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1

Unusual presentation of spinal lipomatosis.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition characterized by overgrowth of normal adipose tissue in the extradural space within the spinal canal that can lead to significant spinal cord compression. It is most commonly reported in patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Other causes can include obesity and hypercortisolism. Occasionally, idiopathic SEL will occur in patients with no known risk factors, but cases are more generally reported in obesity and males. We present the case of a 35 year-old non-obese woman found to have rapidly progressive SEL that was not associated with any of the common causes of the disorder. PMID:25285024

Stephenson, William; Kauflin, Matthew J

2014-01-01

2

Unusual presentation of spinal lipomatosis  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition characterized by overgrowth of normal adipose tissue in the extradural space within the spinal canal that can lead to significant spinal cord compression. It is most commonly reported in patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Other causes can include obesity and hypercortisolism. Occasionally, idiopathic SEL will occur in patients with no known risk factors, but cases are more generally reported in obesity and males. We present the case of a 35 year-old non-obese woman found to have rapidly progressive SEL that was not associated with any of the common causes of the disorder. PMID:25285024

Stephenson, William; Kauflin, Matthew J

2014-01-01

3

Spinal Cord Astrocytomas: Presentation, Management and Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramedullary spinal cord astrocytomas are uncommon tumors. They are the most common spinal cord tumor in children and in adults are second only to ependymomas in frequency of occurrence. Low-grade histology predominates with high-grade lesions comprising only ten to fifteen percent of pediatric tumors and a slightly higher proportion in adults. Presenting symptoms typically evolve over months to years with

John K. Houten; Paul R. Cooper

2000-01-01

4

Myeloneuropathic presentation of spinal epidural lipomatosis.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is accumulation of unencapsulated fat tissue within the epidural space of the spinal canal. The most common cause of SEL is corticosteroid therapy, whereas most of the non-corticosteroid-dependent cases are idiopathic. If unrecognized, it may result in diagnostic confusion with other neuropathic or myelopathic conditions. We report 2 cases of SEL. The first case is of a 30-year-old man who received corticosteroid therapy for an acute and probably immune-mediated demyelinating process. Subsequently, the addition of compressive effects of SEL resulted in diagnostic confusion and initial workup at other centers for spinal cord malignancy and vascular malformation. The patient's symptoms improved after decompression surgery. The second case is of a 63-year-old woman with a history of type 1 diabetes mellitus that presented with increasing numbness in the lower extremities. She was initially diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy; however, the presence of myelopathic signs led to further investigation and diagnosis of SEL. Decompression surgery resulted in improvement of symptoms. PMID:19078799

Izadyar, Shahram; Kwan, Justin Y; Harati, Yadollah

2006-03-01

5

Presentation and outcome of traumatic spinal fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: Motor vehicle crashes and falls account for most of the spine fractures with subsequent serious disability. Aim: To define the incidence, causes, and outcome of spinal fractures. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from trauma registry database of all traumatic spinal injuries admitted to the section of trauma surgery in Qatar from November 2007 to December 2009. Results: Among 3712 patients who were admitted to the section of trauma surgery, 442 (12%) injured patients had spinal fractures with a mean age of 33.2 ± 12 years. The male to female ratio was 11.6:1. Motor vehicle crashes (36.5%) and falls from height (19.3%) were the leading causes of cervical injury (P = 0.001). The injury severity score ranged between 4 and 75. Nineteen percent of cases with cervical injury had thoracic injury as well (P = 0.04). Lumber injury was associated with thoracic injury in 27% of cases (P < 0.001). Combined thoracic and lumber injuries were associated with cervical injury in 33% of cases (P < 0.001). The total percent of injuries associated with neurological deficit was 5.4%. Fifty-three cases were managed surgically for spine fractures; 14 of them had associated neurological deficits. Overall mortalityrate was 5%. Conclusions: Spine fractures are not uncommon in Qatar. Cervical and thoracic spine injuries carry the highest incidence of associated neurological deficit and injuries at other spinal levels. Young males are the most exposed population that deserves more emphasis on injury prevention programs in the working sites and in enforcement of traffic laws. PMID:23248500

El-Faramawy, Ahmed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Zarour, Ahmad; Maull, Kimball; Riebe, Jane; Kumar, Krishna; Mathew, John; Parchani, Ashok; Al-Thani, Hassan; Latifi, Rifat

2012-01-01

6

Spinal Cord Injury—Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

Summary: This special report traces the path of spinal cord injury (SCI) from ancient times through the present and provides an optimistic overview of promising clinical trials and avenues of basic research. The spinal cord injuries of Lord Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson, President James A. Garfield, and General George Patton provide an interesting perspective on the evolution of the standard of care for SCI. The author details the contributions of a wide spectrum of professionals in the United States, Europe, and Australia, as well as the roles of various government and professional organizations, legislation, and overall advances in surgery, anesthesia, trauma care, imaging, pharmacology, and infection control, in the advancement of care for the individual with SCI. PMID:17591221

Donovan, William H

2007-01-01

7

Thoracic Disc Herniation Presenting with Transient Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary This report is a clinical and radiologic correlation of anterior spinal arterial distribution ischemia with a thoracic disc herniation affecting the artery of Adamkiewicz. We could only find one other similar reported case. A 38-year-old woman developed sudden onset of severe back pain and radiculopathy, followed by rapidly evolving paraparesis. The neurological examination was consistent with a deficit caused by anterior spinal artery ischemia. MRI revealed T2 signal change in the thoracolumbar spinal cord and a laterally placed, non-calcified disc herniation. Selective spinal angiography performed 30 hours after onset revealed displacement of the left T9 radicular feeding artery by the disc herniation; at this time the artery was patent. The patient experienced some resolution of symptoms within the first 24 hours and was managed conservatively and made a significant recovery within two weeks. Appropriately located thoracic disc herniations can disturb the blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord. PMID:20667212

Guest, J.D.; Griesdale, D.E.; Marotta, T.

2000-01-01

8

Primary spinal cord melanoma in thoracic spine with leptomeningeal dissemination and presenting hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

Primary spinal cord melanoma is a rare central nervous system malignant tumor. Usually it resembles an intradural extramedullary (IDEM) nerve sheath tumor or melanoma. We experienced a patient with upper thoracic primary IDEM spinal cord melanoma who was diagnosed to be with hydrocephalus and without intracranial lesions. Initial symptoms of the patient were related to the hydrocephalus and the primary spinal cord melanoma was diagnosed eight months later. At the first operation, complete resection was impossible and the patient refused additional radiotherapy or chemotherapy. At 22 months after surgery, the patient revisited our institution with recurrent both leg weakness. Leptomeningeal dissemination was present in the whole spinal cord and only partial resection of tumor was performed. The symptoms slightly improved after surgery. Primary spinal cord melanoma is extremely rare but complete resection and additional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can prolong the disease free interval. Hydrocephalus or signs of increased intracranial pressure may be the diagnostic clue of spinal cord malignancy and progression. PMID:24904904

Jeong, Dong Hwan; Lee, Chunl Kyu; You, Nam Kyu; Kim, Sang Hyun; Cho, Ki Hong

2013-10-01

9

Primary Spinal Cord Melanoma in Thoracic Spine with Leptomeningeal Dissemination and Presenting Hydrocephalus  

PubMed Central

Primary spinal cord melanoma is a rare central nervous system malignant tumor. Usually it resembles an intradural extramedullary (IDEM) nerve sheath tumor or melanoma. We experienced a patient with upper thoracic primary IDEM spinal cord melanoma who was diagnosed to be with hydrocephalus and without intracranial lesions. Initial symptoms of the patient were related to the hydrocephalus and the primary spinal cord melanoma was diagnosed eight months later. At the first operation, complete resection was impossible and the patient refused additional radiotherapy or chemotherapy. At 22 months after surgery, the patient revisited our institution with recurrent both leg weakness. Leptomeningeal dissemination was present in the whole spinal cord and only partial resection of tumor was performed. The symptoms slightly improved after surgery. Primary spinal cord melanoma is extremely rare but complete resection and additional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can prolong the disease free interval. Hydrocephalus or signs of increased intracranial pressure may be the diagnostic clue of spinal cord malignancy and progression. PMID:24904904

Jeong, Dong Hwan; Lee, Chunl Kyu; Kim, Sang Hyun; Cho, Ki Hong

2013-01-01

10

Papilledema as the presenting manifestation of spinal schwannoma.  

PubMed

A 63-year-old woman with headache, blurred vision, bilateral optic disc edema, and normal cranial magnetic resonance imaging scan underwent lumbar puncture that revealed an elevated opening pressure (290 mm water), a protein level of 114 mg/dl, and mild pleocytosis. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging later demonstrated a sacral tumor, which proved to be a schwannoma with sarcoid-like features. After surgical removal of the tumor, the patient's manifestations resolved. This case emphasizes that low spinal cord tumors can cause elevated intracranial pressure without causing markedly elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein or cells, or any myelopathic manifestations, perhaps by obstructing sacral cerebrospinal drainage. Comprehensive spine imaging should be a part of the evaluation of a patient with papilledema who has normal brain imaging but abnormal spinal fluid constituents. PMID:12352582

Costello, Fiona; Kardon, Randy H; Wall, Michael; Kirby, Patricia; Ryken, Timothy; Lee, Andrew G

2002-09-01

11

Spinal cord compression as initial presentation of metastatic occult follicular thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

Metastatic tumors are the most common tumors of the spine, accounting for 98% of all spine lesions. But spinal cord compression as the initial presentation of metastatic occult follicular carcinoma without any thyroid enlargement is unusual and relatively rare. This report describes a 35-years-old female patient presenting with paraplegia and urinary incontinence for the last two months. She had no thyroid enlargement; no thyroid related symptoms and her biochemical thyroid profile was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine shows a huge mass compressing the spinal cord at D11-D12 involving both the spinal and paraspinal areas. The patient was treated by surgery and radioiodine ablation as the histopathology showed metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. This case was reported because of the rarity of the disease. Early diagnosis and initiation of the treatment should promise a good prognosis for a patient with metastatic spinal cord compression. PMID:24966555

Khan, Md Nuruzzaman; Sharfuzzaman, Amsm; Mostafa, Md Golam

2014-04-01

12

Faecal incontinence as presentation of an ependymomas of the spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Spinal tumours and ependymomas in particular are rare causes of cauda equina syndrome that present with faecal incontinence. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 45 year old gentleman who presents to a colorectal clinic with incontinence. We then present a review of ependymomas with particular reference to the symptoms they cause as well a review of the

Santhini Jeyarajah; Andrew King; Savvas Papagrigoriadis

2007-01-01

13

Toxoplasmosis of Spinal Cord in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patient Presenting as Paraparesis: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Although brain has been the most common site for toxoplasma infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, involvement of spinal cord by toxoplasma has been rarely found. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis can present as acute onset weakness in both lower limbs associated with sensory and bladder dysfunction. A presumptive diagnosis can be made in patients with CD4 count <100/mm3 based on a positive serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies, no recent prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis, intramedullary ring enhancing lesion in spinal cord supported by similar lesions in brain parenchyma. Institutions of antitoxoplasma treatment in such patients result in prompt clinical response and therefore avoiding the need of unnecessary invasive diagnostic tests. Here, we report a case of toxoplasmic myelitis in immunocompromised patient presenting as myelopathy who showed significant clinical improvement after starting antitoxoplasma treatment. Hence toxoplasmic myelitis should be considered in toxoplasma seropositive immunocompromised patients presenting as myelopathy and imaging studies showing ring enhancing intramedullary lesion. PMID:25538456

Agrawal, Sachin R; Singh, Vinita; Ingale, Sheetal; Jain, Ajeet Prasad

2014-01-01

14

Atypical Anterior Spinal Artery Infarction due to Left Vertebral Artery Occlusion Presenting with Bilateral Hand Weakness  

PubMed Central

Background Infarct of the anterior spinal artery is the most common subtype of spinal cord infarct, and is characterized by bilateral motor deficits with spinothalamic sensory deficits. We experienced a case with atypical anterior-spinal-artery infarct that presented with bilateral hand weakness but without sensory deficits. Case Report A 29-year-old man presented with sudden neck pain and bilateral weakness of the hands. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain did not reveal any lesion. His motor symptoms improved rapidly except for mild weakness in his left wrist and fingers. Magnetic resonance angiography showed proximal occlusion of the left vertebral artery; a spine MRI revealed left cervical cord infarction. Conclusions Bilateral or unilateral hand weakness can be the sole symptom of a cervical cord infarct. PMID:24829605

Kim, Min-Ji; Jang, Mi-Hee; Choi, Mi-Song; Kang, Suk Yun; Kim, Joo Yong; Kwon, Ki-Han; Kang, Ik-Won

2014-01-01

15

Multicentric Spinal Tuberculosis with Sternoclavicular Joint Involvement: A Rare Presentation  

PubMed Central

Background. Tuberculosis is a chronic disease which may have varied presentations. Though pulmonary tuberculosis is the commonest, extrapulmonary tuberculosis involving skeletal system is often seen. Individuals with poor nourishment and immunological status are especially susceptible for disseminated and multicentric tuberculosis. Case Report. We here present a case of tuberculosis involving multiple anatomical locations in an immune-competent patient which was diagnosed with radiological studies and confirmed with histological examination. Patient was put on multidrug antitubercular therapy and responded well to the treatment with improvement in clinical and radiological picture. Clinical Relevance. This report of a rare case makes us aware of the varied presentations which tuberculosis can present with. It should be kept as a differential diagnosis in patients with cough and fever but not responding to conventional treatment. This is even more important in countries with poor socioeconomic conditions. PMID:25389505

Meena, Umesh Kumar; Meena, Ramesh Chand

2014-01-01

16

Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumor of the Spinal Accessory Nerve: A Unique Presentation of a Rare Tumor  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), sarcomas originating from tissues of mesenchymal origin, are rare in patients without a history of neurofibromatosis. Case Report We report a case of an MPNST of the spinal accessory nerve, unassociated with neurofibromatosis, which metastasized to the brain. The tumor, originating in the intrasternomastoid segment of the spinal accessory nerve, was removed. Two years later, the patient presented with focal neurological deficits. Radiographic findings revealed a well-defined 2.2×2.2×2.2 cm, homogeneously enhancing mass in the left parieto-occipital region of the brain surrounded by significant vasogenic edema and mass effect, culminating in a 1-cm midline shift to the right. The mass was surgically removed. The patient had nearly complete recovery of vision, speech, and memory. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of an MPNST arising from an extracranial segment of the spinal accessory nerve and metastasizing to the brain. PMID:22523517

Sheikh, Omair A.; Reaves, Ann; Kralick, Francis A.; Brooks, Ari; Musial, Rachel E.

2012-01-01

17

Atypical presentation of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy as an epidural spinal cord tumor: a case presentation and literature review.  

PubMed

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder growing in frequency as awareness of the disease increases. Also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease, it typically presents as painless cervical lymphadenopathy with fever and malaise. A review of the literature reveals approximately 400 cases of extranodal involvement and approximately 44 cases of central nervous system involvement. Less than 10 of the reported central nervous system tumors have presented as an epidural spinal cord tumor. The authors describe the case of a 29-year-old woman with progressive paraplegia and leg pain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine revealed a tumor mass from T5 to T9. The tumor was resected, and the spinal column was stabilized with pedicle screw fixation and fusion. Postoperative treatment was initiated with radiation and physical rehabilitation. The following is a case report with literature review of the entity. PMID:15800441

Hargett, Christopher; Bassett, Timothy

2005-04-01

18

Myeloid Sarcoma: An Unusual Presentation of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Causing Spinal Cord Compression  

PubMed Central

Acute promyelocytic leukemia with concurrent myeloid sarcoma is a rare clinical event. Herein we describe a patient that presented with back pain and bilateral leg weakness caused by spinal cord compression due to extramedullary deposition of leukemic cells. Acute promyelocytic leukemia was suspected based on immunophenotypic findings of malignant cells in bone marrow aspirate. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of PML-RAR? fusion copies. MRI showed multiple hyperintense changes on the vertebral bodies, together with intraspinal masses causing spinal cord compression. The patient immediately underwent radiotherapy, and was treated with all-trans retinoic acid and idarubicin. Reassessment MRI showed complete resolution of all intraspinal masses and the disappearance of most of the bony lesions. Post-treatment bone marrow aspirate showed complete hematological and molecular remission. The motor power of his legs fully recovered from 0/5 to 5/5; however, sensory loss below the T4 level persisted. PMID:24744674

Kyaw, Tay Za; Maniam, Jayaranee A.S.; Bee, Ping Chong; Chin, Edmund Fui; Nadarajan, Veera Sekaran; Shanmugam, Hemalatha; Kadir, Khairul Azmi Abd

2012-01-01

19

Donald Munro Lecture. Spinal cord injury--past, present, and future.  

PubMed

This special report traces the path of spinal cord injury (SCI) from ancient times through the present and provides an optimistic overview of promising clinical trials and avenues of basic research. The spinal cord injuries of Lord Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson, President James A. Garfield, and General George Patton provide an interesting perspective on the evolution of the standard of care for SCI. The author details the contributions of a wide spectrum of professionals in the United States, Europe, and Australia, as well as the roles of various government and professional organizations, legislation, and overall advances in surgery, anesthesia, trauma care, imaging, pharmacology, and infection control, in the advancement of care for the individual with SCI. PMID:17591221

Donovan, William H

2007-01-01

20

Intramedullary Sarcoidosis Presenting with Delayed Spinal Cord Swelling after Cervical Laminoplasty for Compressive Cervical Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology that may affect any organ in the body. The nervous system is involved in 5-16% of cases of sarcoidosis. Here, we report a case of intramedullary sarcoidosis presenting with delayed spinal cord swelling after laminoplasty for the treatment of compressive cervical myelopathy. A 56-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of upper extremity pain and gait disturbance. The patient had undergone laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy 3 months previously. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large solitary intramedullary lesion with associated extensive cord swelling, signal changes, and heterogeneous enhancement of spinal cord from C2 to C7. Spinal cord biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas with signs of chronic inflammation. The final diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based upon laboratory data, imaging findings, histological findings, and the exclusion of other diagnoses. Awareness of such presentations and a high degree of suspicion of sarcoidosis may help arrive at the correct diagnosis.

Kwon, Du Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

2014-01-01

21

Intramedullary sarcoidosis presenting with delayed spinal cord swelling after cervical laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology that may affect any organ in the body. The nervous system is involved in 5-16% of cases of sarcoidosis. Here, we report a case of intramedullary sarcoidosis presenting with delayed spinal cord swelling after laminoplasty for the treatment of compressive cervical myelopathy. A 56-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of upper extremity pain and gait disturbance. The patient had undergone laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy 3 months previously. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large solitary intramedullary lesion with associated extensive cord swelling, signal changes, and heterogeneous enhancement of spinal cord from C2 to C7. Spinal cord biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas with signs of chronic inflammation. The final diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based upon laboratory data, imaging findings, histological findings, and the exclusion of other diagnoses. Awareness of such presentations and a high degree of suspicion of sarcoidosis may help arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:25535524

Kwon, Du Ho; Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

2014-11-01

22

Benign spinal meningioma without dural attachment presenting delayed CSF dissemination and malignant transformation.  

PubMed

Benign spinal meningiomas have good prognoses, with low rates of recurrence and no cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination. However, we experienced an extremely rare case of initially benign non-dura-based spinal meningioma that showed multiple CSF disseminated lesions, which progressed for 14 years. A 29-year-old woman without neurofibromatosis presented with progressing dysesthesia in her lower limbs, low back pain, and intermittent claudication. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an intradural extramedullary mass lesion at the Th10/11 level. The patient underwent a tumor resection. Intraoperative findings indicated that the tumor had no dural attachment. Histopathological diagnosis after gross total removal was microcystic meningioma (grade I, WHO 2007). Seven years after the first operation, other lesions appeared at the levels of Th11/12, L1, and L2/3 in MRI. These tumors were slow growing and became symptomatic; thus, a second surgery was performed 14 years after the first operation. The histopathological diagnosis was atypical meningioma (grade II, WHO 2007). Benign spinal meningiomas show CSF dissemination extremely rarely, although some authors have reported non-dura-based intraspinal clear-cell meningiomas showing CSF dissemination. However, even in cases of WHO grade I, neurosurgeons should pay attention to late CSF dissemination and malignant transformation after surgical removal of non-dura-based intraspinal meningiomas. PMID:22915133

Tsuda, Kyoji; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Saito, Atsushi; Nakai, Kei; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira

2013-07-01

23

Pituitary and intradural spinal metastases: an unusual initial presentation of lung cancer.  

PubMed

The authors report the clinical and imaging findings for a 47-year-old woman who presented with the classic symptoms of a sellar or suprasellar mass; the lesion was initially diagnosed as germinoma and was treated accordingly. The patient also had intradural, extramedullary spinal metastases. Radiotherapy failed, and the patient died. Autopsy revealed that the lesions were metastatic from previously unrecognized large-cell carcinoma of the lung. This distribution of metastases from a primary lesion not located within the central nervous system is unusual but should be considered in any patient presenting with masses at these sites, particularly if the response to therapy is less than expected. PMID:7704674

Struk, D W; Knapp, T R; Munk, P L; Poon, P Y

1995-04-01

24

Unusual Association of Congenital Kyphosis and Conus Lipoma Presenting as a Double Spinal Cord Tether  

PubMed Central

The case of a four-year-old child is described who presented to our institution with cervicothoracic deformity and a two-year history of progressive paraparesis. His past medical history was significant for meningocele which was closed at age two months. Imaging studies revealed severe congenital kyphosis with a hypoplastic t3 vertebra, as well as a tethered filum terminale with a conus lipoma. the spinal cord was found to be severely compressed at the apex of the kyphotic deformity. Discussion is focused on the diagnosis of tethered cord syndrome, and treatment options. In particular, this case required careful thought on the order of events, which followed initial tethered cord release and removal of the conus lipoma, and subsequent kyphectomy and fusion of the upper thoracic spine. A favorable clinical outcome was obtained with complete reversal of the paraparesis. PMID:17907436

Aguiar, Carlos A; Mendoza-Lattes, Sergio; Cobb, Peter; Menezes, Arnold; Weinstein, Stuart L

2007-01-01

25

Unusual presentation of congenital dermal sinus: tethered spinal cord with intradural epidermoid and dual paramedian cutaneous ostia.  

PubMed

The authors present the first report of spinal congenital dermal sinus with paramedian dual ostia leading to 2 intradural epidermoid cysts. This 7-year-old girl had a history of recurrent left paramedian lumbosacral subcutaneous abscesses, with no chemical or pyogenic meningitis. Admission MRI studies demonstrated bilateral lumbar dermal sinus tracts and a tethered spinal cord. At surgery to release the tethered spinal cord the authors encountered paramedian dermal sinus tracts with dual ostia, as well as 2 intradural epidermoid cysts that were not readily apparent on MRI studies. Congenital dermal sinus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lumbar subcutaneous abscesses, even if the neurocutaneous signatures are located off the midline. PMID:23025446

Cox, Efrem M; Knudson, Kathleen E; Manjila, Sunil; Cohen, Alan R

2012-10-01

26

Spinal meningiomas in dogs: description of 8 cases including a novel radiological and histopathological presentation.  

PubMed

Clinical, imaging, and histological features of 8 canine spinal meningiomas, including a cervical cystic meningioma with imaging and intraoperative features of an arachnoid cyst, are described. All meningiomas were histologically classified and graded following the international World Health Organization human classification for tumors. Six meningiomas were located in the cervical spinal cord. Myelography showed intradural/ extramedullary lesions in 3/4 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense intradural/extramedullary masses on pre-contrast T1-weighted and T2-weighted images with homogeneous contrast enhancement in 7/8 cases. One dog had a cerebrospinal fluid-filled subarachnoid cavity dorsal to the cervical spinal cord. A spinal arachnoid cyst was diagnosed on imaging, but the histopathological study of the resected tissue revealed a grade I meningothelial cystic meningioma. There were no differences in outcome associated with tumor grade and surgical treatment (6/8). Cystic meningioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraspinal cystic lesions, and biopsy is necessary for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24155414

José-López, Roberto; de la Fuente, Cristian; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sonia

2013-10-01

27

Spinal meningiomas in dogs: Description of 8 cases including a novel radiological and histopathological presentation  

PubMed Central

Clinical, imaging, and histological features of 8 canine spinal meningiomas, including a cervical cystic meningioma with imaging and intraoperative features of an arachnoid cyst, are described. All meningiomas were histologically classified and graded following the international World Health Organization human classification for tumors. Six meningiomas were located in the cervical spinal cord. Myelography showed intradural/ extramedullary lesions in 3/4 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense intradural/extramedullary masses on pre-contrast T1-weighted and T2-weighted images with homogeneous contrast enhancement in 7/8 cases. One dog had a cerebrospinal fluid-filled subarachnoid cavity dorsal to the cervical spinal cord. A spinal arachnoid cyst was diagnosed on imaging, but the histopathological study of the resected tissue revealed a grade I meningothelial cystic meningioma. There were no differences in outcome associated with tumor grade and surgical treatment (6/8). Cystic meningioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraspinal cystic lesions, and biopsy is necessary for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24155414

José-López, Roberto; de la Fuente, Cristian; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sonia

2013-01-01

28

Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman Disease presenting as spinal extradural lesion: a case report with a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) or Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare, but well-documented entity. We report a male patient who presented with progressive paraparesis, with thoracolumbar extradural lesion (from D11 to L2 level) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). He underwent D12-L2 laminectomy followed by total removal of extradural spinal space-occupying lesion (SOL). Histopathological diagnosis of the lesion was RDD. Four weeks after surgery, he was treated with external beam radiotherapy, total dose: 50.4GY in 28 fractions. On three-month follow-up, he did not have any neurological deficits. There was no evidence of other extranodal or lymph node involvement. This case has been reported on account of rare presentation of this disease as spinal extradural lesion. Pertinent literature has been reviewed. PMID:23361292

Roy, Chhaya; Saha, Animesh; Roy, Subhendu; Ghosh, Angshuman

2012-01-01

29

Holocord spinal epidural abscess in a pregnant patient presenting as premature labour: a rare presentation of an unusual diagnosis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACTSpinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare clinical entity. It is less common when the entire epidural space is involved, known as a holocord or panspinal SEA, and it is even less common in a pregnant patient. We report a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus holocord SEA in a 30-year-old female at approximately 22 weeks' gestational age who presented with lumbar pain and pelvic pressure and the urge to bear down. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine demonstrated extensive SEA and meningitis from the foramen magnum to the lumbar spine that was treated both medically and surgically. The incidence of, clinical presentation of, and risk factors for developing SEA are discussed. If untreated, expanding SEAs produce sensory symptoms and signs, motor dysfunction, and, eventually, paralysis and death. The medical and surgical management of SEA is also discussed. SEA can have an insidious and atypical presentation despite extensive involvement of the epidural space. Therefore, the diagnosis of SEA should always be considered in patients who present to the emergency department with back pain. PMID:25060090

Burton, Kirsteen R; Wang, Xi; Dhanoa, Deljit

2014-07-01

30

Spinal stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... spinal stenosis; Foraminal spinal stenosis; Degenerative spine disease; Back pain - spinal stenosis ... help your pain during flare-ups. Treatments for back pain caused by spinal stenosis include: Medicines that may ...

31

Upper thoracic intradural-extramedullary cavernous malformation presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage without spinal dysfunction: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old man had subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) which was confirmed by lumbar puncture, since it was negative on head computed tomography. The result of neurological examination was normal. Following pan-cerebral angiography and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) failed to find out the cause of bleeding. The whole spinal MRI revealed an intradural-extramedullary mass lesion at the upper thoracic level which was consistent with cavernous malformation after surgery. When patients presented with SAH of no spinal symptoms, the diagnosis of an intradural-extramedullary cavernous malformation is challenging. A whole spinal workup should be considered in a patient with spontaneous SAH when bleeding from intracranial origin is carefully excluded. PMID:24878074

Tao, Chuan-Yuan; He, Min; Zhang, Yue-Kang; You, Chao

2014-12-01

32

Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma Presenting as an Intradural Spinal Mass: Report of a Rare Clinical Presentation With an Emphasis on Differential Diagnostic Considerations  

PubMed Central

Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm that occurs predominantly in the soft tissues of the lower extremities. Herein we present a case of a 29 year old male who presented with bilateral femoral numbness believed to be the result of prior injury to his back. A magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the T4-T5 epidural space compressing the spinal cord. Laminectomy was performed and the lesion removed piecemeal. The pathology specimen consisted of multiple fragments of dura involved by a myxoid neoplasm with a nodular growth pattern. The tumor cells were arranged in anastomosing cords and strands. Individual tumor cells were small, of uniform size and shape, with small hyperchromatic nuclei and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical stains were performed which showed the tumor cells were diffusely positive for vimentin and focally positive for EMA, S-100 protein and cytokeratin, whereas they were negative for CD34 and CD99. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies showed a clonal population of cells with re-arrangement of the EWSR1 locus, confirming the histologic impression of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. This is the first report of a case of an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma arising from the dura, confirmed to have rearrangement of the EWSR1 gene by FISH. There have only been two other cases of dural based extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma reported prior to our case. We also briefly review the published literature and discuss differential diagnostic considerations for this rare tumor. PMID:25568751

Rao, Priya; Colen, Rivka R.; Bruner, Janet M.; Meis, Jeanne M.

2014-01-01

33

Mixed collecting duct and renal cell carcinoma presenting with spinal cord compression.  

PubMed

Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare renal malignancy thought to develop from the collecting duct epithelium of the kidney. CDC tends to have a more aggressive clinical course than conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with early metastases. The occurrence of a mixed CDC and conventional RCC is infrequently reported in the literature. We report the first case of a metastatic mixed CDC and RCC presenting as back pain in a young adult. In addition we discuss the epidemiology of and current adjuvant therapies for CDC. PMID:23606388

Hennessey, Derek B; Thomas, Arun Z; Lynch, Thomas H

2013-01-01

34

[Spinal cord infarction presenting Brown-Séquard syndrome with impaired position sense].  

PubMed

A 79-year-old hypertensive man presented left hemiplegia of sudden onset. Neurological examination revealed weakness of the left extremities, with hypoalgesia on the opposite side below the level C 4. He also showed Horner syndrome, facial hypoalgesia, weakness of sternocleidmastoid and trapezius muscles on the paralyzed side. The position and vibration senses were impaired on the left extremities. The position sense was more disturbed on his upper limb, to the extent that the patient was not able to recognize where his wrist was located. The cervical MRI exhibited a high signal intensity on the left half of the cord between C 2-C 5 vertebral level on T 2 WI. Bilateral vertebral arteries were patent, though severe stenosis of internal-external carotid artery bifurcation was observed on MRA. Asymmetrical distribution of upper cervical cord arteries, severe atherosclerotic change of cervical and intracranial vessels, and spondylotic cervical canal stenosis were suggested to contribute to cause the lateralized infarction of the cord, involving not only the anterior, but also posterior part, where Burdach's fascicle were probably more affected. PMID:11064867

Yoshimura, M; Ono, H; Takahashi, Y; Takatsu, M

2000-09-01

35

Anterior spinal cord syndrome of unknown etiology  

PubMed Central

A spinal cord injury encompasses a physical insult to the spinal cord. In the case of anterior spinal cord syndrome, the insult is a vascular lesion at the anterior spinal artery. We present the cases of two 13-year-old boys with anterior spinal cord syndrome, along with a review of the anatomy and vasculature of the spinal cord and an explanation of how a lesion in the cord corresponds to anterior spinal cord syndrome. PMID:25552812

Klakeel, Merrine; Thompson, Justin; McDonald, Frank

2015-01-01

36

ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma presenting as intradural spinal mass: first reported case and review of literature.  

PubMed

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is characterized by large anaplastic cells of T-cell or null-cell phenotype expressing CD30 (Ki-1 antigen). In most cases this neoplasm expresses the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a chimeric protein resulting from the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is most frequent in the first three decades of life and shows a male predominance, involving both nodal and extranodal sites, but rarely the CNS. We report a 21-year-old patient with a previous history of nodal ALK-positive ALCL, lymphohistiocytic subtype, who was admitted for recent occurrence of left-sided anesthesia with pain and progressive motor weakness of both legs. An MRI of the spine documented an intradural extramedullary mass dislocating the thoracic cord, suggesting a meningioma and the patient underwent surgical decompression. Histological examination revealed a lymphoproliferative neoplasm with morphology and immunophenotype of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. After surgery, all preoperative symptoms disappeared. To our knowledge, no cases of ALCL presenting as secondary localization with an intradural extramedullary spinal mass have been reported in the literature. PMID:23082771

Novello, Mariangela; Lauriola, Libero; Della Pepa, Giuseppe Maria; Giuseppe, La Rocca; Coli, Antonella; Visocchi, Massimiliano

2013-08-01

37

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome - A rare presentation and challenge in spinal cord injury rehabilitation: A case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Background Obstruction of the third part of the duodenum (D3) is a very rare cause of gastric outflow obstruction. Rapid weight loss is the biggest risk factor. Patients seen in acute rehabilitation settings, not uncommonly, have a period of rapid weight loss. We report two cases of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome and review the literature. Clinical details The patients presented differently, one with repeated, refractory autonomic dysreflexia and severe spasticity and one with nausea, abdominal discomfort, and vomiting. CT abdomen with contrast identified dynamic duodenal (D3) obstruction against the posterior structures by narrow angled SMA, gastric distension and, in one case, dilation of the left renal vein. Both patients responded well to optimizing nutrition in different ways. Surgery was successfully avoided. Discussion SMA syndrome is an atypical cause of high intestinal obstruction, frequently occurring in patients who have had rapid weight loss during spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. It may co-exist with left renal vein dilation "nutcracker phenomena". The associated neurogenic bowel dysfunction due to the nature of SCI could possibly contribute to delay in diagnosis. Conclusion Clinicians should consider the risk of SMA syndrome in patients with SCI with rapid weight loss. Early diagnosis is possible by doing a CT abdomen with contrast and angiography if there is a high index of suspicion. SMA syndrome can be successfully treated by aggressive nutritional management. This may include total parenteral nutrition or feeding by a nasojejunal tube. Duodenojejunostomy could be required in refractory cases. PMID:24976254

Desai, Manish H; Gall, Angela; Khoo, Michael

2014-06-29

38

Spinal fusion  

MedlinePLUS

... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

39

Spinal intradural extramedullary cavernous angioma presenting with superficial siderosis and hydrocephalus: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

A 36-year-old man with progressive hearing impairment visited our hospital complaining of a severe headache. A neurological examination revealed bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, mild ataxia, hyperreflexia and mild cognitive dysfunction. Brain MRI demonstrated hydrocephalus and typical hypointensity rimming the brain surface on T2(*)-weighted images. The patient was diagnosed as having superficial siderosis. Spinal MRI disclosed the presence of a lumbar intradural extramedullary mass. The surgically resected tumor was histologically found to be a cavernous angioma. Superficial siderosis is an important cause of hearing loss. With respect to the detection of disorders underlying this pathological condition, MRI examinations, including those of the brain and whole spinal cord, are recommended. PMID:25130126

Katoh, Nagaaki; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Uehara, Takeshi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

2014-01-01

40

Encephalomyelitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii presenting as spinal tumour: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

A 24 year old immunocompetent German resident is described who developed multifocal encephalomyelitis due to infection with Cryptococcus neoformans var gatti, commonly considered a disease of tropical regions. In the light of current knowlege on the epidemiology of C neoformans var gatti and the travel history of the patient it is assumed that the infection was aquired outside Europe. As exclusive intramedullary involvement is an outstandingly rare manifestation in spinal cryptococcosis, the particular diagnostic procedure and the therapeutic stratagies are discussed?? PMID:11118259

Grosse, P; Tintelnot, K; Sollner, O; Schmitz, B

2001-01-01

41

Spinal Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord metastases are a common complication of systemic malignancy, most commonly from lung, breast, and prostate cancer.\\u000a Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, most notably pain and weakness. The ultimate goals in managing these patients\\u000a include maximizing neurologic function, length of survival, and quality of life. These goals can best be reached via early,\\u000a accurate diagnosis followed

Jonathan H. Sherman; Dawit G. Aregawi; Mark E. Shaffrey; David Schiff

42

Alpha 2A-adrenergic receptors are present in lower brainstem catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons innervating spinal cord.  

PubMed

A subtype-specific polyclonal antibody was used for the immunohistochemical detection of alpha 2A-adrenergic receptors (alpha 2A-ARs) in the rat lower brainstem (medulla and pons). Using dual-label fluorescence histochemistry, punctate alpha 2A-AR-like immunoreactivity (alpha 2A-AR-LIR) was identified in noradrenergic, adrenergic, and serotonergic neurons of the pontomedullary region. Confocal microscopic examination of material simultaneously labeled for TH-LIR and alpha 2A-LIR revealed that the clusters of alpha 2A-LIR were located intracellularly. Lower medullary neurons with spinal projections to segment T3 were retrogradely labeled using FITC-conjugated microbeads and the material was processed for simultaneous detection of alpha 2A-LIR and either TH-LIR or 5-HT-LIR. Using this triple-label approach, we found that virtually all medullary serotonergic cells (raphe pallidus, raphe obscurus and parapyramidal area) including those with identified spinal projections contain punctate alpha 2A-AR-LIR. In contrast, fewer than 10% of dorsal raphe serotonergic cells examined for comparison were immunoreactive. The triple labeling approach also indicated that more than 95% of the TH-immunoreactive cells of the dorsal and ventrolateral medulla, including those with demonstrable spinal projections (A5 noradrenergic and C1/C3 adrenergic) had detectable amounts of alpha 2A-AR-LIR. The presence of alpha 2A-ARs in a large fraction of bulbospinal pre-sympathetic neurons (noradrenergic A5, adrenergic C1 and C3 and serotonergic raphe cells) could explain the powerful and relatively selective effect of clonidine and other centrally acting alpha 2A-AR agonists on sympathetic efferent activity and hypertension. PMID:7911062

Guyenet, P G; Stornetta, R L; Riley, T; Norton, F R; Rosin, D L; Lynch, K R

1994-02-28

43

Intramedullary spinal cord astrocytomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) are rare lesions and can occur in any age group. They are the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumors in children and the second most common in adults. Most of these astrocytomas are low-grade and may present after a symptomatic period of months to years. They can become symptomatic with back or neck pain, radicular

Scott P. Sanderson; Paul R. Cooper

2003-01-01

44

Arachnoid calcification producing spinal cord compression.  

PubMed Central

A case of spinal cord compression, presumed to be due to a calcification in the arachnoid, is presented. Its relationship to a previous spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage is mentioned. The literature is reviewed and the relationship of this condition to spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage, previous myelogram, and spinal anaesthetic is stressed. Images PMID:1206414

McCullough, G A

1975-01-01

45

Delayed presentation of cerebellar and spinal cord infarction as a complication of computed tomography-guided transthoracic lung biopsy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Computed tomography-guided transthoracic needle biopsy is a common diagnostic procedure that is associated with various complications including pneumothorax, parenchymal hemorrhage, and hemoptysis. A systemic air embolism is a very rare (0.06 to 0.21%) but potentially fatal complication. Case presentation A 70-year-old Korean male was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of a solitary pulmonary nodule located adjacent to the right inferior pulmonary vein in the medial basal segment of the right lower lobe. A computed tomography-guided needle biopsy was performed by a radiologist using a coaxial needle. A computed tomography image obtained immediately after the biopsy showed intraluminal free air in the proximal ascending aorta. He complained of a mild electrical current sensation in both lower extremities. After three hours he complained of neurological deficit in both lower extremities as well as voiding difficulty. The brain and spine magnetic resonance images showed a right cerebellar and spinal cord infarction at the T8-10 levels. Conclusions We report a case of air embolism to the cerebellum and spinal cord causing infarction presenting with an initial symptom of mild electrical current sensation in both lower extremities during the transthoracic needle biopsy. For this potentially fatal complication, early recognition, followed by prompt therapy is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality. PMID:25113016

2014-01-01

46

A common spinal muscular atrophy deletion mutation is present on a single founder haplotype in the US Hutterites  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive (AR) neuromuscular disease that is one of the most common lethal genetic disorders in children, with carrier frequencies as high as ?1 in 35 in US Whites. As part of our genetic studies in the Hutterites from South Dakota, we identified a large 22?Mb run of homozygosity, spanning the SMA locus in an affected child, of which 10?Mb was also homozygous in three affected Hutterites from Montana, supporting a single founder origin for the mutation. We developed a haplotype-based method for identifying carriers of the SMN1 deletion that leveraged existing genome-wide SNP genotype data for ?1400 Hutterites. In combination with two direct PCR-based assays, we identified 176 carriers of the SMN1 deletion, one asymptomatic homozygous adult and three carriers of a de novo deletion. This corresponds to a carrier frequency of one in eight (12.5%) in the South Dakota Hutterites, representing the highest carrier frequency reported to date for SMA and for an AR disease in the Hutterite population. Lastly, we show that 26 SNPs can be used to predict SMA carrier status in the Hutterites, with 99.86% specificity and 99.71% sensitivity. PMID:21610747

Chong, Jessica X; Oktay, A Af?in; Dai, Zunyan; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Prior, Thomas W; Ober, Carole

2011-01-01

47

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula with lipomyelodysplasia.  

