation largely decreased after several weeks preservation in vacuum, and the long-term release rate during vacuum preservation was retarded by helium pre-irradiation. The results indicate that the long-term tritium release and the helium irradiation effect on it should be taken into account for more precise estimation of tritium retention in the long-term use of tungsten in fusion devices.

  12. Tritium in the World Trade Center September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack: It's Possible Sources and Fate

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, P; Semkow, T; Husain, L; Haines, D; Woznial, G; Williams, P; Hafner, R; Rabun, R

    2002-05-03

    two. The fate of tritium in the attack depended on its chemistry. Any tritium present in the vicinity of jet-fuel explosion or fire would convert to HTO. The molecular tritium is also known to quickly exchange with water adsorbed on surfaces at ambient temperatures. Therefore, the end product of reacted tritium was HTO. A part of it would disperse into the atmosphere and a part would remain on site. The dynamic aspect of HTO removal was investigated taking into a consideration water flow at ground zero. Most of ground zero is encircled by the Slurry Wall, 70 ft deep underground, called a Bathtub. Approximately three million gallons of water were hosed on site in the fire-fighting efforts, and 1 million gallons fell as rainwater, between 9/11 and 9/21 (the day of the reported measurement). The combined water percolated through the debris down to the bottom of the Bathtub dissolving and removing HTO with it. That water would meet and combine with the estimated 26 million gallons of water that leaked from the Hudson River as well as broken mains, during the same period of 10 days after the attack. The combined water was collecting in the PATH train tunnel and continuously being pumped out to prevent flooding. A %Box model of water flow was developed to describe the above scenario. Considering the uncertainty in the amount of tritium present from sources other than the aircraft, as well as the dynamic character of tritium removal from the site, it is feasible to provide only a qualitative picture of the fate and behavior of tritium at WTC with the limited experimental data available. If the time history of tritium concentration at WTC had been measured, this study could have been a tracer study of water flow at WTC possibly useful to civil engineering.

  13. The Deep Western Boundary Current: tracers and velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhein, Monika

    1994-02-01

    In the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) mean velocities obtained by the F11/F12 dating method are far smaller (1-2 cm s -1) than direct velocity measurements (5-20 cm s -1). To resolve this discrepancy, a simple box model is presented that uses the ideas of PICKARTet al. (1989, Physical Oceanography, 19, 940-951) to parametrize turbulent diffusion of the current with its surroundings. In contrast to previous models, however, the boundary conditions include all water masses forming the lower part of the DWBC (Denmark Strait Overflow Water, Iceland Scotland Overflow Water and Northeast Atlantic Water). The model-derived mean velocity of the DWBC leads to tracer concentrations that have to fit the observed F11 and F12 distributions, the F11/F12 ratios, and the tritium distributions. Moreover, the model area is extended from south of the Faroe bank along the continental margin of the American continent to 10°S. The model assumes uniform velocity and uniform turbulent mixing along the flow path of the DWBC, and enhanced turbulent mixing in the vicinity of the current compared to the ocean's interior allows the surrounding waters, which remain motionless, to accumulate tracers. The highest mean velocity of the DWBC, which results in model F12, F11, and 3H distributions as well as F11/F12 ratios, compatible to measurements of these tracers along the western boundary, are 4.8 cm s -1. Variations in the composition of the DWBC as well as changes in the time history of the source water masses do not increase the range of the model velocities.

  14. UV/Ozone treatment to decontaminate tritium contaminated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krasznai, J.P.; Mowat, R.

    1995-10-01

    Tritium contamination on surfaces is often encountered during operation and maintenance of equipment at the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility and likely at other tritium handling facilities. The use of efficient decontamination techniques that produce little or no secondary wastes is desirable. At Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) we have been developing a process utilizing a combination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and ozone gas to remove tritium surface contamination from materials often used in tritium service. This paper summarizes the performance of the technique. The results are encouraging because the technique is very effective, simple in terms of equipment requirements and concentrates tritium in an easily managed waste form. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  16. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  17. Metal getters for tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Willin, E.; Sirch, M.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Devillers, M.

    1988-09-01

    Whereas titanium is a getter material mainly suitable for the long-term storage of tritium, zirconium cobalt alloy can also be employed for the interim storage and transport of this gas. Activated zirconium cobalt alloy reacts within minutes with hydrogen at room temperature. At the composition of /ZrCoH/sub 0.8/ the dissociation pressure at room temperature is estimated to be 10/sup -3/ Pa. The zirconium cobalt/H/sub 2/ system is not pyrophoric at room temperature. Methane is partially cracked on Ti and on ZrCo at temperatures above 600 and 300/sup 0/C respectively. With titanium the corresponding carbide is formed without affecting the storage properties of the getter. After reaction of ZrCo with CH/sub 4/ or N/sub 2/ the hydrogen adsorption capacity is reduced. Titanium powder, sponge or sheet react with nitrogen at temperatures above 750/sup 0/C with a parabolic rate law. In the overlayer of the metal substrate the phases N dissolved in /alpha/-Ti, Ti/sub 2/N and TiN were identified. The same phases were observed when NH/sub 3/ reacts with this metal.

  18. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: a link with sickle cell disease?

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, N D; Pain, J; Cowan, N C; Salisbury, J; Howard, E R

    1991-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver tumour that is rare in children. We report the second case of a child with sickle cell disease presenting with symptomatic focal nodular hyperplasia. The possible pathogenesis of focal nodular hyperplasia and the association with sickle cell disease are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1929517

  19. Tritium metabolism in young pigs after exposure of the mothers to tritium oxide during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bruwaene, R.; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; van den Hoek, J.; Vankerkom, J.

    1982-07-01

    Pregnant sows were given tritiated water at two different doses (0.517 and 1.53 mCi/liter) during pregnancy and for 43 days thereafter (a total of 120 days). Some of the young pigs were left with their mother while the others were exchanged with uncontaiminated newborn to follow tritium oxide and organic tritium in different organs with respect to (a) continuing uptake, (b) uptake from milk, and (c) loss of activity after birth. Turnnover time of tritium oxide in adult sows is almost 10 days, and that in young pigs is about 8 days. In addition, components (less than or equal to 5%) of slower turnover are present. At equilibrium, the relative specific activity (i.e., the ratio of specific activity of tritium oxide isolated either directly or after combustion or organic matter to the specific activity of tritiated water ingested) is about 0.7 for body water in adult and newborn pigs and about 0.14 for organic tritium in most tissues. It is somewhat higher (0.22) in the brain of newborns than in other tissues. Turnover time for organic tritium in young pigs is longest in brain (59 days) and slower in muscular tissues (28 days), kidney, spleen, and pancreas (22 days), and liver and intestine (17 days). From the data presented it is estimated that the contribution of organic tritium to the integral tissue dose is on the order of one-third to two-thirds of that from tritium oxide alone, except in the case of brain, where the contribution to the dose from organic tritium may equal or even exceed that from tritium oxide.

  20. Parathyroid imaging: comparison of double-tracer (T1-201, Tc-99m) scintigraphy and high-resolution US

    SciTech Connect

    Gooding, G.A.; Okerlund, M.D.; Stark, D.D.; Clark, O.H.

    1986-10-01

    Parathyroid scintigraphy using a double-tracer (T1-201, Tc-99m) subtraction technique depicted 17 of 23 (74%) parathyroid adenomas in patients with and without previous neck operations. High-resolution (10-MHz) ultrasound (US) depicted 18 (78%) of these adenomas. Average tumor size depicted by US was 17 X 10 X 8 mm (excluding a giant adenoma) and 19 X 10 X 9 mm by scintigraphy. Alone, neither modality was particularly sensitive in the depiction of primary hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands, but combined techniques were more effective than the use of a single modality. With both US and T1-201 scintigraphy, only two of 23 cases of parathyroid adenoma in the neck were missed, and none of the eight cases of secondary hyperplasia were missed. In 11 patients who had previously undergone neck surgery, parathyroid tumors were identified in eight by either US or double-tracer scintigraphy. Preoperative parathyroid imaging with double-tracer scintigraphy and high-resolution US is suggested for patients with hyperparathyroidism, particularly in those patients who have had previous parathyroid surgery.

  1. Tracer-monitored flow titrations.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Milton K; Rocha, Diogo L; Rocha, Fábio R P; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of implementing tracer-monitored titrations in a flow system is demonstrated. A dye tracer is used to estimate the instant sample and titrant volumetric fractions without the need for volume, mass or peak width measurements. The approach was applied to spectrophotometric flow titrations involving variations of sample and titrant flow-rates (i.e. triangle programmed technique) or concentration gradients established along the sample zone (i.e. flow injection system). Both strategies required simultaneous monitoring of two absorbing species, namely the titration indicator and the dye tracer. Mixing conditions were improved by placing a chamber with mechanical stirring in the analytical path aiming at to minimize diffusional effects. Unlike most of flow-based titrations, the innovation is considered as a true titration, as it does not require a calibration curve thus complying with IUPAC definition. As an application, acidity evaluation in vinegars involving titration with sodium hydroxide was selected. Phenolphthalein and brilliant blue FCF were used as indicator and dye tracer, respectively. Effects of sample volume, titrand/titrant concentrations and flow rates were investigated aiming at improved accuracy and precision. Results were reliable and in agreement with those obtained by a reference titration procedure. PMID:26703261

  2. Plant-Based Plume-Scale Monitoring Reveals the Extents and Pathways of Tritium Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraski, B. J.; Michel, R. L.; Halford, K. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Abraham, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    Cost-effective methods are needed to detect contamination near radioactive-waste and other contaminated sites. Such methods should be capable of providing an early warning of contaminant releases and be accurate and robust enough for monitoring the long-term performance of waste-isolation facilities and remediation measures. Plant-based methods were developed adjacent to a closed low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Objectives were to (i) characterize and map the spatial variability of plant-water tritium, (ii) develop empirical relations to predict subsurface tritium contamination from plant-water concentrations, and (iii) gain insight into transport pathways and processes. Tritium was selected because it is a common radionuclide disposed at radioactive waste sites and it is a good tracer of water movement. Solar-distillation and solid-phase-extraction were used to collect and prepare plant (creosote bush, Larrea tridentata) foliage water for direct-scintillation counting. The maximum plant-water tritium concentration was 4,890 Bq/L; background values averaged 2.5 Bq/L. Geostatistical analysis showed that plant concentrations were spatially correlated to a distance of 380 m. Simple-contour and kriged maps of plant concentrations identified "hot spots" that were verified by soil-water-vapor measurements. Empirical linear relations between plant water and soil-water-vapor concentrations measured at the 0.5- and 1.5-m sampling depths were used to map the spatial distributions of root-zone and sub-root-zone tritium, respectively. Results showed that tritium migration away from the waste source primarily occurs in the gas phase with preferential transport through a dry, gravelly layer beneath the root zone, from which it moves upward and is subsequently released to the surface environment. Shallow and deep geologic units controlling preferential transport through the unsaturated zone were mapped by direct-current electrical

  3. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history. PMID:27601862

  4. BET Bromodomain Blockade Mitigates Intimal Hyperplasia in Rat Carotid Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bowen; Zhang, Mengxue; Takayama, Toshio; Shi, Xudong; Roenneburg, Drew Alan; Craig Kent, K.; Guo, Lian-Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background Intimal hyperplasia is a common cause of many vasculopathies. There has been a recent surge of interest in the bromo and extra-terminal (BET) epigenetic “readers” including BRD4 since the serendipitous discovery of JQ1(+), an inhibitor specific to the seemingly undruggable BET bromodomains. The role of the BET family in the development of intimal hyperplasia is not known. Methods We investigated the effect of BET inhibition on intimal hyperplasia using a rat balloon angioplasty model. Results While BRD4 was dramatically up-regulated in the rat and human hyperplastic neointima, blocking BET bromodomains with JQ1(+) diminished neointima in rats. Knocking down BRD4 with siRNA, or treatment with JQ1(+) but not the inactive enantiomer JQ1(−), abrogated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB)-stimulated proliferation and migration of primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells. This inhibitory effect of JQ1(+) was reproducible in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells. In human aortic endothelial cells, JQ1(+) prevented cytokine-induced apoptosis and impairment of cell migration. Furthermore, either BRD4 siRNA or JQ1(+) but not JQ1(−), substantially down-regulated PDGF receptor-α which, in JQ1(+)-treated arteries versus vehicle control, was also reduced. Conclusions Blocking BET bromodomains mitigates neointima formation, suggesting an epigenetic approach for effective prevention of intimal hyperplasia and associated vascular diseases. PMID:26870791

  5. Mistaken gender identity in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kukreti, Prerna; Kandpal, Manish; Jiloha, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity is the sense of belonging that one feels for a particular sex psychologically and socially, independent of one's biological sex. There is much less systematic data on gender identity in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report a case of non-classical CAH presenting as a case of gender identity disorder. PMID:24891708

  6. MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MX-INDUCED URINARY BLADDER EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA IN EKER RATS

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between chronic exposure to chlorinated drinking water and human cancer, particularly of the urinary bladder. MX (3- chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydrox...

  7. Ambras Syndrome with Gingival Hyperplasia: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Kundoor, Vinay Kumar; Maloth, Kotya Naik; Kesidi, Sunitha; Moni, Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Ambras syndrome is a rare and special form of congenital hypertrichosis, characterized by dysmorphic facial features and familial pattern of inheritance. It is rarely associated with gingival hyperplasia. We report such a rare entity in a 38-year-old female patient with a history of consanguinity and positive family history. PMID:27601862

  8. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  9. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast: intraductal appearance.

    PubMed

    Gur, Akif Serhat; Unal, Bulent; Edington, Howard; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Soran, Atilla

    2009-08-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign proliferative lesion of breast stroma. The diagnosis of PASH can be made using imaging techniques such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance or mammography. Ductoscopy is a relatively new technique which is used for imaging the intraductal surface. We report a patient with PASH in whom ductoscopy was performed successfully. PMID:19751351

  10. Giant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Pakistani Patient*

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zafaruddin; Tahir, Muzamil; Ashraf, H. Shahzad; Khan Niazi, FazaluRehman; Khan, Munazza; Mustafa, Sadaf; Höti, Naseruddin

    2014-01-01

    “Giant hyperplasia” of the prostate is a rare pathology of the prostate gland. We report one such case, in which a successful retropubic prostatectomy was performed on an elderly male patient in Pakistan. The weight of the resected prostate was 700 g, which is the eighth largest prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia reported. PMID:26955540

  11. Microwave applicators for thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a primer.

    PubMed

    Bolmsjö, M B; Vrba, T

    2000-12-01

    Microwave thermotherapy for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is becoming increasingly more common. This article provides an introduction to the functional principles of microwave antennas for delivery of energy to the prostatic gland. Different antenna designs (monopole, dipole, and helical coil types) and impedance matching are discussed. PMID:11108559

  12. Diffuse Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Cansız Ersöz, Cevriye; Cangır, Ayten Kayı; Dizbay Sak, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare pulmonary disorder characterised by a proliferation of neuroendocrine cells within the lung. It is believed that a minority of the patients with DIPNECH can develop carcinoid tumors. Here, we report two new cases of DIPNECH with coexisting carcinoid tumors. PMID:27293939

  13. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004*

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Anderl; G. R. Longhurst; R. J. Pawelko; J. P. Sharpe; S. T. Schuetz; D. A. Petti

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the current status of the development of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Designated a National User Facility by the US DOE, the primary mission of STAR is to provide laboratory infrastructure to study tritium science and technology issues associated with the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Both tritium and non-tritium fusion safety research is pursued along three key thrust areas: (1) plasma-material interactions of plasma-facing component (PFC) materials exposed to energetic tritium and deuterium ions, (2) fusion safety concerns related to PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, and tritium behavior in fusion systems, and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. STAR comprises a multi-room complex with operations segregated to permit both tritium and non-tritium activities in separately ventilated rooms. Tritium inventory in STAR is limited to 15,000 Ci to maintain its classification as a Radiological Facility. Experiments with tritium are typically conducted in glovebox environments. Key components of the tritium infrastructure have been installed and tested. This includes the following subsystems: (1) a tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS) that uses two 50-g depleted uranium beds for tritium storage and PVT/beta-scintillation analyses for tritium accountability measurements, (2) a Tritium Cleanup System (TCS) that uses catalytic oxidation and molecular sieve water absorption to remove tritiated species from glovebox atmosphere gases and gaseous effluents from experiment and process systems, and (3) tritium monitoring instrumentation for room air, glovebox atmosphere and stack effluent tritium concentration measurements. Integration of the tritium infrastructure subsystems with the experimental and

  14. Simple system for measuring tritium Ad/absorption using a 2. pi. counter and thermal desorption spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, H.; Matsuyama, M.; Watanabe, K. ); Cowgill, D.F. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, the authors develop a simple system using tritium tracer and thermal desorption techniques to measure the tritium adsorption and/or absorption on/in a material having typical surface conditions: namely, not cleaned surface. The tritium counting devices used were a 2{pi} counter and conventional proportional counter. With this system, the amounts of ad/absorption could be measured without exposing the samples to air after exposing them to tritium gas. The overall efficiency (F) of the 2{pi} counter was described at F = exp({minus}2.64h), where h is the distance from the sample to the detector. Ad/absorption measurements were carried out for several materials used for fabricating conventional vacuum systems. The results were, in the order of decreasing amounts of ad/absorption, as (fiber reinforced plastics(FRP)) {gt} (nickel(Ni), molybdenum disulfide(MoS{sub 2})) {gt} (stainless steel (SS304), iron(Fe), aluminum alloy(A2219)) {gt} (boron nitride(h-BN), silicon carbide (SiC), SS304 passivated by anodic oxidation layers(ASS) and that by boron nitride segregation layers (BSS)). The relative amounts were abut 100 for Ni and 0.1 for ASS and BSS, being normalized to Fe = 1.

  15. First measurements of tritium recycling in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Adler, H.; Budny, R.V.; Kamperschroer, J.; Johnson, L.C.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stotler, D.P.

    1994-06-01

    The first spectroscopic measurements of tritium Balmer-alpha (T{sub {alpha}}) emission from a fusion plasma were made on TFTR using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The T{sub {alpha}} emission line is partially blended with the D{sub {alpha}} line (deuterium-alpha), commonly used in edge plasma diagnostics, and the contributions of H{sub {alpha}}, D{sub {alpha}}, and T{sub {alpha}}, are separated by spectral analysis. The data are a measure of the fueling of the plasma by tritium accumulated in the TFTR limiter, as well as the amount of neutral tritium generated by charge exchange of plasma ions. The T{alpha} line first became detectable in a high power, tritium only, neutral beam injection discharge at the level of T{sub {alpha}}/(H{sub {alpha}}+D{sub {alpha}}+T{sub {alpha}}) = 2%. Subsequently this ratio has increased to as high as 7.5%. Data on the time evolution of the T{sub {alpha}} emission during a single discharge and over a series of tritium and deuterium discharges are presented.

