Infrared thermography is used to reveal the establishment of Erwinia amylovora harpin-induced hypersensitive response (HR) in Nicotiana sylvestris leaves. We observed a decrease in temperature (1-2 degree(s)C) in the harpin infiltrated zone, correlated with an increase in stomatal opening, strongly suggesting that the temperature decrease is due to higher transpiration rate. IRT experiments were conducted in a laboratory environment and could be widely applied for genotype screening and monitoring drug effects.
Boccara, Martine; Boue, Christine; De Paepe, Rosine; Boccara, Albert C.
Plants generally react to the attack of non-host and incompatible host microorganisms by inducing pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and localised cell death (LCD) at the site of infection, a process collectively known as the hypersensitive response (HR). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in various sub-cellular compartments shortly after pathogen recognition, and proposed to cue subsequent orchestration of the HR. Although apoplast-associated ROS production by plasma membrane NADPH oxidases have been most thoroughly studied, recent observations suggest that ROS are generated in chloroplasts earlier in the response and play a key role in execution of LCD. A model is presented in which the initial outcome of successful pathogen detection is ROS accumulation in plastids, likely mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases and caused by dysfunction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. ROS signaling is proposed to spread from plastids to the apoplast, through the activation of NADPH oxidases, and from there to adjacent cells, leading to suicidal death in the region of attempted infection.
Zurbriggen, Matias D; Carrillo, Nestor
ONZIN is abundantly expressed in immune cells of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineage. Expression by lymphoid cells has been reported to further increase after cutaneous exposure of mice to antigens and haptens capable of inducing contact hypersensitivity, suggesting that ONZIN plays a critical role in this response. Here, we report that indeed ONZIN-deficient mice develop attenuated CHS to a number of different haptens. Dampened CHS responses correlated with a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory IL-6 at the challenge site in ONZIN-deficient animals compared to wild type controls. Together the study of these animals indicates that loss of ONZIN impacts the effector phase of the CHS response through the regulation of pro-inflammatory factors.
Ledford, Julie G.; Kovarova, Martina; Jania, Leigh A.; Nguyen, MyTrang; Koller, Beverly H.
Lymph nodes (LNs) are important sentinal organs, populated by circulating lymphocytes and antigen-bearing cells exiting the tissue beds. Although cellular and humoral immune responses are induced in LNs by antigenic challenge, it is not known if LNs are essential for acquired immunity. We examined immune responses in mice that lack LNs due to genetic deletion of lymphotoxin ligands or in utero blockade of membrane lymphotoxin. We report that LNs are absolutely required for generating contact hypersensitivity, a T cell–dependent cellular immune response induced by epicutaneous hapten. We show that the homing of epidermal Langerhans cells in response to hapten application is specifically directed to LNs, providing a cellular basis for this unique LN function. In contrast, the spleen cannot mediate contact hypersensitivity because antigen-bearing epidermal Langerhans cells do not access splenic white pulp. Finally, we formally demonstrate that LNs provide a unique environment essential for generating this acquired immune response by reversing the LN defect in lymphotoxin-??/? mice, thereby restoring the capacity for contact hypersensitivity.
Rennert, Paul D.; Hochman, Paula S.; Flavell, Richard A.; Chaplin, David D.; Jayaraman, Sundararajan; Browning, Jeffrey L.; Fu, Yang-Xin
The hypersensitive response (HR) is a cell death phenomenon associated with localized resistance to pathogens. Biphasic patterns in the generation of H2O2, salicylic acid and ethylene have been observed in tobacco during the early stages of the HR. These biphasic models reflect an initial elicitation by pathogen-associated molecular patterns followed by a second phase, induced by pathogen-encoded avirulence gene products. The first phase has been proposed to potentiate the second, to increase the efficacy of plant resistance to disease. This potentiation is comparable to the “priming” of plant defenses which is seen when plants display systemic resistance to disease. The events regulating the generation of the biphasic wave, or priming, remains obscure, however recently we demonstrated a key role for nitric oxide in this process in a HR occurring in tobacco. Here we use laser photoacoustic detection to demonstrate that biphasic ethylene production also occurs during a HR occurring in Arabidopsis. We suggest that ethylene emanation during the HR represents a ready means of visualising biphasic events during the HR and that exploiting the genomic resources offered by this model species will facilitate the development of a mechanistic understanding of potentiating/priming processes.
Lloyd, Amanda J; Cristescu, Simona M; Harren, Frans JM; Hall, Michael A; Smith, Aileen R
Summary. Plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress are to a great extent coordinated by similar chemical signals. Thus, salicylic acid (SA) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) influence tolerance to heat and chilling as much as resistance to pathogens during the hypersensitive response (HR) form of cell death. We have shown that following elicitation the generation of SA and ROI
L. A. J. Mur; I. E. Santosa; L.-J. J. Laarhoven; F. Harren; A. R. Smith
Hypersensitivity responses (HR) play a major role in plant resistance to pathogens. It is often claimed that HR is also important in plant resistance to insects, although there is little unambiguous documentation. Large genotypic variation in resistance against the gall midge Dasineura marginemtorquens is found in Salix viminalis. Variation in larval performance and induced responses within a full-sib S. viminalis family is reported here; 36 sibling plants were completely resistant (larvae died within 48 h after egg hatch, no gall induction), 11 plants were totally susceptible, 25 plants were variable (living and dead larvae present on the same plant). Resistance was associated with HR, but to different degrees; 21 totally resistant genotypes showed typical HR symptoms (many distinct necrotic spots) whereas the remaining 15 genotypes showed no, or very few, such symptoms. Hydrogen peroxide, used as a marker for HR, was induced in genotypes expressing HR symptoms but not in resistant genotypes without symptoms, or in susceptible genotypes. These data suggest that production of hydrogen peroxide, and accompanying cell death, cannot explain larval mortality in the symptomless reaction. Another, as yet unknown, mechanism of resistance may be present. If so, then it is possible that this unknown mechanism also contributes to resistance in plants displaying HR. The apparent complexity observed in this interaction, with both visible and invisible plant responses associated with resistance against an adapted insect species, may have implications for the study of resistance factors in other plant-insect interactions. PMID:16263902
Höglund, Solveig; Larsson, Stig; Wingsle, Gunnar
Use of the Ribonuclease Protection Assay (RPA) for Identifying Chemicals that Elicit Hypersensitivity Responses. L.M. Plitnick, 1, D.M. Sailstad, 2, and R.J. Smialowicz, 2 1UNC, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC and 2USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC. The incidence of aller...
From necrotic tissue of a Nashi pear tree, 24 Erwinia pyrifoliae strains, found to be identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, were isolated. Thirteen strains were not virulent on immature pears and did not induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco leaves. The defective gene hrpL was complemented with intact genes from E. pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora.
Jock, Susanne; Kim, Won-Sik; Barny, Marie-Anne; Geider, Klaus
Background: The maternal immunologic experience associated with early life exposure to allergens might contribute to the development of allergy during infancy. Objectives: We sought to analyze the effect of the mother's immunization before conception with the dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus on the allergen priming and hypersensitivity response in early immunized offspring. The kinetics of D pteronyssinus immunization were observed from
Jefferson Russo Victor Jr; Ana Elisa Fusaro; Alberto José da Silva Duarte; Maria Notomi Sato
The hypersensitive response (HR) is one of the most critical defense systems in higher plants. In order to understand its molecular basis, we have screened tobacco genes that are transcriptionally activated during the early stage of the HR by the differential display method. Among six genes initially identified, one was found encoding a 57?kDa polypeptide with 497 amino acids not
Megumi Sugimoto; Yube Yamaguchi; Kimiyo Nakamura; Yuko Tatsumi; Hiroshi Sano
The cell death response known as the hypersensitive response (HR) is a central feature of gene-for-gene plant disease resistance. A mutant line of Arabidopsis thaliana was identified in which effective gene-for-gene resistance occurs despite the virtual absence of HR cell death. Plants mutated at the DND1 locus are defective in HR cell death but retain characteristic responses to avirulent Pseudomonas
I.-Ching Yu; Jane Parker; Andrew F. Bent
Programmed cell death (pcd) is activated during the hypersensitive response (HR) of plants to avirulent pathogens. We have recently shown that, similar to pcd in animal cells, nuclei of cells undergoing HR cell death contain fragmented nuclear DNA (nDNA). Here, we report that cell death occurring during the HR is accompanied by an increase in the activity of several deoxyribonucleases. Induction of nuclease activities was coordinated with cell death and may account for the degradation of nDNA during the HR. HR-associated nuclease activities were not induced during senescence, following necrotic cell death resulting from abiotic stress, or in response to induction of plant defense mechanisms by salicylic acid. HR-associated nuclease activities were stimulated by Ca2+ and inhibited by EGTA, EDTA, and Zn2+. At least one of the HR-associated nuclease activities was detected in nuclei purified from leaves undergoing pcd. A nuclease with an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of the nuclease activity found in nuclei isolated from leaves undergoing HR cell death was purified. Our findings are in accordance with some of the biochemical events that occur during pcd in animal cells. However, further analysis of the pattern of nDNA fragmentation and the corresponding structural changes that occur in the nuclei of tobacco cells undergoing HR cell death revealed that these features may have differences from those that take place during apoptosis in animal cells.
Mittler, R; Lam, E
The hypersensitive response (HR) is considered to be the hallmark of the resistance response of plants to pathogens. To study HR-associated transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we used plants that express both a resistance gene to Cladosporium fulvum and the matching avirulence gene of this pathogen. In these plants, massive reprogramming occurred, and we found that the HR and associated processes are highly energy demanding. Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, hydrolysis of sugars, and lipid catabolism are used as alternative sources of amino acids, energy, and carbon skeletons, respectively. We observed strong accumulation of secondary metabolites, such as hydroxycinnamic acid amides. Coregulated expression of WRKY transcription factors and genes known to be involved in the HR, in addition to a strong enrichment of the W-box WRKY-binding motif in the promoter sequences of the coregulated genes, point to WRKYs as the most prominent orchestrators of the HR. Our study has revealed several novel HR-related genes, and reverse genetics tools will allow us to understand the role of each individual component in the HR. PMID:23719893
Etalo, Desalegn W; Stulemeijer, Iris J E; van Esse, H Peter; de Vos, Ric C H; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Joosten, Matthieu H A J
Glucocorticoids regulate gene expression by binding and activating the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). While ligand affinity determines the global sensitivity of the response, additional proteins act on the genome to tune sensitivity of some genes. However, the genomic extent and specificity of dose-specific glucocorticoid responses are unknown. We show that dose-specific glucocorticoid responses are extraordinarily specific at the genomic scale, able to distinctly express a single gene, the circadian rhythm gene for Period 1 (PER1), at concentrations consistent with the nighttime nadir of human cortisol. We mapped the PER1 response to a single GR binding site. The specific GR binding sequence did not impact sensitivity, and we instead attributed the response to a combination of additional transcription factors and chromatin accessibility acting in the same locus. The PER1 hypersensitive response element is conserved in the mouse, where we found similar upregulation of Per1 in pituitary cells. Targeted and transient overexpression of PER1 led to regulation of additional circadian rhythm genes hours later, suggesting that hypersensitive expression of PER1 impacts circadian gene expression. These findings show that hypersensitive GR binding occurs throughout the genome, drives targeted gene expression, and may be important to endocrine mediation of peripheral circadian rhythms.
Reddy, Timothy E.; Gertz, Jason; Crawford, Gregory E.; Garabedian, Michael J.
Hypersensitivity Vasculitis joseph July 18, 2012 No Comments What is Hypersensitivity vasculitis? Hypersensitivity vasculitis (HV) is often used to ... blood vessels, called a leukocytoclastic vasculitis. What causes Hypersensitivity vasculitis? HV may be caused by a specific ...
Background: Colostrinin™ (CLN), isolated from mothers’ pre-milk fluid (colostrum), is a uniform mixture of low-molecular-weight, proline-rich polypeptides. CLN induces neurite outgrowth of pheochromocytoma cells, extends the lifespan of diploid fibroblast cells, inhibits ?-amyloid-induced apoptosis and improves cognitive functions when administered to Alzheimer’s disease patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate potential allergic responses to CLN and its
Istvan Boldogh; Leopoldo Aguilera-Aguirre; Attila Bacsi; Barun K. Choudhury; Alfredo Saavedra-Molina; Marian Kruzel
Background Hypersensitivity diseases are associated with many severe human illnesses, including leprosy and tuberculosis. Emerging evidence suggests that the pathogenesis and pathological mechanisms of treating these diseases may be attributable to sphingolipid metabolism. Methods High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was employed to target and measure 43 core sphingolipids in the plasma, kidneys, livers and spleens of BALB/c mice from four experimental groups: control, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) model, DTH+triptolide, and control+triptolide. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to identify potential biomarkers associated with variance between groups. Relationships between the identified biomarkers and disease markers were evaluated by Spearman correlation. Results As a treatment to hypersensitivity disease, triptolide significantly inhibit the ear swelling and recover the reduction of splenic index caused by DTH. The sphingolipidomic result revealed marked alterations in sphingolipid levels between groups that were associated with the effects of the disease and triptolide treatment. Based on this data, 23 potential biomarkers were identified by OPLS-DA, and seven of these biomarkers correlated markedly with the disease markers (p<0.05) by Spearman correlation. Conclusions These data indicate that differences in sphingolipid levels in plasma and tissues are related to DTH and treatment with triptolide. Restoration of proper sphingolipid levels may attribute to the therapeutic effect of triptolide treatment. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that targeted sphingolipidomic analysis followed by multivariate analysis presents a novel strategy for the identification of biomarkers in biological samples.
Qu, Feng; Wu, Cai-Sheng; Hou, Jin-Feng; Jin, Ying; Zhang, Jin-Lan
Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity that can be induced by haptens, such as 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). Innate and adaptive immunities are both important for the development of CHS. To treat CHS-related diseases, such as allergic contact dermatitis, a disease prevalent in industrialized countries, ways of interfering with improper immune function during CHS responses need to be identified. Transforming growth factor-?-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family, is important for both innate and adaptive immunities. We thus hypothesized that the CHS response could be inhibited by interfering with TAK1 activity. Using a mouse model in which TAK1 deletion can be locally induced, we observed that TAK deficiency led to an impaired CHS response and was associated with defective T-cell expansion, activation and interferon (IFN)-? production. In addition, we investigated the effect of deleting TAK1 specifically in dendritic cells (DC) on the CHS response. We found that when TAK1 is deficient in DC, the CHS response was abolished and hapten-elicited T-cell responses were defective. Collectively, this study demonstrates an essential role of TAK1 in the induction of CHS and suggests that targeting TAK1 could be a viable approach to treat CHS. PMID:21552285
Zhao, Yan G; Wang, Yunqi; Hao, Weidong; Wan, Yisong Y
Guinea pigs with delayed hypersensitivity to protein antigens show a specific febrile response accompanied by a lymphopenia following injection of a desensitizing dose of specific antigen. No signs of shock are observed in highly sensitive animals following this injection. The response is not prevented in sensitive guinea pigs by inducing endotoxin tolerance or by pretreating with cortisone before specific challenge. Using a suitable antigen in sufficiently sensitive animals as little as 100 µg. can elicit a pronounced febrile response. Injection of a desensitizing dose of antigen specifically abolishes systemic as well as skin reactivity for several days. Normal or hypersensitive (delayed-type) animals passively sensitized with sufficient amounts of serum antibody show hypothermia after specific challenge and may show a delayed type of fatal shock. Differences were noted between their systemic reactivities, however, and the reactivity seen in specifically challenged tuberculous animals.
Uhr, Jonathan W.; Brandriss, M. W.
The primary and probably only important role that NO. plays in the hypersensitive\\u000a response is communication between dying cells and neighboring cells. NO. accumulates\\u000a extracellularly immediately prior to programmed cell death of infected cells and inhibits extracellular\\u000a H2O2-degrading enzymes, leading to H2O2\\u000a accumulation. NO. and\\/or H2O2\\u000a travel to adjacent cells, where H2O2 accumulation induces\\u000a salicylic acid biosynthesis. Salicylic acid mediates
Allan D. Shapiro
Active oxygen (AO) production and a K+\\/H+ exchange response (XR) are two concurrent early events associated with incompatible plant-bacteria interactions that result in a hypersensitive response (HR). Recently, a protein, termed harpin, produced by Frwinia amylovora has been reported to be the elicitor responsible for the HR caused by this pathogen. Although both the bacterium and harpin are reported to
C. Jacyn Baker; Elizabeth W. Orlandi; Norton M. Mock
Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Methods Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Key Results Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. Conclusions & Inferences The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS.
NELSON, T. A.; HOLMES, S.; ALEKSEYENKO, A. V.; SHENOY, M.; DESANTIS, T.; WU, C. H.; ANDERSEN, G. L.; WINSTON, J.; SONNENBURG, J.; PASRICHA, P. J.; SPORMANN, A.
The microvascular permeability response of the guinea pig conjunctiva to sulfidopeptide leukotrienes (LTs) was quantified as extravasation of radiolabeled bovine serum albumin. The LTs were potent inducers of increased microvascular permeability, with relative potencies LTE4 greater than or equal to LTD4 greater than LTC4. The response to LTs was unaffected by indomethacin or a pyrilamine/cimetidine combination, but the LT antagonists FPL 55712 and SKF 102922 significantly inhibited the response to LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4. In guinea pigs actively sensitized to ovalbumin, topical ocular administration of ovalbumin markedly increased conjunctival microvascular permeability; this response was reduced by approximately 50% following histaminergic blockade by pyrilamine/cimetidine. FPL 55712 and SKF 102922 and the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) had no effect on the response to antigen when used alone. However, each agent significantly reduced the non-histaminergic component of the response when given in conjunction with pyrilamine/cimetidine. Thus, it appears that the immediate hypersensitivity response in guinea pig conjunctiva has a possible non-histaminergic component which is at least partly mediated by LTs. PMID:2826360
Gary, R K; Woodward, D F; Nieves, A L; Williams, L S; Gleason, J G; Wasserman, M A
BackgroundHypersensitivity reactions against nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like diclofenac (DF) can manifest as Type I-like allergic reactions including systemic anaphylaxis. However, except for isolated case studies experimental evidence for an IgE-mediated pathomechanism of DF hypersensitivity is lacking. In this study we aimed to investigate the possible involvement of drug- and\\/or metabolite-specific antibodies in selective DF hypersensitivity.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsDF, an organochemically synthesized
Andrea Harrer; Roland Lang; Robert Grims; Michaela Braitsch; Thomas Hawranek; Werner Aberer; Lothar Vogel; Walther Schmid; Fatima Ferreira; Martin Himly; Derya Unutmaz
Treatment of mice with certain photosensitizers combined with exposure to visible light limits the development of the immunologically-mediated contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response against topically-applied chemical haptens. Understanding of the inhibitory action of photosensitizers upon the CHS response is incomplete. Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, verteporfin), a photosensitizer with immunomodulatory activity, strongly depressed CHS responses to the hapten dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). However, if mice were administered 1 (mu) g of a recombinant preparation of the pro- inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (rIL-12), full-fledged CHS responses to DNFB ensued in animals treated with BPD-MA and light. In contrast, when rIL-12 was given in combination with an anti-IL-12 antibody the restorative effect of rIL-12 on the CHS response of PDT-treated mice was blocked. Evaluation of the cytokine status of spleen and draining lymph node cells showed for DNFB painted animals, that the release of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 was increased by PDT and rIL-12 counter-acted the increase in IL-10 liberation associated with PDT. These studies indicate that IL-10 formation is upregulated and the availability of IL-12 may be limited in mice treated with PDT. These features may contribute to deficient CHS responses observed with PDT.
Simkin, Guillermo O.; Levy, Julia G.; Hunt, David W.
Research has shown that aging is associated with increased systemic inflammation as well as a reduction in the strength of immune responses. However, little evidence exists linking the decrease in cell-mediated immunity in older adults with other health parameters. We sought to examine the relationship between cell-mediated immunity as measured in vivo by the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to candida antigen and demographic and physiological variables in older (65–80 y.o.) adults. Candida antigen response was not related to gender or obesity, or to a number of other physiological variables including fitness and body composition. However, positive responders had significantly lower serum C-reactive protein levels (CRP, p<0.05) vs. non-responders. Furthermore, subjects with CRP<4.75 mg•L?1 had greater odds of developing a positive response compared to those with CRP>4.75 mg•L?1. Therefore, positive responses to candida antigen in older adults appears to be related to lower levels of systemic inflammation.
Pence, Brandt D.; Lowder, Thomas W.; Keylock, K. Todd; Vieira Potter, Victoria J.; Cook, Marc D.; McAuley, Edward; Woods, Jeffrey A.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the drugs most frequently involved in hypersensitivity drug reactions. Histamine is released in the allergic response to NSAIDs and is responsible for some of the clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical association of functional polymorphisms in the genes coding for enzymes involved in histamine homeostasis with hypersensitivity response to NSAIDs. We studied a cohort of 442 unrelated Caucasian patients with hypersensitivity to NSAIDs. Patients who experienced three or more episodes with two or more different NSAIDs were included. If this requirement was not met diagnosis was established by challenge. A total of 414 healthy unrelated controls ethnically matched with patients and from the same geographic area were recruited. Analyses of the SNPs rs17740607, rs2073440, rs1801105, rs2052129, rs10156191, rs1049742 and rs1049793 in the HDC, HNMT and DAO genes were carried out by means of TaqMan assays. The detrimental DAO 16 Met allele (rs10156191), which causes decreased metabolic capacity, is overrepresented among patients with crossed-hypersensitivity to NSAIDs with an OR ?=?1.7 (95% CI ?=?1.3–2.1; Pc ?=?0.0003) with a gene-dose effect (P?=?0.0001). The association was replicated in two populations from different geographic areas (Pc ?=?0.008 and Pc ?=?0.004, respectively). Conclusions and implications The DAO polymorphism rs10156191 which causes impaired metabolism of circulating histamine is associated with the clinical response in crossed-hypersensitivity to NSAIDs and could be used as a biomarker of response.
Agundez, Jose A. G.; Ayuso, Pedro; Cornejo-Garcia, Jose A.; Blanca, Miguel; Torres, Maria J.; Dona, Inmaculada; Salas, Maria; Blanca-Lopez, Natalia; Canto, Gabriela; Rondon, Carmen; Campo, Paloma; Laguna, Jose J.; Fernandez, Javier; Martinez, Carmen; Garcia-Martin, Elena
The hypersensitive response (HR) is considered to be the hallmark of the resistance response of plants to pathogens. To study HR-associated transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we used plants that express both a resistance gene to Cladosporium fulvum and the matching avirulence gene of this pathogen. In these plants, massive reprogramming occurred, and we found that the HR and associated processes are highly energy demanding. Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, hydrolysis of sugars, and lipid catabolism are used as alternative sources of amino acids, energy, and carbon skeletons, respectively. We observed strong accumulation of secondary metabolites, such as hydroxycinnamic acid amides. Coregulated expression of WRKY transcription factors and genes known to be involved in the HR, in addition to a strong enrichment of the W-box WRKY-binding motif in the promoter sequences of the coregulated genes, point to WRKYs as the most prominent orchestrators of the HR. Our study has revealed several novel HR-related genes, and reverse genetics tools will allow us to understand the role of each individual component in the HR.
Etalo, Desalegn W.; Stulemeijer, Iris J.E.; Peter van Esse, H.; de Vos, Ric C.H.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.
Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity is an immunocompetent trait considered an indicator of cell-mediated immune or T-cell responses. Divergent selection was performed to generate high and low lines for response to PHA-P. Extreme-responder birds of the F2 generation in each line were used to study possible differences in macrophage activity and the associated functional genes. To evaluate macrophage activity, nitric oxide (NO) was estimated both systemically in serum and in in vitro monocyte culture. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect the differential mRNA expression patterns of iNOS and MIP-1beta in monocyte culture, whereas T(H)1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) were studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at different time intervals after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. The high line showed strong systemic, as well as in vitro NO production, compared to the low line, upon stimulation with NDV and LPS, similar to early and high iNOS mRNA expression. Following the pattern of iNOS gene expression, an early strong expression of cytokines with powerful iNOS-inducing action, such as IFN-gamma and the chemokine MIP-1beta, was observed in the high line. In contrast, for response to PHA-P, low expression of IL-2 was observed in the high compared to the low line. In conclusion, the study revealed that divergent selection for response to PHA-P resulted in a divergent effect on T(H)1 cell activity, resulting in altered macrophage function in chickens. Selection, based on response to PHA-P, could lead to more resistant birds or birds with an enhanced immune response. PMID:16099515
Sundaresan, N R; Ahmed, K A; Saxena, V K; Sastry, K V H; Saxena, M; Pramod, A B; Nath, M; Singh, K B; Rasool, T J; DevRoy, A K; Singh, R V
Clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity pneumonitis may closely mimic other interstitial lung diseases, and the disease onset is usually insidious. High-resolution computed tomography and bronchoalveolar lavage are the sensitive and characteristic diagnostic tests for hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The relevant antigen to hypersensitivity pneumonitis cannot be identified in up to 20% to 30% of patients. Clinicians should be aware that hypersensitivity pneumonitis must be considered in all cases of interstitial lung disease, and a detailed environmental exposure history is mandatory. PMID:23102065
Ohshimo, Shinichiro; Bonella, Francesco; Guzman, Josune; Costabel, Ulrich
Although opioid peptides such as methionine (met)-enkephalin have been previously shown to enhance or suppress immune responses, few studies in animal models have addressed the immunomodulatory activity of their metabolic derivatives. Hairless (IAF/HA-HO) guinea pigs immunized with Freund's complete adjuvant containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis and repeatedly skin tested with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) display high levels of stable delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to PPD. Met-enkephalin (YGGFM) and two of its metabolites (YGG, YG) enhanced and accelerated PPD-elicited DTH inflammatory reactions when injected together with elicitor in these animals. At 24 h, 5 x 10(-3) pmol met-enkephalin significantly enhanced DTH responses by 30% over PPD alone, while 5 x 10(-5) pmol of YGG and 5 x 10(-9) pmol of YG significantly enhanced these responses by 62 and 32%, respectively. At much higher doses (5 x 10(3) pmol), met-enkephalin and its metabolites significantly suppressed DTH reactions by 25-32%. Tyrosine and glycine had no effect on PPD-elicited DTH. All DTH reactions (control, enhanced, suppressed) displayed typical perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates. We conclude that the immunoactivity of met-enkephalin resides in its first two amino acids and suggest that cleavage of enkephalin molecules to YG occurs in serum and/or on the cell surface. PMID:15067205
Sizemore, Robert C; Piva, Marta; Moore, LeeTerry; Gordonov, Natalia; Heilman, Edward; Godfrey, Henry P
The development of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to recall antigens has long been utilized as a measure of immune competence. It is assumed that because patients with advanced stage cancers exhibit multiple immune system defects they may not be responsive to immunization. We pre-selected patients with advanced HER-2\\/neu (HER2) overexpressing breast and ovarian cancers for enrolment into a phase I
Kathy Schiffman; Kristine Rinn; Mary L. Disis
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator with anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic properties. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PEA on the cutaneous allergic inflammatory reaction induced by different immunological and non-immunological stimuli in hypersensitive dogs. Six spontaneously Ascaris hypersensitive Beagle dogs were challenged with intradermal injections of Ascaris suum extract, substance P and
Santiago Cerrato; Pilar Brazis; Maria Federica della Valle; Alda Miolo; Stefania Petrosino; Vincenzo Di Marzo; Anna Puigdemont
The G-protein activator mastoparan (MP) was found to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in isolated Asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cells at micromolar concentrations. The HR was characterized by cell death, extracellular alkalinization, and an oxidative burst, indicated by the reduction of molecular O2 to O2??. To our knowledge, this study was the first to monitor photosynthesis during the HR. MP had rapid and dramatic effects on photosynthetic electron transport and excitation energy transfer as determined by variable chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. A large increase in nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence accompanied the initial stages of the oxidative burst. The minimal level of fluorescence was also quenched, which suggests the origin of this nonphotochemical quenching to be a decrease in the antenna size of photosystem II. In contrast, photochemical quenching of fluorescence decreased dramatically during the latter stages of the oxidative burst, indicating a somewhat slower inhibition of photosystem II electron transport. The net consumption of O2 and the initial rate of O2 uptake, elicited by MP, were higher in the light than in the dark. These data indicate that light enhances the oxidative burst and suggest a complex relationship between photosynthesis and the HR.
Allen, Lisa J.; MacGregor, Kennaway B.; Koop, Randall S.; Bruce, Doug H.; Karner, Julie; Bown, Alan W.
Mice recovering from a primary infection with an intestinal protozoan parasite, Eimeria falciformis (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), showed a classic delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to oocyst antigen challenge. This reaction was characterized by a biphasic pattern of footpad swelling. The first swelling peaked at 2 h after antigen challenge, whereas the second swelling peaked at 24 to 48 h after challenge. The DTH reaction was transferable with a T-cell-enriched spleen cell population from mice that had recovered from E. falciformis infection. Cytotoxic depletion of immune T cells with anti-L3T4 antibody and complement abrogated DTH transfer, indicating that L3T4-positive T cells were required. A T-cell-enriched spleen cell population from acutely infected mice suppressed the transfer of DTH with immune cells from recovered animals, implicating the existence of infection-induced immunoregulatory cells controlling the parasite-specific immune response during infection. Immune spleen cells also transferred resistance to infection as measured by oocyst production and death rate of recipients. Together, these results indicate that the DTH reaction, induced by infection with E. falciformis, is mediated by L3T4-positive T cells and is associated with resistance to infection.
Shi, Y F; Mahrt, J L; Mogil, R J
To test the hypothesis that caspase-like proteases exist and are critically involved in the implementation of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants, a search was undertaken for plant caspases activated during the N gene–mediated hypersensitive response (HR; a form of pathogen-induced PCD in plants) in tobacco plants infected with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). For detection, characterization, and partial purification of a tobacco caspase, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirD2 protein, shown here to be cleaved specifically at two sites (TATD and GEQD) by human caspase-3, was used as a target. In tobacco leaves, specific proteolytic processing of the ectopically produced VirD2 derivatives at these sites was found to occur early in the course of the HR triggered by TMV. A proteolytic activity capable of specifically cleaving the model substrate at TATD was partially purified from these leaves. A tetrapeptide aldehyde designed and synthesized on the basis of the elucidated plant caspase cleavage site prevented fragmentation of the substrate protein by plant and human caspases in vitro and counteracted TMV-triggered HR in vivo. Therefore, our data provide a characterization of caspase-specific protein fragmentation in apoptotic plant cells, with implications for the importance of such activity in the implementation of plant PCD.
Chichkova, Nina V.; Kim, Sang Hyon; Titova, Elena S.; Kalkum, Markus; Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Rubtsov, Yuri P.; Kalinina, Natalia O.; Taliansky, Michael E.; Vartapetian, Andrey B.
Metal hypersensitivity is a common immune disorder. Human immune systems mount the allergic attacks on metal ions through skin contacts, lung inhalation and metal-containing artificial body implants. The consequences can be simple annoyances to life-threatening systemic illness. Allergic hyper-reactivities to nickel (Ni) and beryllium (Be) are the best-studied human metal hypersensitivities. Ni-contact dermatitis affects 10 % of the human population, whereas Be compounds are the culprits of chronic Be disease (CBD). ?? T cells (T cells) play a crucial role in these hypersensitivity reactions. Metal ions work as haptens and bind to the surface of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and peptide complex. This modifies the binding surface of MHC and triggers the immune response of T cells. Metal-specific ?? T cell receptors (TCRs) are usually MHC restricted, especially MHC class II (MHCII) restricted. Numerous models have been proposed, yet the mechanisms and molecular basis of metal hypersensitivity remain elusive. Recently, we determined the crystal structures of the Ni and Be presenting human MHCII molecules, HLA-DR52c (DRA*0101, DRB3*0301) and HLA-DP2 (DPA1*0103, DPB1*0201). These structures revealed unusual features of MHCII molecules and shed light on how metal ions are recognized by T cells. PMID:22983897
Wang, Yang; Dai, Shaodong
Background: Maternal exposure to environmental ubiquitous allergens could exert an influence on the newborn’s immune repertoire and the later development of allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal immunization with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) on the hypersensitivity response and IgG subclass production in offspring using a murine model. Methods: A\\/Sn mice were immunized with Dp
A. E. Fusaro; M. Maciel; J. R. Victor; C. R. Oliveira; A. J. S. Duarte; M. N. Sato
Harpin is a proteinaceous bacterial elicitor inducing a hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host plants. To engineer disease resistant plants using this elicitor, the gene (hrpZpss) encoding a harpin from Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (strain LOB2-1, causal agent of bacterial blight of lilac) was cloned. The hrpZpss gene was fused to a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter for constitutive expression and
Yoshimitsu Takakura; Yuji Ishida; Yasuhiro Inoue; Fumiki Tsutsumi; Shigeru Kuwata
Hypersensitive response-assisting protein (HRAP) is a novel plant protein that can intensify the harpinPSS-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in harpinPSS-insensitive plants, such as the vegetative stage of sweet pepper. In this report, we identified a HRAP cDNA clone from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. ECW). The sequence of this cDNA clone showed no appreciable similarity to any other known sequences. However,
Cheng-hsien Chen; Hao-jan Lin; Mang-jye Ger; David Chow; Teng-yung Feng
Both in vivo skin immune responses and the skin's reaction to sun exposure integrate a complex interplay of biologic responses. The complexity and multiplicity of events that occur in the skin during an immune response make it a sensitive indication of both UVB and UVA-induced changes in the skin by sun damage, as well as those changes that are prevented by various sunscreens. Sunscreens are the most effective and widely available intervention for sun damage, other than sun avoidance or clothing. However, sunscreens vary widely in their relative ability to screen various UV waveband components, and their testing has been variably applied to outcomes other than for erythema to determine the sunburn protection factor (SPF), a measure primarily of UVB filtration only. Determination of an immune protection factor (IPF) has been proposed as an alternative or adjunctive measure to SPF, and recent studies show IPF can indeed detect added in vivo functionality of sunscreens, such as high levels of UVA protection, that SPF cannot. Clarification of the definition of IPF, however, is required. Excellent data are available on quantification of the IPF for restoring the afferent or induction arm of contact sensitivity, but other immune parameters have also been measured. Proposed here is nomenclature for whether the IPF is measured using contact sensitivity induction (IPF-CS-I), contact sensitivity elicitation (IPF-CS-E), delayed-type hypersensitivity elicitation (IPF-DTH-E), antigen-presenting cell function (IPF-APC-FXN) or numbers (IPF-APC-#), and cytokine modification such as IL-10 (i.e. IPF-cyto-IL-10). Similar nomenclatures could be used for other measures of skin function protection (i.e. DNA damage, p53 induction, oxidation products, etc.). A review of in vivo human studies, in which sunscreens are used to intervene in a UV-induced modulation of immune response, cells or cytokines, highlights the technical variables and statistical approaches which must also be standardized in the context of an IPF for regulatory or product claim purposes. Development of such IPF standards would allow the integration of both UVB and nonUVB (UVA, blue and possible IR) solar waveband effect-reversals, could be applied to integrate effects of other ingredients with protective function (i.e. antioxidants, retinoids, or other novel products), and would spur development of more advanced and complete protection products. PMID:12444955
Cooper, K D; Baron, E D; LeVee, G; Stevens, S R
A single exposure to 254 nm ultraviolet irradiation (UV) can systemically suppress experimental sensitization to the simple allergen 2,4-dinitro, 1-chlorobenzene (DNCB) in the mouse. We show here that topical application at the site of irradiation of the 21-oic acid methyl ester derivative of the synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide (TAme) prevents UV suppression of sensitization. That is, mice painted with TAme at the site of UV exposure developed normal contact hypersensitivity (CH); mice exposed to UV only, like mice treated with the parent compound triamcinolone acetonide (TA), failed to be sensitized by DNCB applied to a distal site. TAme is inactivated rapidly by plasma esterases, so its effect is thought to be confined to the skin. Apparently, TAme blocked the cutaneous signal(s) for systemic suppression of CH. Histologically, irradiated skin exhibited mild inflammation and hyperproliferation, but these effects were greatly exaggerated and prolonged in the UV + TAme-treated skin, independent of sensitization at the distal site. The infiltrate consisted mostly of neutrophils and lacked the round cells characteristic of cell-mediated immunity. Apparently, normal immune suppression by UV prevented this vigorous reaction to irradiated skin. Applied together with DNCB. TAme blocked sensitization. It also prevented response to challenge by DNCB in previously sensitized animals. However, unlike the parent compound triamcinolone acetonide (TA), Budesonide or Beclomethasone diproprionate, each of which can penetrate the epidermis in active form, TAme had no effect on sensitization when applied at a distal site. Likewise, TAme did not affect plasma B (17-desoxycortisol) levels, whereas the other three compounds reduced plasma B tenfold, as expected of compounds causing adrenal-pituitary suppression. The results as a whole show that glucocorticoids can specifically inhibit cutaneous steps in induction of cell-mediated immunity or its suppression, and can, at the site of challenge, prevent its expression in CH. PMID:3346558
Ross, P M; Walberg, J A; Bradlow, H L
A single exposure to 254 nm ultraviolet irradiation (UV) can systemically suppress experimental sensitization to the simple allergen 2,4-dinitro, 1-chlorobenzene (DNCB) in the mouse. We show here that topical application at the site of irradiation of the 21-oic acid methyl ester derivative of the synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide (TAme) prevents UV suppression of sensitization. That is, mice painted with TAme at the site of UV exposure developed normal contact hypersensitivity (CH); mice exposed to UV only, like mice treated with the parent compound triamcinolone acetonide (TA), failed to be sensitized by DNCB applied to a distal site. TAme is inactivated rapidly by plasma esterases, so its effect is thought to be confined to the skin. Apparently, TAme blocked the cutaneous signal(s) for systemic suppression of CH. Histologically, irradiated skin exhibited mild inflammation and hyperproliferation, but these effects were greatly exaggerated and prolonged in the UV + TAme-treated skin, independent of sensitization at the distal site. The infiltrate consisted mostly of neutrophils and lacked the round cells characteristic of cell-mediated immunity. Apparently, normal immune suppression by UV prevented this vigorous reaction to irradiated skin. Applied together with DNCB. TAme blocked sensitization. It also prevented response to challenge by DNCB in previously sensitized animals. However, unlike the parent compound triamcinolone acetonide (TA), Budesonide or Beclomethasone diproprionate, each of which can penetrate the epidermis in active form, TAme had no effect on sensitization when applied at a distal site. Likewise, TAme did not affect plasma B (17-desoxycortisol) levels, whereas the other three compounds reduced plasma B tenfold, as expected of compounds causing adrenal-pituitary suppression.
Ross, P.M.; Walberg, J.A.; Bradlow, H.L.
C2H4 is associated with plant defense, but its role during the hypersensitive response (HR) remains largely uncharacterized. C2H4 production in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) following inoculation with HR-eliciting Pseudomonas syringae pathovars measured by laser photoacoustic detection was biphasic. A first transient rise (C2H4-I) occurred 1 to 4 h following inoculation with HR-eliciting, disease-forming, and nonpathogenic strains and also with flagellin (flg22). A second (avirulence-dependent) rise, at approximately 6 h (C2H4-II), was only seen with HR-eliciting strains. Tobacco leaves treated with the C2H4 biosynthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine, suggested that C2H4 influenced the kinetics of a HR. Challenging salicylate hydroxylase-expressing tobacco lines and tissues exhibiting systemic acquired resistance suggested that C2H4 production was influenced by salicylic acid (SA). Disrupted expression of a C2H4 biosynthesis gene in salicylate hydroxylase tobacco plants implicated transcriptional control as a mechanism through which SA regulates C2H4 production. Treating leaves to increase oxidative stress or injecting with SA initiated monophasic C2H4 generation, but the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside initiated biphasic rises. To test whether NO influenced biphasic C2H4 production during the HR, the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester was coinoculated with the avirulent strain of P. syringae pv phaseolicola into tobacco leaves. The first transient C2H4 rise appeared to be unaffected by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, but the second rise was reduced. These data suggest that NO and SA are required to generate the biphasic pattern of C2H4 production during the HR and may influence the kinetics of HR formation.
Mur, Luis A.J.; Laarhoven, Lucas J.J.; Harren, Frans J.M.; Hall, Michael A.; Smith, Aileen R.
The effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the immunogenicity of corneal allografts was examined in a mouse model. Corneal allografts differing from the host at the entire MHC and multiple minor H loci were subjected to 200 mJ/cm2 of UVB irradiation immediately prior to heterotropic transplantation. Analysis of cytotoxic T lymphocyte and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses revealed that UVR treated corneal grafts failed to induce either CTL or DTH responses in C57BL/6 recipients. UVB treatment abolished the immunogenicity of highly immunogenic corneal grafts containing either resident or infiltrating donor-specific Langerhans cells. Sequential grafting experiments demonstrated that UVB-treated grafts rendered the hosts anergic to subsequent immunization with highly immunogenic corneal limbus grafts that contained dense concentrations of Ia+ Langerhans cells of donor origin. The results indicate that UV treatment not only reduces the immunogenicity of the corneal allograft but may also render it tolerogenic.
Niederkorn, J.Y.; Callanan, D.; Ross, J.R. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (USA))
The ?2?-1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels is upregulated after sensory nerve injury and is also the therapeutic target of gabapentinoid drugs. It is therefore likely to play a key role in the development of neuropathic pain. In this study, we have examined mice in which ?2?-1 gene expression is disrupted, to determine whether ?2?-1 is involved in various modalities of nociception, and for the development of behavioral hypersensitivity after partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). We find that naive ?2?-1(-/-) mice show a marked behavioral deficit in mechanical and cold sensitivity, but no change in thermal nociception threshold. The lower mechanical sensitivity is mirrored by a reduced in vivo electrophysiological response of dorsal horn wide dynamic range neurons. The CaV2.2 level is reduced in brain and spinal cord synaptosomes from ?2?-1(-/-) mice, and ?2?-1(-/-) DRG neurons exhibit lower calcium channel current density. Furthermore, a significantly smaller number of DRG neurons respond to the TRPM8 agonist menthol. After PSNL, ?2?-1(-/-) mice show delayed mechanical hypersensitivity, which only develops at 11 d after surgery, whereas in wild-type littermates it is maximal at the earliest time point measured (3 d). There is no compensatory upregulation of ?2?-2 or ?2?-3 after PSNL in ?2?-1(-/-) mice, and other transcripts, including neuropeptide Y and activating transcription factor-3, are upregulated normally. Furthermore, the ability of pregabalin to alleviate mechanical hypersensitivity is lost in PSNL ?2?-1(-/-) mice. Thus, ?2?-1 is essential for rapid development of mechanical hypersensitivity in a nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. PMID:24133248
Patel, Ryan; Bauer, Claudia S; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Margas, Wojciech; Ferron, Laurent; Chaggar, Kanchan; Crews, Kasumi; Ramirez, Juan D; Bennett, David L H; Schwartz, Arnold; Dickenson, Anthony H; Dolphin, Annette C
The ?2?-1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels is upregulated after sensory nerve injury and is also the therapeutic target of gabapentinoid drugs. It is therefore likely to play a key role in the development of neuropathic pain. In this study, we have examined mice in which ?2?-1 gene expression is disrupted, to determine whether ?2?-1 is involved in various modalities of nociception, and for the development of behavioral hypersensitivity after partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). We find that naive ?2?-1?/? mice show a marked behavioral deficit in mechanical and cold sensitivity, but no change in thermal nociception threshold. The lower mechanical sensitivity is mirrored by a reduced in vivo electrophysiological response of dorsal horn wide dynamic range neurons. The CaV2.2 level is reduced in brain and spinal cord synaptosomes from ?2?-1?/? mice, and ?2?-1?/? DRG neurons exhibit lower calcium channel current density. Furthermore, a significantly smaller number of DRG neurons respond to the TRPM8 agonist menthol. After PSNL, ?2?-1?/? mice show delayed mechanical hypersensitivity, which only develops at 11 d after surgery, whereas in wild-type littermates it is maximal at the earliest time point measured (3 d). There is no compensatory upregulation of ?2?-2 or ?2?-3 after PSNL in ?2?-1?/? mice, and other transcripts, including neuropeptide Y and activating transcription factor-3, are upregulated normally. Furthermore, the ability of pregabalin to alleviate mechanical hypersensitivity is lost in PSNL ?2?-1?/? mice. Thus, ?2?-1 is essential for rapid development of mechanical hypersensitivity in a nerve injury model of neuropathic pain.
Patel, Ryan; Bauer, Claudia S.; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Margas, Wojciech; Ferron, Laurent; Chaggar, Kanchan; Crews, Kasumi; Ramirez, Juan D.; Bennett, David L. H.; Schwartz, Arnold; Dickenson, Anthony H.
On water deficit, abscisic acid (ABA) induces stomata closure to reduce water loss by transpiration. To identify Arabidopsis thaliana mutants which transpire less on drought, infrared thermal imaging of leaf temperature has been used to screen for suppressors of an ABA-deficient mutant (aba3-1) cold-leaf phenotype. Three novel mutants, called hot ABA-deficiency suppressor (has), have been identified with hot-leaf phenotypes in the absence of the aba3 mutation. The defective genes imparted no apparent modification to ABA production on water deficit, were inherited recessively and enhanced ABA responses indicating that the proteins encoded are negative regulators of ABA signalling. All three mutants showed ABA-hypersensitive stomata closure and inhibition of root elongation with little modification of growth and development in non-stressed conditions. The has2 mutant also exhibited increased germination inhibition by ABA, while ABA-inducible gene expression was not modified on dehydration, indicating the mutated gene affects early ABA-signalling responses that do not modify transcript levels. In contrast, weak ABA-hypersensitivity relative to mutant developmental phenotypes suggests that HAS3 regulates drought responses by both ABA-dependent and independent pathways. has1 mutant phenotypes were only apparent on stress or ABA treatments, and included reduced water loss on rapid dehydration. The HAS1 locus thus has the required characteristics for a targeted approach to improving resistance to water deficit. In contrast to has2, has1 exhibited only minor changes in susceptibility to Dickeya dadantii despite similar ABA-hypersensitivity, indicating that crosstalk between ABA responses to this pathogen and drought stress can occur through more than one point in the signalling pathway. PMID:21633512
Plessis, Anne; Cournol, Raphaël; Effroy, Delphine; Silva Pérez, Viridiana; Botran, Lucy; Kraepiel, Yvan; Frey, Anne; Sotta, Bruno; Cornic, Gabriel; Leung, Jeffrey; Giraudat, Jérôme; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M
WRKY transcription factors regulate biotic, abiotic, and developmental processes. In terms of plant defense, WRKY factors have important roles as positive and negative regulators via transcriptional regulation or protein-protein interaction. Here, we report the characterization of the gene encoding Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor d (CaWRKYd) isolated from microarray analysis in the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-P(0)-inoculated hot pepper plants. CaWRKYd belongs to the WRKY IIa group, a very small clade in the WRKY subfamily, and WRKY IIa group has positive/negative regulatory roles in Arabidopsis and rice. CaWRKYd transcripts were induced by various plant defense-related hormone treatments and TMV-P(0) inoculation. Silencing of CaWRKYd affected TMV-P(0)-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) cell death and accumulation of TMV-P(0) coat protein in local and systemic leaves. Furthermore, expression of some pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and HR-related genes was reduced in the CaWRKYd-silenced plants compared with TRV2 vector control plants upon TMV-P(0) inoculation. CaWRKYd was confirmed to bind to the W-box. Thus CaWRKYd is a newly identified Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor that appears to be involved in TMV-P(0)-mediated HR cell death by regulating downstream gene expression. PMID:23116671
Huh, Sung Un; Choi, La Mee; Lee, Gil-Je; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee
Background Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, causes an unusual acute peripheral neuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy appears in almost all patients rapidly after infusion, and is triggered or exacerbated by cold, while its mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the involvement of thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPA1, TRPM8 and TRPV1) in oxaliplatin-induced acute hypersensitivity was investigated in mice. Results A single intraperitoneal administration of oxaliplatin (1–10?mg/kg) induced cold but not mechanical hypersensitivity within 2?h in a dose-dependent manner. Infusion of the oxaliplatin metabolite, oxalate (1.7?mg/kg), also induced acute cold hypersensitivity, while another platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin (5?mg/kg), or the non-platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (6?mg/kg) failed to induce mechanical or cold hypersensitivity. The oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity was abolished by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (100?mg/kg) and by TRPA1 deficiency. The nocifensive behaviors evoked by intraplantar injections of allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC; TRPA1 agonist) were significantly enhanced in mice treated for 2?h with oxaliplatin (1–10?mg/kg) in a dose-dependent manner, while capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist)-evoked nocifensive behaviors were not affected. Menthol (TRPM8/TRPA1 agonist)-evoked nocifensive-like behaviors were also enhanced by oxaliplatin pretreatment, which were inhibited by TRPA1 deficiency. Similarly, oxalate enhanced, but neither cisplatin nor paclitaxel affected AITC-evoked nocifensive behaviors. Pretreatment of cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons with oxaliplatin (30–300??M) for 1, 2, or 4?h significantly increased the number of AITC-sensitive neurons in a concentration-dependent manner whereas there was no change in the number of menthol- or capsaicin-sensitive neurons. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that a brief treatment with oxaliplatin or its metabolite oxalate is sufficient to enhance the responsiveness of TRPA1 but not that of TRPM8 and TRPV1 expressed by DRG neurons, which may contribute to the characteristic acute peripheral neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are important signaling modules in eukaryotic cells. They function downstream of sensors/receptors and regulate cellular responses to external and endogenous stimuli. Recent studies demonstrated that SIPK and WIPK, two tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) MAPKs, are involved in signaling plant defense responses to various pathogens. Ntf4, another tobacco MAPK that shares 93.6% and 72.3% identity with SIPK and WIPK, respectively, was reported to be developmentally regulated and function in pollen germination. We found that Ntf4 is also expressed in leaves and suspension-cultured cells. Genomic analysis excluded the possibility that Ntf4 and SIPK are orthologs from the two parental lines of the amphidiploid common tobacco. In vitro and in vivo phosphorylation and activation assays revealed that Ntf4 shares the same upstream MAPK kinase, NtMEK2, with SIPK and WIPK. Similar to SIPK and WIPK, Ntf4 is also stress responsive and can be activated by cryptogein, a proteinaceous elicitin from oomycetic pathogen Phytophthora cryptogea. Tobacco recognition of cryptogein induces rapid hypersensitive response (HR) cell death in tobacco. Transgenic Ntf4 plants with elevated levels of Ntf4 protein showed accelerated HR cell death when treated with cryptogein. In addition, conditional overexpression of Ntf4, which results in high cellular Ntf4 activity, is sufficient to induce HR-like cell death. Based on these results, we concluded that Ntf4 is multifunctional. In addition to its role in pollen germination, Ntf4 is also a component downstream of NtMEK2 in the MAPK cascade that regulates pathogen-induced HR cell death in tobacco.