PubMed

A 72-year-old man presented with a very rare case of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with lipomyelodysplasia manifesting as progressive paraparesis and bladder dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a spinal lipoma associated with tethered cord and spinal cord swelling with dilated perimedullary veins. Embolization of the spinal dural AVF was successfully performed, and is an optional treatment for coexisting spinal dural AVF and lipomyelocele in adults. PMID:23438662

Sato, Masayuki; Takigawa, Tomoji; Shiigai, Masanari; Tamura, Goichiro; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Nakai, Yasunobu; Zaboronok, Alexander; Tsurushima, Hideo; Matsumura, Akira

2013-01-01

48

A comparison of bone density and bone morphology between patients presenting with hip fractures, spinal fractures or a combination of the two  

PubMed Central

Background Currently it is uncertain how to define osteoporosis and who to treat after a hip fracture. There is little to support the universal treatment of all such patients but how to select those most in need of treatment is not clear. In this study we have compared cortical and trabecular bone status between patients with spinal fractures and those with hip fracture with or without spinal fracture with the aim to begin to identify, by a simple clinical method (spine x-ray), a group of hip fracture patients likely to be more responsive to treatment with current antiresorptive agents. Methods Comparison of convenience samples of three groups of 50 patients, one with spinal fractures, one with a hip fracture, and one with both. Measurements consist of bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, at the four standard hip sites, number, distribution and severity of spinal fractures by the method of Genant, cortical bone thickness at the infero-medial femoral neck site, femoral neck and axis length and femoral neck width. Results Patients with spinal fractures alone have the most deficient bones at both trabecular and cortical sites: those with hip fracture and no spinal fractures the best at trabecular bone and most cortical bone sites: and those with both hip and spinal fractures intermediate in most measurements. Hip axis length and neck width did not differ between groups. Conclusion The presence of the spinal fracture indicates poor trabecular bone status in hip fracture patients. Hip fracture patients without spinal fractures have a bone mass similar to the reference range for their age and gender. Poor trabecular bone in hip fracture patients may point to a category of patient more likely to benefit from therapy and may be indicated by the presence of spinal fractures. PMID:23432767

2013-01-01

49

Spinal Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... more quickly when walking up or down a hill, a ramp or steps. Usually, it is relieved by sitting down or leaning over. However, not all patients with spinal narrowing develop symptoms—and we still don't understand why. Because of this, the term "spinal ...

50

Three-Dimensional Spinal Morphology Can Differentiate Between Progressive and Nonprogressive Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis at the Initial Presentation  

PubMed Central

Study Design. This is a prospective case-control study. Objective. The objective of this study was to compare 3-dimensional (3D) morphological parameters of the spine at the first visit between a nonprogressive (NP) and a progressive (P) group of immature adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Summary of Background Data. Prediction of curve progression remains challenging in AIS at the first visit. Prediction of progression is based on curve type, curve magnitude, and skeletal or chronological age. Methods. A prospective cohort of 133 AIS was followed from skeletal immaturity to maturity (mean, 37 mo). The first group was made up of patients with AIS with a minimum 6-degree progression of the major curve between the first and last follow-up (P) (n = 53) and the second group was composed of patients with NP who reached maturity with less than 6-degree progression (n = 81). Computerized measurements were taken on reconstructed 3-dimensional (3D) spine radiographs of the first visit. There were 6 categories of measurements: angle of plane of maximum curvature, Cobb angles (kyphosis, lordosis), 3D wedging (apical vertebra, apical disks), rotation (upper and lower junctional vertebra, apical vertebra, and thoracolumbar junction), torsion, and slenderness (height/width ratio). t tests were also conducted. Results. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups for age and initial Cobb angle. P presented significant hypokyphosis, and parameters related to rotation presented significant statistical differences between NP and P (plane of maximal curvature, torsion, and apical axial rotation). Depth slenderness also presented statistical differences. Conclusion. This study confirms that even at the initial visit, 3D morphological differences exist between P and NP AIS. It supports the use of 3D reconstructions of the spine in the initial evaluation of AIS to help predict outcome. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:24776699

Nault, Marie-Lyne; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Turgeon, Isabelle; deGuise, Jacques; Labelle, Hubert

2014-01-01

51

Spinal Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... For example: Continued followup of participants in the SPORT trial will assess long-term outcomes and the cost effectiveness of surgical or nonsurgical management of spinal stenosis and other back problems. SPORT ...

52

Spinal Tap  

MedlinePLUS

... the area. The sample is sent to a lab for analysis and testing. Your doctor might ask you to lie on your back for a few hours after the procedure. Safety A spinal tap is considered a safe procedure ...

53

[Spinal epidural lipomatosis].  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition affecting the thoracic and lumbar spine, characterized by a hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the rich vascularized fat tissue inside the spinal canal. The etiology of SEL is unknown. A high number of cases are associated with obesity, corticosteroid intake and a dysbalance in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-cortisone metabolism. It can be an incidental radiographic finding or present with symptoms, such as low back pain, weakness of the lower limbs, dysesthesia, radiculopathy, claudication or even cauda equina syndrome. The interdisciplinary treatment consists of weight reduction, weaning from corticosteroids and in persisting cases or neurologic alterations in surgical decompression of the spinal canal. The following article presents a current review and a case report of this rare entity. PMID:22772944

Artner, J; Leucht, F; Cakir, B; Reichel, H; Lattig, F

2012-11-01

54

Metachronous Multiplicity of Spinal Cord Arteriovenous Fistula and Spinal Dural AVF in a Patient with Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia  

PubMed Central

Summary HHT (Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia or Rendu Osler Weber disease) is a known autosomal dominant dysplasia. The first clinical presentation of HHT in a child may be a cerebral or spinal AVM. We present the case of a young boy with HHT who had a previous spinal cord AVF treated by surgical obliteration and then presented with a spinal dural AVF nine months later. This patient had surgical obliteration of a spinal cord perimedullary AVF and subsequently developed a new spinal dural AVF at a different level. The diagnosis was made by spinal MR imaging and spinal angiography PMID:20584440

Ling, J.C.M.; Agid, R.; Nakano, S.; Souza, M.P.S.; Reintamm, G.; TerBrugge, K.G.

2005-01-01

55

Retraining the injured spinal cord  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.

Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; Tobin, A.

2001-01-01

56

Totally Ossified Metaplastic Spinal Meningioma  

PubMed Central

A 61-year-old woman with a very rare case of totally ossified large thoracic spinal metaplastic meningioma, showing progressing myelopathy is presented. Computed tomographic images showed a large totally ossfied intradural round mass occupying the spinal canal on T9-10 level. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large T9-10 intradural extramedullary mass that was hypointense to spinal cord on T1- and T2-weighted sequences, partial enhancement was apparent after Gadolinium administration. The spinal cord was severely compressed and displaced toward the right at the level of T9-10. Surgical removal of the tumor was successfully accomplished via the posterior midline approach and the histological diagnosis verified an ossified metaplastic meningioma. The clinical neurological symptoms of patient were improved postoperatively. In this article we discuss the surgical and pathological aspects of rare case of spinal totally ossified metaplastic meningioma. PMID:24278660

Hida, Kazutoshi; Yamauchi, Tomohiro; Houkin, Kiyohiro

2013-01-01

57

Totally ossified metaplastic spinal meningioma.  

PubMed

A 61-year-old woman with a very rare case of totally ossified large thoracic spinal metaplastic meningioma, showing progressing myelopathy is presented. Computed tomographic images showed a large totally ossfied intradural round mass occupying the spinal canal on T9-10 level. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large T9-10 intradural extramedullary mass that was hypointense to spinal cord on T1- and T2-weighted sequences, partial enhancement was apparent after Gadolinium administration. The spinal cord was severely compressed and displaced toward the right at the level of T9-10. Surgical removal of the tumor was successfully accomplished via the posterior midline approach and the histological diagnosis verified an ossified metaplastic meningioma. The clinical neurological symptoms of patient were improved postoperatively. In this article we discuss the surgical and pathological aspects of rare case of spinal totally ossified metaplastic meningioma. PMID:24278660

Ju, Chang Il; Hida, Kazutoshi; Yamauchi, Tomohiro; Houkin, Kiyohiro

2013-09-01

58

Primary vertebral and spinal epidural non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with spinal cord compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined eight patients with primary spinal epidural non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting with spinal cord compression and proven histologically after laminectomy (7 cases) or biopsy (1 case) by MRI. The most common findings were an isointense or low signal relative to the spinal cord on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal on T2-weighted images (T2WI). Spinal cord compression, vertebral bone marrow

M. Boukobza; C. Mazel; E. Touboul

1996-01-01

59

Presentations  

Cancer.gov

Presentations Name Position Presentation (ppt) Sudhir Srivastava, PhD, MPH Chief, Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Metabolomics: An Untapped Frontier (ppt, 161kb) John Milner, PhD Chief, Nutritional Sciences research Group Can Metabolomics

60

Spinal Bracing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Arthur Copes of the Copes Foundation, Baton Rouge, LA, says that 35 percent of the 50 technical reports he received from the NASA/Southern University Industrial Applications Center in Baton Rouge and the Central Industrial Applications Center, Durant, OK, were vital to the development of his Copes Scoliosis Braces, which are custom designed and feature a novel pneumatic bladder that exerts constant corrective pressure to the torso to slowly reduce or eliminate the spinal curve.

1991-01-01

61

Spinal Infarcts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade typical signs of spinal cord ischemia have been reported. Confirming and supporting signs of acute ischemic\\u000a myelomalacia are vertebral body infarction and the pathognomonic contrast enhancement of the cauda equina in the course of\\u000a the disease. Moreover, bone infarction strongly indicates the proximal occlusion and the level of the affected segmental artery.\\u000a Cartilaginous disc embolism, embolism

Michael Mull; Armin Thron

62

Spinal deformity.  

PubMed

Early results of scoliosis screening programs have demonstrated that mild spinal deformity is common, usually nonprogressive, and often requires no specific treatment. The role of the primary care physician is an important one in identifying the rare case, which is secondary to some underlying disorder which itself requires treatment, and the progressive curves, which should be managed by bracing. The informed physician can make this separation efficiently with minimum cost to the family and minimum radiation exposure to the patient. PMID:7373257

Staheli, L T

1980-06-01

63

Spinal cord contusion  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability with devastating neurological outcomes and limited therapeutic opportunities, even though there are thousands of publications on spinal cord injury annually. There are two major types of spinal cord injury, transaction of the spinal cord and spinal cord contusion. Both can theoretically be treated, but there is no well documented treatment in human being. As for spinal cord contusion, we have developed an operation with fabulous result. PMID:25206890

Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yazhou; Zhao, Xianghui

2014-01-01

64

Presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by the pioneering work of Abbas Edalat, several authors have sought to develop the theory of integration on a domain-theoretic foundation. The so-called “theory of charges” (finitely additive measures on algebras) provides tools for extending Edalat's original program of a general Riemann integral to a very wide class of domains. We present the appropriate definitions and general results that

Jimmie Lawson

2001-01-01

65

Primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma is very rare. We will discuss the clinical features and treatment of primary spinal epidural Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this paper, a 30-year-old male patient who presented with spinal epidural tumor at the T9–11 level is reported. Subtotal resection of the tumor was performed and the histological examination of the tumor specimen revealed Hodgkin's lymphoma. All other examinations were negative for an occult disease. Six courses of chemotheraphy containing adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine were given to the patient. Surgery is the first therapeutic approach in malignancies compressing the spinal cord. Hodgkin's lymphoma is a very chemo- and radio-sensitive tumor. The indications for surgery were reduced and limited to laminectomy or even biopsy only, leaving the major role to chemo- and radiotheraphy. PMID:24964329

Yaman, Onur; Özdemir, Nail; Sevin, ?smail Ertan; Özer, Füsun Demirçivi; Ünlüo?lu, Saime

2013-01-01

66

Spinal intradural teratomas: developmental programs gone awry?  

PubMed

Intradural spinal teratomas are rare tumors of the spinal cord that are infrequently encountered in children. Although the mechanistic basis for the formation of these tumors is unclear, several lines of evidence suggest that a dysembryogenic process in the embryo results in their formation. The authors present a case of spinal intradural teratoma in an 18-year-old, previously healthy man and review the literature linking the development of these tumors to defects in neurulation and embryogenesis. PMID:23025442

Kalani, M Yashar S; Iyer, Sudarshan; Coons, Stephen W; Smith, Kris A

2012-10-01

67

Neurotrophins and spinal circuit function  

PubMed Central

Work early in the last century emphasized the stereotyped activity of spinal circuits based on studies of reflexes. However, the last several decades have focused on the plasticity of these spinal circuits. These considerations began with studies of the effects of monoamines on descending and reflex circuits. In recent years new classes of compounds called growth factors that are found in peripheral nerves and the spinal cord have been shown to affect circuit behavior in the spinal cord. In this review we will focus on the effects of neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), on spinal circuits. We also discuss evidence that these molecules can modify functions including nociceptive behavior, motor reflexes and stepping behavior. Since these substances and their receptors are normally present in the spinal cord, they could potentially be useful in improving function in disease states and after injury. Here we review recent findings relevant to these translational issues. PMID:24926235

Boyce, Vanessa S.; Mendell, Lorne M.

2014-01-01

68

Persistent paralysis after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery.  

PubMed

Anterior spinal artery syndrome has rarely been reported as a cause of permanent neurologic complications after neuraxial anesthesia in obstetric patients. A parturient developed anterior spinal artery syndrome after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. A healthy 32-year-old parturient presented at 41(2/7) weeks for primary elective caesarean delivery for breech presentation. Spinal anesthesia was easily performed with clear cerebrospinal fluid, and block height was T4 at 5 minutes. Intraoperative course was uneventful except for symptomatic bradycardia (37-40 beats per minute) and hypotension (88/44 mm Hg) 4 minutes postspinal anesthesia, treated with ephedrine and atropine. Dense motor block persisted 9 hours after spinal anesthesia, and magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral region was normal, finding no spinal cord compression or lesion. Physical examination revealed deficits consistent with a spinal cord lesion at T6, impacting the anterior spinal cord while sparing the posterior tracts. PMID:25433726

Zaphiratos, Valerie; McKeen, Dolores M; Macaulay, Bruce; George, Ronald B

2014-11-26

69

Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... or anterior root) contains nerve fibers that carry impulses (signals) from the spinal cord to muscles to ... Down the Spinal Cord Spinal nerves carry nerve impulses to and from the spinal cord through two ...

70

Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nontraumatic spinal cord ischemia is uncommon, especially at the cervical spinal cord. We describe a 30-year-old man presenting with acute onset of quadriparesis and impaired sensation for pain and temperature after backing up the car. He was diag- nosed noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiological studies. The image studies had revealed a high signal intensity lesion in the

YI-MIN CHEN; HELEN L PO; SHING-NIN MEI; SHO-JEN CHENG

2003-01-01

71

Spinal epidural lipomatosis: a case study.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEDL), an abnormal localized or tumor-like accumulation of fat in the epidural space, is an infrequent complication of chronic steroid usage and an uncommon cause of spinal cord compression. A patient with a primary malignant brain tumor on chronic corticosteroids presented with a clinical picture of cord compression and was diagnosed with SEDL. PMID:15366546

Clancey, Jeanne K

2004-08-01

72

[Urgent indications for spinal surgery in patients with rheumatoid inflammation].  

PubMed

The urgency of spinal procedures for rheumatoid inflammatory disease is presented in three typical spinal involvements. Characteristic connections between rheumatoid arthritis and the cervical spine, spinal fractures in ankylosing spondylitis and the occurrence of bacterial spondylodiscitis as a side effect of immunosuppression are discussed. PMID:17268787

Wiesner, L; Steinhagen, J; Hansen-Algenstaedt, N; Rüther, W

2007-02-01

73

Solitary spinal dural syphilis granuloma mimicking a spinal meningioma.  

PubMed

Dural granuloma is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there has no case reported solitary spinal dural syphilis granuloma worldwide so far. Here we report our findings in a 49-year-old woman, who presented with 10-year progressive left lower-limb numbness and two weeks of right lower-limb numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a homogeneous enhanced spindle-shaped lesion, 2.9 × 1.5 cm in size, occupying the spinal intradural extramedullary space, at the level of Thoracic (T)-2/3, which mimicked the appearance of spinal meningioma. The Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test titer of 1:8, and the venereal diseases research laboratory of cerebral spinal fluid (VDRL-CSF) was reactive, so confirmed neurosyphilis was considered. After formal anti-syphilis treatment, posterior laminectomy surgery was performed, and the lesion was completely separated and extirpated. Final histopathologic diagnosis of the lesion was confirmed as chronic granulomatous inflammation, combined with the neurosyphilis history, spinal dural syphilis granuloma was finally diagnosed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered without any further treatment. PMID:24831378

Zhou, Heng-Jun; Zhan, Ren-Ya; Chen, Man-Tao; Cao, Fei; Zheng, Xiu-Jue

2014-01-01

74

Spinal subdural abscess following epidural steroid injection.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man who presented with a cervicothoracolumbosacral spinal subdural abscess about a month after receiving an epidural steroid injection for management of low-back pain due to L5-S1 disc herniation. Although he presented with symptoms concerning for a spinal etiology, the subdural empyema was not evident on the initial MRI study and was observed on imaging 5 days later. This patient was successfully managed with surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment, and he is doing well more than 21 months after the operation. It is possible that a prior history of disc herniation or other spinal abnormality may increase a patient's risk of developing spinal subdural empyema. This case illustrates the risk of infection following spinal epidural steroid injections and the importance of early recognition and intervention to successfully treat an extensive subdural abscess. PMID:25343407

Kraeutler, Matthew J; Bozzay, Joseph D; Walker, Matthew P; John, Kuruvilla

2015-01-01

75

Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Spinal Muscular Atrophy Information Page Synonym(s): Werdnig-Hoffman Disease, Kugelberg-Welander Disease Condensed from Spinal Muscular ... of symptoms. Type I (also known as Werdnig-Hoffman disease, or infantile-onset SMA) is evident at ...

76

Rehabilitation in spinal infection diseases  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord infections were the diseases defined by Hypocrite yet the absence of modern medicine and there was not a real protocol in rehabilitation although there were many aspects in surgical treatment options. The patients whether surgically or conservatively treated had a lot of neurological, motor, and sensory disturbances. Our clinic has quite experience from our previous researchs. Unfortunately, serious spinal cord infections are still present in our region. In these patients the basic rehabilitation approaches during early, pre-operation, post-operation period and in the home environment will provide significant contributions to improve the patients’ sensory and motor skills, develop the balance and proriocaption, increase the independence of patients in daily living activities and minimize the assistance of other people. There is limited information in the literature related with the nature of the rehabilitation programmes to be applied for patients with spinal infections. The aim of this review is to share our clinic experience and summarise the publications about spinal infection rehabilitation. There are very few studies about the rehabilitation of spinal infections. There are still not enough studies about planning and performing rehabilitation programs in these patients. Therefore, a comprehensive rehabilitation programme during the hospitalisation and home periods is emphasised in order to provide optimal management and prevent further disability. PMID:25621205

Nas, Kemal; Karakoç, Mehmet; Ayd?n, Abdulkadir; Öne?, Kadriye

2015-01-01

77

Rehabilitation in spinal infection diseases.  

PubMed

Spinal cord infections were the diseases defined by Hypocrite yet the absence of modern medicine and there was not a real protocol in rehabilitation although there were many aspects in surgical treatment options. The patients whether surgically or conservatively treated had a lot of neurological, motor, and sensory disturbances. Our clinic has quite experience from our previous researchs. Unfortunately, serious spinal cord infections are still present in our region. In these patients the basic rehabilitation approaches during early, pre-operation, post-operation period and in the home environment will provide significant contributions to improve the patients' sensory and motor skills, develop the balance and proriocaption, increase the independence of patients in daily living activities and minimize the assistance of other people. There is limited information in the literature related with the nature of the rehabilitation programmes to be applied for patients with spinal infections. The aim of this review is to share our clinic experience and summarise the publications about spinal infection rehabilitation. There are very few studies about the rehabilitation of spinal infections. There are still not enough studies about planning and performing rehabilitation programs in these patients. Therefore, a comprehensive rehabilitation programme during the hospitalisation and home periods is emphasised in order to provide optimal management and prevent further disability. PMID:25621205

Nas, Kemal; Karakoç, Mehmet; Ayd?n, Abdulkadir; Öne?, Kadriye

2015-01-18

78

Isolated intramedullary spinal cord cysticercosis.  

PubMed

We report a case of intradural, intramedullary, spinal cord neurocysticercosis at dorsal 10-11 (D10-11) level in a mentally retarded male. A 38-year-old, mentally retarded male presented with weakness and stiffness in both the lower limbs and waist since one year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a D10-D11 intradural space occupying lesion with cord compression. Intraoperatively, the tumor was grayish white, soft, cystic, and intramedullary with a well-defined plane with surrounding cord tissue. Gross examination revealed a cystic lesion of 1.5×1×0.8 cm, with a whitish nodule of 0.3 cm in diameter. The cyst wall was thin, shiny, and translucent. Microscopic examination revealed cysticercous cyst. Spinal neurocysticercosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of spinal mass lesion in patients residing in endemic area such as India. PMID:22870160

Agale, Shubhangi V; Bhavsar, Shweta; Choudhury, Barnik; Manohar, Vidhya

2012-04-01

79

Epidural anaesthesia and spinal haematoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Haematoma formation in the spinal canal due to epidural anaesthesia is a very rare but serious complication. This paper presents\\u000a a comprehensive review of case reports.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Source  Sampling of case reports over a 10 yr period, medline® -research (1966–1995) and cross-check with former reviews.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Findings  Fifty-one confirmed spinal haematomas associated with epidural anaesthesia were found. Most were related to the insertion\\u000a of

Hinnerk Wulf

1996-01-01

80

Spinal Cord Ischemia Secondary to Hypovolemic Shock  

PubMed Central

A 44-year-old male presented with symptoms of spinal cord compression secondary to metastatic prostate cancer. An urgent decompression at the cervical-thoracic region was performed, and there were no complications intraoperatively. Three hours postoperatively, the patient developed acute bilateral lower-limb paralysis (motor grade 0). Clinically, he was in class 3 hypovolemic shock. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, showing no epidural hematoma. He was managed aggressively with medical therapy to improve his spinal cord perfusion. The patient improved significantly, and after one week, he was able to regain most of his motor functions. Although not commonly reported, spinal cord ischemia post-surgery should be recognized early, especially in the presence of hypovolemic shock. MRI should be performed to exclude other potential causes of compression. Spinal cord ischemia needs to be managed aggressively with medical treatment to improve spinal cord perfusion. The prognosis depends on the severity of deficits, and is usually favorable.

Kapoor, Siddhant; Koh, Roy KM; Yang, Eugene WR; Hee, Hwan-Tak

2014-01-01

81

[Spinal canal stenosis].  

PubMed

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. PMID:25398571

Papanagiotou, P; Boutchakova, M

2014-11-01

82

Idiopathic spinal epidural lipomatosis.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder characterized by the pathological overgrowth of epidural fat and often causes extradural compression which may mimic other spinal disorders. Steroid administration is a well-documented etiology. We report a case of spinal epidural lipomastosis without history of steroid administration. The initial manifestation was bizarre and was misdiagnosed as a degenerative vertebral or disc disease for long. Posterior decompression with debulking of the extradural fat successfully and thoroughly relieved his symptoms. We emphasize the importance of taking this disease into consideration for a markedly obese patient with persisting back pain or symptoms suggesting spinal cord or other spinal neural elements compression. PMID:15357116

Fan, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Shih-Tien; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chang, Ming-Chau; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

2004-05-01

83

Intradural extramedullary tuberculous spinal granulomas.  

PubMed

Four cases of intradural extramedullary tuberculous spinal granulomas without bony involvement are presented. Both, the rarity of the disease, as well as the successful microsurgical resection with good recovery prompted this report. The pathogenesis with the controversies therein, is discussed and pertinent literature is reviewed. PMID:3208471

Mathuriya, S N; Khosla, V K; Banerjee, A K

1988-01-01

84

IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-SPINAL CORD HISTIOCYTIC SARCOMA IN A DOG.  

PubMed

A 12-year-old mixed breed dog was presented for evaluation of progressive paraparesis and ataxia. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed and identified multifocal intradural spinal cord mass lesions. The lesions were hyperintense in T2-weighted sequences, isointense to mildly hyperintense in T1-weighted sequences with strong contrast enhancement of the intradural lesions and spinal cord meninges. Spinal cord neoplasia was suspected. A diagnosis of intramedullary spinal cord histiocytic sarcoma, confined to the central nervous system, was confirmed histopathologically. Spinal cord histiocytic sarcoma is a rare neoplasm, but should be included in the differential diagnosis for dogs with clinical signs of myelopathy. PMID:24382300

Taylor, Amanda; Eichelberger, Bunita; Hodo, Carolyn; Cooper, Jocelyn; Porter, Brian

2014-01-01

85

Primary extramedullary spinal melanoma mimicking spinal meningioma: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Primary spinal melanoma is a rare lesion, which occurs throughout the cranial and spinal regions, however, is primarily observed in the middle or lower thoracic spine. The clinical features of primary spinal melanoma are complex and unspecific, resulting in a high misdiagnosis rate. In the present case report, a rare case of spinal melanoma exhibiting the dural tail sign and mimicking spinal meningioma is reported. The initial diagnosis, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was unclear. Thus, melanin-containing tumors and spinal meningioma should have been considered in the differential diagnosis. The tumor was completely resected using a standard posterior midline approach, which was followed by chemotherapy. Subsequent to the surgery, the patient was discharged with improved motor capacity and a follow-up MRI scan showed no recurrence after six months. The present study demonstrates that it is critical for neurosurgeons to focus on increasing the accuracy of initial diagnoses in order to make informed decisions regarding the requirement for surgical resection. The present case report presents the clinical, radiological and pathological features of primary extramedullary spinal melanoma mimicking spinal meningioma to emphasize the importance of early identification and diagnosis. PMID:24959273

LI, YU-PING; ZHANG, HENG-ZHU; SHE, LEI; WANG, XIAO-DONG; DONG, LUN; XU, ENXI; WANG, XING-DONG

2014-01-01

86

Isolated spinal neurobehçet disease. MR imaging findings.  

PubMed

MR imaging findings of a patient with isolated cervical spinal cord involvement of neurobehçet disease is presented. To our knowledge this will be the sixth case reported in the literature. PMID:14510765

Cakirer, S

2003-09-01

87

Bridging spinal cord injuries  

E-print Network

Minireview Bridging spinal cord injuries James W Fawcett Address: Cambridge University Centre for Brain Repair, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0PY, UK. Email: jf108@cam.ac.uk Repair of the injured spinal cord has been one of the great quests... why not transplant Abstract One strategy for spinal cord injury repair is to make cellular bridges that support axon regeneration. However, the bridging cells often fail to integrate with host tissue and may lead to increased pain sensitivity. Recent...

2008-10-15

88

Recognition of Spontaneous Vertebral Artery Dissection Preempting Spinal Manipulative Therapy: A Patient Presenting With Neck Pain and Headache for Chiropractic Care  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who presented to a chiropractic physician for evaluation and treatment of neck pain and headache. Clinical features A 45-year-old otherwise healthy female presented for evaluation and treatment of neck pain and headache. Within minutes, non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms progressed to neurological deficits, including limb ataxia and cognitive disturbances. Suspicion was raised for cerebrovascular ischemia and emergent referral was initiated. Intervention and outcome Paramedics were immediately summoned and the patient was transported to a local hospital with a working diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular ischemia. Multiplanar computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast revealed vertebral artery dissection of the V2 segment in the right vertebral artery. Anticoagulation therapy was administered and the patient was discharged without complications after 5 days in the hospital. Conclusion This case highlights the potential for patients with vertebral artery dissection to present with nonspecific musculoskeletal complaints. Neurological symptoms may not manifest initially, but their sudden onset indicates the possibility of an ischemic cerebrovascular event. We suggest that early recognition and emergent referral for this patient avoided potential exacerbation of an evolving pre-existing condition and resulted in timely anticoagulation treatment.

Mattox, Ross; Smith, Linda W.; Kettner, Norman W.

2014-01-01

89

Three-Dimensional Spinal Morphology can Differentiate Between Progressive and Non-Progressive Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis at the Initial Presentation.  

PubMed

Study Design. This is a prospective case-control study.Objective. The objective of this study was to compare 3D morphologic parameters of the spine at the first visit between a non progressive (NP) and a progressive (P) group of immature adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).Summary of Background Data. Prediction of curve progression remains challenging in AIS at the first visit. Prediction of progression is based on curve type, curve magnitude and skeletal or chronological age.Methods. A prospective cohort of 134 AIS was followed from skeletal immaturity to maturity (mean 37 months). The first group was made up of AIS patients with a minimum 6° progression of the major curve between the first and last follow up (P) (n=53) and the second group was composed of NP patients that reached maturity with less than 6° progression (n=81). Computerized measurements were undertaken on reconstructed 3D spine radiographs of the first visit. There were 6 categories of measurements: angle of plane of maximum curvature, Cobb angles (kyphosis, lordosis), 3D wedging (apical vertebra, apical disks), rotation (upper and lower junctional vertebra, apical vertebra, thoracolumbar junction), torsion and slenderness (height/width ratio). t tests were also undertaken.Results. There was no statistical difference between the two groups for age and initial Cobb angle. NP presented significant hypokyphosis, and parameters related to rotation presented significant statistical differences between NP and P (plane of maximal curvature, torsion, apical axial rotation). Depth slenderness also presented statistical differences.Conclusion. This study confirms that even at the initial visit, 3D morphologic differences exist between P and NP AIS. It supports the use of 3D reconstructions of the spine in the initial evaluation of AIS to help predict outcome. PMID:24583719

Nault, M-L; Mac-Thiong, J-M; Roy-Beaudry, M; Turgeon, I; de Guise, J; Labelle, H; Parent, S

2014-02-27

90

What is different about spinal pain?  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanisms subserving deep spinal pain have not been studied as well as those related to the skin and to deep pain in peripheral limb structures. The clinical phenomenology of deep spinal pain presents unique features which call for investigations which can explain these at a mechanistic level. Methods Targeted searches of the literature were conducted and the relevant materials reviewed for applicability to the thesis that deep spinal pain is distinctive from deep pain in the peripheral limb structures. Topics related to the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of deep spinal pain were organized in a hierarchical format for content review. Results Since the 1980’s the innervation characteristics of the spinal joints and deep muscles have been elucidated. Afferent connections subserving pain have been identified in a distinctive somatotopic organization within the spinal cord whereby afferents from deep spinal tissues terminate primarily in the lateral dorsal horn while those from deep peripheral tissues terminate primarily in the medial dorsal horn. Mechanisms underlying the clinical phenomena of referred pain from the spine, poor localization of spinal pain and chronicity of spine pain have emerged from the literature and are reviewed here, especially emphasizing the somatotopic organization and hyperconvergence of dorsal horn “low back (spinal) neurons”. Taken together, these findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that deep spine pain is different from deep pain arising from peripheral limb structures. Conclusions This thesis addressed the question “what is different about spine pain?” Neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic findings from studies in the last twenty years provide preliminary support for the thesis that deep spine pain is different from deep pain arising from peripheral limb structures. PMID:22764841

2012-01-01

91

Regeneration of ascending spinal axons in goldfish.  

PubMed

Regeneration of descending spinal cord tracts occur spontaneously in adult goldfish. Very little information is available regarding the fate of ascending fibers. Using Dextran amines as a tracer, we studied the normal and regenerated ascending axonal projection patterns in adult goldfish brain nuclei. Present study includes spinal projections to torus semicircularis, hypothalamus, thalamus and the telencephalon. Regenerated fibers had finer caliber axons and the terminal axonal arbors covered a larger area than the corresponding normal ones. PMID:9593911

Hanna, G F; Nawar, N N; Sharma, S C

1998-04-27

92

Spinal Cord Infarction  

MedlinePLUS

... prevent and treat them. NIH Patient Recruitment for Spinal Cord Infarction Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 ... National Spinal Cord Injury Association 75-20 Astoria Blvd Suite ...

93

Spinal tuberculosis: A review  

PubMed Central

Spinal tuberculosis is a destructive form of tuberculosis. It accounts for approximately half of all cases of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is more common in children and young adults. The incidence of spinal tuberculosis is increasing in developed nations. Genetic susceptibility to spinal tuberculosis has recently been demonstrated. Characteristically, there is destruction of the intervertebral disk space and the adjacent vertebral bodies, collapse of the spinal elements, and anterior wedging leading to kyphosis and gibbus formation. The thoracic region of vertebral column is most frequently affected. Formation of a ‘cold’ abscess around the lesion is another characteristic feature. The incidence of multi-level noncontiguous vertebral tuberculosis occurs more frequently than previously recognized. Common clinical manifestations include constitutional symptoms, back pain, spinal tenderness, paraplegia, and spinal deformities. For the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive imaging technique than x-ray and more specific than computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently demonstrates involvement of the vertebral bodies on either side of the disk, disk destruction, cold abscess, vertebral collapse, and presence of vertebral column deformities. Neuroimaging-guided needle biopsy from the affected site in the center of the vertebral body is the gold standard technique for early histopathological diagnosis. Antituberculous treatment remains the cornerstone of treatment. Surgery may be required in selected cases, e.g. large abscess formation, severe kyphosis, an evolving neurological deficit, or lack of response to medical treatment. With early diagnosis and early treatment, prognosis is generally good. PMID:22118251

Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Somvanshi, Dilip Singh

2011-01-01

94

Multiple sclerosis of the spinal cord: Magnetic resonance appearance  

SciTech Connect

To determine the MR appearance of spinal cord multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques in patients presenting with myclopathy by using a high-field (1.5 T) imager. We studied 119 patients who underwent high-field (1.5 T) MR studies of the spinal cord for evaluation of myelopathy. All 119 patients were thought to have possible findings of spinal cord MS at the time of the MRI interpretation. Sixty-four plaques were studied in 47 patients with clinically definite MS and adequate quality MRI. Of these patients 68% had a single spinal cord plaque, 19% had two plaques, and 13% had three or more plaques. Sixty-two percent of the plaques occurred in the cervical spinal cord and most frequently involved the posterior (41%) and lateral (25%) aspects of the spinal cord. None of the 64 lesions involved the entire thickness of the spinal cord. The lesion length varied from 2 to 60 mm, with 84% of the lesions <15 mm in length. The spinal cord diameter was unchanged in 84% of plaques, enlarged at the level of the lesion in 14%, and atrophic in 2%. Just over half (55%) of the plaques enhanced with intravenously administered gadolinium. Of the patients who received synchronous head and spinal cord examinations on the same day, 24% had normal findings on the MR study of the head. Follow-up spinal cord studies were available in nine patients. New lesions developed in two patients, while previously described lesions resolved. In three patients only new lesions developed. In four patients no change occurred in the existing number of cord plaques. Spinal cord demyelinating plaques present as well-circumscribed foci of increased T2 signal that asymmetrically involve the spinal cord parenchyma. Knowledge of their usual appearance may prevent unnecessary biopsy. An MR examination of the head may confirm the imaging suggestion of spinal cord demyelinating disease, because up to 76% of patients have abnormal intracranial findings. 15 refs., 7 figs.

Thielen, K.R.; Miller, G.M. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

1996-05-01

95

Spinal Myoclonus After Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: In the course of examining spinal motor function in many hundreds of people with traumatic spinal cord injury, we encountered 6 individuals who developed involuntary and rhythmic contractions in muscles of their legs. Although there are many reports of unusual muscle activation patterns associated with different forms of myoclonus, we believe that certain aspects of the patterns seen with these 6 subjects have not been previously reported. These patterns share many features with those associated with a spinal central pattern generator for walking. Methods: Subjects in this case series had a history of chronic injury to the cervical spinal cord, resulting in either complete (ASIA A; n = 4) or incomplete (ASIA D; n = 2) quadriplegia. We used multi-channel electromyography recordings of trunk and leg muscles of each subject to document muscle activation patterns associated with different postures and as influenced by a variety of sensory stimuli. Results: Involuntary contractions spanned multiple leg muscles bilaterally, sometimes including weak abdominal contractions. Contractions were smooth and graded and were highly reproducible in rate for a given subject (contraction rates were 0.3–0.5 Hz). These movements did not resemble the brief rapid contractions (ie, "jerks") ascribed to some forms of spinal myoclonus. For all subjects, the onset of involuntary muscle contraction was dependent upon hip angle; contractions did not occur unless the hips (and knees) were extended (ie, subjects were supine). In the 4 ASIA A subjects, contractions occurred simultaneously in all muscles (agonists and antagonists) bilaterally. In sharp contrast, contractions in the 2 ASIA D subjects were reciprocal between agonists and antagonists within a limb and alternated between limbs, such that movements in these 2 subjects looked just like repetitive stepping. Finally, each of the 6 subjects had a distinct pathology of their spinal cord, nerve roots, distal trunk, or thigh; in 4 of these subjects, treatment of the pathology eliminated the involuntary movements. Conclusion: The timing, distribution, and reliance upon hip angle suggest that these movement patterns reflect some elements of a central pattern generator for stepping. Emergence of these movements in persons with chronic spinal cord injury is extremely rare and appears to depend upon a combination of the more rostrally placed injury and a pathologic process leading to a further enhancement of excitability in the caudal spinal cord. PMID:17044393

Calancie, Blair

2006-01-01

96

Spinal Cord Infarction Complicating Embolisation of Vertebral Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Summary A 70-year-old woman presented with severe back pain secondary to metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the second lumbar vertebral body. She had no evidence of spinal cord compression clinically or on MR imaging. Tumour embolisation was performed for pain relief The embolisation was complicated by spinal cord infarction resulting from angiographic masking of a spinal artery by diversion of contrast material into the high-flow tumour. PMID:20670493

Cloft, H.J.; Jensen, M.E.; Do, H.M.; Kallmes, D.E.

1999-01-01

97

Spinal disease in neurologically symptomatic HIV-positive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the MRI findings of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with “spinal” symptoms and review the\\u000a literature. In 23 consecutive HIV-positive patients presenting with acute neurologic complaints thought to be referable to\\u000a the spine, we reviewed spinal MRI, medical charts, and laboratory, pathologic, and autopsy data. In the early stages of HIV\\u000a infection, the common causes of spinal complaints

K. H. Taber; L. A. Hayman; W. X. Shandera; P. J. Díaz-Marchan; T. Omessi

1999-01-01

98

Low-level laser therapy for spinal cord injury in rats: effects of polarization  

E-print Network

The effects of laser polarization on the efficacy of near-infrared low-level laser therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI) are presented. Rat spinal cords were injured with a weight-drop device, and the lesion sites were ...

Ando, Takahiro

99

Intramedullary lumbar lesion mimicking spinal cord tumor: a case of non-neoplastic intramedullary spinal cord lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-neoplastic intramedullary spinal lesion cases are rarely seen in the literature. We would like to present this case for\\u000a differential diagnosis of intramedullary spinal tumors. The aim of this case report is to attract attention on the MRI findings\\u000a with lack of contrast enhancement and long syrinx formation which differs these types of lesions from the intramedullary spinal\\u000a tumors. Intraoperative,

Ilker SolmazMehmet; Mehmet B. Önal; Erdinç Civelek; Sait ?irin; Serdar Kahraman

2010-01-01

100

MRI and FDG PET/CT findings in 3 cases of spinal infectious arachnoiditis.  

PubMed

Spinal arachnoiditis is a disease characterized by inflammation and scarring of the arachnoid membrane of the spinal cord. FDG PET/CT findings of spinal arachnoiditis have been rarely reported. We present 3 cases of spinal infectious arachnoiditis (1 pyogenic and 2 tuberculous). MRI was performed in these 3 cases showing thickened spinal meninges with marked enhancement. FDG PET/CT was performed in 2 cases showing intense linear FDG uptake along the spinal canal. The combination of MRI and FDG PET/CT may be helpful in identifying the infectious sites and evaluating the activity of the infection. PMID:24321827

Dong, Aisheng; Zuo, Changjing; Zhang, Ping; Lu, Jianping; Bai, Yushu

2014-10-01

101

Extra and Intramedullary Anaplastic Ependymoma in Thoracic Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Spinal ependymoma occupies 40-60% of primary spinal cord tumors and has a feature of intramedullary tumor. The tumor most commonly arises from the central canal of the spinal cord, the conus medullaris or the filum terminale and its pathological features are usually benign. Unlike above characteristics, intra and extramedullary ependymomas are reported very rarely and have wide variety of histological features. We present a rare case of spinal anaplastic ependymoma with an accompanied exophytic lesions extramedullary as well. The tumor was poorly delineated between a spinal cord and the extramedullary components in operative view. After we had confirmed the frozen biopsy as anaplastic ependymoma, the remnant mass embedded in the spinal cord was remained because of its unclear resection margin and the risk of neurological deterioration. She underwent radiotherapy with 50.4 Gy, and there were newly developed mass lesions at the lumbosacral region on the MRI, 14 months postoperatively. PMID:24757483

Kim, Byung Soo; Kwak, Kyung-Woo; Choi, Jun Huck

2013-01-01

102

Extra and intramedullary anaplastic ependymoma in thoracic spinal cord.  