  16. FINAL REPORT FOR TRITIUM WATER MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.; Ferguson, B.; DiPrete, D.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this Plant Directed Research and Demonstration (PDRD) task was to develop a system to safetly analyze tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to liquid-scintillation counting. The proposed system determines tritium concentrations by measuring Bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions in liquid samples. Results show that, after a short counting period (30 seconds), detection limits are three orders of magnitude below the described concentration of tritiated water in the zeolite beds. Additionally, this report covers the analysis of process samples and the investigation of several cell window materials including beryllium, aluminum, and copper. Final tests reveal that alternate window materials and thicknesses can be used to obtain useful results. In particular, a window of stainless steel of moderate thickness (0.3 cm) can be used for counting relatively high levels of tritium.

  17. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  18. SIRT1 Limits Adipocyte Hyperplasia through c-Myc Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Abdesselem, Houari; Madani, Aisha; Hani, Ahmad; Al-Noubi, Muna; Goswami, Neha; Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Billing, Anja M; Pasquier, Jennifer; Bonkowski, Michael S; Halabi, Najeeb; Dalloul, Rajaa; Sheriff, Mohamed Z; Mesaeli, Nasrin; ElRayess, Mohamed; Sinclair, David A; Graumann, Johannes; Mazloum, Nayef A

    2016-01-29

    The expansion of fat mass in the obese state is due to increased adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The molecular mechanism that drives adipocyte hyperplasia remains unknown. The NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a key regulator of mammalian metabolism, maintains proper metabolic functions in many tissues, counteracting obesity. Here we report that differentiated adipocytes are hyperplastic when SIRT1 is knocked down stably in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. This phenotype is associated with dysregulated adipocyte metabolism and enhanced inflammation. We also demonstrate that SIRT1 is a key regulator of proliferation in preadipocytes. Quantitative proteomics reveal that the c-Myc pathway is altered to drive enhanced proliferation in SIRT1-silenced 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, c-Myc is hyperacetylated, levels of p27 are reduced, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is activated upon SIRT1 reduction. Remarkably, differentiating SIRT1-silenced preadipocytes exhibit enhanced mitotic clonal expansion accompanied by reduced levels of p27 as well as elevated levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and c-Myc, which is also hyperacetylated. c-Myc activation and enhanced proliferation phenotype are also found to be SIRT1-dependent in proliferating mouse embryonic fibroblasts and differentiating human SW872 preadipocytes. Reducing both SIRT1 and c-Myc expression in 3T3-L1 cells simultaneously does not induce the adipocyte hyperplasia phenotype, confirming that SIRT1 controls adipocyte hyperplasia through c-Myc regulation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of adipocyte hyperplasia will open new avenues toward understanding obesity. PMID:26655722

  19. SIRT1 Limits Adipocyte Hyperplasia through c-Myc Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Abdesselem, Houari; Madani, Aisha; Hani, Ahmad; Al-Noubi, Muna; Goswami, Neha; Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Billing, Anja M.; Pasquier, Jennifer; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Halabi, Najeeb; Dalloul, Rajaa; Sheriff, Mohamed Z.; Mesaeli, Nasrin; ElRayess, Mohamed; Sinclair, David A.; Graumann, Johannes; Mazloum, Nayef A.

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of fat mass in the obese state is due to increased adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The molecular mechanism that drives adipocyte hyperplasia remains unknown. The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a key regulator of mammalian metabolism, maintains proper metabolic functions in many tissues, counteracting obesity. Here we report that differentiated adipocytes are hyperplastic when SIRT1 is knocked down stably in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. This phenotype is associated with dysregulated adipocyte metabolism and enhanced inflammation. We also demonstrate that SIRT1 is a key regulator of proliferation in preadipocytes. Quantitative proteomics reveal that the c-Myc pathway is altered to drive enhanced proliferation in SIRT1-silenced 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, c-Myc is hyperacetylated, levels of p27 are reduced, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is activated upon SIRT1 reduction. Remarkably, differentiating SIRT1-silenced preadipocytes exhibit enhanced mitotic clonal expansion accompanied by reduced levels of p27 as well as elevated levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and c-Myc, which is also hyperacetylated. c-Myc activation and enhanced proliferation phenotype are also found to be SIRT1-dependent in proliferating mouse embryonic fibroblasts and differentiating human SW872 preadipocytes. Reducing both SIRT1 and c-Myc expression in 3T3-L1 cells simultaneously does not induce the adipocyte hyperplasia phenotype, confirming that SIRT1 controls adipocyte hyperplasia through c-Myc regulation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of adipocyte hyperplasia will open new avenues toward understanding obesity. PMID:26655722

  20. Tracer experiment and flow modelling applied to Ekeby treatment wetland, Sweden.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellin, J. P.; Worman, A.

    2005-05-01

    The use of treatment wetlands have come to play an important role in reducing nutrient content in wastewater and in run-off water from agricultural areas. It is of interest to optimize the nutrient removal efficiency. In order to do so hydrological and geochemical processes, and the coupling between them, must be known in greater detail than is currently the case. One way of investigating this matter is to perform tracer experiments and evaluate the results using computer simulations. In November 2002 a simultaneous tracer experiment was performed in a treatment wetland, using tritiated water, P-32 and N-15. The wetland is situated 120 km west of Stockholm in Sweden, and the basin where the experiment was performed has an area of 2,6 ha. The simultaneous use of conservative tracer and reactive tracers enables a fair evaluation of both hydraulic processes and biochemical reactions. In this presentation evaluation of the hydraulic matters will be in focus, the geochemical issues will be described in companion presentations. In order to evaluate the hydraulic behaviour and the fate of tritium through the wetland, a two-dimensional flow model was developed in a MATLAB environment. The model is able to deal with variations in shape, bottom topography and friction factors. It was used to simulate flow of inert particles through the wetland. Breakthrough curves of tritium and simulation results were studied and compared for different setups of friction parameters. The simulations show that bottom topography and shape of basin alone are not enough to explain the spreading of water residence times in the wetland. Distribution and density of vegetation, simulated as friction factors, are shown to be crucial when it comes to reproducing the residence time distribution from the experiment.

  1. A low tritium hydride bed inventory estimation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Shanahan, K.L.; Baker, R.A.; Foster, P.J.

    2015-03-15

    Low tritium hydride beds were developed and deployed into tritium service in Savannah River Site. Process beds to be used for low concentration tritium gas were not fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory measurement method. Low tritium beds contain less than the detection limit of the IBA (In-Bed Accountability) technique used for tritium inventory. This paper describes two techniques for estimating tritium content and uncertainty for low tritium content beds to be used in the facility's physical inventory (PI). PI are performed periodically to assess the quantity of nuclear material used in a facility. The first approach (Mid-point approximation method - MPA) assumes the bed is half-full and uses a gas composition measurement to estimate the tritium inventory and uncertainty. The second approach utilizes the bed's hydride material pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties and a gas composition measurement to reduce the uncertainty in the calculated bed inventory.

  2. Tritium handling safety and operating experience at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a facility designed to develop and demonstrate, in full scale, technologies necessary for safe and efficient operation of tokamak fusion reactors. TSTA currently consists of systems for pumping DT gas mixtures; for removing impurities; for separating the isotopes of hydrogen; for storage of hydrogen isotopes; for gas analysis; and for assuring safety by the necessary control, monitoring, and detritiation of effluent gaseous streams. TSTA also has several small scale experiments to develop and test new equipment and processes necessary for fusion reactors. Tritium was introduced into TSTA in June 1984. Current inventory is approximately 100 grams. Approximately 10{sup 9} Curies of tritium have been processed in closed loop operation at TSTA. Total tritium releases from the facility stack have been less than 75 Curies. Total operating personnel exposures are less than 500 person-mrem. Exposures to the general public from TSTA tritium releases are extremely small (less than 10{sup {minus}2} mrem). Total tritium buried as waste is less than 36,000 Curies. In this paper, data on component reliability, failure types and rates, and waste quantities are presented. Operational experience under normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions is presented. The DOE requirements for the operation of a tritium facility like TSTA include personnel training, emergency preparedness, radiation protection, safety analysis, and preoperational appraisals. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor applying membrane technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to develop continuous, real-time tritium monitors are focusing on liquid scintillation (LS) counting because its sensitivity for tritium can be below Environmental Protection Agency guidelines (20 pCi/ml). A flow-through LS counter should have a counting efficiency = 0.48, instrumental backgrounds = 5 count/min counting cell volume = 5 ml, and sample water loading capacities = 15 wt%. The system would offer minimum quantifiable activities at the {plus minus}10% level of <18 pCi/ml in a 10-min count or <1 pCi/ml if data are averaged for 1 day. The latter value is below the tritium background of surface waters worldwide. However, good time response in a flow-through LS monitor requires flow rates of at least several milliliters per minute. Such a single-pass system would consume large volumes of expensive LS cocktail, and it would generate notable amounts of mixed organic waste.

  4. Accumulative Tritium Transfer from Water into Biosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertner, Franz

    2005-07-15

    The energy balance of hydrogen isotopes in H bonds of water and biomolecules results in accumulative tritium transfer from water into biomolecules. Tests of DNA dissolved in tritiated water and of maize or barley hydroponically grown in tritiated water confirm the increase. The primary hydration shell of DNA shows an accumulation factor of {approx}1.4, and the exchangeable hydrogens inside DNA show {approx}2. Logistic growth analyses of maize and barley reveal the intrinsic growth rates of tritium 1.3 and 1.2 times larger than that of hydrogen. The higher rate of tritium than hydrogen incorporation in solid biomatter is caused by the hydration shells, which constitute an intrinsic component of biomolecules.

  5. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.; Peters, B.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Teprovich, J.; Coughlin, J.; Neikirk, K.; Fisher, C.

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  6. Fabrication of light water reactor tritium targets

    SciTech Connect

    Pilger, J.P.

    1991-11-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Development Task of the Tritium Target Development Project is: to produce a documented technology basis, including specifications and procedures for target rod fabrication; to demonstrate that light water tritium targets can be manufactured at a rate consistent with tritium production requirements; and to develop quality control methods to evaluate target rod components and assemblies, and establish correlations between evaluated characteristics and target rod performance. Many of the target rod components: cladding tubes, end caps, plenum springs, etc., have similar counterparts in LWR fuel rods. High production rate manufacture and inspection of these components has been adequately demonstrated by nuclear fuel rod manufacturers. This summary describes the more non-conventional manufacturing processes and inspection techniques developed to fabricate target rod components whose manufacturability at required production rates had not been previously demonstrated.

  7. Low-exposure tritium radiotoxicity in mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, R.L.

    1982-02-11

    Studies of tritium radiotoxicity involving chronic /sup 3/H0H exposures in mammals demonstrate in both mice and monkeys that biological effects can be measured following remarkably low levels of exposure - levels in the range of serious practical interest to radiation protection. These studies demonstrate also that deleterious effects of /sup 3/H beta radiation do not differ significantly from those of gamma radiation at high exposures. In contrast, however, at low exposures tritium is significantly more effective than gamma rays, rad for rad, by a factor approaching 3. This is important for hazard evaluation and radiation protection because knowledge concerning biological effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure has come mainly from gamma-ray data; and predictions based on gamma-ray data will underestimate tritium effects - especially at low exposures - unless the RBE is fully taken into account.

  8. The operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; LaMarche, P.H.; Anderson, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    The TFTR tritium operations staff has successfully received, stored, handled, and processed over five hundred thousand curies of tritium for the purpose of supporting D-T (Deuterium-Tritium) operations at TFTR. Tritium operations personnel nominally provide continuous round the clock coverage (24 hours/day, 7 days/week) in shift complements consisting of I supervisor and 3 operators. Tritium Shift Supervisors and operators are required to have 5 years of operational experience in either the nuclear or chemical industry and to become certified for their positions. The certification program provides formal instruction, as well as on the job training. The certification process requires 4 to 6 months to complete, which includes an oral board lasting up to 4 hours at which time the candidate is tested on their knowledge of Tritium Technology and TFTR Tritium systems. Once an operator is certified, the training process continues with scheduled training weeks occurring once every 5 weeks. During D-T operations at TFTR the operators must evacuate the tritium area due to direct radiation from TFTR D-T pulses. During `` time operators maintain cognizance over tritium systems via a real time TV camera system. Operators are able to gain access to the Tritium area between TFTR D-T pulses, but have been excluded from die tritium area during D-T pulsing for periods up to 30 minutes. Tritium operators are responsible for delivering tritium gas to TFRR as well as processing plasma exhaust gases which lead to the deposition of tritium oxide on disposable molecular sieve beds (DMSB). Once a DMSB is loaded, the operations staff remove the expended DMSB, and replace it with a new DMSB container. The TFIR tritium system is operated via detailed procedures which require operator sign off for system manipulation. There are >300 procedures controlling the operation of the tritium systems.

  9. First tritium results of the KATRIN test experiment TRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Eichelhardt, F.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Kazachenko, O.; Kernert, N.; Sturm, M.

    2008-07-15

    The TRAP experiment (Tritium Argon frost Pump) has been built at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) as a test rig for the Cryogenic Pumping Section (CPS) of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). TRAP employs a heterogeneous layer of pre-condensed argon to adsorb hydrogen isotopes at {approx} 4.2 K This paper presents results obtained in the first three tritium experiments with TRAP. (authors)

  10. Tritium migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K.; Romney, E.M.; Fujii, L.M.; Greger, P.D. ); Kendall, E.W.; Hunter, R.B. )

    1991-08-01

    Emanation of tritium from waste containers is a commonly known phenomenon. Release of tritium from buried waste packages was anticipated, therefore a research program was developed to study both the rate of tritium release from buried containers and subsequent migration of tritium through soil. Migration of tritium away from low level radioactive wastes buried in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site was studied. Four distinct disposal events were investigated. The oldest burial event studied was a 1976 emplacement of 3.5 million curies of tritium in a shallow land burial trench. Tritium transport to the atmosphere by plant transpiration was determined to have risen sharply with the passage of time, and is now occurring at the rate of about 6 curies per year. The tritium being released from this waste has not resulted in elevated tritium levels in the urine of people working directly on the trench cap. Air samplers placed around the perimeter of the Area 5 site show no higher tritium levels than the Nevada Test Site in general. In another event, 248 thousand curies of tritium was disposed of in an overpack emplaced 6 meters below the floor of a low-level waste disposal pit. Measurement of the emanation rate of tritium out of 55 gallon drums to the overpack was studied, and an annual doubling of the emanation rate over a seven year period was found. No evidence of significant migration of tritium away from the overpack was found. In a third study, upward tritium migration in the soil was observed in a greater confinement disposal test. The movement was suspected largely to be the result of experimental anomalies and heat generated by other radionuclides present in the waste. Releases of tritium to the atmosphere were found to be insignificant. The fourth event consisted of burial of 2.2 million curies of tritium in a greater confinement disposal operation. No significant migration was found. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tacklind, James; MacDonald, Roderick; Rutks, Indy; Wilt, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate, can lead to obstructive and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The pharmacologic use of plants and herbs (phytotherapy) for the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH is common. The extract of the berry of the American saw palmetto, or dwarf palm plant, Serenoa repens (also known by its botanical name of Sabal serrulatum), is one of several phytotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of BPH. Objectives This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of Serenoa repens in the treatment of LUTS consistent with BPH. Search strategy Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library), by checking bibliographies, and by handsearching the relevant literature. Selection criteria Trials were eligible if they (1) randomized men with symptomatic BPH to receive preparations of Serenoa repens (alone or in combination) for at least four weeks in comparison with placebo or other interventions, and (2) included clinical outcomes such as urologic symptom scales, symptoms, and urodynamic measurements. Eligibility was assessed by at least two independent observers. Data collection and analysis Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The main outcome measure for comparing the effectiveness of Serenoa repens with placebo or other interventions was the change in urologic symptom-scale scores. Secondary outcomes included changes in nocturia and urodynamic measures. The main outcome measure for side effects or adverse events was the number of men reporting side effects. Main results In this update 9 new trials involving 2053 additional men (a 64.8% increase) have been included. For the main comparison - Serenoa repens versus placebo - 3 trials were added with 419 subjects and 3 endpoints (IPSS, peak urine flow, prostate size

  12. Tritium waste control: April-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1980-11-26

    The Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) pilot system was operated using Maxey Flats trench water as feed. Two pneumatic seal electrolysis cells were procured. One will be used as a control (operated with nontritiated water) for the high-level tritiated water electrolysis tests. A test system for the cells was designed, built and successfully tested. Several additional impurity analyses were completed on effluent recovery system (ERS) water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to define methods and parameters for removal of oil-organics from ERS water. Four types of activated carbon were used to absorb vacuum pump oil from 1 to 10% mixtures in water. Two experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of the catalytic reactor to oxidize elemental tritium and also to determine the efficiency of the adsorption columns to capture the oxidized tritium. The resulting data indicate that reactor efficiency is >90% for concentrations on the order of 10 mCi/m/sup 3/, and about 50% at 0.5 mCi/m/sup 3/. The adsorption columns were also found to have less than the assumed 100% efficiency at capturing the HTO. Concentration data indicate possible channeling instead of breakthrough. The study of tritium release from representative burial packages continued. The two waste-water drums which have the highest tritium release (29 mCi and 85 mCi) also contain the highest amounts of tritium, originally 34,480 Ci and 52,128 Ci, respectively. The tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete and the control remain too low to be illustrated on the current figures.

  13. Design and operations at the National Tritium Labelling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    The National Tritium Labelling Facility (NTLF) is a multipurpose facility engaged in tritium labeling research. It offers to the biomedical research community a fully equipped laboratory for the synthesis and analysis of tritium labeled compounds. The design of the tritiation system, its operations and some labeling techniques are presented.

  14. Tritium migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K.; Weaver, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    Emanation of tritium from waste containers is a commonly known phenomenon. Release of tritium from buried waste packages was anticipated; therefore, a research program was developed to study both the rate of tritium release from buried containers and subsequent migration of tritium through soil. Migration of tritium away from low-level radioactive wastes buried in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site was studied. Four distinct disposal events were investigated. The oldest burial event studied was a 1976 emplacement of 3.5 million curies of tritium in a shallow land burial trench. In another event, 248 thousand curies of tritium was disposed of in an overpack emplaced 6 m below the floor of a low-level waste disposal pit. Measurement of the emanation rate of tritium out of 55 gallon drums to the overpack was studied, and an annual doubling of the emanation rate over a seven year period, ending in 1990, was found. In a third study, upward tritium migration in the soil, resulting in releases in the atmosphere were observed in a greater confinement disposal test. Releases of tritium to the atmosphere were found to be insignificant. The fourth event consisted of burial of 2.2 million curies of tritium in a greater confinement disposal operation. Emanation of tritium from the buried containers has been increasing since disposal, but no significant migration was found four years following backfilling of the disposal hole.

  15. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  16. Tritium projectiles for fueling magnetic fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet (cylindrical projectile of frozen hydrogenic gas at a temperature in the range 6--16 K) injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. This repeating, single-stage, pneumatic injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase 2 (TPOP-2) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude and accelerate hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-2 program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and D-T extrusions; integrate, test, and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun that is sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter {approximately} 7 to 8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory that requires secondary and room containment systems. In initial tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to 13 pellets have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of 1.0 to 1.1 km/s, using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. The pellets, typically 7.4 mm in diameter and up to 11 mm in length, are the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 11% density perturbation to ITER. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first-wall tritium inventories by a process called isotopic fueling in which tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge.