Ren, Dongtao; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Li, Guo-Jing; Liu, Yidong; Zhang, Shuqun
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania chagasi is endemic to northeast Brazil. A positive delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test response (DTH+) is a marker for acquired resistance to disease, clusters in families and may be genetically controlled. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in the cytokine 5q23.3–q31.1 region IRF1-IL5-IL13-IL4-IL9-LECT2-TGFBI in 102 families (323 DTH+; 190 DTH?; 123 VL individuals) from
S M B Jeronimo; A K B Holst; S E Jamieson; R Francis; D R A Martins; F L Bezerra; N A Ettinger; E T Nascimento; G R Monteiro; H G Lacerda; E N Miller; H J Cordell; P Duggal; T H Beaty; J M Blackwell; M E Wilson; ME Wilson
We have undertaken chromatin studies on transformed Drosophila strains carrying DNA sequences modified in the region of the DNase I (EC 184.108.40.206)-hypersensitive sites -750 and -600 base pairs upstream from the Sgs3 start site. Although both sites are developmentally specific, modifications in the -750 site have little or no effect on Sgs3-encoded transcript levels, whereas either deletion or replacement of sequences at the -600 site causes an important reduction in transcript levels. The element associated with the -600 site enhances Sgs3 transcription when displaced with respect to the start site. This combined approach has defined sequence elements necessary both for normal transcript levels as well as the chromatin structure characteristic of Sgs3 activity in vivo. Images
Ramain, P; Giangrande, A; Richards, G; Bellard, M
The effect of several anti-atherogenic drugs (ticlopidine, nicotinic acid and etofibrate) on immune responses and immune complex anaphylaxis has been studied in mice. All the drugs enhanced the activation by concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, and lipopolysaccharide of lymphocytes taken from treated animals. Contact hypersensitivity to trinitrochlorobenzene was inhibited by similar treatments with the same drugs, possibly through inhibition of the efferent phase of the reaction. Nicotinic acid produced a slight enhancement of antibody responses to sheep erythrocytes, whereas etofibrate inhibited the response at the highest dose studied. In addition, treatment with these drugs variably protected the mice from anaphylactic shocks induced by immune complexes. Marked protection was also observed using the antiserotoninic, cyproheptadine. These results indicate that drugs used to prevent atherogenic processes modulate different proliferative and effector immunological reactions. PMID:2987156
Rojo, J M; Portolés, M P; Ojeda, G; Portolés, A
Plant immune responses to pathogen attack include the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death occurring at invasion sites. We previously reported on Arabidopsis thaliana MYB30, a transcription factor that acts as a positive regulator of a cell death pathway conditioning the HR. Here, we show by microarray analyses of Arabidopsis plants misexpressing MYB30 that the genes encoding
Sylvain Raffaele; Fabienne Vailleau; Amandine Léger; Jérôme Joubčs; Otto Miersch; Carine Huard; Elisabeth Blée; Sébastien Mongrand; Frédéric Domergue; Dominique Roby
Previous work in 3 subjects infected for 2 weeks indicated that experimental infection with Haemophilus ducreyi recruits CD4 cells to the skin at the pustular stage of disease. In order to describe the kinetics of the host response, 23 subjects were infected at 2 sites with a standardized dose of H. ducreyi. Subjects were biopsied 1 or 4 days after inoculation or when they developed a painful pustular lesion (days 7-14). Papules and pustules contained a predominant T cell infiltrate that consisted of CD45RO and CD4 cells of the alpha beta lineage. Both papules and pustules contained mixed or T helper 1 type cytokine mRNA and interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA. Although the subjects had no history of chancroid, their immune responses resembled delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions that occurred within 24 h of inoculation and persisted throughout the course of experimental infection. PMID:9815221
Palmer, K L; Schnizlein-Bick, C T; Orazi, A; John, K; Chen, C Y; Hood, A F; Spinola, S M
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a pulmonary disease with symptoms of dyspnea and cough resulting from the inhalation of an antigen to which the subject has been previously sensitized. The incidence of HP is unknown. A population-based study estimated the annual incidence of interstitial lung diseases as 30:100,000 and HP accounted for less than 2% of these cases. The diagnosis of HP can often be made or rejected with confidence, especially in areas of high or low prevalence respectively, using simple diagnostic criteria. Chest X-rays may be normal in active HP; High Resolution Computed Tomography is sensitive but not specific for the diagnosis of HP. The primary use of pulmonary function tests is to determine the physiologic abnormalities and the associated impairment. Despite the pitfalls of false positive and false negatives, antigen-specific IgG antibodies analysis can be useful as supportive evidence for HP. Bronchoalveolar lavage plays an important role in the investigation of patients suspected of having HP. A normal number of lymphocytes rules out all but residual disease. Surgical lung biopsy should be reserved for rare cases with puzzling clinical presentation or for verification the clinical diagnosis when the clinical course or response to therapy is unusual. Being an immune reaction in the lung, the most obvious treatment of HP is avoidance of contact with the offending antigen. Systemic corticosteroids represent the only reliable pharmacologic treatment of HP but do not alter the long-term outcome. The use of inhaled steroids is anecdotal. Treatment of chronic or residual disease is supportive.
Lacasse, Yves; Cormier, Yvon
Active oxygen species (AOS) are central components of the defence reactions of plants against pathogens. Plant respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOH) of gp91phox, a plasma membrane protein of the neutrophil nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, play a prominent role in AOS production. The role of two RBOH from Nicotiana benthamiana, NbrbohA and NbrbohB that encode plant NADPH oxidase in the process of elicitor-induced stomatal closure and hypersensitive cell death is described here. NbrbohA was constitutively expressed at a low level, whereas NbrbohB was induced when protein elicitors exist (such as boehmerin, harpin, or INF1). The virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) method was used to produce single-silenced (NbrbohA or NbrbohB) and double-silenced (NbrbohA and NbrbohB) N. benthamiana plants. The hypersensitive response (HR) of cell death and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression of these gene-silenced N. benthamiana plants, induced by various elicitors, are examined. The HR cell death and transcript accumulation of genes related to the defence response (PR1) were slightly affected, suggesting that RBOH are not essential for elicitor-induced HR and activation of these genes. Interestingly, gene-silenced plants impaired elicitor-induced stomatal closure and elicitor-promoted nitric oxide (NO) production, but not elicitor-induced cytosolic calcium ion accumulation and elicitor-triggered AOS production in guard cells. These results indicate that RBOH from N. benthamiana function in elicitor-induced stomatal closure, but not in elicitor-induced HR.
Zhang, Huajian; Fang, Qin; Zhang, Zhengguang; Wang, Yuanchao; Zheng, Xiaobo
Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions elicited in the footpad of ovalbumin-sensitized mice after challenge with aggregated ovalbumin on day 4 or 8 of immunization are distinct. The former was characterized by a dense mononuclear infiltrate and, macroscopically, the reaction peaked at 48 hr after antigen challenge; the latter was preceded by immediate-type reactions, reached the maximum at 24 hr and faded drastically later. Histologically, oedema and a mixed granulocytic-lymphocytic infiltrate was found at this time-point. Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a and IgE antibodies were detected only in plasma obtained after 8 days of immunization. Regarding the cytokines produced by draining lymph node cells after in vitro restimulation, interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10 were predominant after 4 days and interferon-gamma and IL-2 after 8 days of immunization. These two types of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) were used to study the influence of antibody-mediated responses on the inductive and effector phases of cell-mediated immunity. The effector phase of DTH was not affected by immediate-type reactions, as abrogation of these reactions by mediators' antagonists on day 8 or induction of passive reactions by transfer of immune serum on day 4 did not change the extent or kinetics of either type of DTH. Only transfer, before immunization, of whole or T-cell-enriched spleen cells, but not sera, from hyperimmunized donors (high antibody producers) abolished the induction of pure DTH in 4-day immunized recipient mice and changed their cytokine profile to a T helper 2 type. These results indicate that in a non-polarized immune response to a protein antigen there is initially a bias towards cell-mediated immunity, which is gradually dampened by the development of antibody-mediated immunity. PMID:11298838
Jacysyn, J F; Abrahamsohn, I A; Macedo, M S
Alpha-picolinic acid (PA), a metabolite of tryptophan and an inducer of apoptosis in the animal cell, has been reported to be a toxin produced by some of plant fungal pathogens and used in screening for disease resistant mutants. Here, we report that PA is an efficient apoptosis agent triggering cell death of hypersensitive-like response in planta. Confirmed by Fluorescence Activated
Hai Kuo ZHANG; Xin ZHANG; Bi Zeng MAO; Qun LI; Zu Hua HE
Living epidermal cells undergoing a hypersensitive response to penetration by a rust or a powdery mildew fungus exhibited two distinct patterns of cellular changes that occurred from the time of the cessation of cytoplasmic streaming to protoplast collapse. In nonhost cells, this death process was completed in less than 1 h, trans-vacuolar strands initially remained visible after streaming stopped, Brownian-like
Rosemarie Christopher-Kozjan; Michčle C Heath
The hypersensitive response (HR) of disease-resistant plant cells to fungal invasion is a rapid cell death that has some features in common with programmed cell death (apoptosis) in animals. We investigated the role of cytosolic free cal- cium ((Ca 2 1 ) i ) in the HR of cowpea to the cowpea rust fungus. By using confocal laser scanning microscopy
Haixin Xu; Michčle C. Heath
Several physiological and behavioral processes rely on precisely timed light information derived from the natural solar cycle. Using this information, traits have adapted to allow individuals within specific niches to optimize survival and reproduction, but urbanization by humans has significantly altered natural habitats. Nighttime light exposure alters immune function in several species, which could lead to decreased fitness or survival, particularly in the face of an environmental challenge. We exposed male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) to five lux of light at night for four weeks, and then administered six hours of acute restraint stress. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was assessed immediately following stress. Acute restraint increased the DTH reaction in dark nights, but exposure to nighttime light prevented this response. Exposure to light at night prolonged the DTH response in non-stressed control hamsters. These results suggest that light pollution may significantly alter physiological responses in Siberian hamsters, particularly in response to a salient environmental challenge such as stress. PMID:23743259
Bedrosian, Tracy A; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Kaugars, Katherine E; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J
Incompatible plant-pathogen interactions result in the rapid cell death response known as hypersensitive response (HR) and activation of host defense related genes. To understand the cellular mechanism controlling defense response better, a novel pathogenesis-related (PR) gene and putative cell wall protein gene, CaTin2, was isolated through differential screening of a hot pepper cDNA library and characterized. CaTin2 gene was locally
Ryoung Shin; Chang-Jin Park; Jong-Min An; Kyung-Hee Paek
\\u000a Electromagnetic hypersensitive persons (EHS) attribute their nonspecific health symptoms to environmental electromagnetic\\u000a fields (EMF) of different sources in or outside their homes. In general, causal attribution is not restricted to specific\\u000a EMF frequencies but involves a wide range from extremely low frequencies (ELF) up to radio frequencies (RF) including mobile\\u000a telecommunication microwaves and radar. EHS argue that existing exposure limits
To search for genes involved in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) defense response to the infection of stripe rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), we identified and cloned a new wheat gene similar to the genes in the Abc1-like gene family. The new gene, designated as TaAbc1, encodes a 717-amino acid, 80.35 kD protein. The TaAbc1 protein contains two conserved domains shared by Abc1-like proteins, two trans-membrane domains at the C-terminal, and a 36-amino acid chloroplast targeting presequence at the N-terminal. Characterization of TaAbc1 expression revealed that gene expression was tissue-specific and could be up-regulated by biotic agents (e.g., stripe rust pathogen) and/or by an abiotic stress like wounding. High-fold induction was associated with the hypersensitive response (HR) triggered only by avirulent stripe rust pathotypes, suggesting that TaAbc1 is a rust-pathotype specific HR-mediator. Down-regulating TaAbc1 reduced HR but not the overall resistance level in Suwon11 to CYR23, suggesting TaAbc1 was involved in HR against stripe rust, but overall host resistance is not HR-dependent.
Wang, Xiaojing; Wang, Xiaojie; Duan, Yinghui; Yin, Shuining; Zhang, Hongchang; Huang, Li; Kang, Zhensheng
The use of drug eluting stents constitutes a major breakthrough in current interventional cardiology because it is more than halves the need of repeat interventions. It is incontrovertible that coronary stents, in general, have been beneficial for the vast majority of patients. A small increase in thrombosis, following DES implantation, is offset by a diminished risk of complications associated with repeat vascularization. However, late and, especially, very late stent thrombosis is a much feared complication because it is associated with myocardial infarction with increased mortality. Despite that stent thrombosis is thought to be multifactorial, so far clinical reports and reported pathology findings in patients died from coronary stent thrombosis as well as animal studies and experiments, point toward a hypersensitivity inflammation. The stented and thrombotic areas are infiltrated by interacting, via bidirectional stimuli inflammatory cells including eosinophils, macrophages, T-cells and mast cells. Stented regions constitute an ideal surrounding for endothelial damage and dysfunction, together with hemorheologic changes and turbulence as well as platelet dysfunction, coagulation and fibrinolytic disturbances. Drug eluting stent components include the metal strut which contains nickel, chromium, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, the polymer coating and the impregnated drugs which for the first generation stents are: the antimicrotubule antineoplastic agent paclitaxel and the anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and antiproliferative agent sirolimus. The newer stents which are called cobalt-chromiun stents and elute the sirolimus analogs everolimus and zotarolimus both contain nickel and other metals. All these components constitute an antigenic complex inside the coronary arteries which apply chronic, continuous, repetitive and persistent inflammatory action capable to induced Kounis syndrome and stent thrombosis. Allergic inflammation goes through three phases, the early phase, the late phase and the chronic phase and these three phases correspond temporally with early (acute and sub acute), late and very late stent thrombosis. Bioabsorbable allergy free poly lactic acid self expanding stents, nickel free stainless steel materials, stent coverage with nitric oxide donors and antibodies with endothelial progenitor cell capturing abilities as well as stents eluting anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic agents might be the solution of this so feared and devastating stent complication. PMID:21700348
Kounis, Nicholas G; Giannopoulos, Sotiris; Tsigkas, Grigorios G; Goudevenos, John
Yeast-phase lysate antigens were prepared from 10 different isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Comparative studies were performed using the lysate antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies in sera from dogs with blastomycosis and histoplasmosis. In order to evaluate the ability of the lysate reagents to elicit delayed dermal hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, the lysates were compared as skin-testing antigens in hairless guinea pigs that were previously sensitized with B. dermatitidis or Histoplasma capsulatum killed whole yeast cells. All ten of the lysate reagents were able to detect antibody with the ELISA in the serum specimens from dogs with blastomycosis (absorbance values ranged from 0.184 to 0.272; mean value 0.235). In contrast, when the lysates were assayed against sera from dogs with histoplasmosis, the absorbance values ranged from 0.053 to 0.151, with a mean value of 0.092. All ten lysate antigens were able to elicit a DTH response in the B. dermatitidis-immunized animals (mean axes of induration values ranged from 7.0 to 14.4 mm; mean value 8.6 mm). On the other hand, only minimal reactivity was evidenced in the guinea pigs immunized with H. capsulatum (mean axes of induration values ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 mm; mean value 1.8 mm). PMID:9476480
Wakamoto, A; Abuodeh, R O; Scalarone, G M
Although skin grafting is a common surgical technique, the immunological state of grafted skin remains unelucidated. An experimental model has shown that the development of murine contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is depressed when mice are sensitized with a hapten through full-thickness grafted skin. We explored the immunological mechanisms underlying this hyposensitization, focusing on the fate of Langerhans cells (LCs). When FITC was applied to grafted skin, FITC-bearing LCs were capable of migrating to the draining lymph nodes. Epidermal cell suspensions isolated from the grafted skin produced a high amount of IL-10 as assessed by real-time PCR. Adoptive transfer of immune lymph node cells from the sensitized mice suppressed the CHS response of recipients in an antigen-specific manner. CD4(+)CD25(+) but not CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells purified from lymph node cells were responsible for this suppression. Finally, we detected high expression of receptor activators of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in the grafted skin, and found that recombinant RANKL stimulated LCs to produce IL-10. These findings suggest that the hyposensitization of CHS through the grafted skin is not attributable merely to the reduction of LC number but that IL-10-producing LCs exert a downmodulatory effect by inducing regulatory T cells. PMID:18843293
Yoshiki, Ryutaro; Kabashima, Kenji; Sugita, Kazunari; Atarashi, Kenji; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Tokura, Yoshiki
Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a CD8 T cell-mediated response to hapten skin sensitization and challenge. The points at which IL-1R signaling is required during this complex, multistep immune response have not been clearly delineated. The role of IL-1R signaling during 2, 4 dinitro-1-fluorobenezene (DNFB) sensitization to induce hapten-specific CD8 effector T cells and in the trafficking of the effector T cells to the DNFB challenge site to elicit the response were investigated using IL-1R deficient mice. DNFB-sensitized IL-1R(-/-) mice had low CHS responses to hapten challenge that were caused in part by marked decreases in hapten-specific CD8 T cell development to IL-17- and IFN-?-producing cells during sensitization. Hapten-primed wild type CD8 T cell transfer to naive IL-1R(-/-) mice did not result in T cell activation in response to hapten challenge, indicating a need for IL-1R signaling for the localization or activation, or both, of the CD8 T cells at the challenge site. Decreased CD8 T cell priming in sensitized IL-1R(-/-) mice was associated with marked decreases in hapten-presenting dendritic cell migration from the sensitized skin to draining lymph nodes. Transfer of hapten-presenting dendritic cells from wild type donors to naive IL-1R(-/-) mice resulted in decreased numbers of the dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes and decreased priming of hapten-specific CD8 T cells compared with dendritic cell transfer to naive wild type recipients. These results indicate that IL-1R signaling is required at multiple steps during the course of sensitization and challenge to elicit CHS. PMID:22238457
Kish, Danielle D; Gorbachev, Anton V; Fairchild, Robert L
Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a CD8 T cell-mediated response to hapten skin sensitization and challenge. The points at which IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling is required during this complex, multistep immune response have not been clearly delineated. The role of IL-1R signaling during 2, 4 dinitrofluorobenezene (DNFB) sensitization to induce hapten-specific CD8 effector T cells and in the trafficking of the effector T cells to the DNFB challenge site to elicit the response were investigated using IL-1R deficient mice. DNFB-sensitized IL-1R?/? mice had low CHS responses to hapten challenge that were caused in part by marked decreases in hapten-specific CD8 T cell development to IL-17 and IFN-? producing cells during sensitization. Hapten-primed wild-type CD8 T cell transfer to naďve IL-1R?/? mice did not result in T cell activation in response to hapten challenge indicating a need for IL-1R signaling for the localization and/or activation of the CD8 T cells at the challenge site. Decreased CD8 T cell priming in sensitized IL-1R?/? mice was associated with marked decreases in hapten-presenting dendritic cell migration from the sensitized skin to draining lymph nodes. Transfer of hapten-presenting dendritic cells from wild-type donors to naďve IL-1R?/? mice resulted in decreased numbers of the dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes and decreased priming of hapten-specific CD8 T cells when compared to dendritic cell transfer to naďve wild-type recipients. These results indicate that IL-1R signaling is required at multiple steps during the course of sensitization and challenge to elicit CHS.
Kish, Danielle D.; Gorbachev, Anton. V.; Fairchild, Robert L.
The characterization of Tn5 transposon insertional mutants of Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5 revealed a gene encoding a predicted LysR-type transcriptional regulator, lhnR (for 'LysR-type regulator associated with HR and necrosis'), and an immediate upstream operon consisting of three open reading frames (lhnABC) required for swarming motility, surfactant production and the induction of a hypersensitive response (HR) on tobacco and necrosis on grape. The operon lhnABC is unique to A. vitis among the sequenced members in Rhizobiaceae. Mutagenesis of lhnR and lhnABC by gene disruption and complementation of ?lhnR and ?lhnABC confirmed their roles in the expression of these phenotypes. Mutation of lhnR resulted in complete loss of HR, swarming motility, surfactant production and reduced necrosis, whereas mutation of lhnABC resulted in loss of swarming motility, delayed and reduced HR development and reduced surfactant production and necrosis. The data from promoter-green fluorescent protein (gfp) fusions showed that lhnR suppresses the expression of lhnABC and negatively autoregulates its own expression. It was also shown that lhnABC negatively affects its own expression and positively affects the transcription of lhnR. lhnR and lhnABC constitute a regulatory circuit that coordinates the transcription level of lhnR, resulting in the expression of swarming, surfactant, HR and necrosis phenotypes. PMID:22212449
Zheng, Desen; Hao, Guixia; Cursino, Luciana; Zhang, Hongsheng; Burr, Thomas J
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by expanded glutamine repeats within the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Mutant Htt (mHtt) in the cytoplasm has been linked to induction of the luminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, the unfolded protein response (UPR). How mHtt impacts the susceptibility of the ER lumen to stress remains poorly understood. To investigate molecular differences in the ER in cells expressing mHtt, we used live-cell imaging of a sensitive reporter of the misfolded secretory protein burden, GFP fused to the ER chaperone BiP (also known as GRP78), which decreases in mobility as it binds increasing amounts of misfolded proteins. Striatal neurons expressing full-length mHtt showed no differences in BiP–GFP mobility and no evidence of UPR activation compared with wild-type cells at steady state. However, mHtt-expressing cells were acutely sensitive to misfolded secretory proteins. Treatment with ER stressors, tunicamycin or DTT, rapidly decreased BiP–GFP mobility in mHtt striatal cells and accelerated UPR activation compared with wild-type cells. mHtt-expressing cells exhibited decreased misfolded protein flux as a result of ER associated degradation (ERAD) dysfunction. Furthermore, UPR-adapted mHtt cells succumbed to misfolded protein stresses that could be tolerated by adapted wild-type cells. Thus, mHtt expression impairs misfolded secretory protein turnover, decreases the ER stress threshold, and increases cell vulnerability to insults.
Lajoie, Patrick; Snapp, Erik L.
The capacities of the begomoviruses Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) and Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) to differeBean dwarf mosaic viru certain common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars were used to identify viral determinants of the hypersensitive response (HR) and avirulence (avr) in BDMV. A series of hybrid DNA-B components, containing BDMV and BGYMV sequences, was constructed and coinoculated with BDMV DNA-A (BDMV-A) or BDMVA-green florescent protein into seedlings of cv. Topcrop (susceptible to BDMV and BGYMV) and the BDMV-resistant cvs. Othello and Black Turtle Soup T-39 (BTS). The BDMV avr determinant, in bean hypocotyl tissue, was mapped to the BDMV BV1 open reading frame and, most likely, to the BV1 protein. The BV1 also was identified as the determinant of the HR in Othello. However, the HR was not required for resistance in Othello nor was it associated with BDMV resistance in BTS. BDMV BV1, a nuclear shuttle protein that mediates viral DNA export from the nucleus, represents a new class of viral avr determinant. These results are discussed in terms of the relationship between the HR and resistance. PMID:11059485
Garrido-Ramirez, E R; Sudarshana, M R; Lucas, W J; Gilbertson, R L
Fire blight caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora can be controlled by antagonistic microorganisms. We characterized epiphytic bacteria isolated from healthy apple and pear trees in Australia, named Erwinia tasmaniensis, and the epiphytic bacterium Erwinia billingiae from England for physiological properties, interaction with plants and interference with growth of E. amylovora. They reduced symptom formation by the fire blight pathogen on immature pears and the colonization of apple flowers. In contrast to E. billingiae, E. tasmaniensis strains induced a hypersensitive response in tobacco leaves and synthesized levan in the presence of sucrose. With consensus primers deduced from lsc as well as hrpL, hrcC and hrcR of the hrp region of E. amylovora and of related bacteria, these genes were successfully amplified from E. tasmaniensis DNA and alignment of the encoded proteins to other Erwinia species supported a role for environmental fitness of the epiphytic bacterium. Unlike E. tasmaniensis, the epiphytic bacterium E. billingiae produced an acyl-homoserine lactone for bacterial cell-to-cell communication. Their competition with the growth of E. amylovora may be involved in controlling fire blight. PMID:21261861
Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Jock, Susanne; Du, Zhiqiang; Geider, Klaus
The dominant tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance gene N confers a hypersensitive response (HR) at the site of TMV infection and protects tobacco against systemic spread of the virus. To study N gene activity in seeds and early seedling development, the avirulence gene of N, the helicase domain (p50) of the TMV replicase, was constitutively expressed in a tobacco genotype without N (nn). Transgenic F1 expressing N and p50 were generated by crossing with an NN genotype. Surprisingly, Nn F1 seeds expressing p50 are viable and germinate. Only about 5 days after sowing, seedlings started to show an HR. This paralleled the upregulation of several pathogenesis-related and HR genes. The timing of the HR is consistent with the upregulation of N gene transcript 4-6 days after sowing. The expression of p50 has a stimulating effect on the N gene transcript level during germination. These results show that tobacco seeds and very young seedlings do not express a functional N gene product. PMID:23291787
Niemeyer, Julia; Ruhe, Jonas; Machens, Fabian; Hehl, Reinhard
Rp1-D21 is a maize auto-active resistance gene conferring a spontaneous hypersensitive response (HR) of variable severity depending on genetic background. We report an association mapping strategy based on the Mutant Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization approach to identify naturally occurring allelic variants associated with phenotypic variation in HR. Each member of a collection of 231 diverse inbred lines of maize constituting a high-resolution association mapping panel were crossed to a parental stock heterozygous for Rp1-D21, and the segregating F(1) generation testcrosses were evaluated for phenotypes associated with lesion severity for 2 years at two locations. A genome-wide scan for associations with HR was conducted with 47,445 SNPs using a linear mixed model that controlled for spurious associations due to population structure. Since the ability to identify candidate genes and the resolution of association mapping are highly influenced by linkage disequilibrium (LD), we examined the extent of genome-wide LD. On average, marker pairs separated by >10 kbp had an r(2) value of <0.1. Genomic regions surrounding SNPs significantly associated with HR traits were locally saturated with additional SNP markers to establish local LD structure and precisely identify candidate genes. Six significantly associated SNPs at five loci were detected. At each locus, the associated SNP was located within or immediately adjacent to candidate causative genes predicted to play significant roles in the control of programmed cell death and especially in ubiquitin pathway-related processes. PMID:23222653
Olukolu, Bode A; Negeri, Adisu; Dhawan, Rahul; Venkata, Bala P; Sharma, Pankaj; Garg, Anshu; Gachomo, Emma; Marla, Sandeep; Chu, Kevin; Hasan, Anna; Ji, Jiabing; Chintamanani, Satya; Green, Jason; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Wisser, Randall; Holland, James; Johal, Guri; Balint-Kurti, Peter
Elicitors/pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) trigger the plant immune system, leading to rapid programmed cell death (hypersensitive response, HR) and stomatal closure. Previous reports have shown that the vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE), a cysteine proteinase responsible for the maturation of vacuolar proteins, has caspase-1-like activity and mediates TMV- and mycotoxin-induced cell death. The role of VPE from Nicotiana benthamiana in the response to three elicitors: bacterial harpin, fungal Nep1, and oomycete boehmerin, is described here. Single-silenced (NbVPE1a or NbVPE1b) and dual-silenced (NbVPE1a/1b) N. benthamiana plants were produced by virus-induced gene silencing. Although NbVPE silencing does not affect H2O2 accumulation triggered by boehmerin, harpin, or Nep1, the HR is absent in NbVPE1a- and NbVPE1a/1b-silenced plants treated with harpin alone. However, NbVPE-silenced plants develop a normal HR after boehmerin and Nep1 treatment. These results suggest that harpin-triggered HR is VPE-dependent. Surprisingly, all gene-silenced plants show significantly impaired elicitor-induced stomatal closure and elicitor-promoted nitric oxide (NO) production in guard cells. Dual-silenced plants show increased elicitor-triggered AOS production in guard cells. The accumulation of transcripts associated with defence and cell redox is modified by VPE silencing in elicitor signalling. Overall, these results indicate that VPE from N. benthamiana functions not only in elicitor-induced HR, but also in elicitor-induced stomatal closure, suggesting that VPE may be involved in elicitor-triggered immunity.
Dong, Suomeng; Wang, Meifang; Wang, Wei; Song, Wenwen; Dou, Xianying; Zheng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhengguang
The host-specific plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae elicits the hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost plants and secretes the HrpZ harpin in culture via the Hrp (type III) secretion system. Previous genetic evidence suggested the existence of another harpin gene in the P. syringae genome. hrpW was found in a region adjacent to the hrp cluster in P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000.
AMY O. CHARKOWSKI; JAMES R. ALFANO; GAIL PRESTON; JING YUAN; SHENG YANG HE; ALAN COLLMER
HpaG is a type III-secreted elicitor protein of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines. We have determined the critical amino acid residues important for hypersensitive response (HR) elicitation by random and site- directed mutagenesis of HpaG and its homolog XopA. A plasmid clone carrying hpaG was mutagenized by site-directed mutagenesis, hydroxylamine mutagenesis, and error-prone PCR. A total of 52 mutants were obtained,
Jung-Gun Kim; Eunkyung Jeon; Jonghee Oh; Jae Sun Moon; Ingyu Hwang
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced suppression of cutaneous cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in the development of photocarcinogenesis in the mouse and a similar role is suspected in humans. Cell-mediated immunity is readily tested in vivo by measuring the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to topically applied haptens. CHS in humans is usually determined clinically, with a subjective scoring system. However, these
Deirdre A. Kelly; Susan L. Walker; Jane M. McGregor; Antony R. Young
The tomato Cf-4 and Cf-9 genes confer resistance to infection by the biotrophic leaf mold pathogen Cladosporium. Their protein products induce a hypersensitive response (HR) upon recognition of the fungus-encoded Avr4 and Avr9 peptides. Cf-4 and Cf-9 share . 91% sequence identity and are distinguished by sequences in their N-terminal domains A and B, their N-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) in
Brande B. H. Wulff; Colwyn M. Thomas; Matthew Smoker; Murray Grant; Jonathan D. G. Jones
Background: CX-659S, a newly discovered anti-inflammatory compound, exerts inhibitory effects on chronic contact hypersensitivity responses (CHRs) induced by repeated application with picryl chloride (PC), which is known to mimic many, if not all, events occurring within lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). CX-659S suppresses the expression of mRNA for interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 but not that for IFN-?,
Yoshifumi Inoue; Masakazu Isobe; Tetsuo Shiohara; Hideya Hayashi
Pseudomonas syringae is the most widespread bacterial pathogen in plants. Several strains of P. syringae produce a phytotoxin, coronatine (COR), which acts as a jasmonic acid mimic and inhibits plant defense responses and contributes to disease symptom development. In this study, we found that COR inhibits early defense responses during nonhost disease resistance. Stomatal closure induced by a nonhost pathogen, P. syringae pv. tabaci, was disrupted by COR in tomato epidermal peels. In addition, nonhost HR cell death triggered by P. syringae pv. tabaci on tomato was remarkably delayed when COR was supplemented along with P. syringae pv. tabaci inoculation. Using isochorismate synthase (ICS)-silenced tomato plants and transcript profiles of genes in SA- and JA-related defense pathways, we show that COR suppresses SA-mediated defense during nonhost resistance.
Lee, Seonghee; Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Clermont, Kristen
Although opioid peptides such as methionine (met)-enkephalin have been previously shown to enhance or suppress immune responses, few studies in animal models have addressed the immunomodulatory activity of their metabolic derivatives. Hairless (IAF\\/HA-HO) guinea pigs immunized with Freund’s complete adjuvant containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis and repeatedly skin tested with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) display high levels of stable delayed-type
Robert C. Sizemore; Marta Piva; LeeTerry Moore; Natalia Gordonov; Edward Heilman; Henry P. Godfrey
Growing evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) is a central molecule in several physiological\\u000a functions, ranging from plant development to defence responses. Plants use NO as a signaling molecule\\u000a in pathways comparable to those of mammals, suggesting the existence of many commonalities between the action\\u000a of NO in plants and animals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In this chapter, we examine the mechanisms through which plants respond
Matteo De Stefano; Elodie Vandelle; Annalisa Polverari; Alberto Ferrarini; Massimo Delledonne
summary In tomato and related species, the Cf9 resistance gene induces hypersensitive cell death and activates downstream defence pathways upon recognition of the Avr9 elicitor. We investigated whether the Cf9-Avr9 response without hypersensitive cell death symptoms increases resistance to several fungi. A low Avr9 dose that does not cause hypersensitive cell death was injected in Cf9 tomato and transgenic Cf9 oilseed rape plants. Subsequently, the injected leaves were infected with different fungal pathogens. The disease development of Botrytis cinerea was delayed in Cf9 tomato when the pathogen was inoculated on, or around, the Avr9 injection site. Disease development of Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was delayed on Cf9 oilseed rape plant parts located around the Avr9 injection site. Disease development of Oidium lycopersicum in Cf9 tomato or Erysiphe polygoni in Cf9 oilseed rape was not restricted on leaves injected with Avr9. The Avr9 injection induced systemic resistance to L. maculans and E. polygoni in Cf9 oilseed rape. F(1)(Cf9xAvr9) oilseed rape plants, obtained from crosses of transgenic Cf9x transgenic Avr9 oilseed rape, exhibited higher levels of resistance to L. maculans and E. polygoni but not to S. sclerotiorum, than wild-type plants. F(1)(Cf9xAvr9) plants treated with benzothiadiazole (BTH) did not show elevated levels of expression of some pathogenesis-related genes but developed higher levels of resistance to L. maculans than BTH-treated wild-type plants. This report demonstrates that the hypersensitive cell death which is associated with the Cf9-Avr9 response is not required for quantitative disease resistance. PMID:20569306
Hennin, Caroline; Diederichsen, Elke; Höfte, Monica
The hypersensitive response (HR) is defined as rapid cell collapse at the infection site and often accompanies plant resistance. The physiological processes leading to HR are not well understood. Here, we report an electrophysiological characterization of bacterial HR caused by a single avirulence gene in the absence of other bacterial signals. We used dexamethasone (dex)-inducible transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants containing the avrRpt2 gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. Membrane depolarization in these plants began 1 to 1.5 h after dex application, hours before electrolyte leakage. Progressive depolarization was a sensitive early indicator of HR that occurred only in Arabidopsis leaf cells expressing both avrRpt2 and a functional RPS2 gene. Hyperpolarization of fully depolarized membranes by fusicoccin, a fungal toxin that activates the H(+)-ATPase, indicates that depolarization did not result from a nonfunctional pump or leaky membranes. Depolarization and electrolyte leakage were inhibited in RPS2 plants by the calcium channel blocker LaCl(3), highly correlating these events and suggesting that Ca(2+) entry into cells is required for both. Also correlated were inhibition of depolarization, electrolyte leakage, and HR following salicylic acid pretreatment. In salicylic acid-pretreated RPS2 seedlings, avrRpt2 transcript was produced after dex treatment. However, AvrRpt2 protein accumulation was greatly reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism for inhibition of HR in plants with induced resistance. This experimental system is a very sensitive assay that lends itself to the dissection of physiological processes leading to HR in plants, and provides a baseline for future research within a genetic framework. PMID:15908609
Pike, Sharon M; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Gassmann, Walter
Strategies to manipulate gut microbiota in infancy have been considered to prevent the development of allergic diseases later in life. We previously demonstrated that maternal dietary supplementation with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) during pregnancy and lactation modulated the composition of gut microbiota and diminished the severity of spontaneously developing atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in the offspring of NC/Nga mice. The present study tested whether dietary FOS affects contact hypersensitivity (CHS), another model for allergic skin disease, in NC/Nga mice. In experiment 1, 5-wk-old female NC/Nga mice were fed diets either with or without FOS supplementation for 3 wk and then received 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) on the ear auricle 5 times at 7-d intervals. FOS supplementation reduced CHS response as demonstrated by ear swelling. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNA levels for interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12p40, and IL-17 in the lesional ear skin were significantly lower in mice fed FOS. In experiment 2, female NC/Nga mice were fed diets either with or without FOS during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, offspring were fed the diets supplemented with or without FOS. Three weeks after weaning, offspring received DNFB on the ear auricle 4 times at 7-d intervals. Although FOS supplementation after weaning reduced ear swelling, maternal FOS consumption was ineffective in offspring. The present data suggest that dietary FOS reduces CHS while maternal FOS consumption is ineffective in offspring of DNFB-treated NC/Nga mice. PMID:20924149
Fujiwara, Reiko; Sasajima, Naho; Takemura, Naoki; Ozawa, Keisuke; Nagasaka, Yuki; Okubo, Takuma; Sahasakul, Yuraporn; Watanabe, Jun; Sonoyama, Kei
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also referred to as extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is characterized by non-IgE-mediated inflammation of the parenchyma, alveoli, and terminal airways of the lung initiated by inhaled antigens in a susceptible host. Etiologic agents of HP are either organic high molecular weight compounds such as bacteria, fungi, amoebae, plant, and animal proteins or inorganic low molecular weight haptens such as isocyanate and drugs including amiodarone, nitrofurantoin, and minocycline. Six significant predictors have been identified that provide ?95% diagnostic accuracy. These six predictors are (1) exposure to a known offending allergen, (2) positive precipitating antibodies to the offending antigen, (3) recurrent episodes of symptoms, (4) inspiratory crackles on lung auscultation, (5) symptoms occurring 4-8 hours after exposure, and (6) weight loss. HP is staged into acute, subacute, and chronic. In the acute stage after direct exposure to the antigen, there is fever, chills, nonproductive cough, dyspnea, malaise, and myalgias, all resembling influenza. However, if obtained, a chest radiograph shows nodular infiltrates, and pulmonary function testing is restrictive (unless the cause is avian in which obstruction or obstruction with restriction is present). In the chronic stage, fever and chills are absent, but weight loss can occur. The immunologic response includes activated macrophages and CD8(+) cytotoxic lymphocytes, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid reveals marked lymphocytosis with a ratio of CD4(+) cells to CD8(+) cells <1. Activated macrophages have increased expression of CD80/CD86, and T cells have increased expression of its counter-ligand CD28, evidence for heightened antigen presentation. PMID:22794692
Blatman, Karen Hsu; Grammer, Leslie C
The hypersensitive response (HR) is a form of cell death associated with plant resistance to pathogen infection. Harpin(pss), an elicitor from the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, induces a HR in non-host plants. Previously, we reported an amphipathic protein from sweet pepper interfering with harpin(pss)-mediated HR. In this report, we isolated and characterized a cDNA clone encoded that amphipathic protein from sweet pepper. This protein is designated as PFLP (plant ferredoxin-like protein) by virtue of its high homology with plant ferredoxin protein containing an N-terminal signal peptide responsible for chloroplast targeting and a putative 2Fe-2S domain responsible for redox activity. Recombinant PFLP obtained from Escherichia coli was able to significantly increase active oxygen species (AOS) generation when mixed with harpin(pss) in tobacco suspension cells. It also showed enhanced HR when co-infiltrated with harpin(pss) in tobacco leaves. We used a transgenic tobacco suspension cells system that constitutively expresses the Pflp gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter to study the function of PFLP in enhancing harpin(pss)-mediated hypersensitive cell death in vivo. In response to harpin(pss), suspension cells derived from Pflp transgenic tobacco showed a significant increase both in the generation of AOS and in cell death as compared to the wild type. AOS inhibitors diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI) and lanthanum chlorate (LaCl3) were used to study the involvement of AOS in harpin(pss)-induced cell death. Our results demonstrate enhanced generation of AOS is necessary to cause enhanced hypersensitive cell death in Pflp transgenic tobacco cells and it is plasma membrane-bound NADPH-oxidase-dependent. Sub-cellular localization studies showed that PFLP is present in the cytoplasm and chloroplast of Pflp transgenic tobacco cells, but only in the chloroplast, not in the cytoplasm, of wild-type tobacco cells. It is possible that PFLP can change the redox state of the cell upon harpin(pss) inoculation to increase AOS generation and hypersensitive cell death. Overall, this study will provide a new insight in the functional properties of ferredoxin in hypersensitive cell death. PMID:12777051
Dayakar, Badri Venkata; Lin, Hao-Jan; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Ger, Mang-Jye; Lee, Bor-Heng; Pai, Chia-Hwei; Chow, David; Huang, Hsiang-En; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi; Chung, Mei-Chu; Feng, Teng-Yung
In order to investigate the effect of cis-urocanic acid (UCA) on a delayed-type hypersensitivity response in humans, a contact hypersensitivity reaction was induced on four test sites on the back of 33 volunteer subjects. The first test site was pretreated with cis-UCA immediately before application of the allergen. The second and third test sites were posttreated on the second and third days of the hypersensitivity response with cis-UCA and a class III corticosteroid, respectively. The fourth test site was used as a positive control. The cutaneous blood flow of the test sites was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. Pretreatment with cis-UCA reduced the hypersensitivity response significantly. It is possible that cis-UCA could be used in the preventive treatment of contact hypersensitivity responses. PMID:7487143
van Strien, G A; Korstanje, M J
The most abundant posttranslational modification in nature is the attachment of preassembled high-mannose-type glycans, which determines the fate and localization of the modified protein and modulates the biological functions of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored and N-glycosylated proteins. In eukaryotes, all mannose residues attached to glycoproteins from the luminal side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) derive from the polyprenyl monosaccharide carrier, dolichol P-mannose (Dol-P-Man), which is flipped across the ER membrane to the lumen. We show that in plants, Dol-P-Man is synthesized when Dol-P-Man synthase1 (DPMS1), the catalytic core, interacts with two binding proteins, DPMS2 and DPMS3, that may serve as membrane anchors for DPMS1 or provide catalytic assistance. This configuration is reminiscent of that observed in mammals but is distinct from the single DPMS protein catalyzing Dol-P-Man biosynthesis in bakers’ yeast and protozoan parasites. Overexpression of DPMS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in disorganized stem morphology and vascular bundle arrangements, wrinkled seed coat, and constitutive ER stress response. Loss-of-function mutations and RNA interference–mediated reduction of DPMS1 expression in Arabidopsis also caused a wrinkled seed coat phenotype and most remarkably enhanced hypersensitivity to ammonium that was manifested by extensive chlorosis and a strong reduction of root growth. Collectively, these data reveal a previously unsuspected role of the prenyl-linked carrier pathway for plant development and physiology that may help integrate several aspects of candidate susceptibility genes to ammonium stress.
Jadid, Nurul; Mialoundama, Alexis Samba; Heintz, Dimitri; Ayoub, Daniel; Erhardt, Mathieu; Mutterer, Jerome; Meyer, Denise; Alioua, Abdelmalek; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rahier, Alain; Camara, Bilal; Bouvier, Florence
Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation suppresses T cell-mediated immune responses and induces the formation of suppressor T lymphocytes that prevent the rejection of highly antigenic ultraviolet-induced skin cancers in mice. Tamarind seed xyloglucans and pectinic oligogalacturonides prevent suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity immune responses in mice to Candida albicans and alloantigen caused by a single exposure of ultraviolet radiation. We therefore investigated the ability of these poly/oligosaccharides to prevent suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses and suppressor cell induction during chronic ultraviolet irradiation and to preserve the capacity of ultraviolet-irradiated mice to reject a transplanted, highly antigenic, ultraviolet-induced tumor. C3H/HeN mice were treated 3x per week for 12 wk with 15 kJ per m2 ultraviolet B radiation followed by application of the polysaccharides/ oligosaccharides. The delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to C. albicans and alloantigen were measured after 1, 6, and 12 wk of treatment. Following the 12th wk of treatment the remaining mice were injected with the highly antigenic ultraviolet-induced, syngeneic tumor cell line UV5497-5. The polysaccharides/oligosaccharides protected delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to C. albicans but not contact hypersensitivity responses to dinitrofluorobenzene for up to 6 wk of ultraviolet radiation after which protection declined and suppressor cells were observed. In contrast, the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to alloantigen was preserved for the entire 12 wk of ultraviolet irradiation. Despite protection of immunity to alloantigen, the transplanted tumor cells grew equally well in all ultraviolet-irradiated animals. These results indicate that delayed-type hypersensitivity responses are heterogeneous and that delayed-type hypersensitivity to alloantigen is not a surrogate marker for rejection of ultraviolet-induced skin tumors. PMID:11168799
Strickland, F M; Sun, Y; Darvill, A; Eberhard, S; Pauly, M; Albersheim, P
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of global environmental concern because they cause many health problems including cancer and inflammation of tissue in humans. Plants are important in removing PAHs from the atmosphere; yet, information on the physiology, cell and molecular biology, and biochemis- try of PAH stress responses in plants is lacking. The PAH stress response was studied in Arabidopsis
Merianne Alkio; Tomoko M. Tabuchi; Xuchen Wang; Adan Colon-Carmona
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of global environmental concern because they cause many health problems including cancer and inflammation of tissue in humans. Plants are important in removing PAHs from the atmosphere; yet, information on the physiology, cell and molecular biology, and biochemistry of PAH stress responses in plants is lacking. The PAH stress response was studied in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to the three-ring aromatic compound, phenanthrene. Morphological symptoms of PAH stress were growth reduction of the root and shoot, deformed trichomes, reduced root hairs, chlorosis, late flowering, and the appearance of white spots, which later developed into necrotic lesions. At the tissue and cellular levels, plants experienced oxidative stress. This was indicated by localized H2O2 production and cell death, which were detected using 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine and trypan blue staining, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectrometry analyses showed that phenanthrene is internalized by the plant. Gene expression of the cell wall-loosening protein expansin was repressed, whereas gene expression of the pathogenesis related protein PR1 was induced in response to PAH exposure. These findings show that (i) Arabidopsis takes up phenanthrene, suggesting possible degradation in plants, (ii) a PAH response in plants and animals may share similar stress mechanisms, since in animal cells detoxification of PAHs also results in oxidative stress, and (iii) plant specific defence mechanisms contribute to PAH stress response in Arabidopsis. PMID:16207747
Alkio, Merianne; Tabuchi, Tomoko M; Wang, Xuchen; Colón-Carmona, Adán
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merill, cv. Williams 82) plants and cell cultures respond to avirulent pathogens with a hypersensitive reaction. After inoculation of soybean with Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, carrying the avirulence gene avrA, or zoospores from the fungus Phytophthora sojae Race 1, a resistance-gene-dependent cell death programme is activated. A new gene was identified by differential display of mRNAs
Andrea A. Ludwig; Raimund Tenhaken
AIM: To examine the effects of tegaserod, a serotonin (5-HT) 4 receptor partial agonist, on abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) to rectal distention (RD) and c-Fos expression in limbic system. METHODS: Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats randomly received colonic irritation by acetic acid from postnatal day 8 to d 21 as a visceral hypersensitive model (group H) or by intrarectal saline as a
Hong-Mei Jiao; Peng-Yan Xie
Hypersensitivity reactions to corticosteroids (CS) are rare in the general population, but they are not uncommon in high-risk groups such as patients who receive repeated doses of CS. Hypersensitivity reactions to steroids are broadly divided into two categories: immediate reactions, typically occurring within 1 h of drug administration, and non-immediate reactions, which manifest more than an hour after drug administration. The latter group is more common. We reviewed the literature using the search terms "hypersensitivity to steroids, adverse effects of steroids, steroid allergy, allergic contact dermatitis, corticosteroid side effects, and type I hypersensitivity" to identify studies or clinical reports of steroid hypersensitivity. We discuss the prevalence, mechanism, presentation, evaluation, and therapeutic options in corticosteroid hypersensitivity reactions. There is a paucity of literature on corticosteroid allergy, with most reports being case reports. Most reports involve non-systemic application of corticosteroids. Steroid hypersensitivity has been associated with type I IgE-mediated allergy including anaphylaxis. The overall prevalence of type I steroid hypersensitivity is estimated to be 0.3-0.5 %. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the most commonly reported non-immediate hypersensitivity reaction and usually follows topical CS application. Atopic dermatitis and stasis dermatitis of the lower extremities are risk factors for the development of ACD from topical CS. Patients can also develop hypersensitivity reactions to nasal, inhaled, oral, and parenteral CS. A close and detailed evaluation is required for the clinician to confirm the presence of a true hypersensitivity reaction to the suspected drug and choose the safest alternative. Choosing an alternative CS is not only paramount to the patient's safety but also ameliorates the worry of developing an allergic, and potentially fatal, steroid hypersensitivity reaction. This evaluation becomes especially important in high-risk groups where steroids are a life-saving treatment. The assessment should be done when the patient's underlying condition is in a quiescent state. PMID:23567983
Vatti, Rani R; Ali, Fatima; Teuber, Suzanne; Chang, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric
A hallmark of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans is depression of the immune system characterized by poor inflammatory responses and loss of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses. T-suppressor cell (Ts) responses, elicited by the capsular polysaccharide (GXM) of the organism, are known to develop during infection. This study was undertaken to develop a method to inhibit the anti-GXM Ts response and thereby study the influence of the Ts response on immune responsiveness and survival in cryptococcosis. Antigen-presenting cells (APC), elicited with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), were treated in vitro with GXM (GXM-APC). The GXM-APC were injected intravenously into normal mice. These mice were resistant to induction of anti-GXM Ts cells when soluble GXM was administered in tolerogenic doses or when animals were infected with C. neoformans. Inhibition of the anti-GXM Ts response was specific to GXM as levan-APC did not inhibit induction of anti-GXM Ts cells. Inhibition of the anti-GXM Ts response could not be attributed to increased clearance of GXM due to induction of anti-GXM antibodies or other mechanisms. Anti-cryptococcal DTH responses were lost in mice by the second week of infection. However, treatment with GXM-APC, but not levan-APC, allowed mice to maintain their DTH response. GXM-APC pretreatment enhanced survival of infected mice compared with mice pretreated with levan-APC. These results show that GXM-APC induces immune responses that inhibit the induction of Ts responses and enhances DTH responses in infected mice. These responses correlate with enhanced survival after cryptococcal infection.