PubMed

Spinal ependymoma occupies 40-60% of primary spinal cord tumors and has a feature of intramedullary tumor. The tumor most commonly arises from the central canal of the spinal cord, the conus medullaris or the filum terminale and its pathological features are usually benign. Unlike above characteristics, intra and extramedullary ependymomas are reported very rarely and have wide variety of histological features. We present a rare case of spinal anaplastic ependymoma with an accompanied exophytic lesions extramedullary as well. The tumor was poorly delineated between a spinal cord and the extramedullary components in operative view. After we had confirmed the frozen biopsy as anaplastic ependymoma, the remnant mass embedded in the spinal cord was remained because of its unclear resection margin and the risk of neurological deterioration. She underwent radiotherapy with 50.4 Gy, and there were newly developed mass lesions at the lumbosacral region on the MRI, 14 months postoperatively. PMID:24757483

Kim, Byung Soo; Kim, Sang Woo; Kwak, Kyung-Woo; Choi, Jun Huck

2013-09-01

103

Thoracic spinal epidural lipomatosis associated with adolescent scoliosis.  

PubMed

Although a variety of neural axis abnormalities in association with idiopathic scoliosis have been reported, there are no documented cases of spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) in a child with scoliosis. An otherwise healthy, neurologically intact 14-year-old girl presented with spinal deformity. Radiographs confirmed a left thoracic, right lumbar Lenke class 5CN scoliosis. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated extensive SEL in the thoracic spine. She underwent posterior spinal fusion with segmental instrumentation using bony anchors that did not violate the spinal canal. Intraoperative spinal cord monitoring and postoperative clinical course were uneventful. SEL should be added to the list of potential abnormalities to be looked for in children with spinal deformities undergoing preoperative MRI of the neural axis. PMID:16770223

Sabharwal, Sanjeev; Mahmood, Faisal

2006-05-01

104

Value of Micro-CT for Monitoring Spinal Microvascular Changes after Chronic Spinal Cord Compression  

PubMed Central

Neurological degeneration can occur after compression of the spinal cord. It is widely accepted that spinal cord compression leads to ischemic lesions and ultimately neurological dysfunction due to a narrowed spinal canal. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of spinal cord compression injury is required to help develop effective clinical interventions. In the present study, we propose a new method of quantitative 3D micro-CT to observe microvascular events in a chronic spinal cord compression rat model. A total of 36 rats were divided into two groups: sham control group (n = 12) and compressive spinal cord injury group (n = 24). Rats were scarified at four weeks after surgery. In each group, CD34 micro-vessel immunohistochemical staining was performed in half of the animals, while micro-CT scanning was performed in the other half. Microvessel density (MVD) was measured after immunohistochemical staining, while the vascular index (VI) was measured in 3D micro-CT. In comparison with sham control, abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) can be seen in all 24 cases of the compression group, and VI shows the amount of microvessels reduced consistently and significantly (p < 0.01). A significant correlation is also found between MVD and VI (r = 0.95, p < 0.01). These data suggest that quantitative 3D micro-CT is a sensitive and promising tool for investigating microvascular changes during chronic compressive spinal cord injury. PMID:25003643

Long, Hou-Qing; Xie, Wen-Han; Chen, Wen-Li; Xie, Wen-Lin; Xu, Jing-Hui; Hu, Yong

2014-01-01

105

Spinal palpatory diagnostic procedures utilized by practitioners of spinal manipulation: annotated bibliography of content validity and reliability studies  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of spinal neuro-musculoskeletal dysfunction is a pre-requisite for application of spinal manual therapy. Different disciplines rely on palpatory procedures to establish this diagnosis and design treatment plans. Over the past 30 years, the osteopathic, chiropractic, physical therapy and allopathic professions have investigated the validity and reliability of spinal palpatory procedures. We explored the literature from all four disciplines looking for scientific papers studying the content validity and reliability of spinal palpatory procedures. Thirteen databases were searched for relevant papers between January 1966 and October 2001. An annotated bibliography of these articles is presented and organized by the type of test used.

Seffinger, Michael; Adams, Alan; Najm, Wadie; Dickerson, Vivian; Mishra, Shiraz I; Reinsch, Sibylle; Murphy, Linda

2003-01-01

106

What Is Spinal Stenosis?  

MedlinePLUS

... publication. To order the Spinal Stenosis Q&A full-text version, please contact NIAMS using the contact information above. To view the complete text or to order online, visit ... NIAMS Site NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® Home | ...

107

Spinal Cord Injury 101  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

108

Modeling spinal cord biomechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regeneration after spinal cord injury is a serious health issue and there is no treatment for ailing patients. To understand regeneration of the spinal cord we used a system where regeneration occurs naturally, such as the lamprey. In this work, we analyzed the stress response of the spinal cord to tensile loading and obtained the mechanical properties of the cord both in vitro and in vivo. Physiological measurements showed that the spinal cord is pre-stressed to a strain of 10%, and during sinusoidal swimming, there is a local strain of 5% concentrated evenly at the mid-body and caudal sections. We found that the mechanical properties are homogeneous along the body and independent of the meninges. The mechanical behavior of the spinal cord can be characterized by a non-linear viscoelastic model, described by a modulus of 20 KPa for strains up to 15% and a modulus of 0.5 MPa for strains above 15%, in agreement with experimental data. However, this model does not offer a full understanding of the behavior of the spinal cord fibers. Using polymer physics we developed a model that relates the stress response as a function of the number of fibers.

Luna, Carlos; Shah, Sameer; Cohen, Avis; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

2012-02-01

109

Failure of Spinal Cord Oligodendrocyte Development in Mice Lacking Neuregulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oligodendrocytes develop from a subpopulation of precursor cells within the ventral ventricular zone of the spinal cord. The molecular cues that direct this spatially and temporally restricted event seem to originate in part from structures ventral to and within the spinal cord. Here, we present evidence that the family of ligands termed neuregulins are necessary for the normal generation of

Timothy Vartanian; Gerald Fischbach; Robert Miller

1999-01-01

110

Disseminated Tuberculosis of Central Nervous System : Spinal Intramedullary and Intracranial Tuberculomas  

PubMed Central

As a cause of spinal cord compression, intramedullary spinal tuberculoma with central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare. Aurthors report a 66-year-old female presented with multiple CNS tuberculomas including spinal intramedullary tuberculoma manifesting paraparesis and urinary dysfunction. We review the clinical menifestation and experiences of previous reported literature. PMID:24044085

Lim, Yu Seok; Kim, Min Ki; Lim, Young Jin

2013-01-01

111

Noninvasive assessment of the injured human spinal cord by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: A magnetic resonance imaging technique that enables indirect detection of neuronal activity has been developed for the spinal cord. In the present study, this method, spinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is applied to the first study of the injured spinal cord, with the goal of better clinical assessment of the entire cord.Objectives: The objectives of this project

P W Stroman; J Kornelsen; A Bergman; V Krause; K Ethans; K L Malisza; B Tomanek

2004-01-01

112

Isolated intramedullary spinal cord cysticercosis  

PubMed Central

Neurocysticercosis is a major cause of epilepsy in developing countries. Cysticercal involvement of the spinal cord is rare even in endemic areas and accounts for 0.7 to 5.85% of all cases. We present a 19-year-old man who presented with weakness of both lower limbs and urinary complaints in the form of straining of micturition with increased frequency, in whom preoperative MRI revealed a well-defined cystic lesion in dorso-lumber cord extending from D11 to L1 level, which on pathological examination was found to be intramedullary cysticercosis. PMID:25540546

Qazi, Zeeshan; Ojha, Bal Krishna; Chandra, Anil; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Chhitij; Patil, Tushar B.

2014-01-01

113

Multilevel Intramedullary Spinal Neurocysticercosis With Eosinophilic Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Background Cysticercal involvement of the spinal cord is a very rare form of neurocysticercosis. Intramedullary cysts are even less common. Objective To describe a novel presentation of multilevel intramedullary neurocysticercosis with eosinophilic meningitis. Design Case report. Patient A 35-year-old man with a history of cerebral neurocysticercosis who presented with both cauda equina and Brown-Sequard syndromes associated with cerebrospinal fluid findings of eosinophilic meningitis. Results Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the multilevel intramedullary cord lesions. The patientwas treated medically with dexamethasone and albendazole and had a good recovery. Conclusion Intramedullary neurocysticercosis should be considered as a potentially treatable cause of multilevel spinal lesions with subacute meningitis. PMID:15148157

Torabi, Amir M.; Quiceno, Mary; Mendelsohn, Dianne B.; Powell, Craig M.

2014-01-01

114

Spinal Neurofibroma Masquerading as a Herniated Disc  

PubMed Central

We present the only case in English medical literature of a spinal neurofibroma misdiagnosed as a herniated disc using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This case presented with typical symptoms and radiological findings of a herniated disc. Intraoperatively, an abnormality was noted at the S1 nerve root sleeve. Further exploration revealed a spinal neurofibroma which was completely resected, resulting in an improvement in the patient’s symptoms. Currently, there is heavy reliance on MRI as a highly sensitive and specific tool used in the diagnosis of herniated lumbar discs. Although there have been occasional reports of misdiagnoses using MRI, there are no reported cases of a spinal neurofibroma being misdiagnosed as a herniated lumbar disc. Despite great advances in radiological diagnostic imaging, surgical surprises do still occur. Ultimately, instinct is still essential in intraoperative surgical decisions. PMID:23275853

Lamki, Tariq; Ammirati, Mario

2012-01-01

115

Intracranial metastasis from primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor  

PubMed Central

Primary spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are rare tumors, with only 94 cases reported till date. Metastasis to brain from a spinal PNET is even rarer. In the present report, we evaluate the pathology and treatment of solitary intracranial metastasis from spinal PNET in a 22-year-old female who presented with headache and left hemiparesis and was diagnosed to have right parietal parasagittal tumor. She has been previously diagnosed to have cervicothoracic primary spinal PNET, and was treated by surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy seven years back. The intracranial tumor has been removed and pathological examination confirmed as PNET. She received radiotherapy and chemotherapy with ifosfamide and etoposide, following surgery for the right parietal PNET. At 20 months follow-up, patient is stable and has no recurrence of the disease. Critical review of reported cases of primary spinal PNET metastsising to brain was done. PMID:23741262

Ghanta, Rajesh Kumar; Koti, Kalyan; Ghanta, Venkata Sateesh K.; Teegala, Ramesh

2013-01-01

116

Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Cervical spine disease is usually caused by herniated intervertebral discs, abnormal growth of bony processes on the vertebral ... spinal column around the spinal cord. Symptoms of cervical spine problems include: pain that interferes with daily activities ...

117

Giant erosive spinal schwannomas: surgical management.  

PubMed

Giant erosive spinal schwannomas can be distinguished from other spinal schwannomas by its growth in myofascial planes and vertebral body erosion. Therapeutic radical tumour excision without neurologic deterioration is possible in the management. Prognosis is good after total tumour removal. In this article, it is aimed to report six patients who were diagnosed as giant erosive spinal schwannomas between 2001 and 2004 according to the criteria of Sridhar et al. Three of the patients were male and three female with the age range of 16-63 (mean age 39.7). Three of the tumours were located in the cervical region, one in the lumbar region, one in the thoracic region and one in the sacral region. Total excision of the tumours was achieved in four patients. However, one additional operation was required in two patients. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 weeks to 7 years (mean follow-up 51 months). Four patients had a good clinical outcome and there were no radiologic signs of instability or recurrence. Our experience and other published literature suggest that giant erosive spinal schwannoma has significant features such as local invasive nature together with vertebral body erosion and large size but benign histology, long duration for clinical presentation, common preoperative misdiagnosis and good prognosis after total excision. These tumours rarely need spinal instrumentation because the disc capsule and ligaments remain intact even if the pedicle and posterior elements are compromised. PMID:20515264

Ozdemir, Nail; Bezircio?lu, Hamdi; Akar, Omer

2010-10-01

118

A novel rodent model of spinal metastasis and spinal cord compression  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal cord metastatic lesions affect a high number of cancer patients usually resulting in spinal cord compression syndrome. A major obstacle in the research of spinal metastatic disease is the lack of a simple reproducible animal model that mimics the natural course of the disease. In this study, we present a highly reproducible rodent model that can be used for different types of cancers while mimicking the natural course of human metastatic spinal cord compression syndrome. Results All sixteen Fisher 344 rats survived the dorsal approach intraosseous implantation of CRL-1666 adenocarcinoma cells and both rats survived the sham control surgery. By Day 13 functional analysis via the modified Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale showed significant decrease in motor function; median functional score was 3 for the tumor group (p = 0.0011). Median time to paresis was 8.7 days post-operatively. MR imaging illustrated repeated and consistent tumor formation, furthermore, onset of neurological sequale was the result of tumor formation and cord compression as confirmed by histological examination. Conclusions Analysis of these findings demonstrates a repeatable and consistent tumor growth model for cancer spinal metastases in rats. This novel rat model requires a less intricate surgical procedure, and as a result minimizes procedure time while subsequently increasing consistency. Therefore, this model allows for the preclinical evaluation of therapeutics for spinal metastases that more closely replicates physiological findings. PMID:23116234

2012-01-01

119

Metastatic Spinal Tumor  

PubMed Central

In accordance with extending survival periods of cancer patients, number of consecutively developing metastatic spinal tumor is also increasing. There have been improvements in the treatment results of metastatic spine tumor by virtue of the developments in diagnostic radiology, chemotherapy, adjuvant treatment, operative device and technique, discrete preoperative plan, and standardized operation. Accordingly, surgical indication has also increased. Clinically, in case of metastatic spine tumor, treatment of tumor itself should be focused on pain relief, preservation of neurologic function, prevention of pathologic fracture, prevention of pathologic fracture, and correction of spinal instability for improving quality of life, rather than for extension of survival. Additionally, etiology of spinal tumor, correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment principles should be thoroughly understood before establishing treatment plans for effective treatments. PMID:22439092

Jung, Chul-Hee

2012-01-01

120

Spinal dysraphism and cavovarus foot deformity: a case report  

PubMed Central

Neurological impairment secondary to spinal dysraphism most commonly presents as unilateral cavovarus foot in children. The deformity usually develops in the growing child around the age of five or six. The presence of a cavovarus foot of unknown origin in a child should lead to a complete neurological examination, including an assessment of the spine for spinal dysraphism. The early recognition of pathology may prevent severe neurological sequelae. A case of lipomyelomeningocele is presented to illustrate that cord damage in children with spinal dysraphism can present initially as a cavovarus foot. ImagesFigure 1 (a, b and c)Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

Hains, François; Dzus, Ann K; Cassidy, J David

1992-01-01

121

Acute hydrocephalus following cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

We present a case of acute hydrocephalus secondary to cervical spinal cord injury in a patient with diffuse ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A 75-year-old male patient visited the emergency department with tetraparesis and spinal shock. Imaging studies showed cervical spinal cord injury with hemorrhage and diffuse OPLL from C1 to C4. We performed decompressive laminectomy and occipitocervical fusion. Two days after surgery, his mental status had deteriorated to drowsiness with dilatation of the right pupil. Findings on brain computed tomography revealed acute hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the cerebellomedullary cistern, therefore, extraventricular drainage was performed immediately. Acute hydrocephalus as a complication of cervical spine trauma is rare, however, it should be considered if the patient shows deterioration of neurologic symptoms. PMID:24175033

Son, Seong; Lee, Sang Gu; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Woo Kyung

2013-08-01

122

Radiation-Induced Spinal Cord Hemorrhage (Hematomyelia)  

PubMed Central

Intraspinal hemorrhage is very rare and intramedullary hemorrhage, also called hematomyelia, is the rarest form of intraspinal hemorrhage, usually related to trauma. Spinal vascular malformations such intradural arteriovenous malformations are the most common cause of atraumatic hematomyelia. Other considerations include warfarin or heparin anticoagulation, bleeding disorders, spinal cord tumors. Radiation-induced hematomyelia of the cord is exceedingly rare with only one case in literature to date. We report the case of an 8 year old girl with Ewing’s sarcoma of the thoracic vertebra, under radiation therapy, presenting with hematomyelia. We describe the clinical course, the findings on imaging studies and the available information in the literature. Recognition of the clinical pattern of spinal cord injury should lead clinicians to perform imaging studies to evaluate for compressive etiologies. PMID:25568739

Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam; Thamburaj, Krishnamurthy; Vijay, Kanupriya

2014-01-01

123

Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat.  

PubMed

A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat's locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats. PMID:23777582

Antila, Johanna M; Jeserevics, Janis; Rakauskas, Mindaugas; Anttila, Marjukka; Cizinauskas, Sigitas

2013-01-01

124

History of the development of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring  

PubMed Central

In the early 1970s, spinal instrumentation and aggressive surgical technology came into wide use for the treatment of severe spinal deformities. This background led to the development of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring by orthopaedic spine surgeons themselves. The author's group (T.T.) and Kurokawa's group invented a technology in 1972 to utilize the spinal cord evoked potential (SCEP) after direct stimulation of the spinal cord. In the United States, Nash and his group started to use SEPs. Following these developments, the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital group of Stanmore, UK employed spinal somatosensory evoked potential in 1983. However, all of these methods were used to monitor sensory mediated tracts in the spinal cord. The only way to monitor motor function was the Wake up test developed by Vauzelle and Stagnara. In 1980, Merton and Morton reported a technology to stimulate the brain transcranially and opened the doors for motor tract monitoring. Presently, in the operating theatre, monitoring of motor-related functions is routinely performed. We have to remember that multidisciplinary support owing to the development of hardware and, software and the evolution of anesthesiology has made this possible. Furthermore, no single method can sufficiently cover the complex functions of the spinal cord. Multimodality combinations of the available technologies are considered necessary for practical and effective intra-operative monitoring (IOM). In this article, the most notable historic events and articles that are regarded as milestones in the development of IOM are reviewed. PMID:17668250

Kubota, Seiji

2007-01-01

125

History of the development of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring.  

PubMed

In the early 1970s, spinal instrumentation and aggressive surgical technology came into wide use for the treatment of severe spinal deformities. This background led to the development of intraoperative spinal cord monitoring by orthopaedic spine surgeons themselves. The author's group (T.T.) and Kurokawa's group invented a technology in 1972 to utilize the spinal cord evoked potential (SCEP) after direct stimulation of the spinal cord. In the United States, Nash and his group started to use SEPs. Following these developments, the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital group of Stanmore, UK employed spinal somatosensory evoked potential in 1983. However, all of these methods were used to monitor sensory mediated tracts in the spinal cord. The only way to monitor motor function was the Wake up test developed by Vauzelle and Stagnara. In 1980, Merton and Morton reported a technology to stimulate the brain transcranially and opened the doors for motor tract monitoring. Presently, in the operating theatre, monitoring of motor-related functions is routinely performed. We have to remember that multidisciplinary support owing to the development of hardware and, software and the evolution of anesthesiology has made this possible. Furthermore, no single method can sufficiently cover the complex functions of the spinal cord. Multimodality combinations of the available technologies are considered necessary for practical and effective intra-operative monitoring (IOM). In this article, the most notable historic events and articles that are regarded as milestones in the development of IOM are reviewed. PMID:17668250

Tamaki, Tetsuya; Kubota, Seiji

2007-11-01

126

Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiological Abnormality in Adult Thoracic Spinal Trauma  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality (SCIWORA) is a rare entity and usually involves the cervical spine. Thoracic spine involvement is very rare due to the stability provided by the rib cage. The mechanisms of injury and pathophysiology are still debatable. Case Presentation: We present a case of an adult male who had road traffic accident and presented with paraplegia. The initial radiological investigations carried out in the emergency department were reported to be normal, however, subsequent magnetic resonance imaging revealed spinal cord contusion without vertebral column disruption. The patient recovered partially with conservative treatment measures including bed rest and methylprednisolone. Conclusions: Spinal trauma patients presenting with neurological deficit but no radiological abnormality should be treated as a case of SCIWORA. PMID:25599065

Khatri, Kavin; Farooque, Kamran; Gupta, Ankit; Sharma, Vijay

2014-01-01

127

Transient Neurologic Symptoms After Spinal Anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

- We recently reported several cases consistent with tran- sient radicular irritation after spinal anesthesia with hy- perbaric 5% lidocaine. The present prospective, blind, nonrandomized study was performed to determine the incidence of these transient neurologic symptoms and to identify factors that might be associated with their occurrence. We studied 270 patients scheduled for gy- necologic or obstetric procedures under

Karl F. Hampl; Markus C. Schneider; Wolfgang Ummenhofer; Jurgen Drewe

1995-01-01

128

Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Spinal Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Infectious spinal disease is regarded as an infection by a specific organism that affects the vertebral body, intervertebral disc and adjacent perivertebral soft tissue. Its incidence seems to be increasing as a result of larger proportion of the older patients with chronic debilitating disease, the rise of intravenous drug abuser, and the increase in spinal procedure and surgery. In Korea, studies assessing infectious spinal disease are rare and have not been addressed in recent times. The objectives of this study are to describe the epidemiology of all kind of spinal infectious disease and their clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as to assess the diagnostic methodology and the parameters related to the outcomes. Methods A retrospective study was performed in all infectious spinal disease cases presenting from January 2005 to April 2010 to three tertiary teaching hospitals within a city of 1.5 million in Korea. Patient demographics, risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes were assessed. Risk factors entailed the presence of diabetes, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, immunosuppressants, remote infection, underlying malignancy and previous spinal surgery or procedure. We comparatively analyzed the results between the groups of pyogenic and tuberculous spinal infection. SPSS version 14 statistical software was used to perform the analyses of the data. The threshold for statistical significance was established at p<0.05. Results Ninety-two cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall, patients of tuberculous spinal infection (TSI) and pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) entailed 20 (21.7%) and 72 (78.3%) cases, respectively. A previous spinal surgery or procedure was the most commonly noted risk factor (39.1%), followed by diabetes (15.2%). The occurrence of both pyogenic and tuberculous spondylitis was predominant in the lumbar spine. Discs are more easily invaded in PSI. At initial presentation, white cell blood count and C-reactive protein levels were higher in PSI compared to TSI (p<0.05). Etiological agents were identified in 53.3%, and the most effective method for identification of etiological agents was tissue culture (50.0%). Staphyococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated infective agent associated with pyogenic spondylitis, followed by E. coli. Surgical treatment was performed in 31.5% of pyogenic spondylitis and in 35.0% of tuberculous spondylitis cases. Conclusion Many previous studies in Korea usually reported that tuberculous spondylitis is the predominant infection. However, in our study, the number of pyogenic infection was 3 times greater than that of tuberculous spinal disease. Etiological agents were identified in a half of all infectious spinal disease. For better outcomes, we should try to identify the causative microorganism before antibiotic therapy and make every effort to improve the result of culture and biopsy. PMID:25289121

Jeong, Se-Jin; Youm, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Ha, Ho-Gyun; Yi, Jin-Seok

2014-01-01

129

Spinal Epidural Abscess Associated With Moxibustion-Related Infection of the Finger  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe a spinal epidural abscess that originated from cellulitis after moxibustion. Methods: Case report. Findings: A 78-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus was diagnosed with tetraplegia due to a cervical spinal epidural abscess extending to the thoracic spinal epidural space. The abscess was caused by osteomyelitis and cellulitis of the right third finger, which had been cauterized repeatedly with moxa. After surgical decompression and drainage of the spinal epidural abscess and comprehensive rehabilitation, motor strength and functional level improved. Conclusions: This case illustrates the risk of spinal epidural abscess in persons with diabetes mellitus who present with focal cellulitis and osteomyelitis. PMID:18795486

Lee, Kyung Whan; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Dong Jun; Lee, Mee Jin

2008-01-01

130

Spinal Arteriovenous Fistula with Progressive Paraplegia after Spinal Anaesthesia  

PubMed Central

A case of an iatrogenic spinal arteriovenous fistula with progressive paraplegia in a young woman is reported. The fistula was eventually created after repetitive lumbar punctures performed in the process of spinal anaesthesia. Her symptoms were progressed to paraplegia over a period of 2 years. The digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a single-hole fistula, involving the anterior spinal artery and vein. The lesion was occluded by embolization with immediate improvement. The potential mechanism is discussed. PMID:24653807

Argyrakis, Nikolaos; Matis, Georgios K.; Mpata-Tshibemba, Stephanie

2014-01-01

131

Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome with progressive spinal epidural lipomatosis.  

PubMed

We present a case study of an 11-year-old boy with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) with macrocephaly, lipomatosis, and penile freckles. BRRS was confirmed by a germline mutation in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene. Repeated spinal imaging demonstrated an extensive progressive spinal epidural lipomatosis, compressing and dislocating the dural sac, so far without neurological deficits. Patients with BRRS are probably a risk for progressive spinal epidural lipomatosis and should be carefully monitored by neurological examinations and eventually neuroimaging follow-up studies. PMID:22911484

Toelle, Sandra; Poretti, Andrea; Scheer, Ianina; Huisman, Thierry; Boltshauser, Eugen

2012-08-01

132

Development of AMPA receptor and GABA B receptor-sensitive spinal hyper-reflexia after spinal air embolism in rat: a systematic neurological, electrophysiological and qualitative histopathological study  

PubMed Central

Decompression sickness results from formation of bubbles in the arterial and venous system, resulting in spinal disseminated neurodegenerative changes and may clinically be presented by motor dysfunction, spinal segmental stretch hyper-reflexia (i.e., spasticity) and muscle rigidity. In our current study, we describe a rat model of spinal air embolism characterized by the development of similar spinal disseminated neurodegenerative changes and functional deficit. In addition, the anti-spastic potency of systemic AMPA receptor antagonist (NGX424) or GABA B receptor agonist (baclofen) treatment was studied. To induce spinal air embolism, animals received an intra-aortic injection of air (50–200 ?l/kg). After embolism, the development of spasticity was measured using computer-controlled ankle rotation. Animals receiving 150 or 200 ?l of intra-aortic air injections displayed motor dysfunction with developed spastic (50–60% of animals) or flaccid (25–35% of animals) paraplegia at 5–7 days. MRI and spinal histopathological analysis showed disseminated spinal cord infarcts in the lower thoracic to sacral spinal segments. Treatment with NGX424 or baclofen provided a potent anti-spasticity effect (i.e., stretch hyper-reflexia inhibition). This model appears to provide a valuable experimental tool to study the pathophysiology of air embolism-induced spinal injury and permits the assessment of new treatment efficacy targeted to modulate neurological symptoms resulting from spinal air embolism. PMID:22721766

Kakinohana, Osamu; Scadeng, Miriam; Corleto, Jose A.; Sevc, Juraj; Lukacova, Nadezda; Marsala, Martin

2012-01-01

133

Transection method for shortening the rat spine and spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have presented evidence which indicates that the regeneration of axons in the spinal cord occurs following spinal cord transection in young rats. However, in a transection-regeneration model, the completeness of the transection is often a matter of dispute. We established a method for shortening the rat spine and spinal cord to provide a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in which there was no doubt about whether the axonal transection was complete. In the future, this model may be applied to the chronic period of complete paralysis following SCI. Adult, female Wistar rats (220–250g) were used in the study. The spinal cord was exposed and a 4-mm-long segment of the spinal cord was removed at Th8. Subsequently, the Th7/8 and Th8/9 discs were cut between the stumps of the spinal cord to remove the Th8 vertebra. The stitches which had been passed through the 7th and 9th ribs bilaterally were tied gradually to bring together the stumps of the spinal cord. Almost all the rats survived until the end of the experiment. Uncoordinated movements of the hind limbs in locomotion were observed at 4 weeks after surgery. However coordinated movements of the hind limbs in locomotion were not observed until the end of the experiment. After 12 weeks, an intracardiac perfusion was performed to remove the thoracic spine and the spinal cord. There were no signs of infection. The bone fusion of the Th7 and Th9 vertebrae was observed to be complete in all specimens and the alignment of the thoracic spine was maintained. The spinal canal was also correctly reconstituted. The stumps of the spinal cord were connected. Light microscopy of the cord showed that scar tissue intervened at the connection site. Cavitation inhibiting the axonal regeneration was also observed. This model was also made on the assumption that glial scar tissue inhibits axonal regeneration in chronic SCI. Axonal regeneration was not observed across the transected spinal cord in this model. Attempts should be made to minimize the damage to the spinal cord and the surgery time for successful axonal regeneration to occur. The model developed in this study may be useful in the study of axonal regeneration in SCI. PMID:23403404

YOSHIDA, YUICHIRO; KATAOKA, HIDEO; KANCHIKU, TSUKASA; SUZUKI, HIDENORI; IMAJYO, YASUAKI; KATO, HIDETOYO; TAGUCHI, TOSHIHIKO

2013-01-01

134

Complications in the management of metastatic spinal disease  

PubMed Central

Metastatic spine disease accounts for 10% to 30% of new cancer diagnoses annually. The most frequent presentation is axial spinal pain. No treatment has been proven to increase the life expectancy of patients with spinal metastasis. The goals of therapy are pain control and functional preservation. The most important prognostic indicator for spinal metastases is the initial functional score. Treatment is multidisciplinary, and virtually all treatment is palliative. Management is guided by three key issues; neurologic compromise, spinal instability, and individual patient factors. Site-directed radiation, with or without chemotherapy is the most commonly used treatment modality for those patients presenting with spinal pain, causative by tumours which are not impinging on neural elements. Operative intervention has, until recently been advocated for establishing a tissue diagnosis, mechanical stabilization and for reduction of tumor burden but not for a curative approach. It is treatment of choice patients with diseaseadvancement despite radiotherapy and in those with known radiotherapy-resistant tumors. Vertebral resection and anterior stabilization with methacrylate or hardware (e.g., cages) has been advocated.Surgical decompression and stabilization, however, along with radiotherapy, may provide the most promising treatment. It stabilizes the metastatic deposited areaand allows ambulation with pain relief. In general, patients who are nonambulatory at diagnosis do poorly, as do patients in whom more than one vertebra is involved. Surgical intervention is indicated in patients with radiation-resistant tumors, spinal instability, spinal compression with bone or disk fragments, progressive neurologic deterioration, previous radiation exposure, and uncertain diagnosis that requires tissue diagnosis. The main goal in the management of spinal metastatic deposits is always palliative rather than curative, with the primary aim being pain relief and improved mobility. This however, does not come without complications, regardless of the surgical intervention technique used. These complication range from the general surgical complications of bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding structures and post operative DT/PE to spinal specific complications of persistent neurologic deficit and paralysis. PMID:22919567

Dunning, Eilis Catherine; Butler, Joseph Simon; Morris, Seamus

2012-01-01

135

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Stimulates Hindlimb Stepping and Sprouting of Cholinergic Fibers after Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotrophic factors have been proposed as a therapeutic treatment for traumatic brain and spinal cord injury. The present study determined whether exogenous administration of one such factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), could effect behavioral recovery and\\/or histopathological changes after spinal cord injury. Adult rats received a mild or moderate contusion injury or complete transection of the midthoracic spinal cord. Immediately

Lyn B. Jakeman; Ping Wei; Zhen Guan; Bradford T. Stokes

1998-01-01

136

Evidence for the presence and functioning of the spinal generator for ejaculation in the neonatal male rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spinal pattern generator controls ejaculation in the male rat. In the present study, the hypothesis that the spinal generator for ejaculation was functional at early postnatal stages was evaluated. To this purpose, the expression of the ejaculatory motor pattern and its pharmacological activation in spinally transected neonatal rats from postnatal day 2 to weaning were investigated. Results revealed the

M Carro-Juárez; G Rodríguez-Manzo

2005-01-01

137

Spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Spinal cord tumors are rare; however, every radiologist should be able to recognize and readily identify those lesions often\\u000a found in younger patients or children [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9]. Early diagnosis plays an important role in the management\\u000a of the lesions and interferes with the prognosis and final outcome of the patient [10]. Plain X-ray

D. L. F. Balériaux; Service de Radiologie

1999-01-01

138

Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess  

SciTech Connect

A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

1982-12-17

139

An Optimal Protocol to Analyze the Rat Spinal Cord Proteome  

PubMed Central

Since the function of the spinal cord depends on the proteins found there, better defing the normal Spinal Cord Proteome is an important and challenging task. Although brain and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with different central nervous system (CNS) disorders have been studied, a thorough examination of specific spinal cord proteins and the changes induced by injury or associated to conditions such as neurodegeneration, spasticity and neuropathies has yet to be performed. In the present study, we aimed to describe total protein content in the spinal cord of healthy rats, employing different proteomics tools. Accordingly, we have developed a fast, easy, and reproducible sequential protocol for protein extraction from rat spinal cords. We employed conventional two dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) in different pH ranges (eg. 4–7, 3–11 NL) combined with identification by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF), as well as first dimension protein separation combined with Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to maximise the benefits of this technology. The value of these techniques is demonstrated here by the identification of several proteins known to be associated with neuroglial structures, neurotransmission, cell survival and nerve growth in the central nervous system. Furthermore this study identified many spinal proteins that have not previously been described in the literature and which may play an important role as either sensitive biomarkers of dysfunction or of recovery after Spinal Cord Injury. PMID:20029654

Gil-Dones, F.; Alonso-Orgaz, S.; Avila, G.; Martin-Rojas, T.; Moral-Darde, V.; Barroso, G.; Vivanco, F.; Scott-Taylor, J.; Barderas, M.G.

2009-01-01

140

Intrinsically organized resting state networks in the human spinal cord.  

PubMed

Spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of the brain have repeatedly been observed when no task or external stimulation is present. These fluctuations likely reflect baseline neuronal activity of the brain and correspond to functionally relevant resting-state networks (RSN). It is not known however, whether intrinsically organized and spatially circumscribed RSNs also exist in the spinal cord, the brain's principal sensorimotor interface with the body. Here, we use recent advances in spinal fMRI methodology and independent component analysis to answer this question in healthy human volunteers. We identified spatially distinct RSNs in the human spinal cord that were clearly separated into dorsal and ventral components, mirroring the functional neuroanatomy of the spinal cord and likely reflecting sensory and motor processing. Interestingly, dorsal (sensory) RSNs were separated into right and left components, presumably related to ongoing hemibody processing of somatosensory information, whereas ventral (motor) RSNs were bilateral, possibly related to commissural interneuronal networks involved in central pattern generation. Importantly, all of these RSNs showed a restricted spatial extent along the spinal cord and likely conform to the spinal cord's functionally relevant segmental organization. Although the spatial and temporal properties of the dorsal and ventral RSNs were found to be significantly different, these networks showed significant interactions with each other at the segmental level. Together, our data demonstrate that intrinsically highly organized resting-state fluctuations exist in the human spinal cord and are thus a hallmark of the entire central nervous system. PMID:25472845

Kong, Yazhuo; Eippert, Falk; Beckmann, Christian F; Andersson, Jesper; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Büchel, Christian; Tracey, Irene; Brooks, Jonathan C W

2014-12-16

141

Spinal glia modulate both adaptive and pathological processes  

PubMed Central

Recent research indicates that glial cells control complex functions within the nervous system. For example, it has been shown that glial cells contribute to the development of pathological pain, the process of long-term potentiation, and the formation of memories. These data suggest that glial cell activation exerts both adaptive and pathological effects within the CNS. To extend this line of work, the present study investigated the role of glia in spinal learning and spinal learning deficits using the spinal instrumental learning paradigm. In this paradigm rats are transected at the second thoracic vertebra (T2) and given shock to one hind limb whenever the limb is extended (controllable shock). Over time these subjects exhibit an increase in flexion duration that reduces net shock exposure. However, when spinalized rats are exposed to uncontrollable shock or inflammatory stimuli prior to testing with controllable shock, they exhibit a learning deficit. To examine the role of glial in this paradigm, spinal glial cells were pharmacologically inhibited through the use of fluorocitrate. Our results indicate that glia are involved in the acquisition, but not maintenance, of spinal learning. Furthermore, the data indicate that glial cells are involved in the development of both shock and inflammation-induced learning deficits. These findings are consistent with prior research indicating that glial cells are involved in both adaptive and pathological processes within the spinal cord. PMID:19435601

Vichaya, Elisabeth G.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Carcoba, Luis M.; Grau, James W.; Meagher, Mary W.

2009-01-01

142

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves local microenvironment after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Clinical studies have shown that hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves motor function in patients with spinal cord injury. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms associated with the recovery of neurological function after hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a rat model of spinal cord injury. We established an acute spinal cord injury model using a modification of the free-falling object method, and treated the animals with oxygen at 0.2 MPa for 45 minutes, 4 hours after injury. The treatment was administered four times per day, for 3 days. Compared with model rats that did not receive the treatment, rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen had fewer apoptotic cells in spinal cord tissue, lower expression levels of aquaporin 4/9 mRNA and protein, and more NF-200 positive nerve fibers. Furthermore, they had smaller spinal cord cavities, rapid recovery of somatosensory and motor evoked potentials, and notably better recovery of hindlimb motor function than model rats. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduces apoptosis, downregulates aquaporin 4/9 mRNA and protein expression in injured spinal cord tissue, improves the local microenvironment for nerve regeneration, and protects and repairs the spinal cord after injury.