  17. Decommissioning of a tritium-contaminated laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.R.; Garde, R.

    1981-11-01

    A tritium laboratory facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned in 1979. The project involved dismantling the laboratory equipment and disposing of the equipment and debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. The laboratory was constructed in 1953 and was in service for tritium research and fabrication of lithium tritide components until 1974. The major features of the laboratory included some 25 meters of gloveboxes and hoods, associated vacuum lines, utility lines, exhaust ducts, electrodryers, blowers, and laboratory benches. This report presents details on the decommissioning, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation.

  18. Assessing Contaminant Susceptibility Near Artificial Recharge Operations by Imaging Flowpaths and Transport Times With Geochemical Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. F.; Hudson, G. B.; Davisson, M. L.; Woodside, G.; Herndon, R.

    2002-12-01

    Critical for assessing the potential impacts of artificial recharge operations on water quality is detailed knowledge of groundwater dynamics near spreading areas. Geochemical tracer techniques including tritium/helium-3 (T/3He) dating and the addition of trace gases in controlled experiments are ideally suited for these investigations. A series of experiments were conducted using these tracers near the artificial recharge facilities in Northern Orange County, CA. Here, approximately 2.5 x 108 m3 of surface water are recharged annually to the groundwater basin. T/3He ages show that most of the relatively shallow groundwater within 3 km of the recharge facilities have ages less than 4 years; further down gradient ages increase, reaching >20 years at distances more than about 6 km. Far from the spreading area in the confined portions of the aquifer there is little evidence for young groundwater (<50 years). Gas tracer experiments using sulfur hexafluoride and xenon isotopes were conducted from two spreading basins and the Santa Ana River. These tracers were followed in the groundwater for up to 4.5 years, allowing subsurface flow patterns and flow times to selected wells to be quantified. Results demonstrate that the mean horizontal flow velocity range between 0.4 and 2.9 km yr-1. It is likely that the gas tracers were moving primarily through the most conductive layers and thus these velocities do not represent bulk flow within all layers. The leading edge of the tracer plume moved at velocities about twice as fast as the center of mass. The latter velocities are important when considering the potential transport of microbes and other "time sensitive" contaminants because they reflect the fastest paths in the aquifer. These velocities can not be easily determined with other methods showing the importance of geochemical methods for artificial recharge site evaluation.

  19. Multiple-tracer gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-gas tracer system has been designed, built, and used on an explosively fractured oil shale rubble bed. This paper deals exclusively with the hardware, software, and overall operation of the tracer system. This system is a field portable, self-contained unit, which utilizes a mass spectrometer for gas analysis. The unit has a 20 channel sample port capability and is controlled by a desk top computer. The system is configured to provide a dynamic sensitivity range of up to six orders of magnitude. A roots blower is manifolded to the unit to provide continuous flow in all sample lines. The continuous flow process allows representative samples as well as decreasing the time between each measurement. Typical multiplex cycle time to evaluate four unique gases is approximately 12 seconds.

  20. Report of the Task Group on operation Department of Energy tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the operation of DOE Tritium facilities: Environment, Safety, and Health Aspects of Tritium; Management of Operations and Maintenance Functions; Safe Shutdown of Tritium Facilities; Management of the Facility Safety Envelope; Maintenance of Qualified Tritium Handling Personnel; DOE Tritium Management Strategy; Radiological Control Philosophy; Implementation of DOE Requirements; Management of Tritium Residues; Inconsistent Application of Requirements for Measurement of Tritium Effluents; Interdependence of Tritium Facilities; Technical Communication among Facilities; Incorporation of Confinement Technologies into New Facilities; Operation/Management Requirements for New Tritium Facilities; and Safety Management Issues at Department of Energy Tritium Facilities.

  1. The distributions of helium isotopes and tritium along the U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic sections (GEOTRACES GAO3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, W. J.; Lott, D. E.; Longworth, B. E.; Curtice, J. M.; Cahill, K. L.

    2015-06-01

    We present the distributions of helium isotopes (in the form of helium isotope ratio anomaly relative to the atmospheric ratio) and tritium along two sections occupied in the subtropical North Atlantic as part of the first U.S. GEOTRACES survey (GEOTRACES GA03). The general distributions of these isotopes are consistent with the continuing penetration and evolution of bomb-produced tritium and its daughter isotope 3He in the main thermocline and along the western boundary current system. We combine these two distributions to compute a tritium-3He age, which is related to the elapsed time since the water was at the ocean surface. Although it is an indicator biased by the effects of mixing and influenced by the time history and spatial distribution of bomb tritium delivery to the ocean surface, it still remains a useful measure of ventilation time-scales. Aside from the continued propagation of the tritium-3He transient into the ocean interior, there are three notable features of interest in these distributions. The first is the clear signature of upwelling in the water column near the coast of Mauritania, characterized by the upward bowing of isochrones in the thermocline and discernable 3He excess at the ocean surface. A simple 3He mass balance calculation suggests an upwelling flux of order 1.8×106 m3 s-1 (1.8 Sv) along the Mauritanian coast. The second is a mid-depth (~1500-2000 m) core of ventilated waters centered over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, an anticyclonic circulation of waters likely originating in the Labrador Sea. The third notable feature is a volcanic 3He plume at about 3500 m depth emanating from the TAG Hydrothermal Area that is detectable as much as 500 km away on each side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We estimate a 3He:heat ratio of ~7×10-18 mol J-1 and a 3He flux from the TAG site of ~15 mmol y-1. Since 3He is a conserved tracer in the absence of measureable tritium, the correlation of volcanic 3He with other hydrothermally influenced TEIs (e.g., Fe

  2. Development of nuclear micro-battery with solid tritium source.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Son, Soon-Hwan; Kim, KwangSin; Park, Jong-Wan; Lim, Hun; Lee, Jae-Min; Chung, Eun-Su

    2009-01-01

    A micro-battery powered by tritium is being developed to utilize tritium produced from the Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility. The 3D p-n junction device has been designed and fabricated for energy conversion. Titanium tritide is adopted to increase tritium density and safety. Sub micron films or nano-powders of titanium tritide is applied on silicon semiconductor device to reduce the self absorption of beta rays. Until now protium has been used instead of tritium for safety. Hydrogen was absorbed up to atomic ratio of approximately 1.3 and approximately 1.7 in titanium powders and films, respectively. PMID:19328704

  3. Preliminary results on tritium in Surveyor 3 material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    Painted aluminum samples taken from Surveyor 3 were examined for possible tritium implanted by the solar wind. There was found to be a correlation of tritium content with exposure to sunlight. The amount of tritium in sample 1011,2 nearly perpendicular to the lunar surface exceeded the amount expected from the tritium content of lunar rock 12002 by at least a factor of 3. It is concluded that if there is tritium implanted by solar wind on lunar rocks, it is not retained by them.

  4. Tritium rainout over the United States in 1962 and 1963

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, G.L.; Hoffman, C.M.

    1966-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of floods are defined regionally for small streams (drainage This report describes the tritium sampling network established by the U.S. Geological Survey. Tritium rainout data are included for 1962 and 1963 precipitation collected at 15 stations in the United States and Puerto Rico. These data are presented graphically to show seasonal variations and geographic distribution patterns for 1963 tritium rainout. Total tritium rainout during 1963 was considerably higher than it was in previous years. Peak tritium concentrations in late spring or early summer of 1963 were higher by a factor of three or more over concentrations measured in 1962.

  5. Comparative study of the tritium distribution in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevezentsev, A. N.; Bell, A. C.; Rivkis, L. A.; Filin, V. M.; Gushin, V. V.; Belyakov, M. I.; Bulkin, V. I.; Kravchenko, I. M.; Ionessian, I. A.; Torikai, Y.; Matsuyama, M.; Watanabe, K.; Markin, A. I.

    2008-01-01

    Coupons of stainless steel, Inconel, beryllium, copper and aluminium bronze were exposed to tritium in hydrogen gas mixtures over a wide range of parameters: temperature up to 770 K, pressure from 1 × 10 -4 MPa to 0.05 MPa, tritium concentration from 1 at.% to 98 at.%. The tritium concentration on the surface and distribution through the metals were measured using radiography, radioluminography, β-ray induced X-ray spectroscopy and acid etching methods. The effect of metal processing, such as forging, polishing and heat treatment on the tritium distribution was studied along with parameters relating to the exposure of the metal to tritium.

  6. Tritium experience in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Hosea, J.; Mueller, D.; Nagy, A.; Brooks, J.N.; Hogan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Tritium management is a key enabling element in fusion technology. Tritium fuel was used in 3.5 years of successful deuterium-tritium (D-T) operations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The D-T campaign enabled TFTR to explore the transport, alpha physics, and MHD stability of a reactor core. It also provided experience with tritium retention and removal that highlighted the importance of these issues in future D-T machines. In this paper, the authors summarize the tritium retention and removal experience in TFTR and its implications for future reactors.

  7. A rapid method for airborne tritium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Tritium is one of the principal radionuclides released to the environment from nuclear fuel and target reprocessing, heavy-water production, and other nuclear industry operations. For example, the majority of the off-site dose to the public at the Savannah River site (SRS) in 1988 was from tritium oxide (HTO). The absorbed dose is highly dependent on chemical form; HTO is 10,000 more hazardous than the elemental form (HT). Commercially available tritium monitors do not discriminate between chemical form and have high detection limits. Consequently, tedious laboratory methods must be used to analyze HTO in air. Desiccants are used to remove all the water from an air sample. The tritiated water is then desorbed and analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The method is complex and takes several hours to complete. During an unplanned release, present-time atmospheric tritium concentrations are never available. To improve emergency response capabilities, a rapid sampling and analysis method was developed for measuring low-level HTO concentrations in air. Standard desiccant sampling and water desorption procedure was modified for use in the SRS mobile laboratory, which is equipped with a liquid scintillation counter. These tests indicate that an HTO concentration of 0.2% DCG (7 Bq/m{sup 3}) can be detected by this method with a 10-min sample collection time and a 10-min count.

  8. Development of aqueous tritium effluent monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J. )

    1989-01-01

    A variety of techniques have been evaluated and tested in an attempt to develop a monitor for tritium at low-levels in aqueous streams. One system tested was commercially available, HPLC radioactivity monitor. This system uses crushed yttrium silicate as the scintillator and employs standard fast coincidence electronics to measure tritium in a flowing stream. Laboratory tests of this unit indicate that the monitor can sense tritium at concentrations above 600 pCi/cc using a two (2) minute counting interval. Pooling the count rate data over a longer interval, (e.g.,. 24 hours) results in a detection limit of {approximately}20 pCi/cc, under constant background conditions. Unfortunately, the cells are easily plugged with debris even under laboratory conditions. To overcome this problem, a prototype system was designed, fabricated, and is being tested in the laboratory. The prototype used unclad fibers of plastic scintillator as the detection medium. Approximately 500 1mm-diam fibers were assembled into a flow cell with two 51mm-diam photomultipliers (PMTs) coupled to the ends of the fiber bundles to detect the scintillations. Fast coincidence, pulse shaping electronics are used to minimize the single photon and dark current backgrounds. The tritium counting efficiency, background, and sensitivity will be determined in the laboratory followed by field reliability testing. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Stereo and regioselectivity in ''Activated'' tritium reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenkaufer, R.L.E.; Hembree, W.C.; Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the stereo and positional selectivity of the microwave discharge activation (MDA) method, the tritium labeling of several amino acids was undertaken. The labeling of L-valine and the diastereomeric pair L-isoleucine and L-alloisoleucine showed less than statistical labeling at the ..cap alpha..-amino C-H position mostly with retention of configuration. Labeling predominated at the single ..beta.. C-H tertiary (methyne) position. The labeling of L-valine and L-proline with and without positive charge on the ..cap alpha..-amino group resulted in large increases in specific activity (greater than 10-fold) when positive charge was removed by labeling them as their sodium carboxylate salts. Tritium NMR of L-proline labeled both as its zwitterion and sodium salt showed also large differences in the tritium distribution within the molecule. The distribution preferences in each of the charge states are suggestive of labeling by an electrophilic like tritium species(s). 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. RF physics in Deuterium-Tritium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C. K.; Bell, M.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Fredrickson, E.; Hosea, J. C.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Majeski, R.; Medley, S.; Ono, M.

    1999-09-20

    A wide variety of potential ICRF heating scenarios relevant for the deuterium-tritium plasmas expected in tokamak reactor-class devices were explored in the TFTR and JET programs. Key physics results from the two programs are discussed. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Small system for tritium accelerator mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, M.L.; Davis, J.C.

    1993-02-23

    Apparatus for ionizing and accelerating a sample containing isotopes of hydrogen and detecting the ratios of hydrogen isotopes contained in the sample is disclosed. An ion source generates a substantially linear ion beam including ions of tritium from the sample. A radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator is directly coupled to and axially aligned with the source at an angle of substantially zero degrees. The accelerator accelerates species of the sample having different mass to different energy levels along the same axis as the ion beam. A spectrometer is used to detect the concentration of tritium ions in the sample. In one form of the invention, an energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a foil to block the passage of hydrogen, deuterium and [sup 3]He ions, and a surface barrier or scintillation detector to detect the concentration of tritium ions. In another form of the invention, a combined momentum/energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a magnet to separate the ion beams, with Faraday cups to measure the hydrogen and deuterium and a surface barrier or scintillation detector for the tritium ions.

  12. Small system for tritium accelerator mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Mark L.; Davis, Jay C.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for ionizing and accelerating a sample containing isotopes of hydrogen and detecting the ratios of hydrogen isotopes contained in the sample is disclosed. An ion source generates a substantially linear ion beam including ions of tritium from the sample. A radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator is directly coupled to and axially aligned with the source at an angle of substantially zero degrees. The accelerator accelerates species of the sample having different mass to different energy levels along the same axis as the ion beam. A spectrometer is used to detect the concentration of tritium ions in the sample. In one form of the invention, an energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a foil to block the passage of hydrogen, deuterium and .sup.3 He ions, and a surface barrier or scintillation detector to detect the concentration of tritium ions. In another form of the invention, a combined momentum/energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a magnet to separate the ion beams, with Faraday cups to measure the hydrogen and deuterium and a surface barrier or scintillation detector for the tritium ions.

  13. Tritium waste control: October 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1982-08-16

    Progress reports and summaries are presented for the following: electrolysis of tritiated water; impurity removal from the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) feed water; gas generation measurements on tritiated waste materials; fixation of aqueous tritiated waste in polymer-impregnated concrete; management of high specific activity tritiated liquid wastes; and treatment of tritium contaminated water at Three Mile Island. (ATT)

  14. GASFLOW analysis of a tritium leak accident

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, R.F.; Fujita, R.K.; Travis, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    The consequences of an earthquake-induced fire involving a tritium leak were analyzed using the GASFLOW computer code. Modeling features required by the analysis include ventilation boundary conditions, flow of a gas mixture in an enclosure containing obstacles, thermally induced buoyancy, and combustion phenomena.

  15. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years.

  16. KRAS, HRAS and EGFR Mutations in Sporadic Sebaceous Gland Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Groesser, Leopold; Singer, Sebastian; Peterhof, Eva; Landthaler, Michael; Heigl, Ulrike; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Berneburg, Mark; Hafner, Christian

    2016-08-23

    Sporadic sebaceous gland hyperplasia (SGH) is a benign skin lesion, with a high prevalence in the general population. Although SGH has been attributed to both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, the underlying genetic changes have not yet been characterized. Recently, HRAS and KRAS mutations have been identified in sebaceous naevus, a hamartoma sharing histological characteristics with SGH. Therefore we screened 43 SGH for activating mutations in RAS genes and other oncogenes. We identified a wide spectrum of mutually exclusive activating HRAS (8/43), KRAS (11/43) and EGFR mutations (7/31) in altogether 60% of the lesions investigated. A RAS and EGFR wildtype status was found in 15 normal sebaceous glands in the head and neck area. Our findings indicate that activating HRAS, KRAS and EGFR mutations play a major role in the pathogenesis of sporadic SGH. These results support the concept that SGH is a true benign neoplasm rather than a reactive hyperplasia. PMID:26804118

  17. Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: risks outweigh benefits.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2013-05-01

    Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by administering dexamethasone to a woman presumed to be carrying an at-risk fetus has been described as safe and effective in several reports. A review of data from animal experimentation and human trials indicates that first-trimester dexamethasone decreases birthweight; affects renal, pancreatic beta cell, and brain development; increases anxiety; and predisposes to adult hypertension and hyperglycemia. In human studies, first-trimester dexamethasone is associated with orofacial clefts, decreased birthweight, poorer verbal working memory, and poorer self-perception of scholastic and social competence. Numerous medical societies have cautioned that prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with dexamethasone should only be done in prospective clinical research settings with institutional review board approval, and therefore is not appropriate for routine community practice. PMID:23123167

  18. Pictures of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Sempoux, Christine; Balabaud, Charles; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    This practical atlas aims to help liver and non liver pathologists to recognize benign hepatocellular nodules on resected specimen. Macroscopic and microscopic views together with immunohistochemical stains illustrate typical and atypical aspects of focal nodular hyperplasia and of hepatocellular adenoma, including hepatocellular adenomas subtypes with references to clinical and imaging data. Each step is important to make a correct diagnosis. The specimen including the nodule and the non-tumoral liver should be sliced, photographed and all different looking areas adequately sampled for paraffin inclusion. Routine histology includes HE, trichrome and cytokeratin 7. Immunohistochemistry includes glutamine synthase and according to the above results additional markers such as liver fatty acid binding protein, C reactive protein and beta catenin may be realized to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenoma subtypes. Clues for differential diagnosis and pitfalls are explained and illustrated. PMID:25232451

  19. Focal nodular hyperplasia with major sinusoidal dilatation: a misleading entity

    PubMed Central

    Laumonier, Hervé; Frulio, Nora; Laurent, Christophe; Balabaud, Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2010-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign liver lesion thought to be a non-specific response to locally increased blood flow. Although the diagnosis of FNH and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) has made great progress over the last few years using modern imaging techniques, there are still in daily practice some difficulties concerning some atypical nodules. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman with a single liver lesion thought to be, by imaging, an inflammatory HCA with major sinusoidal congestion. This nodule was revealed to be, at the microscopical level and after specific immunostaining and molecular analysis, an FNH with sinusoidal dilatation (so-called telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia). PMID:22798311