Blackstock, R; Casadevall, A
Biotic stress in plants frequently induces a hypersensitive response (HR). This distinctive reaction has been studied intensively in several pathosystems and has shed light on the biology of defence signalling. Compared with microbial pathogens, relatively little is known about the role of the HR in defence against insects. Reference genotype A17 of Medicago truncatula Gaertn., a model legume, responds to aphids of the genus Acyrthosiphon with necrotic lesions resembling a HR. In this study, the biochemical nature of this response, its mode of inheritance, and its relationship with defence against aphids were investigated. The necrotic lesion phenotype and resistance to the bluegreen aphid (BGA, Acyrthosiphon kondoi Shinji) and the pea aphid (PA, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)) were analysed using reference genotypes A17 and A20, their F(2) progeny and recombinant inbred lines. BGA-induced necrotic lesions co-localized with the production of H(2)O(2), consistent with an oxidative burst widely associated with hypersensitivity. This HR correlated with stronger resistance to BGA in A17 than in A20; these phenotypes cosegregated as a semi-dominant gene, AIN (Acyrthosiphon-induced necrosis). In contrast to BGA, stronger resistance to PA in A17, compared with A20, did not cosegregate with a PA-induced HR. The AIN locus resides in a cluster of sequences predicted to encode the CC-NBS-LRR subfamily of resistance proteins. AIN-mediated resistance presents a novel opportunity to use a model plant and model aphid to study the role of the HR in defence responses to phloem-feeding insects. PMID:19690018
Klingler, John P; Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Edwards, Owain R; Singh, Karam B
In the experiments on male Wistar rats a study was made on the effect of acute 6-h immobilization stress on antibody formation, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), functional activity of phagocytes in the case of a local form of immune response to sheep red blood cells at the background of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. It was established that immobilization stress resulted in substantial inhibition of the expressibility of immune inflammation in the case of DTH, cancellation of an increase of the phagocytic activity of macrophages of the regional lymph node and the level of antibodies. The blockade of the beta-adrenergic receptors with propranolol antagonized with these effects of stress. After termination of the immobilization, activation of neutrophil phagocytosis was detected, this being related to an increase of neutrophil immigration from the bone marrow. Eosinophilic phagocytosis at the early period of stress was inhibited, the blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors canceled this effect. PMID:12687230
Shilov, Juri I.; Gein, Sergei V.; Chereshnev, Valery A.
KEY MESSAGE : TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 play positive roles in resistance to the stripe rust fungus via inducing HR and regulating defense-related genes, but are negatively regulated by various abiotic stimuli. Plant hypersensitive-induced reaction (HIR) genes are known to be associated with the hypersensitive response and disease defense. In wheat, two HIR genes, TaHIR1 and TaHIR3, have been identified and found to be up-regulated after infection with the stripe rust fungus. Here, we further determined their roles in defense against abiotic stresses and the stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 proteins were localized in the plasma membrane of tobacco cells. The expression of TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 was reduced by the environmental stimuli, including low temperature, drought, and high salinity stresses. In addition, the expression of TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 was down-regulated by exogenously applied ethrel and abscisic acid, whereas expression was not affected by treatments with salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate. Furthermore, barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing of TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 reduced resistance in wheat cultivar Suwon11 against an avirulent stripe rust pathotype CYR23 and area of necrotic cells neighboring the infection sites, and altered the expression levels of defense-related genes. These results suggest that TaHIR1 and TaHIR3 function positively in the incompatible interaction of wheat-stripe rust fungus, but exhibit negative transcriptional response to abiotic stresses. PMID:23111787
Duan, Yinghui; Guo, Jun; Shi, Xuexia; Guan, Xiangnan; Liu, Furong; Bai, Pengfei; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng
SUPERNATANTS FROM THE ULTRAVIOLET-IRRADIATED KERATINOCYTES DECREASE THE RESISTANCE AND DELAYED-TYPE HYPERSENSITIVITY RESPONSE TO MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS BACILLUS CALMETTE-GUERIN IN MICE AND IMPAIR THE PHAGOCYTIC ABILITY OF MACROPHAGES
Recently, we demonstrated that exposure of mice to a single high does or to multiple smaller doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation decreased the induction of the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to Mycobacterium bovis-BCG injected into unexposed sites. In view of the li...
The PAX6 gene plays a crucial role in development of the eye, brain, olfactory system and endocrine pancreas. Consistent with its pleiotropic role the gene exhibits a complex developmental expression pattern which is subject to strict spatial, temporal and quantitative regulation. Control of expression depends on a large array of cis-elements residing in an extended genomic domain around the coding region of the gene. The minimal essential region required for proper regulation of this complex locus has been defined through analysis of human aniridia-associated breakpoints and YAC transgenic rescue studies of the mouse smalleye mutant. We have carried out a systematic DNase I hypersensitive site (HS) analysis across 200 kb of this critical region of mouse chromosome 2E3 to identify putative regulatory elements. Mapping the identified HSs onto a percent identity plot (PIP) shows many HSs correspond to recognisable genomic features such as evolutionarily conserved sequences, CpG islands and retrotransposon derived repeats. We then focussed on a region previously shown to contain essential long range cis-regulatory information, the Pax6 downstream regulatory region (DRR), allowing comparison of mouse HS data with previous human HS data for this region. Reporter transgenic mice for two of the HS sites, HS5 and HS6, show that they function as tissue specific regulatory elements. In addition we have characterised enhancer activity of an ultra-conserved cis-regulatory region located near Pax6, termed E60. All three cis-elements exhibit multiple spatio-temporal activities in the embryo that overlap between themselves and other elements in the locus. Using a deletion set of YAC reporter transgenic mice we demonstrate functional interdependence of the elements. Finally, we use the HS6 enhancer as a marker for the migration of precerebellar neuro-epithelium cells to the hindbrain precerebellar nuclei along the posterior and anterior extramural streams allowing visualisation of migratory defects in both pathways in Pax6Sey/Sey mice.
McBride, David J.; Buckle, Adam; van Heyningen, Veronica; Kleinjan, Dirk A.
The PAX6 gene plays a crucial role in development of the eye, brain, olfactory system and endocrine pancreas. Consistent with its pleiotropic role the gene exhibits a complex developmental expression pattern which is subject to strict spatial, temporal and quantitative regulation. Control of expression depends on a large array of cis-elements residing in an extended genomic domain around the coding region of the gene. The minimal essential region required for proper regulation of this complex locus has been defined through analysis of human aniridia-associated breakpoints and YAC transgenic rescue studies of the mouse smalleye mutant. We have carried out a systematic DNase I hypersensitive site (HS) analysis across 200 kb of this critical region of mouse chromosome 2E3 to identify putative regulatory elements. Mapping the identified HSs onto a percent identity plot (PIP) shows many HSs correspond to recognisable genomic features such as evolutionarily conserved sequences, CpG islands and retrotransposon derived repeats. We then focussed on a region previously shown to contain essential long range cis-regulatory information, the Pax6 downstream regulatory region (DRR), allowing comparison of mouse HS data with previous human HS data for this region. Reporter transgenic mice for two of the HS sites, HS5 and HS6, show that they function as tissue specific regulatory elements. In addition we have characterised enhancer activity of an ultra-conserved cis-regulatory region located near Pax6, termed E60. All three cis-elements exhibit multiple spatio-temporal activities in the embryo that overlap between themselves and other elements in the locus. Using a deletion set of YAC reporter transgenic mice we demonstrate functional interdependence of the elements. Finally, we use the HS6 enhancer as a marker for the migration of precerebellar neuro-epithelium cells to the hindbrain precerebellar nuclei along the posterior and anterior extramural streams allowing visualisation of migratory defects in both pathways in Pax6(Sey/Sey) mice. PMID:22220192
McBride, David J; Buckle, Adam; van Heyningen, Veronica; Kleinjan, Dirk A
In the present work we have studied the accumulation of gentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, a metabolic derivative of salicylic acid, SA) in the plant-pathogen systems, Cucumis sativus and Gynura aurantiaca, infected with either prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) or the exocortis viroid (CEVd), respectively. Both pathogens produced systemic infections and accumulated large amounts of the intermediary signal molecule gentisic acid as ascertained by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) coupled on line with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compound was found mostly in a conjugated (beta-glucoside) form. Gentisic acid has also been found to accumulate (although at lower levels) in cucumber inoculated with low doses of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, producing a nonnecrotic reaction. In contrast, when cucumber was inoculated with high doses of this pathogen, a hypersensitive reaction occurred, but no gentisic-acid signal was induced. This is consistent with our results supporting the idea that gentisic-acid signaling may be restricted to nonnecrotizing reactions of the host plant (Bellés et al. in Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 12:227-235, 1999). In cucumber and Gynura plants, the activity of gentisic acid as inducing signal was different to that of SA, thus confirming the data found for tomato. Exogenously supplied gentisic acid was able to induce peroxidase activity in both Gynura and cucumber plants in a similar way as SA or pathogens. However, gentisic-acid treatments strongly induced polyphenol oxidase activity in cucumber, whereas pathogen infection or SA treatment resulted in a lower induction of this enzyme. Nevertheless, gentisic acid did not induce other defensive proteins which are induced by SA in these plants. This indicates that gentisic acid could act as an additional signal to SA for the activation of plant defenses in cucumber and Gynura plants. PMID:16331468
Bellés, José M; Garro, Rafael; Pallás, Vicente; Fayos, Joaquín; Rodrigo, Ismael; Conejero, Vicente
Recent mass mortalities among several marine mammal populations have led to speculation about increased susceptibility to viral infections as a result of contaminant-induced immunosuppression. In a 2.5-year study, we fed herring from either the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean or the contaminated Baltic Sea to two groups of captive harbor seals and monitored immune function in the seals. Seals fed the contaminated fish were less able to mount a specific immunological response to ovalbumin, as measured by in vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions and antibody responses. The skin reaction to this protein antigen was characterized by the appearance of mononuclear cells which peaked at 24 hr after intradermal administration, characteristic of DTH reactions in other animals studied. These DTH responses correlated well with in vitro tests of T-lymphocyte function, implicating this cell type in the reaction. Aryl-hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-dependent toxic equivalent (TEQ) profiles in blubber biopsies taken from the seals implicated polychlorinated biphenyls rather than dioxins or furans in the observed immunosuppression. Marine mammal populations currently inhabiting polluted coastal environments in Europe and North America may therefore have an increased susceptibility to infections, and pollution may have played a role in recent virus-induced mass mortalities. Images p162-a Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 3. Figure 4.
Ross, P S; De Swart, R L; Reijnders, P J; Van Loveren, H; Vos, J G; Osterhaus, A D
Previous, in vivo experiments have shown that an appropriate hormonal environment (high plasma insulin, low plasma glucagon) was unable to induce the accumulation of glucokinase mRNA in term fetal rat liver, whereas it was very efficient in the newly born rat. We have confirmed in the present study that insulin induced the accumulation of glucokinase mRNA in cultured hepatocytes from 1-day-old newborn rats, but not in cultured hepatocytes from 21-day-old fetuses. To identify regulatory regions of the glucokinase gene involved in the insulin response, we have scanned the glucokinase locus for DNase I hypersensitive sites in its in vivo conformation. We confirmed the presence of four liver-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites located in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Moreover, two additional hypersensitive sites, located at 2.5 kb and 3.5 kb upstream of the cap site were found but none of these new sites displayed inducibility by insulin. Finally, an increase of the sensitivity of hypersensitive site-1 and hypersensitive site-2 to DNase I correlates with the ability of insulin to induce glucokinase gene expression in cultured hepatocytes from 1-day-old rats, as observed in previous in vivo studies. This suggests that neither a prior exposure to insulin nor a simple aging of the fetal cells in the presence of the hormone in culture are instrumental for the full DNase-I hypersensitivity of the two proximal sites necessary for the neonatal response of the glucokinase gene to insulin. The proximal hypersensitive site-1, which is close to the transcription start site in the liver, does coincide with a sequence (designated IRSL) that is 80% identical to the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase IRS and with a DNase-I footprint that has been identified overlapping this sequence. Nevertheless, functional analysis of this sequence suggested that it is unlikely that the insulin-response sequence like alone is sufficient to mediate the transcriptional effect of insulin on the hepatic glucokinase gene. PMID:8617267
Parsa, R; Decaux, J F; Bossard, P; Robey, B R; Magnuson, M A; Granner, D K; Girard, J
Ibuprofen is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID). With the aging of the population, there will be a significant increase in the prevalence of painful degenerative and inflammatory rheumatic conditions. This increase likely will lead to a parallel increase in the use of NSAIDs, including ibuprofen. The primary effect of the NSAIDs is to inhibit cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin synthase), thereby impairing the ultimate transformation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and thromboxanes. Although in the majority of cases it is safe, this NSAID, ibuprofen, can produce an unpredictable, idiosyncratic, type B reaction that may pose a major concern in clinical practice. Type B reactions are known to occur in susceptible individuals. The true hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a systemic disease defined by the triad of fever, rash, and internal organ involvement that starts 1 day to 12 weeks after the initiation of therapy. HSR has limited the therapeutic use of many drugs, including ibuprofen. Hypersensitivity syndrome associated with ibuprofen is a host-dependent drug reaction that is idiosyncratic in nature. This reaction likely is caused by a combination of metabolic and immunologic factors. Immune mediated components, such as T-cell and their products cytokines and chemokines, can exacerbate cellular responses and create complex pathways that lead to a variety of clinical manifestations. Our review presents an ibuprofen-induced clinical manifestation of hypersensitivity syndrome and the necessity of wisely monitoring the patients clinically and by laboratory investigations when prescribing this drug. PMID:20478543
Nanau, Radu M; Neuman, Manuela G
Two families are described in which seven members of a total of 19 were found to have hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to avian antigens. Diagnosis was made on the basis of characteristic roentgenologic changes together with respiratory function and immunologic studies. The latter included screening for precipitins, macrophage migration inhibition (MMI) to specific antigens in avian serum and droppings, quantitation of immunoglobulin and alpha1 antitrypsin (AAT) levels and assessment of the complement system. Specific precipitins to pigeon and/or budgerigar serum were found in the serum of only four of the seven patients. Six of these seven patients, however, had a positive MMI. Thus, the MMI test, at least in this group of patients appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of active disease. The finding of seven members of two families with disease led to a search for predisposing factors, either genetic or environmental. Evidence for a genetic predisposition came from tissue typing studies. In the first family, both paternal haplotypes were associated with disease; the maternal haplotype HLA3,7 was not inherited by any child with disease. In the second family, the disease developed in three of four members with the haplotype HL-A2,W15, who were significantly exposed to avian antigen. In the light of recent studies showing an association between immune response (Ir) genes, histocompatibility antigens and disease susceptibility, these findings were interpreted as possible evidence for a subtle genetically linked immune defect in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Evidence for an environmental predisposition was less clear cut, but it is interesting that members of both families used a gamma isomer of hexachlorobenzene (Nickoff) to eradicate mite infestations in their birds which might have damaged the bronchial mucosa or acted as an immunologic adjuvant in a person with underlying susceptibility to disease. The presence of subclinical respiratory disease in two family members is reported, and the importance of performing a range of investigations of respiratory function in order to detect disease and monitor its progress is emphasized. PMID:1080953
Allen, D H; Basten, A; Williams, G V; Woolcock, A J
ABSTRACT for 2001 DMS213 TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE (TMA) HYPERSENSITIVITY IN MICE AFTER DERMAL AND INTRATRACHEAL (IT) EXPOSURES. E Boykin, M Ward, MJ Selgrade, and D Sailstad. NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA. TMA causes respiratory hypersensitivity (RH) responses. W...
This paper describes the identification of a new class of extracellular bacterial proteins, typified by PopA1 and its derivative PopA3, which act as specific hypersensitive response (HR) elicitors. These two heat-stable proteins, with HR-like elicitor activities on tobacco (non-host plant) but without activity on tomato (host plant), have been characterized from the supernatant of the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas solanacearum strain GMI1000. These two proteins induced the same pattern of response on Petunia, as a function of the genotypes tested. popA, the structural gene for PopA1, maps outside of the hrp gene cluster but belongs to the hrp regulon. The amino acid sequence of PopA1 does not show homology to any characterized proteins. Its secretion is dependent on hrp genes and is followed by stepwise removal of the 93 amino-terminal amino acids, producing the protein PopA3. Petunia lines responsive to PopA3 and its precursors were resistant to infection by strain GMI1000, whereas non-responsive lines were sensitive, suggesting that popA could be an avirulence gene. A popA mutant remained fully pathogenic on sensitive plants, indicating that this gene is not essential for pathogenicity. While lacking PopA1, this mutant, which remained avirulent on tobacco and on resistant Petunia lines, still produced additional extracellular necrogenic compounds. On the basis of both their structural features and the biological properties of the popA mutant, PopA1 and PopA3 clearly differ from hairpins characterized in other plant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:8313899
Arlat, M; Van Gijsegem, F; Huet, J C; Pernollet, J C; Boucher, C A
The partially dominant, autoactive maize disease resistance gene Rp1-D21 causes hypersensitive response (HR) lesions to form spontaneously on leaves and stems in the absence of pathogen recognition. The maize nested association mapping (NAM) population consists of 25 200-line subpopulations each derived from a cross between the maize line B73 and one of 25 diverse inbred lines. By crossing a line carrying the Rp1-D21 gene with lines from three of these subpopulations and assessing the F(1) progeny, we were able to map several novel loci that modify the maize HR, using both single-population quantitative trait locus (QTL) and joint analysis of all three populations. Joint analysis detected QTL in greater number and with greater confidence and precision than did single population analysis. In particular, QTL were detected in bins 1.02, 4.04, 9.03, and 10.03. We have previously termed this technique, in which a mutant phenotype is used as a "reporter" for a trait of interest, Mutant-Assisted Gene Identification and Characterization (MAGIC). PMID:21792633
Chaikam, Vijay; Negeri, Adisu; Dhawan, Rahul; Puchaka, Bala; Ji, Jiabing; Chintamanani, Satya; Gachomo, Emma W; Zillmer, Allen; Doran, Timothy; Weil, Cliff; Balint-Kurti, Peter; Johal, Guri
The hypersensitive response (HR) of disease-resistant plant cells to fungal invasion is a rapid cell death that has some features in common with programmed cell death (apoptosis) in animals. We investigated the role of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in the HR of cowpea to the cowpea rust fungus. By using confocal laser scanning microscopy in conjunction with a calcium reporter dye, we found a slow, prolonged elevation of [Ca2+]i in epidermal cells of resistant but not susceptible plants as the fungus grew through the cell wall. [Ca2+]i levels declined to normal levels as the fungus entered and grew within the cell lumen. This elevation was related to the stage of fungal growth and not to the speed of initiation of subsequent cell death. Elevated [Ca2+]i levels also represent the first sign of the HR detectable in this cowpea-cowpea rust fungus system. The increase in [Ca2+]i was prevented by calcium channnel inhibitors. This effect was consistent with pharmacological tests in which these inhibitors delayed the HR. The data suggest that elevation of [Ca2+]i is involved in signal transduction leading to the HR during rust fungal infection.
Xu, H; Heath, MC
Hypersensitive response (HR) cell death upon plant virus infection is an excellent plant strategy for inhibiting viral movement and obtaining systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against further infection. Various host factors are involved in these HR processes, either directly as viral resistance proteins or indirectly. We characterized a gene encoding the CaBtf3 [?-nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC) subunit] of NAC from the hot pepper plant. NAC contacts nascent polypeptides to prevent aggregation and degradation of newly synthesized proteins by controlling cotranslational protein folding. CaBtf3 protein fused to green fluorescent protein predominantly localized to the nucleus. Silencing phenotype of CaBtf3 upon the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-P(0) inoculation exhibited reduced HR cell death and decreased expression of some HR-associated genes, but increased TMV coat protein levels compared with TRV2 control plants. Furthermore, silencing of NbBtf3, a highly homologous gene of CaBtf3, also led to the reduced Bax- and Pto-mediated cell death. The results indicate that CaBtf3 might be involved in HR cell death and could function as a transcription factor in the nucleus by transcriptional regulation of HR-related gene expression. PMID:22209846
Huh, Sung Un; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Paek, Kyung-Hee
Chronic abdominal pain is a common gastrointestinal symptom experienced by patients. We have previously shown that IBS patients with visceral hypersensitivity also have evidence of thermal hypersensitivity of the hand and foot that is reversed by rectal lidocaine jelly. We have also recently developed an animal model of chronic visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in rats treated with intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of intracolonic lidocaine on visceral/somatic hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats. A total of 20 hypersensitive rats received either 20 mg intracolonic lidocaine (n = 10) or saline jelly (n = 10). In comparison to saline jelly, intracolonic lidocaine jelly reduced responses to nociceptive visceral/somatic stimuli in hypersensitive rats. The effects were present within 5–30 min after administration of lidocaine and lasted for 6 h. Lidocaine had no effects on recovered rats or control rats that had originally been treated with intracolonic saline instead of TNBS. Local anesthetic blockade of peripheral impulse input from the colon reduces both visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats, similar to results in IBS patients. The results provide further evidence that visceral and secondary somatic hypersensitivity in a subset of TNBS-treated rats reflect central sensitization mechanisms maintained by tonic impulse input from the colon. This study evaluates the reversal of visceral/somatic hypersensitivity in a subset of TNBS-treated rats with intracolonic lidocaine. This animal model may be used in the future to study the mechanisms of local anesthetic agents applied to the gut to reduce visceral pain.
Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D.; Verne, G. Nicholas
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized, in part, by sensory abnormalities. It is well established that most if not all patients with autism have problems with auditory processing, ranging from deafness to hyperacusis, and physiological testing of auditory function (i.e. auditory brain stem responses) implicates brain stem dysfunction in autism. Additionally, previous research from this lab has revealed significantly fewer auditory brain stem neurons in autistic subjects as young as 2 years of age. These observations have led us to hypothesize that objective, noninvasive measures of auditory function can be used as an early screening tool to identify neonates with an elevated risk of carrying a diagnosis of autism. Here, we provide a detailed quantitative investigation of the acoustic stapedial reflex (ASR), a three- or four-neuron brain stem circuit, in young autistic subjects and normal developing controls. Indeed, we find significantly lower thresholds, responses occurring at significantly longer latency and right-left asymmetry in autistic subjects. The results from this investigation support deficits in auditory function as a cardinal feature of autism and suggest that individuals with autism can be identified by their ASR responses. Autism Res 2013, ??: ??-??. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23825093
Lukose, Richard; Brown, Kevin; Barber, Carol M; Kulesza, Randy Joseph
The cultivated tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum) is susceptible to powdery mildew ( Oidium lycopersicum). Six accessions of three related Lycopersicon species show high levels of resistance (Lindhout et al., 1994b). The present research aimed at describing the development of O. lycopersicum on susceptible cv Moneymaker and characterizing the defence response to O. lycopersicum in Lycopersicon accessions by histological analysis. Spore
Cai-Cheng Huang; Ton Groot; Fien Meijer-Dekens; Rients E. Niks; Pim Lindhout
The growth of a coffee orange rust fungus (Hemileia vastatrix Berk and Br.) isolate (race II) and the sequence of responses it induced in leaves of resistant Coffea arabica L. and C. congensis Froehner as well as on a susceptible C. arabica were investigated cytologically and biochemically. The percentages of germinated urediospores and of appressoria formed over stomata as well
M. C. Silva; M. Nicole; L. Guerra-GuimarĂes; C. J. Rodrigues
Two phenotypically distinct T cells are involved in ultraviolet-irradiated urocanic acid-induced suppression of the efferent delayed-type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 in vivo
When UVB-irradiated urocanic acid, the putative photoreceptor/mediator for UVB suppression, is administered to mice it induces a dose-dependent suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1), of similar magnitude to that induced by UV irradiation of mice. In this study, the efferent suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by UV-irradiated urocanic acid is demonstrated to be due to 2 phenotypically distinct T cells, (Thy1+, L3T4-, Ly2+) and (Thy1+, L3T4+, Ly2-). The suppression is specific for HSV-1. This situation parallels the generation of 2 distinct T-suppressor cells for HSV-1 by UV irradiation of mice and provides further evidence for the involvement of urocanic acid in the generation of UVB suppression.
Ross, J.A.; Howie, S.E.; Norval, M.; Maingay, J.
Disease resistance is associated with a plant defense response that involves an integrated set of signal transduction pathways. Changes in the expression patterns of 2,375 selected genes were examined simultaneously by cDNA microarray analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana after inoculation with an incompatible fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola or treatment with the defense-related signaling molecules salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MJ), or ethylene. Substantial changes (up- and down-regulation) in the steady-state abundance of 705 mRNAs were observed in response to one or more of the treatments, including known and putative defense-related genes and 106 genes with no previously described function or homology. In leaf tissue inoculated with A. brassicicola, the abundance of 168 mRNAs was increased more than 2.5-fold, whereas that of 39 mRNAs was reduced. Similarly, the abundance of 192, 221, and 55 mRNAs was highly (>2.5-fold) increased after treatment with SA, MJ, and ethylene, respectively. Data analysis revealed a surprising level of coordinated defense responses, including 169 mRNAs regulated by multiple treatments/defense pathways. The largest number of genes coinduced (one of four induced genes) and corepressed was found after treatments with SA and MJ. In addition, 50% of the genes induced by ethylene treatment were also induced by MJ treatment. These results indicated the existence of a substantial network of regulatory interactions and coordination occurring during plant defense among the different defense signaling pathways, notably between the salicylate and jasmonate pathways that were previously thought to act in an antagonistic fashion.
Schenk, Peer M.; Kazan, Kemal; Wilson, Iain; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Richmond, Todd; Somerville, Shauna C.; Manners, John M.
Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food.
Daniel A Ramirez Jr; Sami L Bahna
Tooth sensitivity is a very common clinical presentation which can cause considerable concern for patients. This condition is frequently encountered by periodontists, dentists, hygienists and dental therapists. The management of this condition requires a good understanding of the complexity of the problem, as well as the variety of treatments available. This review considers the aetiology, incidence and management of dentinal hypersensitivity. PMID:17037886
Bartold, P M
A substrate for a hypersensitive assay of ribonucleo- lytic activity was developed in a systematic manner. This substrate is based on the fluorescence quenching of fluorescein held in proximity to rhodamine by a single ribonucleotide embedded within a series of deoxynucleotides. When the substrate is cleaved, the fluorescence of fluorescein is manifested. The optimal substrate is a tetranucleotide with a
Bradley R. Kelemen; A. Klink; M ark A. Behlke; Shad R. Eubanks; Peter A. Leland; Ronald T. Raines
Four patients are described who developed granulomatous reactions in the red portions of their tattoos. Histopathological and immunofluorescence studies showed features of lichen planus. Mercury was identified in only one patient's lesion, and hypersensitivity to mercury was shown by patch testing in one other patient. Tattooing may provide a localised antigenic challenge resulting in spontaneously occurring lichen planus.
A Taaffe; A G Knight; R Marks
An hpa1 gene was cloned into an expression vector, pET30a(+), from the genomic DNA of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag), the causal agent of soybean bacterial pustule, with degenerated primers by polymerase amplification reaction (PCR). The gene product was extracted from the conjugate (BHR-3) of BL21 (DES) with the recombined vector pHR3 after the engineering strain was induced by IPTG in LB medium. The SDS-PAGE gel showed that the gene product was 15.1kD. The product was heat-stable (10 min at 100 degrees C), protease K sensitive, and able to trigger hypersensitive response (HR) in common tobacco, but was unable to elicit HR in NahG transgenic tobacco in which salicylic acid accumulation was abolished. Moreover, the HR elicitation of the protein in tobacco was dispelled by eukayotic metabolic inhibitors, actinomycin D, cycloheximide and LaCl3. The 402 bp hpa1 gene in this study putatively encoded a 133 ammonia acid protein of which glycine (G) was rich with 21.1%. Sequence comparison indicated that the hpa1 gene and its protein was 51.4% - 93.8% identity with those of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and other Xanthomonas species and pathovars. Alignments of harpin proteins of Xanthomonas genus displayed that the glycine-rich region with GGG-GG motif was variable. The comparison also showed that the harpin-encoding gene of Xag (nominated here as hpa1(Xag)) did not possess any similarity with that of Erwinia amylovora, Pseudomonas syringae and Ralstonia solanacearum at nucleotide and protein levels. It is concluded that hpa1(Xag) gene encodes an harpin protein which elicits a typical HR in nonhost tobacco. PMID:16245857
Chen, Gong-You; Zhang, Bing; Wu, Xiao-Min; Zhao, Mei-Qin
A cosmid clone isolated from a genomic library of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61 restored to all Tn5 mutants of this strain studied the ability to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. Cosmid pHIR11 also enabled Escherichia coli TB1 to elicit an HR-like reaction when high levels of inoculum (10(9) cells per ml) were infiltrated into tobacco leaves. The cosmid, which contains a 31-kilobase DNA insert, was mobilized by triparental matings into Pseudomonas fluorescens 55 (a nonpathogen that normally causes no plant reactions), P. syringae pv. syringae 226 (a tomato pathogen that causes the HR in tobacco), and P. syringae pv. tabaci (a tobacco pathogen that causes the HR in tomato). The plant reaction phenotypes of all of the transconjugants were altered. P. fluorescens(pHIR11) caused the HR in tobacco and tomato leaves and stimulated an apparent proton influx in suspension-cultured tobacco cells that was indistinguishable from the proton influx caused by incompatible pathogenic pseudomonads. P. syringae pv. tabaci(pHIR11) and P. syringae pv. syringae 226(pHIR11) elicited the HR rather than disease symptoms on their respective hosts and were no longer pathogenic. pHIR11 was mutagenized with TnphoA (Tn5 IS50L::phoA). One randomly chosen mutant, pHIR11-18, no longer conferred the HR phenotype to P. fluorescens. The mutation was marker-exchanged into the genomes of P. syringae pv. syringae strains 61 and 226. The TnphoA insertions in the two pseudomonads abolished their ability to elicit any plant reactions in all plants tested. The results indicate that a relatively small portion of the P. syringae genome is sufficient for the elicitation of plant reactions. Images
Huang, H C; Schuurink, R; Denny, T P; Atkinson, M M; Baker, C J; Yucel, I; Hutcheson, S W; Collmer, A
Hypersensitivity to estrogens and progestogens is often undiagnosed. The condition has many manifestations, including premenstrual syndrome, dysmenorrhea, and impaired fertility. Diagnosis is confirmed by skin testing for inflammatory responses to small doses of the hormone, and desensitization with small doses of the hormone is the most appropriate form of management. PMID:21641594
Itsekson, Alek M; Seidman, Daniel S; Zolti, Matityahu; Alesker, Michael; Carp, Howard J A
Hypersensitivity to suture anchor is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case in which hypersensitivity to suture anchor was strongly suspected. The right rotator cuff of a 50-year-old woman was repaired with a metal suture anchor. Three weeks after the surgery, she developed erythema around her face, trunk, and hands, accompanied by itching. Infection was unlikely because no abnormalities were detected by blood testing or by medical examination. Suspicious of a metallic allergy, a dermatologist performed a patch testing 6 months after the first surgery. The patient had negative reactions to tests for titanium, aluminum, and vanadium, which were the principal components of the suture anchor. The anchor was removed 7 months after the first surgery, and the erythema disappeared immediately. When allergic symptoms occur and persist after the use of a metal anchor, removal should be considered as a treatment option even if the patch test result is negative. PMID:23956902
Goto, Masafumi; Gotoh, Masafumi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Tanesue, Ryo; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Shiba, Naoto
Drug hypersensitivity reactions and severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, are examples of serious adverse drug reactions mediated through a combination of metabolic and immunological mechanisms that could traditionally not have been predicted based on the pharmacological characteristics of the drug alone. The discovery of new associations between these syndromes and specific HLA has created the promise that risk for these reactions could be predicted through pharmacogenetic screening, thereby avoiding serious morbidity and mortality associated with these types of drug reactions. Despite this, several hurdles exist in the translation of these associations into pharmacogenetic tests that could be routinely used in the clinical setting. HLA-B*5701 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome is an example of a test now in widespread routine clinical use in the developed world. PMID:20602616
Phillips, Elizabeth J; Mallal, Simon A
Drug hypersensitivity reactions and severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions, such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, are examples of serious adverse drug reactions mediated through a combination of metabolic and immunological mechanisms that could traditionally not have been predicted based on the pharmacological characteristics of the drug alone. The discovery of new associations between these syndromes and specific HLA has created the promise that risk for these reactions could be predicted through pharmacogenetic screening, thereby avoiding serious morbidity and mortality associated with these types of drug reactions. Despite this, several hurdles exist in the translation of these associations into pharmacogenetic tests that could be routinely used in the clinical setting. HLA-B*5701 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome is an example of a test now in widespread routine clinical use in the developed world.
Phillips, Elizabeth J; Mallal, Simon A
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics cause immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, and may also affect internal organs and\\u000a circulating blood cells. The underlying pathomechanisms are only partly understood. The extent of cross-reactivity among different\\u000a quinolones depends on the type of clinical manifestation and its underlying mechanism. Despite recent advances, reliable diagnostic\\u000a tests are still lacking. Recent studies have shown quinolone-specific IgE in vitro
Kathrin Scherer; Andreas J. Bircher
Atropine hypersensitivity is a rarely reported condition. However, in the military environment, such reactions are of significant concern given the threat of chemical warfare and the use of atropine as a nerve agent antidote. Upon deployment to regions where chemical attacks are a threat, each service member is issued three 2-mg intramuscular autoinjectors of atropine for self-treatment. In the case presented here, an active duty service member presented to his Aid Station to request red dog tags for a previously identified allergy to atropine. Sensitivity testing revealed a significant reaction to <0.03 mg of intradermal atropine. This rarely reported reaction, in the military environment, poses a unique question regarding the suitability of deploying military members to areas where exposure to chemical warfare agents is possible. PMID:15186006
Hague, Jenifer D; Derr, Jeffrey J
IgE-antibodies against ethylene oxide (EtO) and activation of the complement system have been suspected as causative factors for acute hypersensitivity reactions at the onset of haemodialysis. The present study was conducted to determine which of the two mechanisms is mainly responsible for the occurrence of reactions. According to clinical criteria, 13 of the 129 patients studied were identified as having suffered from at least one episode of acute hypersensitivity. Seven of them experienced severe symptoms, including five with elevated circulating serum EtO antibodies. Of the remaining six patients who experienced moderate symptoms, only one had elevated serum EtO antibodies, and of the 114 patients not exhibiting symptoms, two had enhanced serum concentrations of EtO antibodies. In-vivo complement activation was determined during haemodialysis by measurement of both C3adesarg and C5adesarg fragments. No differences in the onset levels and the degree of complement activation were found between patients suffering from severe, moderate, or no hypersensitivity reactions. In-vitro activation of the complement cascade by zymosan, measured in plasma samples obtained from patients prior to dialysis, revealed no differences in the extent of C3adesarg generation. Finally, we determined the activity of the C3a- and C5a-inactivating enzyme, carboxypeptidase N1 (CN1), in plasma samples of patients both with and without hypersensitivity reactions. No difference in the CN1 activity between the two groups of patients was found. These data lead us to conclude that sensitisation to ethylene oxide is responsible for the majority of severe hypersensitivity reactions in haemodialysis patients. However, a small subgroup of patients having anaphylactoid reactions displayed neither elevated serum EtO antibodies with excessive complement activation nor a tendency towards reduced inactivation of anaphylatoxins. PMID:2113222
Lemke, H D; Heidland, A; Schaefer, R M
Delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody formation to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) was studied in rats. Two immunologically specific suppressive effects on the primary induction of delayed hypersensitivity were found: one was short-lasting and due to a direct action of intravenous antigen; the other was mediated by anti-SRBC antibody and demonstrable both as a later-occurring and indirect effect of active immunization and as occurring consequent to passive immunization. Either of these two forms of suppression only partially prevented primary induction of delayed hypersensitivity, but used together their effects were synergistic and completely suppressed development of delayed hypersensitivity. The secondary delayed hypersensitivity response was insusceptible to antibody inhibition. The data concerning delayed hypersensitivity to SRBC in the rat were in some ways analogous to previous findings concerning induction of haemolytic plaque-forming cells to SRBC in the same animal. The interpretation that delayed hypersensitivity and humoral antibody formation could represent alternative responses of potential antibody-forming cells to immunological induction was considered.
Axelrad, Michael A.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, also known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis, constitutes a spectrum of granulomatous, interstitial, bronchiolar, and alveolar-filling lung diseases resulting from repeated inhalation and sensitization to a wide variety of organic aerosols and low-molecular-weight chemical antigens. We report a case of a 57 year-old-female with hypersensitive pneumonitis due to pigeon droppings. Early diagnosis during the acute phase of hypersensitive pneumonitis is important due to the irreversible damages caused by this chronic disease. PMID:23882989
Reyes, Libertad I Ruscalleda; Román, Vélez Jesús M
Vaccines are responsible for the control of many infectious diseases that were once common in the United States, including polio, measles, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), rubella (German measles), mumps, tetanus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. National efforts to generate collaboration between federal, state, and local governments and public and private health care providers have resulted in record high levels of vaccination coverage in the United States. The high rate of US vaccinations is paralleled by growing concerns about the safety of their delivery. The variety of substances used in vaccines sometimes causes the development of cutaneous reactions in susceptible adults and children. This article will review adverse cutaneous events consistent with hypersensitivity reactions to the following ingredients in vaccines: aluminum, thimerosal, 2-phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde, and neomycin. PMID:16242081
Heidary, Noushin; Cohen, David E
Hypersensitivity reactions account for 2-6% of all hospital admissions. Severe hypersensitivity reactions such as hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS), acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are associated with significant mortality and long-term morbidity including scarring and blindness. These hypersensitivity reactions are comparatively common with antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy. The incidence of HSS is approximately 1 in 500 AED exposures whilst SJS/TEN is estimated to occur in 1 in 5000 exposures to carbamazepine (CBZ). More recently, research has demonstrated that susceptibility to certain AED-induced hypersensitivity reactions are strongly associated with genetic risk factors. For example, carriage of HLA-B*1502 was associated with 100-fold greater risk of developing SJS/TEN with CBZ in Asians whilst carriage of HLA-A*3101 in Europeans, Japanese and Koreans was associated with 10-fold greater risk of developing all hypersensitivity reactions to CBZ. The BNSU for severe hypersensitivity to AEDs was setup to raise awareness of AED-induced severe hypersensitivity reactions amongst neurologists and increase recruitment of these patients to the molecular genetics of adverse drug reaction study at the University of Liverpool. The aim of the molecular genetics of hypersensitivity study is to validate previously reported genetic associations and identify new genetic associations in drug hypersensitivity. This will allow development of genetic tests that can inform drug choice enabling clinicians to optimise efficacy and minimise the side-effects to AED treatment in future. Potential patients identified by the BNSU for hypersensitivity to AEDs will be consented and asked to provide a sample of venous blood or saliva for extraction and storage of DNA. Clinical details about the hypersensitivity reaction will then be completed by the neurology team caring for the patient. The BNSU for severe hypersensitivity to AEDs started in August 2011. Since then 14 neurologists have used the system and 16 cases have been reported. Case descriptions were provided for 12 of these cases. Lamotrigine was the most frequently reported AED and associated with six cases of hypersensitivity. This was followed by carbamazepine which was the culprit drug in five cases of hypersensitivity and phenytoin responsible for one hypersensitivity reaction. SJS/TEN was suspected or diagnosed in seven patients. Four patients had a suspected diagnosis of HSS and an unknown reaction was recorded in one patient. Following analysis of these case descriptions ten patients were suitable for recruitment to the molecular genetics of adverse drug reaction study. One of these patients has been recruited and their DNA stored whilst the other nine patients are awaiting R&D approval at their NHS Trusts. The BNSU for hypersensitivity to AEDs has been successful over the first 18 months and identified ten patients who have suffered with severe hypersensitivity to AED therapy. National recruitment schemes such as the BNSU are important because they enable clinicians and researchers to recruit large numbers of patients for rare conditions such as severe hypersensitivity reactions to AEDs. Without these coordinated national schemes genetic association studies would not have sample sizes large enough to provide adequate power to detect significant genetic associations. PMID:24109055
Yip, Vincent; Heslop, S; Pennington, C; Evely, J; Marson, Ag
Egg hypersensitivity is the second most common food allergy with a prevalence of up to 1.7% and the discovery of information about egg allergy is ongoing. This review aims to summarize the current understanding of the allergens involved, natural history, clinical presentation, diagnostic strategies, treatment options, egg-containing vaccine guidelines, and future therapies for health care providers in managing egg hypersensitivity. Recent clinically applicable articles are reviewed for the allergist as an update for the state of the art management of egg allergy. Approximately 70% of children will outgrow egg allergy by 16 years of age and children are able to tolerate well-cooked eggs sooner than uncooked eggs. Egg-specific IgE of >50 kIU(A)/L can be used as a predictor for persistent egg allergy. Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges are still the gold standard for diagnosis. Oral immunotherapy trials still are not generalizable for routine clinical practice, but the influenza vaccine can be given to most egg-allergic patients. Allergists can now educate, diagnose, and manage egg-allergic patients with state-of-the-art information to improve patient's quality of life as never before. PMID:23406934
Hasan, Sana A; Wells, Regina D; Davis, Carla M
Reaginic hypersensitivity in ulcerative colitis has been investigated in respect of a hypersensitivity to the cow's milk proteins and the frequency of atopic asthma, hay fever, and eczema. Intradermal tests were frequently positive, especially to casein, but the results did not differ from those found in healthy individuals and in groups of patients with Crohn's disease, hypolactasia, and the irritable
D. P. Jewell; S. C. Truelove
The NO synthases (NOS) generate NO from L-arginine. High concentrations of NO have been shown to be responsible for tissue injury and cell death, while low concentrations of NO induce vasodilatation and other signaling effects. We have investigated the involvement of NO in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions. CHS induced by treatment of BALB\\/c mice with the contact allergen 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)
Ralf Ross; Claus Gillitzer; Raymonde Kleinz; Jens Schwing; Hartmut Kleinert; Ulrich Forstermann; Angelika B. Reske-Kunz
Understanding the processes shaping biological communities under multiple disturbances is a core challenge in ecology and conservation science. Traditionally, ecologists have explored linkages between the severity and type of disturbance and the taxonomic structure of communities. Recent advances in the application of species traits, to assess the functional structure of communities, have provided an alternative approach that responds rapidly and consistently across taxa and ecosystems to multiple disturbances. Importantly, trait-based metrics may provide advanced warning of disturbance to ecosystems because they do not need species loss to be reactive. Here, we synthesize empirical evidence and present a theoretical framework, based on species positions in a functional space, as a tool to reveal the complex nature of change in disturbed ecosystems. PMID:23141923
Mouillot, David; Graham, Nicholas A J; Villéger, Sébastien; Mason, Norman W H; Bellwood, David R
Antihistamines are the cornerstone of allergy therapy and are not expected to cause hypersensitivity reactions. We describe two cases, one had urticaria to multiple anti-H1-preparations and the other had anaphylaxis to hydroxyzine. We also provide a review of the English literature on reported reactions regarding causative preparations and manifestations. The latter showed a wide range; most commonly urticaria/angioedema, contact dermatitis, anaphylaxis, and fixed drug eruption (FDE). Most reported cases were young to middle age adults, with apparent predilection to female subjects. The onset of reactions varied from a few minutes for anaphylaxis and urticaria/angioedema, several hours for maculopapular rashes, or longer for contact dermatitis and FDE. Almost all antihistamines have been reported as causing reactions; cetirizine was the most common oral preparation followed by its parent drug, hydroxyzine. Doxepin cream was the most commonly implicated topical preparation in causing contact dermatitis. A causal relationship is often difficult to recognize because the reaction may be similar to the disease being treated with that antihistamine preparation. Reactions to one preparation are likely to occur, but not always, to other members of the same class. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and may be verified by challenge testing. Except for patch testing in contact dermatitis or fixed eruption, other tests have not shown optimal reliability. In most cases, challenge testing with multiple preparations would identify one or more preparations that can be tolerated. Although hypersensitivity to antihistamines seems to be very rare, awareness of the problem would reduce its misdiagnosis. PMID:24169055
Shakouri, Alireza A; Bahna, Sami L
In conventional pharmacological studies, intersubject differences within an animal strain are normally neglected, leading to variations in pharmacological outcomes in response to the same stimulus. Using two classical experimental models, the Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model of Wistar rats and the high-energy, diet-induced obesity model of Sprague-Dawley rats, we demonstrate that the different outcomes of STZ or diet intervention are closely associated with variation in predose (baseline) urinary metabolic profiles of the rats. The pharmacometabonomic analysis of predose metabolic profiles indicates that the intersubject difference is, to a great extent, associated with gut-microbiota, which predisposes different pathophysiological outcomes upon diet alteration or chemical stimulus. We hypothesize that there may exist an important association between observations from these two models and the obese/diabetic human population in that subtle variations in metabolic phenotype may predetermine different systems' responses to xenobiotic perturbation, ultimately leading to varied pathophysiological processes. Results from two independent models also suggest that the pharmacometabonomics approach is of great importance in the study of pharmacology and clinical drug evaluations, where endogenous metabolite signatures of predose individuals should be taken into consideration to minimize intersubject difference and the resulting variation in the postdose pharmacological outcomes. PMID:17311441
Li, Houkai; Ni, Yan; Su, Mingming; Qiu, Yunping; Zhou, Mingmei; Qiu, Mingfeng; Zhao, Aihua; Zhao, Liping; Jia, Wei
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in different physiological conditions. In response to ROS imbalance cells activate oxidative stress defenses, which include more than 60 antioxidant genes. It has been suggested that gene products associated with ROS detoxification can work coordinately, acting as an antioxidant-defense network. However, the functional overlap among oxidative stress defenses and other related cell functions makes difficult the characterization of this network. We previously described a network-based model to characterize the interactions existing among different antioxidant gene products and their substrates. Here, we test whether this network-based model of human antioxidant genes can respond to different physiological conditions. We used a systems biology approach applied to the analysis of two independent gene expression datasets: transcriptomes from HeLa cells and primary astrocytes maintained under hypoxic conditions and transcriptomes from SKGT4 cells exposed to low pH environment. We found that the proposed gene network model responds selectively to both hypoxia and acidosis. We anticipate that this antioxidant gene network model can be helpful to describe stress-responsive expression profiles in different cell types. PMID:22652892
Dalmolin, Rodrigo Juliani Siqueira; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Klamt, Fabio; Castro, Mauro Antonio Alves; Moreira, Jose Claudio Fonseca
Background Water stress during grain filling has a marked effect on grain yield, leading to a reduced endosperm cell number and thus sink capacity to accumulate dry matter. The bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), a Chinese Spring terminal deletion line (CS_5AL-10) and the durum wheat cultivar Creso were subjected to transcriptional profiling after exposure to mild and severe drought stress at the grain filling stage to find evidences of differential stress responses associated to different wheat genome regions. Results The transcriptome analysis of Creso, CS and its deletion line revealed 8,552 non redundant probe sets with different expression levels, mainly due to the comparisons between the two species. The drought treatments modified the expression of 3,056 probe sets. Besides a set of genes showing a similar drought response in Creso and CS, cluster analysis revealed several drought response features that can be associated to the different genomic structure of Creso, CS and CS_5AL-10. Some drought-related genes were expressed at lower level (or not expressed) in Creso (which lacks the D genome) or in the CS_5AL-10 deletion line compared to CS. The chromosome location of a set of these genes was confirmed by PCR-based mapping on the D genome (or the 5AL-10 region). Many clusters were characterized by different level of expression in Creso, CS and CS_AL-10, suggesting that the different genome organization of the three genotypes may affect plant adaptation to stress. Clusters with similar expression trend were grouped and functional classified to mine the biological mean of their activation or repression. Genes involved in ABA, proline, glycine-betaine and sorbitol pathways were found up-regulated by drought stress. Furthermore, the enhanced expression of a set of transposons and retrotransposons was detected in CS_5AL-10. Conclusion Bread and durum wheat genotypes were characterized by a different physiological reaction to water stress and by a substantially different molecular response. The genome organization accounted for differences in the expression level of hundreds of genes located on the D genome or controlled by regulators located on the D genome. When a genomic stress (deletion of a chromosomal region) was combined with low water availability, a molecular response based on the activation of transposons and retrotransposons was observed.