Wang, Yang; Zhang, Shuquan; Luo, Min; Li, Yajun

2014-01-01

143

Pediatric primary intramedullary spinal cord glioblastoma  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord tumors in pediatric patients are rare, representing less than 1% of all central nervous system tumors. Two cases of pediatric primary intramedullary spinal cord glioblastoma at ages 14 and 8 years are reported. Both patients presented with rapid onset paraparesis and quadraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging in both showed heterogeneously enhancing solitary mass lesions localized to lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord parenchyma. Histopathologic diagnosis was glioblastoma. Case #1 had a small cell component (primitive neuroectodermal tumor-like areas), higher Ki67, and p53 labeling indices, and a relatively stable karyotype with only minimal single copy losses involving regions: Chr8;pter-30480019, Chr16;pter-29754532, Chr16;56160245–88668979, and Chr19;32848902-qter on retrospective comparative genomic hybridization using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. Case #2 had relatively bland histomorphology and negligible p53 immunoreactivity. Both underwent multimodal therapy including gross total resection, postoperative radiation and chemotherapy. However, there was no significant improvement in neurological deficits, and overall survival in both cases was 14 months.This report highlights the broad histological spectrum and poor overall survival despite multi modality therapy. The finding of relatively unique genotypic abnormalities resembling pediatric embryonal tumors in one case may highlight the value of genome-wide profiling in development of effective therapy. The differences in management with intracranial and low-grade spinal cord gliomas and current management issues are discussed. PMID:21139963

Lober, Robert; Sharma, Suash; Bell, Beverly; Free, Alan; Figueroa, Ramon; Sheils, Chris W; Lee, Mark; Cowell, John

2010-01-01

144

Spinal intramedullary metastasis of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Objective. Breast cancer accounts for approximately one-third of all cancers in females. Approximately 8.5 % of all central nervous system metastases are located in the spinal cord. These patients have rapidly progressing neurological deficits and require immediate examination. The aim of surgery is decompression of neural tissue and histological evaluation of the tumor. In this paper, we present a case of breast cancer metastasis in thoracic spinal intramedullary area which had been partially excised and then given adjuvant radiotherapy. Case. A 43-year-old female patient with breast cancer for 8 years was admitted to our hospital with complaints of weakness in both legs. Eight years ago, she received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On her neurological examination, she had paraparesis (left lower extremity: 2/5, right lower extremity: 3/5) and urinary incontinence. Spinal MRI revealed a gadolinium enhancing intramedullary lesion. Pathologic examination of the lesion was consistent with breast carcinoma metastasis. The patient has been taken into radiotherapy. Conclusion. Spinal intramedullary metastasis of breast cancer is an extremely rare situation, but it has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Microsurgical resection is necessary for preservation or amelioration of neurological state and also for increased life expectancy and quality. PMID:25477971

Basaran, Recep; Tiryaki, Mehmet; Yavuzer, Dilek; Efendioglu, Mustafa; Balkuv, Ece; Sav, Aydin

2014-01-01

145

Sarcoidosis of the spinal cord: literature review and report of eight cases.  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis, which affects African Americans more than it does other racial/ethnic groups, only rarely manifests initially as spinal cord dysfunction. This paper presents the findings of eight patients with spinal cord dysfunction as part of a presentation of sarcoidosis. After reviewing these cases, we devised an algorithm to diagnose and manage spinal cord sarcoidosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16775923

Saleh, Samer; Saw, Chandan; Marzouk, Kamel; Sharma, Om

2006-01-01

146

Postoperative spinal infection mimicking systemic vasculitis with titanium-spinal implants  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary systemic vasculitis after posterior spinal fusion surgery is rare. It is usually related to over-reaction of immune-system, to genetic factors, toxicity, infection or metal allergies. Case Description A 14 year-old girl with a history of extended posterior spinal fusion due to idiopathic scoliosis presented to our department with diffuse erythema and nephritis (macroscopic hemuresis and proteinuria) 5 months post surgery. The surgical trauma had no signs of inflammation or infection. The blood markers ESR and CRP were increased. Skin tests were positive for nickel allergy, which is a content of titanium alloy. The patient received corticosteroids systematically (hydrocortisone 10 mg) for 6 months, leading to total recess of skin and systemic reaction. However, a palpable mass close to the surgical wound raised the suspicion of a late infection. The patient had a second surgery consisting of surgical debridement and one stage revision of posterior spinal instrumentation. Intraoperative cultures were positive to Staphylococcus aureus. Intravenous antibiotics were administered. The patient is now free of symptoms 24 months post revision surgery without any signs of recurrence of either vasculitis or infection. Literature Review Systemic vasculitis after spinal surgery is exceptionally rare. Causative factors are broad and sometimes controversial. In general, it is associated with allergy to metal ions. This is usually addressed with metal on metal total hip bearings. In spinal surgery, titanium implants are considered to be inert and only few reports have presented cases with systemic vasculitides. Therefore, other etiologies of immune over-reaction should always be considered, such as drug toxicity, infection, or genetic predisposition. Purposes and Clinical Relevance Our purpose was to highlight the difficulties during the diagnostic work-up for systemic vasculitis and management in cases of posterior spinal surgery. PMID:21914179

2011-01-01

147

An Unusual Cervical Spinal Meningioma in a Child  

PubMed Central

The incidence of spinal meningioma is very rare in children. A 14-year-old girl presented with right arm weakness, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary tumor dorsal to the spinal cord in the level of C1. The tumor was totally removed despite the severe cord compression. Meningotheliomatous meningioma was diagnosed after histological examination. PMID:23560181

Lee, Jong-Koo; Paik, Ae-Lan; Jang, Woo-Young

2013-01-01

148

Herniation of the spinal cord 38 years after childhood trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an unusual post-traumatic spinal cord herniation, which became symptomatic 38 years after the trauma. A 44-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of increasing impotence, neuropathic bladder dysfunction and dissociated sensory loss below the level of T6. At the age of 6 years he had a severe blunt spinal injury with transient paraparesis. MRI revealed right lateral and

H. Urbach; B. Kaden; U. Pechstein; L. Solymosi

1996-01-01

149

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and its imposters: three case studies  

PubMed Central

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis causing neurogenic claudicaton is a common condition impacting walking ability in older adults. There are other highly prevalent conditions in this patient population that have similar signs and symptoms and cause limited walking ability. The purpose of this study is to highlight the diagnostic challenges using three case studies of older adults who present with limited walking ability who have imaging evidence of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:25202160

Ammendolia, Carlo

2014-01-01

150

Quantifying the Nonlinear, Anisotropic Material Response of Spinal Ligaments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spinal ligaments may be a significant source of chronic back pain, yet they are often disregarded by the clinical community due to a lack of information with regards to their material response, and innervation characteristics. The purpose of this dissertation was to characterize the material response of spinal ligaments and to review their innervation characteristics. Review of relevant literature revealed that all of the major spinal ligaments are innervated. They cause painful sensations when irritated and provide reflexive control of the deep spinal musculature. As such, including the neurologic implications of iatrogenic ligament damage in the evaluation of surgical procedures aimed at relieving back pain will likely result in more effective long-term solutions. The material response of spinal ligaments has not previously been fully quantified due to limitations associated with standard soft tissue testing techniques. The present work presents and validates a novel testing methodology capable of overcoming these limitations. In particular, the anisotropic, inhomogeneous material constitutive properties of the human supraspinous ligament are quantified and methods for determining the response of the other spinal ligaments are presented. In addition, a method for determining the anisotropic, inhomogeneous pre-strain distribution of the spinal ligaments is presented. The multi-axial pre-strain distributions of the human anterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum flavum and supraspinous ligament were determined using this methodology. Results from this work clearly demonstrate that spinal ligaments are not uniaxial structures, and that finite element models which account for pre-strain and incorporate ligament's complex material properties may provide increased fidelity to the in vivo condition.

Robertson, Daniel J.

151

The history of spinal biomechanics.  

PubMed

The history of spinal biomechanics has its origins in antiquity. The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus, an Egyptian document written in the 17th century BC, described the difference between cervical sprain, fracture, and fracture-dislocation. By the time of Hippocrates (4th century BC), physical means such as traction or local pressure were being used to correct spinal deformities but the treatments were based on only a rudimentary knowledge of spinal biomechanics. The Renaissance produced the first serious attempts at understanding spinal biomechanics. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) accurately described the anatomy of the spine and was perhaps the first to investigate spinal stability. The first comprehensive treatise on biomechanics, De Motu Animalium, was published by Giovanni Borelli in 1680, and it contained the first analysis of weight bearing by the spine. In this regard, Borelli can be considered the "Father of Spinal Biomechanics." By the end of the 19th century, the basic biomechanical concepts of spinal alignment and immobilization were well entrenched as therapies for spinal cord injury. Further anatomic delineation of spinal stability was sparked by the anatomic analyses of judicial hangings by Wood-Jones in 1913. By the 1960s, a two-column model of the spine was proposed by Holdsworth. The modern concept of Denis' three-column model of the spine is supported by more sophisticated testing of cadaver spines in modern biomechanical laboratories. The modern explosion of spinal instrumentation stems from a deeper understanding of the load-bearing structures of the spinal column. PMID:8880756

Sanan, A; Rengachary, S S

1996-10-01

152

NORADRENERGIC INNERVATION OF THE RAT SPINAL CORD CAUDAL TO A COMPLETE SPINAL CORD TRANSECTION: EFFECTS OF OLFACTORY ENSHEATHING GLIA  

PubMed Central

Transplantation of olfactory bulb-derived olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) combined with step training improves hindlimb locomotion in adult rats with a complete spinal cord transection. Spinal cord injury studies use the presence of noradrenergic (NA) axons caudal to the injury site as evidence of axonal regeneration and we previously found more NA axons just caudal to the transection in OEG- than media-injected spinal rats. We therefore hypothesized that OEG transplantation promotes descending coeruleospinal regeneration that contributes to the recovery of hindlimb locomotion. Now we report that NA axons are present throughout the caudal stump of both media- and OEG-injected spinal rats and they enter the spinal cord from the periphery via dorsal and ventral roots and along large penetrating blood vessels. These results indicate that the presence of NA fibers in the caudal spinal cord is not a reliable indicator of coeruleospinal regeneration. We then asked if NA axons appose cholinergic neurons associated with motor functions, i.e., central canal cluster and partition cells (active during fictive locomotion) and somatic motor neurons (SMNs). We found more NA varicosities adjacent to central canal cluster cells, partition cells, and SMNs in the lumbar enlargement of OEG- than media-injected rats. As non-synaptic release of NA is common in the spinal cord, more associations between NA varicosities and motor-associated cholinergic neurons in the lumbar spinal cord may contribute to the improved treadmill stepping observed in OEG-injected spinal rats. This effect could be mediated through direct association with SMNs and/or indirectly via cholinergic interneurons. PMID:20025875

Takeoka, Aya; Kubasak, Marc D.; Zhong, Hui; Kaplan, Jennifer; Roy, Roland R.; Phelps, Patricia E.

2010-01-01

153

What Is Spinal Cord Injury?  

MedlinePLUS

... addition, there are two degrees of SCI severity : Complete injury is the situation when the injury is so ... National Spinal Cord Injury Association. Understanding spinal cord injury . Retrieved May 21, 2012, from http://www.spinalcord.org/resource-center/askus/index.php?pg=kb. ...

154

Imaging modalities in spinal disorders  

SciTech Connect

This book provides an approach to the various imaging modalities used to view the spine. It discusses the indications, limitations and practical use of each in the diagnosis, work-up and staging of various spinal disorders, and compares each of them in various clinical settings. Topics covered include low back pain syndrome, disk disease, spinal cord lesions, congenital abnormalities, and trauma.

Kricun, M.E.

1986-01-01

155

Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the history of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. The present study summarizes what we know today for diagnosis and management of spinal deformities in ancient Greece, mainly from the medical treatises of Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates, through accurate observation and logical reasoning was led to accurate conclusions firstly for the structure of the spine and secondly for its diseases. He introduced the terms kyphosis and scoliosis and wrote in depth about diagnosis and treatment of kyphosis and less about scoliosis. The innovation of the board, the application of axial traction and even the principle of trans-abdominal correction for correction of spinal deformities have their origin in Hippocrates. Galen, who lived nearly five centuries later impressively described scoliosis, lordosis and kyphosis, provided aetiologic implications and used the same principles with Hippocrates for their management, while his studies influenced medical practice on spinal deformities for more than 1500 years. PMID:19243609

Vasiliadis, Elias S; Grivas, Theodoros B; Kaspiris, Angelos

2009-01-01

156

Biomaterial Design Strategies for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries  

PubMed Central

Abstract The highly debilitating nature of spinal cord injuries has provided much inspiration for the design of novel biomaterials that can stimulate cellular regeneration and functional recovery. Many experts agree that the greatest hope for treatment of spinal cord injuries will involve a combinatorial approach that integrates biomaterial scaffolds, cell transplantation, and molecule delivery. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of biomaterial-scaffold design strategies currently being applied to the development of nerve guidance channels and hydrogels that more effectively stimulate spinal cord tissue regeneration. To enhance the regenerative capacity of these two scaffold types, researchers are focusing on optimizing the mechanical properties, cell-adhesivity, biodegradability, electrical activity, and topography of synthetic and natural materials, and are developing mechanisms to use these scaffolds to deliver cells and biomolecules. Developing scaffolds that address several of these key design parameters will lead to more successful therapies for the regeneration of spinal cord tissue. PMID:19698073

Straley, Karin S.; Po Foo, Cheryl Wong

2010-01-01

157

Subarachnoid-subarachnoid bypass for spinal adhesive arachnoiditis.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of adhesive arachnoiditis (AA) and arachnoid cyst successfully treated by subarachnoid to subarachnoid bypass (S-S bypass). Arachnoid cysts or syringes sometimes compress the spinal cord and cause compressive myelopathy that requires surgical treatment. However, surgical treatment for AA is challenging. A 57-year-old woman developed leg pain and gait disturbance. A dorsal arachnoid cyst compressed the spinal cord at T7-9, the spinal cord was swollen, and a small syrinx was present at T9-10. An S-S bypass was performed from T6-7 to T11-12. The patient's gait disturbance resolved immediately after surgery. Two years later, a small arachnoid cyst developed. However, there was no neurological deterioration. The myelopathy associated with thoracic spinal AA, subarachnoid cyst, and syrinx improved after S-S bypass. PMID:25170651

Tachibana, Toshiya; Moriyama, Tokuhide; Maruo, Keishi; Inoue, Shinichi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Yoshiya, Shinichi

2014-11-01

158

[Unilateral, paramedian spinal contusion after athletic injury with complete recovery].  

PubMed

The acute injury of the spinal column and the spinal cord asks for immediate diagnostic techniques and adequate therapeutical intensive care in order to secure the possibility of a maximum of neurologic recovery. An impact trauma of the spinal cord in sports accidents can cause an incomplete paraplegia. In some cases, morphologic lesions of the myelon cannot be detected. We present an exceptional and striking case of a 15-year old young woman who suffered from a contusio spinalis after high jump with the clinical signs of an incomplete, sensomotoric paraplegia which showed a strictly unilateral and paramedian border at the right side of her body for about two weeks. Additionally, the diagnostic possibilities of physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and neurophysiologic diagnostic techniques in detecting spinal cord injuries are demonstrated. PMID:7778020

Ebert, B; Badke, A

1995-03-01

159

Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.  

PubMed

Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2?mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:24994748

Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

2014-01-01

160

Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.  

PubMed

Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2?mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:25006043

Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

2014-07-01

161

Intraspinal Lipomas Without Associated Spinal Dysraphism  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The aim of this study was to report surgical strategies and clinical outcomes for thoraco-lumbar intradural lipomas. Intraspinal lipomas are rare congenital histologically benign neoplasms, which account for less than 1% of all spinal cord tumors. These tumors are most frequently found in the lumbosacral area as components of a dysraphic state, however, intramedullary lipomas are not associated with spina bifida or cutaneous malformations and have only been described as isolated cases among spinal lipomas, where the thoracolumbar region is rarely affected. Case Presentation: Three patients with thoracolumbar intradural lipomas were admitted to our clinic at different points of time. Partial resections and debulking of the tumors were achieved with the guidance of an operating microscope. We performed laminectomies or laminoplasties, for tumor resections. Discussion: Postoperatively, the patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements. In this manuscript we presented our surgical experiences for intraspinal lipomas. PMID:25031846

Arslan, Erhan; Kuzeyli, Kayhan; Acar Arslan, Elif

2014-01-01

162

Spinal cord involvement in Balo's concentric sclerosis.  

PubMed

We present a patient with a history of myelitis, who had a steroid refractory attack of CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease that developed into cerebral concentric sclerosis of Balo after plasma exchange. The acute inflammatory disease involved the spinal cord, a phenomenon rarely demonstrated. This patient fulfilled the McDonald criteria for multiple sclerosis. Plasmapheresis did not have a beneficial effect, but the patient stabilised at high EDSS after treatment with mitoxantron. PMID:19181346

Kreft, Karim L; Mellema, S Jouke; Hintzen, Rogier Q

2009-04-15

163

Attitudes Towards Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will shed light on the lives of persons with spinal cord injuries by revealing the literature on spinal cord injuries that focuses on research that can shed light on attitudes towards persons with spinal cord injuries. The background literature related to incidences, the definition of spinal cord injury, and vocational opportunities are…

Conway, Cassandra Sligh D.; Gooden, Randy; Nowell, Jennifer; Wilson, Navodda

2010-01-01

164

Shock induces a deficit in the recovery of function after a contusion injury: identifying the relative contributions of the brain and spinal cord  

E-print Network

of shock on locomotor recovery following SCI reflects a brain or spinally-mediated effect. The present experiments address this research question by determining whether shock exposure induces an alteration within the spinal cord of contused rats and testing...

Bopp, Anne Caroline

2006-10-30

165

Thoracic rat spinal cord contusion injury induces remote spinal gliogenesis but not neurogenesis or gliogenesis in the brain.  

PubMed

After spinal cord injury, transected axons fail to regenerate, yet significant, spontaneous functional improvement can be observed over time. Distinct central nervous system regions retain the capacity to generate new neurons and glia from an endogenous pool of progenitor cells and to compensate neural cell loss following certain lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether endogenous cell replacement (neurogenesis or gliogenesis) in the brain (subventricular zone, SVZ; corpus callosum, CC; hippocampus, HC; and motor cortex, MC) or cervical spinal cord might represent a structural correlate for spontaneous locomotor recovery after a thoracic spinal cord injury. Adult Fischer 344 rats received severe contusion injuries (200 kDyn) of the mid-thoracic spinal cord using an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Uninjured rats served as controls. From 4 to 14 days post-injury, both groups received injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. Over the course of six weeks post-injury, spontaneous recovery of locomotor function occurred. Survival of newly generated cells was unaltered in the SVZ, HC, CC, and the MC. Neurogenesis, as determined by identification and quantification of doublecortin immunoreactive neuroblasts or BrdU/neuronal nuclear antigen double positive newly generated neurons, was not present in non-neurogenic regions (MC, CC, and cervical spinal cord) and unaltered in neurogenic regions (dentate gyrus and SVZ) of the brain. The lack of neuronal replacement in the brain and spinal cord after spinal cord injury precludes any relevance for spontaneous recovery of locomotor function. Gliogenesis was increased in the cervical spinal cord remote from the injury site, however, is unlikely to contribute to functional improvement. PMID:25050623

Franz, Steffen; Ciatipis, Mareva; Pfeifer, Kathrin; Kierdorf, Birthe; Sandner, Beatrice; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Blesch, Armin; Winner, Beate; Weidner, Norbert

2014-01-01

166

Spinal hematoma: a literature survey with meta-analysis of 613 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a comprehensive, very extensive, and thorough review and meta-analysis of the whole literature about etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, treatment, and outcome of spinal hematomas. They found a total of only 613 cases published within a period of 170 years (!) to reevaluate, representing the largest survey on this topic to date. Thus, nonpostsurgical spinal hematomas seem to

Stefan A. Rath

2003-01-01

167

Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies for persons in the National Collaborative Chicago-Based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) with symptoms and signs referable to the spinal cord were reviewed. Three infants had symptomatic spinal cord lesions, another infant a Chiari malformation, and another infant a symptomatic peri-spinal cord lipoma. One patient had an unusual history of prolonged spinal cord symptoms presenting in middle age. Neuroimaging was used to establish her diagnosis and response to treatment. This 43 year-old woman with congenital toxoplasmosis developed progressive leg spasticity, weakness, numbness, difficulty walking, and decreased visual acuity and color vision without documented re-activation of her chorioretinal disease. At 52 years of age, spinal cord lesions in locations correlating with her symptoms and optic atrophy were diagnosed with 3 Tesla MRI scan. Treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine decreased her neurologic symptoms, improved her neurologic examination, and resolved her enhancing spinal cord lesions seen on MRI. PMID:23487348

Burrowes, Delilah; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N.; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Sautter, Mari; Heydemann, Peter; Rabiah, Peter; Lee, Daniel; McLeod, Rima

2012-01-01

168

Intracranial venous drainage through spinal veins.  

PubMed

There is extensive collateral networking at the craniocervical junction with a substantial anatomical and functional continuity between the veins, venous sinuses, and venous plexuses of the brain and spine. The predominant pathway for intracranial blood outflow may depend on the level and degree of obstruction. We are presenting an unusual case of predominant egress of intracranial blood through enlarged spinal canal venous collaterals due to thrombosis of the intracranial venous sinuses. Awareness of this unique pattern of venous drainage of the cranium is important and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Magnetic Resonance Venography (MRV) of the brain should be considered to exclude intracranial thrombosis in these cases. PMID:25141475

Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Dias, Mark S; Iantosca, Mark

2014-06-01

169

Spontaneous Concomitant Intracranial and Spinal Subdural Hematomas in Association with Anticoagulation Therapy  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous intracranial and spinal subdural hematomas are extremely rare. In most cases, they are attributed to major or minor trauma and iatrogenic causes, such as those resulting from spinal puncture. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there has been only two reports of spontaneous concomitant intracranial and spinal subdural hematomas in a patient receiving anticoagulant therapy who had an absence of evident trauma history. We report on a case of spontaneous concomitant intracranial and spinal subdural hematomas that occurred in association with anticoagulant therapy and present a review of the relevant literature. PMID:22737307

Wang, Ui Suk; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Sung Hoon

2012-01-01

170

Intradural metastatic spinal cord compression from ACTH-secreting pituitary carcinoma.  

PubMed

Pituitary carcinomas are uncommon and intradural metastatic spread to the spine is rarer still. We describe a 27-year old man with metastatic spinal cord compression from an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) cell pituitary carcinoma, 16 years following the initial presentation. He had three previous resections of the pituitary tumour and post-operative radiotherapy. The intradural, extramedullary spinal metastases causing thoracic and lumbar cord compression were excised, with neurological improvement. Spinal metastases in pituitary carcinoma are uncommon, but aggressive surgical resection of the spinal metastases produces good symptomatic relief. PMID:15349756

Tysome, J; Gnanalingham, K K; Chopra, I; Mendoza, N

2004-11-01

171

A PARYLENE-BASED MICROELECTRODE ARRAY IMPLANT FOR SPINAL CORD STIMULATION IN RATS  

PubMed Central

The design and fabrication of an epidural spinal cord implant using a parylene-based microelectrode array is presented. Rats with hindlimb paralysis from a complete spinal cord transection were implanted with the device and studied for up to eight weeks, where we have demonstrated recovery of hindlimb stepping functionality through pulsed stimulation. The microelectrode array allows for a high degree of freedom and specificity in selecting the site of stimulation compared to wire-based implants, and triggers varied biological responses that can lead to an increased understanding of the spinal cord and locomotion recovery for victims of spinal cord injury. PMID:21841938

Nandra, Mandheerej. S.; Lavrov, Igor A.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Tai, Yu-Chong

2011-01-01

172

A PARYLENE-BASED MICROELECTRODE ARRAY IMPLANT FOR SPINAL CORD STIMULATION IN RATS.  

PubMed

The design and fabrication of an epidural spinal cord implant using a parylene-based microelectrode array is presented. Rats with hindlimb paralysis from a complete spinal cord transection were implanted with the device and studied for up to eight weeks, where we have demonstrated recovery of hindlimb stepping functionality through pulsed stimulation. The microelectrode array allows for a high degree of freedom and specificity in selecting the site of stimulation compared to wire-based implants, and triggers varied biological responses that can lead to an increased understanding of the spinal cord and locomotion recovery for victims of spinal cord injury. PMID:21841938

Nandra, Mandheerej S; Lavrov, Igor A; Edgerton, V Reggie; Tai, Yu-Chong

2011-01-23

173

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Presenting as a Claudication  

PubMed Central

Back pain and radiating pain to the legs are the most common symptoms encountered in routine neurosurgical practice and usually originates from neurogenic causes including spinal stenosis. The clinial symptoms are often confused with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, musculo-skeletal disease and vascular disease in elderly patients. Because it is not easy to distinguish out the cause of symptoms by only physical examination, routine spinal MRI is checked first to rule out the spinal diseases in most outpatient clinics. Although it is obvious that spinal MRI is a very strong tool to investigate the spinal circumferences, most spine surgeons ignore the importance of looking at all aspects of their imaging and of remembering the extra-spinal causes of radiculopathy. A 68-year-old man who presented with a sudden aggravated both leg claudication. Although his symptom was mimicked for his long standing neurogenic claudication due to spinal stenosis diagnosed previously, abdominal aortic aneurysm(AAA) was found on routine lumbar MRI and it was repaired successfully. We emphasize to spinal surgeons the importance of remembering to look wider on routine MRI images when considering differential diagnoses in the outpatient clinic and to remember the extra-spinal causes of radiculopathy, especially when encountering in elderly patients. PMID:24891862

Son, Si-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Cho, Dae-Chul

2013-01-01

174

DISCUSSION ON SPINAL INJURIES  

PubMed Central

(1).—Varieties of spinal injuries, the three groups of common usage: fractures, dislocations, fracture-dislocations. Shall not refer in detail to fractures of the spinous or transverse processes. (2) Mechanics of injury to vertebræ. Two variables: (1) the nature of the bones; (2) the qualities of the force. Spinal injury usually caused by indirect violence. (3) The different results of injuries applied to the head; may break skull, failing that, the neck. Atlas fracture. Difference in qualities of the force causing atlas fracture and low cervical dislocation. (4) The compound nature of the vertebral body. The two columns, anterior, spongy; posterior, compact. The nature of wedge-compression of the vertebral body. Variations in the shape of the wedge. Reasons. Occur at all levels, including cervical spine. (5) Frequency of injury at different levels of vertebral column. “Localization” of injury. The two places of the graph of injury. The cervical at C. 5. Reason. The thoracic-lumbar peak at T. 12, L. 1 industrial. Is there a third peak at C. 2? (6) The effects of violent flexion of the spine: cervical flexion causes luxation at C. 5 or so. Extension causes fracture of odontoid. Violent flexion and extension therefore cause injury at very different levels. Thoracic region, why is there no “peak” of injury at T.6, 7? Lumbar region. (7) Displacement of fragments. Continuation of violence after the essential injury has been effected. Kümmell's disease, no inflammatory process involved. (8) Injury to the intervertebral discs, essential for displacement. Imperfect rupture a cause for difficulty in reducing luxations. The worst cases those in which it is most easily done, but most of these have cord damage. (9) Spinal injury from minimal violence. Examples of trivial cases, diving, brushing hair and so forth. Vertebral displacement in disease a much more serious thing. (10) Curious stability of many cervical luxations. Reasons. Locking of the inferior zygaphophyses. (11) Injury to nervous elements left principally to other speakers. Cord compression very rare. Immediate and irremediable damage. Root injuries. Falling mortality of modern statistics due to better diagnosis. (12) Primary operation for fractures of spine relegated to oblivion. Rarity of indications for open operation. Reduction the best treatment. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:19986314

1928-01-01

175

Epidural lipomatosis and congenital small spinal canal in spinal anaesthesia: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Complications after lumbar anaesthesia and epidural blood patch have been described in patients with congenital small spinal canal and increased epidural fat or epidural lipomatosis. These conditions, whether occurring separately or in combination, require magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis and grading, but their clinical significance is still unclear. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian woman who was undergoing a Caesarean section developed a longstanding L4-L5 unilateral neuropathy after the administration of spinal anaesthesia. There were several attempts to correctly position the needle, one of which resulted in paraesthesia. A magnetic resonance image revealed that the patient's bony spinal canal was congenitally small and had excess epidural fat. The cross-sectional area of the dural sac was then reduced, which left practically no free cerebrospinal fluid space. Conclusion The combination of epidural lipomatosis of varying degrees and congenital small spinal canal has not been previously discussed with spinal anaesthesia. Due to the low cerebrospinal fluid content of the small dural sac, the cauda equina becomes a firm system with a very limited possibility for the nerve roots to move away from the puncture needle when it is inserted into the dural sac. This constitutes risks of technical difficulties and neuropathies with spinal anaesthesia. PMID:20062767

2009-01-01

176

Electrophysiological properties of spinally-projecting A5 noradrenergic neurons.  

PubMed

Spinally-projecting A5 neurons were studied with anatomical and electrophysiological techniques in the rat. A detailed study of the number and distribution of spinally-projecting catecholaminergic (CA) and non-catecholaminergic neurons present in a defined area of ventrolateral pontine reticular formation was performed using a sequential technique for the detection of CA fluorescence and retrogradely transported HRP. Using control animals and rats with 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions of spinal CA axons, it was concluded that up to 93% of all noradrenergic (NE) neurons present in the area investigated send an axonal process to the thoracic spinal cord and that NE neurons constitute at least 90% of all spinally-projecting neurons present in the same area. Single unit recordings of spinally-projecting neurons were obtained in the same area of the reticular formation in urethane-anesthetized, paralyzed and respirated rats. Based on the above-mentioned anatomical data, antidromic activation from thoracic spinal cord provided a necessary and sufficient criterion for the identification of A5 NE cells. These neurons had a conduction velocity of 2.5 m/s, a discharge rate of up to 4 spikes/s and all were inhibited by i.v. clonidine or desmethylimipramine (DMI). The inhibition produced by the latter drugs was always reversed by the alpha-2 adrenergic antagonists piperoxan or yohimbine. Antidromic (AD)-activation was followed by a period of inhibition whose duration was increased by raising the intensity of the stimulus or by administration of the NE-uptake inhibitor DMI. The effect of the latter was reversed by administration of the alpha-2 antagonist piperoxan. PMID:6329470

Byrum, C E; Stornetta, R; Guyenet, P G

1984-06-11

177

Learning about Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... by Families of SMA. Muscular Dystrophy Association - USA [mda.org] A national voluntary health agency dedicated to ... all ages. Facts About Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) [mda.org] Questions and answers about SMA from the ...

178

Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... to adjusting to spinal cord injury is personal motivation . Individuals who are newly injured are often motivated ... to find purpose in your life and the motivation to achieve your goals. It may help to ...

179

Currarino syndrome and spinal dysraphism.  

PubMed

Currarino syndrome is a rare constellation of congenital anomalies characterized by the triad of sacral dysgenesis, presacral mass, and anorectal malformation. It is frequently associated with other congenital anomalies, often including occult spinal dysraphism. Mutations in the MNX1 gene are identified in the majority of cases. The authors report a rare case of Currarino syndrome in an infant with tethered cord syndrome and a dorsal lipomyelomeningocele continuous with a presacral intradural spinal lipoma, in addition to an imperforate anus and a scimitar sacrum. They review the literature to highlight patterns of occult spinal dysraphism in patients with Currarino syndrome and their relationship to tethered cord syndrome. Approximately 60% of the patients with Currarino syndrome reported in the literature have an occult spinal dysraphism. Published studies suggest that the risk of tethered cord syndrome may be higher among patients with a lipoma and lower among those with a teratoma or anterior meningocele. PMID:24745342

Kole, Matthew J; Fridley, Jared S; Jea, Andrew; Bollo, Robert J

2014-06-01

180

MRI Features of Spinal Epidural Angiolipomas  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the MRI findings in ten patients of spinal epidural angiolipoma for differentiated diagnosis presurgery. Materials and Methods Ten surgically proved cases of spinal epidural angiolipomas were retrospectively reviewed, and the lesion was classified according to the MR findings. Results Ten tumors were located in the superior (n = 4), middle (n = 2), or inferior (n = 4) thoracic level. The mass, with the spindle shape, was located in the posterior epidural space and extended parallel to the long axis of the spine. All lesions contained a fat and vascular element. The vascular content, correlating with the presence of hypointense regions on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and hyperintense signals on T2-weighted imaging, had marked enhancement. However, there were no flow void signs on MR images. All tumors were divided into two types based on the MR features. In type 1 (n = 3), the mass was predominantly composed of lipomatous tissue (> 50%) and contained only a few small angiomatous regions, which had a trabeculated or mottled appear. In type 2 (n = 7), the mass, however, was predominantly composed of vascular components (> 50%), which presented as large foci in the center of the mass. Conclusion Most spinal epidural angiolipomas exhibit hyperintensity on T1WI while the hypointense region on the noncontrast T1WI indicates to be vascular, which manifests an obvious enhancement with gadolinium administration. PMID:24043978

Hu, Su; Hu, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xi-ming; Dai, Hui; Fang, Xiang-ming; Cui, Lei

2013-01-01

181

Pacemaker neurons within newborn spinal pain circuits  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous activity driven by “pacemaker” neurons, defined by their intrinsic ability to generate rhythmic burst-firing, contributes to the development of sensory circuits in many regions of the immature CNS. However, it is unknown if pacemaker-like neurons are present within central pain pathways in the neonate. Here we provide evidence that a subpopulation of glutamatergic interneurons within lamina I of the rat spinal cord exhibits oscillatory burst-firing during early life, which occurs independently of fast synaptic transmission. Pacemaker neurons were distinguished by a higher ratio of persistent, voltage-gated Na+ conductance to leak membrane conductance (gNa,P / gleak) compared to adjacent, non-bursting lamina I neurons. The activation of high-threshold (N-type and L-type) voltage-gated Ca2+ channels also facilitated rhythmic burst-firing by triggering intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Bursting neurons received direct projections from high-threshold sensory afferents, but transmitted nociceptive signals with poor fidelity while in the bursting mode. The observation that pacemaker neurons send axon collaterals throughout the neonatal spinal cord raises the possibility that intrinsic burst-firing could provide an endogenous drive to the developing sensorimotor networks which mediate spinal pain reflexes. PMID:21677184

Li, Jie; Baccei, Mark L.

2011-01-01

182

Effect of Spinal Cord Compression on Local Vascular Blood Flow and Perfusion Capacity  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can induce prolonged spinal cord compression that may result in a reduction of local tissue perfusion, progressive ischemia, and potentially irreversible tissue necrosis. Due to the combination of risk factors and the varied presentation of symptoms, the appropriate method and time course for clinical intervention following SCI are not always evident. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element fluid-structure interaction model of the cervical spinal cord was developed to examine how traditionally sub-clinical compressive mechanical loads impact spinal arterial blood flow. The spinal cord and surrounding dura mater were modeled as linear elastic, isotropic, and incompressible solids, while blood was modeled as a single-phased, incompressible Newtonian fluid. Simulation results indicate that anterior, posterior, and anteroposterior compressions of the cervical spinal cord have significantly different ischemic potentials, with prediction that the posterior component of loading elevates patient risk due to the concomitant reduction of blood flow in the arterial branches. Conversely, anterior loading compromises flow through the anterior spinal artery but minimally impacts branch flow rates. The findings of this study provide novel insight into how sub-clinical spinal cord compression could give rise to certain disease states, and suggest a need to monitor spinal artery perfusion following even mild compressive loading. PMID:25268384

Alshareef, Mohammed; Krishna, Vibhor; Ferdous, Jahid; Alshareef, Ahmed; Kindy, Mark; Kolachalama, Vijaya B.; Shazly, Tarek

2014-01-01

183

Reversible Disorganization of the Locomotor Pattern after Neonatal Spinal Cord Transection in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central pattern generators (CPGs) for locomotion, located in the lumbar spinal cord, are functional at birth in the rat. Their matura- tion occurs during the last few days preceding birth, a period during which the first projections from the brainstem start to reach the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. The goal of the present study was to investigate

Jean-Chretien Norreel; Jean-Francois Pflieger; Edouard Pearlstein; Juliette Simeoni-Alias; Francois Clarac; Laurent Vinay

2003-01-01

184

Acute exacerbation of restless legs due to cervical spinal cord ischaemia  

PubMed Central

We present a 60-year-old male patient with an acute exacerbation of restless legs due to cervical spinal cord ischaemia. This case supports the hypothesis that interruption of spinal cord pathways are part of the aetiology of restless legs syndrome. PMID:23345489

Zwartbol, Rachel Theodora; Jellema, Korne; Boiten, Jelis; Rijsman, Roselyne

2013-01-01

185

A Fully Implanted Programmable Stimulator based on Wireless Communication for Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical research indicates that the epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) has shown potential in promoting locomotor recovery in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (ISCI). This paper presents the development of a fully implantable voltage-regulated stimulator with bi-directional wireless communication for investigating underlying neural mechanisms of ESCS facilitating motor function improvement. The stimulation system consists of a computer, an external

Hui Zhou; Qi Xu; Jiping He; Hangkong Ren; Houlun Zhou; Kejia Zheng

186

Development of capacitive pure bending strain sensor for wireless spinal fusion monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A MEMS (microelectromechanical system) capacitive-based pure bending strain sensor is presented for use in spinal fusion monitoring. The sensor is designed to interface with a telemetry system that does not require a battery and contained in a housing that is attached to spinal fusion rods. The cantilever structure of the sensor is composed of two parallel plates with a narrow

Ji-Tzuoh Lin; Kevin W. Walsh; Douglas Jackson; Julia Aebersold; Mark Crain; John F. Naber; William P. Hnat

2007-01-01

187

Prophylactic ephedrine and hypotension associated with spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypotension commonly accompanies induction of spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. To determine whether intravenous ephedrine prophylaxis would benefit prehydrated obstetrical patients presenting for elective cesarean section, we studied 30 patients randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups. All patients were preloaded with crystalloid (15 ml\\/kg), given spinal anesthesia and positioned with left uterine displacement (LUD). During induction, all patients

S. W. King; M. A. Rosen

1998-01-01

188

Assessment of Spinal Curvature: An Evaluation of the Flexicurve and Associated Means of Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several interrelated issues pertaining to the measurement of spinal curvature are discussed, including the inherent limitations of the kyphotic index, the most widely used indicator in the evaluation of kyphosis. The paper suggests use of the Flexicurve to quantify spinal posture, suggests modifications to the Flexicurve, and presents results on…

Caine, M. P.; And Others

1996-01-01

189

Adult Opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) Demonstrate Near Normal Locomotion after Spinal Cord Transection as Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is transected on postnatal day (PD) 5, the site of injury becomes bridged by histologically recognizable spinal cord and axons which form major long tracts grow through the lesion. In the present study we asked whether opossums lesioned on PD5 have normal use of the hindlimbs as adults

X. M. Wang; D. M. Basso; J. R. Terman; J. C. Bresnahan; G. F. Martin

1998-01-01

190

Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in spinal microglia is a critical link in inflammation-induced spinal pain processing.  

PubMed

We examined the effect of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors in models of nociception and correlated this effect with localization and expression levels of p38 MAPK in spinal cord. There was a rapid increase in phosphorylated p38 MAPK in spinal cord following intrathecal administration of substance P or intradermal injection of formalin. Immunocytochemistry revealed that phosphorylated p38 MAPK-immunoreactive cells were predominantly present in laminae I-IV of the dorsal horn. Double-staining with markers for neurons, microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes unexpectedly revealed co-localization with microglia but not with neurons or other glia. Pretreatment with p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB20358 or SD-282) had no effect on acute thermal thresholds. However, they attenuated hyperalgesia in several nociceptive models associated with spinal sensitization including direct spinal activation (intrathecal substance P) and peripheral tissue inflammation (intraplantar formalin or carrageenan). Spinal sensitization, manifested by enhanced expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inflammation-induced appearance of Fos-positive neurons, was blocked by pretreatment, but not post-treatment, with p38 MAPK inhibitors. Taken together, these results indicate that spinal p38 MAPK is involved in inflammation-induced pain and that activated spinal microglia play a direct role in spinal nociceptive processing. PMID:12950462

Svensson, Camilla I; Marsala, Martin; Westerlund, Anna; Calcutt, Nigel A; Campana, Wendy M; Freshwater, Jason D; Catalano, Rosanne; Feng, Ying; Protter, Andrew A; Scott, Brian; Yaksh, Tony L

2003-09-01

191

Spinal muscular atrophy  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord, resulting in progressive proximal muscle weakness and paralysis. Estimated incidence is 1 in 6,000 to 1 in 10,000 live births and carrier frequency of 1/40-1/60. This disease is characterized by generalized muscle weakness and atrophy predominating in proximal limb muscles, and phenotype is classified into four grades of severity (SMA I, SMAII, SMAIII, SMA IV) based on age of onset and motor function achieved. This disease is caused by homozygous mutations of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, and the diagnostic test demonstrates in most patients the homozygous deletion of the SMN1 gene, generally showing the absence of SMN1 exon 7. The test achieves up to 95% sensitivity and nearly 100% specificity. Differential diagnosis should be considered with other neuromuscular disorders which are not associated with increased CK manifesting as infantile hypotonia or as limb girdle weakness starting later in life. Considering the high carrier frequency, carrier testing is requested by siblings of patients or of parents of SMA children and are aimed at gaining information that may help with reproductive planning. Individuals at risk should be tested first and, in case of testing positive, the partner should be then analyzed. It is recommended that in case of a request on carrier testing on siblings of an affected SMA infant, a detailed neurological examination should be done and consideration given doing the direct test to exclude SMA. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered to couples who have previously had a child affected with SMA (recurrence risk 25%). The role of follow-up coordination has to be managed by an expert in neuromuscular disorders and in SMA who is able to plan a multidisciplinary intervention that includes pulmonary, gastroenterology/nutrition, and orthopedic care. Prognosis depends on the phenotypic severity going from high mortality within the first year for SMA type 1 to no mortality for the chronic and later onset forms. PMID:22047105

2011-01-01

192

Spinal trauma. Pathophysiology and management of traumatic spinal injuries.  