  20. Application of tritium in precipitation and baseflow in Japan: a case study of groundwater transit times and storage in Hokkaido watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, Maksym A.; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Michael K.; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Kazuhisa; Nishihara, Terumasa; Kuribayashi, Daisuke; Sawano, Hisaya; Iwami, Yoichi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the application of tritium in precipitation and baseflow to estimate groundwater transit times and storage volumes in Hokkaido, Japan. To establish the long-term history of tritium concentration in Japanese precipitation, we used tritium data from the global network of isotopes in precipitation and from local studies in Japan. The record developed for Tokyo area precipitation was scaled for Hokkaido using tritium values for precipitation based on wine grown at Hokkaido. Then, tritium concentrations measured with high accuracy in river water from Hokkaido, Japan, were compared to this scaled precipitation record and used to estimate groundwater mean transit times (MTTs). A total of 16 river water samples in Hokkaido were collected in June, July, and October 2014 at 12 locations with altitudes between 22 and 831 m above sea level and catchment areas between 14 and 377 km2. Measured tritium concentrations were between 4.07 (± 0.07) TU and 5.29 (± 0.09) TU in June, 5.06 (± 0.09) TU in July, and between 3.75 (± 0.07) TU and 4.85 (± 0.07) TU in October. We utilised TracerLPM (Jurgens et al., 2012) for MTT estimation and introduced a Visual Basic module to automatically simulate tritium concentrations and relative errors for selected ranges of MTTs, exponential-piston ratios, and scaling factors of tritium input. Using the exponential (70 %) piston flow (30 %) model (E70 %PM), we simulated unique MTTs for seven river samples collected in six Hokkaido headwater catchments because their low tritium concentrations were no longer ambiguous. These river catchments are clustered in similar hydrogeological settings of Quaternary lava as well as Tertiary propylite formations near Sapporo city. However, nine river samples from six other catchments produced up to three possible MTT values with E70 % PM due to the interference by the tritium from the atmospheric hydrogen bomb testing 5-6 decades ago. For these catchments, we show that tritium in

  1. Improving tritium exposure reconstructions using accelerator mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J. R.; Vogel, J. S.; Knezovich, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurement of tritium atoms by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables rapid low-activity tritium measurements from milligram-sized samples and permits greater ease of sample collection, faster throughput, and increased spatial and/or temporal resolution. Because existing methodologies for quantifying tritium have some significant limitations, the development of tritium AMS has allowed improvements in reconstructing tritium exposure concentrations from environmental measurements and provides an important additional tool in assessing the temporal and spatial distribution of chronic exposure. Tritium exposure reconstructions using AMS were previously demonstrated for a tree growing on known levels of tritiated water and for trees exposed to atmospheric releases of tritiated water vapor. In these analyses, tritium levels were measured from milligram-sized samples with sample preparation times of a few days. Hundreds of samples were analyzed within a few months of sample collection and resulted in the reconstruction of spatial and temporal exposure from tritium releases. Although the current quantification limit of tritium AMS is not adequate to determine natural environmental variations in tritium concentrations, it is expected to be sufficient for studies assessing possible health effects from chronic environmental tritium exposure. PMID:14735274

  2. Therapeutic options in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspreet S

    2009-01-01

    Current theraputic options for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are reviewed. Therapeutic options for mild lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), as defined by the American Urological Association, are generally treated medically. Moderate to severe LUTS can be treated medically or with surgical therapy. Current medical and surgical treatments for LUTS secondary to BPH are reviewed and evolving treatments are explored. PMID:19936164

  3. [Occult cancer in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Duarte, C; Aguillón, J; Rodríguez, H

    1991-05-01

    The results of a prospective study undertaken in 29 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are presented. Transrectal ultrasound, ultrasound-guided biopsy and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were utilized in the search for hidden cancer of the prostate. However, no cancer was detected in any patient. Very high values of PSA were found, particularly in patients with an indwelling catheter. Transrectal ultrasound yielded no false negatives and no complications were observed. PMID:1712190

  4. Rapidly growing bilateral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Eun Mi; Whang, In Yong; Chang, Eun Deok

    2010-01-01

    A tumoral pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) that causes huge breast enlargement is very rare. Only two cases of huge tumoral PASHs have been reported in the English medical literature. We report here on a surgically confirmed case of bilateral huge tumoral PASH in a 47-year-old woman, and we present the imaging and histopathology findings. We also review the relevant medical literature. PMID:20461190

  5. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under clinical trial. PMID:26918132

  6. Clinical and radiological findings of a bilateral coronoid hyperplasia case

    PubMed Central

    Torenek, Kubra; Duman, Suayip Burak; Bayrakdar, Ibrahim Sevki; Miloglu, Ozkan

    2015-01-01

    Coronoid hyperplasia (CH) is an infrequent condition that can be defined as an abnormal bony elongation of histologically normal bone. Progressive and painless difficulty in opening the mouth is the main clinical finding of CH. In this case report, the clinical and radiological findings for a 23-year-old male patient with bilateral CH are presented. When plain radiographies are not sufficient for diagnosis and evaluation of the CH, cone-beam computed tomography can be used. PMID:25713499

  7. Condylar hyperplasia: An updated review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zacharias, Joseph; Pierce, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare disorder characterized by excessive bone growth that almost always presents unilaterally, resulting in facial asymmetry. Classification of the different types of CH can differ depending on the authors. Correct diagnosis is critical in determining the proper treatments and timing. This paper is a review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and surgical treatments of CH. PMID:26629479

  8. Condylar hyperplasia: An updated review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luis Eduardo; Zacharias, Joseph; Pierce, Sean

    2015-11-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare disorder characterized by excessive bone growth that almost always presents unilaterally, resulting in facial asymmetry. Classification of the different types of CH can differ depending on the authors. Correct diagnosis is critical in determining the proper treatments and timing. This paper is a review of the recent literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, classification, and surgical treatments of CH. PMID:26629479

  9. Recent advances in treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    van Rij, Simon; Gilling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), often identified as a worsening ability of a male to pass urine, is a significant problem for men in our society. In 2015, the use of personalised medicine is tailoring treatment to individual patient needs and to genetic characteristics. Technological advances in surgical treatment are changing the way BPH is treated and are resulting in less morbidity. The future of BPH treatments is exciting, and a number of novel techniques are currently under clinical trial. PMID:26918132

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50

  11. Plasma wall interaction and tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Amarescu, E.; Ascione, G.; Synakowski, E.

    1996-05-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been operating safely and routinely with deuterium-tritium fuel for more than two years. In this time, TFTR has produced an impressive number of record breaking results including core fusion power, ~ 2 MW/m³, comparable to that expected for ITER. Advances in wall conditioning via lithium pellet injection have played an essential role in achieving these results. Deuterium-tritium operation has also provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium recycling and retention. Tritium retention over two years of operation was approximately 40%. Recently, the in-torus tritium inventory was reduced by half through a combination of glow discharge cleaning, moist-air soaks, and plasma discharge cleaning. The tritium inventory is not a constraint in continued operations. The authors present recent results from TFTR in the context of plasma wall interactions and deuterium-tritium issues.

  12. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-12-30

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs.

  13. REMOTE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-TRITIUM-CONTENT WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Diprete, D; Raymond Sigg, R; Leah Arrigo, L; Donald Pak, D

    2007-08-07

    Systems to safely analyze for tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres are being developed for use at Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities. Analysis results will guide whether the material contains sufficient tritium for economical recovery, or whether it should be stabilized for disposal as waste. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to the process laboratory's routine analysis by liquid-scintillation counting. The newer systems determine tritium concentrations by measuring bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions. One of the systems determines tritium activity in liquid streams, the other determines tritium activity in water vapor. Topics discussed include counting results obtained by modeling and laboratory testing and corrections that are made for low-energy photon attenuation.

  14. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    PubMed

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface. PMID:24657814

  15. Gastrointestinal Hyperplasia with Altered Expression of DNA Polymerase β

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Jelezcova, Elena; Brown, Ashley R.; Foley, Julie F.; Nyska, Abraham; Cui, Xiangli; Hofseth, Lorne J.; Maronpot, Robert M.; Wilson, Samuel H.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Sobol, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Altered expression of DNA polymerase β (Pol β) has been documented in a large percentage of human tumors. However, tumor prevalence or predisposition resulting from Pol β over-expression has not yet been evaluated in a mouse model. Methodology/Principal Findings We have recently developed a novel transgenic mouse model that over-expresses Pol β. These mice present with an elevated incidence of spontaneous histologic lesions, including cataracts, hyperplasia of Brunner's gland and mucosal hyperplasia in the duodenum. In addition, osteogenic tumors in mice tails, such as osteoma and osteosarcoma were detected. This is the first report of elevated tumor incidence in a mouse model of Pol β over-expression. These findings prompted an evaluation of human gastrointestinal tumors with regard to Pol β expression. We observed elevated expression of Pol β in stomach adenomas and thyroid follicular carcinomas, but reduced Pol β expression in esophageal adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. Conclusions/Significance These data support the hypothesis that balanced and proficient base excision repair protein expression and base excision repair capacity is required for genome stability and protection from hyperplasia and tumor formation. PMID:19654874

  16. Treatment of hemimandibular hyperplasia: the biological basis of condylectomy.

    PubMed

    Lippold, Carsten; Kruse-Losler, Birgit; Danesh, Gholamreza; Joos, Ulrich; Meyer, Ulrich

    2007-07-01

    Treatments to correct skeletal deformities in patients with hemimandibular hyperplasia differ, particularly about the age at which the operation is done and the operation itself. To some extent, the differences can be attributed to the unknown biological basis of disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinically the outcome of a rationale for the operation based on condylectomy on the affected side. Histological, radiological, and nuclear methods were used to get a more detailed insight into the reason for the operation. Six patients with hemimandibular hyperplasia were treated by a combined orthodontic-maxillofacial protocol. All patients had the affected joint removed. The histological morphology of each condylar specimen was compared with the bone scintigraphy to try and find a correlation between the methods. The clinical evaluation showed morphological and functional rehabilitation of all six patients. During the 2-year follow-up, all patients had stable symmetrical mandibles with no disturbance of temporomandibular function. Remodelling of the joint and the destruction of the cartilaginous layer was accompanied by much bone scintigraphic activity. We conclude that condylectomy can correct hemimandibular hyperplasia, even in patients with active condylar growth, by removing the underlying disease. PMID:17145124

  17. Mandibular condylar hyperplasia: clinical, histopathological, and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Angiero, Francesca; Farronato, Giampietro; Benedicenti, Stefano; Vinci, Raffaele; Farronato, Davide; Magistro, Sarah; Stefani, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is a rare disorder characterized by an increased volume of the condyle, ramus, and mandibular body leading to facial asymmetry. We present three cases of condylar hyperplasia: two women and one man, age range 27 to 34. Clinically, all three patients showed a deviation of the mandible to the opposite side and a protruded position of the chin, hypertrophy of the lower border of the mandible, combined with an elongation of the mandibular ramus, open-bite on the deformed side, and cross-bite on the opposite side. In all three cases, scintigraphy showed an increased uptake. Radiography and CT scanning confirmed the clinical diagnosis and patients were subjected to surgery, comprising high condylectomy on the affected side with access in the pre-tragus area. The surgical piece sent to the Institute of Pathological Anatomy for histological examination revealed a nonuniform picture, in terms of both the depth of cartilage islands and the thickness of the fibrous layer covering the joint surface. Common to all three cases, however, was the apparent evolution of fibrous tissue to cartilage, and of this to compact bone tissue. At two-four years, all cases have maintained a good occlusal response. The asymmetric deformity of the mandible resulting from the rare condition of hemimandibular hyperplasia is presented and the clinical, histopathological and therapeutic aspects discussed. PMID:19241796

  18. Tritium control: April-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1984-01-27

    The Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) and Water Feed Cleanup (WFCU) systems were decommissioned, and the associated glovebox lines were decontaminated. Previously predicted correlations between atmospheric tritium concentrations and surface contamination and rates of atmospheric decontamination were examined during the decommissioning of the three gloveboxes. To expedite this procedure, the boxline was purged with air and N/sub 2/ by employing high volumetric flow rates of up to 1.7 vol %/min. The relationship between atmospheric concentration and cleanup times was examined for this purge rate. Results from surveys taken inside the boxline were compared to results expected according to the correlations predicted by previous surveys. Gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritiated waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated tritiated waste vacuum pump oil. In addition, the pressure change of hydrogen cover gas over tritiated water on cement-plaster was determined. The test program to measure and compare the release of tritium from tritiated concrete with and without styrene impregnation continued. Tritium permeation data from small test blocks are given. The drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages continued. The maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 7.05 x 10/sup -6/, and the maximum total permeation is 241 mCi after 9 yr. These two values represent a 7% increase for the past 6 months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and from the control (non-PITC) remains very low. A sample of the 10-year-old catalyst from the Emergency Containment System (ECS) reactor was tested to determine its efficiency. Preliminary results indicate a conversion rate of 90 +- 10%.

  19. Groundwater environmental tracer data collected from the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers in Montgomery County and adjacent counties, Texas, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    The Gulf Coast aquifer system is the primary water supply for Montgomery County in southeastern Texas, including part of the Houston metropolitan area and the cities of Magnolia, Conroe, and The Woodlands Township, Texas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, collected environmental tracer data in the Gulf Coast aquifer system, primarily in Montgomery County. Forty existing groundwater wells screened in the Gulf Coast aquifer system were selected for sampling in Montgomery County (38 wells), Waller County (1 well), and Walker County (1 well). Groundwater-quality samples, physicochemical properties, and water-level data were collected once from each of the 40 wells during March-September 2008. Groundwater-quality samples were analyzed for dissolved gases and the environmental tracers sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, helium-4, and helium-3/tritium. Water samples were collected and processed onsite using methods designed to minimize changes to the water-sample chemistry or contamination from the atmosphere. Replicate samples for quality assurance and quality control were collected with each environmental sample. Well-construction information and environmental tracer data for March-September 2008 are presented.

  20. Use of natural and applied tracers to guide targeted remediation efforts in an acid mine drainage system, Colorado Rockies, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowie, Rory; Williams, Mark W.; Wireman, Mike; Runkel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Stream water quality in areas of the western United States continues to be degraded by acid mine drainage (AMD), a legacy of hard-rock mining. The Rico-Argentine Mine in southwestern Colorado consists of complex multiple-level mine workings connected to a drainage tunnel discharging AMD to passive treatment ponds that discharge to the Dolores River. The mine workings are excavated into the hillslope on either side of a tributary stream with workings passing directly under the stream channel. There is a need to define hydrologic connections between surface water, groundwater, and mine workings to understand the source of both water and contaminants in the drainage tunnel discharge. Source identification will allow targeted remediation strategies to be developed. To identify hydrologic connections we employed a combination of natural and applied tracers including isotopes, ionic tracers, and fluorescent dyes. Stable water isotopes (δ18O/δD) show a well-mixed hydrological system, while tritium levels in mine waters indicate a fast flow-through system with mean residence times of years not decades or longer. Addition of multiple independent tracers indicated that water is traveling through mine workings with minimal obstructions. The results from a simultaneous salt and dye tracer application demonstrated that both tracer types can be successfully used in acidic mine water conditions.

  1. Petroleum characterization by perfluorocarbon tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Senum, G.I.; Fajer, R.W. ); Harris, B.R. Jr. ); DeRose, W.E. ); Ottaviani, W.L. )

    1992-02-01

    Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), a class of six compounds, were used to help characterize the Shallow Oil Zone (SOZ) reservoir at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC) at Elk Hills. The SOZ reservoir is undergoing a pilot gas injection program to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of injecting gas into the SOZ for improved oil recovery. PFTs were utilized in the pilot gas injection to qualitatively assess the extent of the pilot gas injection so as to determine the degree of gas containment within the SOZ reservoir.

  2. Estimation of transit times in a Karst Aquifer system using environmental tracers: Application on the Jeita Aquifer system-Lebanon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doummar, Joanna; Hamdan, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Estimating transit times is essential for the assessment of aquifer vulnerability to contaminants. Groundwater in karst aquifer is assumed to be relatively young due to fast preferential pathways; slow flow components are present in water stored in the fissured matrix. Furthermore, transit times are site specific as they depend on recharge rates, temperatures, elevation, and flow media; saturated and unsaturated zones. These differences create significant variation in the groundwater age in karst systems as the water sampled will be a mix of different water that has been transported through different flow pathways (fissured matrix and conduits). Several methods can be applied to estimate water transit time of an aquifer such as artificial tracers, which provide an estimate for fast flow velocities. In this study, groundwater residence times in the Jeita spring aquifer (Lebanon) were estimated using several environmental tracers such as Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6), Helium-Tritium (3H, 3H- 3He). Additional stable isotope and major ion analysis was performed to characterize water types. Groundwater samples were collected from six different wells in the Jeita catchment area (Jurassic Kesrouane aquifer) as well as from the spring and cave itself. The results are reproducible for the Tritium-Helium method, unlike for the CFC/SF6 methods that yielded poor results due to sampling problems. Tritium concentrations in all groundwater samples show nearly the same concentration (~2.73 TU) except for one sample with relatively lower tritium concentration (~2.26 TU). Ages ranging from 0.07 ± 0.07 years to 23.59 ± 0.00 years were obtained. The youngest age is attributed to the spring/ cave while the oldest ages were obtained in wells tapping the fissured matrix. Neon in these samples showed considerable variations and high delta Ne in some samples indicating high excess air. Four (4) samples showed extreme excess air (Delta-Ne is greater than 70 %) and

  3. Effects of submesoscale turbulence on ocean tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Katherine M.; Hamlington, Peter E.; Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    2016-01-01

    Ocean tracers such as carbon dioxide, nutrients, plankton, and oil advect, diffuse, and react primarily in the oceanic mixed layer where air-sea gas exchange occurs and light is plentiful for photosynthesis. There can be substantial heterogeneity in the spatial distributions of these tracers due to turbulent stirring, particularly in the submesoscale range where partly geostrophic fronts and eddies and small-scale three-dimensional turbulence are simultaneously active. In this study, a large eddy simulation spanning horizontal scales from 20 km down to 5 m is used to examine the effects of multiscale turbulent mixing on nonreactive passive ocean tracers from interior and sea-surface sources. The simulation includes the effects of both wave-driven Langmuir turbulence and submesoscale eddies, and tracers with different initial and boundary conditions are examined in order to understand the respective impacts of small-scale and submesoscale motions on tracer transport. Tracer properties are characterized using spatial fields and statistics, multiscale fluxes, and spectra, and the results detail how tracer mixing depends on air-sea tracer flux rate, tracer release depth, and flow regime. Although vertical fluxes of buoyancy by submesoscale eddies compete with mixing by Langmuir turbulence, vertical fluxes of tracers are often dominated by Langmuir turbulence, particularly for tracers that are released near the mixed-layer base or that dissolve rapidly through the surface, even in regions with pronounced submesoscale activity. Early in the evolution of some tracers, negative eddy diffusivities occur co-located with regions of negative potential vorticity, suggesting that symmetric instabilities or other submesoscale phenomenon may act to oppose turbulent mixing.

  4. Borehole environmental tracers for evaluating net infiltration and recharge through desert bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, D.K.; Gardner, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Permeable bedrock aquifers in arid regions are being increasingly developed as water supplies, yet little is generally known about recharge processes and spatial and temporal variability. Environmental tracers from boreholes were used in this study to investigate net infiltration and recharge to the fractured Navajo Sandstone aquifer. Vadose zone tracer profiles at the Sand Hollow study site in southwestern Utah look similar to those of desert soils at other sites, indicating the predominance of matrix flow. However, recharge rates are generally higher in the Navajo Sandstone than in unconsolidated soils in similar climates because the sandstone matrix allows water movement but not root penetration. Water enters the vadose zone either as direct infiltration of precipitation through exposed sandstone and sandy soils or as focused infiltration of runoff. Net infiltration and recharge exhibit extreme spatial variability. High-recharge borehole sites generally have large amounts of vadose zone tritium, low chloride concentrations, and small vadose zone oxygen-18 evaporative shifts. Annual net-infiltration and recharge rates at different locations range from about 1 to 60 mm as determined using vadose zone tritium, 0 to 15 mm using vadose zone chloride, and 3 to 60 mm using groundwater chloride. Environmental tracers indicate a cyclical net-infiltration and recharge pattern, with higher rates earlier in the Holocene and lower rates during the late Holocene, and a return to higher rates during recent decades associated with anomalously high precipitation during the latter part of the 20th century. The slightly enriched stable isotopic composition of modern groundwater indicates this recent increase in precipitation may be caused by a stronger summer monsoon or winter southern Pacific El Nin??o storm track. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  5. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2014-08-01

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA-MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (<50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50-500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems. PMID:24814036

  6. Tritium effects on germ cells and fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, R.L.; Kwan, T.C.; Straume, T.