Aprile, Alessio; Mastrangelo, Anna M; De Leonardis, Anna M; Galiba, Gabor; Roncaglia, Enrica; Ferrari, Francesco; De Bellis, Luigi; Turchi, Luana; Giuliano, Giovanni; Cattivelli, Luigi
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an inflammatory lung disease that develops in response to exposure to antigen. Cases can be stratified by the duration of exposure and speed of symptom progression into acute, subacute, and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although the pathologic features of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis are well established and those of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis have been reported, little is known about the histopathology of acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We evaluated the pathologic features of 5 patients with clinically confirmed hypersensitivity pneumonitis and rapid onset of symptoms and 3 patients with subacute or chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis with symptom exacerbation. Histopathologic features assessed in each case included those characteristic of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis (bronchiolocentric chronic inflammation, histiocytic aggregates, and bronchiolitis obliterans), those associated with acute inflammation (fibrin deposition and neutrophilic infiltrate), and fibrosis. The classic features of hypersensitivity pneumonitis were identified in all 8 cases, with 1 also exhibiting fixed fibrosis confirming underlying chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Fibrin deposition was present in 8 (100%) of 8 cases, and its extent was significant (28% surface area fibrin deposition/total disease area on average). Two had intra-alveolar fibrin so marked that it resembled acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia. In addition, prominent interstitial neutrophilic infiltrate (?5 cells/high-power field) was seen in all cases. These features have not been reported as characteristics of subacute or chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Increased fibrin deposition and neutrophilic infiltrate may characterize acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis or abrupt exacerbation of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and these along with characteristic features of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis (granulomatous inflammation and bronchiolocentricity) are sufficient to establish a morphologic diagnosis, particularly in conjunction with clinicoradiologic features. PMID:21855112
Hariri, Lida P; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Shea, Barry; Digumarthy, Subba; Onozato, Maristela; Yagi, Yukako; Fraire, Armando E; Matsubara, Osamu; Mark, Eugene J
Recent neuroimaging and lesion studies have led to competing hypotheses for potential roles of the left lateral parietal lobe in episodic memory retrieval. These hypotheses may be dissociated by whether they imply a role in preretrieval or postretrieval processes. For example, one hypothesis is the left parietal cortex (particularly in more ventral subregions) forms part of an "episodic buffer" that supports the online representation of the retrieved target, a role that is, by definition, postretrieval. An alternate view maintains parietal activity (particularly in more dorsal subregions) contributes to top-down orientation of attention to retrieval search, a preretrieval role. The present investigation seeks to reveal the earliest onset of lateral parietal activity in three anatomically-defined subregions of the left lateral parietal cortex to identify any preretrieval activation. Subjects performed a pair-cued recall task while neural activity was recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) at millisecond temporal resolution. MEG data were then mapped to each subject's cortical surface using dynamic statistical parametric mapping (dSPM). Both dorsal and ventral regions showed retrieval-related activations beginning within ?100 ms of the cue to retrieve and lasting up to 400 ms. We conclude that this early and transient pattern of activity in lateral parietal cortex is most consistent with a preretrieval role, possibly in directing attention to episodic memory retrieval. PMID:20623759
Seibert, Tyler M; Hagler, Donald J; Brewer, James B
Recent neuroimaging and lesion studies have led to competing hypotheses for potential roles of the left lateral parietal lobe in episodic memory retrieval. These hypotheses may be dissociated by whether they imply a role in preretrieval or postretrieval processes. For example, one hypothesis is the left parietal cortex (particularly in more ventral subregions) forms part of an “episodic buffer” that supports the online representation of the retrieved target, a role that is, by definition, postretrieval. An alternate view maintains parietal activity (particularly in more dorsal subregions) contributes to top-down orientation of attention to retrieval search, a preretrieval role. The present investigation seeks to reveal the earliest onset of lateral parietal activity in three anatomically-defined subregions of the left lateral parietal cortex to identify any preretrieval activation. Subjects performed a pair-cued recall task while neural activity was recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) at millisecond temporal resolution. MEG data were then mapped to each subject’s cortical surface using dynamic statistical parametric mapping (dSPM). Both dorsal and ventral regions showed retrieval-related activations beginning within ~100 ms of the cue to retrieve and lasting up to 400 ms. We conclude that this early and transient pattern of activity in lateral parietal cortex is most consistent with a preretrieval role, possibly in directing attention to episodic memory retrieval.
Seibert, Tyler M.; Hagler, Donald J.; Brewer, James B.
Antihypertensive drugs are among the most commonly prescribed drugs for chronic disease worldwide. The response to antihypertensive drugs varies substantially between individuals and important factors such as race that contribute to this heterogeneity are poorly understood. In this study we use metabolomics, a global biochemical approach to investigate biochemical changes induced by the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol in Caucasians and African Americans. Plasma from individuals treated with atenolol was collected at baseline (untreated) and after a 9 week treatment period and analyzed using a GC-TOF metabolomics platform. The metabolomic signature of atenolol exposure included saturated (palmitic), monounsaturated (oleic, palmitoleic) and polyunsaturated (arachidonic, linoleic) free fatty acids, which decreased in Caucasians after treatment but were not different in African Americans (p<0.0005, q<0.03). Similarly, the ketone body 3-hydroxybutyrate was significantly decreased in Caucasians by 33% (p<0.0001, q<0.0001) but was unchanged in African Americans. The contribution of genetic variation in genes that encode lipases to the racial differences in atenolol-induced changes in fatty acids was examined. SNP rs9652472 in LIPC was found to be associated with the change in oleic acid in Caucasians (p<0.0005) but not African Americans, whereas the PLA2G4C SNP rs7250148 associated with oleic acid change in African Americans (p<0.0001) but not Caucasians. Together, these data indicate that atenolol-induced changes in the metabolome are dependent on race and genotype. This study represents a first step of a pharmacometabolomic approach to phenotype patients with hypertension and gain mechanistic insights into racial variability in changes that occur with atenolol treatment, which may influence response to the drug.
Wikoff, William R.; Frye, Reginald F.; Zhu, Hongjie; Gong, Yan; Boyle, Stephen; Churchill, Erik; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M.; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Fiehn, Oliver; Johnson, Julie A.; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima
Arabidopsis thaliana RPM1 encodes an intracellular immune sensor that conditions disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae expressing the type III effector protein AvrRpm1. Conditional expression of this type III effector in a transgenic line carrying avrRpm1 under the control of a steroid-inducible promoter results in RPM1-dependent cell death that resembles the cell death response of the incompatible RPM1-avrRpm1 plant-bacterium interaction. This line was previously used in a genetic screen, which revealed two genes that likely function in the folding of pre-activation RPM1. We established a chemical screen for small molecules that suppress steroid-inducible and RPM1-avrRpm1-dependent cell death in Arabidopsis seedlings. Screening of a library comprising 6,800 compounds of natural origin identified two trichothecene-type mycotoxins, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and neosolaniol (NEO), which are synthesized by Fusarium and other fungal species. However, protein blot analysis revealed that DAS and NEO inhibit AvrRpm1 synthesis rather than suppress RPM1-mediated responses. This inhibition of translational activity likely explains the survival of the seedlings under screening conditions. Likewise, flg22-induced defense responses are also impaired at the translational, but not the transcriptional, level by DAS or NEO. Unexpectedly, both compounds not only prevented AvrRpm1 synthesis, but rather caused an apparent hyper-accumulation of RPM1 and HSP70. The hyper-accumulation phenotype is likely unrelated to the ribotoxic function of DAS and NEO and could be due to an inhibitory activity on the proteolytic machinery of Arabidopsis or elicitor-like activities of type A trichothecenes. PMID:20140739
Serrano, Mario; Hubert, David A; Dangl, Jeffery L; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Kombrink, Erich
We present the case of a 53-year-old woman who was employed at a mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii and Hypsizigus marumoreus) cultivation factory for 15 years. She was admitted to our hospital because of fever and dry cough. Chest radiography and CT scanning revealed diffuse ground glass opacity and centrilobular nodules in both lung fields. Serum KL-6 was elevated. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the CD4/CD8 ratio was reduced, and the lymphocyte fraction was very high. Transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed lymphocyte alveolitis. After admission, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly without medication. Although these findings are compatible with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, it was difficult to identify a causative antigen. Serum antibody against Trichosporon was positive. A lymphocyte stimulation test of the peripheral blood was positive against extracts of P. eryngii and H. marumoreus. Furthermore, precipitins against the extracts of H. marumoreus were detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Therefore, we decided to conduct a challenge test using H. marumoreus. As an inhalation provocation test with H. marumoreus conducted in a sickroom caused the same clinical symptoms and signs as experienced in the workplace, we diagnosed hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by H. marumoreus. A provocation test, in which antigen exposure is limited using a closed space, such as a sickroom, was simple, safe and effective for determining the antigen causing hypersensitivity pneumonitis. PMID:19882910
Takaku, Yotaro; Takayanagi, Noboru; Minagawa, Shunsuke; Tsuchiya, Yutaka; Hijikata, Naoya; Hara, Kenichiro; Yamaji, Tomohisa; Tokunaga, Daido; Saito, Hiroo; Ubukata, Mikio; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka; Kawabata, Yoshinori
The evolution of resistance to a single antibiotic is frequently accompanied by increased resistance to multiple other antimicrobial agents. In sharp contrast, very little is known about the frequency and mechanisms underlying collateral sensitivity. In this case, genetic adaptation under antibiotic stress yields enhanced sensitivity to other antibiotics. Using large-scale laboratory evolutionary experiments with Escherichia coli, we demonstrate that collateral sensitivity occurs frequently during the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Specifically, populations adapted to aminoglycosides have an especially low fitness in the presence of several other antibiotics. Whole-genome sequencing of laboratory-evolved strains revealed multiple mechanisms underlying aminoglycoside resistance, including a reduction in the proton-motive force (PMF) across the inner membrane. We propose that as a side effect, these mutations diminish the activity of PMF-dependent major efflux pumps (including the AcrAB transporter), leading to hypersensitivity to several other antibiotics. More generally, our work offers an insight into the mechanisms that drive the evolution of negative trade-offs under antibiotic selection. PMID:24169403
Lázár, Viktória; Pal Singh, Gajinder; Spohn, Réka; Nagy, István; Horváth, Balázs; Hrtyan, Mónika; Busa-Fekete, Róbert; Bogos, Balázs; Méhi, Orsolya; Csörg?, Bálint; Pósfai, György; Fekete, Gergely; Szappanos, Balázs; Kégl, Balázs; Papp, Balázs; Pál, Csaba
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating consequence of nerve injuries and is frequently resistant to classical therapies. T lymphocytes mediate adaptive immune responses and have been suggested to generate neuropathic pain. In contrast, in this study we investigated T cells as a source of opioidergic analgesic ?-endorphin for the control of augmented tactile sensitivity following neuropathy. We employed in vivo nociceptive (von Frey) testing, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence in wild-type and mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) subjected to a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. In wild-type mice, T lymphocytes constituted approximately 11% of all immune cells infiltrating the injury site, and they expressed ?-endorphin and receptors for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), an agent releasing opioids from leukocytes. CRF applied at the nerve injury site fully reversed neuropathy-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in wild-type animals. In SCID mice, T cells expressing ?-endorphin and CRF receptors were absent at the damaged nerve. Consequently, these animals had substantially reduced CRF-mediated antinociception. Importantly, the decreased antinociception was fully restored by transfer of wild-type mice-derived T lymphocytes in SCID mice. The re-established CRF antinociception could be reversed by co-injection of an antibody against ?-endorphin or an opioid receptor antagonist with limited access to the central nervous system. We propose that, in response to CRF stimulation, T lymphocytes accumulating at the injured nerves utilize ?-endorphin for activation of local neuronal opioid receptors to reduce neuropathy-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Our findings reveal ?-endorphin-containing T cells as a crucial component of beneficial adaptive immune responses associated with painful peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:20385224
Labuz, Dominika; Schreiter, Anja; Schmidt, Yvonne; Brack, Alexander; Machelska, Halina
Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are downstream components of the ethylene signal transduction pathway, although their role in ethylene-dependent developmental processes remains poorly understood. As the ethylene-inducible tomato Sl-ERF.B3 has been shown previously to display a strong binding affinity to GCC-box-containing promoters, its physiological significance was addressed here by a reverse genetics approach. However, classical up- and down-regulation strategies failed to give clear clues to its roles in planta, probably due to functional redundancy among ERF family members. Expression of a dominant repressor ERF.B3-SRDX version of Sl-ERF.B3 in the tomato resulted in pleiotropic ethylene responses and vegetative and reproductive growth phenotypes. The dominant repressor etiolated seedlings displayed partial constitutive ethylene response in the absence of ethylene and adult plants exhibited typical ethylene-related alterations such as leaf epinasty, premature flower senescence and accelerated fruit abscission. The multiple symptoms related to enhanced ethylene sensitivity correlated with the altered expression of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes and suggested the involvement of Sl-ERF.B3 in a feedback mechanism that regulates components of ethylene production and response. Moreover, Sl-ERF.B3 was shown to modulate the transcription of a set of ERFs and revealed the existence of a complex network interconnecting different ERF genes. Overall, the study indicated that Sl-ERF.B3 had a critical role in the regulation of multiple genes and identified a number of ERFs among its primary targets, consistent with the pleiotropic phenotypes displayed by the dominant repression lines. PMID:23931552
Liu, Mingchun; Pirrello, Julien; Kesari, Ravi; Mila, Isabelle; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Li, Zhengguo; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher; Regad, Farid
The aim of this review is to present research that has a bearing on the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity in muscle pain syndromes.\\u000a Allodynia and hyperalgesia in these syndromes can be segmental or generalized and temporary or permanent. Hypersensitivity\\u000a in muscle pain conditions in the clinic is best diagnosed by determining the pressure pain threshold. In a disorder such as\\u000a fibromyalgia,
Karl G. Henriksson
Inflammation of visceral structures in rats has been shown to produce visceral/somatic hyperalgesia. Our objectives were to determine if trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats leads to visceral/somatic hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200g–250g) were treated with 20 mg of TNBS in 50% ethanol (n=40) or an equivalent volume of ethanol (n=40) or saline (n=25) via the colon. Colonic distension, Von-Frey, Hargreaves, and tail reflex test were used to evaluate for visceral, mechanical, and thermal sensitivity. The rats demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity at 2–28 days following TNBS (p<0.0001). The ethanol treated rats also demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity that resolved after day 14. TNBS treated rats demonstrated somatic hypersensitivity at days 14–28 (p<0.0001) in response to somatic stimuli of the hind-paw. TNBS colitis is associated with visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in areas of somatotopic overlap. This model of colitis should allow further investigation into the mechanisms of visceral and somatic hypersensitivity.
Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D.; Caudle, Robert M.; Verne, G. Nicholas
A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) induced by hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is described. Serial determinations of the lymphocyte surface phenotypes by two-color assay revealed the following: 1) increased activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and 2) increased percentage and absolute number of non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted natural killer (NK) cells in the peripheral blood (PB) during the recovery phase of the disease. These findings were considered to be related to the activity of the disease. PMID:1280491
Usui, Y; Aida, H; Kimula, Y; Miura, H; Takayama, S; Nakayama, M
Hypersensitivity is known as a localized resistance of plants against pathogens. It also can be detected in response to galling insects, i.e., in the area immediately adjacent to the site of oviposition and attempted penetration by the galling larva. This host response includes morphological and histological changes that cause the death of the attacked tissue. It is observed as a
G. Wilson Fernandes; Heitor Duarte; Ulrich Lüttge
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) stimulates seed dormancy during embryo maturation, inhibits germination of mature seed, and stimulates stress responses such as stomatal closure in response to drought stress. Arabidopsis mutants isolated for ABA hypersensitive (ABH) seed germination showed incr...
A tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Samsun NN) cDNA clone coding the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was isolated from a cDNA library made from polyadenylated RNA purified from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-infected leaves. Southern analysis indicated that, in tobacco, PAL is encoded by a small family of two to four unclustered genes. Northern analysis showed that PAL genes are weakly expressed under normal physiological conditions, they are moderately and transiently expressed after wounding, but they are strongly induced during the hypersensitive reaction to TMV or to a fungal elicitor. Ribonuclease protection experiments confirmed this evidence and showed the occurrence of two highly homologous PAL messengers originating from a single gene or from two tightly co-regulated genes. By in situ RNA-RNA hybridization PAL transcripts were shown to accumulate in a narrow zone of leaf tissue surrounding necrotic lesions caused by TMV infection or treatment with the fungal elicitor. In this zone, no cell specificity was observed and there was a decreasing gradient of labeling from the edge of necrosis. Some labeling was also found in various cell types of young, healthy stems and was shown to accumulate in large amounts in the same cell types after the deposition of an elicitor solution at the top of the decapitated plant.
Pellegrini, L; Rohfritsch, O; Fritig, B; Legrand, M
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic isocoumarin derivative produced by various species of mould which mainly grow on grain, coffee, and nuts. Recent studies have suggested that OTA induces cell death in plants. To investigate possible mechanisms of OTA phytotoxicity, both digital gene expression (DGE) transcriptomic and two-dimensional electrophoresis proteomic analyses were used, through which 3118 genes and 23 proteins were identified as being up- or down-regulated at least 2-fold in Arabidopsis leaf in response to OTA treatment. First, exposure of excised Arabidopsis thaliana leaves to OTA rapidly causes the hypersensitive reponse, significantly accelerates the increase of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and enhances antioxidant enzyme defence responses and xenobiotic detoxification. Secondly, OTA stimulation causes dynamic changes in transcription factors and activates the membrane transport system dramatically. Thirdly, a concomitant persistence of compromised photosynthesis and photorespiration is indicative of a metabolic shift from a highly active to a weak state. Finally, the data revealed that ethylene, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling molecules mediate the process of toxicity caused by OTA. Profiling analyses on Arabidopsis in response to OTA will provide new insights into signalling transduction that modulates the OTA phytotoxicity mechanism, facilitate mapping of regulatory networks, and extend the ability to improve OTA tolerance in Arabidopsis. PMID:22207617
Wang, Yan; Peng, Xiaoli; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Zhao, Weiwei; Hao, Junran; Liang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Kunlun
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic isocoumarin derivative produced by various species of mould which mainly grow on grain, coffee, and nuts. Recent studies have suggested that OTA induces cell death in plants. To investigate possible mechanisms of OTA phytotoxicity, both digital gene expression (DGE) transcriptomic and two-dimensional electrophoresis proteomic analyses were used, through which 3118 genes and 23 proteins were identified as being up- or down-regulated at least 2-fold in Arabidopsis leaf in response to OTA treatment. First, exposure of excised Arabidopsis thaliana leaves to OTA rapidly causes the hypersensitive reponse, significantly accelerates the increase of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and enhances antioxidant enzyme defence responses and xenobiotic detoxification. Secondly, OTA stimulation causes dynamic changes in transcription factors and activates the membrane transport system dramatically. Thirdly, a concomitant persistence of compromised photosynthesis and photorespiration is indicative of a metabolic shift from a highly active to a weak state. Finally, the data revealed that ethylene, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling molecules mediate the process of toxicity caused by OTA. Profiling analyses on Arabidopsis in response to OTA will provide new insights into signalling transduction that modulates the OTA phytotoxicity mechanism, facilitate mapping of regulatory networks, and extend the ability to improve OTA tolerance in Arabidopsis.
Wang, Yan; Peng, Xiaoli; Xu, Wentao; Luo, YunBo; Zhao, Weiwei; Hao, Junran; Liang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Kunlun
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a pulmonary granulomatosis involving an immunoallergic mechanism caused by chronic inhalation of antigens, most frequently organic substances, as well as chemicals. We report the first European case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to the inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores. A 37-year-old French Caucasian man with a one-month history of persistent dry cough, shortness of breath and loss of weight was admitted to our hospital on December 2010. Anamnesis showed he was involved in mushroom production beginning in the summer of 2010. His temperature on admission was 36.6°C and he had a normal blood pressure (135/90 mmHg). Bilateral fine crackles were audible in the base of both lungs. Pulmonary function tests showed a mild restrictive pattern with decreased DLco and a PaO(2) of 65 mmHg, Chest CT scan revealed reticulo-nodular shadows, slight ground glass opacities, liner atelectasis, and subpleural opacities in both lung fields. Bronchoscopy was normal but cytological examination of BAL revealed a predominant lymphocytosis (55%). Serum precipitins to the Shiitake mushroom spores were positive (3 precipitins arcs with high intensity) and as a result we advised the patient to cease his mushroom production activities. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores was established as a result of the improvement of all of his clinical symptoms, i.e., cough, weight loss, bilateral fine crackles, mild restrictive pattern of pulmonary function, and reticulo-nodular shadows on chest CT, once exposure was eliminated. Recent interest in exotic mushrooms varieties, e.g., Shiitake, in developed countries because of their possible medicinal properties might increase the potential risk of HP among mushrooms workers. Therefore, healthcare professionals have to take this new potential respiratory disease into account. PMID:22329454
Ampere, Alexandre; Delhaes, Laurence; Soots, Jacques; Bart, Frederic; Wallaert, Benoit
Recent technical approaches to investigating drug hypersensitivity have provided a great deal of information to solve the mechanisms that remain poorly understood. First, immunological investigations and in silico analysis have revealed that a novel interaction between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, namely the pharmacological interaction concept, is involved in drug recognition and the hapten theory. Second, progress in immunology has provided a new concept of CD4+ T cell subsets. Th17 cells have proven to be a critical player in acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. Our recent findings suggest that this subset might contribute to the pathogenesis of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Third, alarmins, molecules associated with innate immunity, are also associated with exaggeration and the persistence of severe drug hypersensitivity. The latest innovative techniques are providing a new landscape to examine drug hypersensitivity.
Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody used to treat CD20+ non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Although pulmonary adverse reactions such as cough, rhinitis, bronchospasm, dyspnea and sinusitis are relatively common, other respiratory conditions like cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, interstitial pneumonitis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage have rarely been reported. Only 2 possible cases of rituximab-associated hypersensitivity pneumonitis have been described to date. We present a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis with classic radiographic and histopathologic findings in a patient treated with rituximab who responded to prednisone.
Tonelli, Adriano R.; Lottenberg, Richard; Allan, Robert W.; Sriram, P.S.
This article presents an overview of dentin hypersensitivity, including its causes, prevention, and treatment. The author provides information on hypersensitivity associated with exposed cervical dentin, tooth-whitening procedures, and direct and indirect restorations. PMID:15645869
Swift, Edward J
Hypersensitivity of platelets to thrombin has been associated with hypercholesterolemia. The authors have examined the mechanisms involved in this hypersensitivity. Rats were given diets rich in milk fat and containing added cholesterol and taurocholate to produce hypercholesterolemia (HC) (262 +/- 25 mg%) or added sitosterol as a normocholesterolemic control (NC) (89 +/- 6 mg%). Washed platelets were prelabelled with /sup 14/C-serotonin. In the presence of acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) (to inhibit thromboxane A/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2/) formation) and creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK) (to remove released ADP), HC platelets aggregated more (26 +/- 1%) and released more /sup 14/C (9.1 +/- 2.0%) than NC platelets (aggregation: 0%, p < 0.001; /sup 14/C release: 1.5 +/- 0.5%, p < 0.002) in response to thrombin (0.075 U/ml). Thus, a pathway independent of released ADP or TXA/sub 2/ formation is involved in the hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin. Total binding of /sup 125/I-thrombin to HC platelets was less than that to NC platelets but HC platelets were smaller and had less protein than NC platelets; the thrombin binding per mg platelet protein was the same for HC and NC platelets, indicating that hypersensitivity to thrombin of HC platelets does not result from increased thrombin binding. Thus, hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin is not due to TXA/sub 2/ formation, the action of released ADP or increased thrombin binding.
Winocour, P.D.; Rand, M.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.
Environmental hypersensitivity disorder is reputed to cause multiple allergic responses in susceptible people after exposure to common substances in the environment. The seriously afflicted, who believe themselves to be unable to live in the modern world, often become severely disabled. After a careful search of the literature, I am unable to find any scientific evidence for the validity of the theories, testing methods, or treatments given to these patients by clinical ecologists. This paper critically examines the concepts of environmental hypersensitivity and reviews scientific studies on this subject. It concludes that these patients are a heterogeneous group, and that many of them suffer from treatable psychiatric disorders. Guidelines are given for their management.
Although neurochemical reductions in cholinergic systems have been found to occur during aging, such changes do not necessarily translate to functional deficits. The cognitive deficits of normal aging have been attributed in part to hypo-cholinergic function, but anticholinergic hypersensitivity in the elderly has not been systematically documented. To test the cholinergic hypothesis of aging, we investigated the effects of scopolamine
P. G. Ray; K. J. Meador; D. W. Loring; E. W. Zamrini; X.-H. Yang; J. J. Buccafusco
An altered balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines is responsible for a variety of immuno-inflammatory disorders such as asthma, yet the role of post-transcriptional mechanisms, such as those mediated by microRNAs, in adjusting the relative magnitude and balance of Th cytokine expression have been largely unexplored. Here we show that miR-21 has a central role in setting a balance between Th1 and Th2 responses to antigens. Targeted ablation of miR-21 in mice led to reduced lung eosinophilia after allergen challenge, with a broadly reprogrammed immunoactivation transcriptome, and significantly increased levels of the Th1 cytokine IFN?. Biological network-based transcriptome analysis of OVA-challenged miR-21-/-mice identified an unexpected prominent dysregulation of IL-12/IFN? pathways as the most significantly affected in the lungs with a key role for miR-21 in IFN? signaling and T-cell polarization, consistent with a functional miR-21 binding site in IL-12p35. In support of these hypotheses, miR-21 deficiency led dendritic cells to produce more IL-12 after LPS stimulation, and OVA-challenged CD4+ T lymphocytes to produce increased IFN? and decreased IL-4. Further, loss of miR-21 significantly enhanced the Th1-associated delayed-type hypersensitivity cutaneous responses. Thus, our results define miR-21 as a major regulator of Th1 vs. Th2 responses, defining a new mechanism for regulating polarized immuno-inflammatory responses.
Lu, Thomas X.; Hartner, Jochen; Lim, Eun-Jin; Fabry, Victoria; Mingler, Melissa K.; Cole, Eric T.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Rothenberg, Marc E.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are known to cause hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs). The reactions pose a significant challenge to investigators, regulators, and health providers. Because HSRs cannot be predicted through the pharmacological basis of a therapy, clinical data are often relied upon to detect the reactions. Unfortunately, clinical studies are often unable to adequately characterize HSRs especially in therapies for orphan diseases. HSRs can go undetected until post-marketing safety surveillance when a large number of patients have been exposed to the therapy. The presented data demonstrates how hypersensitivity reaction warnings have changed over time in the prescribing information (PI), i.e., the drug package insert, through August 1, 2011 for 28 US-marketed mAbs. Tracking all PI revisions for each mAb over time revealed that hypersensitivity warning statements were expanded to include more severe manifestations. Over the course of a mAb therapy's life cycle, the hypersensitivity warning is twice more likely to be upgraded than downgraded in priority. Approximately 85% of hypersensitivity-associated fatality warnings were added in PI revisions as a result of post-marketing experience. Over 60% (20/33) of revisions to hypersensitivity warnings occurred within 3-4 y of product approval. While HSRs are generally recognized and described in the initial PI of mAbs, fatal HSRs are most commonly observed in post-marketing surveillance. Results of this study suggest that initial product labeling information may not describe rare but clinically significant occurrences of severe or fatal HSRs, but subsequent label revisions include rare events observed during post-marketed product use. PMID:22531444
Kleyman, Konstantin; Weintraub, Debra S
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are known to cause hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs). The reactions pose a significant challenge to investigators, regulators, and health providers. Because HSRs cannot be predicted through the pharmacological basis of a therapy, clinical data are often relied upon to detect the reactions. Unfortunately, clinical studies are often unable to adequately characterize HSRs especially in therapies for orphan diseases. HSRs can go undetected until post-marketing safety surveillance when a large number of patients have been exposed to the therapy. The presented data demonstrates how hypersensitivity reaction warnings have changed over time in the prescribing information (PI), i.e., the drug package insert, through August 1, 2011 for 28 US-marketed mAbs. Tracking all PI revisions for each mAb over time revealed that hypersensitivity warning statements were expanded to include more severe manifestations. Over the course of a mAb therapy’s life cycle, the hypersensitivity warning is twice more likely to be upgraded than downgraded in priority. Approximately 85% of hypersensitivity-associated fatality warnings were added in PI revisions as a result of post-marketing experience. Over 60% (20/33) of revisions to hypersensitivity warnings occurred within 3–4 y of product approval. While HSRs are generally recognized and described in the initial PI of mAbs, fatal HSRs are most commonly observed in post-marketing surveillance. Results of this study suggest that initial product labeling information may not describe rare but clinically significant occurrences of severe or fatal HSRs, but subsequent label revisions include rare events observed during post-marketed product use.
Kleyman, Konstantin; Weintraub, Debra S.
Hapten-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was induced in several strains of mice. (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl-bovine gamma globulin (NP-BGG)-primed mice which did not bear the Ig1b heavy-chain linkage group made a NP-specific DTH response when challenged with NP bovine serum albumin (BSA) and failed to respond to challenge with (4- hydroxy-5-iodo-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl-bovine serum albumin (NIP-BSA). Strains of NP-BGG-primed mice bearing the Ig1b allotype, including SJL, responded to challenges of either NP-BSA or NIP-BSA. F1 hybrids between a cross-reactive strain, C57BL/6, and two other noncross-reactive strains were cross-reactive. Genetic mapping of the NIP-cross-reactive DTH response localized the trait to the VH-region of the Ig1b heavy- chain linkage group. The fine-specificity pattern of the T-cell anti-NP response, and the genetic mapping of this trait, were analogous to the reported fine specificity and mapping data of the humoral heteroclitic anti-NP response. Adoptive transfer studies on the ability to transfer NP-specific DTH between various strain combinations showed that the T- cell donors and the recipient must have homology for at least the I-A subregion. Whenever NP-specific reactivity was transferred from a strain which cross-reactively responded to NIP, the recipient also responded to both NP and NIP. The implications of the control of NP- primed DTH-reactive populations of T cells by two distinct genetic regions, VH and H-2, were discussed.
The discovery that drugs targeting a single G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) can differentially modulate distinct subsets of the receptor signaling repertoire has created a challenge for drug discovery at these important therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that a single label-free assay based on cellular impedance provides a real-time integration of multiple signaling events engaged upon GPCR activation. Stimulation of the ??-adrenergic receptor (??AR) in living cells with the prototypical agonist isoproterenol generated a complex, multi-featured impedance response over time. Selective pharmacological inhibition of specific arms of the ??AR signaling network revealed the differential contribution of G(s)-, G(i)- and G??-dependent signaling events, including activation of the canonical cAMP and ERK1/2 pathways, to specific components of the impedance response. Further dissection revealed the essential role of intracellular Ca˛? in the impedance response and led to the discovery of a novel ??AR-promoted Ca˛? mobilization event. Recognizing that impedance responses provide an integrative assessment of ligand activity, we screened a collection of ?-adrenergic ligands to determine if differences in the signaling repertoire engaged by compounds would lead to distinct impedance signatures. An unsupervised clustering analysis of the impedance responses revealed the existence of 5 distinct compound classes, revealing a richer signaling texture than previously recognized for this receptor. Taken together, these data indicate that the pluridimensionality of GPCR signaling can be captured using integrative approaches to provide a comprehensive readout of drug activity. PMID:22242170
Stallaert, Wayne; Dorn, Jonas F; van der Westhuizen, Emma; Audet, Martin; Bouvier, Michel
Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptomatic condition that causes discomfort and sometimes severe pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the erbium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (Er:YAG) laser treatment on cervically exposed hypersensitive dentin. Twenty patients with dentin hypersensitivity of caries-free teeth were selected. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure dentin sensitivity in response to air stimulus. A 2-minute Er:YAG laser (energy level: 60 mJ/pulse; repetition rate: 2 Hz) was applied to cervically exposed hypersensitive dentin. After 4 weeks, the hypersensitive teeth were examined again, and the VAS score was measured again and recorded. No complications such as detrimental pulpal effects were observed. Eighteen participants reported significantly reduced dentin hypersensitivity 4 weeks after the laser desensitization treatment. The VAS scores measured 4 weeks after the Er:YAG laser desensitization treatment were significantly decreased as compared with those measured at the baseline (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the Er:YAG laser desensitization treatment can effectively reduce hypersensitivity of cervically exposed hypersensitive dentin. PMID:23602018
Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chang, Yu-Chao
The effects of the following parameters on the immunologic specificity of delayed and immediate hypersensitivity reactions were investigated in the guinea pig using the picryl and p-toluenesulfonyl systems: (a) the contribution of the carrier protein, (b) the effect of the number of hapten groups per molecule of the immunizing and challenging antigens, and (c) the effect of interposing a 6 carbon chain (?-aminocaproic acid) between the hapten and its usual attachment to the lysine ?-NH2 groups of the carrier protein. It was found that induction of delayed hypersensitivity was accomplished equally well with both lightly and heavily coupled conjugates. Sensitized animals which gave strong delayed reactions to the immunizing conjugate cross-reacted poorly or not at all to (a) conjugates of the same hapten with a different carrier protein, or (b) conjugates differing from the immunizing conjugate by having an ?-aminocaproyl chain interposed between hapten and its attachment onto the carrier protein. Animals sensitized with either lightly or heavily substituted conjugates exhibited strong delayed reactions to both conjugates, but more intense reactions to the immunizing conjugate were always observed. In contrast to the marker carrier specificity exhibited by the delayed hypersensitivity reactions, immediate hypersensitivity reactions, (specific precipitation, Arthus, and PCA reactions) could be elicited equally well with hapten conjugates of all carrier proteins, as well as with conjugates containing ?-aminocaproyl chains interposed between hapten and the carrier protein, provided the number of hapten groups per molecule conjugate was sufficiently high. Both in inducing antibody response and in provoking immediate hypersensitivity reactions, heavily substituted conjugates were considerably more effective than were lightly substituted conjugates. Alternative explanations for these observed differences in specificity between immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions are discussed.
Benacerraf, B.; Levine, B. B.
Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody used to treat CD20+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Although pulmonary adverse reactions such as cough, rhinitis, bronchospasm, dyspnea and sinusitis are relatively common, other respiratory conditions like cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, interstitial pneumonitis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage have rarely been reported. Only 2 possible cases of rituximab-associated hypersensitivity pneumonitis have been described to date. We present
Adriano R. Tonelli; Richard Lottenberg; Robert W. Allan; P. S. Sriram
Background Despite advances in the understanding of diabetic retinopathy, the nature and time course of molecular changes in the retina with diabetes are incompletely described. This study characterized the functional and molecular phenotype of the retina with increasing durations of diabetes. Results Using the streptozotocin-induced rat model of diabetes, levels of retinal permeability, caspase activity, and gene expression were examined after 1 and 3 months of diabetes. Gene expression changes were identified by whole genome microarray and confirmed by qPCR in the same set of animals as used in the microarray analyses and subsequently validated in independent sets of animals. Increased levels of vascular permeability and caspase-3 activity were observed at 3 months of diabetes, but not 1 month. Significantly more and larger magnitude gene expression changes were observed after 3 months than after 1 month of diabetes. Quantitative PCR validation of selected genes related to inflammation, microvasculature and neuronal function confirmed gene expression changes in multiple independent sets of animals. Conclusion These changes in permeability, apoptosis, and gene expression provide further evidence of progressive retinal malfunction with increasing duration of diabetes. The specific gene expression changes confirmed in multiple sets of animals indicate that pro-inflammatory, anti-vascular barrier, and neurodegenerative changes occur in tandem with functional increases in apoptosis and vascular permeability. These responses are shared with the clinically documented inflammatory response in diabetic retinopathy suggesting that this model may be used to test anti-inflammatory therapeutics.
Brucklacher, Robert M; Patel, Kruti M; VanGuilder, Heather D; Bixler, Georgina V; Barber, Alistair J; Antonetti, David A; Lin, Cheng-Mao; LaNoue, Kathryn F; Gardner, Thomas W; Bronson, Sarah K; Freeman, Willard M
An immune response is triggered in host cells when host receptors recognize conserved molecular motifs, pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as ?-glucans, and chitin at the cell surface of a pathogen. Effector-triggered immunity occurs when pathogens deliver effectors into the host cell to suppress the first immune signaling. Using a differential proteomic approach, we identified an array of proteins responding to aflatoxins in cotyledons of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) infected with aflatoxin-producing (toxigenic) but not nonaflatoxin-producing (atoxigenic) strains of Aspergillus flavus. These proteins are involved in immune signaling and PAMP perception, DNA and RNA stabilization, induction of defense, innate immunity, hypersensitive response, biosynthesis of phytoalexins, cell wall responses, peptidoglycan assembly, penetration resistance, condensed tannin synthesis, detoxification, and metabolic regulation. Gene expression analysis confirmed the differential abundance of proteins in peanut cotyledons supplemented with aflatoxins, with or without infection with the atoxigenic strain. Similarly, peanut germination and A. flavus growth were altered in response to aflatoxin B1. These findings show an additional immunity initiated by aflatoxins. With the PAMP- and effector-triggered immune responses, this immunity constitutes the third immune response of the immune system in peanut cotyledon cells. The system is also a three-grade coevolution of plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:22424419
Wang, Zizhang; Yan, Shijuan; Liu, Chunming; Chen, Fang; Wang, Tai
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning causes many physiological abnormalities including immune suppression. Cellular immunity was studied in 30 PCB-poisoned patients and 50 normal human subjects. PCB poisoning caused suppression of cellular immunity such as the delayed-type skin response to streptokinase and streptodornase. The suppression of cellular immunity was correlated with the severity of the disease. Thus evaluation of the immune function may be helpful for the diagnosis of PCB poisoning.
Chang, K. (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei); Hsieh, K.; Tang, S.; Tung, T.; Lee, T.
The effects of Brugia pahangi infection duration and parasite burden on parasite-associated inflammatory and immune responses were determined over a 181-day period in jirds receiving from one to eight inoculations of infective larvae. Multiple infections did not produce a protective resistance to reinfection as determined by adult worm recovery at necropsy. Intralymphatic granulomatous lesions, lymph thrombi, were first seen at 48 days post initial inoculation (DPI). The numbers of lymph thrombi reached peak levels in singly inoculated jirds at 90 DPI and significantly decreased to low levels by 160 DPI. The ratio of lymph thrombi to adult worms recovered from the spermatic cord lymphatics followed a similar pattern. Sizes of renal lymph nodes, which drain lymphatics containing parasites, followed a temporal pattern of increase and decrease similar to that of lymph thrombi numbers. Peak granuloma areas around antigen-coated beads embolized in lungs were seen at 27 DPI. Granuloma areas around antigen-coated beads began to decrease after 69 DPI and reached sizes not significantly different from uninfected controls by 118 DPI. Multiple inoculations of infective larvae and increasing worm burdens did not affect the pattern of granulomatous response to antigen-coated beads. Eosinophilia of singly and multiply infected jirds peaked at 26 DPI. Eosinophilia of singly infected jirds returned to normal levels by 103 DPI but those of multiply infected jirds remained elevated until 160 DPI. Lymph node cell blastogenic responses to antigen were greater than those of splenocytes at all time intervals measured. However, significant differences in stimulation indexes between groups with different infection durations were not seen with either cell type. Antibody responses to somatic adult worm antigen as measured by ELISA reached near peak levels by 48 DPI and remained elevated for the course of the study in all infected jirds. The decrease in lymphatic lesion severity seen in chronically infected jirds temporally corresponds to the decrease in granulomatous reactivity measured around antigen-coated beads embolized in the lungs. This observation suggests that host and/or parasite factors associated with these two phenomena may be similar. Although these decreases may be the result of down-regulated immune responses, corresponding decreases in antibody levels and blastogenesis of lymphocytes stimulated by crude worm extracts were not observed in chronic infections. PMID:2226701
Klei, T R; McVay, C S; Dennis, V A; Coleman, S U; Enright, F M; Casey, H W
Melanopsin photoreception plays a vital role in irradiance detection for non-image forming responses to light. However, little is known about the involvement of melanopsin in emotional processing of luminance. When confronted with a gradient in light, organisms exhibit spatial movements relative to this stimulus. In rodents, behavioural light aversion (BLA) is a well-documented but poorly understood phenomenon during which animals attribute salience to light and remove themselves from it. Here, using genetically modified mice and an open field behavioural paradigm, we investigate the role of melanopsin in BLA. While wildtype (WT), melanopsin knockout (Opn4?/?) and rd/rd cl (melanopsin only (MO)) mice all exhibit BLA, our novel methodology reveals that isolated melanopsin photoreception produces a slow, potentiating response to light. In order to control for the involvement of pupillary constriction in BLA we eliminated this variable with topical atropine application. This manipulation enhanced BLA in WT and MO mice, but most remarkably, revealed light aversion in triple knockout (TKO) mice, lacking three elements deemed essential for conventional photoreception (Opn4?/? Gnat1?/? Cnga3?/?). Using a number of complementary strategies, we determined this response to be generated at the level of the retina. Our findings have significant implications for the understanding of how melanopsin signalling may modulate aversive responses to light in mice and humans. In addition, we also reveal a clear potential for light perception in TKO mice.
Semo, Ma'ayan; Gias, Carlos; Ahmado, Ahmad; Sugano, Eriko; Allen, Annette E.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Tomita, Hiroshi; Coffey, Peter J.; Vugler, Anthony A.
Differential effects of oral versus intrathymic administration of polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class II peptides on mononuclear and endothelial cell activation and cytokine expression during a delayed-type hypersensitivity response.
Oral and intrathymic exposure to antigen can each induce systemic antigen-specific immune tolerance, but the mechanisms have not been well defined. We studied the effects that the route of exposure to antigen has on the mechanisms of tolerance in vivo using synthetic polymorphic class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) peptides in a skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response model. Lewis rats were immunized by injection in the footpad with synthetic peptides (RT1.Bu and/or RT1.Du) derived from the hypervariable domain of MHC class II beta chain of the Wistar-Furth rat in complete Freund's adjuvant and challenged 2 weeks later by injection in the ear with the MHC peptides. An "oral" group received the peptide mixture by gavage (100 micrograms/day for 5 days) 3 days before immunization, and an "intrathymic" group received a single intrathymic injection of 100 micrograms of peptides 48 hours before immunization. Oral therapy reduced the DTH response to 23 +/- 7%, and intrathymic exposure reduced the DTH response to 26 +/- 6% (P < 0.001) as compared with control DTH responses of unmodified Lewis animals. Immunohistological evaluation of DTH skin lesions showed that oral and intrathymic therapy each decreased mononuclear cell infiltration, fibrin deposition, and endothelial activation when compared with that seen in control rats. In contrast, while both protocols markedly reduced interleukin (IL-2) and interferon-gamma expression, they had differing effects on local expression of IL-4, transforming growth factor-beta, IL-2R, and CD45RC (a possible discriminant between Th1 and Th2 cells in rats). Oral therapy was associated with increased expression of IL-4 and preservation of transforming growth factor-beta expression by residual IL-2R+, CD45RC- mononuclear and endothelial cells, whereas thymic exposure suppressed essentially all features of immune activation including IL-2R induction and cytokine expression. Our data a) document the detailed pattern of cytokine expression and mononuclear and endothelial cell activation markers during DTH responses and b) confirm that oral tolerance is associated with immune deviation to a predominance of Th2 cell function, whereas intrathymic tolerance may be mediated by T-cell anergy or clonal deletion. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Hancock, W. W.; Khoury, S. J.; Carpenter, C. B.; Sayegh, M. H.
Two women developed well-demarcated eczematous and erythematous plaques localized to the injection sites of subcutaneous preservative-free heparin 72-96 h after heparin administration. The plaques resolved within a week of discontinuing the therapy. Neither epicutaneous testing with preservative-free heparin nor in vitro proliferation assays to heparin and two low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans could elicit a response in either patient. In contrast, both patients developed localized eczematous plaques 48-96 h after re-challenge with intradermal and/or subcutaneous heparin. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions to subcutaneous heparin are uncommon and have not been reported in the Australasian medical literature. Given the frequency with which heparin preparations are used, it is important for physicians and surgeons to be aware of this potential adverse reaction. PMID:1836326
Rivers, J K; Gianoutsos, M P
Mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD) were trained to acquire one of two simple instrumental responses (a lever press or a nosepoke) to obtain food reinforcement. Animals from several HD strains revealed apparently progressive deficits in this task, being significantly less able than littermate controls to perform the required responses, at ages where motor function is only mildly affected. These data could provide a simple way to measure learning deficits in these mouse models, likely related to the characteristic pattern of neural damage observed in HD mouse models. PMID:22512000
Oakeshott, Stephen; Port, Russell G; Cummins-Sutphen, Jane; Watson-Johnson, Judy; Ramboz, Sylvie; Park, Larry; Howland, David; Brunner, Dani
Shortly after the release of singlet oxygen (1O2) in chloroplasts drastic changes in nuclear gene expression occur in the conditional flu mutant of Arabidopsis that reveal a rapid transfer of signals from the plastid to the nucleus. Factors involved in this retrograde\\u000a signaling were identified by mutagenizing a transgenic flu line expressing a 1O2-responsive reporter gene. The reporter gene consisted
Aiswarya Baruah; Klára Šimková; Klaus Apel; Christophe Laloi
A cross-sectional study on canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in Amazonian Brazil ratifies a higher prevalence of specific IgG-antibody response than delayed-type hypersensitivity in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs.
This was a cross-sectional study which analyzed the prevalence and the clinical and immunological spectrum of canine Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi infection in a cohort of 320 mongrel dogs living in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the Amazonian Brazil by using, mainly, the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT-IgG) and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and the parasite research by the popliteal lymph node aspiration. The IFAT and DTH reactivity recognized three different immune response profiles: (1) IFAT((+))/DTH((-)) (107 dogs), (2) IFAT((-))/DTH((+)) (18 dogs), and (3) IFAT((+))/DTH((+)) (13 dogs), providing an overall prevalence of infection of 43% (138/320). Thus, the specific prevalence of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) 33.4% (107/320) was higher than those of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) 5.6% (18/320) and IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) 4.0% (13/320). Moreover, the frequency of these profiles among 138 infected dogs showed that the IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (-) ) rate of 77.5% (107/138) was also higher than those of 13.0% (18/138) of IFAT( (-) )/DTH( (+) ) and 9.5% (13/138) of IFAT( (+) )/DTH( (+) ) rates. The frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105) was higher than those of symptomatic (16.6%-23) and oligosymptomatic ones (7.4%-10). A total of 16 (11.6%) L. (L.) i. chagasi isolates were obtained from infected dogs, all from the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile: 41% (9/22) from symptomatic, 33.3% (3/9) from oligosymptomatic, and 5.2% (4/76) from asymptomatic dogs. These findings strongly suggested that despite the higher frequency of asymptomatic dogs (76%-105), the majority (72.4%-76) was characterized by the IFAT( (+) ) /DTH( (-) ) profile with a doubtful immunogenetic resistance against infection. PMID:22706905
Silveira, Fernando T; Carneiro, Liliane A; Ramos, Patrícia K S; Chagas, Eugęnia J; Lima, Luciana V R; Campos, Marliane B; Laurenti, Márcia D; Gomes, Claudia M C; Corbett, Carlos E P
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), or extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a patchy, interstitial lung disease that involves an immunologic reaction of the lung to repeated inhalation of foreign antigens. In this report, we describe a machinist with exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) and biopsy-confirmed HP. Return to work, which could be equated with a retrospective workplace-specific bronchoprovocation test, proved that working within an environment in which MWFs were used was associated with clinical deterioration in the patient's pulmonary status and with clinical improvement after removal from exposure. PMID:9750946
Freeman, A; Lockey, J; Hawley, P; Biddinger, P; Trout, D
Determining the nature of binding in grapheme-color synaesthesia has consequences for understanding the neural basis of synaesthesia and visual awareness in general. We evaluated type- and token-based letter-color binding using a synaesthetic version of the object-reviewing paradigm. Although mean response times failed to reveal any significant differences between synaesthetes and control participants, RT analyses with ex-Gaussian distributions revealed that the response facilitation in the synaesthesia group reflected type representations exclusively, while response facilitation in the control group, who learned letter-color associations, was dominated by token representations. Thus, letter-color associations in associator synaesthetes are type-based, and do not involve binding to object tokens, consistent with their subjective reports. Contrary to recent studies that failed to find differences between synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes with behavioral measures, response time distribution analyses indicate that color sensations in synaesthetes are not simply the extreme form of normal letter-color associations, and cannot be attributed to demand characteristics. PMID:21820323
Saiki, Jun; Yoshioka, Ayako; Yamamoto, Hiroki
Cryptococcus gattii is an encapsulated fungus capable of causing fatal disease in immunocompetent humans and animals. As current antifungal therapies are few and limited in efficacy, and resistance is an emerging issue, the development of new treatment strategies is urgently required. The current study undertook a time-course analysis of the proteome of C. gattii during treatment with fluconazole (FLC), which is used widely in prophylactic and maintenance therapies. The aims were to analyze the overall cellular response to FLC, and to find fungal proteins involved in this response that might be useful targets in therapies that augment the antifungal activity of FLC. During FLC treatment, an increase in stress response, ATP synthesis and mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins, and a decrease in most ribosomal proteins was observed, suggesting that ATP-dependent efflux pumps had been initiated for survival and that the maintenance of ribosome synthesis was differentially expressed. Two proteins involved in fungal specific pathways were responsive to FLC. An integrative network analysis revealed co-ordinated processes involved in drug response, and highlighted hubs in the network representing essential proteins that are required for cell viability. This work demonstrates the dynamic cellular response of a typical susceptible isolate of C. gattii to FLC, and identified a number of proteins and pathways that could be targeted to augment the activity of FLC.