PubMed

Spinal trauma can originate from internal or external sources. Injuries to the spinal cord can be classified as either concussive or compressive and concussive. The pathophysiologic events surrounding spinal cord injury include the primary injury (compression, concussion) and numerous secondary injury mechanisms (vascular, biochemical, electrolyte), which are mediated by excessive oxygen free radicles, neurotransmitter and electrolyte alterations in cell membrane permeability, excitotoxic amino acids, and various other biochemical factors that collectively result in reduced SCBF, ischemia, and eventual necrosis of the gray and white matter. Management of acute spinal cord injuries includes the use of a high-dose corticosteroid regimen within the initial 8 hours after trauma. Sodium prednisolone and methylprednisolone, at recommended doses, act as oxygen radical scavengers and are anti-inflammatory. Additional considerations are the stability of the vertebral column, other conditions associated with trauma (i.e., pneumothorax), and the presence or absence of spinal cord compression, which may warrant surgical therapy. Vertebral fractures or luxations can occur in any area of the spine but most commonly occur at the junction of mobile and immobile segments. Dorsal and dorsolateral surgical approaches are applicable to the lumbosacral and thoracolumbar spine and dorsal and ventral approaches to the cervical spine. Indications for surgical intervention include spinal cord compression and vertebral instability. Instability can be determined from the type of fracture, how many of the three compartments of the vertebrae are disrupted, and on occasion, by carefully positioned stress studies of fluoroscopy. Decompression (dorsal laminectomy, hemilaminectomy, or ventral cervical slot) is employed when compression of the spinal cord exists. The hemilaminectomy (unilateral or bilateral) causes less instability than dorsal laminectomy and therefore should be used when practical. The preferred approach for atlantoaxial subluxation is ventral, and the cross pinning, vertebral fusion technique is used for stabilization. Fracture luxations of C-2 are repaired with small plates on the ventral vertebral body. The thoracic and upper lumbar spine is stabilized with dorsal fixation techniques or combined dorsal spinal plate/vertebral body plate fixation. Several methods of fixation can be used with lower lumbar or lumbosacral fractures, including the modified segmental technique and the combined dorsal spinal plate/Kirschner-Ehmer technique. PMID:1641921

Shores, A

1992-07-01

193

Erdheim–Chester disease associated with intramedullary spinal cord lesion  

PubMed Central

Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. We present a case of a 56-year-old male with ECD. As time progressed, involvement of the orbital fossa, cranial convexity, spinal cord, brain stem, thyroid, lung, retroperitoneum, lower extremity bones and skin were found. Previously reported cases reveal the frequency of ECD with spinal cord involvement is rare. Although this was a presumed diagnosis based on other lesions, our case is the first in which both intramedullary and epidural masses are present. PMID:22391503

Takeuchi, T; Sato, M; Sonomura, T; Itakura, T

2012-01-01

194

Cauda equina lesions as a complication of spinal surgery  

PubMed Central

Although the most common aetiology of cauda equina lesions is lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, iatrogenic lesions may also be the cause. The aim of this study was to identify and present patients in whom cauda equina lesions occurred after spinal surgery. From the author’s series of patients with cauda equina lesions, those with the appearance of sacral symptoms after spinal surgery were identified. To demonstrate lesions more objectively, electrodiagnostic studies were performed in addition to history and clinical examination. Imaging studies were also reviewed. Of 69 patients from the series, 11 patients in whom a cauda equina lesion developed after spinal surgery were identified. The aetiology comprised surgery for herniated intervertebral disc in 5 (4 performed by a single surgeon), spinal stenosis surgery in 4, and postoperative lumbar epidural haematoma in 2 patients (each performed by a different surgeon). Proportion of spinal surgeries with this complication varied from 0 to 6.6‰ in different centres. Patients with iatrogenic cauda equina lesion were significantly older (p < 0.001), and reported more severe urinary, but similar bowel and sexual symptoms compared to other patients in the series. In conclusion the study identified spinal surgery as the cause of approximately 15% of cauda equina lesions. More than a third of lesions developed after procedures performed by a single surgeon. Most of the remaining lesions could probably be avoided by better surgical technique (e.g. the use of a high-speed drill instead of a Kerrison rongeur in patients with severe spinal stenosis), or prevented by closer postoperative monitoring (e.g. in patients with postoperative lumbar epidural haematoma). PMID:19768646

2009-01-01

195

Diplopia from subacute bilateral subdural hematoma after spinal anesthesia.  

PubMed

Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a rare, but life-threatening complication of spinal anesthesia. Subdural hematoma resulting from this procedure could present with vague symptoms such as chronic headache and could easily be missed. Chronic headache is one of the symptoms of chronic SDH in postpartum women. Diplopia as the presenting complaint in SDH secondary to peripartum spinal anesthesia has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. Here, we report a case of diplopia secondary to postpartum subacute bilateral SDHs with transtentorial herniation after spinal anesthesia in a healthy primagravid 25-year-old woman. SDH can expand gradually and the initial symptoms might be subtle as in our case, despite critically high intracranial pressure. PMID:22461938

Hassen, Getaw Worku; Kalantari, Hossein

2012-02-01

196

Considering symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis in the differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is the abnormal accumulation of normal fat within the spinal canal. It is more frequent in those patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy or in cases of endogenous hypercortisolism states. We report a case of SEL in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer with history of steroid treatment as part of his chemotherapy regimen, presenting with clinical manifestations of partial cord compression. Magnetic resonance imaging images of the lumbar spine revealed the presence of epidural tumor suspicious for metastatic disease. Operative findings were consistent with epidural lipomatosis. Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare condition that needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with risk factors, presenting with symptomatic cord compression. PMID:22887695

Alvarez, Adriana; Induru, Raghava; Lagman, Ruth

2013-09-01

197

Spinal cord malformations.  

PubMed

Malformations of the spinal cord are one of the most frequent malformations. They should be clearly divided into two completely different families of malformations: open dysraphisms and occult dysraphisms. Open dysraphism mostly consists in myelomeningocele (MMC). Its incidence is 1/1000 live births with a wide variation. Folic acid supplementation has been shown to reduce its risk. In most cases, the diagnosis is done prenatally by serum screening and ultrasound and may lead to termination of pregnancy. In case of decision to continue pregnancy, surgical treatment must be achieved during the first days of life, and in 50 to 90% of cases, a ventricular shunt must be installed. The follow-up of these children must be continued throughout life looking for late complications (Chiari II and syringomyelia, vertebral problems, neuropathic bladder, tethered cord). Occult dysraphisms are a heterogeneous group of malformations. Lipomas (filum and conus) are the most frequent and their treatment remains controversial. Diastematomyelia, neurenteric cysts, dermal sinus, and more complex forms (Currarino syndrome) belong to this group. Most of them can and must be diagnosed prenatally or at birth by careful examination of the lower back for the cutaneous stigmata of the disease to decrease the risk of neurological, urological, or orthopedic permanent handicap. PMID:23622306

Zerah, Michel; Kulkarni, Abhaya V

2013-01-01

198

Autograft-derived spinal cord mass following olfactory mucosal cell transplantation in a spinal cord injury patient: Case report.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, human cell transplantation and neural stem cell trials have examined the feasibility and safety of these potential therapies for treatment of a variety of neurological disorders. However, significant safety concerns have surrounded these trials due to the possibility of ectopic, uncontrolled cellular growth and tumor formation. The authors present the case of an 18-year-old woman who sustained a complete spinal cord injury at T10-11. Three years after injury, she remained paraplegic and underwent olfactory mucosal cell implantation at the site of injury. She developed back pain 8 years later, and imaging revealed an intramedullary spinal cord mass at the site of cell implantation, which required resection. Intraoperative findings revealed an expanded spinal cord with a multicystic mass containing large amounts of thick mucus-like material. Histological examination and immunohistochemical staining revealed that the mass was composed mostly of cysts lined by respiratory epithelium, submucosal glands with goblet cells, and intervening nerve twigs. This is the first report of a human spinal cord mass complicating spinal cord cell transplantation and neural stem cell therapy. Given the prolonged time to presentation, safety monitoring of all patients with cell transplantation and neural stem cell implantation should be maintained for many years. PMID:25002238

Dlouhy, Brian J; Awe, Olatilewa; Rao, Rajesh C; Kirby, Patricia A; Hitchon, Patrick W

2014-10-01

199

Pain Management Following Spinal Cord Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... signals are Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Secondary Conditions of SCI & Model SCI Care Center Spinal Cord Injury InfoSheet 10 Level - Consumer Pain Management following Spinal ...

200

The validity of multimodal intraoperative monitoring (MIOM) in surgery of 109 spine and spinal cord tumors  

PubMed Central

In a prospective study of 109 patients with tumor of the spine MIOM was performed during the surgical procedure between March 2000 and December 2005. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of MIOM techniques used to monitor spinal cord and nerve root function during surgical procedure of spinal tumors. MIOM become an integrated procedure during surgical approach to intramedullar and extramedullar spine tumors. The combination of monitoring ascending and descending pathways may provide more sensitive and specific results than SEP alone giving immediate feedback information regarding any neurological deficit during the operation. Intraoperative sensory spinal and cerebral evoked potential combined with EMG recordings and motor evoked potential of the spinal cord and muscles were evaluated and compared with postoperative clinical neurological changes. One hundred and nine consecutive patients with spinal tumors of different aetiologies were monitored by the means of MIOM during the entire surgical procedure. Eighty-two patients presented true negative findings while two patients monitored false negative, one false positive and 24 patients true positive findings where neurological deficits after the operation were present. All patients with neurological deficit recovered completely or to pre-existing neurological situation. The sensitivity of MIOM applied during surgery of spinal tumors has been calculated of 92% and specificity 99%. Based upon the results of the study MIOM is an effective method of monitoring the spinal cord and nerve root function during surgical approach of spinal tumors and consequently can reduce or prevent the occurrence of postoperative neurological deficit. PMID:17661095

Eggspuehler, Andreas; Grob, Dieter; Jeszenszky, Dezsö; Benini, Arnaldo; Porchet, Francois; Mueller, Alfred; Dvorak, Jiri

2007-01-01

201

Surgical correction of spinal deformities following spinal cord injury occurring in childhood.  

PubMed

This article reports on the surgical treatment of 14 consecutive patients with paralytic spinal deformities secondary to spinal cord injury occurring in childhood. Eleven patients underwent a posterior spinal fusion and three patients underwent a combined anterior and posterior spinal arthrodesis. Luque rods were used in all but one patient. The spinal fusion extended to the sacrum in 10 patients. No patient developed postoperative wound infections or medical complications. Four patients (28.6%) who underwent initially a posterior spinal arthrodesis developed pseudarthrosis. This was treated successfully by a combined anterior and posterior spinal fusion in two patients. The remaining patients underwent a revision posterior spinal fusion with recurrence of the nonunion in one patient. A combined anterior and posterior spinal arthrodesis could be considered the treatment of choice for patients with severe deformities who can tolerate anterior surgery. If pseudarthrosis develops following posterior spinal fusion, this can be best treated by a combined anterior and posterior revision procedure with instrumentation. PMID:18053399

Tsirikos, Athanasios I; Markham, Philip; McMaster, Michael J

2007-01-01

202

Neuroprotection and its molecular mechanism following spinal cord injury?  

PubMed Central

Acute spinal cord injury initiates a complex cascade of molecular events termed ‘secondary injury’, which leads to progressive degeneration ranging from early neuronal apoptosis at the lesion site to delayed degeneration of intact white matter tracts, and, ultimately, expansion of the initial injury. These secondary injury processes include, but are not limited to, inflammation, free radical-induced cell death, glutamate excitotoxicity, phospholipase A2 activation, and induction of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, which are important targets in developing neuroprotective strategies for treatment of spinal cord injury. Recently, a number of studies have shown promising results on neuroprotection and recovery of function in rodent models of spinal cord injury using treatments that target secondary injury processes including inflammation, phospholipase A2 activation, and manipulation of the PTEN-Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. The present review outlines our ongoing research on the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection in experimental spinal cord injury and briefly summarizes our earlier findings on the therapeutic potential of pharmacological treatments in spinal cord injury.

Liu, Nai-Kui; Xu, Xiao-Ming

2012-01-01

203

Clinical Assessment Of Stereotactic IGRT: Spinal Radiosurgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial lesions is well established. Its use for the treatment of spinal lesions has been limited because of the availability of effective target immobilization devices. Recent advances in stereotactic IGRT have allowed for spinal applications. Large clinical experience with spinal radiosurgery to properly assess clinical outcomes has previously been limited. At

Peter C. Gerszten; Steven A. Burton

2008-01-01

204

Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models  

PubMed Central

Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies. PMID:25598784

Zhang, Ning; Fang, Marong; Chen, Haohao; Gou, Fangming; Ding, Mingxing

2014-01-01

205

Spinal cord monitoring during spinal surgery using somatosensory spinal evoked potentials.  

PubMed

Intraoperative monitoring of spinal cord function has been carried out in 59 patients during spinal instrumentation for scoliosis. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation in the popliteal space was performed and spinal evoked potentials from electrodes in the spinous processes observed. A rod artifact problem causing partial obliteration of the wave form can be minimized or eliminated by careful selection of the insertion of the fixation device. A drop in amplitude of the signal occurred in many of the tracings from control to distraction observations but did not result in neurologic deficit. One patient had a loss of the signal after maximum distraction with a Harrington rod and a return with release of distraction. This patient awoke with paralytic urinary bladder retention which resolved spontaneously but no other neurologic deficit. This method has been used for monitoring of spinal cord function during Harrington rod instrumentation, using both compression and distraction systems as well as Luque rod instrumentation. This method is safe, simple, and provides consistent and predictable wave forms; it appears to be reliable in indicating continuation of spinal cord function during the procedure. PMID:6841600

LaMont, R L; Wasson, S L; Green, M A

1983-02-01

206

Myocardial stunning after resuscitation from cardiac arrest following spinal anaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Cardiac arrest associated with spinal anaesthesia has been well researched. Myocardial stunning after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest is seen in up to 2/3rd of in-hospital cardiac arrests. Myocardial stunning after resuscitation from cardiac arrest associated with spinal anaesthesia has probably not been reported earlier. Our case, an ASA physical status I lady, posted for tubal reanastomosis surgery developed bradycardia followed by asystole, approximately 5 minutes after giving subarachnoid block. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved within 2 minutes with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation for pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Patient developed delayed pulmonary oedema, which was probably due to myocardial stunning. In the present case, inadequate preloading could have precipitated bradycardia progressing to cardiac arrest which, after resuscitation led to reversible myocardial dysfunction. We conclude that early vasopressor infusion, titrated fluids and echocardiography should be considered in immediate post cardiac arrest phase following spinal anaesthesia. PMID:24963188

Kurhekar, Pranjali Madhav; Yachendra, VSG; Babu, Simi P; Govindasamy, Raghavelu

2014-01-01

207

Spinal lobular capillary hemangioma with an intramedullary component.  

PubMed

Capillary hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms rarely involving the spinal cord, where their usual location is extramedullary. A 59-year-old man presented with a 7-month history of progressive numbness which began in the left lower extremity and progressed across the lower back, right flank, trunk and into the right lower extremity with associated pressure and pain in his lower back. On magnetic resonance imaging, there was an avidly-enhancing thoracic intradural lesion that contained an extramedullary intradural component posteriorly, with an apparent intramedullary component anteriorly. Laminectomy of T7 - 8 was performed, and intradural exploration revealed a highly vascular-appearing tumor below the arachnoid, which was not completely dissected because it was densely adherent to the spinal cord. The pathological diagnosis was lobular capillary hemangioma with extra- and intramedullary components. We suggest this lesion should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with an intramedullary component. PMID:23924752

Gonzalez, Ricardo; Spears, Julian; Bharatha, Aditya; Munoz, David G

2014-01-01

208

Endovascular treatment of a spinal dural arteriovenous malformation (DAVF).  

PubMed

We present a case of a patient with rapid loss of motor strength in his lower extremities. He became bedridden with bowel and bladder incontinence, and developed saddle anesthesia. MRI of the lumbar spine showed edema in the conus medullaris and multiple flow voids within the spinal canal. A spinal angiogram showed a dorsal Type I spinal AVF. This was treated successfully with Onyx 18 (eV3, Irvine, CA). The patient showed rapid post-procedure improvement, and at discharge from the hospital to a rehabilitation center he was fully ambulatory. At 3-year follow-up, the patient was found to ambulate without difficulty. He also had improved saddle anesthesia, and he was voiding spontaneously. There was no evidence of flow voids on repeat MRI of the lumbar spine. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/SDYNIGNQIW8 . PMID:24983729

Agarwal, Vijay; Zomorodi, Ali; Jabbour, Pascal; Chalouhi, Nohra; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Babu, Ranjith; Back, Adam; Gonzalez, L Fernando

2014-07-01

209

Isolated spinal neurosarcoidosis: An enigmatic intramedullary spinal cord pathology-case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Isolated spinal cord neurosarcoidosis (NS) in the absence of systemic disease or intracranial involvement is exceptionally rare. Adjunctive laboratory tests though useful may not be reliable and the absence of any pathognomonic radiological features makes the diagnosis difficult. As spinal cord NS may be a presenting feature of systemic sarcoidosis which may be occult on routine workup, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be of value in unraveling this systemic involvement avoiding biopsying the spinal cord. A case of truly isolated NS is described with review of literature on this enigmatic pathology. Long segment intramedullary signal changes with focal parenchymal along with dural/meningeal enhancement in the absence of significant cervical stenosis in a young patient of northern European or African-American decent is very suggestive of NS and although may be presumably treated with steroids; there should be a low threshold for spinal cord biopsy especially in the absence of response to steroids to confirm isolated spinal cord NS in a patient with clinical neurological deterioration. PMID:24744567

Kasliwal, Manish K.; Harbhajanka, Aparna; Nag, Sukriti; O’Toole, John E.

2013-01-01

210

Spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic pain constitutes a significant portion of chronic pain. Patients with neuropathic pain are usually more heavily burdened than patients with nociceptive pain. They suffer more often from insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Moreover, analgesic medication often has an insufficient effect on neuropathic pain. Spinal cord stimulation constitutes a therapy alternative that, to date, remains underused. In the last 10 to 15 years, it has undergone constant technical advancement. This review gives an overview of the present practice of spinal cord stimulation for chronic neuropathic pain and current developments such as high-frequency stimulation and peripheral nerve field stimulation. PMID:25429237

Wolter, Tilman

2014-01-01

211

Decompressive lumbar laminectomy for spinal stenosis.  

PubMed

A total of 258 consecutive decompressive lumbar laminectomies performed on 244 individuals presenting with spinal stenosis were analyzed retrospectively. Spinal fusion was avoided in all but two patients. Outcome in terms of pain relief and return to normal activity was evaluated in two stages, one derived from patient charts and having a relatively short-term follow-up time (mean 8.4 months) and a second derived from patient responses to a questionnaire (which also scored for satisfaction with the results of surgery), which had a longer follow-up time (mean 4.7 years). More than 20 clinical and operative parameters were analyzed. Overall, a high degree of success (93% pain relief, 95% return to normal activity) was achieved in the short term, which was supported by the longer-term follow-up data (64% pain relief, 56% activity return, 75% satisfaction). The following factors were not significantly correlated with outcome: patient age; sex; worker's compensation or no-fault insurance status; employed versus not employed; a history of back surgery prior to the laminectomy studied; existence of degenerative spondylolisthesis or scoliosis; complete versus incomplete myelographic block; or the level of the lumbar spine undergoing surgery. The major conclusions arising from these data are: 1) for all age groups through at least the eighth decade of life, decompressive lumbar laminectomy is a relatively safe operation having a high medium-to-long-term success rate; 2) lumbar instability following laminectomy is rare, even in individuals presenting prior to surgery with degenerative instability conditions; and 3) lumbar fusion in addition to the decompressive laminectomy procedure is rarely required for degenerative spinal stenosis. PMID:8468598

Silvers, H R; Lewis, P J; Asch, H L

1993-05-01

212

A ‘tool box’ for deciphering neuronal circuits in the developing chick spinal cord  

PubMed Central

The genetic dissection of spinal circuits is an essential new means for understanding the neural basis of mammalian behavior. Molecular targeting of specific neuronal populations, a key instrument in the genetic dissection of neuronal circuits in the mouse model, is a complex and time-demanding process. Here we present a circuit-deciphering ‘tool box’ for fast, reliable and cheap genetic targeting of neuronal circuits in the developing spinal cord of the chick. We demonstrate targeting of motoneurons and spinal interneurons, mapping of axonal trajectories and synaptic targeting in both single and populations of spinal interneurons, and viral vector-mediated labeling of pre-motoneurons. We also demonstrate fluorescent imaging of the activity pattern of defined spinal neurons during rhythmic motor behavior, and assess the role of channel rhodopsin-targeted population of interneurons in rhythmic behavior using specific photoactivation. PMID:25147209

Hadas, Yoav; Etlin, Alex; Falk, Haya; Avraham, Oshri; Kobiler, Oren; Panet, Amos; Lev-Tov, Aharon; Klar, Avihu

2014-01-01

213

Solitary ruptured aneurysm of the spinal artery of adamkiewicz with subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to solitary spinal aneurysm is extremely rare. A 45-year-old female patient visited the emergency department with severe headache and back pain. Imaging studies showed cerebral SAH in parietal lobe and spinal SAH in thoracolumbar level. Spinal angiography revealed a small pearl and string-like aneurysm of the Adamkiewicz artery at the T12 level. One month after onset, her back pain aggravated, and follow-up imaging study showed arachnoiditis. Two months after onset, her symptoms improved, and follow-up imaging study showed resolution of SAH. The present case of spinal SAH due to rupture of dissecting aneurysm of the Adamkiewicz artery underwent subsequent spontaneous resolution, indicating that the wait-and-see strategy may provide adequate treatment option. PMID:24044082

Son, Seong; Lee, Sang-Gu; Park, Cheol-Wan

2013-07-01

214

Clinical and genetic diversity of SMN1-negative proximal spinal muscular atrophies  

PubMed Central

Hereditary spinal muscular atrophy is a motor neuron disorder characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy due to degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. Initially, the disease was considered purely as an autosomal recessive condition caused by loss-of-function SMN1 mutations on 5q13. Recent developments in next generation sequencing technologies, however, have unveiled a growing number of clinical conditions designated as non-5q forms of spinal muscular atrophy. At present, 16 different genes and one unresolved locus are associated with proximal non-5q forms, having high phenotypic variability and diverse inheritance patterns. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding the phenotypes, causative genes, and disease mechanisms associated with proximal SMN1-negative spinal muscular atrophies. We describe the molecular and cellular functions enriched among causative genes, and discuss the challenges in the post-genomics era of spinal muscular atrophy research. PMID:24970098

Jordanova, Albena

2014-01-01

215

Increased immunoreactivity of c?Fos in the spinal cord of the aged mouse and dog.  

PubMed

Expression of c?Fos in the spinal cord following nociceptive stimulation is considered to be a neurotoxic biomarker. In the present study, the immunoreactivity of c?Fos in the spinal cord was compared between young adult (2?3 years in dogs and 6 months in mice) and aged (10?12 years in dogs and 24 months in mice) Beagle dogs and C57BL/6J mice. In addition, changes to neuronal distribution and damage to the spinal cord were also investigated. There were no significant differences in neuronal loss or degeneration of the spinal neurons observed in either the aged dogs or mice. Weak c?Fos immunoreactivity was observed in the spinal neurons of the young adult animals; however, c?Fos immunoreactivity was markedly increased in the nuclei of spinal neurons in the aged dogs and mice, as compared with that of the young adults. In conclusion, c?Fos immunoreactivity was significantly increased without any accompanying neuronal loss in the aged spinal cord of mice and dogs, as compared with the spinal cords of the young adult animals. PMID:25351722

Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Myoung Chul; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Jae-Chul; Yan, Bing Chun; Hwang, In Koo; Moon, Seung Myung; Ahn, Ji Yun; Ohk, Taek Geun; Lee, Tae Hun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Shin, Hyung-Cheul; Won, Moo-Ho

2015-02-01

216

Geometric Structure of 3D Spinal Curves: Plane Regions and Connecting Zones  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a new study of the geometric structure of 3D spinal curves. The spine is considered as an heterogeneous beam, compound of vertebrae and intervertebral discs. The spine is modeled as a deformable wire along which vertebrae are beads rotating about the wire. 3D spinal curves are compound of plane regions connected together by zones of transition. The 3D spinal curve is uniquely flexed along the plane regions. The angular offsets between adjacent regions are concentrated at level of the middle zones of transition, so illustrating the heterogeneity of the spinal geometric structure. The plane regions along the 3D spinal curve must satisfy two criteria: (i) a criterion of minimum distance between the curve and the regional plane and (ii) a criterion controlling that the curve is continuously plane at the level of the region. The geometric structure of each 3D spinal curve is characterized by the sizes and orientations of regional planes, by the parameters representing flexed regions and by the sizes and functions of zones of transition. Spinal curves of asymptomatic subjects show three plane regions corresponding to spinal curvatures: lumbar, thoracic and cervical curvatures. In some scoliotic spines, four plane regions may be detected. PMID:25031873

Berthonnaud, E.; Hilmi, R.; Dimnet, J.

2012-01-01

217

Spinal cord atrophy in early Huntington's disease  

PubMed Central

Despite evidence for spinal cord involvement, it remains unclear whether spinal cord atrophy exists in early Huntington's disease. We studied magnetic resonance images, covering both brain and upper cervical cord, in two cohorts of Huntington's patients and in one cohort of Alzheimer's patients. All cohorts included healthy controls comparable with regard to age and gender. We found significant spinal cord atrophy in both cohorts of Huntington's patients but not in the cohort of Alzheimer's patients. Furthermore, spinal cord atrophy correlated with motor symptoms indicating that spinal cord atrophy occurs in the clinical stages and does not result from abnormal development.

Mühlau, Mark; Engl, Christina; Boucard, Christine C; Schmidt, Paul; Biberacher, Viola; Görsch, Isabel; Sorg, Christian; Wohlschläger, Afra; Zimmer, Claus; Hemmer, Bernhard; Weindl, Adolph

2014-01-01

218

Melatonin lowers edema after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Melatonin has been shown to diminish edema in rats. Melatonin can be used to treat spinal cord injury. This study presumed that melatonin could relieve spinal cord edema and examined how it might act. Our experiments found that melatonin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) could reduce the water content of the spinal cord, and suppress the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein after spinal cord injury. This suggests that the mechanism by which melatonin alleviates the damage to the spinal cord by edema might be related to the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein.

Li, Cheng; Chen, Xiao; Qiao, Suchi; Liu, Xinwei; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Degang; Su, Jiacan; Wang, Zhiwei

2014-01-01

219

Topical irrigation with polymyxin and bacitracin for spinal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND The purpose of the present study was to evaluate constant irrigation with saline containing 50,000 units each of polymyxin and bacitracin in a regimen of antimicrobial prophylaxis for clean spinal surgery at two community hospitals with a zero infection rate.METHODS The focus was on the bactericidal effects of prophylactic topical antibiotics by assessing random contamination in neurosurgical wounds from:

Sean I Savitz; Martin H Savitz; Howard B Goldstein; Corinne T Mouracade; Sylvester Malangone

1998-01-01

220

Protective Effect of Sildenafil (Viagra) in Transient Spinal Cord Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospective study of the neuroprotective activity of sildenafil in a rat spinal ischemia model. The present study involved 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into 3 groups. Physiological serum was administered intraperitoneally to the 8 rats in the control group at the beginning of reperfusion for a period of 20 min after abdominal aortal occlusion. Sildenafil (Viagra®) was

Ömer Anlar; Süleyman Özen

2008-01-01

221

Causes of Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Knowledge of the causes of spinal cord injury (SCI) and associated factors is critical in the development of successful prevention programs. Objective: This study analyzed data from the National SCI Database (NSCID) and National Shriners SCI Database (NSSCID) in the United States to examine specific etiologies of SCI by age, sex, race, ethnicity, day and month of injury, and neurologic outcomes. Methods: NSCID and NSSCID participants who had a traumatic SCI from 2005 to 2011 with known etiology were included in the analyses (N=7,834). Thirty-seven causes of injury documented in the databases were stratified by personal characteristics using descriptive analysis. Results: The most common causes of SCI were automobile crashes (31.5%) and falls (25.3%), followed by gunshot wounds (10.4%), motorcycle crashes (6.8%), diving incidents (4.7%), and medical/surgical complications (4.3%), which collectively accounted for 83.1% of total SCIs since 2005. Automobile crashes were the leading cause of SCI until age 45 years, whereas falls were the leading cause after age 45 years. Gunshot wounds, motorcycle crashes, and diving caused more SCIs in males than females. The major difference among race/ethnicity was in the proportion of gunshot wounds. More SCIs occurred during the weekends and warmer months, which seemed to parallel the increase of motorcycle- and diving-related SCIs. Level and completeness of injury are also associated with etiology of injury. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that prevention strategies should be tailored to the targeted population and major causes to have a meaningful impact on reducing the incidence of SCI. PMID:23678280

2013-01-01

222

Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell-induced neural stem cells to treat spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Because of their strong proliferative capacity and multi-potency, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells have gained interest as a cell source in the field of nerve damage repair. In the present study, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural stem cells, which were then transplanted into the spinal cord after local spinal cord injury in rats. The motor functional recovery and pathological changes in the injured spinal cord were observed for 3 successive weeks. The results showed that human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neuron-like cells and that induced neural stem cells contribute to the restoration of injured spinal cord without causing transplant rejection. Thus, these cells promote the recovery of motor and sensory functions in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Therefore, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells may be useful as seed cells during the repair of spinal cord injury. PMID:25657742

Li, Zhi; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Ye; Jia, Jingqiao; Yang, Lifeng

2014-01-01

223

Acute Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Although previous reports have characterized MR imaging features of spinal epidural hematomas (EDH), few cases have been reported during the acute or hyperacute phase within the first 48 hours. Our goal in this investigation was to correlate the MR imaging features of acute (#48 hours) spontaneous EDH with clinical management and outcome. METHODS: Eight patients with acute spontaneous

R. D. Henderson; Amar S. Swarnkar; Robert L. Williams

2001-01-01

224

SPINAL CORD INJURY (SCI) DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Spinal Cord Injury Database has been in existence since 1973 and captures data from SCI cases in the United States. Since its inception, 24 federally funded Model SCI Care Systems have contributed data to the National SCI Database. Statistics are derived from this da...

225

Asymptomatic spinal cord lesions in clinically isolated optic nerve, brain stem, and spinal cord syndromes suggestive of demyelination  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESConventional T2 weighted MRI studies have highlighted the fact that the presence of clinically silent brain lesions increases the risk of developing clinically definite multiple sclerosis after an isolated syndrome of the optic nerve, brain stem, or spinal cord. The objectives of the present study are: (1) to show whether or not these patients also have asymptomatic abnormalities of the

J I O’Riordan; N A Losseff; C Phatouros; A J Thompson; I F Moseley; D G MacManus; W I McDonald; D H Miller

1998-01-01

226

Idiopathic Hypertrophic Spinal Pachymeningitis with an Osteolytic Lesion  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (IHSP) is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disorder characterized by marked fibrosis of the spinal dura mater with unknown etiology. According to the location of the lesion, it might induce neurologic deficits by compression of spinal cord and nerve root. A 58-year old female with a 3-year history of progressive weakness in both lower extremities was referred to our institute. Spinal computed tomography (CT) scan showed an osteolytic lesion involving base of the C6 spinous process with adjacent epidural mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an epidural mass involving dorsal aspect of cervical spinal canal from C5 to C7 level, with low signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images and non-enhancement on T1 weighted-enhanced images. We decided to undertake surgical exploration. At the operation field, there was yellow colored, thickened fibrous tissue over the dura mater. The lesion was removed totally, and decompression of spinal cord was achieved. Symptoms improved partially after the operation. Histopathologically, fibrotic pachymeninges with scanty inflammatory cells was revealed, which was compatible with diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Six months after operation, motor power grade of both lower extremities was normal on physical examination. However, the patient still complained of mild weakness in the right lower extremity. Although the nature of IHSP is generally indolent, decompressive surgery should be considered for the patient with definite or progressive neurologic symptoms in order to prevent further deterioration. In addition, IHSP can present as an osteolytic lesion. Differential diagnosis with neoplastic disease, including giant cell tumor, is important. PMID:25328657

Jee, Tae Keun; Lee, Sun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang

2014-01-01

227

Surgical treatment of cervical intramedullary spinal cord tumors.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determine if radical microsurgical removal of cervical intramedullary spinal cord tumors (CIMSCT) is achievable without causing respiratory, motor and sphincter deficits. Sixteen consecutive patients, who underwent surgical removal of a cervical intramedullary spinal cord tumor between 1988 and 1997, are presented. Surgical findings and results are analyzed. Patients' pre- and postoperative neurological conditions were evaluated using the clinical/functional scale of McCormick et al. The tumor was totally removed in 15 patients (93%). An improvement in sensory and motor functionality was obtained in 10 patients (63%), five patients (31%) remained stable and only one patient (6%), in whom partial removal was performed, presented a worsening of motor and sphincter functions. None of the patients who underwent total removal have shown MR signs of recurrence. The only patient in whom a partial removal was realized, presented a bulbar diffusion of the tumor and died. Microsurgical total removal can be considered the treatment of choice for CIMSCT. An accurate dissection between tumoral mass and normal spinal cord may allow, in the majority of cases, a total removal of tumor with preservation of spinal cord. Potential alterations of the spine stability must be prevented using internal or external stabilization. PMID:11760875

Maira, G; Amante, P; Denaro, L; Mangiola, A; Colosimo, C

2001-12-01

228

Multimodal intraoperative monitoring during surgery of spinal deformities in 217 patients  

PubMed Central

A prospective study was performed on 217 patients who received MIOM during corrective surgery of spinal deformities between March 2000 and December 2005. Aim is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of MIOM techniques used to monitor spinal cord and nerve root function during corrective spine surgery. MIOM is becoming an increasingly used method of monitoring function during corrective spine surgery. The combination of monitoring of ascending and descending pathways may provide more sensitive and specific results giving immediate feedback information regarding any neurological deficits during the operation. Intraoperative somatosensory spinal and cerebral evoked potentials combined with continuous EMG and motor evoked potentials of the spinal cord and muscles were evaluated and compared with postoperative clinical neurological changes. A total of 217 consecutive patients with spinal deformities of different aetiologies were monitored by means of MIOM during the surgical procedure. Out of which 201 patients presented true negative findings while one patient presented false negative and three patients presented false positive findings. Twelve patients presented true positive findings where neurological deficit after the operation was predicted. All neurological deficits in those 12 patients recovered completely. The sensitivity of MIOM applied during surgery of spinal deformities has been calculated of 92.3% and the specificity 98.5%. Based upon the results of this study MIOM is an effective method of monitoring the spinal cord and nerve root function during corrective surgery of spinal deformities and consequently improves postoperative results. The Wake-up test for surgical procedure of spinal deformities became obsolete in our institution. PMID:17632737

Sutter, Martin A.; Grob, Dieter; Jeszenszky, Dezsö; Dvorak, Jiri

2007-01-01

229

Solitary C1 spinal osteochondroma causing vertebral artery compression and acute cerebellar infarct.  

PubMed

Osteochondroma is a common benign bone lesion, usually involving the long bones. Spinal involvement is rare. The clinical presentation of spinal osteochondroma varies according to the site of the lesion. The most common reported clinical presentation is secondary to encroachment of the lesion on the spinal canal or nerve roots. Less common presentations such as a palpable neck mass, dysphagia, sleep apnea, paralysis of left vocal cord or acute respiratory distress have been reported when the lesions compress the anatomic structures anteriorly. We describe a rare case of a young patient who presented with an emergent critical condition of acute cerebellar infarct as a result of vertebral artery compression caused by a solitary C1 spinal osteochondroma. PMID:25109381

Zhang, Yaxia; Ilaslan, Hakan; Hussain, Muhammad S; Bain, Mark; Bauer, Thomas W

2015-02-01

230

Diffuse ependymal dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor causing spinal drop metastases: a case report.  

PubMed

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) arise mostly in the supratentorial cerebral cortex. A very rare case of intraventricular DNET with diffuse ependymal involvement, which causes spinal drop metastasis, is presented. PMID:22778572

Kim, Seul Kee; Jeong, Min Young; Jung, Tae Young; Kang, Heoung Keun; Yoon, Woong

2012-01-01

231

Inflammatory cascades mediate synapse elimination in spinal cord compression  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM) is caused by chronic spinal cord compression due to spondylosis, a degenerative disc disease, and ossification of the ligaments. Tip-toe walking Yoshimura (twy) mice are reported to be an ideal animal model for CCM-related neuronal dysfunction, because they develop spontaneous spinal cord compression without any artificial manipulation. Previous histological studies showed that neurons are lost due to apoptosis in CCM, but the mechanism underlying this neurodegeneration was not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology of CCM by evaluating the global gene expression of the compressed spinal cord and comparing the transcriptome analysis with the physical and histological findings in twy mice. Methods Twenty-week-old twy mice were divided into two groups according to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings: a severe compression (S) group and a mild compression (M) group. The transcriptome was analyzed by microarray and RT-PCR. The cellular pathophysiology was examined by immunohistological analysis and immuno-electron microscopy. Motor function was assessed by Rotarod treadmill latency and stride-length tests. Results Severe cervical calcification caused spinal canal stenosis and low functional capacity in twy mice. The microarray analysis revealed 215 genes that showed significantly different expression levels between the S and the M groups. Pathway analysis revealed that genes expressed at higher levels in the S group were enriched for terms related to the regulation of inflammation in the compressed spinal cord. M1 macrophage-dominant inflammation was present in the S group, and cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61), an inducer of M1 macrophages, was markedly upregulated in these spinal cords. Furthermore, C1q, which initiates the classical complement cascade, was more upregulated in the S group than in the M group. The confocal and electron microscopy observations indicated that classically activated microglia/macrophages had migrated to the compressed spinal cord and eliminated synaptic terminals. Conclusions We revealed the detailed pathophysiology of the inflammatory response in an animal model of chronic spinal cord compression. Our findings suggest that complement-mediated synapse elimination is a central mechanism underlying the neurodegeneration in CCM. PMID:24589419

2014-01-01

232

[Spinal cord intramedullary cavernous haemangioma: case report].  

PubMed

The intramedullary cavernous haemangioma is a low flow vascular anomaly curable through surgical resection, howewer if the precocious diagnosis and the appropriate therapeutics are not done it can cause serious neurological sequels. It is extremely rare the occurrence of intramedullary cavernous haemangioma. We report the case of a 33 year-old woman patient with an intramedullary cavernous angioma at T6-T7, that presented a clinical picture of slow and progressive spinal cord compression, with an important recent worsening. The magnetic resonance of the thoracic column demonstrated a T6 - T7 a intramedullary expansive lesion wich presented hypointense on T1 and discretely hyperintense on T2 with a small hypointense area in the two sequences. The patient was submitted to late surgical treatment and did not presented neurological recovery. The clinical and imagelogy pictures, and the importance of instituing precociously the appropriate treatment of this entity is reviewed, analyzed and discussed. PMID:14595498

Colonetti, Juliano; Costa, Fernando de Oliveira; Lima, André Geraldo Dal Bó; Sanchez, Giancarlo Bettin

2003-09-01

233

Sudden onset of paraplegia caused by hemorrhagic spinal epidural angiolipoma. A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal epidural angiolipoma is a rare benign tumor containing vascular and mature adipose elements. A slow progressive clinical\\u000a course was mostly presented and rarely a fluctuating course during pregnancy. The authors report the original case of spontaneous\\u000a spinal epidural bleeding resulting from thoracic epidural angiolipoma who presented with hyperacute onset of paraplegia, simulating\\u000a an extradural hematoma. The patient was admitted

Ali Akhaddar; Abderrahmane Albouzidi; Brahim Elmostarchid; Miloudi Gazzaz; Mohamed Boucetta

2008-01-01

234

Spinal infections in the immunocompromised host.  

PubMed

There is an increasing population of immunocompromised patients with HIV, IV drug abuse, organ transplantation, and long-term steroid treatment developing spinal infections. Delayed diagnosis because of blunted host immune response and lack of outward signs and symptoms places the treating physician at a disadvantage in the treatment of this type of disease, which presents at a later stage of development. Immunocompromised patients are infected by a different group of pathogens than their healthier cohorts (e.g., Pseudomonas, gram-negative bacteria and fungal infections) because their host defenses are diminished. Osteomyelitis with or with out pyomyositis and epidural abscess may occur. The overriding symptom is back pain. Radiculopathy, myelopathy, and sensory loss may accompany local pain and tenderness. Plain film radiography, CT scan, MR image, and bone scan is invaluable in the diagnosis of these infections. The cornerstone of treatment is identification of the responsible pathogen, appropriate medical therapy, immobilization of the affected segment of the spine, and physical therapy to combat physical deconditioning. Psoas abscesses may require surgical debridement if they cannot be adequately drained by CT-guided percutaneous catheterization. Epidural abscesses with neurologic compromise require surgical drainage. Impingement of the spinal cord or cauda equina by collapsed osteomyelitic vertebral bodies requires surgical debridement by anterior vertebrectomy, with an autologous tricortical iliac crest strut and immobilization of the spine using external bracing or posterior instrumentation as dictated by the disease. PMID:8539051

Broner, F A; Garland, D E; Zigler, J E

1996-01-01

235

Contribution of the spinal microglia to bee venom-induced inflammatory pain in conscious rats.  

PubMed

It is well known that spinal glia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pain. The present study was designed to determine the roles of spinal microglia in bee venom-induced persistent spontaneous nociception (PSN), mechanical hyperalgesia and inflammation. We determined the effects of microglia inhibitor minocycline on BV-induced PSN, mechanical hyperalgesia and inflammatory swelling. Pre-treatment with intrathecal administration of minocyline at different doses significantly inhibited BV-induced PSN and mechanical hyperalgesia, but had no effect on BV-induced inflammatory swelling. These data suggest that the activation of spinal microglia may play a key role in BV-induced nociception, but not inflammation. PMID:23196130

Chen, Hui-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Xiu; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Li, Feng-Peng; Qu, Fang; Liu, Bao-Jun; Li, Man; Lu, Yao

2013-02-01

236

Dwarfism, occult spinal dysraphism, and presacral myxopapillary ependymoma with an epidermoid cyst in a child.  