    1982-11-19

    Primordial oocytes in juvenile mice show acute gamma-ray LD/sub 50/ as low as 6 rad. This provides opportunities for determining dose-response relations at low doses and chronic exposure in the intact animal - conditions of particular interest for hazard evaluation. Examined in this way, /sup 3/HOH in body water is found to kill murine oocytes exponentially with dose, the LD/sub 50/ level for chronic exposure being only 2..mu..Ci/ml (delivering 0.4 rad/day). At very low doses and dose rates, where comparisons between tritium and other radiations are of special significance for radiological protection, the RBE of tritium compared with /sup 60/Co gamma radiation reaches approximately 3. Effects on murine fertility from tritium-induced oocyte loss have been quantified by reproductive capacity measurements. Chronic low-level exposure has been examined also in three primate species - squirrel, rhesus, and bonnet monkeys. In squirrel monkeys the ovarian germ-cell supply is 99% destroyed by the time of birth from prenatal exposure to body-water levels of /sup 3/HOH (administered in maternal drinking water) of only 3 ..mu..Ci/ml, the LD/sub 50/ level being 0.5 ..mu..Ci/ml (giving 0.1 rad/day), one fourth that in mice. Though not completely ruled out, similar high sensitivity of female germ cells has not been found in macaques; and it probably does not occur in man. The exquisite radiosensitivity of primordial oocytes in mice is apparently due to vulnerability of the plasma membrane (or something of similar geometry and location), not DNA. Evidence for this comes from tritium data as well as neutron studies. Tritium administered as /sup 3/HOH, and therefore generally distributed, is much more effective in killing murine oocytes than is tritium administered as /sup 3/H-TdR, localized in the nucleus. This situation in the mouse may have implications for estimating radiation genetic risk in the human female.

  7. [Terminology and classification of condylar hyperplasia: Two case reports and review].

    PubMed

    Yılancı, Hümeyra Özge; Akkaya, Nursel; Özbek, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is characterized by the growth of mandibular condyle. Its etiology and pathogenesis remain controversial. It often occurs unilaterally and leads to facial asymmetry and malocclusion. In the literature, it was also classified according to anomalies accompanied by the growth of other components of the mandible. Differential diagnosis of condylar hyperplasia usually includes tumors of temporomandibular joint. In this article, we discuss the term "condylar hyperplasia" and its classification considering two patients with condylar growth. PMID:26572183

  8. Amlodipine-induced Gingival Hyperplasia – A Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Madi, M; Shetty, SR; Babu, SG; Achalli, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anticonvulsants, antihypertensive calcium channel blockers and immunosuppressants are the three main classes of drugs known to cause drug-induced gingival hypertrophy or hyperplasia. Among the calcium channel blockers, nifedipine administration has most frequently been associated with medication-related gingival hyperplasia. The incidence with amlodipine, which has a mode of action pharmacodynamically comparable to nifedipine, has rarely been reported. Here, we present a rare case of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in a hypertensive patient. PMID:26426184

  9. Amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia in chronic renal failure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, N M; Begenik, H; Emre, H; Erdur, F M; Soyoral, Y

    2012-12-01

    Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker that is used in the management of both hypertension and angina. Amlodipine induced side effects are headache, dizziness, edema, flushing, palpitations, and rarely gingival hyperplasia. The exact reason of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia is not known. We presented a case with chronic renal failure (CRF) that developed gingival hyperplasia due to amlodipine use, which improved after ceasing the drug. PMID:23516009

  10. 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT for assessment of condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Derlin, Thorsten; Busch, Jasmin D; Habermann, Christian R

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of condylar hyperplasia diagnosed with 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT. A 21-year-old woman with facial asymmetry was referred for assessment of condylar growth activity. SPECT/CT confirmed condylar hyperactivity, and simultaneous low-dose CT contributed to the diagnosis of hemimandibular hyperplasia. SPECT/CT may become a valuable tool for the diagnosis and comprehensive assessment of condylar hyperplasia, providing both functional and morphological information. PMID:23242067

  11. Use of Tritium Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Tree Ring Analysis

    PubMed Central

    LOVE, ADAM H.; HUNT, JAMES R.; ROBERTS, MARK L.; SOUTHON, JOHN R.; CHIARAPPA - ZUCCA, MARINA L.; DINGLEY, KAREN H.

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns over the health effects associated with low-level and long-term exposure to tritium released from industrial point sources have generated the demand for better methods to evaluate historical tritium exposure levels for these communities. The cellulose of trees accurately reflects the tritium concentration in the source water and may contain the only historical record of tritium exposure. The tritium activity in the annual rings of a tree was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to reconstruct historical annual averages of tritium exposure. Milligram-sized samples of the annual tree rings from a Tamarix located at the Nevada Test Site are used for validation of this methodology. The salt cedar was chosen since it had a single source of tritiated water that was well-characterized as it varied over time. The decay-corrected tritium activity of the water in which the salt cedar grew closely agrees with the organically bound tritium activity in its annual rings. This demonstrates that the milligram-sized samples used in tritium accelerator mass spectrometry are suited for reconstructing anthropogenic tritium levels in the environment. PMID:12144257

  12. Use of tritium accelerator mass spectrometry for tree ring analysis.

    PubMed

    Love, Adam H; Hunt, James R; Roberts, Mark L; Southon, John R; Chiarapp-Zucca, Marina L; Dingley, Karen H

    2002-07-01

    Public concerns over the health effects associated with low-level and long-term exposure to tritium released from industrial point sources have generated the demand for better methods to evaluate historical tritium exposure levels for these communities. The cellulose of trees accurately reflects the tritium concentration in the source water and may contain the only historical record of tritium exposure. The tritium activity in the annual rings of a tree was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to reconstruct historical annual averages of tritium exposure. Milligram-sized samples of the annual tree rings from a Tamarix located at the Nevada Test Site are used for validation of this methodology. The salt cedar was chosen since it had a single source of tritiated water that was well-characterized as it varied over time. The decay-corrected tritium activity of the water in which the salt cedar grew closely agrees with the organically bound tritium activity in its annual rings. This demonstrates that the milligram-sized samples used in tritium accelerator mass spectrometry are suited for reconstructing anthropogenic tritium levels in the environment. PMID:12144257

  13. On the mechanism of biological activation by tritium.

    PubMed

    Rozhko, T V; Badun, G A; Razzhivina, I A; Guseynov, O A; Guseynova, V E; Kudryasheva, N S

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism of biological activation by beta-emitting radionuclide tritium was studied. Luminous marine bacteria were used as a bioassay to monitor the biological effect of tritium with luminescence intensity as the physiological parameter tested. Two different types of tritium sources were used: HTO molecules distributed regularly in the surrounding aqueous medium, and a solid source with tritium atoms fixed on its surface (tritium-labeled films, 0.11, 0.28, 0.91, and 2.36 MBq/cm(2)). When using the tritium-labeled films, tritium penetration into the cells was prevented. The both types of tritium sources revealed similar changes in the bacterial luminescence kinetics: a delay period followed by bioluminescence activation. No monotonic dependences of bioluminescence activation efficiency on specific radioactivities of the films were found. A 15-day exposure to tritiated water (100 MBq/L) did not reveal mutations in bacterial DNA. The results obtained give preference to a "non-genomic" mechanism of bioluminescence activation by tritium. An activation of the intracellular bioluminescence process develops without penetration of tritium atoms into the cells and can be caused by intensification of trans-membrane cellular processes stimulated by ionization and radiolysis of aqueous media. PMID:27035890

  14. TRACER-TEST PLANNING USING THE EFFICIENT HYDROLOGIC TRACER-TEST DESIGN (EHTD) PROGRAM 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test ...

  15. TRACER-TEST PLANNING USING THE EFFICIENT HYDROLOGIC TRACER-TEST DESIGN (EHTD) PROGRAM 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrological tracer testing is the most reliable diagnostic technique available for establishing flow trajectories and hydrologic connections and for determining basic hydraulic and geometric parameters necessary for establishing operative solute-transport processes. Tracer-test ...

  16. Novel S-35 Intrinsic Tracer Method for Determining Groundwater Travel Time near Managed Aquifer Recharge Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urióstegui, S. H.; Bibby, R. K.; Esser, B. K.; Clark, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Identifying groundwater travel times near managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facilities is a high priority for protecting public and environmental health. For MAR facilities in California that incorporate tertiary wastewater into their surface-spreading recharge practices, the target subsurface residence time is >9 months to allow for the natural inactivation and degradation of potential contaminants (less time is needed for full advanced treated water). Established intrinsic groundwater tracer techniques such as tritium/helium-3 dating are unable to resolve timescales of <1 year. These limitations provide the motivation for evaluating a novel groundwater tracer method using a naturally occurring radioisotope of sulfur, sulfur-35 (S-35). After its production in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interaction with argon, S-35 enters the hydrologic cycle as dissolved sulfate through precipitation The short half-life of S-35 (3 months) is ideal for investigating recharge and transport of MAR groundwater on the <1 year timescale of interest to MAR managers. The method, however, has not been applied to MAR operations because of the difficulty in measuring S-35 with sufficient sensitivity in high-sulfate waters. We have developed a new method and have applied it at two southern California MAR facilities where groundwater travel times have previously been characterized using deliberate tracers: 1) Rio Hondo Spreading Grounds in Los Angeles County, and 2) Orange County Groundwater Recharge Facilities in Orange County. Reasonable S-35 travel times of <1 year were identified at both study sites. This method also identified seasonal patterns in subsurface travel times, which may not be revealed by a deliberate tracer study that is dependent on the hydrologic conditions during the tracer injection period.

  17. Balloon tracer for atmospheric pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Lichfield, E.W.; Ivey, M.D.; Zak, B.D.; Church, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    An operational prototype of the Balloon Tracer was developed and described. This prototype was designed to be capable of meeting all of the desired specifications for the Balloon Tracer. Its buoyancy adjustment subsystem is shown. Three Gilian instrument pumps operating in parallel provide a flow of about 12 litres per minute, depending upon backpressure. The miniature Klippard mechanical valves are actuated by a servo mechanism which only requires power when the state of the valves is being changed. The balloon itself for the operational prototype is just under 3 meters in diameter. A block diagram of the operational prototype payload measures ambient pressure, temperature, and humidity obtained from AIR which outputs its data in ASCII format. The vertical anemometer, which has a measured starting speed of under 2 cm/s, makes use of a Gill styrofoam propeller and a Spaulding Instruments rotation sendor. The command decoder is built around a chip developed originally for remote control television tuners. The command receiver operating on 13.8035 MHz was developed and built by Hock Engineering. The Argos transmitter is a Telonics platform transmitter terminal. The heart of the control system is an Intel 8052AH BASIC microcomputer with both random access and read only memory.

  18. [18F]-fluoride positron emission tomography for imaging condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Laverick, S; Bounds, G; Wong, Wai Lup

    2009-04-01

    The management of condylar hyperplasia depends on the diagnosis of continued growth in the affected condyle, and there is currently no satisfactory way of imaging it. [(18)F]-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) was included in the investigation of 5 patients who were suspected of having condylar hyperplasia, and the results were correlated with the operative findings. The technique correctly identified condylar hyperplasia in all patients. Our results suggest that [(18)F]-fluoride PET is a valid way of assessing patients with condylar hyperplasia. PMID:18926607

  19. Tracers of Past Ocean Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch-Stieglitz, J.

    2003-12-01

    Information about how the ocean circulated during the past is useful in understanding changes in ocean and atmospheric chemistry, changes in the fluxes of heat and freshwater between the ocean and atmosphere, and changes in global wind patterns. The circulation of surface waters in the ocean leaves an imprint on sea surface temperature, and is also inextricably linked to the patterns of oceanic productivity. Much valuable information about past ocean circulation has been inferred from reconstructions of surface ocean temperature and productivity, which are covered in separate chapters. Here the focus is on the geochemical tracers that are used to infer the flow patterns and mixing of subsurface water masses.Several decades ago it was realized that chemistry of the shells of benthic foraminifera (carbon isotope and Cd/Ca ratios) carried an imprint of the nutrient content of deep-water masses (Shackleton, 1977; Broecker, 1982; Boyle, 1981). This led rapidly to the recognition that the water masses in the Atlantic Ocean were arrayed differently during the last glacial maximum than they are today, and the hypothesis that the glacial arrangement reflected a diminished contribution of low-nutrient North Atlantic deep water (NADW) ( Curry and Lohmann, 1982; Boyle and Keigwin, 1982). More detailed spatial reconstructions indicated a shallow nutrient-depleted water mass overlying a more nutrient-rich water mass in the glacial Atlantic. These findings spurred advances not only in geochemistry but in oceanography and climatology, as workers in these fields attempted to simulate the inferred glacial circulation patterns and assess the vulnerability of the modern ocean circulation to changes such as observed for the last ice age.While the nutrient distributions in the glacial Atlantic Ocean were consistent with a diminished flow of NADW, they also could have reflected an increase in inflow from the South Atlantic and/or a shallower yet undiminished deep-water mass. Clearly

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Tritium inventory in ITER plasma-facing materials and tritium removal procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Joachim; Tsitrone, Emmanuelle; Loarer, Thierry; Philipps, Volker; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Loarte, Alberto; Counsell, Glenn F.; Doerner, Russell P.; Schmid, Klaus; Ogorodnikova, Olga V.; Causey, Rion A.

    2008-10-01

    Interactions between the plasma and the vessel walls constitute a major engineering problem for next step fusion devices, such as ITER, determining the choice of the plasma-facing materials. A prominent issue in this choice is the tritium inventory build-up in the vessel, which must be limited for safety reasons. The initial material selection, i.e. beryllium (Be) on the main vessel walls, tungsten (W) on the divertor upper baffle and dome, and carbon fibre composite around the strike points on the divertor plates, results both from the attempt to reduce the tritium inventory and to optimize the lifetime of the plasma-facing components. In the framework of the EU Task Force on Plasma-Wall Interaction (PWI TF), the many physics aspects governing the tritium inventory are brought together. Together with supporting information from international experts represented by the ITPA SOL/DIV section, this paper describes the present status of knowledge of the in-vessel tritium inventory build-up. Firstly, the main results from present fusion devices in this field are briefly reviewed. Then, the processes involved are discussed: implantation, trapping and diffusion in plasma-facing materials are considered as well as surface erosion and co-deposition of tritium with eroded material. The intermixing of the different materials and its influence on hydrogen retention and co-deposition is a major source of uncertainty on present estimates and is also addressed. Based on the previous considerations, estimates for the tritium inventory build-up are given for the initial choice of ITER materials, as well as for alternative options. Present estimates indicate a build-up of the tritium inventory to the administrative limit within a few hundred nominal full power D : T discharges, co-deposition with carbon being the dominant process. Therefore, tritium removal methods are also an active area of research within the EU PWI TF, and are discussed. An integrated operational scheme to slow

  1. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. ); Wells, J.E. )

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Variability of Residence Time tracer Concentrations at the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory during the California Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, A.; Thaw, M.; Stacy, E.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Bibby, R. K.; Deinhart, A.; Schorzman, K.; Egnatuk, C. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Esser, B.

    2015-12-01

    California water supply from high elevation snow melt is vulnerable to climate change and prolonged drought conditions. Reduced snow pack and earlier snow melt will result in a greater reliance on man-made reservoirs and subsurface catchment storage. To gain insight into the subsurface storage volume of high elevation catchments, we studied the residence time distribution of surface water leaving the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory. Since October 2014, we have collected monthly samples of two residence time tracers with contrasting half-lives: sulfur-35 (87.5 days) and tritium (12.32 years). Upstream catchment area at the three nested sampling locations is 1 km2 (P301 sub-catchment), 4 km2 (Providence Creek) and ~50 km2 (Big Creek). Samples were analyzed at LLNL by low level liquid scintillation counting and noble gas mass spectrometry after helium accumulation. Variations in tracer concentrations in precipitation, both for tritium (11-24 pCi/L) and sulfur-35 (24-100 mBq/L), complicate straightforward interpretation of residence times. Sulfur-35 concentrations show that last year precipitation contributes 1% - 10% of total stream flow, even during peak snowmelt. Tritium concentrations in stream flow vary between 40% and 60% of the initial concentration in precipitation (15.5 pCi/L), indicating that water leaving the catchment has a residence time on the order of years to decades. Additional analyses of sodium-22 (2.6 year half-life) will aid in deconvoluting the residence time distribution. These low tracer concentrations can be attributed to current severe drought conditions, resulting in low discharge rates and longer residence times. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675107

  3. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  4. The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. )

    1986-07-01

    The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

  5. Atomic Masses of Tritium and Helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, E. G.; Wagner, A.; Kracke, H.; Wesson, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    By measuring the cyclotron frequency ratios of 3He+ to HD+ and T+ to HD+ , and using HD+ as a mass reference, we obtain new atomic masses for 3He and T. Our results are M [3He]=3.016 029 322 43 (19 ) u and M [T ]=3.016 049 281 78 (19 ) u , where the uncertainty includes an uncertainty of 0.12 nu in the mass reference. Allowing for cancellation of common systematic errors, we find the Q value for tritium β decay to be (M [T ]-M [3He])c2=18 592.01 (7 ) eV . This allows an improved test of systematics in measurements of tritium β decay that set limits on neutrino mass.

  6. Apparatus to recover tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, William A.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering tritium from tritiated compounds is provided, including a preheater for heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. and a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide for receiving the preheated mixture. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide.

  7. Tritium waste control, October 1979-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-19

    Modifications were made to the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) pilot unit. After the SPE cell was dismantled to investigate a water circulation problem, an internal short circuit developed. Analyses were done for impurities in the CECE system; the problem appears to be a 1 to 2% oil (mostly insoluble organics) layer. A polystyrene-impregnated, tritiated-concrete waste package was prepared with 7921 Ci of tritium. The study of tritium release from representative burial packages was continued. Gas generation rates were determined for polymer and non-polymer impregnated tritiated concrete and fixated and non-fixated tritiated waste vacuum pump oil. The pressure change of hydrogen cover gas over tritiated water on cement-plaster was determined.