Chong, Hin Siong; Campbell, Leona; Padula, Matthew P.; Hill, Cameron; Harry, Elizabeth; Li, Simone S.; Wilkins, Marc R.; Herbert, Ben; Carter, Dee
During construction of several gene deletion mutants in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 which involved a high-temperature (37.5°C) incubation step, additional spontaneous mutations were observed which resulted in stable heat resistance and in some cases salt-hypersensitive phenotypes. Whole-genome sequencing of one strain which was both heat resistant and salt hypersensitive, followed by PCR and sequencing of four other mutants which shared these phenotypes, revealed independent mutations in llmg_1816 in all cases. This gene encodes a membrane-bound stress signaling protein of the GdpP family, members of which exhibit cyclic dimeric AMP (c-di-AMP)-specific phosphodiesterase activity. Mutations were predicted to lead to single amino acid substitutions or protein truncations. An independent llmg_1816 mutant (?1816), created using a suicide vector, also displayed heat resistance and salt hypersensitivity phenotypes which could be restored to wild-type levels following plasmid excision. L. lactis ?1816 also displayed improved growth in response to sublethal concentrations of penicillin G. High-temperature incubation of a wild-type industrial L. lactis strain also resulted in spontaneous mutation of llmg_1816 and heat-resistant and salt-hypersensitive phenotypes, suggesting that this is not a strain-specific phenomenon and that it is independent of a plasmid integration event. Acidification of milk by the llmg_1816-altered strain was inhibited by lower salt concentrations than the parent strain. This study demonstrates that spontaneous mutations can occur during high-temperature growth of L. lactis and that inactivation of llmg_1816 leads to temperature resistance and salt hypersensitivity. PMID:22923415
Smith, William M; Pham, Thi Huong; Lei, Lin; Dou, Junchao; Soomro, Aijaz H; Beatson, Scott A; Dykes, Gary A; Turner, Mark S
: Transurethral collagen injection is both safe and effective when used for the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence.\\u000a It is associated with a minimal inflammatory response, and virtually no foreign body reaction. Most allergic reactions occur\\u000a within 72 hours of treatment (immediate hypersensitivity). Although uncommon, delayed hypersensitivity reactions may occur\\u000a and it is advisable to administer a collagen skin
K. T. Echols; R. R. Chesson; E. F. Breaux; S. A. Shobeiri
Objectives: To provide national figures on the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity (S-FH), and the association with socio-demographic variables and some health indicators in schoolchildren in The Netherlands.Design: As part of the Child Health Monitoring System, data were collected from 4450 children, who were invited for a routine health assessment (response 97%). A questionnaire on food hypersensitivity was completed by
E Brugman; JF Meulmeester; A Spee-van der Wekke; RJ Beuker; JJ Radder; SP Verloove-Vanhorick
Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is a severe, potentially life-threatening, reaction to the aromatic anticonvulsant medications. Reported here is a case of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome secondary to phenobarbital in a 2-year-old boy; he responded to drug withdrawal, corticosteroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin. The literature regarding treatment of this syndrome is reviewed. PMID:20682208
Dredge, David C; Parsons, Elizabeth C; Carter, Lindsay P; Staley, Kevin J
A 16-year-old Bangladeshi girl presented with a 9-day history of an extensive pruritic, erythematous, papulovesicular skin eruption to both forearms. Appearance was 5 days following application of a home-made henna preparation. Examination revealed ulceration and scabbing along the whole henna pattern and early keloid formation. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction superimposed by infection was initially made. As in this case, home-made henna preparations commonly combine commercial henna with black hair dye, paraphenylenediamine (PPD). PPD, widely known as ‘black henna’, darkens the pigment and precipitates the drying process. PPD is a potent contact allergen associated with a high incidence of hypersensitivity reactions. Despite treatment the patient was left with extensive keloid scarring in the pattern of the henna tattoo.
Vasilakis, Vasileios; Knight, Bernice; Lidder, Satnam; Frankton, Sarah
The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) ion channel is expressed on nociceptive primary afferent neurons. On the proximal nerve ending within the spinal dorsal horn, TRPA1 regulates transmission to spinal interneurons, and thereby pain hypersensitivity. Here we assessed whether the contribution of the spinal TRPA1 channel to pain hypersensitivity varies with the experimental pain model, properties of test stimulation or the behavioral pain response. The antihypersensitivity effect of intrathecally (i.t.) administered Chembridge-5861528 (CHEM; a selective TRPA1 channel antagonist; 5-10?g) was determined in various experimental models of pain hypersensitivity in the rat. In spinal nerve ligation and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation models, i.t. CHEM attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity. Capsaicin-induced secondary (central) but not primary (peripheral) mechanical hypersensitivity was also reduced by i.t. administration of CHEM or A-967079, another TRPA1 channel antagonist. Formalin-induced secondary mechanical hypersensitivity, but not spontaneous pain, was suppressed by i.t. CHEM. Moreover, mechanical hypersensitivity induced by cholekystokinin in the rostroventromedial medulla was attenuated by i.t. pretreatment with CHEM. Independent of the model, the antihypersensitivity effect induced by i.t. CHEM was predominant on responses evoked by low-intensity stimuli (?6g). CHEM (10?g i.t.) failed to attenuate pain behavior in healthy controls or mechanical hypersensitivities induced by i.t. administrations of a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, or NMDA or 5-HT(3) receptor agonists. Conversely, i.t. administration of a TRPA1 channel agonist, cinnamon aldehyde, induced mechanical hypersensitivity. The results indicate that the spinal TRPA1 channel exerts an important role in secondary (central) pain hypersensitivity to low-intensity mechanical stimulation in various pain hypersensitivity conditions. The spinal TRPA1 channel provides a promising target for the selective attenuation of a central mechanism contributing to pathophysiological pain. PMID:21211906
Wei, Hong; Koivisto, Ari; Saarnilehto, Marja; Chapman, Hugh; Kuokkanen, Katja; Hao, Bin; Huang, Jin-Lu; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Pertovaara, Antti
Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.
Zhang, Lingling; Hou, Rui; Su, Hailin; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin
The structure of Escherichia coli leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) cocrystallized with a short duplex oligodeoxynucleotide reveals a novel quaternary assembly in which the protein octamer forms an open, linear array of four dimers. In contrast, structures of the Lrp homologs LrpA, LrpC and AsnC crystallized in the absence of DNA show that these proteins instead form highly symmetrical octamers in which the four dimers form a closed ring. Although the DNA is disordered within the Lrp crystal, comparative analyses suggest that the observed differences in quaternary state may arise from DNA interactions during crystallization. Interconversion of these conformations, possibly in response to DNA or leucine binding, provides an underlying mechanism to alter the relative spatial orientation of the DNA-binding domains. Breaking of the closed octamer symmetry may be a common essential step in the formation of active DNA complexes by all members of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins.
de los Rios, S.; Perona, J.J.; /UC, Santa Barbara
Hypersensitivity syndrome (HS) has been recognized as one of severe adverse drug eruptions. HS has several characteristic features as follows. First, the clinical symptoms are high fever, multiple lymphadenopathy, severe skin rash, mononucleosis and multiple visceral involvement. Secondly, those symptoms appear two to six weeks after the initiation of drug administration. Thirdly, HS is induced by the specific drugs, carbamazepine, phenytoin, salazosulfapyridine, allopurinol, diaphenylsulphone, and mexiletine. Recently, we reported the association of HS with reactivation of HHV-6, the causative virus for exanthem subitum. We propose the new disease entity of HHV-6-associated drug eruption (HADE) because HS is composed of two clinical phases, drug allergic reaction in the early phase and HHV-6 reactivation in the late phase. PMID:11712420
Tohyama, M; Hashimoto, K
Adverse drug reactions are a common cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Type B drug reactions comprise only 20% of all drug reactions but they tend to be primarily immunologically mediated and less dependent on the drug's pharmacological action and dose. Common Type B reactions seen in clinical practice are those of the immediate, IgE, Gell-Coombs Type I reactions, and the delayed, T-cell mediated, Type IV reactions. Management of these types of reactions, once they have occurred, requires careful consideration and recognition of the utility of routine diagnostic tests followed by ancillary specialised diagnostic testing. For Type I, IgE mediated reactions this includes prick/intradermal skin testing and oral provocation. For Type IV, T-cell mediated reactions this includes a variety of in vivo (patch testing) and ex vivo tests, many of which are currently mainly used in highly specialised research laboratories. The recent association of many serious delayed (Type IV) hypersensitivity reactions to specific drugs with HLA class I and II alleles has created the opportunity for HLA screening to exclude high risk populations from exposure to the implicated drug and hence prevent clinical reactions. For example, the 100% negative predictive value of HLA-B*5701 for true immunologically mediated abacavir hypersensitivity and the development of feasible, inexpensive DNA-based molecular tests has led to incorporation of HLA-B*5701 screening in routine HIV clinical practice. The mechanism by which drugs specifically interact with HLA has been recently characterised and promises to lead to strategies for pre-clinical screening to inform drug development and design. PMID:23592889
Rive, Craig M; Bourke, Jack; Phillips, Elizabeth J
Neuromuscular blocking agents have been implicated in 60-70% of anaphylactic events associated with anaesthesia. We report two cases of probable hypersensitivity reaction to sugammadex and an additional suspected but less supported case of possible immune-mediated reaction or other adverse reaction. The patients were given a bolus of sugammadex 100 mg immediately before extubation. In all three patients, a possible allergic reaction was suspected within 4 min of sugammadex administration, but with different degrees of severity. Skin testing was positive in two of these patients. Hypersensitivity to sugammadex unaccompanied by cardiovascular or respiratory symptoms might be missed during the course of anaesthesia. Careful monitoring for possible allergic responses is required in patients who have received sugammadex. PMID:22617091
Godai, K; Hasegawa-Moriyama, M; Kuniyoshi, T; Kakoi, T; Ikoma, K; Isowaki, S; Matsunaga, A; Kanmura, Y
Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is an experimental model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) that can be studied in mice. For CHS responses, mice are immunized by painting with a reactive hapten, such as 1-fluoro-4,6-dinitrobenzene (DNFB), on the shaved abdominal and chest skin. Subsequently, the ears are challenged with diluted hapten, eliciting 'hypersensitive' ear-swelling reactions, which can be measured with a micrometer. In this manuscript we present complementary methods that can be used to evaluate CHS in mice that include: ear weight, vascular permeability, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, IFN-? concentration in ear extracts and also IFN-? production by auricular lymph node cells (ELNC). The biochemical evaluation of CHS can be also supported by proliferation assay, measurement of IFN-? production by skin-draining lymph node cells employing ELISA test and by evaluation of IFN-?(+) TCR?? CD8 cells with the use of flow cytometry. PMID:23183274
Zemelka-Wi?cek, Magdalena; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Pyrczak, Wies?aw; Szczepanik, Marian
Background Retinal detachment often leads to a severe and permanent loss of vision and its therapeutic management remains to this day exclusively surgical. We have used surgical specimens to perform a differential analysis of the transcriptome of human retinal tissues following detachment in order to identify new potential pharmacological targets that could be used in combination with surgery to further improve final outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings Statistical analysis reveals major involvement of the immune response in the disease. Interestingly, using a novel approach relying on coordinated expression, the interindividual variation was monitored to unravel a second crucial aspect of the pathological process: the death of photoreceptor cells. Within the genes identified, the expression of the major histocompatibility complex I gene HLA-C enables diagnosis of the disease, while PKD2L1 and SLCO4A1 -which are both down-regulated- act synergistically to provide an estimate of the duration of the retinal detachment process. Our analysis thus reveals the two complementary cellular and molecular aspects linked to retinal detachment: an immune response and the degeneration of photoreceptor cells. We also reveal that the human specimens have a higher clinical value as compared to artificial models that point to IL6 and oxidative stress, not implicated in the surgical specimens studied here. Conclusions/Significance This systematic analysis confirmed the occurrence of both neurodegeneration and inflammation during retinal detachment, and further identifies precisely the modification of expression of the different genes implicated in these two phenomena. Our data henceforth give a new insight into the disease process and provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting inflammation and photoreceptor damage associated with retinal detachment and, in turn, improving visual prognosis after retinal surgery.
Delyfer, Marie-Noelle; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Mercier, David; Korobelnik, Jean-Francois; Gaudric, Alain; Charteris, David G.; Tadayoni, Ramin; Metge, Florence; Caputo, Georges; Barale, Pierre-Olivier; Ripp, Raymond; Muller, Jean-Denis; Poch, Olivier; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Leveillard, Thierry
Drug hypersensitivity is an unpredictable, immunologically mediated adverse reaction, clustered in a genetically predisposed individual. The role of “hapten concept” in immune sensitization has recently been contested by the “pharmacological interaction” hypothesis. After completion of the “human genome project” and with the availability of high-resolution genotyping, genetic susceptibility to hypersensitivity for certain drugs has been proved beyond doubt though the trend is ethnicity and phenotype dependent. Application of this newly acquired knowledge may reduce or abolish the morbidity and mortality associated with cutaneous drug hypersensitivity.
Ghosh, Kisalay; Banerjee, Gautam; Ghosal, Asok Kumar; Nandi, Jayoti
Partial peripheral nerve injury in adult rats results in neuropathic pain-like hypersensitivity, while that in neonatal rats does not, a phenomenon also observed in humans. We therefore compared gene expression profiles in the dorsal horn of adult and neonatal rats in response to the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of peripheral neuropathic pain. The 148 differentially regulated genes in adult, but not young, rat spinal cords indicate a greater microglial and T-cell response in adult than in young animals. T-cells show a large infiltration in the adult dorsal horn but not in the neonate after SNI. T-cell-deficient Rag1-null adult mice develop less neuropathic mechanical allodynia than controls, and central expression of cytokines involved in T-cell signaling exhibits large relative differences between young and adult animals after SNI. One such cytokine, interferon-? (IFN?), is upregulated in the dorsal horn after nerve injury in the adult but not neonate, and we show that IFN? signaling is required for full expression of adult neuropathic hypersensitivity. These data reveal that T-cell infiltration and activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord following peripheral nerve injury contribute to the evolution of neuropathic pain-like hypersensitivity. The neuroimmune interaction following peripheral nerve injury has therefore a substantial adaptive immune component, which is absent or suppressed in the young CNS.
Costigan, Michael; Moss, Andrew; Latremoliere, Alban; Johnston, Caroline; Verma-Gandhu, Monica; Herbert, Teri A.; Barrett, Lee; Brenner, Gary J.; Vardeh, Daniel; Woolf, Clifford J.; Fitzgerald, Maria
Idiosyncratic hypersensitivity reactions may account for up to 25% of all adverse reactions, and pose a constant problem to physicians because of their unpredictable nature, potentially fatal outcome and resemblance to other disease processes. Current understanding of how drug allergy arises is based largely on the hapten hypothesis: since most drugs are not chemically reactive per se, they must be activated metabolically to reactive species which may become immunogenic through interactions with cellular macromolecules. The role of drug metabolism is thus pivotal to the hapten hypothesis both in activation of the parent compound and detoxification of the reactive species. Although conjugation reactions may occasionally produce potential immunogens (for example, the generation of acylglucuronides from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac), bioactivation is catalysed most frequently by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. The multifactorial nature of hypersensitivity reactions, particularly the role of often unidentified, reactive drug metabolites in antigen generation, has hampered the routine diagnosis of these disorders by classical immunological methods designed to detect circulating antibodies or sensitized T cells. Similarly, species differences in drug metabolism and immune system regulation have largely precluded the establishment of appropriate animal models with which to examine the immunopathological mechanisms of these toxicities. However, the combined use of in vitro toxicity assays incorporating human tissues and in vivo phenotyping (or, ultimately, in vitro genotyping) methods for drug detoxification pathways may provide the metabolic basis for hypersensitivity reactions to several drugs. This brief review highlights recent efforts to unravel the bases for hypersensitivity reactions to these therapeutic agents (which include anticonvulsants and sulphonamides) using drug metabolism and immunochemical approaches. In particular, examples are provided which illustrate breakthroughs in the identification of the chemical nature of the reactive metabolites which become bound to cellular macromolecules, the enzyme systems responsible for their generation and (possibly) detoxification, and the target proteins implicated in the subsequent immune response.
Riley, R J; Leeder, J S
Proper protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is vital in all eukaryotes. When misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, the transmembrane kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1 initiates splicing of HAC1 mRNA to generate the bZIP transcription factor Hac1, which subsequently activates its target genes to increase the protein-folding capacity of the ER. This cellular machinery, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), is believed to be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in eukaryotes. In this study, we comprehensively characterized mutant phenotypes of IRE1 and other related genes in the human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata. Unexpectedly, Ire1 was required for the ER stress response independently of Hac1 in this fungus. C. glabrata Ire1 did not cleave mRNAs encoding Hac1 and other bZIP transcription factors identified in the C. glabrata genome. Microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional response to ER stress is not mediated by Ire1, but instead is dependent largely on calcineurin signaling and partially on the Slt2 MAPK pathway. The loss of Ire1 alone did not confer increased antifungal susceptibility in C. glabrata contrary to UPR-defective mutants in other fungi. Taken together, our results suggest that the canonical Ire1-Hac1 UPR is not conserved in C. glabrata. It is known in metazoans that active Ire1 nonspecifically cleaves and degrades a subset of ER-localized mRNAs to reduce the ER load. Intriguingly, this cellular response could occur in an Ire1 nuclease-dependent fashion in C. glabrata. We also uncovered the attenuated virulence of the C. glabrata ?ire1 mutant in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. This study has unveiled the unique evolution of ER stress response mechanisms in C. glabrata. PMID:23382685
Miyazaki, Taiga; Nakayama, Hironobu; Nagayoshi, Yohsuke; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru
Asthma is a type-I allergic airway disease characterized by Th2 cells and IgE. Episodes of bronchial inflammation, eosinophilic in nature and promoting bronchoconstriction, may become chronic and lead to persistent respiratory symptoms and irreversible structural airway changes. Representative mostly of mild to moderate asthma, this clinical definition fails to account for the atypical and often more severe phenotype found in a considerable proportion of asthmatics who have increased neutrophil cell counts in the airways as a distinguishing trait. Neutrophilic inflammation is a hallmark of another type of allergic airway pathology, hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Considered as an immune counterpart of asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a prototypical type-III allergic inflammatory reaction involving the alveoli and lung interstitium, steered by Th1 cells and IgG and, in its chronic form, accompanied by fibrosis. Although pathologically very different and commonly approached as separate disorders, as discussed in this review, clinical studies as well as data from animal models reveal undeniable parallels between both airway diseases. Danger signaling elicited by the allergenic agent or by accompanying microbial patterns emerges as critical in enabling immune sensitization and in determining the type of sensitization and ensuing allergic disease. On this basis, we propose that asthma allergens cause severe noneosinophilic asthma because of sensitization in the presence of hypersensitivity pneumonitis-promoting danger signaling.
Bogaert, Pieter; Tournoy, Kurt G.; Naessens, Thomas; Grooten, Johan
Phosphorus (P) is a critical driver of phytoplankton growth and ecosystem function in the ocean. Diatoms are an abundant class of marine phytoplankton that are responsible for significant amounts of primary production. With the control they exert on the oceanic carbon cycle, there have been a number of studies focused on how diatoms respond to limiting macro and micronutrients such as iron and nitrogen. However, diatom physiological responses to P deficiency are poorly understood. Here, we couple deep sequencing of transcript tags and quantitative proteomics to analyze the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana grown under P-replete and P-deficient conditions. A total of 318 transcripts were differentially regulated with a false discovery rate of <0.05, and a total of 136 proteins were differentially abundant (p<0.05). Significant changes in the abundance of transcripts and proteins were observed and coordinated for multiple biochemical pathways, including glycolysis and translation. Patterns in transcript and protein abundance were also linked to physiological changes in cellular P distributions, and enzyme activities. These data demonstrate that diatom P deficiency results in changes in cellular P allocation through polyphosphate production, increased P transport, a switch to utilization of dissolved organic P through increased production of metalloenzymes, and a remodeling of the cell surface through production of sulfolipids. Together, these findings reveal that T. pseudonana has evolved a sophisticated response to P deficiency involving multiple biochemical strategies that are likely critical to its ability to respond to variations in environmental P availability.
Dyhrman, Sonya T.; Mercier, Melissa L.; Alexander, Harriet; Whitney, LeAnn P.; Drzewianowski, Andrea; Bulygin, Vladimir V.; Bertrand, Erin M.; Wu, Zhijin; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Heithoff, Abigail
The Bcl-2 family encompasses a diverse set of apoptotic regulators that are dynamically activated in response various cell intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. An extensive variety of cell culture experiments have identified effects of growth factors, cytokines and drugs on BCL-2 family functions, but in vivo studies have tended to focus on role of one or two particular members in development and organ homeostasis. Thus, the ability of physiologically relevant contexts to modulate canonical dependencies that are likely to be more complex has yet to be investigated systematically. In this study, we report findings derived from a pool-based shRNA assay that systematically and comprehensively interrogated the functional dependence of leukemia and lymphoma cells upon various BCL-2 family members across many diverse in vitro and in vivo settings. This approach permitted us to report the first in vivo loss of function screen for modifiers of the response to a frontline chemotherapeutic agent. Notably, our results reveal an unexpected role for the extrinsic death pathway as a tissue-specific modifier of therapeutic response. In particular, our findings demonstrate that particular tissue sites of tumor dissemination play critical roles in demarcating the nature and extent of cancer cell vulnerabilities and mechanisms of chemoresistance.
Pritchard, Justin R.; Gilbert, Luke A.; Meacham, Corbin E.; Ricks, Jennifer L.; Jiang, Hai; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Hemann, Michael T.
Flag leaf is one of the key photosynthesis organs during rice reproductive stage. A time course microarray analysis of rice flag leaf was done after 40°C treatment for 0min, 20min, 60min, 2h, 4h, and 8h. The identified significant heat responsive genes were mainly involved in transcriptional regulation, transport, protein binding, antioxidant, and stress response. KMC analysis discovered the time-dependent gene expression pattern under heat. MapMan analysis demonstrated that, under heat treatment, Hsp genes and genes involved in glycolysis and ubiquitin-proteasome were enhanced, and genes involved in TCA, carotenoid, dihydroflavonol and anthocyanin metabolisms and light-reaction in the photosynthesis were widely repressed. Meanwhile, some rate-limiting enzyme genes in shikimate, lignin, and mevalonic acid metabolisms were up-regulated, revealing the importance of maintaining specific secondary metabolites under heat stress. The present study increased our understanding of heat response in rice flag leaf and provided good candidate genes for crop improvement. PMID:23994682
Zhang, Xianwen; Rerksiri, Wirat; Liu, Ailing; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Xiong, Hairong; Xiang, Jianhua; Chen, Xinbo; Xiong, Xingyao
Regeneration is widespread throughout the animal kingdom, but our molecular understanding of this process in adult animals remains poorly understood. Wnt/?-catenin signaling plays crucial roles throughout animal life from early development to adulthood. In intact and regenerating planarians, the regulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling functions to maintain and specify anterior/posterior (A/P) identity. Here, we explore the expression kinetics and RNAi phenotypes for secreted members of the Wnt signaling pathway in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Smed-wnt and sFRP expression during regeneration is surprisingly dynamic and reveals fundamental aspects of planarian biology that have been previously unappreciated. We show that after amputation, a wounding response precedes rapid reorganization of the A/P axis. Furthermore, cells throughout the body plan can mount this response and reassess their new A/P location in the complete absence of stem cells. While initial stages of the amputation response are stem cell independent, tissue remodeling and the integration of new A/P address with anatomy are stem cell dependent. We also show that WNT5 functions in a reciprocal manner with SLIT to pattern the planarian mediolateral axis, while WNT11-2 patterns the posterior midline. Moreover, we perform an extensive phylogenetic analysis on the Smed-wnt genes using a method that combines and integrates both sequence and structural alignments, enabling us to place all nine genes into Wnt subfamilies for the first time.
Gurley, Kyle A.; Elliott, Sarah A.; Simakov, Oleg; Schmidt, Heiko A.; Holstein, Thomas W.; Sanchez Alvarado, Alejandro
Cells of almost all solid tissues are connected with gap junctions which permit the direct transfer of ions and small molecules, integral to regulating coordinated function in the tissue. The pancreatic islets of Langerhans are responsible for secreting the hormone insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Gap junctions are the only electrical contacts between the beta-cells in the tissue of these excitable islets. It is generally believed that they are responsible for synchrony of the membrane voltage oscillations among beta-cells, and thereby pulsatility of insulin secretion. Most attempts to understand connectivity in islets are often interpreted, bottom-up, in terms of measurements of gap junctional conductance. This does not, however, explain systematic changes, such as a diminished junctional conductance in type 2 diabetes. We attempt to address this deficit via the model presented here, which is a learning theory of gap junctional adaptation derived with analogy to neural systems. Here, gap junctions are modelled as bonds in a beta-cell network, that are altered according to homeostatic rules of plasticity. Our analysis reveals that it is nearly impossible to view gap junctions as homogeneous across a tissue. A modified view that accommodates heterogeneity of junction strengths in the islet can explain why, for example, a loss of gap junction conductance in diabetes is necessary for an increase in plasma insulin levels following hyperglycemia.
Goel, Pranay; Mehta, Anita
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a nonimmunoglobulin E-related immune-mediated parenchymal lung disease. A 45-year-old woman who was a lifelong nonsmoker with a six-month history of frequent episodes of cough and dyspnea was admitted to hospital. She had been working as a money counter for 20 years at a central bank. Bibasilar crackles on lung auscultation, ground-glass opacities and a mosaic pattern on high-resolution computed tomography, restrictive abnormality on pulmonary function tests and mild hypoxemia were the prominent findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis revealed a predominance of CD4-positive T cells, and she tested positive on her natural challenge test. She was diagnosed with subacute HP based on established criteria. She was advised to discontinue counting fresh banknotes. Prednisolone was commenced, then tapered to discontinue in the ensuing six months. Clinical and radiological improvement was achieved within two months. To the authors' knowledge, the present report is the first to describe 'hard cash HP', possibly caused by chipping dust or printing dye. PMID:21038004
Kupeli, Elif; Karnak, Demet; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Kayacan, Oya
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a nonimmunoglobulin E-related immune-mediated parenchymal lung disease. A 45-year-old woman who was a lifelong nonsmoker with a six-month history of frequent episodes of cough and dyspnea was admitted to hospital. She had been working as a money counter for 20 years at a central bank. Bibasilar crackles on lung auscultation, ground-glass opacities and a mosaic pattern on high-resolution computed tomography, restrictive abnormality on pulmonary function tests and mild hypoxemia were the prominent findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis revealed a predominance of CD4-positive T cells, and she tested positive on her natural challenge test. She was diagnosed with subacute HP based on established criteria. She was advised to discontinue counting fresh banknotes. Prednisolone was commenced, then tapered to discontinue in the ensuing six months. Clinical and radiological improvement was achieved within two months. To the authors’ knowledge, the present report is the first to describe ‘hard cash HP’, possibly caused by chipping dust or printing dye.
Kupeli, Elif; Karnak, Demet; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Kayacan, Oya
Carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity is a known cause of syncope in humans. The condition is characterized by cardioinhibition and vasodepression, each to varying degrees. The extent and importance of sympathoinhibition has not been determined in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. This study reports on the extent of sympathoinhibition measured directly directly during carotid massage with and without atrioventricular sequential pacing, in a patient with symptomatic carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity. Carotid massage elicited asystole, hypotension and complete inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Carotid massage during atrioventricular pacing produced similar sympathoinhibition, but with minimal hypotension. Therefore, sympathoinhibition did not contribute importantly to the hypotension during carotid massage in the supine position in this patient. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relation of sympathoinhibition to hypotension in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity in the upright position. PMID:1290922
Smith, M L; Ellenbogen, K A; Eckberg, D L
Cellular responses to DNA-damaging agents involve the activation of various DNA damage signaling and transduction pathways. Using quantitative and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, we determined global changes in protein level and phosphorylation site profiles following treatment of SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture)-labeled murine embryonic stem cells with the anticancer drug cisplatin. Network and pathway analyses indicated that processes related to the DNA damage response and cytoskeleton organization were significantly affected. Although the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) consensus sequence (S/T-Q motif) was significantly overrepresented among hyperphosphorylated peptides, about half of the >2-fold-upregulated phosphorylation sites based on the consensus sequence were not direct substrates of ATM and ATR. Eleven protein kinases mainly belonging to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family were identified as being regulated in their kinase domain activation loop. The biological importance of three of these kinases (cyclin-dependent kinase 7 [CDK7], Plk1, and KPCD1) in the protection against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity was demonstrated by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown. Our results indicate that the cellular response to cisplatin involves a variety of kinases and phosphatases not only acting in the nucleus but also regulating cytoplasmic targets, resulting in extensive cytoskeletal rearrangements. Integration of transcriptomic and proteomic data revealed a poor correlation between changes in the relative levels of transcripts and their corresponding proteins, but a large overlap in affected pathways at the levels of mRNA, protein, and phosphoprotein. This study provides an integrated view of pathways activated by genotoxic stress and deciphers kinases that play a pivotal role in regulating cellular processes other than the DNA damage response.
Pines, Alex; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Vrouwe, Mischa G.; Puigvert, Jordi C.; Typas, Dimitris; Misovic, Branislav; de Groot, Anton; von Stechow, Louise; van de Water, Bob; Danen, Erik H. J.; Vrieling, Harry; Mullenders, Leon H. F.; Olsen, Jesper V.
Fluorescent molecular tomographic (FMT) imaging can noninvasively monitor molecular function in living animals using specific fluorescent probes. However, macroscopic imaging methods such as FMT generally exhibit low anatomical details. To overcome this, we report a quantitative technique to image both structure and function by combining FMT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We show that FMT-MR imaging can produce three-dimensional, multimodal images of living mouse brains allowing for serial monitoring of tumor morphology and protease activity. Combined FMT-MR tumor imaging provides a unique in vivo diagnostic parameter, protease activity concentration (PAC), which reflects histological changes in tumors and is significantly altered by systemic chemotherapy. Alterations in this diagnostic parameter are detectable early after chemotherapy and correlate with subsequent tumor growth, predicting tumor response to chemotherapy. Our results reveal that combined FMT-MR imaging of fluorescent molecular probes could be valuable for brain tumor drug development and other neurological and somatic imaging applications.
McCann, Corey M.; Waterman, Peter; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Aikawa, Elena; Weissleder, Ralph; Chen, John W.
Drug hypersensitivity, including the allergic type, is one of the side effects of drugs and is a daily worry for the clinician.\\u000a Even though urticarial and maculopapular eruptions are the most frequent manifestations, there are many clinical forms, mirroring\\u000a many distinct pathophysiological events. The diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity often relies on clinical histories, skin tests,\\u000a patch tests, and a few
Pascal Demoly; Antonino Romano
Aim: This randomized, double blind, split mouth study was aimed to compare three dentin desensitizing treatment modalities. Methods: Two hundred sixty teeth of 25 patients; each having at least 2 hypersensitive teeth in each quadrant, were included. Teeth were randomized to 4 groups: Group A treated with 2% NaF solution, Group B received GLUMA®; an aqueous solution of Hydroxy-Ethyl-Methacrylate and Glutarldehyde, (HEMA-G), Group C received iontophoresis with distilled water (placebo) and Group D was treated with NaF-iontophoresis. Pain response was evaluated on a visual analogue scale (VAS), by using tactile, air blast and cold-water stimuli at 0-day, 15-day, 1-month and 3-months interval. Results: All treatments were effective in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity significantly, Group D and Group B were more effective than Group A and Group C at all time intervals. Group D and Group B were equally effective in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity at 15-day and 1-month interval but Group D was more effective at 3-months. Conclusion: All treatment modalities were more effective in reducing hypersensitivity than placebo. 2% NaF-iontophoresis and HEMA-G were more effective than 2% NaF local application at all time intervals. But at 3-months, 2% NaF-iontophoresis was more effective than HEMA-G, while placebo produced no significant effect in reduction of hypersensitivity. Key words:Hypersensitivity, desensitisation, iontophoresis, dentin adhesive, sodium fluoride.
Bhavsar, Neeta; Sahayata, Vishal; Acharya, Aneesha; Kshatriya, Payal
Phytochelatin (PC) plays an important role in heavy metal detoxification in plants and other living organisms. Therefore, we overexpressed an Arabidopsis PC synthase (AtPCS1) in transgenic Arabidopsis with the goal of increasing PC synthesis, metal accumulation, and metal tolerance in these plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were selected, designated pcs lines, and analyzed for tolerance to cadmium (Cd). Transgenic pcs lines showed 12- to 25-fold higher accumulation of AtPCS1 mRNA, and production of PCs increased by 1.3- to 2.1-fold under 85 ?m CdCl2 stress for 3 d when compared with wild-type plants. Cd tolerance was assessed by measuring root length of plants grown on agar medium containing 50 or 85 ?m CdCl2. Pcs lines paradoxically showed hypersensitivity to Cd stress. This hypersensitivity was also observed for zinc (Zn) but not for copper (Cu). The overexpressed AtPCS1 protein itself was not responsible for Cd hypersensitivity as transgenic cad1-3 mutants overexpressing AtPCS1 to similar levels as those of pcs lines were not hypersensitive to Cd. Pcs lines were more sensitive to Cd than a PC-deficient Arabidopsis mutant, cad1-3, grown under low glutathione (GSH) levels. Cd hypersensitivity of pcs lines disappeared under increased GSH levels supplemented in the medium. Therefore, Cd hypersensitivity in pcs lines seems due to the toxicity of PCs as they existed at supraoptimal levels when compared with GSH levels.
Lee, Sangman; Moon, Jae S.; Ko, Tae-Seok; Petros, David; Goldsbrough, Peter B.; Korban, Schuyler S.
Background: Dentine hypersensitivity is a transient condition that often resolves with the natural sclerotic obturation of dentinal tubules. A potent topically applied in-office desensitizing treatment is indicated as the choice of treatment when dentine hypersensitivity is localized to one or two teeth. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the clinical efficiency of CPP-ACP F, sodium fluoride, propolis, and distilled water that was used as placebo in treating dentinal hypersensitivity. Materials and Methods: 120 patients aged 20–40 years reporting with dentinal hypersensitivity in relation to canine, premolar and molars with erosion, abrasion, and gingival recession were randomly assigned to four groups of 30 patients each. Response to air jet and tactile stimuli were measured using visual analogue scale initially on 1st, 7th, 15th, 28th, 60th, and final assessment was done on the 90th day. Statistical Analysis: A statistical analysis was done using Anova test (Fischer's test) and Tukey HSD test for multicomparison. Results: The teeth treated with the test group showed decrease in the mean hypersensitivity values compared to control group, over a period of three months. The results showed propolis to be most efficient in treating dentinal hypersensitivity and CPP- ACPF showed to be the least efficient. Conclusion: All test groups were effective in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity, although they differed in rapidity of action over the period of 3 months. Further studies can be done using advanced materials and techniques. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been developed to treat dentinal hypersensitivity including products that impede nerve conduction of pain stimulus, products that mechanically occlude dentinal tubules, and calcium containing products designed to create plugs in the tubules utilizing a demineralization mechanism.
Madhavan, Souparna; Nayak, Moksha; Shenoy, Amarnath; Shetty, Rajesh; Prasad, Krishna
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the medications most frequently involved in hypersensitivity drug reactions. Because NSAIDs are prescribed for many conditions, this is a world-wide problem affecting patients of all ages. Various hypersensitivity reactions have been reported, mainly affecting the skin and/or the respiratory airways. The most frequent of these is acute urticaria, which can be induced by several different NSAIDs. Both specific and non-specific immunological pathways have been proposed as underlying mechanisms. This review presents the clinical phenotypes and the drugs involved in NSAID hypersensitivity. Five major clinical syndromes can be distinguished: aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), aspirin-exacerbated cutaneous disease (AECD), multiple NSAID-induced urticaria/angioedema (MNSAID-UA), single NSAID-IgE reactions and single NSAID T cell responses. However, further classification is possible within these five major entities, by detailed descriptions of the clinical characteristics enabling more phenotypes to be defined. This detailed differentiation now seems required in order to undertake appropriate pharmacogenetic studies. PMID:24074328
Ayuso, P; Blanca-López, N; Dońa, I; Torres, M J; Guéant-Rodríguez, R M; Canto, G; Sanak, M; Mayorga, C; Guéant, J L; Blanca, M; Cornejo-García, J A
Hypersensitivity reactions to radiocontrast media (RCM) are unpredictable and are a concern for radiologists and cardiologists. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions manifest as anaphylaxis, and an allergic IgE-mediated mechanism has been continuously discussed for decades. Non-immediate reactions clinically are exanthemas resembling other drug-induced non-immediate hypersensitivities. During the past years, evidence is increasing that some of these reactions may be immunological. Repeated reactions after re-exposure, positive skin tests, and presence of specific IgE antibodies as well as positive basophil activation tests in some cases, and positive lymphocyte transformation or lymphocyte activation tests in others, indicate that a subgroup of both immediate and non-immediate reactions are of an allergic origin, although many questions remain unanswered. Recently reported cases highlight that pharmacological premedication is not safe to prevent RCM hypersensitivity in patients with previous severe reactions. These insights may have important consequences. A large multicenter study on the value of skin tests in RCM hypersensitivity concluded that skin testing is a useful tool for diagnosis of RCM allergy. It may have a role for the selection of a safe product in previous reactors, although confirmatory validation data is still scarce. In vitro tests to search for RCM-specific cell activation still are in development. In conclusion, recent data indicate that RCM hypersensitivity may have an allergic mechanism and that allergological testing is useful and may indicate tolerability. PMID:20519888
Brockow, Knut; Ring, Johannes
Background About 20% of schoolchildren and adolescents in Sweden suffer from perceived food hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy or intolerance). Our knowledge of how child food hypersensitivity affects parents HRQL and what aspects of the hypersensitivity condition relate to HRQL deterioration in the family is limited. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the parent-reported HRQL in families with a schoolchild considered to be food hypersensitive. The allergy-associated parameters we operated with were number of offending food items, adverse food reactions, additional hypersensitivity, allergic diseases and additional family members with food hypersensitivity. These parameters, along with age and gender were assessed in relation to child, parent and family HRQL. Methods In May 2004, a postal questionnaire was distributed to parents of 220 schoolchildren with parent-reported food hypersensitivity (response rate 74%). Two questionnaires were used: CHQ-PF28 and a study-specific questionnaire including questions on allergy-associated parameters. In order to find factors that predict impact on HRQL, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were carried out. Results An important predictor of low HRQL was allergic disease (i.e. asthma, eczema, rhino conjunctivitis) in addition to food hypersensitivity. The higher the number of allergic diseases, the lower the physical HRQL for the child, the lower the parental HRQL and the more disruption in family activities. Male gender predicted lower physical HRQL than female gender. If the child had sibling(s) with food hypersensitivity this predicted lower psychosocial HRQL for the child and lower parental HRQL. Food-induced gastro-intestinal symptoms predicted lower parental HRQL while food-induced breathing difficulties predicted higher psychosocial HRQL for the child and enhanced HRQL with regards to the family's ability to get along. Conclusion The variance in the child's physical HRQL was to a considerable extent explained by the presence of allergic disease. However, food hypersensitivity by itself was associated with deterioration of child's psychosocial HRQL, regardless of additional allergic disease. The results suggest that it is rather the risk of food reactions and measures to avoid them that are associated with lower HRQL than the clinical reactivity induced by food intake. Therefore, food hypersensitivity must be considered to have a strong psychosocial impact.
Marklund, Birgitta; Ahlstedt, Staffan; Nordstrom, Gun
Mequindox is used as an antibiotic drug in livestock; however, its toxicity remains largely unclear. Previously, we investigated metabolic responses of mice to mequindox exposure. In order to evaluate dependences of animal species in response to mequindox insult, we present the metabolic consequences of mequindox exposure in a rat model, by employing the combination of metabonomics and transcriptomics. Metabolic profiling of urine revealed that metabolic recovery is achieved for rats exposed to a low or moderate dose of mequindox, whereas high levels of mequindox exposure trigger liver dysfunction, causing no such recovery. We found that mequindox exposure causes suppression of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and stimulation of glycolysis, which is in contrast to a mouse model previously investigated. In addition, mequindox dosage induces promotion of ?-oxidation of fatty acids, which was confirmed by elevated expressions of acox1, hsd17b2, and cpt1a in liver. Furthermore, altered levels of N-methylnicotinate, 1-methylnicotinamide, and glutathione disulfide highlighted the promotion of vitamin B3 antioxidative cycle in rats exposed to mequindox. Moreover, mequindox exposure altered levels of gut microbiotal related co-metabolites, suggesting a perturbation of the gut microflora of the host. Our work provides a comprehensive view of the toxicological effects of mequindox, which is important in the usage of mequindox in animal and human food safety. PMID:22845897
Zhao, Xiu-Ju; Hao, Fuhua; Huang, Chongyang; Rantalainen, Mattias; Lei, Hehua; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan
Reversible protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous regulatory mechanism that plays critical roles in transducing stress signals to bring about coordinated intracellular responses. To gain better understanding of dehydration response in plants, we have developed a differential phosphoproteome in a food legume, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Three-week-old chickpea seedlings were subjected to progressive dehydration by withdrawing water, and the changes in the phosphorylation status of a large repertoire of proteins were monitored. The proteins were resolved by 2-DE and stained with phosphospecific fluorescent Pro-Q Diamond dye. Mass spectrometric analysis led to the identification of 91 putative phosphoproteins, presumably involved in a variety of functions including cell defense and rescue, photosynthesis and photorespiration, molecular chaperones, and ion transport, among others. Multiple sites of phosphorylation were predicted on several key elements, which include both the regulatory as well as the functional proteins. A critical survey of the phosphorylome revealed a DREPP (developmentally regulated plasma membrane protein) plasma membrane polypeptide family protein, henceforth designated CaDREPP1. The transcripts of CaDREPP1 were found to be differentially regulated under dehydration stress, further corroborating the proteomic results. This work provides new insights into the possible phosphorylation events triggered by the conditions of progressive water-deficit in plants. PMID:24083463
Subba, Pratigya; Barua, Pragya; Kumar, Rajiv; Datta, Asis; Soni, Kamlesh Kumar; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan
Diagnosing an environmental or occupationally related pulmonary disorder often involves a process of elimination. Unlike commonly diagnosed conditions in other specialties, a cause-and-effect relationship may be implied, yet other factors such as temporality and biologic plausibility are lacking. Our patient was referred with a suspected work-related pulmonary disorder. For several years, she had suffered with dyspnea on exertion and repeated flulike illnesses. She worked at an automobile repair garage that performed a large number of emission tests, and there was concern that her workplace exposures were the cause of her symptoms. After a careful review of her history, physical examination, and laboratory testing, we came to the conclusion that she had hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to pet cockatiels in her home. Clinical points of emphasis include the importance of a complete environmental history and careful auscultation of the chest when performing the physical examination. In addition, we encountered an interesting physical diagnostic clue, a respiratory sound that assisted with the eventual diagnosis.
McCluskey, James D; Haight, Robert R; Brooks, Stuart M
Allergic-type reactions experienced by patients on chronic hemodialysis are frequently reported in the literature, often related to compounds released during the hemodialysis sessions, in particular ethylene oxide (ETO). In these studies, dialysis patients seem to have higher values of IgE than those observed in a reference population. The aim of our work was to investigate IgE-related parameters of 126 dialysis patients in comparison with two control groups composed of healthy subjects and predialysis patients. IgE values were not significantly different in nonallergic dialysis patients, with a geometric mean (X) of 27.5 kU/l, when compared to healthy controls (X = 38 kU/l) and predialysis subjects (X = 40.7 kU/l). Higher values of IgE (X = 74.1 kU/l) were detected in allergic dialysis patients. However, only 3 patients, all without detectable antibodies against ETO, complained of anaphylactic symptoms during dialysis sessions in a 4-year surveillance period. At variance, 6 symptom-free patients carried IgE antibodies against ETO (range 0.7-15 kU/l), usually with high total IgE. Our results suggest a reduced frequency of hypersensitivity reactions during dialysis sessions. Furthermore, uremia does not alter IgE reactivity in the predialysis period or after long-term maintenance dialysis treatment. PMID:9572399
De Filippi, C; Piazza, V; Efficace, E; Galli, F; Pisati, P; Aprile, C; Salvadeo, A
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a pulmonary disease with symptoms of dyspnea and cough resulting from the inhalation of an allergen to which the subject has been previously sensitized. The diagnosis of HP most often relies on an array of nonspecific clinical symptoms and signs developed in an appropriate setting, with the demonstration of interstitial markings on chest radiographs, serum precipitating antibodies against offending antigens, a lymphocytic alveolitis on BAL, and/or a granulomatous reaction on lung biopsies. The current classification of HP in acute, subacute, and chronic phases is now challenged, and a set of clinical predictors has been proposed. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, usual interstitial pneumonia, and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia may be the sole histologic expression of the disease. Presumably, like in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic HP may occur without further exposure to the offending antigen. New offending antigens, such as mycobacteria causing hot tub lung and metalworking fluid HP, have recently been identified and have stimulated further research in HP. PMID:22796841
Lacasse, Yves; Girard, Mélissa; Cormier, Yvon
Summary Recent studies suggest that astroglia, a major non-neuronal cell type in the central nervous system, actively participate in synaptic activity and potentially contribute to neurological disorders including chronic pain. Astroglia exhibit a hyperactive phenotype, also referred to as reactive astrocytosis, in response to peripheral injury. This process is often referred to as astroglial activation. By immunostaining against glial fibrillary acidic proteins, an intermediate cytoskeleton filament protein selectively localized to matured astrocytes, hypertrophy of astrocytes are clearly visible in the spinal cord dorsal horn and spinal trigeminal nucleus following a variety of injuries. Injury-related astroglial activation correlates with behavioral hyperalgesia and conversely, astroglial inhibition attenuates pain hypersensitivity. Astrocytes have a close anatomical relationship with neurons. Interactions between astrocytes and neurons contribute to the mechanisms of chronic pain. Astroglial activation is accompanied by initiation of cellular signal transduction pathways that lead to transcriptional gene regulation and release of a variety of chemical mediators or gliotransmitters, down-regulation of glutamate transporter activity that directly affects synaptic transmission, changes in gap junction proteins by which calcium waves spread, and alterations of the blood brain barrier. These coordinated changes in astroglial functions in turn modulate neuronal activity and facilitate pain transmission.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an inflammatory interstitial lung disease caused by a wide variety of organic particles and certain small-molecular weight chemical compounds that provoke an exaggerated immune response in susceptible individuals. The clinical manifestations are heterogeneous and have been classically described as acute, subacute and chronic. The chronic form has an insidious onset over a period of months or years, with progressive dyspnea and often evolves to fibrosis. The pathology is characterized by a bronchiolocentric interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration, nonnecrotizing poorly formed granulomas, cellular pneumonitis and variable degrees of fibrosis. However, morphological diagnosis of HP is complicated because the subacute/chronic forms may be difficult to distinguish from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. In general, diagnosis of HP represents a challenge for clinicians that need to weigh a constellation of clinical, laboratory, radiographic and (when available) pathological evidence for each patient to assess the certainty of the diagnosis. The cornerstone of therapy is antigen avoidance. Although clinical trials are scanty, corticosteroids are usually indicated based upon expert opinion. In this review we summarize the current evidence regarding the diagnostic criteria and therapeutic strategies as well as the immunopathological mechanisms putatively implicated in the development of the disease. PMID:23001807
Selman, Moisés; Buendía-Roldán, Ivette
Vision is important for avoiding encounters with objects in the environment that may imperil physical integrity. We tested whether, in the absence of vision, a lower pain threshold would arise from an adaptive shift to other sensory channels. We therefore measured heat and cold pain thresholds and responses to suprathreshold heat stimuli in 2 groups of congenitally blind and matched normal-sighted participants. We also assessed detection thresholds for innocuous warmth and cold, and participants' attitude toward painful encounters in daily life. Our results show that, compared to sighted subjects, congenitally blind subjects have lower heat pain thresholds, rate suprathreshold heat pain stimuli as more painful, and have increased sensitivity for cold pain stimuli. Thresholds for nonpainful thermal stimulation did not differ between groups. The results of the pain questionnaires further indicated that blind subjects are more attentive to signals of external threats. These findings indicate that the absence of vision from birth induces a hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, lending new support to a model of sensory integration of vision and pain processing. PMID:24040972
Slimani, Hocine; Danti, Sabrina; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron
Given the growing body of evidence for a role of glia in pain modulation, it is plausible that the exaggerated visceral pain in chronic conditions might be regulated by glial activation. In this study, we have investigated a possible role for microglia in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity and previously documented altered neuronal function. Experiments were performed on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats pre-treated with neonatal colon irritation (CI) and on control rats. Effects of fractalkine (FKN, a chemokine involved in neuron-to-microglia signaling) and of minocycline (an inhibitor of microglia) on visceral sensitivity were examined. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by recording the electromyographic (EMG) responses to graded colorectal distension (CRD) in mildly sedated rats. Responses to CRD were recorded before and after injection of FKN, minocycline or vehicle. Somatic thermal hyperalgesia was measured by latency of paw withdrawal to radiant heat. The pattern and intensity of microglial distribution at L6–S2 in the spinal cord was also compared in rats with CI and controls by fluorescence microscopy using OX-42. Results show that: (1) FKN significantly facilitated EMG responses to noxious CRD by >52% in control rats. FKN also induced thermal hyperalgesia in control rats, consistent with previous reports; (2) minocycline significantly inhibited EMG responses to noxious CRD by >70% in rats with CI compared to controls 60 min after injection. The anti-nociceptive effect of minocycline lasted for 180 min in rats with CI, reaching peak values 60 min after injection. Our results show that FKN enhances visceral and somatic nociception, whereas minocycline inhibits visceral hypersensitivity in chronically sensitized rats, which indicates a role for microglia in visceral hypersensitivity.