PubMed

The authors present a case of a child with dwarfism that was noted to be developmentally delayed. Imaging revealed atlantoaxial instability, occult spinal dysraphism, and a presacral mass. Histopathology of the presacral lesion was that of a myxopapillary ependymoma with epidermoid cyst. We believe this to be the first report in the extant medical literature of this constellation of findings in the same patient. However, there are rare reports indicating a possible association of occult spinal dysraphism and the simultaneous occurrence of spinal ependymomas. Further case reports are necessary to discern whether these pathological entities are true low rate associations that the clinician should consider in their evaluation of these patients. PMID:15662566

Tubbs, R S; Kelly, D R; Mroczek-Musulman, E C; Braune, K; Reddy, A; Georgeson, K; Grabb, P A; Oakes, W J

2005-03-01

237

Spine day 2012: spinal pain in Swiss school children– epidemiology and risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background The key to a better understanding of the immense problem of spinal pain seems to be to investigate its development in adolescents. Based on the data of Spine Day 2012 (an annual action day where Swiss school children were examined by chiropractors on a voluntary basis for back problems), the aim of the present study was to gain systematic epidemiologic data on adolescent spinal pain in Switzerland and to explore risk factors per gender and per spinal area. Method Data (questionnaires and physical examinations) of 836 school children were descriptively analyzed for prevalence, recurrence and severity of spinal pain. Of those, 434 data sets were included in risk factor analysis. Using logistic regression analysis, psycho-social parameters (presence of parental back pain, parental smoking, media consumption, type of school bag) and physical parameters (trunk symmetry, posture, mobility, coordination, BMI) were analyzed per gender and per spinal area. Results Prevalence of spinal pain was higher for female gender in all areas apart from the neck. With age, a steep increase in prevalence was observed for low back pain (LBP) and for multiple pain sites. The increasing impact of spinal pain on quality of life with age was reflected in an increase in recurrence, but not in severity of spinal pain. Besides age and gender, parental back pain (Odds ratio (OR)=3.26, p=0.011) and trunk asymmetry (OR=3.36, p=0.027) emerged as risk factors for spinal pain in girls. Parental smoking seemed to increase the risk for both genders (boys: OR=2.39, p=0.020; girls: OR=2.19, p=0.051). Risk factor analysis per spinal area resulted in trunk asymmetry as risk factor for LBP (OR=3.15, p=0.015), while parental smoking increased the risk for thoracic spinal pain (TSP) (OR=2.83, p=0.036) and neck pain (OR=2.23, p=0.038). The risk for TSP was further enhanced by a higher BMI (OR=1.15, p=0.027). Conclusion This study supports the view of adolescent spinal pain as a bio-psycho-social problem that should be investigated per spinal area, age and gender. The role of trunk asymmetry and passive smoking as risk factors as well as the association between BMI and TSP should be further investigated, preferably in prospective studies. PMID:24094041

2013-01-01

238

Detection of activated caspase-8 in injured spinal axons by using fluorochrome-labeled inhibitors of caspases (FLICA).  

PubMed

Here, we present a detailed protocol for the detection of activated caspase-8 in axotomized axons of the whole-mounted lamprey spinal cord. This method is based on the use of fluorochrome -labeled inhibitors of caspases (FLICA) in ex vivo tissue. We offer a very convenient vertebrate model to study the retrograde degeneration of descending pathways after spinal cord injury. PMID:25431075

Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Shifman, Michael I

2015-01-01

239

Mosaic evolution of neural development in anurans: acceleration of spinal cord development in the direct developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that spinal cord development in direct developing frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus, which have evolutionarily lost the tadpole stage, differs from that in biphasically developing anurans (with the larval and the adult stage separated by metamorphosis). The present study of spinal cord development in Eleutherodactylus coqui provides additional information about neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and growth analyzed

Gerhard Schlosser

2003-01-01

240

The arterial supply of the human spinal cord: A new approach to the arteria radicularis magna of Adamkiewicz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The arteria radicularis magna (Adamkiewicz's artery) was studied in 30 human spinal cords after arterial injection. The artery was present in all cases, between T 8 and L 2, and was identified by its diameter and position. The arteria radicularis magna was the main blood supply to the lowest region of the spinal cord. In one out of three

A. Rodriguez-Baeza; A. Muset-Lara; M. Rodriguez-Pazos; J. M. Domenech-Mateu

1991-01-01

241

Dysfunction of axonal membrane conductances in adolescents and young adults with spinal muscular atrophy  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy is distinct among neurodegenerative conditions of the motor neuron, with onset in developing and maturing patients. Furthermore, the rate of degeneration appears to slow over time, at least in the milder forms. To investigate disease pathophysiology and potential adaptations, the present study utilized axonal excitability studies to provide insights into axonal biophysical properties and explored correlation with clinical severity. Multiple excitability indices (stimulus–response curve, strength–duration time constant, threshold electrotonus, current–threshold relationship and recovery cycle) were investigated in 25 genetically characterized adolescent and adult patients with spinal muscular atrophy, stimulating the median motor nerve at the wrist. Results were compared with 50 age-matched controls. The Medical Research Council sum score and Spinal Muscular Atrophy Functional Rating Scale were used to define the strength and motor functional status of patients with spinal muscular atrophy. In patients with spinal muscular atrophy, there were reductions in compound muscle action potential amplitude (P?spinal muscular atrophy, there was reduction of peak amplitude without alteration in axonal excitability; in contrast, in the non-ambulatory or severe spinal muscular atrophy cohort prominent changes in axonal function were apparent. Specifically, there were steep changes in the early phase of hyperpolarization in threshold electrotonus (P?spinal muscular atrophy supported a mixed pathology comprising features of axonal degeneration and regeneration. The present study has provided novel insight into the pathophysiology of spinal muscular atrophy, with identification of functional abnormalities involving axonal K+ and Na+ conductances and alterations in passive membrane properties, the latter linked to the process of neurodegeneration. PMID:21926101

Vucic, Steve; Lin, Cindy S.-Y.; Park, Susanna B.; Johnston, Heather M.; du Sart, Desirée; Bostock, Hugh; Kiernan, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

242

Whole Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma  

PubMed Central

A 26-year-old male who had no underlying disease, including coagulopathy, underwent thoracotomy and bleeding control due to hemothorax. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred. Urgent spine magnetic resonance imaging showed a massive anterior spinal epidural hematoma from C2 to L1 level with different signal intensities, which was suspected to be staged hemorrhage. Hematoma evacuation with decompressive laminectomy was performed. The patient's neurologic deterioration was recovered immediately, and he was discharged without neurological deficits. A drug history of naftazone, which could induce a drug-induced platelet dysfunction, was revealed retrospectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of whole spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in a young patient, with a history of hemorrhoid medication. PMID:24967052

Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Song, Jae Gyok; Ryu, Jae-Wook

2014-01-01

243

Intradural spinal granular cell tumor  

PubMed Central

Granular cell tumor is a rare, usually benign tumor with classical histomorphology. Location of tumor varies widely within body, but spine is distinctly a rare location for this tumor. We report a rare case of granular cell tumor involving intradural extramedullary portion of lumbar region of spinal cord. Knowledge of which is important as subsequent prognosis differs from other tumor at same location. PMID:25126126

Vaghasiya, Viren L.; Nasit, Jitendra G.; Parikh, Pinki A.; Trivedi, Priti P.

2014-01-01

244

Intradural spinal granular cell tumor.  

PubMed

Granular cell tumor is a rare, usually benign tumor with classical histomorphology. Location of tumor varies widely within body, but spine is distinctly a rare location for this tumor. We report a rare case of granular cell tumor involving intradural extramedullary portion of lumbar region of spinal cord. Knowledge of which is important as subsequent prognosis differs from other tumor at same location. PMID:25126126

Vaghasiya, Viren L; Nasit, Jitendra G; Parikh, Pinki A; Trivedi, Priti P

2014-04-01

245

General Information About Staging Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

General Information About Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors A childhood brain or spinal cord tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the brain or spinal cord. There are many types of ...

246

21 CFR 888.3060 - Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis. 888...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...3060 Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis. (a... A spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis is a...

2014-04-01

247

21 CFR 888.3060 - Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis. 888...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...3060 Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis. (a... A spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis is a...

2013-04-01

248

21 CFR 888.3060 - Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis. 888...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...3060 Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis. (a... A spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis is a...

2012-04-01

249

21 CFR 888.3060 - Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis. 888...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...3060 Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis. (a... A spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis is a...

2011-04-01

250

Testosterone Plus Finasteride Treatment After Spinal Cord Injury  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Spinal Cord Injury; Spinal Cord Injuries; Trauma, Nervous System; Wounds and Injuries; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Spinal Cord Diseases; Gonadal Disorders; Endocrine System Diseases; Hypogonadism; Genital Diseases, Male

2014-09-22

251

Thoracic spinal cord intramedullary aspergillus invasion and abscess.  

PubMed

Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is a rare form of fungal infection that presents most commonly in immunocompromised individuals. There have been multiple previous reports of aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis and spinal epidural aspergillus abscess; however to our knowledge there are no reports of intramedullary aspergillus infection. We present a 19-year-old woman with active acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with several weeks of fevers and bilateral lower extremity weakness. She was found to have an intramedullary aspergillus abscess at T12-L1 resulting from adjacent vertebral osteomyelitis and underwent surgical debridement with ultra-sound guided aspiration and aggressive intravenous voriconazole therapy. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of spinal aspergillosis invading the intramedullary cavity. Though rare, this entity should be included in the differential for immunocompromised patients presenting with fevers and neurologic deficit. Early recognition with aggressive neurosurgical intervention and antifungal therapy may improve outcomes in future cases. PMID:25088481

McCaslin, Addason F; Lall, Rishi R; Wong, Albert P; Lall, Rohan R; Sugrue, Patrick A; Koski, Tyler R

2015-02-01

252

Alpine skiing, snowboarding, and spinal trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 10-year retrospective review of spinal injuries at a destination ski resort was done to determine the incidence and\\u000a type of spinal and neurologic injury associated with alpine winter sports. Spinal injury patterns and outcomes in skiers and\\u000a snowboarders over a period of 11 seasons at a destination resort were studied. One-fourth of cervical injuries were associated\\u000a with a temporary

Timothy Floyd

2001-01-01

253

Computer-assisted scheme for automated determination of imaging planes in cervical spinal cord MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a computerized scheme to assist MRI operators in accurate and rapid determination of sagittal sections for MRI exam of cervical spinal cord. The algorithm of the proposed scheme consisted of 6 steps: (1) extraction of a cervical vertebra containing spinal cord from an axial localizer image; (2) extraction of spinal cord with sagittal image from the extracted vertebra; (3) selection of a series of coronal localizer images corresponding to various, involved portions of the extracted spinal cord with sagittal image; (4) generation of a composite coronal-plane image from the obtained coronal images; (5) extraction of spinal cord from the obtained composite image; (6) determination of oblique sagittal sections from the detected location and gradient of the extracted spinal cord. Cervical spine images obtained from 25 healthy volunteers were used for the study. A perceptual evaluation was performed by five experienced MRI operators. Good agreement between the automated and manual determinations was achieved. By use of the proposed scheme, average execution time was reduced from 39 seconds/case to 1 second/case. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can assist MRI operators in performing cervical spinal cord MRI exam accurately and rapidly.

Tsurumaki, Masaki; Tsai, Du-Yih; Lee, Yongbum; Sekiya, Masaru; Kazama, Kiyoko

2009-02-01

254

Functional reorganization of the forepaw cortical representation immediately after thoracic spinal cord hemisection in rats.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury may produce long-term reorganization of cortical circuits. Little is known, however, about the early neurophysiological changes occurring immediately after injury. On the one hand, complete thoracic spinal cord transection of the spinal cord immediately decreases the level of cortical spontaneous activity and increases the cortical responses to stimuli delivered to the forepaw, above the level of the lesion. On the other hand, a thoracic spinal cord hemisection produces an immediate cortical hyperexcitability in response to preserved spinothalamic inputs from stimuli delivered to the hindpaw, below the level of the lesion. Here we show that a thoracic spinal cord hemisection also produces a bilateral increase of the responses evoked in the forepaw cortex by forepaw stimuli, associated with a bilateral decrease of cortical spontaneous activity. Importantly, the increased cortical forepaw responses are immediate in the cortex contralateral to the hemisection (significant within 30min after injury), but they are progressive in the cortex ipsilateral to the hemisection (reaching significance only 2.5h after injury). Conversely, the decreased cortical spontaneous activity is progressive both ipsilaterally and contralaterally to the hemisection (again reaching significance only 2.5h after injury). In synthesis, the present work reports a functional reorganization of the forepaw cortical representation immediately after thoracic spinal cord hemisection, which is likely important to fully understand the mechanisms underlying long-term cortical reorganization after incomplete spinal cord injuries. PMID:24685666

Yagüe, J G; Humanes-Valera, D; Aguilar, J; Foffani, G

2014-07-01

255

Gastric dysreflexia after acute experimental spinal cord injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Gastric reflexes are mediated mainly by vago-vagal reflex circuits in the caudal medulla. Despite the fact that brainstem vago-vagal circuitry remains intact after spinal cord injury (SCI), patients with SCI at the cervical level most often present gastric stasis with an increased risk of reflux and aspiration of gastric contents. Using a miniature strain gauge sutured to the gastric surface; we tested gastric motility and reflexive gastric relaxation following oesophageal distension (oesophageal-gastric relaxation reflex) in animals 3 days after a severe spinal contusion at either the third or ninth thoracic spinal segment (acute T3- or T9 SCI, respectively). Both basal gastric motility and the oesophageal-gastric relaxation reflex were significantly diminished in animals with T3 SCI. Conversely, both basal gastric motility and the oesophageal-gastric relaxation reflex were not significantly reduced in T9 SCI animals compared to controls. The reduced gastric motility and oesophageal-gastric reflex in T3 SCI rats was not ameliorated by celiac sympathectomy. Our results show that gastric stasis following acute SCI is independent of altered spinal sympathetic input to the stomach caudal to the lesion. Our data suggest that SCI may alter the sensitivity of vagal reflex function, perhaps by interrupting ascending spinosolitary input to brainstem vagal nuclei. PMID:19126185

Tong, M.; Holmes, G. M.

2009-01-01

256

Glycoconjugates Distribution during Developing Mouse Spinal Cord Motor Organizers  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this research was to study the distribution and changes of glycoconjugates particularly their terminal sugars by using lectin histochemistry during mouse spinal cord development. Methods: Formalin-fixed sections of mouse embryo (10-16 fetal days) were processed for lectin histochemical method. In this study, two groups of horseradish peroxidase-labeled specific lectins were used: N-acetylgalactosamine, including Dolichos biflorus, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), Vicia villosa, Glycine max as well as focuse-binding lectins, including tetragonolobus, Ulex europaeus, and Orange peel fungus (OFA). All sections were counterstained with alcian blue (pH 2.5). Results: Our results showed that only WFA and OFA reacted strongly with the floor plate cells from early to late embryonic period of developing spinal cord. The strongest reactions were related to the 14, 15, and 16 days of tissue sections incubated with OFA and WFA lectins. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that cellular and molecular differentiation of the spinal cord organizers is a wholly regulated process, and ?-L-fucose, ?-D-GalNAc, and ?/?-D-GalNAc terminal sugars play a significant role during the prenatal spinal cord development. PMID:25605492

Vojoudi, Elham; Ebrahimi, Vahid; Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Alireza; Fazel, Alireza

2015-01-01

257

Labour market outcomes for people with a spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The consequences of spinal cord injury are profound and extend well beyond the immediate loss of mobility and sensation. Employment is a well-recognised rehabilitation goal. In this study, we examine the impact of a publicly funded "package" of services that is designed to enable people with a spinal cord injury to return to the workplace. Specifically, this package of services provided client directed assistance for assisting the recipient with the activities of daily living (e.g., bathing, food preparation, etc.). We combine primary data collection methods well developed in other scientific disciplines, but less frequently utilised within economics, with traditional econometric techniques, to present a novel approach to this methodological issue. The Spinal Injuries Survey Instrument was developed and administered using a matched sampling approach. Collected data included, labour market outcomes, exposure to the packages, as well as clinical and demographic covariates commonly identified by the spinal cord injury literature. Concern for endogeneity was addressed by collecting data on several variables that might serve as suitable instruments for the econometric work and measures of otherwise-unobserved sources of heterogeneity. For example, a psychological measure of "attributional style was adapted from the field of psychology in order to control for a potentially confounding source of latent individual heterogeneity, viz. "motivation". While our results find zero marginal effect of support packages on labour market outcomes, we find that training undertaken post-injury and age are both positively correlated with labour market participation. PMID:20605751

Rowell, David; Connelly, Luke

2010-07-01

258

Novel and Direct Access to the Human Locomotor Spinal Circuitry  

PubMed Central

The degree of automaticity of locomotion in primates compared to other mammals remains unclear. Here we examine the possibility for activation of the spinal locomotor circuitry in non-injured humans by spinal electromagnetic stimulation (SEMS). SEMS (3 Hz and 1.3 to 1.82 Tesla) at the T11–T12 vertebrae induced involuntary bilateral locomotor-like movements in the legs of individuals placed in a gravity-neutral position. The formation of locomotor-like activity during SEMS started with a latency of 0.68 ± 0.1 sec after delivering the first stimulus, unlike continuous vibration of muscles that requires several seconds. The first EMG burst in response to SEMS was observed most often in a proximal flexor muscle. We speculate that SEMS directly activates the circuitry intrinsic to the spinal cord, as suggested by the immediate response and the electrophysiological observations demonstrating an absence of strictly time-linked responses within the EMG burst associated with individual stimuli during SEMS. SEMS in the presence of vibration of the leg muscles was more effective in facilitating locomotor-like activity than SEMS alone. The present results suggest that SEMS could be an effective noninvasive clinical tool to determine the potential of an individual to recover locomotion after a spinal cord injury as well as being an effective rehabilitation tool itself. PMID:20220003

Gerasimenko, Yury; Gorodnichev, Ruslan; Machueva, Ekaterina; Pivovarova, Elena; Semyenov, Denis; Savochin, Alexandr; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

2010-01-01

259

Characterization and spinal fusion effect of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background The surface markers of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of rabbits have been reported only sporadically. However, interest in the spinal fusion effect of MSCs has risen recently. The purpose of this research was to study the surface markers and spinal fusion effect of rabbit MSCs. Results Of our rabbit MSCs, 2% expressed CD14, CD29, and CD45, 1% expressed CD90 and 97% expressed CD44. These results implied the MSCs were negative for CD14, CD29, CD45, and CD90, but positive for CD44. The surgical results showed that satisfactory fusion occurred in 10 rabbits (83%) in the study group and unsatisfactory fusion in 2 (17%). In the control group, satisfactory fusion was found in 3 rabbits (25%) and unsatisfactory fusion in 9 (75%). Statistical analysis showed the study group had significantly better spinal fusion results than the control group. Conclusions The surface markers of human and rabbit MSCs are not exactly the same. Rabbit MSCs do not have positive reactivity for CD29 and CD90, which are invariably present on human MSCs. The allogeneic undifferentiated rabbit MSCs were able to promote spinal fusion and did not induce an adverse immune response. PMID:24325928

2013-01-01

260

MRI of anterior spinal artery syndrome of the cervical spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spinal cord lesions in the anterior spinal artery syndrome were delineated on magnetic resonance images (MRI) in four patients. The lesion was always seen anteriorly in the cervical cord. On T2-weighted images, the lesions appeared hyperintense relative to the normal spinal cord, while on T1-weighted images, two chronic lesions appeared hypointense, with local atrophy of the cord. In one

S. Takahashi; T. Yamada; K. Ishii; H. Saito; H. Tanji; T. Kobayashi; Y. Soma; K. Sakamoto

1992-01-01

261

The transformation of spinal curvature into spinal deformity: pathological processes and implications for treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This review summarizes what is known about the pathological processes (e.g. structural and functional changes), by which spinal curvatures develop and evolve into spinal deformities. METHODS: Comprehensive review of articles (English language only) published on 'scoliosis,' whose content yielded data on the pathological changes associated with spinal curvatures. Medline, Science Citation Index and other searches yielded > 10,000 titles

Martha C Hawes; Joseph P O'Brien

2006-01-01

262

Emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain, as well as affective disturbance (eg, depression). Given that emotional processes are known to modulate pain, a disruption of emotion and emotional modulation of pain and nociception may contribute to FM. The present study used a well-validated affective picture-viewing paradigm to study emotional processing and emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception. Participants were 18 individuals with FM, 18 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 19 healthy pain-free controls (HC). Mutilation, neutral, and erotic pictures were presented in 4 blocks; 2 blocks assessed only physiological-emotional reactions (ie, pleasure/arousal ratings, corrugator electromyography, startle modulation, skin conductance) in the absence of pain, and 2 blocks assessed emotional reactivity and emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a physiological measure of spinal nociception) evoked by suprathreshold electric stimulations over the sural nerve. In general, mutilation pictures elicited displeasure, corrugator activity, subjective arousal, and sympathetic activation, whereas erotic pictures elicited pleasure, subjective arousal, and sympathetic activation. However, FM was associated with deficits in appetitive activation (eg, reduced pleasure/arousal to erotica). Moreover, emotional modulation of pain was observed in HC and RA, but not FM, even though all 3 groups evidenced modulation of NFR. Additionally, NFR thresholds were not lower in the FM group, indicating a lack of spinal sensitization. Together, these results suggest that FM is associated with a disruption of supraspinal processes associated with positive affect and emotional modulation of pain, but not brain-to-spinal cord circuitry that modulates spinal nociceptive processes. PMID:23622762

Rhudy, Jamie L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L; Bartley, Emily J; Olech, Ewa; Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L

2013-07-01

263

Thermoelectric device for treatment of radiculitis and spinal massage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of development of a thermoelectric device that enables controlled cyclic temperature impact on the damaged area of human organism are presented. Unlike the existing medical devices employing direct supply current for thermoelectric module, the present device controls supply current according to time dependence of temperature change assigned by doctor. It is established that such a device is an efficient means of therapy at herniation of intervertebral disks with marked radiculitis and tunicary syndromes, at meningitis, other spinal diseases and back traumas.

Anatychuk, L. I.; Kobylyansky, R. R.

2012-06-01

264

Treatment of Acute Tuberculous Spondylitis by the Spinal Shortening Osteotomy: A Technical Notes and Case Illustrations  

PubMed Central

Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis is necessary in particular cases that a large amount of necrotic tissue is encountered and there is spinal cord compression. A spinal shortening osteotomy procedure has previously been described for the correction of the sagittal balance in a late kyphotic deformity, but there have been no reports on this as a surgical treatment in the acute stage. Thus, the aim of this report is to present the surgical techniques and clinical results of 3 patients who were treated with this procedure. Three patients with tuberculous spondylitis at the thoracic spine were surgically treated with this procedure. All the patients presented with severe progressive back pain, kyphotic deformity and neurological deficit. The patients recovered uneventfully from surgery without further neurological deterioration. Their pain was improved and the patients remained free of pain during the follow-up period. In conclusion, posterior spinal shortening osteotomy is an alternative method for the management of tuberculous spondylitis. PMID:22164318

Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Chanplakorn, Niramol; Kraiwattanapong, Chaiwat; Laohacharoensombat, Wichien

2011-01-01

265

Epidural steroid injections in the treatment of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis associated with epidural lipomatosis.  

PubMed

Epidural lipomatosis has been implicated as a cause or contributor of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Although epidural steroid injections have been very successful for symptomatic treatment of spinal stenosis; their role in treatment of symptomatic stenosis secondary to epidural lipomatosis is unclear. A review literature (MEDLINE, PubMed) found no reports justifying the use of steroids. We present two patients with lumbar epidural lipomatosis causing or contributing to symptomatic spinal stenosis. Both patients presented with unilateral lower limb radicular symptoms unrelieved with conservative measures such as medications and physical therapy. They were treated with a single transforaminal epidural steroid injection at the symptomatic level. Both had 80-85% pain relief. These reports suggest a beneficial role of epidural steroid injections for patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis caused by or contributing to epidural lipomatosis. PMID:15624572

Botwin, Kenneth P; Sakalkale, Durgadas P

2004-12-01

266

Spinal NF-?B and Chemokine Ligand 5 Expression during Spinal Glial Cell Activation in a Neuropathic Pain Model  

PubMed Central

Background The NF-?B pathway and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) are involved in pain modulation; however, the precise mechanisms of their interactions in chronic neuropathic pain have yet to be established. Methods The present study examined the roles of spinal NF-?B and CCL5 in a neuropathic pain model after chronic constriction injury (CCI) surgery. CCI-induced pain facilitation was evaluated using the Plantar and von Frey tests. The changes in NF-?B and CCL5 expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. Results Spinal NF-?B and CCL5 expression increased after CCI surgery. Repeated intrathecal infusions of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, a NF-?B inhibitor) decreased CCL5 expression, inhibited the activation of microglia and astrocytes, and attenuated CCI-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. Intrathecal injection of a CCL5-neutralizing antibody attenuated CCI-induced pain facilitation and also suppressed spinal glial cell activation after CCI surgery. However, the CCL5-neutralizing antibody did not affect NF-?B expression. Furthermore, selective glial inhibitors, minocycline and fluorocitrate, attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by intrathecal CCL5. Conclusions The inhibition of spinal CCL5 expression may provide a new method to prevent and treat nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:25635831

Yin, Qin; Fan, Qin; Zhao, Yu; Cheng, Ming-Yue; Liu, He; Li, Jing; Lu, Fei-Fei; Jia, Jin-Tai; Cheng, Wei; Yan, Chang-Dong

2015-01-01

267

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor contributes to spinal long-term potentiation and mechanical hypersensitivity by activation of spinal microglia in rat.  

PubMed

It has been shown that following peripheral nerve injury brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) released by activated microglia contributes to neuropathic pain, but whether BDNF affects the function of microglia is still unknown. In the present work we found that spinal application of BDNF, which induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber evoked field potentials, activated spinal microglia in naïve animals, while pretreatment with microglia inhibitor minocycline blocked BDNF-induced LTP. In addition, following LTP induction by BDNF, both phosphorylated Src-family kinases (p-SFKs) and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) were up-regulated only in spinal microglia but not in neurons and astrocytes, whilst spinal application of SFKs inhibitor (PP2 or SU6656) or p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) blocked BDNF-induced LTP and suppressed microglial activation. As spinal LTP at C-fiber synapses is considered to underlie neuropathic pain, we subsequently examined whether BDNF may contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity by activation of spinal microglia using spared nerve injury (SNI) model. Following SNI BDNF and TrkB receptor were up-regulated mainly in dorsal horn neurons and in activated microglia, and p-SFKs and p-p38 MAPK were increased exclusively in microglia. Intrathecal injection of BDNF scavenger TrkB-Fc starting before SNI, which prevented the behavioral sign of neuropathic pain, suppressed both microglial activation and the up-regulation of p-SFKs and p-p38 MAPK produced by SNI. Thus, the increased BDNF/TrkB signaling in spinal dorsal horn may contribute to neuropathic pain by activation of microglia following peripheral nerve injury and inhibition of SFKs or p38 MAPK may selectively inhibit microglia in spinal dorsal horn. PMID:20933591

Zhou, Li-Jun; Yang, Tao; Wei, Xiao; Liu, Yong; Xin, Wen-Jun; Chen, Yuan; Pang, Rui-Ping; Zang, Ying; Li, Yong-Yong; Liu, Xian-Guo

2011-02-01

268

Spinal mediation of thermally induced sweating.  

PubMed Central

The sweat responses of nine patients with physiologically complete lesions of the spinal cord (six cervical and three thoracic) were recorded by two different techniques while the patients were exposed to elevated environmental temperatures. Oral temperatures, heart rate and respiration were monitored throughout the observational periods. Oral temperature invariably rose during exposure to heat and both heart rate and respiration tended to increase. Sweating was detected on all of the test areas by both the iodine-starch-paper technique and the quinizarin technique, but it was of widely varying intensity in different portions of the body. In the patients with cervical lesions sweating was generally profuse on the head and neck and occurred in progressively decreasing intensity down to the level of the umbilicus. It was invariably present, but only in very low intensity, on the lower extremity. Sweating was frequently present as a result of manipulation of the patient during the initial preparations, but this generally declined or stopped before the heat was turned on. With application of heat, sweating was recruited on previously dry areas or increased in intensity on those areas in which it was previously present. After oral temperature had increased moderately, the heat was turned off and the doors of the chamber opened widely so that the heat stimulus was suddenly removed. Despite a continued rise in oral temperature, sweating stopped or decreased dramatically. These results are interpreted to indicate the direct mediation by the isolated spinal cord of reflex sweating responses to a heat stimulus applied to the skin. The general distribution of sweating was similar to that associated with distension of the urinary bladder, and careful attention was taken to avoid this complication. The distribution of sweating on the patients with lesions in the thoracic cord was quite different, being most obvious and profuse on the lower extremities and lower trunk and completely absent from the upper trunk, head and upper extremities. PMID:2056316

Silver, J R; Randall, W C; Guttmann, L

1991-01-01

269

Complications arising after thoracic aortic surgery: a case report on an unusual spinal cord infarction. Physiopathological and clinical considerations.  

PubMed

Even though new prevention techniques have been developed and are being used during thoraco-abdominal aortic repairs, spinal cord infarction remains a severe and relatively frequent complication of aortic surgery. Infarctions in the territory of the anterior spinal artery are considered the most common. Different clinical pictures related to spinal cord transverse extension wounds are drawn up. In this paper, we present a case report of a subject having presented an isolated motor deficit of the lower limbs and a favorable prognosis, suggesting selective involvement of the anterior horns of the spinal cord subsequent to surgical repair of an aortic dissection. We wish to review the relevant anatomical, clinical and diagnostic characteristics along with current techniques of spinal cord ischemia prevention during and after surgery. PMID:23369427

Duc, S; Delleci, C; Barandon, L; Nozeres, A; Cugy, E; Barat, M; Dehail, P

2013-02-01

270

Indian red scorpion venom depresses spinal synaptic transmission without involving NMDA receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stings of Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus, MBT) produce neurological abnormalities such as convulsions and paralysis. These parameters indicate the activity at ?-motoneuron. The present study was therefore, undertaken to evaluate the effect of MBT-venom on spinal reflexes and the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The experiments were performed on isolated hemisected spinal cords from 4 to 6 days old

Amar N. Maurya; Shripad B. Deshpande

2010-01-01

271

Pott's Disease? AIDS-Associated Mycobacterium heckeshornense Spinal Osteomyelitis and Diskitis.  

PubMed

Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) spinal osteomyelitis in a patient with AIDS is often presumed to be caused by reactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, other AFB pathogens can mimic M. tuberculosis and, to ensure appropriate and adequate therapy, should be considered by clinicians. We present a case of aggressive spinal osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in an AIDS patient; a review of the literature is also included. PMID:25428153

Carpenter, Robert J; Graf, Paul C F

2015-02-01

272

Successful excision of a juvenile-type spinal arteriovenous malformation following intraoperative embolization. Case report.  

PubMed

The case of a 57-year-old woman with a 14-year history of progressive paraparesis is presented. Selective spinal angiography revealed a juvenile-type spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with a typical large size and rapid flow. The AVM was located primarily in the retromedullary space at the cervicothoracic junction. The AVM was successfully obliterated by intraoperative embolization using isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate and surgical excision. PMID:1885985

Touho, H; Karasawa, J; Shishido, H; Yamada, K; Shibamoto, K

1991-10-01

273

Spinal manipulation and mobilisation for back and neck pain: a blinded review  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To assess the efficacy of spinal manipulation for patients with back or neck pain. DESIGN--Computer aided search for published papers and blinded assessment of the methods of the studies. SUBJECTS--35 randomised clinical trials comparing spinal manipulation with other treatments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Score for quality of methods (based on four main categories: study population, interventions, measurement of effect, and data presentation

B. W. Koes; W. J. J. Assendelft; Heijden van der G. J. M. G; L. M. Bouter; P. G. Knipschild

1991-01-01

274

Cervicobrachialgia after spinal surgery.  

PubMed

A case of cervicobrachialgia is presented in which the patient expressed fear of becoming addicted to opioids. Alternative analgesic approaches including anticonvulsants, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and physical therapy are discussed. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 2, ©Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. Paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the website: http://www.paineurope.com at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication. PMID:25348228

Breivik, Harald

2014-12-01

275

Spinal deformity after multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy  

PubMed Central

Multilevel laminectomy in children has a significant rate of postoperative spinal deformity. To decrease the incidence of this complication, the use of osteoplastic laminotomy is advocated to minimise the risk of spinal deformity by preserving the normal architecture of the spine. In this retrospective study, a 10-year series of a paediatric population undergoing multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy is reviewed to determine the incidence, especially in contrast to laminectomies, and to identify factors that affect the occurrence of spinal column deformity. Seventy patients (mean age 4.2 years) underwent multilevel osteoplastic laminotomy for congenital anomalies or removal of spinal tumours. All patients had a clinical and radiographic examination preoperatively, 12 months postoperatively and at follow-up. Mean follow-up was 5.3 years (range 3–12.6 years). Nineteen patients (27%) had a new or progressive spinal deformity. There was an increased incidence in patients who had surgery for spinal tumours (P?spinal deformity found a significantly higher (46%) compared to our study group. This study demonstrates that osteoplastic laminotomy was found to be very effective in decreasing the incidence of spinal deformities after spinal-canal surgery for spinal-cord tumours or congenital anomalies in children and adolescents. The choice of an anatomical reconstructive surgical technique such as osteoplastic laminotomy seems to be essential to minimise secondary problems due to the surgical technique itself. Nevertheless, growing patients should be followed up for several years after the initial operation for early detection and consequent management of any possible deformity of the spinal column. PMID:17323095

Juergen, Krauss; Gloger, Harald; Soerensen, Nils; Wild, Alexander

2007-01-01

276

[Diagnostics and therapy of spinal disc herniation].  

PubMed

Degenerative processes in a movement segment of the vertebral column, which can potentially give rise to herniation of elements of the nucleus pulposus, are complex and of variable clinical and radiological dimensions; however the mere assumption that degenerative changes precede disc herniation remains a matter of debate. By definition, spinal disc herniation (SDH) refers to components of the gelatinous nucleus pulposus protruding beyond the dorsal level of the vertebral body margin through tears in the annulus fibrosus. Clinical presentation may include pain, paresis and sensory disturbances. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis of SDH. In the majority of patients a conservative approach with physical therapy exercises and adequate analgesic and antiphlogistic medical treatment results in a substantial improvement of symptoms. PMID:25398570

Zimmer, A; Reith, W

2014-11-01

277

[Spinal osteoid osteomas. Apropos of 4 cases].  

PubMed

Spinal osteoid osteomas constitute a rare but perfectly curable cause of non-disc root pain. In discussing four cases (2 cervical and 2 lumbar), the authors stress that this disorder affects above all males under 30 and presents as vertebral column pain gradually becoming radicular in character; the pain, essentially nocturnal, is spectacularly but transiently relieved by salicylates and is accompanied by often frank stiffness of the spine. The diagnosis is based less on X rays and tomographs, than on isotope bone scanning, which reveals a focus of intense hyperfixation, and CAT scanning which shows a bony lacuna possibly with an opacity in the center producing a rosette shaped image. Block excision of the osteoid osteoma produces immediate relief for the patient and prevents recurrence which only occurs exceptionally. PMID:2654682

Guy, G; Jan, M; Lemonnier, P; Rabehenoina, C; Mercier, P

1989-01-01

278

Intramedullary Spinal Cord Metastasis From Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM) is an uncommon condition of the central nervous system (CNS) cause by systemic malignant tumors. Most ISCM cases are known to occur in patients with lung cancer and breast cancer; however, ISCM also very rarely occurs in patients with colorectal cancer. For the first time in Korea, we experienced a case of ISCM arising from rectal cancer, where a 75-year-old man presented with an abruptly-developed left-foot drop and numbness in both legs. The patient had lung metastases from rectal cancer that had been treated with chemotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary nodular lesion at the T12 level. ISCM was diagnosed and treated with steroids and radiotherapy. The patient's neurological symptoms were relieved for a while after treatment, but his condition deteriorated progressively. He died 4 months after ISCM had been diagnosed. PMID:25360432

Yang, Kyung Ho; Yi, Seong Yoon; Jung, Joo Hyuk; Kang, Seung Hee; Choi, Pyong Hwa

2014-01-01

279

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM) is an uncommon condition of the central nervous system (CNS) cause by systemic malignant tumors. Most ISCM cases are known to occur in patients with lung cancer and breast cancer; however, ISCM also very rarely occurs in patients with colorectal cancer. For the first time in Korea, we experienced a case of ISCM arising from rectal cancer, where a 75-year-old man presented with an abruptly-developed left-foot drop and numbness in both legs. The patient had lung metastases from rectal cancer that had been treated with chemotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary nodular lesion at the T12 level. ISCM was diagnosed and treated with steroids and radiotherapy. The patient's neurological symptoms were relieved for a while after treatment, but his condition deteriorated progressively. He died 4 months after ISCM had been diagnosed. PMID:25360432

Yang, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hye Ran; Yi, Seong Yoon; Jung, Joo Hyuk; Kang, Seung Hee; Choi, Pyong Hwa

2014-10-01

280

Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Control Metaplasticity of Spinal Cord Learning through a PKC-Dependent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Neurons within the spinal cord can support several forms of plasticity, including response-outcome (instrumental) learning. After a complete spinal transection, experimental subjects are capable of learning to hold the hind limb in a flexed position (response) if shock (outcome) is delivered to the tibialis anterior muscle when the limb is extended. This response-contingent shock produces a robust learning that is mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). Exposure to nociceptive stimuli that are independent of limb position (e.g. uncontrollable shock; peripheral inflammation) produces a long term (>24h) inhibition of spinal learning. This inhibition of plasticity in spinal learning is itself a form of plasticity that requires iGluR activation and protein synthesis. Plasticity of plasticity (metaplasticity) in the CNS has been linked to group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (subtypes mGluR1 and mGluR5) and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). The present study explores the role of mGluRs and PKC in the metaplastic inhibition of spinal cord learning using a combination of behavioral, pharmacological and biochemical techniques. Activation of group I mGluRs was found to be both necessary and sufficient for metaplastic inhibition of spinal learning. PKC was activated by stimuli that inhibit spinal learning, and inhibiting PKC activity restored the capacity for spinal learning. Finally, a PKC inhibitor blocked the metaplastic inhibition of spinal learning produced by a group I mGluR agonist. The data strongly suggest that group I mGluRs control metaplasticity of spinal learning through a PKC-dependent mechanism, providing a potential therapeutic target for promoting use-dependent plasticity after spinal cord injury. PMID:19005059

Ferguson, Adam R.; Bolding, Kevin A.; Huie, J. Russell; Hook, Michelle A.; Santillano, Daniel R.; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Grau, James W.

2008-01-01

281

Cooling athletes with a spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Cooling strategies that help prevent a reduction in exercise capacity whilst exercising in the heat have received considerable research interest over the past 3 decades, especially in the lead up to a relatively hot Olympic and Paralympic Games. Progressing into the next Olympic/Paralympic cycle, the host, Rio de Janeiro, could again present an environmental challenge for competing athletes. Despite the interest and vast array of research into cooling strategies for the able-bodied athlete, less is known regarding the application of these cooling strategies in the thermoregulatory impaired spinal cord injured (SCI) athletic population. Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) have a reduced afferent input to the thermoregulatory centre and a loss of both sweating capacity and vasomotor control below the level of the spinal cord lesion. The magnitude of this thermoregulatory impairment is proportional to the level of the lesion. For instance, individuals with high-level lesions (tetraplegia) are at a greater risk of heat illness than individuals with lower-level lesions (paraplegia) at a given exercise intensity. Therefore, cooling strategies may be highly beneficial in this population group, even in moderate ambient conditions (~21 °C). This review was undertaken to examine the scientific literature that addresses the application of cooling strategies in individuals with an SCI. Each method is discussed in regards to the practical issues associated with the method and the potential underlying mechanism. For instance, site-specific cooling would be more suitable for an athlete with an SCI than whole body water immersion, due to the practical difficulties of administering this method in this population group. From the studies reviewed, wearing an ice vest during intermittent sprint exercise has been shown to decrease thermal strain and improve performance. These garments have also been shown to be effective during exercise in the able-bodied. Drawing on additional findings from the able-bodied literature, the combination of methods used prior to and during exercise and/or during rest periods/half-time may increase the effectiveness of a strategy. However, due to the paucity of research involving athletes with an SCI, it is difficult to establish an optimal cooling strategy. Future studies are needed to ensure that research outcomes can be translated into meaningful performance enhancements by investigating cooling strategies under the constraints of actual competition. Cooling strategies that meet the demands of intermittent wheelchair sports need to be identified, with particular attention to the logistics of the sport. PMID:25119157

Griggs, Katy E; Price, Michael J; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

2015-01-01

282

Probing spinal circuits controlling walking in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locomotion in mammals is a complex motor act that involves the activation of a large number of muscles in a well-coordinated pattern. Understanding the network organization of the intrinsic spinal networks that control the locomotion, the central pattern generators, has been a challenge to neuroscientists. However, experiments using the isolated rodent spinal cord and combining electrophysiology and molecular genetics to

Ole Kiehn; Kimberly J. Dougherty; Martin Hägglund; Lotta Borgius; Adolfo Talpalar; Carlos Ernesto Restrepo

2010-01-01

283

Tuberculous spinal cord compression in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of tuberculous spinal cord compression causing acute paraparesis in a pregnant woman of 33 weeks gestation is described. Immediate Caesarean section followed by aggressive surgical decompression of the spine via an anterior approach with reconstruction achieved a good outcome for mother and fetus. The management of tuberculous spinal cord compression in pregnancy is discussed, with particular reference to

J. V Rosenfeld; E. I Torey; M. S Michael; M. M Johnson

1998-01-01

284

Minimally Invasive Treatment of Spinal Metastases: Techniques  

PubMed Central

With improved treatments and increasingly life expectancy, the burden of metastatic disease in the spine is expected to rise. The role of conventional surgery for spinal metastases is well established but often involves procedures of large magnitude. We describe minimally invasive techniques for spinal stabilization and decompression in patients with symptomatic metastatic disease of the spine. PMID:22312512

Rose, Peter S.; Clarke, Michelle J.; Dekutoski, Mark B.