  8. Measurement of tritium in natural water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meifen

    1985-06-01

    A detergent-scintillation liquid mixture applied to measure low specific activity of tritium in natural water was studied. The DYS-1 low level liquid scintillation counter designed and manufactured by our institute was employed. In comparing the Triton X-100 scintillation liquid mixture with the dioxane-based-scintillation liquid, a better formula for Triton X-100 scintillation liquid mixture was determined, the mixture possesses the quality of high water content; high efficiency and low back-ground in measuring tritium in water. Chemiluminescence of the Triton X-100 scintillation liquid mixture can be totally de-excited in short time. It can be employed at ambient temperature 11 28°C. For 20ml sample in quartz vials, counting efficiency is 15% with a background 2.17 cpm, Y=31 TU (t=30 min).

  9. Regional Groundwater Processes and Flow Dynamics from Age Tracer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike K.; Matthews, Abby

    2016-04-01

    Age tracers are now used in New Zealand on regional scales for quantifying the impact and lag time of land use and climate change on the quantity and quality of available groundwater resources within the framework of the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management 2014. Age tracers provide measurable information on the dynamics of groundwater systems and reaction rates (e.g. denitrification), essential for conceptualising the regional groundwater - surface water system and informing the development of land use and groundwater flow and transport models. In the Horizons Region of New Zealand, around 200 wells have tracer data available, including tritium, SF6, CFCs, 2H, 18O, Ar, N2, CH4 and radon. Well depths range from shallower wells in gravel aquifers in the Horowhenua and Tararua districts, and deeper wells in the aquifers between Palmerston North and Wanganui. Most of the groundwater samples around and north of the Manawatu River west of the Tararua ranges are extremely old (>100 years), even from relatively shallow wells, indicating that these groundwaters are relatively disconnected from fresh surface recharge. The groundwater wells in the Horowhenua tap into a considerably younger groundwater reservoir with groundwater mean residence time (MRT) of 10 - 40 years. Groundwater along the eastern side of the Tararua and Ruahine ranges is significantly younger, typically <5 years MRT. Vertical groundwater recharge rates, as deduced from groundwater depth and MRT, are extremely low in the central coastal area, consistent with confined groundwater systems, or with upwelling of old groundwater close to the coast. Very low vertical recharge rates along the Manawatu River west of the Manawatu Gorge indicate upwelling groundwater conditions in this area, implying groundwater discharge into the river is more likely here than loss of river water into the groundwater system. High recharge rates observed at several wells in the Horowhenua area and in the area east of

  10. Corroborative studies of tritium characterization and depth profiles in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hochel, R.C.

    2000-05-05

    This report is the second by the authors on characterizing the tritium content of cement and structural concrete. The first report reviewed the literature and used several new methods to characterize tritium on the surface and through the bulk of contaminated concrete at two facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). In both cases, a relatively constant tritium concentration as a function of depth was observed, which has not been previously reported in the literature. These findings were explained as the relatively rapid transport of tritiated liquid through pores of the hydrated cement, and the exchange of tritium with hydrogen found primarily as free and bound water in the hydrated cement binder. The study reported here extended the measurement of surface and bulk tritium in concrete to three other locations at SRS. The purpose of the current study was to characterize locations whose tritium exposure histories were well documented, and to characterize a location exposed exclusively to gaseous tritium, to confirm and possibly extend the knowledge gained from the earlier study. Results of the current study corroborate the earlier findings, in that the tritium concentration was constant through the bulk when exposed to aqueous tritium, even from a single aqueous tritium exposure. Exposure to gaseous tritium, on the other hand, lead to the well-known diffusion controlled variation of tritium concentration reported in the literature. Sufficient exposure history is available to enable a semi-quantitative explanation of the magnitude and depth dependence of the tritium in both the aqueous- and gas-exposed locations. The penetration of tritium from a liquid can be described by a hydraulic flow model, and gaseous tritium permeates in a diffusive manner. The general correlation of properly measured surface tritium activity to that in the underlying bulk found in the earlier study was confirmed. However, the surface and near surface tritium

  11. Tracers for Characterizing Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karen Wright; George Redden; Carl D. Palmer; Harry Rollins; Mark Stone; Mason Harrup; Laurence C. Hull

    2010-02-01

    Information about the times of thermal breakthrough and subsequent rates of thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is necessary for reservoir management, designing fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting economic return. Thermal breakthrough in heterogeneous porous media can be estimated using conservative tracers and assumptions about heat transfer rates; however, tracers that undergo temperature-dependent changes can provide more detailed information about the thermal profile along the flow path through the reservoir. To be effectively applied, the thermal reaction rates of such temperature sensitive traces must be well characterized for the range of conditions that exist in geothermal systems. Reactive tracers proposed in the literature include benzoic and carboxylic acids (Adams) and organic esters and amides (Robinson et al.); however, the practical temperature range over which these tracers can be applied (100-275°C) is somewhat limited. Further, for organic esters and amides, little is known about their sorption to the reservoir matrix and how such reactions impact data interpretation. Another approach involves tracers where the reference condition is internal to the tracer itself. Two examples are: 1) racemization of polymeric amino acids, and 2) mineral thermoluminescence. In these cases internal ratios of states are measured rather than extents of degradation and mass loss. Racemization of poly-L-lactic acid (for example) is temperature sensitive and therefore can be used as a temperature-recording tracer depending on the rates of racemization and stability of the amino acids. Heat-induced quenching of thermoluminescence of pre-irradiated LiF can also be used. To protect the tracers from alterations (extraneous reactions, dissolution) in geothermal environments we are encapsulating the tracers in core-shell colloidal structures that will subsequently be tested for their ability to be transported and to protect the

  12. Progress report on the tritium remission simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, J. F.

    1997-05-01

    A mathematical model has been developed which computes the concentration of tritiated water reemitted into the atmosphere by surface evaporation and plant transpiration using the Penman-Monteith equation. Using these rates, and assuming a deposition velocity for tritium, a coupled set of diffusion equations are then solved which yield the concentration of tritiated water as a function of time. The model is driven by a number of environmental parameters.

  13. Tritium handling and processing experience at TSTA

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Okuno, K.

    1994-06-01

    In 1987, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) signed a collaborative agreement (Annex IV) for the joint funding and operation of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for a five year period ending June, 1992. After this initial five year collaboration, the Annex IV agreement was extended for another two year period ending June, 1994. During the first five years, a number of the integrated process loop tests of TSTA were conducted, as well as off-line testing of TSTA subsystems. During integrated loop testing the vacuum system, fuel cleanup systems, isotope separation system, transfer pumping system and gas analysis system, are interconnected and tested using 100 g-inventories of tritium to demonstrate steady-state operation of a tritium fuel processing cycle for a fusion reactor. These tests have resulted in a number of significant accomplishments and an experience data base on research, development and operation of the fuel processing system. One of the most significant accomplishments during the initial five year period was the continuous operation of the fuel processing loop for 25 days. During this 25-day extended operation, both the JAERI fuel cleanup system (J-FCU) and the original TSTA fuel cleanup system (FCU) were operated under similar conditions of flow, pressure, and impurity content of the DT gas. Both fuel cleanup systems were demonstrated to provide adequate impurity removal for plasma exhaust gas processing. The isotope separation system was operated continuously, producing pure tritium while rejecting protium as an impurity.

  14. Tritium monitoring of groundwater and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.; Aamodt, P.; Bounds, J.; Koster, J.

    1999-03-01

    There are numerous facilities, both within the US and in the rest of the world, within the complex of radiation laboratories and production plants where tritium has been released into the environment because of historic or ongoing mission-related operations. Many of environmental restoration projects have detected low levels of tritium contamination in local streams, ponds, and/or ground water. Typically these waters are moving or have the potential to move offsite and are viewed as a potential risk to the public and environment. Los Alamos National Laboratory will modify the well-proven long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique for detection of ionizing radiation to optimize a system for detecting tritium in groundwater and other surfaces. The LRAD technique relies on detection of ionized air molecules rather than direct detection of ionizing radiation. The detected electrical current is proportional to the number of ionized air molecules present, which is in turn a measure of the amount of contamination present. Although this technique has been used commercially to measure alpha contamination on objects and surfaces, the technique is also ideal for monitoring low-energy beta particles. The authors have demonstrated beta detection using {sup 54}Mn, {sup 14}C, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 36}Cl sources. Thus, the detector technology and detection of beta particles using this technology have both been demonstrated. The extreme short range of tritium beta particles necessitates an optimization of the detector system. In this paper, the authors will discuss these new designs.

  15. Tritium and tritons in cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.L.; Whitesell, L.; Jabs, H.; Shoemaker, J. )

    1991-05-10

    An analysis is conducted on reports of tritium production and of charged-particle emission from deuterated palladium and titanium. Possible sources of error are outline and the lack of definitive experiments is discussed. Extensive sets of experiments are reported in which two previously reported results are checked in detail. A search for charged-particle emission was conducted on deuterated titanium and 6{minus}6{minus}2 titanium alloy that was subjected to cryogenic cycling. Two delta E-E silicon telescopes were used to count 42 samples for 3--4 cycles each from 84K to room temperature. No charge-one particles were detected and alpha particle yields of a few counters per day corresponded to background levels. A search for tritium production from 1 mm diameter palladium wire was conducted on 130 electrolytic cells in D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O, and in 250 metal samples. Several samples associated with one lot of palladium stock showed latent tritium levels well above background. No evidence was obtained for the occurrence of nuclear reactions in the electrolytic cells.

  16. Recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, William A.

    1987-01-01

    A method of recovering tritium from tritiated compounds comprises the steps of heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds in a preheater to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. The mixture is injected into a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide. The injected mixture undergoes highly exothermic reactions with the uranium causing reaction temperatures to occur in excess of the melting point of uranium, and complete decomposition of the tritiated compounds to remove tritium therefrom. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. Apparatus used to carry out the method of the invention is also disclosed.

  17. Tritium and tritons in cold fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, K. L.; Whitesell, L.; Jabs, H.; Shoemaker, J.

    1991-05-01

    An analysis is conducted on reports of tritium production and of charged-particle emission from deuterated palladium and titanium. Possible sources of error are outline and the lack of definitive experiments is discussed. Extensive sets of experiments are reported in which two previously reported results are checked in detail. A search for charged-particle emission was conducted on deuterated titanium and 6-6-2 titanium alloy that was subjected to cryogenic cycling. Two delta E-E silicon telescopes were used to count 42 samples for 3-4 cycles each from 84K to room temperature. No charge-one particles were detected and alpha particle yields of a few counters per day corresponded to background levels. A search for tritium production from 1 mm diameter palladium wire was conducted on 130 electrolytic cells in D2O and H2O, and in 250 metal samples. Several samples associated with one lot of palladium stock showed latent tritium levels well above background. No evidence was obtained for the occurrence of nuclear reactions in the electrolytic cells.

  18. Tritium monitoring system for near ambient measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.G.; Bauer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of research on an improved tritium measurement system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Navy. Present tritium-in-air monitoring systems installed by the Navy can reliably measure to less than 10 {mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, but medical and safety issues are pushing measurement needs to below 1 {mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, which is equivalent to 1--10 nCi/ml in liquid samples, using calcium metal converter. A significant effort has been expended over the past 10 years by the Navy RADIAC Development Program at ORNL on various schemes to improve the detection of tritium in both air and liquid at near ambient levels. One such scheme includes a liquid flow-through system based on an NE102 sponge scintillator with dual photomultiplier tubes for the tube noise rejection. (This document also contains copies of the slides used for presentation of this paper to the IEEE 1991 Nuclear Science Symposium). 4 refs., 17 figs.

  19. Optimization of simultaneous tritium-radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference.

  20. Moving to atomic tritium for neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazkaz, Kareem; Project8 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    For direct measurements of the neutrino mass, the tritium-based experiments Mainz and Troitsk have provided the most sensitive measurements to date, with upper limits near 2200 meV. The KATRIN experiment, beginning its first science run in 2016, also uses tritium as its source and has an anticipated ultimate sensitivity of 200 meV. The largest single systematic effect limiting the mass sensitivity beyond KATRIN is the energy sharing between the emitted beta particle and the resulting T-3He molecule. It therefore behooves all future tritium-based experiments to use atomic, rather than molecular, tritium. In this presentation we will outline experimental considerations of atomic tritium: production, purification, inhibiting recombination, and cooling. We will discuss these considerations within the context of Project8, a tritium-based, cyclotron radiation emission spectroscopy neutrino mass measurement with an ultimate target sensitivity of 50 meV. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Measurements of tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Kamperschroer, J.

    1996-05-01

    Recent experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have afforded an opportunity to measure the retention of tritium in a graphite limiter that is subject to erosion, codeposition and high neutron flux. The tritium was injected by both gas puff and neutral beams. The isotopic mix of hydrogenic recycling was measured spectroscopically and the tritium fraction T/(H+D+T) increased to as high as 75%. Some tritium was pumped out during the experimental run and some removed in a subsequent campaign using various clean-up techniques. While the short term retention of tritium was high, various conditioning techniques were successful in removing {approx} 8,000 Ci and restoring the tritium inventory to a level well below the administrative limit.

  2. Tritium test of a ferro-fluidic rotary seal

    SciTech Connect

    Antipenkov, A.; Day, C.; Adami, H. D.

    2008-07-15

    The ferro-fluidic seal is being investigated as an internal rotary seal for tritium compatible mechanical roots type vacuum pumps. After its successful testing with helium and integration into a small (250 m{sup 3}/h) test roots pump, the seal, made as a cartridge, has been integrated into a special test unit and is currently being tested with tritium in order to define the leak rates and the possible degradation of the ferro-fluid under long term exposure to tritium radiation. The tritium pressure from one side of the seal is 0.125 MPa, the nitrogen pressure from the other side is 0.075 MPa, the rotation speed is maintained at 1500 rpm. The tritium leak through the cartridge contributes to the tritium concentration in the nitrogen, which is continuously measured by an ionisation chamber; the pressure in both chambers is continuously registered by precise pressure gauges. The experimental program is discussed. (authors)

  3. Time series of tritium, stable isotopes and chloride reveal short-term variations in groundwater contribution to a stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvert, C.; Stewart, M. K.; Cendón, D. I.; Raiber, M.

    2016-01-01

    A major limitation to the assessment of catchment transit time (TT) stems from the use of stable isotopes or chloride as hydrological tracers, because these tracers are blind to older contributions. Yet, accurately capturing the TT of the old water fraction is essential, as is the assessment of its temporal variations under non-stationary catchment dynamics. In this study we used lumped convolution models to examine time series of tritium, stable isotopes and chloride in rainfall, streamwater and groundwater of a catchment located in subtropical Australia. Our objectives were to determine the different contributions to streamflow and their variations over time, and to understand the relationship between catchment TT and groundwater residence time. Stable isotopes and chloride provided consistent estimates of TT in the upstream part of the catchment. A young component to streamflow was identified that was partitioned into quickflow (mean TT ≈ 2 weeks) and discharge from the fractured igneous rocks forming the headwaters (mean TT ≈ 0.3 years). The use of tritium was beneficial for determining an older contribution to streamflow in the downstream area. The best fits between measured and modelled tritium activities were obtained for a mean TT of 16-25 years for this older groundwater component. This was significantly lower than the residence time calculated for groundwater in the alluvial aquifer feeding the stream downstream ( ≈ 76-102 years), emphasising the fact that water exiting the catchment and water stored in it had distinctive age distributions. When simulations were run separately on each tritium streamwater sample, the TT of old water fraction varied substantially over time, with values averaging 17 ± 6 years at low flow and 38 ± 15 years after major recharge events. This counterintuitive result was interpreted as the flushing out of deeper, older waters shortly after recharge by the resulting pressure wave propagation. Overall, this study shows the

  4. Measurement of tritium permeation through resistant materials near room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J.; DuVal, V.; McMurphy, F.; Uribe, F.; Musket, R.; Brown, D.

    1985-01-01

    To measure tritium permeation through low-permeability materials at 50 to 170/sup 0/C, we use highly-sensitive liquid scintillation counting to detect the permeating tritium. To validate our method, we conducted extensive experiments with copper, for which much data exists for comparison. We report permeability of tritium through copper at 50, 100, and 170/sup 0/C, and discuss details of the experimental technique. Further plans are outlined. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Tritium systems for the tokamak fusion core experiment, TFCX

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium systems, tritium needs and possible tritium release scenarios were assessed for a TFCX class of device, 250 MW, 2 x 10/sup 5/ s of burn, with burn times from 20 s to 300 s. On-site and off-site, continuous and batch processing modes were considered. A reference case, batch processing was developed which fulfills the requirements for plasma physics experiments.

  6. Tritium Loading of Pinellas U-Bed No. 874

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K.L.

    1999-09-15

    The DOE-Richland Office has requested WSRC to supply PNNL with a Pinellas U-bed loaded with tritium for permeation experiments. It is desired to have less than 1000 Ci tritium in the bed to allow shipping without excessive packaging requirements. Pinellas U-Bed No. 874 was loaded with approximately 955 Ci of 98 percent purity tritium on the ETM manifold in the Materials Test Facility in Building 232-H.

  7. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium-recovery results

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.; Misra, B.; Arons, R.M.; Poeppel, R.B.; Dyer, F.F.; Dudley, I.T.; Bate, L.C.; Clemmer, E.D.

    1983-08-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery from ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ with test conditions chosen to simulate those anticipated in fusion power reactors. A status report is presented which describes qualitatively the results observed during the irradiation phase of the experiment. Both the rate of tritium release and the chemical forms of tritium were measured using a helium sweep gas which flowed past the breeder material to a gas analysis system.

  8. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium recovery results

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.; Misra, B.; Arons, R.M.; Poeppel, R.B.; Dyer, F.F.; Dudley, I.T.; Bate, L.C.; Clemmer, E.D.

    1983-10-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery from ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ with test conditions chosen to simulate those anticipated in fusion power reactors. A status report is presented which describes qualitatively the results observed during the irradiation phase of the experiment. Both the rate of tritium release and the chemical forms of tritium were measured using a helium sweep gas which flowed past the breeder material to a gas analysis system.

  9. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium recovery results

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.; Misra, B.; Greenwood, L.R.; Dyer, F.F.; Dudley, I.T.; Bate, L.C.; Clemmer, E.D.; Fisher, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment was designed to test in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a candidate solid breeder, ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/. The results showed that nearly all the tritium generated was recovered. Only < 0.1 wppM tritium remained in the solid after irradiation testing. The heat transfer performance showed that temperature profiles can be effectively controlled.