Saab, Carl Y.; Wang, Jing; Gu, Chunping; Garner, Kirsten N.; Al-Chaer, Elie D.
The distinguishing structural feature of immunoglobulin E (IgE), the antibody responsible for allergic hypersensitivity, is the C?2 domain pair that replaces the hinge region of IgG. The crystal structure of the IgE Fc (constant fragment) at a 2.6-Ĺ resolution has revealed these domains. They display a distinctive, disulfide-linked Ig domain interface and are folded back asymmetrically onto the C?3 and
Tommy Wan; Rebecca L. Beavil; Stella M. Fabiane; Andrew J. Beavil; Maninder K. Sohi; Maura Keown; Robert J. Young; Alistair J. Henry; Ray J. Owens; Hannah J. Gould; Brian J. Sutton
Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that allow specific changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer health benefits to the host. However, the effects of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota are incomplete as most studies have relied on methods that fail to cover the breadth of the bacterial community. The goal of this research was to use high throughput multiplex community sequencing of 16S rDNA tags to gain a community wide perspective of the impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects. Fecal samples from eighteen healthy adults were previously obtained during a feeding trial in which each subject consumed a GOS-containing product for twelve weeks, with four increasing dosages (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 gram) of GOS. Multiplex sequencing of the 16S rDNA tags revealed that GOS induced significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbiota, principally by increasing the abundance of organisms within the Actinobacteria. Specifically, several distinct lineages of Bifidobacterium were enriched. Consumption of GOS led to five- to ten-fold increases in bifidobacteria in half of the subjects. Increases in Firmicutes were also observed, however, these changes were detectable in only a few individuals. The enrichment of bifidobacteria was generally at the expense of one group of bacteria, the Bacteroides. The responses to GOS and the magnitude of the response varied between individuals, were reversible, and were in accordance with dosage. The bifidobacteria were the only bacteria that were consistently and significantly enriched by GOS, although this substrate supported the growth of diverse colonic bacteria in mono-culture experiments. These results suggest that GOS can be used to enrich bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract with remarkable specificity, and that the bifidogenic properties of GOS that occur in vivo are caused by selective fermentation as well as by competitive interactions within the intestinal environment.
Davis, Lauren M. G.; Martinez, Ines; Walter, Jens; Goin, Caitlin; Hutkins, Robert W.
Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that allow specific changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer health benefits to the host. However, the effects of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota are incomplete as most studies have relied on methods that fail to cover the breadth of the bacterial community. The goal of this research was to use high throughput multiplex community sequencing of 16S rDNA tags to gain a community wide perspective of the impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects. Fecal samples from eighteen healthy adults were previously obtained during a feeding trial in which each subject consumed a GOS-containing product for twelve weeks, with four increasing dosages (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 gram) of GOS. Multiplex sequencing of the 16S rDNA tags revealed that GOS induced significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbiota, principally by increasing the abundance of organisms within the Actinobacteria. Specifically, several distinct lineages of Bifidobacterium were enriched. Consumption of GOS led to five- to ten-fold increases in bifidobacteria in half of the subjects. Increases in Firmicutes were also observed, however, these changes were detectable in only a few individuals. The enrichment of bifidobacteria was generally at the expense of one group of bacteria, the Bacteroides. The responses to GOS and the magnitude of the response varied between individuals, were reversible, and were in accordance with dosage. The bifidobacteria were the only bacteria that were consistently and significantly enriched by GOS, although this substrate supported the growth of diverse colonic bacteria in mono-culture experiments. These results suggest that GOS can be used to enrich bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract with remarkable specificity, and that the bifidogenic properties of GOS that occur in vivo are caused by selective fermentation as well as by competitive interactions within the intestinal environment. PMID:21966454
Davis, Lauren M G; Martínez, Inés; Walter, Jens; Goin, Caitlin; Hutkins, Robert W
Background Genomic research tools such as microarrays are proving to be important resources to study the complex regulation of genes that respond to environmental perturbations. A first generation cDNA microarray was developed for the environmental indicator species Daphnia pulex, to identify genes whose regulation is modulated following exposure to the metal stressor cadmium. Our experiments revealed interesting changes in gene transcription that suggest their biological roles and their potentially toxicological features in responding to this important environmental contaminant. Results Our microarray identified genes reported in the literature to be regulated in response to cadmium exposure, suggested functional attributes for genes that share no sequence similarity to proteins in the public databases, and pointed to genes that are likely members of expanded gene families in the Daphnia genome. Genes identified on the microarray also were associated with cadmium induced phenotypes and population-level outcomes that we experimentally determined. A subset of genes regulated in response to cadmium exposure was independently validated using quantitative-realtime (Q-RT)-PCR. These microarray studies led to the discovery of three genes coding for the metal detoxication protein metallothionein (MT). The gene structures and predicted translated sequences of D. pulex MTs clearly place them in this gene family. Yet, they share little homology with previously characterized MTs. Conclusion The genomic information obtained from this study represents an important first step in characterizing microarray patterns that may be diagnostic to specific environmental contaminants and give insights into their toxicological mechanisms, while also providing a practical tool for evolutionary, ecological, and toxicological functional gene discovery studies. Advances in Daphnia genomics will enable the further development of this species as a model organism for the environmental sciences.
Shaw, Joseph R; Colbourne, John K; Davey, Jennifer C; Glaholt, Stephen P; Hampton, Thomas H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L; Hamilton, Joshua W
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a complex syndrome resulting from repeated exposure to a variety of organic particles. HP may present as acute, subacute, or chronic clinical forms but with frequent overlap of these various forms. An intriguing question is why only few of the exposed individuals develop the disease. According to a two-hit model, antigen exposure associated with genetic or environmental promoting factors provokes an immunopathological response. This response is mediated by immune complexes in the acute form and by Th1 and likely Th17 T cells in subacute/chronic cases. Pathologically, HP is characterized by a bronchiolocentric granulomatous lymphocytic alveolitis, which evolves to fibrosis in chronic advanced cases. On high-resolution computed tomography scan, ground-glass and poorly defined nodules, with patchy areas of air trapping, are seen in acute/subacute cases, whereas reticular opacities, volume loss, and traction bronchiectasis superimposed on subacute changes are observed in chronic cases. Importantly, subacute and chronic HP may mimic several interstitial lung diseases, including nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia, making diagnosis extremely difficult. Thus, the diagnosis of HP requires a high index of suspicion and should be considered in any patient presenting with clinical evidence of interstitial lung disease. The definitive diagnosis requires exposure to known antigen, and the assemblage of clinical, radiologic, laboratory, and pathologic findings. Early diagnosis and avoidance of further exposure are keys in management of the disease. Corticosteroids are generally used, although their long-term efficacy has not been proved in prospective clinical trials. Lung transplantation should be recommended in cases of progressive end-stage illness. PMID:22679012
Selman, Moisés; Pardo, Annie; King, Talmadge E
Nonviral carriers have been developed to deliver nucleic acids by forming nanoscale complexes; however, there has been limited success in achieving high transfection efficiency. Our hypothesis is that a factor affecting gene delivery efficiency is the mechanical response of the condensed complex. To begin to test this hypothesis, we directly measured the mechanical properties of DNA-carrier complexes using optical tweezers. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymer, Asparagine-lysine (NK) polymer and poly-L-lysine were used to form complexes with a single DNA molecule. As carriers were introduced, a sudden decrease in DNA extension occurrs at a force level which is defined as critical force (Fc). Fc is carrier and concentration dependent. Pulling revealed reduction in DNA extension length for HK-DNA complexes. The characteristics of force profiles vary by agent and can be dynamically manipulated by changes in environmental conditions such as ionic strength of the buffer as well as pH. Heparin can remove cationic reagents which are otherwise irreversibly bound to DNA. The implications for optimizing molecular interactions to enhance transfection efficiency will be discussed.
Lee, Amy; Zheng, Tai; Sucayan, Sarah; Chou, Szu-Ting; Tricoli, Lucas; Hustedt, Jason; Kahn, Jason; Mixson, A. James; Seog, Joonil
Lighting in modern-day devices is often discrete. The sharp onsets and offsets of light are known to induce a steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) at low frequencies. However, it is not well-known how the brain processes visual flicker at the threshold of conscious perception and beyond. To shed more light on this, we ran an EEG study in which we asked participants (N=6) to discriminate on a behavioral level between visual stimuli in which they perceived flicker and those that they perceived as constant wave light. We found that high frequency flicker which is not perceived consciously anymore still elicits a neural response in the corresponding frequency band of EEG, con-tralateral to the stimulated hemifield. The main contribution of this paper is to show the benefit of machine learning techniques for investigating this effect of subconscious processing: Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) filtering in combination with classification based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) could be used to reveal the effect for additional participants and stimuli, with high statistical significance. We conclude that machine learning techniques are a valuable extension of conventional neurophysiological analysis that can substantially boost the sensitivity to subconscious effects, such as the processing of imperceptible flicker. PMID:22255141
Porbadnigk, Anne K; Scholler, Simon; Blankertz, Benjamin; Ritz, Arnd; Born, Matthias; Scholl, Robert; Muller, Klaus-Robert; Curio, Gabriel; Treder, Matthias S
Sixteen healthy young adults (ages 18–32) and 16 healthy older adults (ages 67–81) completed a delayed response task in which they saw the following visual sequence: memory stimuli (2 abstract shapes; 3,000 ms), a blank delay (5,000 ms), a probe stimulus of variable duration (one abstract shape; 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 ms), and a mask (500 ms). Subjects decided whether the probe stimulus matched either of the memory stimuli; they were instructed to respond during the mask, placing greater emphasis on speed than accuracy. The authors used D. L. Hintzman & T. Curran’s (1994) 3-parameter compound bounded exponential model of speed–accuracy tradeoff to describe changes in discriminability associated with total processing time. Group-level analysis revealed a higher rate parameter and a higher asymptote parameter for the young adult group, but no difference across groups in x-intercept. Proxy measures of cognitive reserve (Y. Stern et al., 2005) predicted the rate parameter value, particularly in older adults. Results suggest that in working memory, aging impairs both the maximum capacity for discriminability and the rate of information accumulation, but not the temporal threshold for discriminability.
Kumar, Arjun; Rakitin, Brian C.; Nambisan, Rohit; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov
Thyroid hormone (T3) is essential for normal development and organ function throughout vertebrates. Its effects are mainly mediated through transcriptional regulation by T3 receptor (TR). The identification and characterization of the immediate early, direct target genes are thus of critical importance in understanding the molecular pathways induced by T3. Unfortunately, this has been hampered by the difficulty to study gene regulation by T3 in uterus-enclosed mammalian embryos. Here we used Xenopus metamorphosis as a model for vertebrate postembryonic development to identify direct T3 response genes in vivo. We took advantage of the ability to easily induce metamorphosis with physiological levels of T3 and to carry out microarray analysis in Xenopus laevis and genome-wide sequence analysis in Xenopus tropicalis. This allowed us to identify 188 up-regulated and 249 down-regulated genes by T3 in the absence of new protein synthesis in whole animals. We further provide evidence to show that these genes contain functional TREs that are bound by TR in tadpoles and that their promoters are regulated by TR in vivo. More importantly, gene ontology analysis showed that the direct up-regulated genes are enriched in categories important for transcriptional regulation and protein degradation-dependent signaling processes but not DNA replication. Our findings thus revealed the existence of interesting pathways induced by T3 at the earliest step of metamorphosis.
Das, Biswajit; Heimeier, Rachel A.; Buchholz, Daniel R.; Shi, Yun-Bo
Central pattern generators (CPGs) frequently include bursting neurons that serve as pacemakers for rhythm generation. Phase resetting curves (PRCs) can provide insight into mechanisms underlying phase locking in such circuits. PRCs were constructed for a pacemaker bursting complex in the pyloric circuit in the stomatogastric ganglion of the lobster and crab. This complex is comprised of the Anterior Burster (AB) neuron and two Pyloric Dilator (PD) neurons that are all electrically coupled. Artificial excitatory synaptic conductance pulses of different strengths and durations were injected into one of the AB or PD somata using the Dynamic Clamp. Previously, we characterized the inhibitory PRCs by assuming a single slow process that enabled synaptic inputs to trigger switches between an up state in which spiking occurs and a down state in which it does not. Excitation produced five different PRC shapes, which could not be explained with such a simple model. A separate dendritic compartment was required to separate the mechanism that generates the up and down phases of the bursting envelope (1) from synaptic inputs applied at the soma, (2) from axonal spike generation and (3) from a slow process with a slower time scale than burst generation. This study reveals that due to the nonlinear properties and compartmentalization of ionic channels, the response to excitation is more complex than inhibition.
Maran, Selva K; Sieling, Fred H; Demla, Kavita; Prinz, Astrid A; Canavier, Carmen C
Intercellular signaling by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulates developmental decisions in virtually all animals. Here, we report that Decapentaplegic (Dpp; a Drosophila BMP family member) plays a role in blood cell homeostasis and immune responses by regulating a transcription factor cascade. The cascade begins with Dpp repression of Zfh1, continues with Zfh1 activation of Serpent (Srp; a GATA factor), and terminates with Srp activation of U-shaped (Ush) in hematopoietic cells. Hyperactivation of Zfh1, Srp, and Ush in dpp mutants leads to hyperplasia of plasmatocytes. Salmonella challenge revealed that in dpp mutants the misregulation of this cascade also prevents the generation of lamellocytes. These findings support the hypothesis that Ush participates in a switch between plasmatocyte and lamellocyte fate in a common precursor and further suggests a mechanism for how all blood cell types can arise from a single progenitor. These results also demonstrate that combining Drosophila and Salmonella genetics can provide novel opportunities for advancing our knowledge of hematopoiesis and innate immunity.
Frandsen, Joel L.; Gunn, Bronwyn; Muratoglu, Selen; Fossett, Nancy; Newfeld, Stuart J.
We developed a novel delay discounting task to investigate outcome impulsivity in pigs. As impulsivity can affect aggression, and might also relate to proactive and reactive coping styles, eight proactive (HR) and eight reactive (LR) pigs identified in a manual restraint test ("Backtest", after Bolhuis et al., 2003) were weaned and mixed in four pens of four unfamiliar pigs, so that each pen had two HR and two LR pigs, and aggression was scored in the 9h after mixing. In the delay discounting task, each pig chose between two levers, one always delivering a small immediate reward, the other a large delayed reward with daily increasing delays, impulsive individuals being the ones discounting the value of the large reward quicker. Two novel strategies emerged: some pigs gradually switched their preference towards the small reward ('Switchers') as predicted, but others persistently preferred the large reward until they stopped making choices ('Omitters'). Outcome impulsivity itself was unrelated to these strategies, to urinary serotonin metabolite (5-HIAA) or dopamine metabolite (HVA) levels, aggression at weaning, or coping style. However, HVA was relatively higher in Omitters than Switchers, and positively correlated with behavioural measures of indecisiveness and frustration during choosing. The delay discounting task thus revealed two response strategies that seemed to be related to the activity of the dopamine system and might indicate a difference in execution, rather than outcome, impulsivity. PMID:23954408
Melotti, Luca; Thomsen, Liat Romme; Toscano, Michael J; Mendl, Michael; Held, Suzanne
This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge of diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity. It summarizes technical approaches to relieve sensitivity in professional and home-use products, with emphasis on the clinical evidence for the efficacy of desensitizing toothpaste, and introduces a new innovative dentifrice technology containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride. Dentin hypersensitivity is characterized by short, sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response to external stimuli which cannot be ascribed to any other form of dental defect or disease. The hydrodynamic theory proposes that pain-producing stimuli cause a change in dentin fluid flow that activates intra-dental nerve fibers, via a mechanoreceptor response, to cause pain. To be hypersensitive, dentin must be exposed and dentin tubules must be open to external stimuli and patent at the pulp. Gingival recession is the primary cause of dentin exposure, and a major predisposing factor for dentin hypersensitivity. Dentin hypersensitivity is a prevalent condition. It has been reported to afflict 15-20% of the adult population, typically 20 to 50-year-olds, with peak incidence between 30 and 39 years. Some studies have reported higher prevalence levels of up to 57%. The incidence of dentin hypersensitivity is expected to rise with changing diets, and as caries and periodontal disease prevention result in improved oral health status, and retention and functionality of the dentition. Treatments to relieve dentin hypersensitivity are based on interruption of the neural response to pain stimuli or occlusion of open tubules to block the hydrodynamic mechanism. Effective and robust dentin occlusion offers the greatest prospect for instant and lasting relief of dentin hypersensitivity. In particular, materials which can coat exposed dentin surfaces, in addition to plugging and sealing open dentin tubules, offer the intriguing prospect of strengthening dentin and rendering it less susceptible to predisposing factors, while concurrently reducing dentin hypersensitivity. Clinical studies have shown that a new toothpaste containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate offers significantly increased efficacy in reducing sensitivity, compared to a market-leading toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion. Mechanism of action studies have shown that this technology physically seals dentin tubules with a plug that contains arginine, calcium carbonate, and phosphate. This plug, which is resistant to normal pulpal pressures and to acid challenge, effectively reduces dentin fluid flow and, thereby, reduces sensitivity. PMID:19489186
Recognition of viral RNA structures by the intracytosolic RNA helicase RIG-I triggers induction of innate immunity. Efficient induction requires RIG-I ubiquitination by the E3 ligase TRIM25, its interaction with the mitochondria-bound MAVS protein, recruitment of TRAF3, IRF3- and NF-?B-kinases and transcription of Interferon (IFN). In addition, IRF3 alone induces some of the Interferon-Stimulated Genes (ISGs), referred to as early ISGs. Infection of hepatocytes with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in poor production of IFN despite recognition of the viral RNA by RIG-I but can lead to induction of early ISGs. HCV was shown to inhibit IFN production by cleaving MAVS through its NS3/4A protease and by controlling cellular translation through activation of PKR, an eIF2?-kinase containing dsRNA-binding domains (DRBD). Here, we have identified a third mode of control of IFN induction by HCV. Using HCVcc and the Huh7.25.CD81 cells, we found that HCV controls RIG-I ubiquitination through the di-ubiquitine-like protein ISG15, one of the early ISGs. A transcriptome analysis performed on Huh7.25.CD81 cells silenced or not for PKR and infected with JFH1 revealed that HCV infection leads to induction of 49 PKR-dependent genes, including ISG15 and several early ISGs. Silencing experiments revealed that this novel PKR-dependent pathway involves MAVS, TRAF3 and IRF3 but not RIG-I, and that it does not induce IFN. Use of PKR inhibitors showed that this pathway requires the DRBD but not the kinase activity of PKR. We then demonstrated that PKR interacts with HCV RNA and MAVS prior to RIG-I. In conclusion, HCV recruits PKR early in infection as a sensor to trigger induction of several IRF3-dependent genes. Among those, ISG15 acts to negatively control the RIG-I/MAVS pathway, at the level of RIG-I ubiquitination.These data give novel insights in the machinery involved in the early events of innate immune response. PMID:22022264
Arnaud, Noëlla; Dabo, Stéphanie; Akazawa, Daisuke; Fukasawa, Masayoshi; Shinkai-Ouchi, Fumiko; Hugon, Jacques; Wakita, Takaji; Meurs, Eliane F
Immunization of mice with antigen mixed with cationic surface active lipid dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA) produced delayed type hypersensitivity (DH), measured as a footpad swelling. The DH to sheep red blood cells or dinitrophenyl conjugated with bovine serum albumin (DNP28-BSA) in DDA exceeded the response of the same antigens in Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) significantly. Treatment of mice with CY 8 hr prior to the injection of antigen in FCA or DDA resulted in delay of the onset of footpad swelling past day 5 and in elimination of the differences in the response due to the adjuvants. Immunization with carrier or hapten-carrier complexes with different epitope density in DDA and elicitation with the homologous and heterologous antigens revealed that the DH was DNP-specific. In vivo priming with DNP28-BSA in DDA and in vitro stimulation with the same antigen resulted in peak responses which were twice as high and were reached almost twice as fast as the earlier found response following immunization in FCA. The advantages of DDA as adjuvant over covalently linked fatty acid chains and over FCA are discussed.
Snippe, H; Belder, M; Willers, J M
A growing number of associations between adverse drug reactions and alleles of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are now known. Although several models have been proposed to explain these associations, an underlying molecular basis has only recently been described. The associations between HLA-B*57:01 and abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome, and HLA-B*15:02 and carbamazepine-induced bullous skin disease have provided new insights into the mechanism associated with hypersensitivity reactions to these drugs. Here we discuss recent evidence that small molecules can interact with specific HLA to distort self-peptide presentation leading to autoimmune-like drug hypersensitivities that potentially provide clues to the mechanisms underlying other immunopathologies. PMID:23141566
Illing, Patricia T; Vivian, Julian P; Purcell, Anthony W; Rossjohn, Jamie; McCluskey, James
TRPA1 is a non-selective cation channel expressed by nociceptors. While it is widely accepted that TRPA1 serves as a broad irritancy receptor for a variety of reactive chemicals, its role in cold sensation remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that mild cooling markedly increases agonist-evoked rat TRPA1 currents. In the absence of an agonist, even noxious cold only increases current amplitude slightly. These results suggest that TRPA1 is a key mediator of cold hypersensitivity in pathological conditions where reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory activators of the channel are present, but likely plays a comparatively minor role in acute cold sensation. Supporting this, cold hypersensitivity can be induced in wild-type but not Trpa1-/- mice by subcutaneous administration of a TRPA1 agonist. Furthermore, the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 reduces cold hypersensitivity in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.
Camino, Donato del; Murphy, Sarah; Heiry, Melissa; Barrett, Lee B.; Earley, Taryn J.; Cook, Colby A.; Petrus, Matt J.; Zhao, Michael; D'Amours, Marc; Deering, Nate; Brenner, Gary J.; Costigan, Michael; Hayward, Neil J.; Chong, Jayhong A.; Fanger, Christopher M.; Woolf, Clifford J.; Patapoutian, Ardem; Moran, Magdalene M.
Background Tinnitus is a frequent condition with high morbidity and impairment in quality of life. The pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. Electromagnetic fields are discussed to be involved in the multi-factorial pathogenesis of tinnitus, but data proofing this relationship are very limited. Potential health hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been under discussion for long. Especially, individuals claiming themselves to be electromagnetic hypersensitive suffer from a variety of unspecific symptoms, which they attribute to EMF-exposure. The aim of the study was to elucidate the relationship between EMF-exposure, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus using a case-control design. Methodology Tinnitus occurrence and tinnitus severity were assessed by questionnaires in 89 electromagnetic hypersensitive patients and 107 controls matched for age-, gender, living surroundings and workplace. Using a logistic regression approach, potential risk factors for the development of tinnitus were evaluated. Findings Tinnitus was significantly more frequent in the electromagnetic hypersensitive group (50.72% vs. 17.5%) whereas tinnitus duration and severity did not differ between groups. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus were independent risk factors for sleep disturbances. However, measures of individual EMF-exposure like e.g. cell phone use did not show any association with tinnitus. Conclusions Our data indicate that tinnitus is associated with subjective electromagnetic hypersensitivity. An individual vulnerability probably due to an over activated cortical distress network seems to be responsible for, both, electromagnetic hypersensitivity and tinnitus. Hence, therapeutic efforts should focus on treatment strategies (e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy) aiming at normalizing this dysfunctional distress network.
Landgrebe, Michael; Frick, Ulrich; Hauser, Simone; Hajak, Goeran; Langguth, Berthold
Mold-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a rare and usually slowly progressing disorder. Therefore, the diagnosis and etiological investigations may be challenging and may often cause delay, despite the fact that early diagnosis and avoidance of the disease inducing agent are essential for the management of the disease. When appropriately treated, hypersensitivity pneumonitis is usually a relatively benign disorder. Irreversible pulmonary fibrosis may develop in cases of prolonged exposure. The disorder is considered as an occupational disease if the sufficient exposure occurs at workplace. PMID:23786111
Eerikäinen, Johanna; Nynäs, Pia; Uitti, Jukka
The discovery that drugs targeting a single G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) can differentially modulate distinct subsets of the receptor signaling repertoire has created a challenge for drug discovery at these important therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that a single label-free assay based on cellular impedance provides a real-time integration of multiple signaling events engaged upon GPCR activation. Stimulation of the ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR) in living cells with the prototypical agonist isoproterenol generated a complex, multi-featured impedance response over time. Selective pharmacological inhibition of specific arms of the ?2AR signaling network revealed the differential contribution of Gs-, Gi- and G??-dependent signaling events, including activation of the canonical cAMP and ERK1/2 pathways, to specific components of the impedance response. Further dissection revealed the essential role of intracellular Ca2+ in the impedance response and led to the discovery of a novel ?2AR-promoted Ca2+ mobilization event. Recognizing that impedance responses provide an integrative assessment of ligand activity, we screened a collection of ?-adrenergic ligands to determine if differences in the signaling repertoire engaged by compounds would lead to distinct impedance signatures. An unsupervised clustering analysis of the impedance responses revealed the existence of 5 distinct compound classes, revealing a richer signaling texture than previously recognized for this receptor. Taken together, these data indicate that the pluridimensionality of GPCR signaling can be captured using integrative approaches to provide a comprehensive readout of drug activity.
Stallaert, Wayne; Dorn, Jonas F.; van der Westhuizen, Emma; Audet, Martin; Bouvier, Michel
Objective: A randomized, double blind, split mouth, controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of two desensitizing agents on reduction of Dentin Hypersensitivity (DH). Material and Methodology: A sample of 73 teeth from 13 patients, among which at least 3 teeth had dentin hypersensitivity, was randomly allocated into 3 treatment groups: Group A: treated with 30% ethenolic extract of Indian Propolis, Group B: treated with GC tooth mousse, and Group C: treated with sterile water. A Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) was used to record the degree of hypersensitivity, based on patient’s response to tactile and air blast stimuli. The baseline scores were obtained. Each intervention group received applications of their respective agents consecutively on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st days. After each application, the scores were recorded. Results: Both the 30% Indian Propolis and GC tooth mousse showed significant reductions in dentin hypersensitivity. Conclusion: GC tooth mousse was found to be significantly better in reducing the dentinal hypersensitivity as compared to Propolis and sterile water (p< 0.01).
Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; B.R, Chandrashekhar; Jain, Manish; Saxena, Eshani; Gouraha, Abhishek; Yadav, Sourabh
Objective: A randomized, double blind, split mouth, controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of two desensitizing agents on reduction of Dentin Hypersensitivity (DH). Material and Methodology: A sample of 73 teeth from 13 patients, among which at least 3 teeth had dentin hypersensitivity, was randomly allocated into 3 treatment groups: Group A: treated with 30% ethenolic extract of Indian Propolis, Group B: treated with GC tooth mousse, and Group C: treated with sterile water. A Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) was used to record the degree of hypersensitivity, based on patient's response to tactile and air blast stimuli. The baseline scores were obtained. Each intervention group received applications of their respective agents consecutively on 1(st), 7(th), 14(th) and 21(st) days. After each application, the scores were recorded. Results: Both the 30% Indian Propolis and GC tooth mousse showed significant reductions in dentin hypersensitivity. Conclusion: GC tooth mousse was found to be significantly better in reducing the dentinal hypersensitivity as compared to Propolis and sterile water (p< 0.01). PMID:24179939
Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; B R, Chandrashekhar; Jain, Manish; Saxena, Eshani; Gouraha, Abhishek; Yadav, Sourabh
Cells respond to stimuli by changes in various processes, including signaling pathways and gene expression. Efforts to identify components of these responses increasingly depend on mRNA profiling and genetic library screens. By comparing the results of these two assays across various stimuli, we found that genetic screens tend to identify response regulators, whereas mRNA profiling frequently detects metabolic responses. We
Esti Yeger-Lotem; Laura Riva; Linhui Julie Su; Aaron D Gitler; Anil G Cashikar; Oliver D King; Pavan K Auluck; Melissa L Geddie; Julie S Valastyan; David R Karger; Susan Lindquist; Ernest Fraenkel
Cellular responses to DNA damage are mediated by a number of protein kinases, including ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related). The outlines of the signal transduction portion of this pathway are known, but little is known about the physiological scope of the DNA damage response (DDR). We performed a large-scale proteomic analysis of proteins phosphorylated in response
Shuhei Matsuoka; Bryan A. Ballif; Agata Smogorzewska; E. Robert McDonald III; Kristen E. Hurov; Ji Luo; Corey E. Bakalarski; Zhenming Zhao; Nicole Solimini; Yaniv Lerenthal; Yosef Shiloh; Steven P. Gygi; Stephen J. Elledge
Several studies have reported optimal population decoding of sensory responses in two-alternative visual discrimination tasks. Such decoding involves integrating noisy neural responses into a more reliable representation of the likelihood that the stimuli under consideration evoked the observed responses. Importantly, an ideal observer must be able to evaluate likelihood with high precision and only consider the likelihood of the two
Tom Putzeys; Matthias Bethge; Felix Wichmann; Johan Wagemans; Robbe Goris
Artemisinin (Art) is a sesquiterpene trioxane lactone from Artemisia annua L., which has been shown to affect immune responses. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of Art in a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a T-cell-mediated cutaneous inflammatory reaction. The data showed that topical administration of Art could suppress CHS response and Con A-induced T cell proliferation effectively. Further experiments indicated that Art induced the generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and impaired the phosphorylation of AKT, associated with the up-regulation of p38 MAPK activation. Moreover, Art also exerted a strikingly inhibitory effect on IL-17 production, and diminished the level of IL-6 paralleled with an enhancement of TGF-?, which effects were coupled with a significant reduction of STAT3 activation. These data reveal that Art could effectively block CHS response in mice by inducing the generation of Tregs and suppressing the development of Th17, indicating the potential of Art to be applied as an effective therapeutic agent for treating immune-related diseases. PMID:22122827
Li, Tan; Chen, Hong; Wei, Na; Mei, Xin; Zhang, Shi; Liu, Dai-lin; Gao, Ying; Bai, Shu-fang; Liu, Xiao-guang; Zhou, Ya-xun
The purified wax fraction of the tubercle bacillus, which has been previously demonstrated as an essential element in causing delayed tuberculin hypersensitivity in response to the protein of the tubercle bacillus, is now found to have the same activity with regard to a simple chemical antigen, picryl chloride. One injection of this compound with wax intraperitoneally into guinea pigs results in a marked delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity, demonstrable by contact and intracutaneous test, and of long duration. The effect is not related to an adjuvant activity of the wax as defined by ordinary standards. The relationship of these observations to the occurrence of "heteroallergic" phenomena in tuberculosis is discussed. The possibility that the occurrence of spontaneous contact hypersensitivities may depend upon the presence of similarly active lipoidal components of the skin is commented upon.
Raffel, Sidney; Forney, John E.
Previous research has indicated that viewing 3D displays may induce greater visual fatigue than viewing 2D displays. Whether viewing 3D displays can evoke measureable emotional responses, however, is uncertain. In the present study, we examined autonomic nervous system responses in subjects viewing 2D or 3D displays. Autonomic responses were quantified in each subject by heart rate, galvanic skin response, and skin temperature. Viewers of both 2D and 3D displays showed strong positive correlations with heart rate, which indicated little differences between groups. In contrast, galvanic skin response and skin temperature showed weak positive correlations with average difference between viewing 2D and 3D. We suggest that galvanic skin response and skin temperature can be used to measure and compare autonomic nervous responses in subjects viewing 2D and 3D displays. PMID:24077321
Kim, Chi Jung; Park, Sangin; Won, Myeung Ju; Whang, Mincheol; Lee, Eui Chul
Summary: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an inflammatory interstitial lung disease caused by recurring exposure to a variety of occupational and environmental antigens. It features widely variable clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic findings. Because the clinical findings of HP mimic multiple other diseases, a high degree of clinical suspicion and a thorough occupational and environmental history are essential for accurate diagnosis. There
Craig S. Glazer; Cecile S. Rose; David A. Lynch
Most hypersensitivity reactions to drugs occur within several weeks of administration; signs and symptoms are often consistent with known immune-mediated reactions, including anaphylaxis, rashes, fever, cytopenias and vasculitis. The culprit immune mechanisms range from immunoglobulin E antibody to T cells inducing apoptosis of keratinocytes, in the case of bullous exfolia- tive rashes. Many drugs induce reactions via altered hepatic metabolism,
GILLIAN M. SHEPHERD
Immunotoxic risks associated with inhaled chemicals include (1) suppression of local defenses resulting in increased risk of pulmonary infection and (2) sensitization of the immune system resulting in respiratory hypersensitivity, including allergic asthma. Under laboratory conditions, environmentally relevant levels of many air pollutants enhance susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia in mice. Because these compounds do not necessarily affect systemic immune responses,
MaryJane K. Selgrade; M. Ian Gilmour
Strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to Babesia microti was elicited when intraerythrocytic parasites (IEP) were inoculated subcutaneously into the flank of normal mice 6 to 14 days before challenge in the ipsilateral footpad with 10(8) IEP. Intraperitoneal or intravenous administration of antigen did not sensitize mice for DTH. When challenge was given 21 days after immunization, the response was approximately half
M. J. Ruebush; E. H. Troutman; D. A. Kennedy
Cellular response to stimuli is typically complex and involves both regulatory and metabolic processes. Large-scale experimental efforts to identify components of these processes often comprise of genetic screening and transcriptomic profiling assays. We previously established that in yeast genetic screens tend to identify response regulators, while transcriptomic profiling assays tend to identify components of metabolic processes. ResponseNet is a network-optimization approach that integrates the results from these assays with data of known molecular interactions. Specifically, ResponseNet identifies a high-probability sub-network, composed of signaling and regulatory molecular interaction paths, through which putative response regulators may lead to the measured transcriptomic changes. Computationally, this is achieved by formulating a minimum-cost flow optimization problem and solving it efficiently using linear programming tools. The ResponseNet web server offers a simple interface for applying ResponseNet. Users can upload weighted lists of proteins and genes and obtain a sparse, weighted, molecular interaction sub-network connecting their data. The predicted sub-network and its gene ontology enrichment analysis are presented graphically or as text. Consequently, the ResponseNet web server enables researchers that were previously limited to separate analysis of their distinct, large-scale experiments, to meaningfully integrate their data and substantially expand their understanding of the underlying cellular response. ResponseNet is available at http://bioinfo.bgu.ac.il/respnet.
Lan, Alex; Smoly, Ilan Y.; Rapaport, Guy; Lindquist, Susan; Fraenkel, Ernest; Yeger-Lotem, Esti
Harpin elicits rapid and localized programmed cell death in plants, also known as the hypersensitive response (HR). Here we report that HrpN from Erwinia amylovora led to rapid cell death in maize leaves within 24 h and also induced the expression of systemic acquired resistance genes, such as ZmPR1 and ZmPR5. Surprisingly, the results of DAB staining showed that there was no H(2)O(2) accumulation in maize leaves during the HR process, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that there was also no difference in the expression of the ZmRboh genes. These results suggest that HrpN-induced cell death may be independent of H(2)O(2) accumulation in maize leaves. PMID:21344189
Kong, Xiangpei; Li, Dequan
Mannitol is used for increased intracranial pressure and prevention of nephrotoxicity. We present a case report of a patient who experienced an anaphylactic response to mannitol and review the literature. PMID:24060838
Lightner, Donita D; Braganca, Kevin De; Gilheeney, Stephen W; Khakoo, Yasmin; Kramer, Kim; Balas, Morad
A 45-year-old man, on carbamazepine for the past 3 months, was referred as a case of atypical measles. On examination, he had high-grade fever, generalized itchy rash, cough, vomiting and jaundice. A provisional diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity syndrome to carbamazepine was made with a differential diagnosis of viral exanthema with systemic complications. Laboratory investigations revealed leukocytosis with eosnophilia and elevated liver enzymes. Real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on throat swab and blood was suggestive of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6). Measles was ruled out by PCR and serology. The diagnosis of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) was confirmed, which could explain all the features manifested by the patient. HHV-6 infects almost all humans by age 2 years. It infects and replicates in CD4 T lymphocytes and establishes latency in human peripheral blood monocytes or macrophages and early bone marrow progenitors. In DIHS, allergic reaction to the causative drug stimulates T cells, which leads to reactivation of the herpesvirus genome. DIHS is treated by withdrawal of the culprit drug and administration of systemic steroids. Our patient responded well to steroids and HHV-6 was negative on repeat real-time multiplex PCR at the end of treatment. PMID:22421649
Riyaz, Najeeba; Sarita, S; Arunkumar, G; Sabeena, S; Manikoth, Neeraj; Sivakumar, C P
Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…
Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.
|Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…
Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.
Uncovering the mechanisms underlying robust responses of cells to stress is crucial for our understanding of cellular physiology. Indeed, vast amounts of data have been collected on transcriptional responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, only a handful of pioneering studies describe the dynamics of proteins in response to external stimuli, despite the fact that regulation of protein levels and localization is an essential part of such responses. Here we characterized unprecedented proteome plasticity by systematically tracking the localization and abundance of 5,330 yeast proteins at single-cell resolution under three different stress conditions (DTT, H2O2, and nitrogen starvation) using the GFP-tagged yeast library. We uncovered a unique “fingerprint” of changes for each stress and elucidated a new response arsenal for adapting to radical environments. These include bet-hedging strategies, organelle rearrangement, and redistribution of protein localizations. All data are available for download through our online database, LOQATE (localization and quantitation atlas of yeast proteome).
Breker, Michal; Gymrek, Melissa
Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) requires activation of the innate immune system and results in an adaptive immune response. Many cells of the innate immune system use Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which signal through the adaptor protein MyD88, to initiate an immune response. MyD88 is also required for signaling downstream of the IL-1 and Il-18 receptors. Herein we studied the MyD88 signaling pathway in the CHS response to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). Mice deficient in MyD88 were unable to mount a CHS response to DNFB. In contrast, mice deficient in Toll/IL-1R-containing adaptor inducing IFN-? (TRIF), TLR2, TLR4, TLR6 and TLR9 had no defect in their ability to respond to DNFB. While both IL-1R and IL-18R-deficient mice showed a reduced CHS response to DNFB, in bone marrow chimera and adoptive transfer experiments, we found that MyD88 and the IL-18R were required in a radioresistant cell in the sensitization phase of the CHS response. In contrast, similar strategies revealed that the IL-1R was required in a radiosensitive cell in the sensitization phase of the CHS response. Taken together, these data indicate that the IL-1R and IL-18R/MyD88 pathways are required in distinctly different cells during the sensitization phase of CHS.
Klekotka, Paul A.; Yang, Liping; Yokoyama, Wayne M.
A long A+T-rich sequence in supercoiled pBR322 DNA is hypersensitive to single-strand-specific nucleases at 37 degrees C but not at reduced temperature. The basis for the nuclease hypersensitivity is stable DNA unwinding as revealed by (i) the same temperature dependence for hypersensitivity and for stable unwinding of plasmid topoisomers after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, (ii) preferential nuclease digestion of stably unwound topoisomers, and (iii) quantitative nicking of stably unwound topoisomers in the A+T-rich region. Nuclease hypersensitivity of A+T-rich sequences is hierarchical, and either deletion of the primary site or a sufficient increase in the free energy of supercoiling leads to enhanced nicking at an alternative A+T-rich site. The hierarchy of nuclease hypersensitivity reflects a hierarchy in the free energy required for unwinding naturally occurring sequences in supercoiled DNA. This finding, along with the known hypersensitivity of replication origins and transcriptional regulatory regions, has important implications for using single-strand-specific nucleases in DNA structure-function studies.
Kowalski, David; Natale, Darren A.; Eddy, Martha J.
Background Mucosal infections elicit inflammatory responses via regulated signaling pathways. Infection outcome depends strongly on early\\u000a events occurring immediately when bacteria start interacting with cells in the mucosal membrane. Hitherto reported transcription\\u000a profiles on host-pathogen interactions are strongly biased towards in vitro studies. To detail the local in vivo genetic response to infection, we here profiled host gene expression in a
Jorrit Boekel; Örjan Källskog; Monica Rydén-Aulin; Mikael Rhen; Agneta Richter-Dahlfors
The nucleolus is a nuclear organelle that coordinates rRNA transcription and ribosome subunit biogenesis. Recent proteomic analyses have shown that the nucleolus contains proteins involved in cell cycle control, DNA processing and DNA damage response and repair, in addition to the many proteins connected with ribosome subunit production. Here we study the dynamics of nucleolar protein responses in cells exposed to stress and DNA damage caused by ionizing and ultraviolet (UV) radiation in diploid human fibroblasts. We show using a combination of imaging and quantitative proteomics methods that nucleolar substructure and the nucleolar proteome undergo selective reorganization in response to UV damage. The proteomic responses to UV include alterations of functional protein complexes such as the SSU processome and exosome, and paraspeckle proteins, involving both decreases and increases in steady state protein ratios, respectively. Several nonhomologous end-joining proteins (NHEJ), such as Ku70/80, display similar fast responses to UV. In contrast, nucleolar proteomic responses to IR are both temporally and spatially distinct from those caused by UV, and more limited in terms of magnitude. With the exception of the NHEJ and paraspeckle proteins, where IR induces rapid and transient changes within 15 min of the damage, IR does not alter the ratios of most other functional nucleolar protein complexes. The rapid transient decrease of NHEJ proteins in the nucleolus indicates that it may reflect a response to DNA damage. Our results underline that the nucleolus is a specific stress response organelle that responds to different damage and stress agents in a unique, damage-specific manner.
Moore, Henna M.; Bai, Baoyan; Boisvert, Francois-Michel; Latonen, Leena; Rantanen, Ville; Simpson, Jeremy C.; Pepperkok, Rainer; Lamond, Angus I.; Laiho, Marikki
Using the transgenic AEQUORIN system, we showed that the cotyledons and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings developed a biphasic luminescence response to anoxia, indicating changes in cytosolic Ca2+ levels. A fast and transient luminescence peak occurred within minutes of anoxia, followed by a second, prolonged luminescence response that lasted 1.5 to 4 h. The Ca2+ channel blockers Gd3+, La3+, and ruthenium red (RR) partially inhibited the first response and promoted a larger and earlier second response, suggesting different origins for these responses. Both Gd3+ and RR also partially inhibited anaerobic induction of alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression. However, although anaerobic alcohol dehydrogenase gene induction occurred in seedlings exposed to water-agar medium and in roots, related luminescence responses were absent. Upon return to normoxia, the luminescence of cotyledons, leaves, and roots dropped quickly, before increasing again in a Gd3+, La3+, ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid-, and RR-sensitive fashion. PMID:8685265
Sedbrook, J C; Kronebusch, P J; Borisy, G G; Trewavas, A J; Masson, P H
Two workers employed in a hardwood floor plant presented symptoms suggestive of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). At that plant, kiln-dried wood often shows moldy growth and is subsequently brought inside for processing. This study evaluated the environment in attempt to identify the causative antigen and verify whether other workers of this and similar plants had or were at risk of developing HP. Dust from dust-removing systems and molds on the surface of wood planks were collected and air samples taken from a sister plant. Blood samples, spirometry, and symptoms' questionnaires were obtained from 11 co-workers. Dense Paecilomyces growth was observed on the surface of the dried processed wood in the index plant. This fungal genus was not detected in the sister plant. An additional worker had symptoms suggestive of HP, and his bronchoalveolar lavage revealed a lymphocytic alveolitis. The 3 confirmed cases of HP and the other 10 workers had positive specific IgG antibodies to Paecilomyces. We report 3 cases of HP out of 13 workers and a 100% sensitization to molds in workers of a hardwood processing plant. This rate is much higher than what is commonly seen in other environments associated with HP. The drying process is suspected of being responsible for the massive Paecilomyces contamination likely responsible for the HP. PMID:16621767
Veillette, Marc; Cormier, Yvon; Israël-Assayaq, Evelyne; Meriaux, Anne; Duchaine, Caroline
Previous studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation facilitates pain sensitivity. Since serotoninergic raphe neurons are involved both in regulation of sleep and descending pain modulation, we studied whether spinal 5-HT receptors have a role in sleep deprivation-induced facilitation of pain-related behavior. REM sleep deprivation of 48h was induced by the flower pot method in the rat. The pain modulatory influence of various serotoninergic compounds administered intrathecally was assessed by determining limb withdrawal response to monofilaments. REM sleep deprivation produced a marked hypersensitivity. Sleep deprivation-induced hypersensitivity and normal sensitivity in controls were reduced both by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist (WAY-100635) and a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist (RS-102221). An antagonist of the 5-HT(3) receptor (LY-278584) failed to modulate hypersensitivity in sleep-deprived or control animals. Paradoxically, sensitivity in sleep-deprived and control animals was reduced not only by a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist but also by a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (8-OHDPAT). The results indicate that serotoninergic receptors in the spinal cord have a complex role in the control of sleep-deprivation induced cutaneous hypersensitivity as well as baseline sensitivity in control conditions. While endogenous serotonin acting on 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors may facilitate mechanical sensitivity in animals with a sleep deprivation-induced hypersensitivity as well as in controls, increased activation of spinal 5-HT(1A) receptors by an exogenous agonist leads to suppression of mechanical sensitivity in both conditions. Spinal 5-HT(3) receptors do not contribute to cutaneous hypersensitivity induced by sleep deprivation. PMID:18602835
Wei, Hong; Ma, Ainiu; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Pertovaara, Antti
Phytochelatin (PC) plays an important role in heavy metal detoxification in plants and other living organisms. Therefore, we overexpressed an Arabidopsis PC synthase (AtPCS1) in transgenic Arabidopsis with the goal of increasing PC synthesis, metal accumulation, and metal tolerance in these plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were selected, designated pcs lines, and analyzed for tolerance to cadmium (Cd). Transgenic pcs lines showed 12- to 25-fold higher accumulation of AtPCS1 mRNA, and production of PCs increased by 1.3- to 2.1-fold under 85 microM CdCl(2) stress for 3 d when compared with wild-type plants. Cd tolerance was assessed by measuring root length of plants grown on agar medium containing 50 or 85 microM CdCl(2). Pcs lines paradoxically showed hypersensitivity to Cd stress. This hypersensitivity was also observed for zinc (Zn) but not for copper (Cu). The overexpressed AtPCS1 protein itself was not responsible for Cd hypersensitivity as transgenic cad1-3 mutants overexpressing AtPCS1 to similar levels as those of pcs lines were not hypersensitive to Cd. Pcs lines were more sensitive to Cd than a PC-deficient Arabidopsis mutant, cad1-3, grown under low glutathione (GSH) levels. Cd hypersensitivity of pcs lines disappeared under increased GSH levels supplemented in the medium. Therefore, Cd hypersensitivity in pcs lines seems due to the toxicity of PCs as they existed at supraoptimal levels when compared with GSH levels. PMID:12586889
Lee, Sangman; Moon, Jae S; Ko, Tae-Seok; Petros, David; Goldsbrough, Peter B; Korban, Schuyler S
Life-history strategies describe that 'slow'- in contrast to 'fast'-living species allocate resources cautiously towards reproduction to enhance survival. Recent evidence suggests that variation in strategies exists not only among species but also among populations of the same species. Here, we examined the effect of experimentally induced stress on resource allocation of breeding seabirds in two populations with contrasting life-history strategies: slow-living Pacific and fast-living Atlantic black-legged kittiwakes. We tested the hypothesis that reproductive responses in kittiwakes under stress reflect their life-history strategies. We predicted that in response to stress, Pacific kittiwakes reduce investment in reproduction compared with Atlantic kittiwakes. We exposed chick-rearing kittiwakes to a short-term (3-day) period of increased exogenous corticosterone (CORT), a hormone that is released during food shortages. We examined changes in baseline CORT levels, parental care and effects on offspring. We found that kittiwakes from the two populations invested differently in offspring when facing stress. In response to elevated CORT, Pacific kittiwakes reduced nest attendance and deserted offspring more readily than Atlantic kittiwakes. We observed lower chick growth, a higher stress response in offspring and lower reproductive success in response to CORT implantation in Pacific kittiwakes, whereas the opposite occurred in the Atlantic. Our findings support the hypothesis that life-history strategies predict short-term responses of individuals to stress within a species. We conclude that behaviour and physiology under stress are consistent with trade-off priorities as predicted by life-history theory. We encourage future studies to consider the pivotal role of life-history strategies when interpreting inter-population differences of animal responses to stressful environmental events. PMID:24089339
Schultner, J; Kitaysky, A S; Gabrielsen, G W; Hatch, S A; Bech, C
Background and Aims Local climatic adaptation can influence species' response to climate change. If populations within a species are adapted to local climate, directional change away from mean climatic conditions may negatively affect fitness of populations throughout the species' range. Methods Adaptive differentiation to temperature was tested for in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) by reciprocally transplanting individuals from two populations, originating at different elevations, among temperature treatments in a controlled growth chamber environment. Fitness-related traits were measured in order to test for a population × temperature treatment interaction, and key physiological and phenological traits were measured to explain population differences in response to temperature. Key Results Response to temperature treatments differed between populations, suggesting genetic differentiation of populations. However, the pattern of response of fitness-related variables generally did not suggest ‘home temperature’ advantage, as would be expected if populations were locally adapted to temperature alone. Conclusions Failure consistently to detect a ‘home temperature’ advantage response suggests that adaptation to temperature is complex, and environmental and biotic factors that naturally covary with temperature in the field may be critical to understanding the nature of adaptation to temperature.
Souther, Sara; Lechowicz, Martin J.; McGraw, James B.