2011-01-01

285

Melanotic cyst of L5 spinal root: A case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Till date, 85 cases of melanotic schwannoma and 11 cases of spinal root melanoma have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of a 45-year-old lady who presented with primary low back pain, and magnetic resonance imaging of lumbo-sacral spine showed at left L5-S1 foraminal lesion extending to the para-spinal compartment. Hemi-laminectomy, facetectomy, and excision of the lesion were done. It was primarily a cystic lesion with attachment to the exiting spinal nerve root. Histopathology of the cyst wall showed a fibro-collagenous stroma with no specific cell lining containing melanin pigment suggestive of a melanotic cyst. The patient was completely relieved of the back pain, and had no recurrence over a follow-up period of one and half years. This case is probably the first reported predominantly cystic, pigmented lesion, affecting the spinal root. PMID:23559992

Chakravarthy, Hariprakash

2012-10-01

286

Melanotic cyst of L5 spinal root: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Till date, 85 cases of melanotic schwannoma and 11 cases of spinal root melanoma have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of a 45-year-old lady who presented with primary low back pain, and magnetic resonance imaging of lumbo-sacral spine showed at left L5-S1 foraminal lesion extending to the para-spinal compartment. Hemi-laminectomy, facetectomy, and excision of the lesion were done. It was primarily a cystic lesion with attachment to the exiting spinal nerve root. Histopathology of the cyst wall showed a fibro-collagenous stroma with no specific cell lining containing melanin pigment suggestive of a melanotic cyst. The patient was completely relieved of the back pain, and had no recurrence over a follow-up period of one and half years. This case is probably the first reported predominantly cystic, pigmented lesion, affecting the spinal root. PMID:23559992

Chakravarthy, Hariprakash

2012-01-01

287

ABC transporter function and regulation at the blood–spinal cord barrier  

PubMed Central

We present here an initial characterization of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter function and regulation at the blood–spinal cord barrier. We isolated capillaries from rat spinal cords and studied transport function using a confocal microscopy-based assay and protein expression using western blots. These capillaries exhibited transport function and protein expression of P-glycoprotein (Abcb1), multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2), and breast cancer-related protein (Bcrp, Abcg2). Exposing isolated capillaries to dioxin (activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor) increased transport mediated by all three transporters. Brain and spinal cord capillaries from dioxin-dosed rats exhibited increased P-glycoprotein-mediated transport and increased protein expression for all three ABC transporters. These findings indicate similar ABC transporter expression, function, and regulation at the blood–spinal cord and blood–brain barriers. PMID:22472606

Campos, Christopher R; Schröter, Christian; Wang, Xueqian; Miller, David S

2012-01-01

288

Spinal giant cell tumor in tuberous sclerosis: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Patients affected by tuberous sclerosis (TS) have a greater incidence of tumors than the healthy population. Spinal tumours in TS are reported very rarely and consist mainly of sacrococcygeal and cervical chordomas. Method Case report. Findings A 21-year-old man, affected by TS, presented a spinal dorsal T2 tumor that caused medullary compression. He underwent decompressive laminectomy and microsurgical excision of a giant cell tumor and an associated aneurysmal bone cyst. Postoperative hypofractionated radiotherapy was performed on the surgical field. At 2.4 years of follow-up the patient reported total recovery of neurological deficits and was free from tumor recurrence. Conclusion Considering this association, which is the first reported in the literature, spinal magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium should be performed at the onset of spinal pain in patients affected by TS. PMID:23809532

Fraioli, Mario Francesco; Lecce, Mario; Fraioli, Chiara; Paolo, Curatolo

2013-01-01

289

Balloon-assisted transarterial embolization of type 1 spinal dural arteriovenous fistula.  

PubMed

Type 1 spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) constitute the vast majority of all spinal vascular malformations. Here we present the case of a 71-year-old male with progressive myelopathy, lower-extremity weakness and numbness, and urinary incontinence. MRI imaging of the thoracic spine demonstrated cord edema, and catheter spinal angiography confirmed a type 1 spinal dAVF. The fistula was supplied by small dural branches of the left L-2 segmental artery. Angiographic cure was achieved with a one-stage procedure in which coils were used to occlude the distal segmental vessels, followed by balloon-assisted embolization with Onyx. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/8aehJbueH0U . PMID:24983724

Lee, Brian; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Tenser, Matthew S; Amar, Arun P

2014-07-01

290

Perfusion assessment in rat spinal cord tissue using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal models are widely used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of spinal cord injury (SCI), most commonly in rats. It is well known that compromised blood flow caused by mechanical disruption of the vasculature can produce irreversible damage and cell death in hypoperfused tissue regions and spinal cord tissue is particularly susceptible to such damage. A fiberoptic photoplethysmography (PPG) probe and instrumentation system were used to investigate the practical considerations of making measurements from rat spinal cord and to assess its suitability for use in SCI models. Experiments to assess the regional perfusion of exposed spinal cord in anesthetized adult rats using both PPG and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were performed. It was found that signals could be obtained reliably from all subjects, although considerable intersite and intersubject variability was seen in the PPG signal amplitude compared to LDF. We present results from 30 measurements in five subjects, the two methods are compared, and practical application to SCI animal models is discussed.

Phillips, Justin P.; Cibert-Goton, Vincent; Langford, Richard M.; Shortland, Peter J.

2013-03-01

291

Recovery after spinal cord infarcts  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the long-term outcome of patients with spinal cord infarct (SCI) and identify prognostic predictors. Methods: We reviewed 115 patients with SCI treated between 1990 and 2007. Severity of impairment was defined using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scoring. Functional outcome endpoints were ambulatory status, need for bladder catheterization, and pain. Results: Mean age was 64 years; 72 (62.6%) patients were men. A total of 45% of infarcts were perioperative (69% aortic surgeries). A total of 68% reached maximal deficit within 1 hour (mean = 5 hours). Impairment at nadir was ASIA A 23%, B 26%, C 14%, and D 37%. A total of 75/93 (81%) patients studied with MRI had cord signal abnormality. At nadir, 81% required wheelchair, 86% required catheterization, and 32% had pain. At last follow-up (mean = 3 years), 23% had died. Among survivors, 42% required a wheelchair, 54% required catheterization, and 29% had pain upon last follow-up. Of 74 patients using a wheelchair at hospital dismissal, 41% were walking by final follow-up. Of 83 patients catheterized at dismissal, 33% were catheter-free at last follow-up. Older age (p < 0.0001), increased severity of impairment at nadir (p = 0.02), and peripheral vascular disease (p = 0.003) were independent risk factors for mortality. Severe impairment (ASIA A/B) at nadir predicted wheelchair use (p < 0.0001) and bladder catheterization (p < 0.0001) at last follow-up. Conclusions: Gradual improvement in not uncommon after spinal cord infarction and it may continue long after hospital dismissal. While severe impairment at nadir is the strongest predictor of poor functional outcome, meaningful recovery is also possible in a substantial minority of these patients. PMID:22205760

Robertson, Carrie E.; Brown, Robert D.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M.

2012-01-01

292

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor  

PubMed Central

Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM) is very rare and its optimal treatment remains controversial. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) is a rare tumor that usually presents with hepatic metastasis. Hepatic failure due to tumor progression is the major cause of death in cases of pNET. To date, no report has described a case of ISCM from pNET. Although spinal cord metastasis of a solid tumor is uncommon, it is a critical condition that can cause a potentially irreversible loss of neurologic function. Here, we report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with leg weakness and voiding difficulty, and was found to have ISCM from pNET. Surgical treatment prevented further neurological deterioration. This is the first case report of ISCM from pNET. PMID:25320547

Kim, Jung Ho; Hyun, Chang Lim; Han, Sang Hoon

2014-01-01

293

Carrier testing for spinal muscular atrophy  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy is the most common fatal hereditary disease among newborns and infants. There is as yet no effective treatment. Although a carrier test is available, currently there is disagreement among professional medical societies who proffer standards of care as to whether or not carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy should be offered as part of routine reproductive care. This leaves health care providers without clear guidance. In fall 2009, a meeting was held by National Institutes of Health to examine the scientific basis for spinal muscular atrophy carrier screening and to consider the issues that accompany such screening. In this article, the meeting participants summarize the discussions and conclude that pan-ethnic carrier screening for spinal muscular atrophy is technically feasible and that the specific study of implementing a spinal muscular atrophy carrier screening program raises broader issues about determining the scope and specifics of carrier screening in general. PMID:20808230

Gitlin, Jonathan M.; Fischbeck, Kenneth; Crawford, Thomas O.; Cwik, Valerie; Fleischman, Alan; Gonye, Karla; Heine, Deborah; Hobby, Kenneth; Kaufmann, Petra; Keiles, Steven; MacKenzie, Alex; Musci, Thomas; Prior, Thomas; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele; Sugarman, Elaine A.; Terry, Sharon F.; Urv, Tiina; Wang, Ching; Watson, Michael; Yaron, Yuval; Frosst, Phyllis; Howell, R. Rodney

2014-01-01

294

Pure Spinal Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma with Intralesional Hemorrhage: A Rare Cause of Thoracic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Although cavernous hemangiomas occur frequently in the intracranial structures, they are rare in the spine. Most of spinal hemangiomas are vertebral origin and "pure" epidural hemangiomas not originating from the vertebral bone are very rare. Our spinal hemangioma case is extremely rare because of its "pure" epidural involvement and intralesional hemorrhage. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive paraparesis from two months ago. His motor weakness was rated as grade 4/5 in bilateral lower extremities. He also complained of decreased sensation below the T4 sensory dermatome, which continuously progressed to the higher dermatome level. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated thoracic spinal tumor at T3-T4 level. The tumor was located epidural space compressing thoracic spinal cord ventrally. The tumor was not involved with the thoracic vertebral bone. We performed T3-5 laminectomy and removed the tumor completely. The tumor was not infiltrating into intradural space or vertebral bone. The histopathologic study confirmed the epidural tumor as cavernous hemangioma. Postoperatively, his weakness improved gradually. Four months later, his paraparesis recovered completely. Here, we present a case of pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma, which has intralesional hemorrhage. We believe cavernous hemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of the spinal epidural tumors. PMID:25110490

Jang, Donghwan; Kim, Choonghyo; Lee, Seung Jin; Ryu, Young-Joon

2014-01-01

295

Intradural extramedullary spinal ependymoma: a case report of malignant transformation occurring.  

PubMed

Intradural extramedullary spinal ependymomas are extremely rare. Herein, we describe a lesion-type spinal ependymoma that followed a malignant course, and discuss its clinical presentation, etiopathogenesis, and treatment. We present a patient who was diagnosed with an intradural extramedullary spinal tumor at T4-T6. The patient underwent gross total resection of the tumor without damage to the spinal cord. Histological examination, classified the lesion as a World Health Organization (WHO)-grade 2 ependymoma. One and a half years later, magnetic resonance imaging detected a recurring tumor at T4-T5. The tumor was removed and classified as a WHO-grade 3 anaplastic ependymoma. The patient was started on a course of regional spinal cord radiotherapy. The patient achieved tumoral control and clinical stabilization after the recurrence. We must consider the differential diagnosis of intradural extramedullary spinal tumors. The best treatment for this lesion is gross total resection and adjunctive radiotherapy is necessary in cases of malignant-change. PMID:23741554

Moriwaki, Takashi; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Umegaki, Masao; Ishihara, Masahiro; Yoshimine, Toshiki

2013-06-01

296

Primary Spinal Germ Cell Tumors: A Case Analysis and Review of Treatment Paradigms  

PubMed Central

Objective. Primary intramedullary spinal germ cell tumors are exceedingly rare. As such, there are no established treatment paradigms. We describe our management for spinal germ cell tumors and a review of the literature. Clinical Presentation. We describe the case of a 45-year-old man with progressive lower extremity weakness and sensory deficits. He was found to have enhancing intramedullary mass lesions in the thoracic spinal cord, and pathology was consistent with an intramedullary germ cell tumor. A video presentation of the case and surgical approach is provided. Conclusion. As spinal cord germinomas are highly sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy, a patient can be spared radical surgery. Diverse treatment approaches exist across institutions. We advocate biopsy followed by local radiation, with or without adjuvant chemotherapy, as the optimal treatment for these tumors. Histological findings have prognostic value if syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells (STGCs) are found, which are associated with a higher rate of recurrence. The recurrence rate in STGC-positive spinal germinomas is 33% (2/6), whereas it is only 8% in STGC-negative tumors (2/24). We advocate limited volume radiotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy in patients with high risk of recurrence. To reduce endocrine and neurocognitive side effects, cranio-spinal radiation should be used as a last resort in patients with recurrence. PMID:24312128

Loya, Joshua J.; Jung, Henry; Temmins, Caroline; Cho, Nam; Singh, Harminder

2013-01-01

297

Trauma of the spine and spinal cord: imaging strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic injuries of the spine and spinal cord are common and potentially devastating lesions. We present a comprehensive\\u000a overview of the classification of vertebral fractures, based on morphology (e.g., wedge, (bi)concave, or crush fractures)\\u000a or on the mechanism of injury (flexion-compression, axial compression, flexion-distraction, or rotational fracture-dislocation\\u000a lesions). The merits and limitations of different imaging techniques are discussed, including plain

P. M. Parizel; T. van der Zijden; S. Gaudino; M. Spaepen; M. H. J. Voormolen; C. Venstermans; F. De Belder; L. van den Hauwe; J. Van Goethem

2010-01-01

298

A Review on Response of Immune System in Spinal Cord Injury and Therapeutic Agents useful in Treatment.  

PubMed

Every year more than 12,000 people in US alone suffer from spinal cord injury. However, complete recovery of physical function is difficult due to multiple factors involved in disease progression. Currently available therapeutic regimens do not address all the factors concerned with the disease progression. The present review focuses mainly on the role of immune cells in progression of spinal cord injury and the drugs that target these immune cells. Literature search shows that inflammatory reactions and subsequent reactions that follow direct injury to spinal cord are sometimes responsible for the severity of the disease. Therefore, for design of proper treatment regimen a deep understanding in this area is required. Understanding the pathophysiology will help in creating delivery system that can target multiple factors involved in progression of spinal cord injury. A combination of various treatment strategies is required to reduce the disability in patients with spinal cord injury. PMID:25374028

Kasinathan, Narayanan; Vanathi, Meenashi B; Subrahmanyam, Volety M; Rao, Josyula V

2015-01-01

299

Pneumomediastinum, Subcutaneous Emphysema, and Tracheal Tear in the Early Postoperative Period of Spinal Surgery in a Paraplegic Achondroplastic Dwarf  

PubMed Central

Achondroplasia was first described in 1878 and is the most common form of human skeletal dysplasia. Spinal manifestations include thoracolumbar kyphosis, foramen magnum, and spinal stenosis. Progressive kyphosis can result in spinal cord compression and paraplegia due to the reduced size of spinal canal. The deficits are typically progressive, presenting as an insidious onset of paresthesia, followed by the inability to walk and then by urinary incontinence. Paraplegia can be the result of direct pressure on the cord by bone or the injury to the anterior spinal vessels by a protruding bone. Surgical treatment consists of posterior instrumentation, fusion with total wide laminectomy at stenosis levels, and anterior interbody support. Pedicle screws are preferred for spinal instrumentation because wires and hooks may induce spinal cord injury due to the narrow spinal canal. Pedicle lengths are significantly shorter, and 20–25?mm long screws are appropriate for lower thoracic and lumbar pedicles in adult achondroplastic There is no information about the appropriate length of screws for the upper thoracic pedicles. Tracheal injury due to inappropriate pedicle screw length is a rare complication. We report an extremely rare case of tracheal tear due to posterior instrumentation and its management in the early postoperative period. PMID:24455372

Kahraman, Sinan; Enercan, Meriç; Demirhan, Özkan; ?engül, Türker; Hamzao?lu, Azmi

2013-01-01

300

Association of spinal deformities with heavy metal bioaccumulation in natural populations of grass goby, Zosterisessor ophiocephalus Pallas, 1811 from the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study illustrates an analysis of spinal deformities associated with metal accumulation in natural populations\\u000a of Zosterisessor ophiocephalus derived from polluted (S1) and unpolluted (S2) areas in the Gulf of Gabès in Tunisia. Three basic types of spinal deformities\\u000a were detected: kyphosis, scoliosis and lordosis. These basic deformities frequently co-occur. Spinal deformities were observed\\u000a in 10.72% of the total

Imed Messaoudi; Tmim Deli; Kaouthar Kessabi; Sana Barhoumi; Abdelhamid Kerkeni; Khaled Saïd

2009-01-01

301

Combinational Spinal GAD65 Gene Delivery and Systemic GABA-Mimetic Treatment for Modulation of Spasticity  

PubMed Central

Background Loss of GABA-mediated pre-synaptic inhibition after spinal injury plays a key role in the progressive increase in spinal reflexes and the appearance of spasticity. Clinical studies show that the use of baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist), while effective in modulating spasticity is associated with major side effects such as general sedation and progressive tolerance development. The goal of the present study was to assess if a combined therapy composed of spinal segment-specific upregulation of GAD65 (glutamate decarboxylase) gene once combined with systemic treatment with tiagabine (GABA uptake inhibitor) will lead to an antispasticity effect and whether such an effect will only be present in GAD65 gene over-expressing spinal segments. Methods/Principal Findings Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to transient spinal ischemia (10 min) to induce muscle spasticity. Animals then received lumbar injection of HIV1-CMV-GAD65 lentivirus (LVs) targeting ventral ?-motoneuronal pools. At 2–3 weeks after lentivirus delivery animals were treated systemically with tiagabine (4, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg or vehicle) and the degree of spasticity response measured. In a separate experiment the expression of GAD65 gene after spinal parenchymal delivery of GAD65-lentivirus in naive minipigs was studied. Spastic SD rats receiving spinal injections of the GAD65 gene and treated with systemic tiagabine showed potent and tiagabine-dose-dependent alleviation of spasticity. Neither treatment alone (i.e., GAD65-LVs injection only or tiagabine treatment only) had any significant antispasticity effect nor had any detectable side effect. Measured antispasticity effect correlated with increase in spinal parenchymal GABA synthesis and was restricted to spinal segments overexpressing GAD65 gene. Conclusions/Significance These data show that treatment with orally bioavailable GABA-mimetic drugs if combined with spinal-segment-specific GAD65 gene overexpression can represent a novel and highly effective anti-spasticity treatment which is associated with minimal side effects and is restricted to GAD65-gene over-expressing spinal segments. PMID:22291989

Kakinohana, Osamu; Hefferan, Michael P.; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Nejime, Tetsuya; Marsala, Silvia; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Kucharova, Karolina; Strnadel, Jan; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Lazar, Peter; Galik, Jan; Vinay, Laurent; Marsala, Martin

2012-01-01

302

Spinal Lipomas in Children: Outcome of 270 Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal lipomas are a common cause of spinal cord tethering. Recently, prophylactic surgical removal of spinal lipomas has been questioned, especially of the conus medullaris. Unfortunately, few statistically significant series have been reported. A total of 213 children with spinal lipomas were operated on at the Children’s Memorial Hospital in Chicago, Ill., USA, on whom 270 procedures were carried out

Frank La Marca; John A. Grant; Tadanori Tomita; David G. McLone

1997-01-01

303

Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients' family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary. PMID:25621206

Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; ?ah, Volkan; Ayd?n, Abdulkadir; Öne?, Kadriye

2015-01-18

304

Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients’ family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary. PMID:25621206

Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; ?ah, Volkan; Ayd?n, Abdulkadir; Öne?, Kadriye

2015-01-01

305

[Instruments for spinal cord stimulation].  

PubMed

Development of instruments for spinal cord stimulation is remarkable. We can implant two cylinder-type stimulation electrodes in parallel into the spinal epidural space. We call this method for dual-lead SCS. Dual lead-SCS is useful to induce paresthesia over the painful area, and the success rate of pain reduction induced by dual-lead SCS is increasing. For dual-lead stimulation, the RestoreSensor, the EonMini, and the Precision Plus are suitable and useful for the treatment of intractable pain. Based on the results of a drug-challenge test with ketamine, we applied dual-SCS for the treatment of various kinds of neuropathic pain. Comparing with the results of single-lead SCS, dual-lead SCS has obvious advantages to evoke paresthesia over the painful area, and showed a remarkable effects for pain reduction. Dual-lead SCS combined with low-dose ketamine drip infusion method is useful for the treatment of various kinds of neuropathic pain. Even if the direct effect of ketamine is transient, effects that provide release from central sensitization and the wind-up phenomenon may be important to increase the effects of dual-lead SCS. Based on the development of dual-lead SCS, SCS therapy has become an important and powerful method for the treatment of intractable pain. PMID:25098136

Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Fukaya, Chikashi; Yoshino, Atsuo

2014-07-01

306

Surgical outcomes in spinal cord subependymomas: an institutional experience.  

PubMed

Spinal cord subependymomas are very rare. Most studies on spinal cord subependymomas have been case reports with literature reviews. This study presented a surgical series of 13 patients with histologically proven spinal cord subependymomas. Their clinical data, radiological findings, operative records, and follow-up outcomes were reviewed. There were 5 male and 8 female patients with a mean age of 39.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 67.8 months. Four tumors were located in the cervical spine, 5 in the cervicothoracic spine, and 4 in the thoracic spine. Gross total resection (GTR) of the tumor with a well-demarcated dissection plane was achieved in 9 cases, and subtotal resection was achieved in 4 cases. The symptoms present before the surgery were improved in 11 cases at last follow-up and the current status of 2 patients had no change compared to the preoperative presentation at last follow-up. The postoperative follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed no recurrence in the 9 GTR cases during the mean follow-up period of 70.3 months. No recurrence/regrowth of the residual tumors was observed in the 4 STR cases during the mean follow-up period of 62.0 months. Spinal cord subependymomas are amenable to surgical resection. It is possible to achieve GTR of intramedullary subependymomas that have a well-demarcated dissection plane. When GTR cannot be achieved, STR of the lesion for decompression is advised, and follow-up imaging is needed. A good clinical outcome after GTR or STR can be expected. PMID:24062139

Wu, Liang; Yang, Tao; Deng, Xiaofeng; Yang, Chenlong; Zhao, Lei; Fang, Jingyi; Wang, Guihuai; Yang, Jun; Xu, Yulun

2014-01-01

307

Spinal cord injury rehabilitation in Nepal.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury is a major trauma, with its short and long term effects and consequences to the patient, his friends and family. Spinal cord injury is addressed in the developed countries with standard trauma care system commencing immediately after injury and continuing to the specialized rehabilitation units. Rehabilitation is important to those with spinal injury for both functional and psychosocial reintegration. It has been an emerging concept in Nepal, which has been evident with the establishment of the various hospitals with rehabilitation units, rehabilitation centres and physical therapy units in different institutions. However, the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting and scenario is different in Nepal from those in the developed countries since spinal cord injury rehabilitation care has not been adequately incorporated into the health care delivery system nor its importance has been realized within the medical community of Nepal. To name few, lack of human resource for the rehabilitation care, awareness among the medical personnel and general population, adequate scientific research evidence regarding situation of spinal injury and exorbitant health care policy are the important hurdles that has led to the current situation. Hence, it is our responsibility to address these apparent barriers to successful implementation and functioning of rehabilitation so that those with spinal injury would benefit from enhanced quality of life. PMID:24362674

Shah, Nabina; Shrestha, Binav; Subba, Kamana

2013-01-01

308

Cannabidiol-treated rats exhibited higher motor score after cryogenic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, has been reported to induce neuroprotective effects in several experimental models of brain injury. We aimed at investigating whether this drug could also improve locomotor recovery of rats submitted to spinal cord cryoinjury. Rats were distributed into five experimental groups. Animals were submitted to laminectomy in vertebral segment T10 followed or not by application of liquid nitrogen for 5 s into the spinal cord at the same level to cause cryoinjury. The animals received injections of vehicle or CBD (20 mg/kg) immediately before, 3 h after and daily for 6 days after surgery. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan motor evaluation test was used to assess motor function post-lesion one day before surgery and on the first, third, and seventh postoperative days. The extent of injury was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin histology and FosB expression. Cryogenic lesion of the spinal cord resulted in a significant motor deficit. Cannabidiol-treated rats exhibited a higher Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor score at the end of the first week after spinal cord injury: lesion + vehicle, day 1: zero, day 7: four, and lesion + Cannabidiol 20 mg/kg, day 1: zero, day 7: seven. Moreover, at this moment there was a significant reduction in the extent of tissue injury and FosB expression in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The present study confirmed that application of liquid nitrogen to the spinal cord induces reproducible and quantifiable spinal cord injury associated with locomotor function impairments. Cannabidiol improved locomotor functional recovery and reduced injury extent, suggesting that it could be useful in the treatment of spinal cord lesions. PMID:21915768

Kwiatkoski, Marcelo; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira; Del-Bel, Elaine

2012-04-01

309

Congenital lumbar spinal stenosis with ossification of the ligamentum flavum in achondroplasia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder of bone growth. Congenital spinal stenosis is a well-known complication of this disease, but, to the best of our knowledge, no cases involving combined stenosis with congenital lumbar spinal stenosis and ossification of the ligamentum flavum in achondroplasia have been reported previously. In this report, we describe a case of a patient with congenital spinal stenosis with achondroplasia combined with ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the lumbar spine, which we treated with decompressive surgery. Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese woman with achondroplasia was unable to walk due to a neurological deficit of the lower extremities caused by congenital spinal stenosis that resulted from achondroplasia and ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the lumbar spine. Congenital spinal stenosis was observed from L1 to L5, and ossification of the ligamentum flavum was identified from L1/2 to L3/4. A decompressive laminectomy from L1 to L5 and removal of the ossification of the ligamentum flavum were performed. The patient’s neurological symptoms improved after surgery. She could walk with T-cane at the time of her four-year follow-up examination. Conclusion In this report, we describe what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first known published case of ossification of the ligamentum flavum in congenital spinal stenosis associated with achondroplasia at the lumbar spine. Although resection of the ossification of the ligamentum flavum at the congenital spinal stenosis at the lumbar spine was technically difficult because of congenital narrowing of the spinal canal, thickening of the lamina and adhesion of the ossified ligamentum flavum, a wide laminectomy and resection of the ossification of the ligamentum flavum resulted in acceptable improvement of the patient’s neurological symptoms. PMID:24597928

2014-01-01

310

Time course of spinal doublecortin expression in developing rat and porcine spinal cord: implication in in vivo neural precursor grafting studies.  

PubMed

Expression of doublecortin (DCX), a 43-53 kDa microtubule binding protein, is frequently used as (i) an early neuronal marker to identify the stage of neuronal maturation of in vivo grafted neuronal precursors (NSCs), and (ii) a neuronal fate marker transiently expressed by immature neurons during development. Reliable identification of the origin of DCX-immunoreactive cells (i.e., host vs. graft) requires detailed spatial and temporal mapping of endogenous DCX expression at graft-targeted brain or spinal cord regions. Accordingly, in the present study, we analyzed (i) the time course of DCX expression in pre- and postnatal rat and porcine spinal cord, and (ii) the DCX expression in spinally grafted porcine-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS)-derived NSCs and human embryonic stem cell (ES)-derived NSCs. In addition, complementary temporospatial GFAP expression study in porcine spinal cord was also performed. In 21-day-old rat fetuses, an intense DCX immunoreactivity distributed between the dorsal horn (DH) and ventral horn was seen and was still present in the DH neurons on postnatal day 20. In animals older than 8 weeks, no DCX immunoreactivity was seen at any spinal cord laminae. In contrast to rat, in porcine spinal cord (gestational period 113-114 days), DCX was only expressed during the pre-natal period (up to 100 days) but was no longer present in newborn piglets or in adult animals. Immunohistochemical analysis was confirmed with a comparable expression profile by western blot analysis. Contrary, the expression of porcine GFAP started within 70-80 days of the pre-natal period. Spinally grafted porcine iPS-NSCs and human ES-NSCs showed clear DCX expression at 3-4 weeks postgrafting. These data indicate that in spinal grafting studies which employ postnatal or adult porcine models, the expression of DCX can be used as a reliable marker of grafted neurons. In contrast, if grafted neurons are to be analyzed during the first 4 postnatal weeks in the rat spinal cord, additional markers or grafted cell-specific labeling techniques need to be employed to reliably identify grafted early postmitotic neurons and to differentiate the DCX expression from the neurons of the host. PMID:25487013

Juhasova, J; Juhas, S; Hruska-Plochan, M; Dolezalova, D; Holubova, M; Strnadel, J; Marsala, S; Motlik, J; Marsala, M

2015-01-01

311

Lumbar spinal stenosis: who should be fused? An updated review.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is mostly caused by osteoarthritis (spondylosis). Clinically, the symptoms of patients with LSS can be categorized into two groups; regional (low back pain, stiffness, and so on) or radicular (spinal stenosis mainly presenting as neurogenic claudication). Both of these symptoms usually improve with appropriate conservative treatment, but in refractory cases, surgical intervention is occasionally indicated. In the patients who primarily complain of radiculopathy with an underlying biomechanically stable spine, a decompression surgery alone using a less invasive technique may be sufficient. Preoperatively, with the presence of indicators such as failed back surgery syndrome (revision surgery), degenerative instability, considerable essential deformity, symptomatic spondylolysis, refractory degenerative disc disease, and adjacent segment disease, lumbar fusion is probably recommended. Intraoperatively, in cases with extensive decompression associated with a wide disc space or insufficient bone stock, fusion is preferred. Instrumentation improves the fusion rate, but it is not necessarily associated with improved recovery rate and better functional outcome. PMID:25187873

Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Ashjazadeh, Amir

2014-08-01

312

Spinal stimulator peri-electrode masses: case report.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of delayed spastic quadriparesis caused by a peri-electrode mass following the implantation of a minimally invasive percutaneous spinal cord stimulator (SCS). Prior reports with paddle-type electrodes are reviewed, and a detailed histological and pathophysiological comparison with the present case is made. The patient developed tolerance to a cervical percutaneous SCS 4 months after implantation, followed by the onset of spastic quadriparesis 9 months after implantation. The stimulator was removed, and contrast-enhanced MRI revealed an enhancing epidural mass where the system had been placed, with severe spinal cord compression. Decompression was carried out, and the patient experienced neurological improvement. Pathological examination revealed fibrotic tissue with granulomatous and multinucleated giant cell reactions. No evidence of infection or hemorrhage was found. Professionals treating patients with SCSs or contemplating their insertion should be aware of this delayed complication and associated risk factors. PMID:25380541

Scranton, Robert A; Skaribas, Ioannis M; Simpson, Richard K

2015-01-01

313

Assessment of Hyperactive Reflexes in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Hyperactive reflexes are commonly observed in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) but there is a lack of convenient and quantitative characterizations. Patellar tendon reflexes were examined in nine SCI patients and ten healthy control subjects by tapping the tendon using a hand-held instrumented hammer at various knee flexion angles, and the tapping force, quadriceps EMG, and knee extension torque were measured to characterize patellar tendon reflexes quantitatively in terms of the tendon reflex gain (Gtr), contraction rate (Rc), and reflex loop time delay (td). It was found that there are significant increases in Gtr and Rc and decrease in td in patients with spinal cord injury as compared to the controls (P < 0.05). This study presented a convenient and quantitative method to evaluate reflex excitability and muscle contraction dynamics. With proper simplifications, it can potentially be used for quantitative diagnosis and outcome evaluations of hyperreflexia in clinical settings. PMID:25654084

Yang, Chung-Yong

2015-01-01

314

Spinal interneurones involved in presynaptic controls of supraspinal origin†  

PubMed Central

1. Interneurones presenting heterotopic and heterosensory convergence have been identified in laminae VI-VII of the lumbar dorsal horn in the cat. Stimulation of the hind limbs sometimes induced a bimodal response, but we considered only the late convergent discharge. 2. The fact that response latencies are longer to hind limb than to forelimb stimulation at this level suggests the intervention of a supraspinal loop in the activation of spinal convergent units. This hypothesis is supported by the relationship between the excitability of supraspinal structures and the discharge intensity of convergent cells as well as by the absence of long latency responses in the spinal preparation. 3. Electrophysiological and pharmacological evidence discloses a strong relationship between convergent unit discharges and the occurrence of dorsal root potentials to cortical, heterosegmental and heterosensory stimulation. 4. It is suggested that convergent units receive information of supraspinal origin and exert control over sensory input to the cord via primary afferent depolarization. PMID:4702428

Besson, J. M.; Rivot, J. P.

1973-01-01

315

Cryptic organisation within an apparently irregular rostrocaudal distribution of interneurons in the embryonic zebrafish spinal cord  

SciTech Connect

The molecules and mechanisms involved in patterning the dorsoventral axis of the developing vertebrate spinal cord have been investigated extensively and many are well known. Conversely, knowledge of mechanisms patterning cellular distributions along the rostrocaudal axis is relatively more restricted. Much is known about the rostrocaudal distribution of motoneurons and spinal cord cells derived from neural crest but there is little known about the rostrocaudal patterning of most of the other spinal cord neurons. Here we report data from our analyses of the distribution of dorsal longitudinal ascending (DoLA) interneurons in the developing zebrafish spinal cord. We show that, although apparently distributed irregularly, these cells have cryptic organisation. We present a novel cell-labelling technique that reveals that DoLA interneurons migrate rostrally along the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of the spinal cord during development. This cell-labelling strategy may be useful for in vivo analysis of factors controlling neuron migration in the central nervous system. Additionally, we show that DoLA interneurons persist in the developing spinal cord for longer than previously reported. These findings illustrate the need to investigate factors and mechanisms that determine 'irregular' patterns of cell distribution, particularly in the central nervous system but also in other tissues of developing embryos.

Wells, Simon, E-mail: simon.wells@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia) [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); The Special Research Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Conran, John G., E-mail: john.conran@adelaide.edu.au [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Tamme, Richard, E-mail: rtamme@ttu.ee [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)] [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Gaudin, Arnaud, E-mail: a.gaudin@uq.edu.au [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)] [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Webb, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.webb@worc.ox.ac.uk [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)] [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Lardelli, Michael, E-mail: michael.lardelli@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia) [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); The Special Research Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

2010-11-15

316

Spinal cord involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a clinical and MRI study.  

PubMed

Concomitant central nervous system (CNS) involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is rare. Although the spinal nerve roots may present MRI abnormalities in CIDP, hitherto, the spinal cord has been investigated in a single study. We retrospectively investigated clinically and with MRI a cohort of patients with definite CIDP diagnosis (EFNS/PNS criteria) for evidence of brain and spinal cord involvement, who were initially admitted in our department during the last 4 years. Among 12 patients with CIDP (men: 8, mean age: 59.3 years, mean disease duration: 3.8 years), nine patients had their MRI scan during a clinical relapse and three during remission. Brain MRI did not document typical multiple sclerosis lesions in any patient. We did not identify any MRI abnormalities in ten patients without clinical evidence of spinal cord involvement. Conversely, MRI disclosed extensive lesions of the thoracic cord in two patients with an overt spinal cord syndrome, whom we describe. This represents the biggest MRI study of CIDP patients who have been investigated for spinal cord involvement. Our data support earlier observations that a minority of CIDP patients may additionally develop CNS involvement of variable degree. PMID:24988899

Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Parissis, Dimitris; Karapanayiotides, Theodoros; Maiovis, Pantelis; Karacostas, Dimitris; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

2014-07-01

317

Failure of spinal paired associative stimulation to induce neuroplasticity in the human corticospinal tract.  

PubMed

Context/Objective Paired associative stimulation (PAS) involves paired-stimulation pulses at both the head (via transcranial magnetic stimulation) and the periphery (via peripheral nerve stimulation). The purpose of PAS, when applied to the spinal cord, is to induce neuroplasticity and upregulate the corticospinal tract leading to effector muscles. While limited research has suggested that it is possible to produce neuroplasticity through spinal PAS, all such studies have provided stimulation at a fixed frequency of 0.1 or 0.2 Hz. Design/Interventions The present study therefore sought to compare the effectiveness of a typical 0.1 Hz paradigm with a 1 Hz paradigm, and a paradigm which provided stimulation in 5 Hz "bursts". Two inter-stimulus intervals were tested: one which was expected to produce synchronous pre- and post-synaptic activation at the spinal synapse, and one which was not. The peripheral stimulation was applied at the wrist, to induce thumb adduction. Results None of the paradigms were able to successfully induce neuroplasticity in a consistent manner. Conclusion The high between-subject variability in this study suggests that responses to the spinal PAS treatment may have been highly individual. This serves to highlight a potential limitation of the spinal PAS treatment, which is that its effectiveness may not be universal, but rather dependent on each specific recipient. This may be a challenge faced by spinal PAS should it continue to be tested as a potential novel therapy. PMID:25229738

McGie, Steven C; Masani, Kei; Popovic, Milos R

2014-09-01

318

Systemic effects induced by intralesional injection of ?-conotoxin MVIIC after spinal cord injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium channel blockers such as conotoxins have shown a great potential to reduce brain and spinal cord injury. MVIIC neuroprotective effects analyzed in in vitro models of brain and spinal cord ischemia suggest a potential role of this toxin in preventing injury after spinal cord trauma. However, previous clinical studies with MVIIC demonstrated that clinical side effects might limit the usefulness of this drug and there is no research on its systemic effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential toxic effects of MVIIC on organs and to evaluate clinical and blood profiles of rats submitted to spinal cord injury and treated with this marine toxin. Rats were treated with placebo or MVIIC (at doses of 15, 30, 60 or 120 pmol) intralesionally following spinal cord injury. Seven days after the toxin administration, kidney, brain, lung, heart, liver, adrenal, muscles, pancreas, spleen, stomach, and intestine were histopathologically investigated. In addition, blood samples collected from the rats were tested for any hematologic or biochemical changes. Results The clinical, hematologic and biochemical evaluation revealed no significant abnormalities in all groups, even in high doses. There was no significant alteration in organs, except for degenerative changes in kidneys at a dose of 120 pmol. Conclusions These findings suggest that MVIIC at 15, 30 and 60 pmol are safe for intralesional administration after spinal cord injury and could be further investigated in relation to its neuroprotective effects. However, 120 pmol doses of MVIIC may provoke adverse effects on kidney tissue. PMID:24739121

2014-01-01

319

Rupture of a spinal dermoid cyst may lead to dissemination and progress of Fatty tissue in the central spinal canal and intracranial subarachnoid space. A case report.  

PubMed

Intradural dermoid cysts may rupture and subsequent subarachnoid dissemination of lipid droplets has been described before. However, the rupture of a spinal dermoid cyst into the central spinal canal is a rare entity. In this context, dissemination of fat into the intracranial subarachnoid space with local progression is a peculiar finding that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been published so far. We describe the case of a 28-year-old man with a dermoid cyst at the upper lumbar level as part of a complex congenital craniospinal malformation, presenting with new unspecific neurologic symptoms. CT and MRI revealed disseminated intraventricular and subarachnoid lipid droplets intracranially and in the spine not present on previous CT and MRI scans obtained eight years earlier. Thus, repeated rupture of a spinal dermoid cyst with subarachnoid spread and/or secondary proliferation should be suspected. PMID:25489901

Kabbasch, Christoph; Dorn, Franziska; Mpotsaris, Anastasios; Weber, Christoph; Liebig, Thomas

2014-12-01

320

Simultaneous discovery of cranial and spinal intradural chordomas: case report.  