  10. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Cumba, Ricardo J.; Vazquez-Botet, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. PMID:26421203

  11. Natal tooth associated with fibrous hyperplasia - a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Harsimran Singh; Munjal, Deepti; Dhingra, Renuka; Malik, Narender Singh; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Eruption of tooth at about 6 months of age is a significant stage in child's life and is an emotional event for parents. However, a tooth present in the oral cavity of newborn can lead to a lot of delusions. Natal and neonatal teeth are of utmost importance not only for a dentist but also for a paediatrician due to parent's anxiety, folklore superstitions and numerous associated complications with it. This paper reports a rare case, wherein a natal tooth has led to the development of a reactive fibrous hyperplasia in an 8-week-old infant. PMID:26023656

  12. The next 150 years of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Turcu, Adina F; Auchus, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH) are a group of autosomal recessive defects in cortisol biosynthesis. Substantial progress has been made since the description of the first report, 150 years ago. This article reviews some of the recent advances in the genetics, diagnosis and treatment of CAH. In addition, we underline the aspects where further progress is required, including, among others, better diagnostic modalities for the mild phenotype and for some of the rare forms of disease, elucidation of epigenetic factors that lead to different phenotypes in patients with identical genotype and expending on treatment options for controlling the adrenal androgen excess. PMID:26047556

  13. A huge benign prostatic hyperplasia presenting with renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Basatac, Cem; Cicek, Mehmet Cagatay

    2015-01-01

    Although transurethral resection of the prostate is still standard of care in many patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia, traditional open prostatectomy (OP) seems as a widely applied method in larger glands. In spite of the fact that holmium laser enucleation can be performed in large glands, upper limits of prostate size in this method are not clearly identified in the current literature. In this case, we aim to report feasibility and efficacy of OP in huge prostate size measured as 680 ml by transrectal ultrasound and review the current literature. PMID:26034239

  14. The Next 150 Years of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasias (CAH) are a group of autosomal recessive defects in cortisol biosynthesis. Substantial progress has been made since the description of the first report, 150 years ago. This article reviews some of the recent advances in the genetics, diagnosis and treatment of CAH. In addition, we underline the aspects where further progress is required, including, among others, better diagnostic modalities for the mild phenotype and for some of the rare forms of disease, elucidation of epigenetic factors that lead to different phenotypes in patients with identical genotype and expending on treatment options for controlling the adrenal androgen excess. PMID:26047556

  15. Distribution of insulin-like growth factors in condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Götz, Werner; Lehmann, Tim Sebastian; Appel, Thorsten Robin; Rath-Deschner, Birgit; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Luder, Hans-Ulrich; Reich, Rudolf H; Jäger, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a local overgrowth of the condylar process of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of unknown etiology. Probably, growth factors like the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are involved in its pathogenesis. Specimens from 12 patients were investigated histologically and immunohistochemically to obtain the distribution of the IGFs-I and -II and the IGF1 receptor. The results revealed juvenile and adult subtypes. While generally IGF-II could only be detected weakly, in the juvenile cases strong immunostaining for IGF-I in cartilage and bone supposes an influence on pathological growth processes. PMID:17695990

  16. USING TRACERS TO DESCRIBE NAPL HETEROGENEITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tracers are frequently used to estimate both the average travel time for water flow through the tracer swept volume and NAPL saturation. The same data can be used to develop a statistical distribution describing the hydraulic conductivity in the sept volume and a possible distri...

  17. Mobile Measurement of an Atmospheric Tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Milham, R.C.

    2001-03-09

    This paper describes a mobile analyzer for sulfur hexafluoride, an atmospheric tracer. A commercial instrument is used on-board a moving vehicle to measure tracer concentrations in the parts per trillion (ppt) range. This instrument provides rapid, in-the-field data at minimum cost.

  18. CROSS-APPALACHIAN TRACER EXPERIMENT (CAPTEX '83)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists in the United States and Canada have collaborated on the Cross-Appalachian Tracer Experiment (CAPTEX '83) using the perfluorocarbon tracer to simulate the long-range transport of pollutants in the atmosphere. The experiments, conducted in September and October of 1983 ...

  19. Modelling of the anthropogenic tritium transient and its decay product helium-3 in the Mediterranean Sea using a high-resolution regional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayache, M.; Dutay, J.-C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Beranger, K.; Arsouze, T.; Beuvier, J.; Palmieri, J.; Le-vu, B.; Roether, W.

    2014-12-01

    This numerical study provides the first simulation of the anthropogenic tritium invasion and its decay product helium-3 (3He) in the Mediterranean Sea. The simulation covers the entire tritium (3H) transient generated by the atmospheric nuclear-weapon tests performed in the 1950s and early 1960s and run till 2011. Tritium, helium-3 and their derived age estimates are particularly suitable for studying intermediate and deep-water ventilation and spreading of water masses at intermediate/deep levels. The simulation is made using a high resolution regional model NEMO-MED12 forced at the surface with prescribed tritium evolution derived from observations. The simulation is compared to measurements of tritium and helium-3 performed along large-scale transects in the Mediterranean Sea during the last few decades on cruises of Meteor M5/6, M31/1, M44/4, M51/2, M84/3, and Poseidon 234. The results show that the input function used for the tritium, generates a realistic distribution of the main hydrographic features of the Mediterranean Sea circulation. In the eastern basin, the results highlight the weak formation of Adriatic Deep Water in the model, which explains its weak contribution to the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water in the Ionian sub-basin. It produces a realistic representation of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient signal, simulating a deep-water formation in the Aegean sub-basin at the beginning of the 1993, with a realistic timing of deep-water renewal in the eastern basin. In the western basin, the unusual intense deep convection event of winter 2005 in the Gulf of Lions during the Western Mediterranean Transition is simulated. However the spreading of the recently ventilated deep water toward the South is too weak. The ventilation and spreading of the Levantine Intermediate Water from the eastern basin toward the western basin is simulated with realistic tracer-age distribution compared to observation-based estimates.

  20. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector results

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Fehling, D.T.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L. )

    1989-01-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the feasibility of forming solid tritium pellets and accelerating them to high velocities for fueling future fusion reactors. TPOP used a pneumatic pipe-gun with a 4-mm-i.d. by 1-m-long barrel. Nearly 1500 pellets were fired by the gun during the course of the experiment; about a third of these were tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. The system also contained a cryogenic {sup 3}He separator that reduced the {sup 3}He level to <0.005%. Pure tritium pellets were accelerated to 1400 m/s. Experiments evaluated the effect of cryostat temperature and fill pressure on pellet size, the production of pellets from mixtures of tritium and deuterium, and the effect of aging on pellet integrity. The tritium phase of these experiments was performed at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. About 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the apparatus without incident. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots; Hans A. Schmutz

    2013-03-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  2. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Gentile; S.W. Langish; C.H. Skinner; L.P. Ciebiera

    2004-09-10

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination.

  3. Tritium release from SS316 under vacuum condition

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, Y.; Penzhorn, R.D.

    2015-03-15

    The plasma facing surface of the ITER vacuum vessel, partly made of low carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L, will incorporate tritium during machine operation. In this paper the kinetics of tritium release from stainless steel type 316 into vacuum and into a noble gas stream are compared and modelled. Type 316 stainless steel specimens loaded with tritium either by exposure to 1.2 kPa HT at 573 K or submersion into liquid HTO at 298 K showed characteristic thin surface layers trapping tritium in concentrations far higher than those determined in the bulk. The evolution of the tritium depth profile in the bulk during heating under vacuum was non-discernible from that of tritium liberated into a stream of argon. Only the relative amount of the two released tritium-species, i.e. HT or HTO, was different. Temperature-dependent depth profiles could be predicted with a one-dimensional diffusion model. Diffusion coefficients derived from fitting of the tritium release into an evacuated vessel or a stream of argon were found to be (1.4 ± 1.0)*10{sup -7} and (1.3 ± 0.9)*10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/s at 573 and 423 K, respectively. Polished surfaces on type SS316 stainless steel inhibit considerably the thermal release rate of tritium.

  4. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  5. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-10-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  6. 2012 ACCOMPLISHMENTS - TRITIUM AGING STUDIES ON STAINLESS STEELS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.

    2013-01-31

    This report summarizes the research and development accomplishments during FY12 for the tritium effects on materials program. The tritium effects on materials program is designed to measure the long-term effects of tritium and its radioactive decay product, helium-3, on the structural properties of forged stainless steels which are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. The FY12 R&D accomplishments include: (1) Fabricated and Thermally-Charged 150 Forged Stainless Steel Samples with Tritium for Future Aging Studies; (2) Developed an Experimental Plan for Measuring Cracking Thresholds of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Steels in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas; (3) Calculated Sample Tritium Contents For Laboratory Inventory Requirements and Environmental Release Estimates; (4) Published report on “Cracking Thresholds and Fracture Toughness Properties of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Stainless Steels”; and, (5) Published report on “The Effects of Hydrogen, Tritium, and Heat Treatment on the Deformation and Fracture Toughness Properties of Stainless Steels”. These accomplishments are highlighted here and references given to additional reports for more detailed information.

  7. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON EPDM ELASTOMER

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.

    2009-12-11

    Samples of four formulations of ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomer were exposed to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere and ambient temperature for various times up to about 420 days in closed containers. Two formulations were carbon-black-filled commercial formulations, and two were the equivalent formulations without filler synthesized for this work. Tritium effects on the samples were characterized by measuring the sample volume, mass, flexibility, and dynamic mechanical properties and by noting changes in appearance. The glass transition temperature was determined by analysis of the dynamic mechanical properties. The glass transition temperature increased significantly with tritium exposure, and the unfilled formulations ceased to behave as elastomers after the longest tritium exposure. The filled formulations were more resistant to tritium exposure. Tritium exposure made all samples significantly stiffer and therefore much less able to form a reliable seal when employed as O-rings. No consistent change of volume or density was observed; there was a systematic lowering of sample mass with tritium exposure. In addition, the significant radiolytic production of gas, mainly protium (H{sub 2}) and HT, by the samples when exposed to tritium was characterized by measuring total pressure in the container at the end of each exposure and by mass spectroscopy of a gas sample at the end of each exposure. The total pressure in the containers more than doubled after {approx}420 days tritium exposure.

  8. Considerations for tritium protection at a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to indicate the general direction of current fusion reactor concepts regarding tritium, and to indicate some options in tritium control strategies. Certain strategies, in addition to providing reduced potential health hazard, afford the potential for engineering alternatives for in-plant tritium control systems. The overall coupling of containment cleanup systems and health protection must continue to develop with increased knowledge of the health effects of different tritium species and the consequent systems options available subsequent to this understanding.

  9. Tritium-handling considerations for ETF and STARFIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Clemmer, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The tritium handling requirements for both the ETF and the STARFIRE fusion reactor designs are analyzed. The use of a limiter/vacuum system for STARFIRE produced a high fractional burnup (0.42) which resulted in a low tritium inventory in the fueling system. The importance of a fast process flow rate is achieving a rapid cleanup after a tritium release is demonstrated; another important factor is the rate at which HTO is released from building surfaces. A complete fusion reactor tritium facility is described.

  10. Tritium release during nuclear power operation in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, D J; Chen, X Q; Li, B

    2012-06-01

    Overviews were evaluated of tritium releases and related doses to the public from airborne and liquid effluents from nuclear power plants on the mainland of China before 2009. The differences between tritium releases from various nuclear power plants were also evaluated. The tritium releases are mainly from liquid pathways for pressurised water reactors, but tritium releases between airborne and liquid effluents are comparable for heavy water reactors. The airborne release from a heavy water reactor is obviously higher than that from a pressurised water reactor. PMID:22562963

  11. Analysis of residual tritium in an LP 50 product container

    SciTech Connect

    Wermer, J.R.

    1996-06-04

    The analysis was done by sampling coupons cut from the side of the vessel. Tests were performed to analyze the amount of residual tritium in the container wall, as well as the amount of tritium removed through exposure to moist air. Based on this data, the PC contained 62 curies of residual tritium. Air exposure and leaching of the coupons in aqua regia accounted for 27 curies. Recommendations are given for final processing of these containers in order to reduce the final tritium content.

  12. Database dictionary for the results of groundwater tracer tests using tritiated water, conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, B.K.; Huff, D.D.

    1997-05-01

    In 1977, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted two tracer tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using tritiated water to study the relative importance of bedding-plane openings on shallow groundwater flow. Through a cooperative agreement between the USGS and the US Department of Energy (DOE), the data were made available to researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), who organized the data into a data management format. The results of these groundwater tracer tests have been compiled into a collection of four SAS data sets. This report documents these SAS data sets, including their structure, methodology, and content. The SAS data sets include information on precipitation, tritium, water levels, and well construction for wells at or near ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds 4, 5, and 6.

  13. Using Multiple Environmental Age Tracers to Investigate Interactions between Hydrothermal and Shallow Local Systems in the Norris Geyser Basin Area, Yellowstone National Park.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, P.; Susong, D.; Solomon, D. K.; Heasler, H.

    2008-12-01

    Multiple age tracers are used to constrain the evolution of groundwater and interactions between shallow local flow and the hydrothermal system in the area surrounding Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park. Springs, ranging in temperature from 4°C - 92°C, were sample for dissolved chloroflourocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) concentrations and tritium concentrations. Sample springs had a wide distribution of elevations, aspects, and volcanic deposits. CFC concentrations indicate a short (< 50 years) mean residence time for the shallow, cool-water system that circulates through the rhyolite and tuff flows adjacent to the geyser basin. Mixing processes and gas phase stripping can be assessed using the three different time dependent input curves for CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113. Comparison of CFC and tritium concentrations provides verification of CFC ages and is an additional measure of mixing processes. All cool samples (0-20°C) contain CFC's and tritium, and indicate little to no mixing of pre-modern waters, with a mean CFC age of ~ 40 years. The relative concentrations of CFC's and tritium reveal mixing processes in the warm and thermal waters. Springs warmer than 20°C show increased mixing of pre-modern water with increasing temperature. Thermal waters (50 - 90°C) are well described by a binary mixing model of modern and pre-modern waters with minimum pre-modern fractions of .75 to .9. The use of multiple age tracers allows for interpretation of different age stratification and mixing models, and provides insight into other processes affecting the groundwater system such as phase distribution and boiling. Age tracers allow for the integrated study of the hydrothermal and local groundwater systems in the Norris Geyser Basin area and help constrain interactions between the two using non-invasive techniques.

  14. Maternal Obesity, Cage Density, and Age Contribute to Prostate Hyperplasia in Mice.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Emily C; Gill, Jeff; Lamb, Laura E; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-02-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors is gravely needed to prevent adverse prostate health outcomes. We previously developed a murine precancer model in which exposure to maternal obesity stimulated prostate hyperplasia in offspring. Here, we used generalized linear modeling to evaluate the influence of additional environmental covariates on prostate hyperplasia. As expected from our previous work, the model revealed that aging and maternal diet-induced obesity (DIO) each correlated with prostate hyperplasia. However, prostate hyperplasia was not correlated with the length of maternal DIO. Cage density positively associated with both prostate hyperplasia and offspring body weight. Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in prostates also positively correlated with cage density and negatively correlated with age of the animal. Together, these findings suggest that prostate tissue was adversely patterned during early life by maternal overnutrition and was susceptible to alteration by environmental factors such as cage density. Additionally, prostate hyperplasia may be acutely influenced by exposure to DIO, rather than occurring as a response to worsening obesity and comorbidities experienced by the mother. Finally, cage density correlated with both corticosteroid receptor abundance and prostate hyperplasia, suggesting that overcrowding influenced offspring prostate hyperplasia. These results emphasize the need for multivariate regression models to evaluate the influence of coordinated variables in complicated animal systems. PMID:26243546

  15. Amyloidaceous ulcerated gingival hyperplasia: a newly described entity related to ligneous conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Gokbuget, A Y; Mutlu, S; Scully, C; Efeoglu, A; Porter, S R; Speight, P; Erseven, G; Karacorlu, M

    1997-02-01

    Gingival hyperplasia may be genetic, may be acquired as a consequence of exposure to drugs and other agents or may appear as part of a more widespread disorder. Five patients who acquired gingival hyperplasia due to amyloidaceous deposits staining only for fibrin are presented. This appears to be a new entity related to ligneous conjunctivitis. PMID:9049911

  16. Altered catecholamine receptor affinity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, M.K.; Cotecchia, S.; Hagen, P.O. )

    1991-08-01

    Intimal thickening is a universal response to endothelial denudation and is also thought to be a precursor of atherosclerosis. The authors have demonstrated selective supersensitivity in arterial intimal hyperplasia to norepinephrine and they now report a possible mechanism for this. Binding studies in rabbit aorta with the selective alpha 1-adrenergic radioligand 125I-HEAT demonstrated that there was no change in receptor density (20 {plus minus} 4 fmole/10(6) cells) in intact vascular smooth muscle cells at either 5 or 14 days after denudation. However, competition studies showed a 2.6-fold increase in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor affinity for norepinephrine in intimal hyperplastic tissue (P less than 0.05). This increased affinity for norepinephrine was associated with a greater increase in 32P-labeled phosphatidylinositol (148% intimal thickening versus 76% control) and phosphatidic acid (151% intimal thickening versus 56% control) following norepinephrine stimulation of free floating rings of intimal hyperplastic aorta. These data suggest that the catecholamine supersensitivity in rabbit aortic intimal hyperplasia is receptor mediated and may be linked to the phosphatidylinositol cycle.

  17. Epicardial-Derived Adrenomedullin Drives Cardiac Hyperplasia During Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel-Strong, Sarah E.; Li, Manyu; Klein, Klara R.; Nishikimi, Toshio; Caron, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Growth promoting signals from the epicardium are essential for driving myocardial proliferation during embryogenesis. In adults, these signals become reactivated following injury and promote angiogenesis and myocardial repair. Therefore, identification of such paracrine factors could lead to novel therapeutic strategies. The multi-functional peptide adrenomedullin (Adm = gene, AM = protein) is required for normal heart development. Moreover, elevated plasma AM following myocardial infarction offers beneficial cardioprotection and serves as a powerful diagnostic and prognostic indication of disease severity. Results Here, we developed a new model of Adm overexpression by stabilizing the Adm mRNA through gene-targeted replacement of the endogenous 3′ untranslated region. As expected, Admhi/hi mice express three-times more AM than controls in multiple tissues, including the heart. Despite normal blood pressures, Admhi/hi mice unexpectedly showed significantly enlarged hearts due to increased cardiac hyperplasia during development. The targeting vector was designed to allow for reversion to wild-type levels by means of Cre-mediated modification. Using this approach, we demonstrate that AM derived from the epicardium, but not the myocardium or cardiac fibroblast, is responsible for driving cardiomyocyte hyperplasia. Conclusions AM is produced by the epicardium and drives myocyte proliferation during development, thus representing a novel and clinically relevant factor potentially related to mechanisms of cardiac repair after injury. PMID:24123312

  18. Lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphoma in KSHV K1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Berkova, Zuzana; Wang, Shu; Sehgal, Lalit; Patel, Keyur Pravinchandra; Prakash, Om; Samaniego, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Growing evidence supports the involvement of human herpervirus 8, Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), in the pathology of primary effusion lymphoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and Kaposi's sarcoma, but the exact mechanism of KSHV contribution to the oncogenic process remains elusive. We studied transgenic mice expressing the ORF K1 of KSHV, whose position in the KSHV genome corresponds to known lymphoproliferative genes of other herpesviruses. K1 protein was previously shown to contain a constitutively active ITAM domain, involved in activation of Akt and pro-survival signaling, and to inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis by interfering with binding of FasL. All this pointed to a possible role of K1 in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated cancers. K1 transgenic mice (80-90%) developed lymphoid hyperplasia and splenomegaly at 8 and 10 months of age, 25% had confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma, and 50% developed abdominal and/or hepatic tumors by 18 months of age. Histological examination showed loss of splenic architecture and increased cellularity. Lymph nodes showed disrupted architecture with effaced follicles and other pathological changes, including signs of angiofollicular lymphoid hyperplasia. One of the livers showed signs of angiosarcoma. In summary, our histology results revealed pathological changes in K1 transgenic mice similar to lymphoma, Castleman's disease, and angiosarcoma, suggesting that K1 may contribute to the development of KSHV-associated cancers. PMID:25301266

  19. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Kim, Hyung Ji

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  20. Thymus hyperplasia, differential diagnosis in the wheezing infant.