Methanosarcina barkeri is a methanogenic archaeon that can digest cellulose and other polysaccharides to produce methane. It can only grow under strictly anoxic conditions, but which can survive air exposure. To obtain further knowledge of cellular changes occurring in M. barkeri in response to air exposure and other environmental stresses, we constructed the first oligonucleotide microarray for M. barkeri and used it to investigate the global transcriptomic responses of M. barkeri to air exposure and heat shock at 45 degrees C for 1 h. The results showed that various house-keeping genes, such as genes involved in DNA replication recombination and repair, energy production and conversion, and protein turnover were regulated by environmental stimuli. In response to air exposure, up-regulation of a large number of transposase encoding genes was observed. However, no differential expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, nonspecific peroxidases or thioredoxin reductase was observed in response to air exposure, implying that no significant level of reactive oxygen species has been formed under air exposure. In response to heat shock, both Hsp70 (DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperone system) the Hsp60 (GroEL) systems were up-regulated, suggesting that they may play an important role in protein biogenesis in M. barkeri during heat stress. PMID:16604357
Zhang, Weiwen; Culley, David E; Nie, Lei; Brockman, Fred J
GT factors constitute a plant-specific transcription factor family with a conserved trihelix DNA-binding domain. In this study,\\u000a comprehensive sequence analysis suggested that 26 putative GT factors exist in rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three\\u000a distinctive subfamilies (GT?, GT?, and GT?) of plant GT factors and each subfamily has a unique composition of predicted motifs.\\u000a We characterized the OsGT?-1 gene, a typical
Yujie FangKabin; Kabin Xie; Xin Hou; Honghong Hu; Lizhong Xiong
We analyzed the influence of acute and chronic ionizing radiation (IR) on plant genome stability and global genome expression. Plants from the "chronic" group were grown for 21 days on (137)Cs-artificially contaminated soil, and received a cumulative dose of 1Gy. The "acute" plant group was exposed to an equal dose of radiation delivered as a single pulse. Analysis of homologous recombination (HR) events revealed a significantly higher increase in HR frequency (HRF) in the "chronic" group as compared to "acute" group. To understand the observed difference we performed global genome expression analysis. RNA profiling at 2h and 24h after acute irradiation showed two-third of up- and down-regulated genes to be similarly regulated at both time points. In contrast, less than 10% of the genes up- or down-regulated at 2h or 24h post-acute irradiation were similarly changed after chronic exposure. Promoter analysis revealed substantial differences in the specific regulatory elements found in acute and chronic transcriptomes. Further comparison of the data with existing profiles for several stresses, including UVC and heavy metals, showed substantial transcriptome similarities with the acute but not the chronic transcriptome. Plants exposed to chronic but not acute radiation showed early flowering; transcriptome analysis also revealed induction of flowering genes in "chronic" group. PMID:17568626
Kovalchuk, Igor; Molinier, Jean; Yao, Youli; Arkhipov, Andrey; Kovalchuk, Olga
A previously healthy man working as a machine operator in an automotive factory developed respiratory symptoms. Medical evaluation showed abnormal pulmonary function tests, a lung biopsy showed hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and his illness was traced to his work environment. His physician asked the employer to remove him from exposure to metalworking fluids. Symptoms reoccurred when he was later reexposed to metalworking fluids, and further permanent decrement in his lung function occurred. Investigation of his workplace showed that five of six large reservoirs of metalworking fluids (cutting oils) grew Mycobacterium chelonae (or Mycobacterium immunogenum), an organism previously associated with outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in automaking factories. His lung function remained stable after complete removal from exposure. The employer, metalworking fluid supplier, union, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health were notified of this sentinel health event. No further cases have been documented in this workplace.
Beckett, William; Kallay, Michael; Sood, Akshay; Zuo, Zhengfa; Milton, Donald
Several studies have reported optimal population decoding of sensory responses in two-alternative visual discrimination tasks. Such decoding involves integrating noisy neural responses into a more reliable representation of the likelihood that the stimuli under consideration evoked the observed responses. Importantly, an ideal observer must be able to evaluate likelihood with high precision and only consider the likelihood of the two relevant stimuli involved in the discrimination task. We report a new perceptual bias suggesting that observers read out the likelihood representation with remarkably low precision when discriminating grating spatial frequencies. Using spectrally filtered noise, we induced an asymmetry in the likelihood function of spatial frequency. This manipulation mainly affects the likelihood of spatial frequencies that are irrelevant to the task at hand. Nevertheless, we find a significant shift in perceived grating frequency, indicating that observers evaluate likelihoods of a broad range of irrelevant frequencies and discard prior knowledge of stimulus alternatives when performing two-alternative discrimination.
Putzeys, Tom; Bethge, Matthias; Wichmann, Felix; Wagemans, Johan; Goris, Robbe
In response to genotoxic exposure, mammalian cells have developed efficient DNA\\u000a repair and cell-cycle checkpoint mechanisms that allow coping with both endogenous\\u000a and exogenous sources of DNA damage. Imaging approaches to visualize the dynamics of\\u000a repair-related proteins at locally restricted regions of DNA damage have\\u000a substantially contributed to the understanding of the biochemical processes involved\\u000a in these damage response pathways.
Gisela Taucher-Scholz; Burkhard Jakob
Objectives: The present study aimed to describe the effect of aging on single-trial visual alpha responses.Methods: Visual evoked potentials were recorded at F3, Cz, P3, and O1 in 12 young (20–30-year-olds) and in 10 middle-aged adults (50–55-year-olds). Slow (7–10Hz) and fast (10–15Hz) alpha frequency bands were analyzed. Three parameters of single alpha responses were assessed for the 0–300ms period after
Vasil Kolev; Juliana Yordanova; Canan Basar-Eroglu; Erol Basar
Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by colorectal hypersensitivity and contributed to by sensitized mechanosensitive primary afferents and recruitment of mechanoinsensitive (silent) afferents. Neurotrophic factors are well known to orchestrate dynamic changes in the properties of sensory neurons. Although pain modulation by proteins in the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family has been documented in various pathophysiological states, their role in colorectal hypersensitivity remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of the GDNF family receptor ?-3 (GFR?3) signaling in visceral hypersensitivity by quantifying visceromotor responses (VMR) to colorectal distension before and after intracolonic treatment with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Baseline responses to colorectal distension did not differ between C57BL/6 and GFR?3 knockout (KO) mice. Relative to intracolonic saline treatment, TNBS significantly enhanced the VMR to colorectal distension in C57BL/6 mice 2, 7, 10, and 14 days posttreatment, whereas TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was significantly suppressed in GFR?3 KO mice. The proportion of GFR?3 immunopositive thoracolumbar and lumbosacral colorectal dorsal root ganglion neurons was significantly elevated 2 days after TNBS treatment. In single fiber recordings, responses to circumferential stretch of colorectal afferent endings in C57BL/6 mice were significantly increased (sensitized) after exposure to an inflammatory soup, whereas responses to stretch did not sensitize in GFR?3 KO mice. These findings suggest that enhanced GFR?3 signaling in visceral afferents may contribute to development of colorectal hypersensitivity.
Shinoda, M.; Feng, B.; Albers, K. M.; Gebhart, G. F.
Reports on a research project for which an American literature high school class was observed every day for a semester. Presents a framework for understanding teacher responses to student writing, consisting of five orientations toward that writing: interpretive, social, cognitive/emotive, evaluative, and pedagogical. (TB)
The fate of cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) may depend greatly on changes in gene expression, so that an improved view of gene induction profiles is important for understanding mechanisms of checkpoint control, repair and cell death following such exposures. We have used a quantitative fluorescent cDNA microarray hybridization approach to identify genes regulated in response to ?-irradiation in
Sally A Amundson; Mike Bittner; Yidong Chen; Jeffrey Trent; Paul Meltzer; Albert J Fornace
The alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) is known to trigger the adaptive response by inducing the ada-regulon - consisting of three DNA repair enzymes Ada, AlkB, AlkA and the enigmatic AidB. We have applied custom designed tiling arrays to study transcriptional changes in Escherichia coli following a MNNG challenge. Along with the expected upregulation of the adaptive response genes (ada, alkA and alkB), we identified a number of differentially expressed transcripts, both novel and annotated. This indicates a wider regulatory response than previously documented. There were 250 differentially-expressed and 2275 similarly-expressed unannotated transcripts. We found novel upregulation of several stress-induced transcripts, including the SOS inducible genes recN and tisAB, indicating a novel role for these genes in alkylation repair. Furthermore, the ada-regulon A and B boxes were found to be insufficient to explain the regulation of the adaptive response genes after MNNG exposure, suggesting that additional regulatory elements must be involved. PMID:24157950
Booth, James A; Thomassen, Gard O S; Rowe, Alexander D; Weel-Sneve, Ragnhild; Lagesen, Karin; Kristiansen, Knut I; Bjřrĺs, Magnar; Rognes, Torbjřrn; Lindvall, Jessica M
Large-scale analysis of cellular response to anticancer drugs typically focuses on variation in potency (half-maximum inhibitory concentration, (IC50)), assuming that it is the most important difference between effective and ineffective drugs or sensitive and resistant cells. We took a multiparametric approach involving analysis of the slope of the dose-response curve, the area under the curve and the maximum effect (Emax). We found that some of these parameters vary systematically with cell line and others with drug class. For cell-cycle inhibitors, Emax often but not always correlated with cell proliferation rate. For drugs targeting the Akt/PI3K/mTOR pathway, dose-response curves were unusually shallow. Classical pharmacology has no ready explanation for this phenomenon, but single-cell analysis showed that it correlated with significant and heritable cell-to-cell variability in the extent of target inhibition. We conclude that parameters other than potency should be considered in the comparative analysis of drug response, particularly at clinically relevant concentrations near and above the IC50. PMID:24013279
Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad; Honarnejad, Saman; Heiser, Laura M; Gray, Joe W; Sorger, Peter K
Orientation of insects to host plants and conspecifics is the result of detection and integration of chemical and physical cues present in the environment. Sensory organs have evolved to be sensitive to important signals, providing neural input for higher order multimodal processing and behavioral output. Here we report experiments to determine decisions made by Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in response to isolated stimuli and multimodal combinations of signals on a locomotion compensator. Our results show that in complete darkness and in the absence of other stimuli, pheromonal stimulation increases attraction behavior of CPB as measured in oriented displacement and walking speed. However, orientation to the pheromone is abolished when presented with the alternative stimulation of a low intensity yellow light in a dark environment. The ability of the pheromone to stimulate these diurnal beetles in the dark in the absence of other stimuli is an unexpected but interesting observation. The predominance of the phototactic response over that to pheromone when low intensity lights were offered as choices seems to confirm the diurnal nature of the insect. The biological significance of the response to pheromone in the dark is unclear. The phototactic response will play a key role in elucidating multimodal stimulation in the host-finding process of CPB, and perhaps other insects. Such information might be exploited in the design of applications to attract and trap CPB for survey or control purposes and other insect pests using similar orientation mechanisms.
Otalora-Luna, Fernando; Dickens, Joseph C.
We asked whether and how a sequence of a honeybee's experience with different reward magnitudes changes its subsequent unconditioned proboscis extension response (PER) to sucrose stimulation of the antennae, 24 hours after training, in the absence of reward, and under otherwise similar circumstances. We found that the bees that had experienced an increasing reward schedule extended their probosces earlier and
Mariana Gil; Randolf Menzel; Rodrigo J. De Marco
To explain the relationship between first- and second-response accuracies in a detection experiment, Swets, Tanner, and Birdsall (Swets, J., Tanner, W. P., Jr., & Birdsall, T. G. (1961). Decision processes in perception. Psychological Review, 68, 301-340) proposed that the var- iance of visual signals increased with their means. However, both a low threshold and intrinsic uncertainty produce similar relationships. I
Joshua A. Solomon
Methanosarcina barkeri is a methanogenic archaeon that can digest cellulose and other polysaccharides to produce methane. It can only grow under strictly anoxic conditions, but which can survive air exposure. To obtain further knowledge of cellular changes occurring in M. barkeri in response to air exposure and other environmental stresses, we constructed the first oligonucleotide microarray for M. barkeri and
Weiwen Zhang; David E. Culley; Lei Nie; Fred J. Brockman
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) include syndromes such as drug reaction, eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). An important advance has been the discovery of associations between HLA alleles and many of these syndromes including abacavir hypersensitivity reaction, allopurinol DRESS/DIHS and SJS/TEN and SJS/TEN associated with aromatic amine anticonvulsants. These HLA associations have created the promise for prevention through screening and have additionally shed further light on the immunopathogenesis of SCARs. The roll-out of HLA-B*5701 into routine clinical practice as a genetic screening test to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity provides a translational roadmap for other drugs. Numerous hurdles exist in the widespread translation of several other drugs such as carbamazepine where the positive predictive value of HLA-B*1502 is low and the negative predictive value of HLA-B*1502 for SJS/TEN may not be 100% in all ethnic groups. International collaborative consortia have been formed with the goal of developing phenotype standardization and undertaking HLA and genome-wide analyses in diverse populations with these syndromes.
Phillips, Elizabeth J.; Chung, Wen-Hung; Mockenhaupt, Maja; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Mallal, Simon A.
This bibliographic review provides a general view of the etiology, characteristics and treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, so that professionals can use this information in the therapeutic management of this clinical condition. For this purpose, the authors have analyzed whole texts of relevant articles on the subject. This study showed that the predisposing factors associated with the causes of dentinal hypersensitivity must be controlled or eliminated, by educating the patient regarding the excessive intake of acidic food, as well as providing guidance on the proper tooth brushing technique and analysis of occlusion. Effective treatment must be preceded by a proper diagnosis, established after the exclusion of any other possible causes of the pain. These cases must be managed efficiently, quickly and permanently. The availability of a wide variety of treatment could be an indicator that there is still no effective desensitizing agent to completely resolve the patient's discomfort, or that it is difficult to treat, irrespective of the available treatment options. Even with the large number of published studies, it has not been possible to reach a consensus about the product that represents the gold standard in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. PMID:19776498
Porto, Isabel C C M; Andrade, Ana K M; Montes, Marcos A J R
Cryptochrome (CRY) is a blue-light-absorbing protein involved in the photic entrainment of the circadian clock in Drosophila melanogaster. We have investigated the locomotor activity rhythms of flies carrying cryb mutant and revealed that they have two separate circadian oscillators with different responsiveness to light. When kept in constant light conditions, wild-type flies became arrhythmic, while cryb mutant flies exhibited free-running
Taishi Yoshii; Yuriko Funada; Tadashi Ibuki-Ishibashi; Akira Matsumoto; Teiichi Tanimura; Kenji Tomioka
The weak organic acid sorbic acid is a commonly used food preservative, as it inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. We have used genome-wide transcriptional profiling of Bacillus subtilis cells during mild sorbic acid stress to reveal the growth-inhibitory activity of this preservative and to identify potential resistance mechanisms. Our analysis demonstrated that sorbic acid-stressed cells induce responses
Alex Ter Beek; Bart J. F. Keijser; Andre Boorsma; Anna Zakrzewska; Rick Orij; Gertien J. Smits
Evidence indicates that the testis possesses a reduced capacity to mount inflammatory and rejection responses, which undoubtedly contributes to the ongoing survival of the highly immunogenic germ cells. The contribution of local cytokine expression to this condition was investigated in adult male rats treated with lipopolysaccharide to induce inflammation. Cytokine mRNA and protein expression were determined in tissue extracts and fluids by Northern blot analysis, quantitative PCR, or RNAse protection assay and specific ELISAs. Testicular expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was considerably attenuated compared with the liver (control tissue); in contrast, the testicular IL-6 response was enhanced. Expression of IL-10, a type 2 immunoregulatory cytokine, was similar in both testis and liver, whereas the immunoregulatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor-beta(1) and activin A were constitutively elevated in both normal and inflamed testes. The IL-1beta and transforming growth factor-beta(1) proteins were present principally in their latent (inactive) forms, indicating that enzymic processing is an important control mechanism for these two cytokines within the testis. These data indicate that inflammatory and regulatory cytokine activity is regulated at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels in a testis-specific manner. It is concluded that a novel pattern of suppression of proinflammatory cytokine responses and normal or elevated expression of immunoregulatory cytokines may be responsible for reduced inflammatory responses and enhanced graft survival in the testis. These data have important implications for the understanding and treatment of male autoimmune infertility, testicular inflammation. and carcinogenesis. PMID:15661966
O'Bryan, Moira K; Gerdprasert, Orapin; Nikolic-Paterson, David J; Meinhardt, Andreas; Muir, Julie A; Foulds, Lynda M; Phillips, David J; de Kretser, David M; Hedger, Mark P
Exposure to environmental radiation and the application of new clinical modalities, such as radioimmunotherapy, have heightened the need to understand cellular responses to low dose and low-dose rate ionizing radiation. Many tumor cell lines have been observed to exhibit a hypersensitivity to radiation doses below 50 cGy, which manifests as a significant deviation from the clonogenic survival response predicted by a linear-quadratic fit to higher doses. However, the underlying processes for this phenomenon remain unclear. Using a gel microdrop/flow cytometry assay to monitor single cell proliferation at early times post irradiation, we examined the response of human A549 lung carcinoma, T98G glioma and MCF7 breast carcinoma cell lines exposed to gamma radiation doses from 0 to 200 cGy delivered at 0.18 and 22 cGy/min. The A549 and T98G cells, but not MCF7 cells, showed the marked hypersensitivity at doses <50 cGy. To further characterize the low-dose hypersensitivity, we examined the influence of low-dose radiation on cell cycle status and apoptosis by assays for active caspase-3 and phosphatidylserine translocation (annexin-V binding). We observed that caspase-3 activation and annexin-V binding mirrored the proliferation curves for the cell lines. Furthermore, the low-dose hypersensitivity and annexin-V binding to irradiated A549 and T98G cells were eliminated by treating the cells with pifithrin, an inhibitor of p53. When p53-inactive cell lines (2800T skin fibroblasts and HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells) were examined for similar patterns, we found that there was no HRS and apoptosis was not detectable by annexin-V or caspase-3 assays. Our data therefore suggest that low-dose hypersensitivity is associated with p53-dependent apoptosis.
Enns, L; Bogen, K; Wizniak, J; Murtha, A; Weinfeld, M
Despite significant social difficulties, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are vulnerable to the effects of social exclusion. We recorded EEG while children with ASD and typical peers played a computerized game involving peer rejection. Children with ASD reported ostracism-related distress comparable to typically developing children. Event-related potentials (ERPs) indicated a distinct pattern of temporal processing of rejection events in children with ASD. While typically developing children showed enhanced response to rejection at a late slow wave indexing emotional arousal and regulation, those with autism showed attenuation at an early component, suggesting reduced engagement of attentional resources in the aversive social context. Results emphasize the importance of studying the time course of social information processing in ASD; they suggest distinct mechanisms subserving similar overt behavior and yield insights relevant to development and implementation of targeted treatment approaches and objective measures of response to treatment.
McPartland, James C.; Crowley, Michael J.; Perszyk, Danielle R.; Naples, Adam; Mukerji, Cora E.; Wu, Jia; Molfese, Peter; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Mayes, Linda C.
Sixteen healthy young adults (ages 18–32) and 16 healthy older adults (ages 67–81) completed a delayed response task in which they saw the following visual sequence: memory stimuli (2 abstract shapes; 3,000 ms), a blank delay (5,000 ms), a probe stimulus of variable duration (one abstract shape; 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 ms), and a mask (500 ms). Subjects
Arjun Kumar; Brian C. Rakitin; Rohit Nambisan; Christian Habeck; Yaakov Stern
Social motivation deficit theories suggest that children with autism do not properly anticipate and appreciate the pleasure\\u000a of social stimuli. In this study, we investigated event-related brain potentials evoked by cues that triggered social versus\\u000a monetary reward anticipation in children with autism. Children with autism showed attenuated P3 activity in response to cues\\u000a associated with a timely reaction to obtain
Gregor Kohls; Judith Peltzer; Martin Schulte-Rüther; Inge Kamp-Becker; Helmut Remschmidt; Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann; Kerstin Konrad
We study apo and holo forms of the bacterial ferric binding protein (FBP) which exhibits the so-called ferric transport dilemma: it uptakes iron from the host with remarkable affinity, yet releases it with ease in the cytoplasm for subsequent use. The observations fit the "conformational selection" model whereby the existence of a weakly populated, higher energy conformation that is stabilized in the presence of the ligand is proposed. We introduce a new tool that we term perturbation-response scanning (PRS) for the analysis of remote control strategies utilized. The approach relies on the systematic use of computational perturbation/response techniques based on linear response theory, by sequentially applying directed forces on single-residues along the chain and recording the resulting relative changes in the residue coordinates. We further obtain closed-form expressions for the magnitude and the directionality of the response. Using PRS, we study the ligand release mechanisms of FBP and support the findings by molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the residue-by-residue displacements between the apo and the holo forms, as determined from the X-ray structures, are faithfully reproduced by perturbations applied on the majority of the residues of the apo form. However, once the stabilizing ligand (Fe) is integrated to the system in holo FBP, perturbing only a few select residues successfully reproduces the experimental displacements. Thus, iron uptake by FBP is a favored process in the fluctuating environment of the protein, whereas iron release is controlled by mechanisms including chelation and allostery. The directional analysis that we implement in the PRS methodology implicates the latter mechanism by leading to a few distant, charged, and exposed loop residues. Upon perturbing these, irrespective of the direction of the operating forces, we find that the cap residues involved in iron release are made to operate coherently, facilitating release of the ion. PMID:19851447
Atilgan, Canan; Atilgan, Ali Rana
We study apo and holo forms of the bacterial ferric binding protein (FBP) which exhibits the so-called ferric transport dilemma: it uptakes iron from the host with remarkable affinity, yet releases it with ease in the cytoplasm for subsequent use. The observations fit the “conformational selection” model whereby the existence of a weakly populated, higher energy conformation that is stabilized in the presence of the ligand is proposed. We introduce a new tool that we term perturbation-response scanning (PRS) for the analysis of remote control strategies utilized. The approach relies on the systematic use of computational perturbation/response techniques based on linear response theory, by sequentially applying directed forces on single-residues along the chain and recording the resulting relative changes in the residue coordinates. We further obtain closed-form expressions for the magnitude and the directionality of the response. Using PRS, we study the ligand release mechanisms of FBP and support the findings by molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the residue-by-residue displacements between the apo and the holo forms, as determined from the X-ray structures, are faithfully reproduced by perturbations applied on the majority of the residues of the apo form. However, once the stabilizing ligand (Fe) is integrated to the system in holo FBP, perturbing only a few select residues successfully reproduces the experimental displacements. Thus, iron uptake by FBP is a favored process in the fluctuating environment of the protein, whereas iron release is controlled by mechanisms including chelation and allostery. The directional analysis that we implement in the PRS methodology implicates the latter mechanism by leading to a few distant, charged, and exposed loop residues. Upon perturbing these, irrespective of the direction of the operating forces, we find that the cap residues involved in iron release are made to operate coherently, facilitating release of the ion.
Atilgan, Canan; Atilgan, Ali Rana
An 84 year old women developed erythematous blotchy erythema and purpuric rashes over the lower limbs three days after being started on intravenous cefuroxime for acute diverticulitis. A skin biopsy specimen showed a mixed infiltrate of lymphoid cells and eosinophils; many of the lymphocytes were large, pleomorphic, and showed a raised mitotic rate. Immunohistochemistry showed the infiltrate to be T cell rich, with all the large cells being CD30 positive. Typical mycosis fungoides cells, marked epidermotropism, and Pautrier's abscesses were not seen. The rash disappeared 10 days after cessation of cefuroxime and the patient remained asymptomatic 15 months later. This apparent cutaneous T cell lymphoma-like reaction is best described as lymphomatoid vascular reaction. The drug induced immune response with an atypical cutaneous lymphoid infiltrate mimics a cutaneous pseudolymphoma.???Keywords: cefuroxime; atypical cutaneous lymphomatoid infiltrate; cutaneous T cell lymphoma
Saeed, S; Bazza, M; Zaman, M; Ryatt, K
With MRI (stem) cell tracking having entered the clinic, studies on the cellular genomic response toward labeling are warranted. Gene expression profiling was applied to C17.2 neural stem cells following superparamagnetic iron oxide/PLL (poly-L-lysine) labeling over the course of 1 week. Relative to unlabeled cells, less than 1% of genes (49 total) exhibited greater than 2-fold difference in expression in response to superparamagnetic iron oxide/PLL labeling. In particular, transferrin receptor 1 (Tfrc) and heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) expression was downregulated early, whereas genes involved in lysosomal function (Sulf1) and detoxification (Clu, Cp, Gstm2, Mgst1) were upregulated at later time points. Relative to cells treated with PLL only, cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide/PLL complexes exhibited differential expression of 1399 genes. Though these differentially expressed genes exhibited altered expression over time, the overall extent was limited. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes showed that genes encoding zinc-binding proteins are enriched after superparamagnetic iron oxide/PLL labeling relative to PLL only treatment, whereas members of the apoptosis/ programmed cell death pathway did not display increased expression. Overexpression of the differentially expressed genes Rnf138 and Abcc4 were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results demonstrate that, although early reactions responsible for iron homeostasis are induced, overall neural stem cell gene expression remains largely unaltered following superparamagnetic iron oxide/PLL labeling.
Kedziorek, Dorota A.; Muja, Naser; Walczak, Piotr; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesus; Gilad, Assaf A.; Jie, Chunfa C.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.
Plasticity in behaviour is of fundamental significance when environments are variable. Such plasticity is particularly important in the context of rapid changes in the socio-sexual environment. Males can exhibit adaptive plastic responses to variation in the overall level of reproductive competition. However, the extent of behavioural flexibility within individuals, and the degree to which rapidly changing plastic responses map onto fitness are unknown. We addressed this by determining the behaviour and fitness profiles of individual Drosophila melanogaster males subjected to up to three episodes of exposure to rivals or no rivals, in all combinations. Behaviour (mating duration) was remarkably sensitive to the level of competition and fully reversible, suggesting that substantial costs arise from the incorrect expression of even highly flexible behaviour. However, changes in mating duration matched fitness outcomes (offspring number) only in scenarios in which males experienced zero then high competition. Following the removal of competition, mating duration, but not offspring production, decreased to below control levels. This indicates that the benefit of increasing reproductive investment when encountering rivals may exceed that of decreasing investment when rivals disappear. Such asymmetric fitness benefits and mismatches with behavioural responses are expected to exert strong selection on the evolution of plasticity.
Bretman, Amanda; Westmancoat, James D.; Gage, Matthew J. G.; Chapman, Tracey
Background The small molecule Halofuginone (HF) is a potent regulator of extracellular matrix (ECM ) gene expression and is unique in its therapeutic potential. While the basis for HF effects is unknown, inhibition of TGF? signaling and activation of the amino acid restriction response (AAR) have been linked to HF transcriptional control of a number of ECM components and amelioration of fibrosis and alleviation of autoimmune disease by regulation of Th17 cell differentiation, respectively. The aim of this study was to generate a global expression profile of HF targets in epithelial cells to identify potential mediators of HF function in this cell type. Results We report that HF modulation of the expression of the ECM remodeling protein Mmp13 in epithelial cells is separable from previously reported effects of HF on TGF? signal inhibition, and use microarray expression analysis to correlate this with transcriptional responses characteristic of the Integrated Stress Response (ISR). Conclusions Our findings suggest activation of the ISR may be a common mechanism underlying HF biological effects.
ABSTRACT Dermal exposure to JP-8 petroleum jet fuel leads to toxicological responses in humans and rodents. Serum profiling is a molecular analysis of changes in the levels of serum proteins and other molecules in response to changes in physiology. This present study utilizes serum profiling approaches to examine biomolecular changes in the sera of rats exposed to dermal applications of JP-8 (jet propulsion fuel-8). Using gel electrophoresis and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS), levels of serum proteins as well as low-mass constituents were found to change after dermal exposures to JP-8. The serum protein levels altered included the acute-phase response proteins haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, alpha(1)-inhibitor III, and apolipoprotein A-IV. Haptoglobin levels increased after a 1-day JP-8 dermal exposure and continued to increase through 7 days of exposure. Ceruloplasmin levels increased after 5 days of exposure. Serum alpha(1)-inhibitor III was reduced after a 1-day exposure and the depletion continued after 7 days of exposure. Apolipoprotein A-IV increased after a 1-day exposure and then returned to basal levels after 3- and 5-day exposures of JP-8. Levels of the acute-phase protein alpha(2)-macroglobulin were found to not vary over these time course studies. Using ESI-MS analysis directly on the sera from rats exposed to dermal JP-8, low-mass sera constituents were found to correlate with control (acetone) or JP-8 exposure. PMID:20020890
Larabee, Jason L; Hocker, James R; Cheung, John Y; Gallucci, Randle M; Hanas, Jay S
The renewed interest in strategies to combat infectious agents with epidemic potential has led to a re-examination of vaccination protocols against smallpox. To help define which antigens elucidate a human antibody response, we have targeted proteins known or predicted to be presented on the surface of the intracellular mature virion (IMV) or the extracellular enveloped virion (EEV). The predicted ectodomains were expressed in a mammalian in vitro coupled transcription/translation reaction using tRNAlys precharged with lysine-?-biotin followed by solid phase immobilization on 384 well neutravidin-coated plates. The generated array is highly specific and sensitive in a microELISA format. By comparison of binding of vaccinia-immune sera to the reticulocyte lysate-produced proteins and to secreted post-translationally-modified proteins, we demonstrate that for several proteins including the EEV proteins B5 and A33, proper recognition is dependent upon appropriate folding, with little dependence upon glycosylation per se. We further demonstrate that the humoral immune response to vaccinia among different individuals is not uniform in specificity or strength, as different IMV and EEV targets predominate within the group of immunogenic proteins. This heterogeneity likely results from the diversity of HLA Class II alleles and CD4 T helper cell epitopes stimulating B cell antibody production. Our findings have important implications both for design of new recombinant subunit vaccines as well as for methods of assaying the human antibody response utilizing recombinant proteins produced in vitro.
Duke-Cohan, Jonathan S.; Wollenick, Kristin; Witten, Elizabeth A.; Seaman, Michael S.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Dolin, Raphael; Reinherz, Ellis L.
The present review highlights critical issues related to cerebral metabolism following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the use of 13C labeled substrates and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to study these changes. First we address some pathophysiologic factors contributing to metabolic dysfunction following TBI. We then examine how 13C NMR spectroscopy strategies have been used to investigate energy metabolism, neurotransmission, the intracellular redox state, and neuroglial compartmentation following injury. 13C NMR spectroscopy studies of brain extracts from animal models of TBI have revealed enhanced glycolytic production of lactate, evidence of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activation, and alterations in neuronal and astrocyte oxidative metabolism that are dependent on injury severity. Differential incorporation of label into glutamate and glutamine from 13C labeled glucose or acetate also suggest TBI-induced adaptations to the glutamate-glutamine cycle.
Bartnik-Olson, Brenda L.; Harris, Neil G.; Shijo, Katsunori; Sutton, Richard L.
The relative roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in contact hypersensitivity responses have not been fully solved, and remain an important question. Using an adoptive transfer model, we investigated the role of the respective T cell subset. Magnetic bead separated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from oxazolone sensitized C57BL/6 mice were transferred into RAG?/? mice, followed by hapten challenge and analysis of inflammatory parameters at 24 hours post exposure. The CD4+ T cell recipient mice developed partial contact hypersensitivity responses to oxazolone. CD8+ T cells caused significant amplification of the response in recipients of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells including ear swelling, type 1 inflammatory mediators, and cell killing. Unexpectedly, CD8+ T cells were not sufficient to mediate contact hypersensitivity, although abundantly present in the lymph nodes in the CD8+ T cell reconstituted mice. There were no signs of inflammation at the site of hapten exposure, indicating impaired recruitment of CD8+ T cells in the absence of CD4+ T cells. These data show that CD4+ T cells mediate contact hypersensitivity to oxazolone, but CD8+ T cells contribute with the most potent effector mechanisms. Moreover, our results suggest that CD4+ T cell function is required for the mobilization of CD8+ effector T cells to the site of hapten exposure. The results shed new light on the relative importance of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during the effector phase of contact hypersensitivity.
Fyhrquist, Nanna; Wolff, Henrik; Lauerma, Antti; Alenius, Harri
Over the past decade optical approaches were introduced that effectively break the diffraction barrier. Of particular note were introductions of Stimulated Emission/Depletion (STED) microscopy, Photo-Activated Localization Microscopy (PALM), and the closely related Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). STORM represents an attractive method for researchers, as it does not require highly specialized optical setups, can be implemented using commercially available dyes, and is more easily amenable to multicolor imaging. We implemented a simultaneous dual-color, direct-STORM imaging system through the use of an objective-based TIRF microscope and filter-based image splitter. This system allows for excitation and detection of two fluorophors simultaneously, via projection of each fluorophor's signal onto separate regions of a detector. We imaged the sub-resolution organization of the TLR4 receptor, a key mediator of innate immune response, after challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacteria-specific antigen. While distinct forms of LPS have evolved among various bacteria, only some LPS variations (such as that derived from E. coli) typically result in significant cellular immune response. Others (such as from the plague bacteria Y. pestis) do not, despite affinity to TLR4. We will show that challenge with LPS antigens produces a statistically significant increase in TLR4 receptor clusters on the cell membrane, presumably due to recruitment of receptors to lipid rafts. These changes, however, are only detectable below the diffraction limit and are not evident using conventional imaging methods. Furthermore, we will compare the spatiotemporal behavior of TLR4 receptors in response to different LPS chemotypes in order to elucidate possible routes by which pathogens such as Y. pestis are able to circumvent the innate immune system. Finally, we will exploit the dual-color STORM capabilities to simultaneously image LPS and TLR4 receptors in the cellular membrane at resolutions at or below 40nm.
Carson, Bryan D.; Aaron, Jesse S.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann
Objectives\\u000a We measured the acoustic startle response (ASR) and blink reflex (ABR) in patients with clinically diagnosed Parkinson's disease\\u000a (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and determined the specificity of an abnormal result for the diagnosis of PSP.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a Thirty patients (11 PD, 19 PSP) and 12 age matched controls were studied. The PSP group was separated into clinical subgroups.
Andrew J. Lees; Peter Brown
A 36-year-old woman presented with erythematous confluent macules on her whole body with fever and chills associated with jaundice after 8 months of dapsone therapy. Her symptoms had developed progressively, and a physical examination revealed bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. Excisional biopsy of a cervical lymph node showed effacement of the normal architecture with atypical lymphoid hyperplasia and proliferation of high endothelial venules compatible with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. However, it was assumed that the cervical lymphadenopathy was a clinical manifestation of a systemic hypersensitivity reaction because her clinical course was reminiscent of dapsone-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. A liver biopsy revealed drug-induced hepatitis with no evidence of lymphomatous involvement. Intravenous glucocorticoid was immediately initiated and her symptoms and clinical disease dramatically improved. The authors present an unusual case of cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma as an adverse reaction to dapsone.
Rim, Min Young; Hong, Junshik; Yo, Inku; Park, Hyeonsu; Chung, Dong Hae; Ahn, Jeong Yeal; Park, Jinny; Kim, Yun Soo; Lee, Jae Hoon
Protein phosphatase PP4C has been implicated in the DNA damage response (DDR), but its substrates in DDR remain largely unknown. We devised a novel proteomic strategy for systematic identification of proteins dephosphorylated by PP4C and identified KRAB-domain-associated protein 1 (KAP-1) as a substrate. Ionizing radiation leads to phosphorylation of KAP-1 at S824 (via ATM) and at S473 (via CHK2). A PP4C/R3? complex interacts with KAP-1 and silencing this complex leads to persistence of phospho-S824 and phospho-S473. We identify a new role for KAP-1 in DDR by showing that phosphorylation of S473 impacts the G2/M checkpoint. Depletion of PP4R3? or expression of the phosphomimetic KAP-1 S473 mutant (S473D) leads to a prolonged G2/M checkpoint. Phosphorylation of S824 is necessary for repair of heterochromatic DNA lesions and similar to cells expressing phosphomimetic KAP-1 S824 mutant (S824D), or PP4R3?-silenced cells, display prolonged relaxation of chromatin with release of chromatin remodelling protein CHD3. Our results define a new role for PP4-mediated dephosphorylation in the DDR, including the regulation of a previously undescribed function of KAP-1 in checkpoint response.
Lee, Dong-Hyun; Goodarzi, Aaron A; Adelmant, Guillaume O; Pan, Yunfeng; Jeggo, Penelope A; Marto, Jarrod A; Chowdhury, Dipanjan
Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genome AABBDD) genome contains one Pgip gene per genome. Tapgip1 (B genome) and Tapgip2 (D genome) are expressed in all tissues, whereas Tapgip3 (A genome) is inactive because of a long terminal repeat, Copia retrotransposon insertion within the coding region. To verify whether Tapgip1 and Tapgip2 encode active PGIPs and are involved in the wheat defence response, we expressed them transiently and analysed their expression under stress conditions. Neither TaPGIP1 nor TaPGIP2 showed inhibition activity in vitro against fungal polygalacturonases. Moreover, a wheat genotype (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) lacking active homologues of Tapgip1 or Tapgip2 possesses PGIP activity. At transcript level, Tapgip1 and Tapgip2 were both up-regulated after fungal infection and strongly induced following wounding. This latter result has been confirmed in transgenic wheat plants expressing the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) gene under control of the 5'-flanking region of Tdpgip1, a homologue of Tapgip1 with an identical sequence. Strong and transient GUS staining was mainly restricted to the damaged tissues and was not observed in adjacent tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that Tapgips and their homologues are involved in the wheat defence response by acting at the site of the lesion caused by pathogen infection. PMID:23574379
Janni, M; Bozzini, T; Moscetti, I; Volpi, C; D'Ovidio, R
?-Lactam antibiotics provide the cornerstone of treatment and reduce the rate of decline in lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis, but their use is limited by a high frequency of delayed-type allergic reactions. The objective of this study was to use cloned T-cells expressing a single T-cell receptor from five piperacillin-hypersensitive patients to characterize both the cellular pathophysiology of the reaction and antigen specificity to define the mechanism of activation of T-cells by piperacillin. More than 400 piperacillin-responsive CD4+, CD4+CD8+, or CD8+ T-cell clones were generated from lymphocyte transformation test and ELIspot-positive patients. The T-cell response (proliferation, T helper 2 cytokine secretion, and cytotoxicity) to piperacillin was concentration-dependent and highly specific. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry revealed that piperacillin bound exclusively to albumin in T-cell culture. Irreversible piperacillin binding at Lys 190, 195, 199, 432, and 541 on albumin and the stimulation of T-cells depended on incubation time. A synthetic piperacillin albumin conjugate stimulated T-cell receptors via a major histocompatibility complex- and processing-dependent pathway. Flucloxacillin competes for the same Lys residues on albumin as piperacillin, but the resulting conjugate does not stimulate T-cells, indicating that binding of the ?-lactam hapten in peptide conjugates confers structural specificity on the activation of the T-cell receptors expressed on drug-specific clones. Collectively, these data describe the cellular processes that underlie the structural specificity of piperacillin antigen binding in hypersensitive patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:22371438
El-Ghaiesh, Sabah; Monshi, Manal M; Whitaker, Paul; Jenkins, Rosalind; Meng, Xiaoli; Farrell, John; Elsheikh, Ayman; Peckham, Daniel; French, Neil; Pirmohamed, Munir; Park, B Kevin; Naisbitt, Dean J
Hypersensitivity diseases caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are relatively common in the population. This article summarizes the present understanding on the various allergic and nonallergic clinical pictures produced through hypersensitivity to these drugs using the pathogenic classification of hypersensitivity reactions recently proposed by the Nomenclature Committee of the World Allergy Organization to guide clinicians in the diagnosis and management of patients with these conditions.
Previous research demonstrated that it is possible to distinguish patients with probable Alzheimer's disease from age-matched controls based on an exaggerated pupil dilation response to dilute tropicamide. The research reported here employed a prospective longitudinal design to follow over time (2-4 years) a sample of 55 community dwelling elders with and without an exaggerated pupil response using the pupil assay and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests sensitive to pre-clinical AD. Discrete time survival modeling was used to assess the ability of the assay to predict a pattern of cognitive decline consistent with early AD. Analysis showed that there is an increased risk (odds ratio of 3) with a hypersensitive pupil response (>/=13% increase in pupil diameter over baseline diameter) for developing significant cognitive impairment in areas of memory attention and language in a pattern, consistent with pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease. When controlling for ApoE allele type the odds ratio for pupil response as a risk factor increased to 4. The analysis also found that an exaggerated pupil response was a significant (p=.02) predictor of cognitive decline. This analysis of longitudinal data has shown that over time an exaggerated response on the pupil assay is a significant independent risk factor for developing pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease. The risk for developing pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease is increased four-fold. PMID:17118493
Scinto, Leonard F M
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum are two domesticated species of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade that diverged around 100 Ma after whole-genome duplication. Both have retained many duplicated genes associated with glucose fermentation and are characterized by the ability to achieve grape must fermentation. Nevertheless, these two species differ for many other traits, indicating that they underwent different evolutionary histories. To determine how the evolutionary histories of S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum are mirrored on the proteome, we analyzed the genetic variability of the proteomes of domesticated strains of these two species by quantitative mass spectrometry. Overall, 445 proteins were quantified. Massive variations of protein abundances were found, that clearly differentiated the two species. Abundance variations in specific metabolic pathways could be related to phenotypic traits known to discriminate the two species. In addition, proteins encoded by duplicated genes were shown to be differently recruited in each species. Comparing the strain differentiation based on the proteome variability to those based on the phenotypic and genetic variations further revealed that the strains of S. uvarum and some strains of S. cerevisiae displayed similar fermentative performances despite strong proteomic and genomic differences. Altogether, these results indicate that the ability of S. cerevisae and S. uvarum to complete grape must fermentation arose through different evolutionary roads, involving different metabolic pathways and duplicated genes. PMID:23493259
Blein-Nicolas, Mélisande; Albertin, Warren; Valot, Benoît; Marullo, Philippe; Sicard, Delphine; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Bourgais, Aurélie; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Zivy, Michel
Titanium and its alloys have been widely used for dental prosthetic devices because of their superior mechanical properties and biocompatibility. However, the incidence of titanium hypersensitivity or allergy is still unknown and the discussion about its existence is ongoing. Unexplained implant failures have also forced dental clinicians to investigate the possibility of titanium hypersensitivity or allergy. This review focuses on the potential of dental implant-related titanium hypersensitivity or allergic reactions. It includes an examination of the existing scientific literature and current knowledge. Evidence-based data and studies related to titanium hypersensitivity in dental implant patients are also discussed. PMID:24027897
Bilhan, Hakan; Bural, Canan; Geckili, Onur
Although the biochemical targets of most drugs are known, the biological consequences of their actions are typically less well understood. In this study, we have used two whole-genome technologies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to determine the cellular impact of the proteasome inhibitor PS-341. By combining population genomics, the screening of a comprehensive panel of bar-coded mutant strains, and transcript profiling, we have identified the genes and pathways most affected by proteasome inhibition. Many of these function in regulated protein degradation or a subset of mitotic activities. In addition, we identified Rpn4p as the transcription factor most responsible for the cell's ability to compensate for proteasome inhibition. Used together, these complementary technologies provide a general and powerful means to elucidate the cellular ramifications of drug treatment.
Fleming, James A.; Lightcap, Eric S.; Sadis, Seth; Thoroddsen, Vala; Bulawa, Christine E.; Blackman, Ronald K.
We report a 4-year-old girl heterozygous for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) who displayed dopa-responsive motor symptoms and was subsequently diagnosed with sepiapterin reductase deficiency (SPR; OMIM 182125). Her father and paternal uncle had known ALD, and she was found to have elevated plasma very long chain fatty acids and a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. She had language delay, severe hypotonia and abnormal eye movements and responded dramatically to a trial of levodopa (4 mg/kg per day). Two mutations within the gene for sepiapterin reductase were found and cultured skin fibroblasts demonstrated near zero activity of the enzyme. This case illustrates the importance of treatment trials that may give rise to biochemical clues to the underlying diagnosis, and the need to continue to search for diagnoses despite a misleading family history. PMID:23430877
Thibert, Ronald; Hyland, Keith; Chiles, Joe; Steinberg, Steven; Eichler, Florian
Transcriptional and enzymatic analyses of Pyrococcus furiosus previously indicated that three proteins play key roles in the metabolism of elemental sulfur (S0): a membrane-bound oxidoreductase complex (MBX), a cytoplasmic coenzyme A-dependent NADPH sulfur oxidoreductase (NSR), and sulfur-induced protein A (SipA). Deletion strains, referred to as MBX1, NSR1, and SIP1, respectively, have now been constructed by homologous recombination utilizing the uracil auxotrophic COM1 parent strain (?pyrF). The growth of all three mutants on maltose was comparable without S0, but in its presence, the growth of MBX1 was greatly impaired while the growth of NSR1 and SIP1 was largely unaffected. In the presence of S0, MBX1 produced little, if any, sulfide but much more acetate (per unit of protein) than the parent strain, demonstrating that MBX plays a critical role in S0 reduction and energy conservation. In contrast, comparable amounts of sulfide and acetate were produced by NSR1 and the parent strain, indicating that NSR is not essential for energy conservation during S0 reduction. Differences in transcriptional responses to S0 in NSR1 suggest that two sulfide dehydrogenase isoenzymes provide a compensatory NADPH-dependent S0 reduction system. Genes controlled by the S0-responsive regulator SurR were not as highly regulated in MBX1 and NSR1. SIP1 produced the same amount of acetate but more sulfide than the parent strain. That SipA is not essential for growth on S0 indicates that it is not required for detoxification of metal sulfides, as previously suggested. A model is proposed for S0 reduction by P. furiosus with roles for MBX and NSR in bioenergetics and for SipA in iron-sulfur metabolism.
Bridger, Stephanie L.; Clarkson, Sonya M.; Stirrett, Karen; DeBarry, Megan B.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Schut, Gerrit J.; Westpheling, Janet; Scott, Robert A.; Adams, Michael W. W.
After injury to the animal epidermis, a variety of genes are transcriptionally activated in nearby cells to regenerate the missing cells and facilitate barrier repair. The range and types of diffusible wound signals that are produced by damaged epidermis and function to activate repair genes during epidermal regeneration remains a subject of very active study in many animals. In Drosophila embryos, we have discovered that serine protease function is locally activated around wound sites, and is also required for localized activation of epidermal repair genes. The serine protease trypsin is sufficient to induce a striking global epidermal wound response without inflicting cell death or compromising the integrity of the epithelial barrier. We developed a trypsin wounding treatment as an amplification tool to more fully understand the changes in the Drosophila transcriptome that occur after epidermal injury. By comparing our array results with similar results on mammalian skin wounding we can see which evolutionarily conserved pathways are activated after epidermal wounding in very diverse animals. Our innovative serine protease-mediated wounding protocol allowed us to identify 8 additional genes that are activated in epidermal cells in the immediate vicinity of puncture wounds, and the functions of many of these genes suggest novel genetic pathways that may control epidermal wound repair. Additionally, our data augments the evidence that clean puncture wounding can mount a powerful innate immune transcriptional response, with different innate immune genes being activated in an interesting variety of ways. These include puncture-induced activation only in epidermal cells in the immediate vicinity of wounds, or in all epidermal cells, or specifically in the fat body, or in multiple tissues. PMID:23637905
Patterson, Rachel A; Juarez, Michelle T; Hermann, Anita; Sasik, Roman; Hardiman, Gary; McGinnis, William
Riverine ecosystems, highly sensitive to climate change and human activities, are characterized by rapid environmental change to fluctuating water levels and siltation, causing stress on their biological components. We have little understanding of mechanisms by which riverine plant species have developed adaptive strategies to cope with stress in dynamic environments while maintaining growth and development. We report that poplar (Populus spp.) has evolved a systems level 'stress proteome' in the leaf-stem-root apoplast continuum to counter biotic and abiotic factors. To obtain apoplast proteins from P. deltoides, we developed pressure-chamber and water-displacement methods for leaves and stems, respectively. Analyses of 303 proteins and corresponding transcripts coupled with controlled experiments and bioinformatics demonstrate that poplar depends on constitutive and inducible factors to deal with water, pathogen, and oxidative stress. However, each apoplast possessed a unique set of proteins, indicating that response to stress is partly compartmentalized. Apoplast proteins that are involved in glycolysis, fermentation, and catabolism of sucrose and starch appear to enable poplar to grow normally under water stress. Pathogenesis-related proteins mediating water and pathogen stress in apoplast were particularly abundant and effective in suppressing growth of the most prevalent poplar pathogen Melampsora. Unexpectedly, we found diverse peroxidases that appear to be involved in stress-induced cell wall modification in apoplast, particularly during the growing season. Poplar developed a robust antioxidative system to buffer oxidation in stem apoplast. These findings suggest that multistress response in the apoplast constitutes an important adaptive trait for poplar to inhabit dynamic environments and is also a potential mechanism in other riverine plant species.