    PubMed

    Pedroza Meléndez, A; Larenas-Linnemann, D

    1997-01-01

    Thymus hyperplasia is not a rare condition in infancy, but it is generally considered not to cause any symptoms. We present here a series of 11 children seen at the National Institute of Pediatrics (NIP), Mexico-city, that do have respiratory symptoms secondary to the enlarged gland. Age of onset of the symptoms was median at birth, with age of first visit to the NIP of 6 months. Symptoms were respiratory crisis and various respiratory complaints. Five underwent thoracotomy and resection of the right pulmonary lobe was necessary in one, because of irreversible changes in the lung tissue due to chronic compression. In another patient thymic lobectomy was executed because extrinsic compression of the right upper bronchus resulted in recurrent atelectasia. The five biopsies taken during the intervention showed normal or hyperplastic or involutive thymic tissue without signs of malignancy. The evolution was positive in all the patients. In conclusion thymic hyperplasia must be taken into account in the evaluation of an infant with respiratory symptoms. PMID:9150833

  1. Pathophysiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in the Aging Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Nearly all men will develop histological benign prostatic hyperplasia by the age of 80, but the degree of prostatic enlargement resulting from the hyperplasia is highly variable. Historically, it has often been assumed that the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men is the result of bladder outlet obstruction associated with prostatic enlargement. The observation that prostatic enlargement, bladder outlet obstruction, and LUTS are all age-dependent has been interpreted to indicate that these phenomena were causally related, but there is insufficient evidence for this. Undoubtedly, some men' prostatic enlargement causes obstruction and symptoms. Based upon the available data, however, this subset appears to be extremely small. Because of the many urological and nonurological conditions that cause LUTS and age-dependent changes in bladder and neurological function, it is unlikely that there exists a single dominant etiology for the aging male population. If this is the case, then the optimal management of LUTS will require different and possibly combination therapies. PMID:16986052

  2. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  3. Fermented Dairy Products Modulate Citrobacter rodentium–Induced Colonic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James W.; Chervaux, Christian; Raymond, Benoit; Derrien, Muriel; Brazeilles, Rémi; Kosta, Artemis; Chambaud, Isabelle; Crepin, Valerie F.; Frankel, Gad

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of fermented dairy products (FDPs) in an infection model, using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Treatment of mice with FDP formulas A, B, and C or a control product did not affect CR colonization, organ specificity, or attaching and effacing lesion formation. Fermented dairy product A (FDP-A), but neither the supernatant from FDP-A nor β-irradiated (IR) FDP-A, caused a significant reduction in colonic crypt hyperplasia and CR-associated pathology. Profiling the gut microbiota revealed that IR-FDP-A promoted higher levels of phylotypes belonging to Alcaligenaceae and a decrease in Lachnospiraceae (Ruminococcus) during CR infection. Conversely, FDP-A prevented a decrease in Ruminococcus and increased Turicibacteraceae (Turicibacter). Importantly, loss of Ruminococcus and Turicibacter has been associated with susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that viable bacteria in FDP-A reduced CR-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and prevented the loss of key bacterial genera that may contribute to disease pathology. PMID:24706936

  4. Analysis of colloid and tracer breakthrough curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindrod, Peter; Edwards, Mark S.; Higgo, Jenny J. W.; Williams, Geoffrey M.

    1996-02-01

    We consider the dispersion and elution of colloids and dissolved nonsorbing tracers within saturated heterogeneous porous media. Since flow path geometry in natural systems is often ill-characterized macroscopic (mean) flow rates and dispersion tensors are utilized in order to account for the sub-model scale microscopic fluctuations in media structure (and the consequent hydrodynamic profile). Even for tracer migration and dispersal this issue is far from settled. Here we consider how colloid and tracer migration phenomena can be treated consistently. Theoretical calculations for model flow geometries yield two quantitative predictions for the transport of free (not yet captured) colloids with reference to a non-sorbing dissolved tracer within the same medium: the average migration velocity of the free colloids is higher than that of the tracer; and that the ratio of the equivalent hydrodynamic dispersion rates of colloids and tracer is dependent only upon properties of the colloids and the porous medium, it is independent of pathlengths and fluid flux, once length scales are large enough. The first of these is well known, since even in simple flow paths free colloids must stay more centre stream. The second, if validated suggests how solute and colloid dispersion may be dealt with consistently in macroscopic migration models. This is crucial since dispersion is usually ill-characterized and unaddressed by the experimental literature. In this paper we present evidence based upon an existing Drigg field injection test for the validity of these predictions. We show that starting from experimental data the fitted dispersion rates of both colloids and non-sorbing tracers increase with the measured elution rates (obeying slightly different rules for tracers and colloids); and that the ratio of colloid and nonsorbing tracer elution rates, and the ratio of colloid and nonsorbing tracer dispersion rates may be dependent upon properties of the colloids and the medium (not

  5. Residence times and age distributions of spring waters at the Semmering catchment area, Eastern Austria, as inferred from tritium, CFCs and stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Han, Liangfeng; Hacker, Peter; Gröning, Manfred

    2007-03-01

    The groundwater system in the mountainous area of Semmering, Austria, was studied by environmental tracers in several karst springs. The tracers used included stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), tritium ((3)H) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The tracers provided valuable information in regard to (1) the mean altitude of the spring catchment areas; (2) the residence time and age distribution of the spring waters; and (3) the interconnection of the springs to a sinkhole. The combination of the stable isotopic data and the topography/geology provided the estimates of the mean altitudes of the catchment areas. Based on the stable isotopic data the recharge temperature of the spring waters was estimated. The smoothing of precipitation's isotopic signal in spring discharge provided information on the minimum transit time of the spring waters. Due to short observation time, (3)H data alone cannot be used for describing the mean residence time of the karst waters. CFCs, though useful in recognizing the co-existence of young (post-1993) water with old (CFC-free) water, could not be used to resolve age distribution models. It is shown in this article, however, that the combined use of tritium and CFCs can provide a better assessment of models to account for different groundwater age distributions. In Appendix A, a simplified method for collecting groundwater samples for the analysis of CFCs is described. The method provides a real facilitation for fieldwork. Test data are given for this sampling method in regard to potential contamination by atmospheric CFCs. PMID:17454271

  6. Tracer motion in an active dumbbell fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suma, Antonio; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.; Gonnella, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    The diffusion properties of spherical tracers coupled through a repulsive potential to a system of active dumbbells are analyzed. We model the dumbbells’ dynamics with Langevin equations and the activity with a self-propulsive force of constant magnitude directed along the main axis of the molecules. Two types of tracers are considered. Thermal tracers are coupled to the same bath as the dumbbells while athermal tracers are not; both interact repulsively with the dumbbells. We focus our attention on the intruders’ mean square displacement and how it compares to the one of the dumbbells. We show that the dynamics of thermal intruders, with mass similar to the one of the dumbbells, display the typical four time-lag regimes of the dumbbells’ mean square displacement. The thermal tracers’ late-time diffusion coefficient depends on their mass very weakly and it is close to the one of the dumbbells at low Péclet only. Athermal tracers only have ballistic and late-time diffusive regimes. The late time diffusion coefficients of athermal tracers and dumbbells have similar values at high Péclet number when their masses are of the same order, while at low Péclet number this coefficient gets close to the one of the dumbbells only when the tracers are several order of magnitude heavier than the dumbbells. We propose a generalization of the Enskog law for dilute hard disks, that describes the athermal tracers’ mean square displacement in the form of a scaling law in terms of their mass.

  7. Tracer design for magnetic particle imaging (invited)

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, R. Matthew; Khandhar, Amit P.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) uses safe iron oxide nanoparticle tracers to offer fundamentally new capabilities for medical imaging, in applications as vascular imaging and ultra-sensitive cancer therapeutics. MPI is perhaps the first medical imaging platform to intrinsically exploit nanoscale material properties. MPI tracers contain magnetic nanoparticles whose tunable, size-dependent magnetic properties can be optimized by selecting a particular particle size and narrow size-distribution. In this paper we present experimental MPI measurements acquired using a homemade MPI magnetometer: a zero-dimensional MPI imaging system designed to characterize tracer performance by measuring the derivative of the time-varying tracer magnetization, M’(H(t)), at a driving frequency of 25 kHz. We show that MPI performance is optimized by selecting phase-pure magnetite tracers of a particular size and narrow size distribution; in this work, tracers with 20 nm median diameter, log-normal distribution shape parameter, σv, equal to 0.26, and hydrodynamic diameter equal to 30 nm showed the best performance. Furthermore, these optimized MPI tracers show 4 × greater signal intensity (measured at the third harmonic) and 20% better spatial resolution compared with commercial nanoparticles developed for MRI. PMID:22434939

  8. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle

    2005-12-30

    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  9. Wanted: Scalable Tracers for Diffusion Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Scalable tracers are potentially a useful tool to examine diffusion mechanisms and to predict diffusion coefficients, particularly for hindered diffusion in complex, heterogeneous, or crowded systems. Scalable tracers are defined as a series of tracers varying in size but with the same shape, structure, surface chemistry, deformability, and diffusion mechanism. Both chemical homology and constant dynamics are required. In particular, branching must not vary with size, and there must be no transition between ordinary diffusion and reptation. Measurements using scalable tracers yield the mean diffusion coefficient as a function of size alone; measurements using nonscalable tracers yield the variation due to differences in the other properties. Candidate scalable tracers are discussed for two-dimensional (2D) diffusion in membranes and three-dimensional diffusion in aqueous solutions. Correlations to predict the mean diffusion coefficient of globular biomolecules from molecular mass are reviewed briefly. Specific suggestions for the 3D case include the use of synthetic dendrimers or random hyperbranched polymers instead of dextran and the use of core–shell quantum dots. Another useful tool would be a series of scalable tracers varying in deformability alone, prepared by varying the density of crosslinking in a polymer to make say “reinforced Ficoll” or “reinforced hyperbranched polyglycerol.” PMID:25319586

  10. Downstream anastomotic hyperplasia. A mechanism of failure in Dacron arterial grafts.

    PubMed Central

    LoGerfo, F W; Quist, W C; Nowak, M D; Crawshaw, H M; Haudenschild, C C

    1983-01-01

    The precise location and progression of anastomotic hyperplasia and its possible relationship to flow disturbances was investigated in femoro-femoral Dacron grafts in 28 dogs. In 13 grafts, the outflow from the end-to-side downstream anastomosis was bidirectional (BDO), and in 15 it was unidirectional (UDO) (distally). Grafts were electively removed at intervals of two to 196 days or at the time of thrombosis. Each anastomosis and adjacent artery was perfusion-fixed and sectioned sagittally. The mean sagittal section was projected onto a digitized pad, and the total area of hyperplasia internal to the arterial internal elastic lamina and within the adjacent graft was integrated by computer. The location of the hyperplasia was compared with previously established sites of flow separation and stagnation. The observation was made that hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream, as compared with the upstream, anastomosis in both groups (BDO = p less than 0.001 and UDO = p less than 0.001) (analysis of variance for independent groups). Furthermore, this downstream hyperplasia was progressive with time (BDO p less than 0.01) (UDO p less than 0.01); Spearman Rank Correlation. There was no significant increase in the extent of downstream hyperplasia where flow separation was known to be greater (BDO). Five grafts failed (three BDO, two UDO), as a result of complete occlusion of the downstream anastomosis by fibrous hyperplasia. Transmission electron microscopy showed the hyperplasia to consist of collagen-producing smooth muscle cells. Anastomotic hyperplasia is significantly greater at the downstream anastomosis, is progressive with time, and is the primary cause of failure of Dacron arterial grafts in this model. Quantitative analysis of downstream anastomotic hyperplasia may be a valuable measure of the biocompatibility of Dacron grafts. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6219641

  11. Dual-tracer receptor concentration imaging using tracers with different tissue delivery kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Diop, Mamadou; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Hasan, Tayyaba; St. Lawrence, Keith; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Simultaneous dynamic fluorescent imaging of a suitable untargeted tracer in conjunction with any molecular targeted fluorescent agent has been shown to be a powerful approach for quantifying cancer-specific cell surface receptors in vivo in the presence of non-specific uptake and tracer delivery variability. The identification of a "suitable" untargeted tracer (i.e., one having equivalent plasma and tissue delivery pharmacokinetics to the targeted tracer) for every targeted tracer, however, may not always be feasible or could require extensive testing. This work presents a "deconvolution" approach capable of correcting for plasma and tissue-delivery pharmacokinetic differences between tracers by quantifying dynamic differences in targeted and untargeted tracer uptake in a receptor-free tissue (one devoid of targeted molecular species) and correcting uptake in all other tissues accordingly. This deconvolution correction approach is evaluated in theoretical models and explored in an in vivo mouse xenograft model of human glioma. In the animal experiments, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR: a receptor known to be overexpressed in the investigated glioma cell line) was targeted using a fluorescent tracer with very different plasma pharmacokinetics than a second untargeted fluorescent tracer. Without correcting for these differences, the dual-tracer approach yielded substantially higher estimations of EGFR concentration in all tissues than expected; however, deconvolution correction was able to produce estimates that matched ex vivo validation.

  12. Tritium and stable isotopes of magmatic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, F.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2000-04-01

    To investigate the isotopic composition and age of water in volcanic gases and magmas, we analyzed samples from 11 active volcanoes ranging in composition from tholeiitic basalt to rhyolite: Mount St. Helens (USA), Kilauea (USA), Pacaya (Guatemala), Galeras (Colombia), Satsuma Iwo-Jima (Japan), Sierra Negra and Alcedo (Ecuador), Vulcano (Italy), Parı´cutin (Mexico), Kudryavy (Russia), and White Island (New Zealand). Tritium at relatively low levels (0.1-5 T.U.) is found in most emissions from high-temperature volcanic fumaroles sampled, even at discharge temperatures >700°C. Although magmatic fluids sampled from these emissions usually contain high CO 2, S total, HCl, HF, B, Br, 3He R/ RA, and low contents of air components, stable isotope and tritium relations of nearly all such fluids show mixing of magmatic volatiles with relatively young meteoric water (model ages≤75 y). Linear δD/ δ18O and 3H/ δ18O mixing trends of these two end-members are invariably detected at arc volcanoes. Tritium is also detected in fumarole condensates at hot spot basalt volcanoes, but collecting samples approaching the composition of end-member magmatic fluid is exceedingly difficult. In situ production of 3H, mostly from spontaneous fission of 238U in magmas is calculated to be <0.001 T.U., except for the most evolved compositions (high U, Th, and Li and low H 2O contents). These values are below the detection limit of 3H by conventional analytical techniques (about 0.01 T.U. at best). We found no conclusive evidence that natural fusion in the Earth produces anomalous amounts of detectable 3H (>0.05 T.U.).

  13. Review of the Tritium Extraction Facility Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald W. Barton; Farid Bamdad; Joel Blackman

    2000-06-04

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) is an independent executive branch agency responsible for technical safety oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) defense nuclear facilities. One of DNFSB's responsibilities is the review of design and construction projects for DOE's defense nuclear facilities to ensure that adequate health and safety requirements are identified and implemented. These reviews are performed with the expectation that facility designs are being developed within the framework of a site's Integrated Safety Management (ISM) program. This paper describes the application of ISM principles in DNFSB's ongoing review of the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) design/construction project.

  14. Spectroscopic diagnostics of tritium recycling in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Stotler, D.P.; Adler, H.; Ramsey, A.T.

    1995-03-01

    The authors present the first spectroscopic measurements of tritium Balmer-alpha (T{sub {alpha}}) emission from a fusion plasma. A Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to measure the H{sub {alpha}}, D{sub {alpha}}, T{sub {alpha}} spectrum in the current D-T a experimental campaign on TFTR and the contributions of H, D and T are separated by spectral analysis. The T{sub {alpha}} line was measurable at concentrations T{sub {alpha}}/(H{sub {alpha}} + D{sub {alpha}} + T{sub {alpha}}) down to 2%.

  15. Safety assessment of the tritium recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Safety Assessment (SA) contains descriptions and evaluations of the environmental, health, and safety issues associated with the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) at the Pinellas Plant. It provides: 1. site and facility descriptions, 2. an overall description of the TRS and its operations, 3. an evaluation of the hazards associated with TRS operations, 4. descriptions and analyses of the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate identified hazards, and 5. assessment of potential accidents and their associated risks. This SA contains the results of safety evaluations of TRS operations, equipment, and supplied systems. The evaluations include, as appropriate, preliminary hazards listings, qualitative risk assessments, and quantitative risk assessments.

  16. Tritiation methods and tritium NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, D.K.; Morimoto, H.; Salijoughian, M.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    We have used a simple process for the production of highly tritiated water and characterized the product species by {sup 1}H and {sup 3}H NMR spectroscopy. The water is readily manipulated and used in subsequent reactions either as T{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COOT or CF{sub 3}COOT. Development of tritiated diimide has progressed to the point where cis-hydrogenated products at 1-20 Ci/mmole S.A. are possible. Tri-n-butyl tin tritide has been produced at >95% tritium content and well characterized by multinuclear NMR techniques. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    DOEpatents

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  18. Determination of tritium distribution in labeled compounds using EPR spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Postolache, C.; Matei, L.; Georgescu, R.

    2008-07-15

    Usually, the tritium distribution in a labeled compound is analyzed by T-NMR spectrometry. NMR equipment is expensive and its sensitivity is lower in comparison to EPR spectrometry. In this paper, the possibility of determining the distribution of tritium in a labeled molecule using self-radiolytic decay processes was analyzed. (authors)

  19. Confinement and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R. J.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Synakowski, E.

    1994-03-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has performed initial high-power experiments with the plasma fueled by deuterium and tritium to nominally equal densities. Compared to pure deuterium plasmas, the energy stored in the electron and ions increased by ~20%. These increases indicate improvements in confinement associated with the use of tritium and possibly heating of electrons by α-particles.

  20. Locating tritium sources in a research reactor building.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Masami

    2005-10-01

    Despite renovation of the D2O facility, tritium concentrations in the condensates of reactor room air showed tens of Bq mL before venting resumption on July 1997. This suggested the presence of tritium sources in the research reactor-containment building. An investigation was therefore initiated to locate the source and determine the distribution of tritium in the containment building. Air monitoring in the working area using a dish of water placed in the building suggested that the source of tritium was near the reactor core. Monitoring exhaust air from the two facilities (a cold neutron source and a D(2)O tank) showed high specific activity on the order of 10 Bq mL(-1), suggesting the presence of tritium in condensates near the reactor core. The major concern was whether the leakage of liquid deuterium (4 L) and heavy water (2 x 10(3) L) used as a moderator had occurred. The concentration of tritium in condensates has not increased over the past few years in either the exhaust line or working area, and the deuterium itself has not been found in the surrounding environment. The concentration of tritium measured using an ionization chamber after Ar decay was dependent on the thermal output of the research reactor, indicating that the tritium was produced by the irradiation process within shielding/moderator materials or cover gas with neutrons. PMID:16155451