Pechanova, Olga [Mississippi State University (MSU); Hsu, Chuan-Yu [Mississippi State University (MSU); Adams, Joshua P. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Pechan, Tibor [Mississippi State University (MSU); Vandervelde, Lindsay [Mississippi State University (MSU); Drnevich, Jenny [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Adeli, Ardeshir [USDA-ARS, Mississippi State; Suttle, Jeffrey [USDA-ARS, Fargo, ND; Lawrence, Amanda [Mississippi State University (MSU); Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Seguin, Armand [Canadian Forest Service, Sainte-Foy, Quebec; Yuceer, Cetin [Mississippi State University (MSU)
Many common potato tuber defects are difficult to elucidate because of the degree of genetic complexity involved, making systems biology approaches necessary. Interaction between chlorogenic acid and iron is responsible for the darkening of potato tuber tissues upon heating--termed after-cooking darkening (ACD). To explore mechanisms of darkening severity in tuber tissues, we have employed relative quantitative proteomics to discover differentially expressed proteins involved in ACD. Tuber tissue samples were collected from a family of diploid clones which possess a highly segregated degree of the darkening. Exploiting this segregation, as well as the observation that darkening is more prevalent in the stem end of the tuber than the apical end, three sample groups were formed: (i) stem ends of three high-ACD clones, (ii) stem ends of three low-ACD clones, and (iii) apical ends of three low-ACD clones. Protein samples were digested and differentially labeled using isotopic reductive methylation, allowing for an orthogonal two-way comparison of protein profiles of the sample groups using 2-D-LC-MS/MS. Using a cutoff fold change of 2 between the high- and the low-ACD sample groups, 30 proteins showed a correlation with tissue darkening. Overall, we observed changes in relative protein abundance that showed an enhanced wound-response program in high-ACD tissues. Among these proteins, five proteins were further validated at the transcript level using qRT-PCR. These proteins may be incorporated into design strategies to create potato cultivars with low levels of ACD. PMID:21058337
Murphy, J Patrick; Kong, Fanming; Pinto, Devanand M; Wang-Pruski, Gefu
The immune response is regulated, in part, by effector cells whose activation requires multiple signals. For example, T cells require signals emanating from the T cell antigen receptor and co-stimulatory molecules for full activation. Here, we present evidence indicating that IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in vivo also require cognate signals to activate mast cells. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the conjunctiva are ablated in mice deficient in eotaxin-1, despite normal numbers of tissue mast cells and levels of IgE. To further define the co-stimulatory signals mediated by chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3), an eotaxin-1 receptor, effects of CCR3 blockade were tested with an allergic conjunctivitis model and in ex vivo isolated connective tissue-type mast cells. Our results show that CCR3 blockade significantly suppresses allergen-mediated hypersensitivity reactions as well as IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. We propose that a co-stimulatory axis by CCR3, mainly stimulated by eotaxin-1, is pivotal in mast cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions.
Nakamura, Takao; Ohbayashi, Masaharu; Kuo, Chuan Hui; Komatsu, Naoki; Yakura, Keiko; Tominaga, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Higashi, Hidemitsu; Murata, Meguru; Takeda, Shuzo; Fukushima, Atsuki; Liu, Fu-Tong; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Ono, Santa Jeremy
Despite recent developments, there is a high medical need for new treatment options for chronic inflammatory dermatoses like allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and psoriasis. Particularly, more predictive skin inflammation models are required to facilitate the process of drug discovery. Murine contact hypersensitivity (CHS) models adequately reflect ACD and are also used to characterize therapeutic approaches for psoriasis. Using the hapten 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), we established new subacute and subchronic DNFB-induced CHS models in C57BL/6 mice, which more closely reflect the characteristics of chronic T-cell-dependent inflammatory dermatoses as pronounced keratinocyte proliferation, strong hypervascularization, immune cell infiltration and overexpression of T cell and inflammatory cytokines. For the subacute DNFB model, we demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity of the glucocorticoid, prednisolone, as well as of neutralization of TNF?, IL-12/IL-23 or IL-18. In the subchronic DNFB-induced CHS model, deficiency for MyD88 and IL-12/IL-35 p35 chain but not IL-12/IL-23 p40 chain led to decreased skin inflammation. Furthermore, as exemplified by the dose-dependently effective therapeutic prednisolone treatment, the subchronic model allows the continuous therapy of a pre-established stable contact dermatitis. Altogether, prolonged DNFB-induced mouse CHS models closely reflect ACD sensitive to glucocorticoids as standard therapy, reveal a more chronic skin inflammation and are responsive to cytokine antagonization. PMID:22151387
Röse, Lars; Schneider, Claudia; Stock, Christine; Zollner, Thomas M; Döcke, Wolf-Dietrich
Background & Aims Chronic stress exacerbates or causes relapse of symptoms such as abdominal pain and cramping in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We investigated whether chronic stress increases plasma norepinephrine and sensitizes colon-specific dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by increasing the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the colon wall. Methods Heterotypic chronic stress (HeCS) was induced in male Wistar rats and neurologic and molecular responses were analyzed. Tissues were analyzed for NGF expression. Results HeCS significantly increased the visceromoter response to colorectal distension; expression of NGF increased in colonic muscularis externa and mucosa/submucosa. Rheobase decreased, resting membrane potential was depolarized, and electrogenesis of action potentials increased in colon-specific thoracolumbar DRG neurons. Luminal administration of resiniferatoxin in distal colon, systemic administration of anti-NGF antibody, or inhibition of the NGF receptor TrkA by k252A or antisense oligonucleotides in thoracolumbar DRG blocked the chronic stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension. Blockade of ?1/?2- and ?1/?2-adrenergic receptors prevented the stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity and increased expression of NGF in the colon wall. HeCS did not induce any inflammatory response in the colon wall. Conclusion The peripheral stress mediator norepinephrine induces visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension in response to HeCS by increasing the expression of NGF in the colon wall, which sensitizes primary afferents in the absence of an inflammatory response.
Winston, John H.; Xu, Guang-Yin; Sarna, Sushil K.
Plants have evolved a plethora of responses to cope with phosphate (Pi) deficiency, including the transcriptional activation of a large set of genes. Among Pi-responsive genes, the expression of the Arabidopsis phospholipase DZ2 (PLDZ2) is activated to participate in the degradation of phospholipids in roots in order to release Pi to support other cellular activities. A deletion analysis was performed to identify the regions determining the strength, tissue-specific expression, and Pi responsiveness of this regulatory region. This study also reports the identification and characterization of a transcriptional enhancer element that is present in the PLDZ2 promoter and able to confer Pi responsiveness to a minimal, inactive 35S promoter. This enhancer also shares the cytokinin and sucrose responsive properties observed for the intact PLDZ2 promoter. The EZ2 element contains two P1BS motifs, each of which is the DNA binding site of transcription factor PHR1. Mutation analysis showed that the P1BS motifs present in EZ2 are necessary but not sufficient for the enhancer function, revealing the importance of adjacent sequences. The structural organization of EZ2 is conserved in the orthologous genes of at least eight families of rosids, suggesting that architectural features such as the distance between the two P1BS motifs are also important for the regulatory properties of this enhancer element.
Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Cruz-Ramirez, Alfredo; Acevedo-Hernandez, Gustavo J.; Perez-Torres, Claudia-Anahi; Caballero-Perez, Juan; Herrera-Estrella, Luis
Glycerol kinase plays a critical role in metabolism by converting glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate in an ATP dependent reaction. In humans, glycerol kinase deficiency results in a wide range of phenotypic variability; patients can have severe metabolic and CNS abnormalities, while others possess hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria with no other apparent phenotype. In an effort to help understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variation, we have created a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency by RNAi targeting of dGyk (CG18374) and dGK (CG7995). As expected, RNAi flies have reduced glycerol kinase RNA expression, reduced phosphorylation activity and elevated glycerol levels. Further investigation revealed these flies to be hypersensitive to fly food supplemented with glycerol. Due to the hygroscopic nature of glycerol, we predict glycerol hypersensitivity is a result of greater susceptibility to desiccation, suggesting glycerol kinase to play an important role in desiccation resistance in insects. To evaluate a role for genetic modifier loci in determining severity of the glycerol hypersensitivity observed in knockdown flies, we performed a preliminary screen of lethal transposon insertion mutant flies using a glycerol hypersensitive survivorship assay. We demonstrate that this type of screen can identify both enhancer and suppressor genetic loci of glycerol hypersensitivity. Furthermore, we found that the glycerol hypersensitivity phenotype can be enhanced or suppressed by null mutations in eye pigmentation genes. Taken together, our data suggest proteins encoded by eye pigmentation genes play an important role in desiccation resistance and that eye pigmentation genes are strong modifiers of the glycerol hypersensitive phenotype identified in our Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency.
Wightman, Patrick J.; Jackson, George R.; Dipple, Katrina M.
Background Methamphetamine (METH), an abused illicit drug, disrupts many cellular processes, including energy metabolism, spermatogenesis, and maintenance of oxidative status. However, many components of the molecular underpinnings of METH toxicity have yet to be established. Network analyses of integrated proteomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic data are particularly well suited for identifying cellular responses to toxins, such as METH, which might otherwise be obscured by the numerous and dynamic changes that are induced. Methodology/Results We used network analyses of proteomic and transcriptomic data to evaluate pathways in Drosophila melanogaster that are affected by acute METH toxicity. METH exposure caused changes in the expression of genes involved with energy metabolism, suggesting a Warburg-like effect (aerobic glycolysis), which is normally associated with cancerous cells. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that carbohydrate metabolism plays an important role in METH toxicity. In agreement with our hypothesis, we observed that increased dietary sugars partially alleviated the toxic effects of METH. Our systems analysis also showed that METH impacted genes and proteins known to be associated with muscular homeostasis/contraction, maintenance of oxidative status, oxidative phosphorylation, spermatogenesis, iron and calcium homeostasis. Our results also provide numerous candidate genes for the METH-induced dysfunction of spermatogenesis, which have not been previously characterized at the molecular level. Conclusion Our results support our overall hypothesis that METH causes a toxic syndrome that is characterized by the altered carbohydrate metabolism, dysregulation of calcium and iron homeostasis, increased oxidative stress, and disruption of mitochondrial functions.
Sun, Lijie; Li, Hong-Mei; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Walters, Kent R.; Margam, Venu M.; Jannasch, Amber; Diaz, Naomi; Riley, Catherine P.; Sun, Weilin; Li, Yueh-Feng; Muir, William M.; Xie, Jun; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Jake Y.; Barker, Eric L.; Adamec, Jiri; Pittendrigh, Barry R.
Reciprocating exchange with other humans requires individuals to infer the intentions of their partners. Despite the importance of this ability in healthy cognition and its impact in disease, the dimensions employed and computations involved in such inferences are not clear. We used a computational theory-of-mind model to classify styles of interaction in 195 pairs of subjects playing a multi-round economic exchange game. This classification produces an estimate of a subject's depth-of-thought in the game (low, medium, high), a parameter that governs the richness of the models they build of their partner. Subjects in each category showed distinct neural correlates of learning signals associated with different depths-of-thought. The model also detected differences in depth-of-thought between two groups of healthy subjects: one playing patients with psychiatric disease and the other playing healthy controls. The neural response categories identified by this computational characterization of theory-of-mind may yield objective biomarkers useful in the identification and characterization of pathologies that perturb the capacity to model and interact with other humans.
Xiang, Ting; Ray, Debajyoti; Lohrenz, Terry; Dayan, Peter; Montague, P. Read
We study the relaxation response of a social system after endogenous and exogenous bursts of activity using the time series of daily views for nearly 5 million videos on YouTube. We find that most activity can be described accurately as a Poisson process. However, we also find hundreds of thousands of examples in which a burst of activity is followed by an ubiquitous power-law relaxation governing the timing of views. We find that these relaxation exponents cluster into three distinct classes and allow for the classification of collective human dynamics. This is consistent with an epidemic model on a social network containing two ingredients: a power-law distribution of waiting times between cause and action and an epidemic cascade of actions becoming the cause of future actions. This model is a conceptual extension of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to social systems [Ruelle, D (2004) Phys Today 57:48–53] and [Roehner BM, et al., (2004) Int J Mod Phys C 15:809–834], and provides a unique framework for the investigation of timing in complex systems.
Crane, Riley; Sornette, Didier
The innate immune system of Drosophila is activated by ingestion of microorganisms. D. melanogaster breeds on fruits fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas D. virilis breeds on slime flux and decaying bark of tree housing a variety of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. In this study, it is shown that D. virilis has a higher resistance to oral infection of a species of filamentous fungi belonging to the genus Penicillium compared to D. melanogaster. In response to the fungal infection, a transcriptome profile of immune-related genes was considerably different between D. melanogaster and D. virilis: the genes encoding antifungal peptides, Drosomycin and Metchnikowin, were highly expressed in D. melanogaster whereas, the genes encoding Diptericin and Defensin were highly expressed in D. virilis. On the other hand, the immune-induced molecule (IM) genes showed contrary expression patterns between the two species: they were induced by the fungal infection in D. melanogaster but tended to be suppressed in D. virilis. Our transcriptome analysis also showed newly predicted immune-related genes in D. virilis. These results suggest that the innate immune system has been extensively differentiated during the evolution of these Drosophila species.
This research used the cDNA-AFLP technique to identify differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in the apical tips of chrysanthemum induced by different photoperiods. Of the 3,152 TDFs screened by 64 primer recombinations, 861 were found to be differentially expressed, with 597 up-regulated and 264 down-regulated. We successfully cloned, sequenced, and analyzed the homologies of 57 TDFs. We found homologies for 37 of them in the NCBI: 31 displayed homology to genes with known functions, 3 to genes with unknown function, and 3 showed no matches. Functional analysis indicated that 34 TDFs participated in seven processes: transcription regulation, signal transduction, substance and energy metabolism, differentiation and development, protein degradation and synthesis, stress responses, and unclassified protein. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis with selected transcripts of four genes related to floral development indicated that they all were expressed or up-regulated under short-day conditions. This was supported by analysis of cDNA-AFLP. PMID:23053875
Ren, Hongyan; Zhu, Farong; Zheng, Chengshu; Sun, Xia; Wang, Wenli; Shu, Huairui
Cytohesins are a family of highly homologous guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that act on ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs). The small ARF-GEFs are involved in integrin signaling, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and vesicle transport. Here, we selected and applied a specific inhibitor for ARF nucleotide-binding site opener (ARNO)/cytohesin-2, an RNA aptamer that clearly discriminates between cytohesin-1 and cytohesin-2. This reagent bound to an N-terminal segment of cytohesin-2 and did not inhibit ARF-GEF function in vitro. When transfected into HeLa cells, it persisted for at least 6 h without requiring stabilization. Its effect in vivo was to down-regulate gene expression mediated through the serum-response element and knockdown mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, indicating that cytohesin-2 acts by means of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. We conclude that the N-terminal coiled-coil and parts of the Sec7 domain of cytohesin-2 are required for serum-mediated transcriptional activation in nonimmune cells, whereas cytohesin-1 is not. Our results indicate that intramer technology can be used not only for assigning novel biological functions to proteins or protein domains but also to prove nonredundancy of highly homologous proteins. PMID:15277685
Theis, Mirko G; Knorre, Alexander; Kellersch, Bettina; Moelleken, Jörg; Wieland, Felix; Kolanus, Waldemar; Famulok, Michael
Avian schistosomes are the primary causative agent of cercarial dermatitis in humans, but despite its worldwide occurrence, little is known of the immune mechanism of this disease. Using a murine model, hosts were exposed to primary (1x) and multiple (4x) infections of Trichobilharzia regenti via the pinna. Penetration of larvae into the skin evoked immediate edema, thickening of the exposure site, and an influx of leukocytes, including neutrophils, macrophages, CD4+ lymphocytes, and mast cells. A large proportion of the latter were in the process of degranulating. After 1x infection, inflammation was accompanied by the release of IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-12p40. In contrast, in 4x reinfected animals the production of histamine, IL-4, and IL-10 was dramatically elevated within 1 h of infection. Analysis of Ag-stimulated lymphocytes from the skin-draining lymph nodes revealed that cells from 1x infected mice produced a mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine response, including abundant IFN-gamma, whereas cells from 4x reinfected mice were Th2 polarized, dominated by IL-4 and IL-5. Serum Abs confirmed this polarization, with elevated levels of IgG1 and IgE after multiple infections. Infection with radiolabeled cercariae revealed that almost 90% of larvae remained in the skin, and the majority died within 8 days after infection, although parasites were cleared more rapidly in 4x reinfected mice. Our results are the first demonstration that cercarial dermatitis, caused by bird schistosomes, is characterized by an early type I hypersensitivity reaction and a late phase of cutaneous inflammation, both associated with a polarized Th2-type acquired immune response. PMID:15004181
Kourilová, Pavlína; Hogg, Karen G; Kolárová, Libuse; Mountford, Adrian P
Dental hypersensitivity has been studied for several years and it is reported as a strikingly painful condition originating from the exposition of dentinal tubuli . The exposed area is subjected to several kinds of stimuli, resulting in a rapid sharp acute pain. LLLT has been shown to have antiinflammatory, analgesic and cellular effects in both hyperemia and inflammation of the dental pulp. Our previous histological study showed that irradiated animals presented an increased production of dentine and shutting of dentinal tubuli. On the other hand, non-irradiated subjects still showed signals of intense inflammatory reaction and even necrosis at the same experimental times. Irradiated teeth did not show cell degeneration. The LLLT was shown to be efficient in the stimulation of odontoblast cells, producing reparative dentin and closing dentin tubuli. Our clinical studies with 660nm, 790nm and 830nm diode laser, and the total dose per tooth of 4J/cm was shown effective in treating dentinal hypersensitivity as it quickly reduces pain and maintains a prolonged painless status in 91.27 % to 97% of the cases. In a recent study our team observed that significant levels of dentinal desensitization were only found in patients belonging to the 25-35 age group. In conclusion, the results demonstrated indeed that LLLT, when based on the use of correct irradiations parameters is effective in treating hypersensitivity, but the age of patients is one of the factors that may alter the success of treatment due to dentinal sclerosis, which makes the penetration of light more difficult.
Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima; Ladalardo, Thereza C.; Pinheiro, Antonio; Pecora, Jesus D.
Sulfur is an essential macroelement in plant and animal nutrition. Plants assimilate inorganic sulfate into two sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Low supply of sulfate leads to decreased sulfur pools within plant tissues. As sulfur-related metabolites represent an integral part of plant metabolism with multiple interactions, sulfur deficiency stress induces a number of adaptive responses, which must be coordinated. To reveal the coordinating network of adaptations to sulfur deficiency, metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis has been undertaken. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques revealed the response patterns of 6,023 peaks of nonredundant ion traces and relative concentration levels of 134 nonredundant compounds of known chemical structure. Here, we provide a catalogue of the detected metabolic changes and reconstruct the coordinating network of their mutual influences. The observed decrease in biomass, as well as in levels of proteins, chlorophylls, and total RNA, gives evidence for a general reduction of metabolic activity under conditions of depleted sulfur supply. This is achieved by a systemic adjustment of metabolism involving the major metabolic pathways. Sulfur/carbon/nitrogen are partitioned by accumulation of metabolites along the pathway O-acetylserine to serine to glycine, and are further channeled together with the nitrogen-rich compound glutamine into allantoin. Mutual influences between sulfur assimilation, nitrogen imbalance, lipid breakdown, purine metabolism, and enhanced photorespiration associated with sulfur-deficiency stress are revealed in this study. These responses may be assembled into a global scheme of metabolic regulation induced by sulfur nutritional stress, which optimizes resources for seed production.
Nikiforova, Victoria J.; Kopka, Joachim; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Fiehn, Oliver; Hopkins, Laura; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Hesse, Holger; Hoefgen, Rainer
Anticonvulsant Hypersensitivity Syndrome (AHS) is a rare complication of common drugs used today. It is unusual in that it occurs later than most other drug reactions, about two to six weeks after initiation of the offending agent. It also has a hereditary background unlike most other drug reactions. This reaction is caused by the aromatic amines and causes hepatitis, skin rash, fever, and other systemic organ involvement can occur. The reaction is rare but often fatal, thus the observer should be acutely aware of this in the months following initiation of the agents. PMID:23617037
Keel, Bradley R; Payne, Catherine L
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) synthesizes 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a major methyl donor for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in marked hyperhomocysteinemia and homocystinuria. Patients display developmental delay and a variety of neurological and vascular symptoms. Cloning of the human cDNA and gene has enabled the identification of 29 rare mutations in homocystinuric patients and two common variants [677C>T (A222V) and 1298A>C (E429A)] with mild enzymatic deficiency. Homozygosity for 677C>T or combined heterozygosity for both polymorphisms is associated with mild hyperhomocysteinemia. In this communication, we describe four novel mutations in patients with homocystinuria: two missense mutations (471C>G, I153M; 1025T>C, M338T), a nonsense mutation (1274G>A, W421X), and a 2-bp deletion (1553delAG). We expressed the 1025T>C mutation as well as two previously reported amino acid substitutions [983A>G (N324S) and 1027T>G (W339G)] and observed decreased enzyme activity at 10%, 36%, and 21% of control levels, respectively, with little or no effect on affinity for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. One of these mutations, 983A>G (N324S), showed flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) responsiveness in vitro. Expression of these mutations in cis with the 677C>T polymorphism, as observed in the patients, resulted in an additional 50% decrease in enzyme activity. This report brings the total to 33 severe mutations identified in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. PMID:12673793
Sibani, Sahar; Leclerc, Daniel; Weisberg, Ilan S; O'Ferrall, Erin; Watkins, David; Artigas, Carmen; Rosenblatt, David S; Rozen, Rima
Background Prion infection results in progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system invariably resulting in death. The pathological effects of prion diseases in the brain are morphologically well defined, such as gliosis, vacuolation, and the accumulation of disease-specific protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc). However, the underlying molecular events that lead to the death of neurons are poorly characterised. Results In this study cDNA microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes in the brains of two different strains of mice infected with three strains of mouse-adapted scrapie. Extensive data was collected and analyzed, from which we identified a core group of 349 prion-related genes (PRGs) that consistently showed altered expression in mouse models. Gene ontology analysis assigned many of the up-regulated genes to functional groups associated with one of the primary neuropathological features of prion diseases, astrocytosis and gliosis; protein synthesis, inflammation, cell proliferation and lipid metabolism. Using a computational tool, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), we were able to build networks of interacting genes from the PRG list. The regulatory cytokine TGFB1, involved in modulating the inflammatory response, was identified as the outstanding interaction partner for many of the PRGs. The majority of genes expressed in neurons were down-regulated; a number of these were involved in regulatory pathways including synapse function, calcium signalling, long-term potentiation and ERK/MAPK signalling. Two down-regulated genes coding for the transcription regulators, EGR1 and CREB1, were also identified as central to interacting networks of genes; these factors are often used as markers of neuronal activity and their deregulation could be key to loss of neuronal function. Conclusion These data provides a comprehensive list of genes that are consistently differentially expressed in multiple scrapie infected mouse models. Building networks of interactions between these genes provides a means to understand the complex interplay in the brain during neurodegeneration. Resolving the key regulatory and signaling events that underlie prion pathogenesis will provide targets for the design of novel therapies and the elucidation of biomarkers.
Sorensen, Garrett; Medina, Sarah; Parchaliuk, Debra; Phillipson, Clark; Robertson, Catherine; Booth, Stephanie A
Correct interpretation of zircon ages from high-grade metamorphic terrains poses a major challenge because of the differential response of the U-Pb system to metamorphism, and many aspects like pressure-temperature conditions, metamorphic mineral transformations and textural properties of the zircon crystals have to be explored. A large (c. 450 km2) coherent migmatite complex was recently discovered in the Bohemian Massif, Central European Variscides. Rocks from this complex are characterized by granulite- and amphibolite-facies mineral assemblages and, based on compositional and isotopic trends, are identified as the remnants of a magma body derived from mixing between tonalite and supracrustal rocks. Zircon crystals from the migmatites are exclusively large (200-400 ?m) and yield 207Pb/206Pb evaporation ages between 342-328 Ma and single-grain zircon fractions analysed by U-Pb ID-TIMS method plot along the concordia curve between 342 and 325 Ma. High-resolution U-Pb SHRIMP analyses substantiate the existence of a resolvable age variability and yield older 206Pb/238U ages (342-330 Ma, weighted mean age = 333.6 ± 3.1 Ma) for inner zone domains without relict cores and younger 206Pb/238U ages (333-320 Ma, weighted mean age = 326.0 ± 2.8 Ma) for rim domains. Pre-metamorphic cores were identified only in one sample (206Pb/238U ages at 375.0 ± 3.9, 420.3 ± 4.4 and 426.2 ± 4.4 Ma). Most zircon ages bracket the time span between granulite-facies metamorphism in the Bohemian Massif (~345 Ma) and the late-Variscan anatectic overprint (Bavarian phase, ~325 Ma). It is argued that pre-existing zircon was variously affected by these metamorphic events and that primary magmatic growth zones were replaced by secondary textures as a result of diffusion reaction processes and replacement of zircon by dissolution and recrystallization followed by new zircon rim growth. Collectively, the results show that the zircons equilibrated during high-grade metamorphism and record partial loss of radiogenic Pb during post-peak granulite events and new growth under subsequent anatectic conditions.
Siebel, W.; Shang, C. K.; Thern, E.; Danišík, M.; Rohrmüller, J.
White lupin (Lupinus albus) adapts to phosphorus deficiency (?P) by the development of short, densely clustered lateral roots called proteoid (or cluster) roots. In an effort to better understand the molecular events mediating these adaptive responses, we have isolated and sequenced 2,102 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from cDNA libraries prepared with RNA isolated at different stages of proteoid root development. Determination of overlapping regions revealed 322 contigs (redundant copy transcripts) and 1,126 singletons (single-copy transcripts) that compile to a total of 1,448 unique genes (unigenes). Nylon filter arrays with these 2,102 ESTs from proteoid roots were performed to evaluate global aspects of gene expression in response to ?P stress. ESTs differentially expressed in P-deficient proteoid roots compared with +P and ?P normal roots include genes involved in carbon metabolism, secondary metabolism, P scavenging and remobilization, plant hormone metabolism, and signal transduction.
Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Zinn, Kelly E.; Ramirez-Yanez, Mario; Li, Aiguo; Vance, Carroll P.; Allan, Deborah L.
Compound-specific protein expression signatures (PESs) can be revealed by proteomic techniques. The SELDI-TOF MS approach is advantageous due to its simplicity and high-throughput capacity, however, there are concerns regarding the reproducibility of this method. The aim of this study was to define an estrogen-responsive PES in plasma of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) using the SELDI-TOF MS technique. Protein expression analysis of male cod exposed to 17?-estradiol (E?) showed that 27 plasma peaks were differentially expressed following exposure. The reproducibility of this result was evaluated by reanalyzing the samples six months later, and a significant change in expression was confirmed for 13 of the 27 peaks detected in the first analysis. The performance of the reproducible E?-responsive PES, constituting these 13 peaks, was then tested on samples from juvenile cod exposed to 4-nonylphenol, North Sea oil, or North Sea oil spiked with alkylphenols. Principal component analysis revealed that nonylphenol-exposed cod could be separated from unexposed cod based on the E?-responsive PES, indicating that the PES can be used to assess estrogenic exposure of both juvenile and adult specimens of cod. A targeted antibody-assisted SELDI-TOF MS approach was carried out in an attempt to identify the E?-responsive peaks. Results indicated that 2 peaks were fragments of the well-known biomarkers VTG and/or ZRP. In this study, the SELDI-TOF MS technology has shown its potential for defining compound-specific PESs in fish. Nevertheless, thorough validation of reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity of a PES is required before it can be applied in environmental monitoring. PMID:21880369
Mćland Nilsen, Mari; Meier, Sonnich; Larsen, Bodil K; Ketil Andersen, Odd; Hjelle, Anne
The presentation of antigen to specific T-cell populations is a crucial event during the elicitation phase of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Significant changes in CD4+ T-cell and ?? T-cell populations occur in the skin of sheep 48h after re-exposure to dinitrochlorobenzene but the expression of antigen presentation molecules such as MHC-II and CD1 at this stage of the hypersensitivity response has
Einar Jörundsson; Thor Landsverk
Background: Abdominal complaints related to food intake might be due to hypersensitivity. A firm diagnosis of food allergy is often difficult to establish, particularly in the absence of systemic food-specific IgE. Using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we were able to visualise the intestinal response in one such case. Methods: A 24-year-old female presented with self-reported food hypersensitivity, particularly
Gülen Arslan; Kristine Lillestřl; Arna Mulahasanovic; Erik Florvaag; Arnold Berstad
A Capsicum \\u000a annuum hypersensitive induced reaction protein1 (CaHIR1) was recently proposed as a positive regulator of hypersensitive cell death\\u000a in plants. Overexpression of CaHIR1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred enhanced resistance against the hemi-biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and the biotrophic Hyaloperonospora parasitica. Infection by avirulent Pseudomonas strains carrying avrRpm1 or avrRpt2 caused enhanced resistance responses in transgenic plants,
Ho Won Jung; Chae Woo Lim; Sung Chul Lee; Hyong Woo Choi; Cheol Ho Hwang; Byung Kook Hwang
Hypersensitivity reactions to oxaliplatin have been increasing since its introduction at the end of the 1990s, but allergy tests with antineoplastic drugs are rarely used to aid diagnosis. We describe 5 cases in which hypersensitivity reactions to oxaliplatin after several courses of chemotherapy were managed by allergy testing and desensitization. Skin prick tests were negative at 1 mg\\/mL in all
T Herrero; P Tornero; S Infante; V Fuentes; MN Sánchez; M De Barrio; ML Baeza
Syncope recurrence in pacemaker-implanted subjects for the cardio-inhibitory response to sinus carotid massage (SCM) was investigated. The study-hypothesis was that recurrences had significant vasodepressor responses that could justify the loss of consciousness. Forty-six patients were enrolled (16 patients and 30 controls), followed and revaluated after 5–7 years. At the end of follow-up, significant differences were found between patients and controls in mean SCM SAP (87 versus 106?mmHg) and reduction in mean SCM SAP (59 versus 38?mmHg); in the number of symptomatic subjects soon after SCM (5 versus 1); and in the number of subjects suffering from orthostatic hypotension. A subgroup of 13 patients showed significantly different hypotensive responses to SCM compared with the values observed at study recruitment. The data showed that some subjects with a defined hemodynamic pattern in response to SCM may change their characteristics and have spontaneous and/or provocative symptoms. These data explain the syncopal relapses, and suggest the presence of autonomic dysregulation in individuals with carotid sinus hypersensitivity.
Lagi, Alfonso; Cerisano, Sergio; Cencetti, Simone
Background The JAK2V617F mutation has been associated with constitutive and enhanced activation of neutrophils, while no information is available concerning other leukocyte subtypes. Design and Methods We evaluated correlations between JAK2V617F mutation and the count of circulating basophils, the number of activated CD63+ basophils, their response in vitro to agonists as well as the effects of a JAK2 inhibitor. Results We found that basophil count was increased in patients with JAK2V617F -positive myeloproliferative neoplasms, particularly in those with polycythemia vera, and was correlated with the V617F burden. The burden of V617F allele was similar in neutrophils and basophils from patients with polycythemia vera, while total JAK2 mRNA content was remarkably greater in the basophils; however, the content of JAK2 protein in basophils was not increased. The number of CD63+ basophils was higher in patients with polycythemia vera than in healthy subjects or patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis and was correlated with the V617F burden. Ultrastructurally, basophils from patients with polycythemia vera contained an increased number of granules, most of which were empty suggesting cell degranulation in vivo. Ex vivo experiments revealed that basophils from patients with polycythemia vera were hypersensitive to the priming effect of interleukin-3 and to f-MLP-induced activation; pre-treatment with a JAK2 inhibitor reduced polycythemia vera basophil activation. Finally, we found that the number of circulating CD63+ basophils was significantly greater in patients suffering from aquagenic pruritus, who also showed a higher V617F allele burden. Conclusions These data indicate that the number of constitutively activated and hypersensitive circulating basophils is increased in polycythemia vera, underscoring a role of JAK2V617F in these cells’ abnormal function and, putatively, in the pathogenesis of pruritus.
Pieri, Lisa; Bogani, Costanza; Guglielmelli, Paola; Zingariello, Maria; Rana, Rosa Alba; Bartalucci, Niccolo; Bosi, Alberto; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.
A murine model of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is characterized with respect to liposome accumulation at a site of inflammation. Mice were sensitized by painting the abdominal region with a solution of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and inflammation was induced 5 days later by challenging the ear with a dilute solution of DNFB. The inflammatory response was readily monitored by measuring ear thickness
Sandra K. Klimuk; Sean C. Semple; Peter Scherrer; Michael J. Hope
Genetic restriction on the expression of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to Salmonella typhimurium in mice transferred passively with immune spleen cells was studied. After the intravenous transfer of immune C3H\\/HeJ (H-2Ik) cells into A.TL (H-2Ik) or A.TH (H-2P) mice, footpad DTH responses could be evoked in the A.TL recipients, but not in the A.TH mice. When the immune cells of BALB\\/c
Norio Cho; Tatsuo Saito-Taki; Masayasu Nakano
Voltage-sensitive dye imaging was used to quantify in vivo, network level spatiotemporal cortical activation in response to electrical microstimulation of the thalamus in the rat vibrissa pathway. Thalamic microstimulation evoked a distinctly different cortical response than natural sensory stimulation, with response to microstimulation spreading over a larger area of cortex and being topographically misaligned with the cortical column to which the stimulated thalamic region projects. Electrical stimulation with cathode-leading asymmetric waveforms reduced this topographic misalignment while simultaneously increasing the spatial specificity of the cortical activation. Systematically increasing the asymmetry of the microstimulation pulses revealed a continuum between symmetric and asymmetric stimulation that gradually reduced the topographic bias. These data strongly support the hypothesis that manipulation of the electrical stimulation waveform can be used to selectively activate specific neural elements. Specifically, our results are consistent with the prediction that cathode-leading asymmetric waveforms preferentially stimulate cell bodies over axons, while symmetric waveforms preferentially activate axons over cell bodies. The findings here provide some initial steps toward the design and optimization of microstimulation of neural circuitry, and open the door to more sophisticated engineering tools, such as nonlinear system identification techniques, to develop technologies for more effective control of activity in the nervous system.
Wang, Qi; Millard, Daniel C.; Zheng, He J. V.; Stanley, Garrett B.
Chronic exposure to some well-absorbed but slowly eliminated xenobiotics can lead to their bioaccumulation in living organisms. Here, we studied the bioaccumulation and distribution of clofazimine, a riminophenazine antibiotic used to treat mycobacterial infection. Using mice as a model organism, we performed a multiscale, quantitative analysis to reveal the sites of clofazimine bioaccumulation during chronic, long-term exposure. Remarkably, between 3 and 8 weeks of dietary administration, clofazimine massively redistributed from adipose tissue to liver and spleen. During this time, clofazimine concentration in fat and serum significantly decreased, while the mass of clofazimine in spleen and liver increased by >10-fold. These changes were paralleled by the accumulation of clofazimine in the resident macrophages of the lymphatic organs, with as much as 90% of the clofazimine mass in spleen sequestered in intracellular crystal-like drug inclusions (CLDIs). The amount of clofazimine associated with CLDIs of liver and spleen macrophages disproportionately increased and ultimately accounted for a major fraction of the total clofazimine in the host. After treatment was discontinued, clofazimine was retained in spleen while its concentrations decreased in blood and other organs. Immunologically, clofazimine bioaccumulation induced a local, monocyte-specific upregulation of various chemokines and receptors. However, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was also upregulated, and the acute-phase response pathways and oxidant capacity decreased or remained unchanged, marking a concomitant activation of an anti-inflammatory response. These experiments indicate an inducible, immune system-dependent, xenobiotic sequestration response affecting the atypical pharmacokinetics of a small molecule chemotherapeutic agent.
Baik, Jason; Stringer, Kathleen A.; Mane, Gerta
The Escherichia coli chemotaxis-signaling pathway computes time derivatives of chemoeffector concentrations. This network features modules for signal reception/amplification and robust adaptation, with sensing of chemoeffector gradients determined by the way in which these modules are coupled in vivo. We characterized these modules and their coupling by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer to measure intracellular responses to time-varying stimuli. Receptor sensitivity was characterized by step stimuli, the gradient sensitivity by exponential ramp stimuli, and the frequency response by exponential sine-wave stimuli. Analysis of these data revealed the structure of the feedback transfer function linking the amplification and adaptation modules. Feedback near steady state was found to be weak, consistent with strong fluctuations and slow recovery from small perturbations. Gradient sensitivity and frequency response both depended strongly on temperature. We found that time derivatives can be computed by the chemotaxis system for input frequencies below 0.006 Hz at 22°C and below 0.018 Hz at 32°C. Our results show how dynamic input–output measurements, time honored in physiology, can serve as powerful tools in deciphering cell-signaling mechanisms.
Shimizu, Thomas S; Tu, Yuhai; Berg, Howard C
Rod/cone photoreceptors of the outer retina and the melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) of the inner retina mediate non-image forming visual responses including entrainment of the circadian clock to the ambient light, the pupillary light reflex (PLR), and light modulation of activity. Targeted deletion of the melanopsin gene attenuates these adaptive responses with no apparent change in the development and morphology of the mRGCs. Comprehensive identification of mRGCs and knowledge of their specific roles in image-forming and non-image forming photoresponses are currently lacking. We used a Cre-dependent GFP expression strategy in mice to genetically label the mRGCs. This revealed that only a subset of mRGCs express enough immunocytochemically detectable levels of melanopsin. We also used a Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor (iDTR) expression approach to express the DTR in mRGCs. mRGCs develop normally, but can be acutely ablated upon diphtheria toxin administration. The mRGC-ablated mice exhibited normal outer retinal function. However, they completely lacked non-image forming visual responses such as circadian photoentrainment, light modulation of activity, and PLR. These results point to the mRGCs as the site of functional integration of the rod/cone and melanopsin phototransduction pathways and as the primary anatomical site for the divergence of image-forming and non-image forming photoresponses in mammals.
Hatori, Megumi; Le, Hiep; Vollmers, Christopher; Keding, Sheena Racheal; Tanaka, Nobushige; Schmedt, Christian; Jegla, Timothy; Panda, Satchidananda
The possible immunologic reactivity of silicone gel remains speculative and controversial. In this laboratory, a quantitative lymphocyte localization assay has been developed and well studied using pure lymphocytes collected by the technique of lymph vessel cannulation in sheep. The kinetics of antigen-specific immune responses (e.g., tuberculin reaction) in this model are well described and accepted. Using the known parameters regarding the response to purified protein derivative and the classic adjuvant Freund's Complete Adjuvant, this study was designed to identify the possible antigen-specific immunologic response, in the form of delayed-type hypersensitivity, after repeated exposure to silicone gel. Pure lymphocytes were collected by cannulating the efferent vessel of a subcutaneous lymph node in four groups of primed sheep which, 30 days previously, had received intradermal injections of 0.9% saline (negative controls; n = 6), Freund's Complete Adjuvant only (positive controls; n = 6), silicone gel (n = 7), or Freund's Complete Adjuvant homogenized with silicone gel (n = 7) in an attempt to induce sensitization. Multiple (1040) intradermal skin tests were performed using silicone gel, purified protein derivative, and 0.9% saline. After the skin lesions had developed for 48 hours, 5 x 10(8) lymphocytes were labeled in vitro with indium-111, returned intravenously, and allowed to circulate for 3 hours. Sheep were euthanized, the skin lesions were removed, and the radioactivity was counted in a gamma spectrometer. The radioactivity in each skin lesion is considered a measure of lymphocyte accumulation. The occurrence of augmented accumulation after reexposure to an antigen is a hallmark of delayed-type hypersensitivity. The purified protein derivative and saline lesions functioned as positive and negative controls, with counts per minute (cpm +/- standard error) of 2404 +/- 478 (Freund's Complete Adjuvant group) and 149 +/- 21 (saline group), respectively. Significantly greater (p = 0.0021) radioactivity was found in the silicone gel sites (310 +/- 35) in the silicone gel-primed group and the Freund's Complete Adjuvant plus silicone gel group (453 +/- 44; p = 0.0004) than in normal skin in each group. These data suggest that it may be possible to induce an antigen-specific lymphocyte-mediated response to silicone gel. PMID:7624410
Narini, P P; Semple, J L; Hay, J B
Type I hypersensitivity has been described as a cause of allergic reactivity to inhalants, injectables, endoparasites, and ectoparasites in food animal species. In addition, IgE is credited with showing some host-sparing effect when produced in response to certain gastrointestinal and other parasites. Recently, the sophistication of diagnostic procedures has increased with the elucidation of epsilon heavy chain sequences, expressed protein, development of chimeric IgE antibodies, and production of species-specific anti-IgE reagents. Application of ELISA and Western blotting has replaced the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test for demonstration of antigen-specific IgE in serum. Regulation of the IgE response is complex, and its dependence on induction of T helper cell type 2 cytokines is now established. The next frontier in IgE research, as for many inherited diseases, lies in understanding the genetic make-up of the animal and which genes are important in controlling the IgE response. PMID:11692511
Gershwin, L J
Cutaneous hypersensitivity responses to brucella antigens of different composition were studied in guinea pigs sensitized by infection with smooth brucella or immunization with killed rough brucella in adjuvant. These animals had circulating antibodies to smooth lipopolysaccharide or protein antigens, respectively. Intradermal skin tests, active cutaneous anaphylaxis, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, and immunodiffusion tests were performed. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions uncomplicated by accompanying antibody-mediated reactions were seen only in infected guinea pigs with protein antigen that was entirely free of lipopolysaccharide. In the adjuvant-immunized animals, the protein antigen evoked overlapping antibody-mediated and delayed-type reactions. Lipopolysaccharide and polysaccharide preparations contained varying amounts of protein components. In infected animals, reactions of these antigens were clearly antibody mediated, but participation of delayed-type hypersensitivity could not be excluded. In adjuvant-immunized animals, the antibody-mediated reaction to the lipopolysaccharide preparation was caused by its protein component. Images
Jones, L M; Berman, D T
Interleukin (IL) 10 is a recently discovered cytokine, originally isolated from T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, which inhibits cytokine production of T-helper 1 (Th1) cells. Because Th1 cells appear to be of importance during the contact hypersensitivity reaction (CHS)we hypothesized that IL-10 might modulate the outcome of CHS in vivo. Intraperitoneal injection of murine recombinant IL-10 (1000 ng) into naive mice
Agatha Schwarz; Stephan Grabbe; Helge Riemann; Yoshinori Aragane; Manuel Simon; Satish Manon; Sylvia Andrade; Thomas A. Luger; Albert Zlotnik; Thomas Schwarz
Background The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a major signalling cascade acting in the quality control of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The cascade is known to play an accessory role in a range of genetic and environmental disorders including neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and kidney diseases. The three major receptors of the ER stress involved with the UPR, i.e. IRE1 ?, PERK and ATF6, signal through a complex web of pathways to convey an appropriate response. The emerging behaviour ranges from adaptive to maladaptive depending on the severity of unfolded protein accumulation in the ER; however, the decision mechanism for the switch and its timing have so far been poorly understood. Results Here, we propose a mechanism by which the UPR outcome switches between survival and death. We compose a mathematical model integrating the three signalling branches, and perform a comprehensive bifurcation analysis to investigate possible responses to stimuli. The analysis reveals three distinct states of behaviour, low, high and intermediate activity, associated with stress adaptation, tolerance, and the initiation of apoptosis. The decision to adapt or destruct can, therefore, be understood as a dynamic process where the balance between the stress and the folding capacity of the ER plays a pivotal role in managing the delivery of the most appropriate response. The model demonstrates for the first time that the UPR is capable of generating oscillations in translation attenuation and the apoptotic signals, and this is supplemented with a Bayesian sensitivity analysis identifying a set of parameters controlling this behaviour. Conclusions This work contributes largely to the understanding of one of the most ubiquitous signalling pathways involved in protein folding quality control in the metazoan ER. The insights gained have direct consequences on the management of many UPR-related diseases, revealing, in addition, an extended list of candidate disease modifiers. Demonstration of stress adaptation sheds light to how preconditioning might be beneficial in manifesting the UPR outcome to prevent untimely apoptosis, and paves the way to novel approaches for the treatment of many UPR-related conditions.
This work presents review on etiology of dentinal hypersensitivity and mechanisms of dentin desensitization. The main theories on dentin sensitivity are discussed in details. Particularly are stressed hydrodynamic and transducer theories. Two main approaches to the dentin desensitization by tubule occlusion and blocking pulpal nerve activity by altering the sensory nerves excitability are presented. The aim of dentin desensitization is to apply various agents that occlude dentinal tubules and so decrease dentin sensitivity or to apply agents that reduce nerve excitability. Between many different agents in use the most wide use and best results in decreasing dentin sensitivity have topical application of oxalate salts and application of unfilled resins. Different toothpaste with strontium chloride or potassium nitrate as active ingredients have been commonly used as very effective desensitizing agents. PMID:1819929
Baci?, M; Skrinjari?, I; Sutalo, J
A 33-year-old man was admitted complaining of a fever, dyspnea, and a dry cough almost every night since December of 1992. He had been using an ultrasonic humidifier at home. The chest CT scan and roentgenogram showed bilateral reticulonodular shadows. After admission, the symptoms resolved spontaneously. These findings were suggestive of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. After analysis of fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage and of a specimen obtained by transbronchial biopsy, "humidifier lung" was diagnosed. Ten species of microorganisms were isolated from the water left in the patient's humidifier. On precipitation and complement fixation tests of the patients serum, the results were positive for three of those microorganisms: Flavobacterium multivorum, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Aureobacterium liquefaciens. The titer on the complement fixation test increased immediately after a provocation test. The laboratory results suggest that at least one of these three microorganisms was the causative antigen in this case. PMID:8538084
Hagiwara, S; Ishii, Y; Sugiyama, Y; Kitamura, S
The anatomy of the labyrinth and the structure of the macula utriculi of the teleost fish (burbot) Lota vulgaris was studied by dissection, phase contrast, and electron microscopy. The innervating nerve fibers end at the bottom of the sensory cells where two types of nerve endings are found, granulated and non-granulated. The ultrastructure and organization of the sensory hair bundles are described, and the finding that the receptor cells are morphologically polarized by the presence of an asymmetrically located kinocilium in the sensory hair bundle is discussed in terms of directional sensitivity. The pattern of orientation of the hair cells in the macula utriculi was determined, revealing a complicated morphological polarization of the sensory epithelium. The findings suggest that the interplay of sensory responses is intimately related to the directional sensitivity of the receptor cells as revealed by their morphological polarization. The problem of efferent innervation is discussed, and it is concluded that the positional information signaled by the nerve fibers innervating the vestibular organs comprises an intricate pattern of interacting afferent and efferent impulses
Microgliosis is implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurological disorders, including neuropathic pain. Consequently, perturbation of microgliosis is a mechanistic and drug development target in neuropathic pain, which highlights the requirement for specific, sensitive and reproducible methods of microgliosis measurement. In this study, we used the spinal microgliosis associated with L5 spinal nerve transection and minocycline-induced attenuation thereof to: (1) evaluate novel software based semi-quantitative image analysis paradigms for the assessment of immunohistochemical images. Microgliosis was revealed by immunoreactivity to OX42. Several image analysis paradigms were assessed and compared to a previously validated subjective categorical rating scale. This comparison revealed that grey scale measurement of the proportion of a defined area of spinal cord occupied by OX42 immunoreactive cells is a robust image analysis paradigm. (2) Develop and validate a flow cytometric approach for quantification of spinal microgliosis. The flow cytometric technique reliably quantified microgliosis in spinal cord cell suspensions, using OX42 and ED9 immunoreactivity to identify microglia. The results suggest that image analysis of immunohistochemical revelation of microgliosis reliably detects the spinal microgliosis in response to peripheral nerve injury and pharmacological attenuation thereof. In addition, flow cytometry provides an alternative approach for quantitative analysis of spinal microgliosis elicited by nerve injury.
Blackbeard, J.; O'Dea, K.P.; Wallace, V.C.J.; Segerdahl, A.; Pheby, T.; Takata, M.; Field, M.J.; Rice, A.S.C.
Background Cutaneous mycoses are common human infections among healthy and immunocompromised hosts, and the anthropophilic fungus Trichophyton rubrum is the most prevalent microorganism isolated from such clinical cases worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the transcriptional profile of T. rubrum exposed to various stimuli in order to obtain insights into the responses of this pathogen to different environmental challenges. Therefore, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST) collection by constructing one cDNA library and nine suppression subtractive hybridization libraries. Results The 1388 unigenes identified in this study were functionally classified based on the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS) categories. The identified proteins were involved in transcriptional regulation, cellular defense and stress, protein degradation, signaling, transport, and secretion, among other functions. Analysis of these unigenes revealed 575 T. rubrum sequences that had not been previously deposited in public databases. Conclusion In this study, we identified novel T. rubrum genes that will be useful for ORF prediction in genome sequencing and facilitating functional genome analysis. Annotation of these expressed genes revealed metabolic adaptations of T. rubrum to carbon sources, ambient pH shifts, and various antifungal drugs used in medical practice. Furthermore, challenging T. rubrum with cytotoxic drugs and ambient pH shifts extended our understanding of the molecular events possibly involved in the infectious process and resistance to antifungal drugs.
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a critical role in the maintenance of the outer retina. RPE cell death or dysfunction drives the pathophysiology of many retinal diseases, but the physiological response of the retina to RPE cell loss is poorly understood, mainly because of the absence of suitable experimental models. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse in which an inducible Cre recombinase is expressed exclusively in the RPE under the control of the monocarboxylate transporter 3 gene promoter (RPECreER). This was crossed with a transgenic mouse harboring a diphtheria toxin A (DTA) chain gene rendered transcriptionally silent by a floxed stop sequence. We show that activation of DTA in the double transgenic mouse (RPECreER/DTA) led to 60–80% RPE cell death, with surviving cells maintaining the integrity of the monolayer by increasing their size. Despite the apparent morphological normality of the enlarged RPE cells in the RPECreER/DTA mice, functional analysis revealed significant deficits on electroretinography, and retinal histopathology showed regions of photoreceptor rosetting and degeneration although with retention of a normal vascular network. Our study reveals that whilst the RPE monolayer has a remarkable intrinsic capacity to cope with cellular attrition, specific aspects of RPE multifunctionality essential for photoreceptor survival are compromised. The RPECreER/DTA mouse offers advantages over models that employ chemical or mechanical strategies to kill RPE cells, and should be useful for the development and evaluation of RPE-based therapies, such as stem cell transplantation.
Longbottom, Rebecca; Fruttiger, Marcus; Douglas, Ron H.; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro; Greenwood, John; Moss, Stephen E.