PubMed

The present case illustrates the unexpected occurrence of intradural chordomas that were simultaneously discovered in cranial and spinal locations. A 63-year-old female presented with weakness in the left upper extremity. The patient visited a local doctor and underwent brain computerized tomography (CT). CT revealed a brain tumor, and she was referred to our hospital. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a midline intradural retroclival tumor in addition to an intradural extramedullary mass lesion at the level of C1-C2. The patient developed a spastic gait disturbance that forced her to use a cane. She underwent laminectomy at C1-C2 along with total removal of the tumor and showed no remarkable symptoms after surgery. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of chordoma. One month after the cervical surgery, the intracranial tumor was subtotally removed in intracranial surgery via the right subtemporal approach. Histopathological data were identical to that of the cervical tumor. The patient consulted another hospital and underwent gamma-knife surgery. Her neurological examination is relatively unchanged 20 months after the cervical surgery. This case suggests that neuroradiological evaluation should also be performed for an intradural spinal chordoma when an intracranial chordoma is detected. Careful determination of the tumor responsible for the symptoms is necessary if an intradural spinal chordoma is simultaneously detected with an intracranial chordoma. PMID:24477062

Kawanabe, Yoshifumi; Ueda, Shigeo; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Hoshimaru, Minoru

2014-01-01

321

Arterial peculiarities of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the arterial blood supply of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit. The study was carried out on twenty adult New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits were used in the corrosion technique and ten rabbits in the dissection technique. After the killing, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 © was used as a casting medium. After polymerisation of the medium, in ten rabbits the maceration was carried out in KOH solution, and in ten other rabbits, formaldehyde was injected by the dissection technique into the vertebral canal. We found high variability of segmental arteries supplying blood to the spinal cord. There are 12 intercostal arteries and 1 costo-abdominal artery. Dorsal branches arising from the dorsal surface of the aorta thoracica were found as follows: in 70% of the cases, 9 pairs were present; in 20% of the cases 8 pairs; and in 10% of the cases 10 pairs. The paired arteriae lumbales were present in 6 pairs in 90% of the cases and in 5 pairs in 10% of the cases. On the dorsal surface of spinal cord, we found two irregular longitudinal arteries in 70% of the cases, no longitudinal arteries in 20% of the cases and three irregular longitudinal arteries in 10% of the cases receiving dorsal branches of rami spinales. Among the dorsal branches observed in the thoracic region, 60.5% were left-sided, 39.5% right-sided and in the lumbar region, 52.5% were left-sided and 47.5% right-sided. PMID:23952724

Mazensky, D; Danko, J; Petrovova, E; Mechirova, E; Prokes, M

2014-10-01

322

CHRONIC PAIN FOLLOWING SPINAL CORD INJURY  

PubMed Central

Most patients with insults to the spinal cord or central nervous system suffer from excruciating, unrelenting, chronic pain that is largely resistant to treatment. This condition affects a large percentage of spinal cord injury patients, and numerous patients with multiple sclerosis, stroke and other conditions. Despite the recent advances in basic science and clinical research the pathophysiological mechanisms of pain following spinal cord injury remain unknown. Here we describe a novel mechanism of loss of inhibition within the thalamus that may predispose for the development of this chronic pain and discuss a potential treatment that may restore inhibition and ameliorate pain. PMID:23281514

Masri, Radi; Keller, Asaf

2013-01-01

323

Predicting Quality of Life Five Years Following Medical Discharge for a Traumatically-Acquired Spinal Cord Injury  

E-print Network

This dissertation presents the prediction of quality of life (QoL), composed of by life satisfaction and self-perceived health status, across 5 years post a spinal cord injury (SCI) hospital discharge. Predictor variables of functional independence...

Erosa, Norma

2012-10-19

324

Spinal epidural lipomatosis in korean.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder, regarded in literature as a consequence of administration of exogenous steroids, associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies and the Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally, SEL may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or suffering from endocrinopathies, namely, idiopathic SEL. Thus far, case studies of SEL among Korean have been published rather sporadically. We reviewed the clinical features of SEL cases, among Koreans with journal review, including this report of three operated cases. According to this study, there were some differences between Korean and western cases. Koreans had higher incidences of idiopathic SEL, predominant involvement in the lumbar segments, very few thoracic involvement and lower MBI, as opposed to westerners. PMID:25237435

Yoo, Je Chul; Choi, Jeong Jae; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Sang Pyung

2014-06-01

325

Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis in Korean  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder, regarded in literature as a consequence of administration of exogenous steroids, associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies and the Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally, SEL may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or suffering from endocrinopathies, namely, idiopathic SEL. Thus far, case studies of SEL among Korean have been published rather sporadically. We reviewed the clinical features of SEL cases, among Koreans with journal review, including this report of three operated cases. According to this study, there were some differences between Korean and western cases. Koreans had higher incidences of idiopathic SEL, predominant involvement in the lumbar segments, very few thoracic involvement and lower MBI, as opposed to westerners. PMID:25237435

Yoo, Je Chul; Choi, Jeong Jae; Lee, Dong Woo

2014-01-01

326

Genetics Home Reference: Spinal muscular atrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... children. Spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity, dominant (SMA-LED) is characterized by leg muscle weakness that is ... to another. DYNC1H1 gene mutations that cause SMA-LED disrupt the function of the dynein complex. As ...

327

Epidural Angiolipoma With Spinal Cord Compression  

PubMed Central

A case of epidural angiolipoma is reported. This tumor rarely occurs in the spinal canal. The most common location is in the thoracic region, and its histogenesis is probably congenital. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:3351973

Poon, Tung P.; Behbahani, M.; Matoso, Ivone M.; Katz, Marcia A.; Pearl, Marilyn

1988-01-01

328

Stenosis of the spinal canal in achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenosis of the spinal canal is a very frequent finding in achondroplastic patients. It is secondary to abnormalities of endochondrial ossification, which is responsible for formation of the vertebral bone structures, and, subsequently, to bone degeneration.

L. Ferrante; M. Acqui; L. Mastronardi; P. Celli; A. Fortuna

1991-01-01

329

Spinal cord implants for nerve regeneration  

E-print Network

It has only been in the last couple decades that the potential for regeneration in the spinal cord became accepted. However, there is still no proven method for enabling this regeneration. An implant model was developed ...

Abbaschian, Lara Suzanne, 1979-

2004-01-01

330

Autonomic Dysreflexia Causes Chronic Immune Suppression after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), a potentially dangerous complication of high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by exaggerated activation of spinal autonomic (sympathetic) reflexes, can cause pulmonary embolism, stroke, and, in severe cases, death. People with high-level SCI also are immune compromised, rendering them more susceptible to infectious morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying postinjury immune suppression are not known. Data presented herein indicate that AD causes immune suppression. Using in vivo telemetry, we show that AD develops spontaneously in SCI mice with the frequency of dysreflexic episodes increasing as a function of time postinjury. As the frequency of AD increases, there is a corresponding increase in splenic leucopenia and immune suppression. Experimental activation of spinal sympathetic reflexes in SCI mice (e.g., via colorectal distension) elicits AD and exacerbates immune suppression via a mechanism that involves aberrant accumulation of norepinephrine and glucocorticoids. Reversal of postinjury immune suppression in SCI mice can be achieved by pharmacological inhibition of receptors for norepinephrine and glucocorticoids during the onset and progression of AD. In a human subject with C5 SCI, stimulating the micturition reflex caused AD with exaggerated catecholamine release and impaired immune function, thus confirming the relevance of the mouse data. These data implicate AD as a cause of secondary immune deficiency after SCI and reveal novel therapeutic targets for overcoming infectious complications that arise due to deficits in immune function. PMID:23926252

Zhang, Yi; Guan, Zhen; Reader, Brenda; Shawler, Todd; Mandrekar-Colucci, Shweta; Huang, Kun; Weil, Zachary; Bratasz, Anna; Wells, Jonathan; Powell, Nicole D.; Sheridan, John F.; Whitacre, Caroline C.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.; Nash, Mark S.

2013-01-01

331

Transsynaptic inhibition of spinal transmission by A2 botulinum toxin  

PubMed Central

Type A botulinum toxin blocks not only ACh release from motor nerve terminals but also central synaptic transmission, including glutamate, noradrenaline, dopamine, ATP, GABA and glycine. Neurotoxins (NTXs) are transported by both antero- and retrogradely along either motor or sensory axons for bidirectional delivery between peripheral tissues or the CNS. A newly developed type A2 NTX (A2NTX) injected into one rat foreleg muscle was transported to the contralateral muscle. This finding was consistent with the NTX traveling retrogradely via spinal neurons and then transsynaptically through motor neurons to the contralateral motor neurons within the spinal cord and on to the soleus muscle. In the present study we found that toxin injection into the rat left soleus muscle clearly induced bilateral muscle relaxation in a dose-dependent fashion, although the contralateral muscle relaxation followed the complete inhibition of toxin-injected ipsilateral muscles. The toxin-injected ipsilateral muscle relaxation was faster and stronger in A2NTX-treated rats than A1LL (BOTOX). A1LL was transported almost equally to the contralateral muscle via neural pathways and the bloodstream. In contrast, A2NTX was mainly transported to contralateral muscles via the blood. A1LL was more successfully transported to contralateral spinal neurons than A2NTX. We also demonstrated that A1LL and A2NTX were carried from peripheral to CNS and vice versa by dual antero- and retrograde axonal transport through either motor or sensory neurons. PMID:23109108

Akaike, Norio; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Torii, Yasushi; Harakawa, Tetsuhiro; Ginnaga, Akihiro; Kato, Keiko; Kaji, Ryuji; Kozaki, Shunji

2013-01-01

332

Spinal Cord Damage in Machado-Joseph Disease.  

PubMed

Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3) is the most frequent spinocerebellar ataxia worldwide and characterized by remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity. MRI-based studies in SCA3 focused in the cerebellum and connections, but little is known about cord damage in the disease and its clinical relevance. To evaluate the spinal cord damage in SCA3 through quantitative analysis of MRI scans. A group of 48 patients with SCA3 and 48 age and gender-matched healthy controls underwent MRI on a 3T scanner. We used T1-weighted 3D images to estimate the cervical spinal cord area (CA) and eccentricity (CE) at three C2/C3 levels based on a semi-automatic image segmentation protocol. The scale for assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA) was employed to quantify disease severity. The two groups-SCA3 and controls-were significantly different regarding CA (49.5?±?7.3 vs 67.2?±?6.3 mm(2), p?presented a significant correlation with SARA scores in the patient group (p?=?0.010). CE was not associated with SARA scores (p?=?0.857). In the multiple variable regression, we found that disease duration was the only variable associated with CA (coefficient?=?-0.629, p?=?0.025). SCA3 is characterized by cervical cord atrophy and antero-posterior flattening. In addition, the spinal cord areas did correlate with disease severity. This suggests that quantitative analyses of the spinal cord MRI might be a useful biomarker in SCA3. PMID:25370748

Fahl, Camila N; Branco, Lucas Melo T; Bergo, Felipe P G; D'Abreu, Anelyssa; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; França, Marcondes C

2014-11-01

333

The Impact Biomechanics of Spinal Column Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebral column is the central bony pillar of the body and serves to protect the spinal cord from injury. Vertebrae show\\u000a regional differences but they all possess a common pattern. Analysis of the biomechanics of individual components of the spine\\u000a allows one to predict how the spinal column behaves during impact. Although many forces and moments in different directions

M. J. Shelly; A. R. Poynton

334

Uncommon Progression of an Extradural Spinal Meningioma  

PubMed Central

Extradural spinal meningiomas are rare. Our understanding of purely extradural spinal meningiomas is still incomplete and they may be easily confused with malignant neoplasms, much more common in this location. We report a rare case of a purely extradural thoracic spine meningioma in a 70-year-old man, with an unusual progression. In addition we discuss the pathogenesis of these tumors and the potential pitfalls in differential diagnosis and review the relevant literature concerning their treatment and outcome. PMID:25243091

Boughamoura, Mohamed; Mahmoudi, Houda; Kilani, Mohamed; Hattab, Nejib

2014-01-01

335

Spinal subdural hematoma mimicking epidural lipomatosis.  

PubMed

We report a case of spinal subdural hematoma in the lumbar spine of a 75-year-old woman. Magnetic resonance imaging showed lesions of homogeneous high intensity in the spinal canal on both T?- and T?-weighted images, findings closely resembling those for epidural lipomatosis. Identification of 2-layered signal intensity surrounding the cauda equina on axial images is the key for accurate diagnosis. PMID:23037565

Kamo, Minobu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Numaguchi, Yuji; Saida, Yukihisa

2012-01-01

336

Spinal cord protection for thoracic aortic surgery.  

PubMed

Spinal cord protection is critical for successful outcomes after descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. For descending thoracic aneurysms which end above T9, optimum protection is maintained by distal aortic perfusion via a left atrial to distal arterial bypass circuit with a centrifugal pump. In repairs of extensive thoracoabdominal aneurysms, additional measures are required of extensive thoracoabdominaal aneurysms, additional measures are required including hypothermia, intercostal artery implantation into the graft, and spinal fluid drainage. PMID:10589347

Hilgenberg, A D

1999-11-01

337

Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section in the presence of respiratory failure and spinal metastases from a soft tissue clear cell sarcoma.  

PubMed

Spinal metastases occur in up to 70% of all patients with cancer. However, only 10% are symptomatic. Before considering central neuraxial blockade in patients with malignancy, a history of back pain should be excluded. Anaesthetists should be aware that intrathecal and epidural injections could cause paraplegia if metastases are impinging on the spinal cord. Failure to achieve adequate sensory anaesthesia after central neuraxial blockade or presentation with postoperative paraplegia may indicate the presence of asymptomatic vertebral canal metastases. In this report, the anaesthetic management of a patient with respiratory failure and spinal metastases from a soft tissue sarcoma, requiring caesarean section is described. Sensory anaesthesia extending above a level of imminent cord compression was achieved despite loss of cerebrospinal fluid signal on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23809016

Miskovic, A M; Dob, D P

2013-07-01

338

Serotonergic transmission after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Changes in descending serotonergic innervation of spinal neural activity have been implicated in symptoms of paralysis, spasticity, sensory disturbances and pain following spinal cord injury (SCI). Serotonergic neurons possess an enhanced ability to regenerate or sprout after many types of injury, including SCI. Current research suggests that serotonine (5-HT) release within the ventral horn of the spinal cord plays a critical role in motor function, and activation of 5-HT receptors mediates locomotor control. 5-HT originating from the brain stem inhibits sensory afferent transmission and associated spinal reflexes; by abolishing 5-HT innervation SCI leads to a disinhibition of sensory transmission. 5-HT denervation supersensitivity is one of the key mechanisms underlying the increased motoneuron excitability that occurs after SCI, and this hyperexcitability has been demonstrated to underlie the pathogenesis of spasticity after SCI. Moreover, emerging evidence implicates serotonergic descending facilitatory pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord in the maintenance of pathologic pain. There are functional relevant connections between the descending serotonergic system from the rostral ventromedial medulla in the brainstem, the 5-HT receptors in the spinal dorsal horn, and the descending pain facilitation after tissue and nerve injury. This narrative review focussed on the most important studies that have investigated the above-mentioned effects of impaired 5-HT-transmission in humans after SCI. We also briefly discussed the promising therapeutical approaches with serotonergic drugs, monoclonal antibodies and intraspinal cell transplantation. PMID:24866695

Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Thomschewski, Aljoscha; Höller, Peter; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Golaszewski, Stefan; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

2015-02-01

339

Spinal epidural lipomatosis--a brief review.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder characterized by overgrowth of fat in the extradural space, causing compression of the neural elements. It is frequently associated with the administration of exogenous steroids or elevation of endogenous steroids. We present two patients, both with epidural lipamotosis of idiopathic origin. One was 53-year-old man with progressive mid-thoracic and lower limb pain with associated weakness and neurogenic claudication due to thoracic epidural lipomatosis. The second was a 68-year-old male with lumbar epidural lipomatosis. Co-morbidities for the first patient included diabetes and obesity; however, there was no history of steroid administration. An MRI scan revealed thoracic cord compression, with significant stenosis at T4-T9. The second patient complained of progression of longstanding lumbar pain and claudicant symptoms. There was no history of steroid intake. An MRI revealed stenosis at L4-S1 and diffuse anterior lipomatosis. A literature review revealed 49 cases of idiopathic SEL and 62 of secondary SEL. We aimed to delineate the differences between these two relatively distinct entities including their anatomical distribution, clinical presentation and prognostic implications. PMID:18954986

Al-Khawaja, Darweesh; Seex, Kevin; Eslick, Guy D

2008-12-01

340

Abundant Expression of Guidance and Synaptogenic Molecules in the Injured Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Background Spinal interneurons have emerged as crucial targets of supraspinal input during post-injury axonal remodelling. For example, lesioned corticospinal projections use propriospinal neurons as relay stations to form intraspinal detour circuits that circumvent the lesion site and contribute to functional recovery. While a number of the molecules that determine the formation of neuronal circuits in the developing nervous system have been identified, it is much less understood which of these cues are also expressed in the injured spinal cord and can thus guide growing collaterals and initiate synaptogenesis during circuit remodelling. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this question we characterized the expression profile of a number of guidance and synaptogenic molecules in the cervical spinal cord of healthy and spinal cord-injured mice by in situ hybridization. To assign the expression of these molecules to distinct populations of interneurons we labeled short and long propriospinal neurons by retrograde tracing and glycinergic neurons using a transgenically expressed fluorescent protein. Interestingly, we found that most of the molecules studied including members of slit-, semaphorin-, synCAM-, neuroligin- and ephrin- families as well as their receptors are also present in the adult CNS. While many of these molecules were abundantly expressed in all interneurons examined, some molecules including slits, semaphorin 7a, synCAM4 and neuroligin 1 showed preferential expression in propriospinal interneurons. Overall the expression pattern of guidance and synaptogenic molecules in the cervical spinal cord appeared to be stable over time and was not substantially altered following a midthoracic spinal cord injury. Conclusions Taken together, our study indicates that many of the guidance and synaptogenic cues that regulate neuronal circuit formation in development are also present in the adult CNS and therefore likely contribute to the remodelling of axonal connections in the injured spinal cord. PMID:24523897

Jacobi, Anne; Schmalz, Anja; Bareyre, Florence M.

2014-01-01

341

Distribution of nitric oxide-producing cells along spinal cord in urodeles  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide is a unique neurotransmitter, which participates in many physiological and pathological processes in the organism. There are little data about the neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of amphibians. In this respect, the present study aims to investigate the distribution of nitric oxide producing cells in the spinal cord of urodele and to find out the possibility of a functional locomotory role to this neurotransmitter. The results of the present study demonstrate a specific pattern of NADPH-d labeling in the selected amphibian model throughout the spinal cord length as NADPH-d-producing cells and fibers were present in almost all segments of the spinal cord of the salamander investigated. However, their number, cytological characteristics and labeling intensity varied significantly. It was noticed that the NO-producing cells (NO-PC) were accumulated in the ventral side of certain segments in the spinal cord corresponding to the brachial and sacral plexuses. In addition, the number of NO-PC was found to be increased also at the beginning of the tail and this could be due to the fact that salamanders are tetrapods having bimodal locomotion, namely swimming and walking. PMID:25309330

Mahmoud, Mayada A.; Fahmy, Gehan H.; Moftah, Marie Z.; Sabry, Ismail

2014-01-01

342

Serotonergic Innervation of the Caudal Spinal Stump in Rats After Complete Spinal Transection: Effect of Olfactory Ensheathing Glia  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury studies use the presence of serotonin (5-HT)-immunoreactive axons caudal to the injury site as evidence of axonal regeneration. As olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) transplantation improves hindlimb locomotion in adult rats with complete spinal cord transection, we hypothesized that more 5-HT-positive axons would be found in the caudal stump of OEG- than media-injected rats. Previously we found 5-HT-immunolabeled axons that spanned the transection site only in OEG-injected rats but detected labeled axons just caudal to the lesion in both media- and OEG-injected rats. Now we report that many 5-HT-labeled axons are present throughout the caudal stump of both media- and OEG-injected rats. We found occasional 5-HT-positive interneurons that are one likely source of 5-HT-labeled axons. These results imply that the presence of 5-HT-labeled fibers in the caudal stump is not a reliable indicator of regeneration. We then asked if 5-HT-positive axons appose cholinergic neurons associated with motor functions: central canal cluster and partition cells (active during fictive locomotion) and somatic motor neurons (SMNs). We found more 5-HT-positive varicosities in lamina X adjacent to central canal cluster cells in lumbar and sacral segments of OEG- than media-injected rats. SMNs and partition cells are less frequently apposed. As nonsynaptic release of 5-HT is common in the spinal cord, an increase in 5-HT-positive varicosities along motor-associated cholinergic neurons may contribute to the locomotor improvement observed in OEG-injected spinal rats. Furthermore, serotonin located within the caudal stump may activate lumbosacral locomotor networks. J. Comp. Neurol. 515: 664–676, 2009. PMID:19496067

Takeoka, Aya; Kubasak, Marc D.; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.; Phelps, Patricia E.

2010-01-01

343

Sites of renal pain processing in the rat spinal cord. A c- fos study using a percutaneous method to perform ureteral obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sites of renal pain processing in the rat spinal cord were studied by mapping the spinal cord neurons expressing c-fos after acute ureteral distension due to obstruction. A new experimental model is presented. A nylon knot was loosely placed around the ureter and the ends of the thread exteriorized through the retroperitoneal wall. Eight days later, when all c-fos

António Avelino; Francisco Cruz; Antonio Coimbra

1997-01-01

344

Recovery of control of posture and locomotion after a spinal cord injury: solutions staring us in the face  

PubMed Central

Over the past 20 years, tremendous advances have been made in the field of spinal cord injury research. Yet, consumed with individual pieces of the puzzle, we have failed as a community to grasp the magnitude of the sum of our findings. Our current knowledge should allow us to improve the lives of patients suffering from spinal cord injury. Advances in multiple areas have provided tools for pursuing effective combination of strategies for recovering stepping and standing after a severe spinal cord injury. Muscle physiology research has provided insight into how to maintain functional muscle properties after a spinal cord injury. Understanding the role of the spinal networks in processing sensory information that is important for the generation of motor functions has focused research on developing treatments that sharpen the sensitivity of the locomotor circuitry and that carefully manage the presentation of proprioceptive and cutaneous stimuli to favor recovery. Pharmacological facilitation or inhibition of neurotransmitter systems, spinal cord stimulation, and rehabilitative motor training, which all function by modulating the physiological state of the spinal circuitry, have emerged as promising approaches. Early technological developments, such as robotic training systems and high-density electrode arrays for stimulating the spinal cord, can significantly enhance the precision and minimize the invasiveness of treatment after an injury. Strategies that seek out the complementary effects of combination treatments and that efficiently integrate relevant technical advances in bioengineering represent an untapped potential and are likely to have an immediate impact. Herein, we review key findings in each of these areas of research and present a unified vision for moving forward. Much work remains, but we already have the capability, and more importantly, the responsibility, to help spinal cord injury patients now. PMID:19660669

Fong, Andy J.; Roy, Roland R.; Ichiyama, Ronaldo M.; Lavrov, Igor; Courtine, Grégoire; Gerasimenko, Yury; Tai, Y.C.; Burdick, Joel; Edgerton, V. Reggie

2010-01-01

345

Recovery of control of posture and locomotion after a spinal cord injury: solutions staring us in the face.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, tremendous advances have been made in the field of spinal cord injury research. Yet, consumed with individual pieces of the puzzle, we have failed as a community to grasp the magnitude of the sum of our findings. Our current knowledge should allow us to improve the lives of patients suffering from spinal cord injury. Advances in multiple areas have provided tools for pursuing effective combination of strategies for recovering stepping and standing after a severe spinal cord injury. Muscle physiology research has provided insight into how to maintain functional muscle properties after a spinal cord injury. Understanding the role of the spinal networks in processing sensory information that is important for the generation of motor functions has focused research on developing treatments that sharpen the sensitivity of the locomotor circuitry and that carefully manage the presentation of proprioceptive and cutaneous stimuli to favor recovery. Pharmacological facilitation or inhibition of neurotransmitter systems, spinal cord stimulation, and rehabilitative motor training, which all function by modulating the physiological state of the spinal circuitry, have emerged as promising approaches. Early technological developments, such as robotic training systems and high-density electrode arrays for stimulating the spinal cord, can significantly enhance the precision and minimize the invasiveness of treatment after an injury. Strategies that seek out the complementary effects of combination treatments and that efficiently integrate relevant technical advances in bioengineering represent an untapped potential and are likely to have an immediate impact. Herein, we review key findings in each of these areas of research and present a unified vision for moving forward. Much work remains, but we already have the capability, and more importantly, the responsibility, to help spinal cord injury patients now. PMID:19660669

Fong, Andy J; Roy, Roland R; Ichiyama, Ronaldo M; Lavrov, Igor; Courtine, Grégoire; Gerasimenko, Yury; Tai, Y C; Burdick, Joel; Edgerton, V Reggie

2009-01-01

346

Increase in Trx2/Prx3 redox system immunoreactivity in the spinal cord and hippocampus of aged dogs.  

PubMed

We previously reported that no distinct neuronal loss occurred in the aged dog spinal cord, although oxidative stress was increased in the aged dog spinal cord. Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2)/peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) redox system is a major route for removing H(2)O(2) in the central nervous system. In the present study, we compared the distribution and immunoreactivity of thioredoxin reductase 2 (TrxR2), Trx2 and Prx3 and their protein levels in the spinal cord and hippocampus between the adult (2-3 years) and aged (10-12 years) dogs. The number of TrxR2-immunoreactive neurons was slightly increased; however, its immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the aged spinal cord compared to that in the adult spinal cord. On the other hand, the number and immunoreactivity of both Trx2- and Prx3-immunoreactive neurons were significantly increased in the spinal cord of the aged dog. Similarly, in the hippocampus of the aged dog, TrxR2, Trx2 and Prx3 immunoreactivity and protein levels were markedly increased compared to those in the adult dog. These results indicate that the increases of TrxR2, Trx2 and Prx3 immunoreactivity and their protein levels in the aged spinal cord and hippocampus may contribute to reducing neuronal damage against oxidative stresses during normal aging. PMID:21871553

Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Choi, Jung Hoon; Song, Ju Min; Lee, Choong Hyun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Jin Sang; Shin, Hyung-Cheul; Won, Moo-Ho

2011-11-01

347

Correlation of thermography with spinal dysfunction: preliminary results  

PubMed Central

The results of a blinded pilot study researching the correlation of thermographic abnormalities and spinal segmental dysfunction are presented. The highest agreement resulted between focal increases in thermal emission and fixation (64.7%). Other parameters studied were tenderness and textural skin changes which agreed with thermographic findings 63.7% and 59.9% respectively. Correlation coefficients were calculated for each subject and reasons for the wide range (r = .14 to .77) were discussed. Discussion of this research design and suggestions for future study were also presented.

Diakow, Peter RP; Ouellet, Sandra; Lee, Selina; Blackmore, Edward J

1988-01-01

348

Clinical assessment of stereotactic IGRT: spinal radiosurgery.  

PubMed

The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial lesions is well established. Its use for the treatment of spinal lesions has been limited because of the availability of effective target immobilization devices. Recent advances in stereotactic IGRT have allowed for spinal applications. Large clinical experience with spinal radiosurgery to properly assess clinical outcomes has previously been limited. At our institution, we have developed a successful multidisciplinary spinal radiosurgery program in which 542 spinal lesions (486 malignant and 56 benign lesions) were treated with a single-fraction radiosurgery technique. Patient ages ranged from 18 to 85 years (mean 56 years). Lesion location included 92 cervical, 234 thoracic, 130 lumbar, and 86 sacral. The most common metastatic tumors were renal cell (89 cases), breast (74 cases), and lung (71 cases). The most common benign tumors were neurofibroma (24 cases), schwannoma (13 cases), and meningioma (7 cases). Eighty-nine cervical lesions were treated using skull tracking. Thoracic, lumbar, and sacral tumors were tracked relative to either gold or stainless steel fiducial markers. The maximum intratumoral dose ranged from 12.5 to 30 Gy (mean 20 Gy). Tumor volume ranged from 0.16 to 298 mL (mean 47 mL). Three hundred thirty-seven lesions had received prior external beam irradiation with spinal cord doses precluding further conventional irradiation. The primary indication for radiosurgery was pain in 326 cases, as a primary treatment modality in 70 cases, for tumor radiographic tumor progression in 65 cases, for post-surgical treatment in 38 cases, for progressive neurological deficit in 35 cases, and as a radiation boost in 8 cases. Follow-up period was at least 3 to 49 months. Axial and/or radicular pain improved in 300 of 326 cases (92%). Long-term tumor control was demonstrated in 90% of lesions treated with radiosurgery as a primary treatment modality and in 88% of lesions treated for radiographic tumor progression. Thirty of 35 patients (85%) with progressive neurological deficits experienced at least some improvement after treatment. Spinal stereotactic radiosurgery is now a feasible, safe, and clinically effective technique for the treatment of a variety of spinal lesions. The potential benefits of radiosurgical ablation of spinal lesions are short treatment time in an outpatient setting with essentially no recovery time and excellent symptomatic response. This technique offers a new therapeutic modality for the primary treatment of a variety of spinal lesions, including the treatment of neoplasms in medically inoperable patients, previously irradiated sites, for lesions not amenable to open surgical techniques, and as an adjunct to surgery. PMID:18456162

Gerszten, Peter C; Burton, Steven A

2008-01-01

349

Intraspinal penetrating stab injury to the middle thoracic spinal cord with no neurologic deficit.  

PubMed

The annual incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury worldwide is estimated to be 35 patients per million. Nonmissile penetrating spinal injuries most commonly occur in the thoracic region, and the majority has neurologic deficits on admission. The management of patients who lack neurologic deficits is controversial due to the risk of neurologic status alteration intraoperatively. However, failure to intervene increases the risk of infection, delayed onset of neurologic deficits, and worsening functional outcome.A 17-year-old boy presented with an intradural T7-T8 knife penetration injury to the spinal cord with no neurologic deficit. Rapid surgical intervention was critical because the knife was lodged between the 2 hemispheres of the spinal cord. The patient was intubated in the lateral position, transferred to the prone position on a Jackson table, and underwent surgical decompression with laminectomy 1 level above and below the injury site, removal of the knife blade in the original path of trajectory, and repair of the dural tear with a collagen matrix. The patient sustained no neurologic sequelae from the penetrating knife injury. He was able to ambulate at discharge and had no complications. To our knowledge, this is the only report of a patient with intradural spinal cord penetration by a foreign object (knife blade) presenting with a normal neurologic preoperative examination that persisted throughout the course of postoperative care. PMID:22588426

Li, Xinning; Curry, Emily J; Blais, Micah; Ma, Richard; Sungarian, Arno S

2012-05-01

350

Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium Associated with Acute Spinal Cord Infarction: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM) is a reversible cardiomyopathy resulting in transient left ventricular apical ballooning presumed to result from catecholamine surge occurring under physiologic stress. Acute spinal cord ischemia is a rare ischemic vascular lesion. We report a case of neurogenic stunned myocardium occurring in the setting of acute spinal cord infarction. Methods. Singe case report was used. Results. We present the case of a 63-year-old female with a history of prior lacunar stroke, hypertension, chronic back pain, and hypothyroidism who presented with a brief episode of diffuse abdominal and bilateral lower extremity pain which progressed within minutes to bilateral lower extremity flaccid paralysis. MRI of the spinal cord revealed central signal hyperintensity of T2-weighted imaging from conus to T8 region, concerning for acute spinal cord ischemia. Transthoracic echocardiogram was performed to determine if a cardiac embolic phenomenon may have precipitated this ischemic event and showed left ventricular apical hypokinesis and ballooning concerning for NSM. Conclusion. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a reversible cardiomyopathy which has been described in patients with physiologic stress resulting in ventricular apical ballooning. Our case suggests that it is possible for neurogenic stunned myocardium to occur in the setting of acute spinal cord ischemia. PMID:24804117

Beauchamp, Gillian A.; McMullan, Jason T.; Bonomo, Jordan B.

2012-01-01

351

Spinal dysraphism: A challenge continued to be faced by neurosurgeons in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The incidence of spinal dysraphism has significantly decreased over the last few decades, all over the world; however, still the incidence is much higher in developing countries with poor socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: The present study includes all patients managed for spinal dysraphism over a period of one year (January 2011-December 2011). Details including demographics, antenatal care history, site and type of lesion, neurological examination, imaging finding, associated congenital anomalies, management offered, and outcome were recorded. Results: A total of 27 children were operated for spinal dysraphism during the study period (17 males and 11 females). Median age was 120 days (age range, 1 day to 6 years). Mothers of 15 children did not seek any regular antenatal checkup and only 13 mothers received folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. Fourteen children were delivered at home and 13 were at hospital. The most common site was lumbosacral region (67.8%). Seven patients had rupture of the sac at the time of presentation, one child had local infection, and four patients had hydrocephalus (requiring shunt before surgical repair). Two patients developed hydrocephalus at follow up, needing shunt surgery. The mean hospital stay was 7 days (range, 5 days to 31 days; median, 10 days). Conclusion: Spinal dysraphism is still a major public health problem in developing countries. Management of patients with spinal dysraphism is complex and needs close coordination between pediatrician, neurologist, neurosurgeon, and rehabilitation experts. A large number of factors influence the outcome. PMID:25126121

Agrawal, Amit; Sampley, Sunil

2014-01-01

352

Symptomatic hamartoma of the spinal cord associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Case report.  

PubMed

The authors present a case in which a symptomatic hamartoma was found in the spinal cord of a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). This 52-year-old woman presented with painful urinary incontinence. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed an intramedullary lesion within the lower thoracic spinal cord and conus medullaris, which was surgically removed. Pathological investigation showed a hamartomatous lesion consisting of glial cells, ganglion cells, abundant disoriented axons, and thin-walled vessels. This case provides a pathological correlate to the hamartomatous lesions demonstrated on MR imaging in patients with NF-1 and illustrates that these benign lesions may become symptomatic and require neurosurgical intervention. PMID:9609307

Brownlee, R D; Clark, A W; Sevick, R J; Myles, S T

1998-06-01

353

Early microsurgical treatment for spinal hemangioblastomas improves outcome in patients with von Hippel–Lindau disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Spinal hemangioblastomas (HB) are rare, histologically benign, highly vascularized tumors often associated with von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease. The aim of the current study is to demonstrate the benefit of early surgical resection of large spinal HBs in selected asymptomatic patients with VHL. Methods: Seventeen patients underwent microsurgical resection of 20 spinal HBs at the Department of Neurosurgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH). Thirteen tumors were in the cervical spine, five in thoracic and one patient had two lumbar lesions. MRI tumor showed an associated syrinx in 16 patients (94%). Tumor volume ranged from 27 to 2730 mm3. Out of 17 patients, 11 (65%) tested positive for VHL in mutation analysis. Five of these patients with tumors ranging from 55 to 720 mm3 were treated prophylactically. Results: Complete tumor resection was performed in 16 patients (94%) who were followed up for a median of 57 months (range 2–165 months). No patient had neurological decline on long-term follow-up. Among the patients with VHL, five patients with preoperative sensorimotor deficits showed improvement of their symptoms but never regained full function. One patient who presented with tetraplegia remained the same. Otherwise, all five patients with prophylactic surgery remained neurologically intact. Conclusion: Although documented growth on serial MRIs and the need for pathological diagnosis have been suggested as indications for surgery in otherwise asymptomatic patients, our series showed that a potentially larger group of asymptomatic patients with spinal HB associated with VHL would benefit from microsurgical resection. Long-term results of the surgical management of spinal HB are generally favorable. Our results suggest staging and early treatment for spinal HB larger than 55 mm3, especially in patients with VHL. Small spinal HBs may be followed up. PMID:22347675

Harati, Ali; Satopää, Jarno; Mahler, Lydia; Billon-Grand, Romain; Elsharkawy, Ahmed; Niemelä, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha

2012-01-01

354

Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective “survival motor neuron” (SMN) protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. PMID:24399883

Haaker, Gerrit; Fujak, Albert

2013-01-01

355

Spinal Hydatid Disease: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Background: Over the past 10 years, 4 cases of spinal hydatid disease (3 men, 1 woman) were diagnosed and treated at our institution, with an average follow-up of 4 years. Hydatid disease of the spine is a rare condition with a poor prognosis that presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Methods: The patients were evaluated clinically, using the latest imaging modalities available in our institution. Decompressive surgeries were performed and the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. All patients received long-term antihelminthic therapy with 400 mg of albendazole 3 times daily for 1 year. Results: After surgery, all patients improved; however, over time, recurrence and residual disease were observed. Two patients had complete neurologic recovery at follow-up at 2 to 3 years, although there were radiographic signs of recurrence. The other 2 patients did not achieve complete neurologic recovery despite anterior decompression; they developed recurrent disease and the neurologic status deteriorated to spastic paraplegia. All patients refused further surgeries for recurrences and 2 patients died of complications of paraplegia. Conclusion: Diagnosis was challenging, eradication was difficult, and hydatid disease recurred in all 4 patients. In our experience, morbidity and mortality were high and prognosis was poor. PMID:16869090

Prabhakar, Mukund M; Acharya, Apurv J; Modi, Dhaval R; Jadav, Bhavin

2005-01-01

356

Development of fluoroscopic registration in spinal neuronavigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a system involving a computer-instrumented fluoroscope for the purpose of 3D navigation and guidance using pre-operative diagnostic scans as a reference. The goal of the project is to devise a computer-assisted tool that will improve the accuracy, reduce risk, minimize the invasiveness, and shorten the time it takes to perform a variety of neurosurgical and orthopedic procedures of the spine. For this purpose we propose an apparatus that will track surgical tools and localize them with respect to the patient's 3D anatomy and pre-operative 3D diagnostic scans using intraoperative fluoroscopy for in situ registration and localization of embedded fiducials. Preliminary studies have found a fiducial registration error (FRE) of 1.41 mm and a Target Localization Error (TLE) of 0.48 mm. The resulting system leverages equipment already commonly available in the operating room (OR), providing an important new functionality that is free of many current limitations, such as the inadequacy of skin fiducials for spinal neuronavigation, while keeping costs contained.

Abbasi, Hamid R.; Grzeszczuk, Robert; Chin, Shao; Holz, H.; Hariri, Sanaz; Badr, Rana; Kim, Daniel; Adler, John R.; Shahidi, Ramin

2001-05-01

357

Projections from the oral pontine reticular nucleus to the spinal cord of the mouse.  

PubMed

The present study investigated projections of the mouse oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) to the spinal cord by (a) injecting a retrograde tracer fluoro-gold (FG) to the lumbar cord and (b) an anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) to PnO. We found that PnO projects to the entire spinal cord with an ipsilateral predominance. PnO fibers mainly travel in the ipsilateral ventral funiculus in the entire cord, terminating in laminae 7-10 with a lower density of fibers and boutons in lower segments. A small number of fibers travel in the contralateral ventral funiculus in the cervical cord with a similar terminating pattern to the ipsilateral counterpart. The present study is the first demonstration of PnO fiber terminals in the mouse spinal cord. This pathway might be responsible for muscle atonia during REM sleep, but needs physiological research to confirm this. PMID:25459287

Liang, Huazheng; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

2015-01-01

358

Techniques for precision irradiation of the lateral half of the rat cervical spinal cord using 150 MeV protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques for high precision irradiation experiments with protons, to investigate the volume dependence of the tolerance dose of the rat cervical spinal cord are described. In the present study, 50% of the lateral cross section of the spinal cord was irradiated. The diameter of the cross section of this part of the rat spinal cord is at maximum 3.5 mm. Therefore, a dedicated procedure was developed to comply with the needs for a very high positioning accuracy and high spatial resolution dosimetry. By using 150 MeV protons a steep dose gradient (20-80% = 1 mm) in the centre of the spinal cord was achieved. This yields a good dose contrast between the left and right halves of the cord. A home-made digital x-ray imager with a pixel resolution of 0.18 mm/pixel was used for position verification of the spinal cord. A positioning accuracy of 0.09 mm was obtained by using information of multiple pixels. The average position stability during the irradiation was found to be 0.08 mm (1 SD) without significant systematic deviations. Profiles of the dose distribution were measured with a 2D dosimetry system consisting of a scintillating screen and a CCD camera. Dose volume histograms of the whole spinal cord as well as separately of the white and grey matters were calculated using MRI imaging of the cross section of the rat cervical spinal cord. From the irradiation of 20 animals a dose-response curve has been established. MRI showed radiation-induced damage at the high dose side of the spinal cord. Analysis of the preliminary dose-response data shows a significant dose-volume effect. With the described procedure and equipment it is possible to perform high precision irradiations on selected parts of the spinal cord.

van Luijk, P.; Bijl, H. P.; Coppes, R. P.; van der Kogel, A. J.; Konings, A. W. T.; Pikkemaat, J. A.; Schippers, J. M.

2001-11-01

359

Learn About Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)? It is an inherited disease that affects approximately 1 in 10,000 infants born in the United States each year. There are four types of SMA, which can cause the muscles to function improperly and become smaller and weaker over time. Visitors to this site, which was created by researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, should start their journey here by clicking on the What is SMA? section. Here they can watch Dr. Darryl De Vivo provide an overview of the four types of SMA and then look through video clips from other professionals who provide additional insights into the genetics behind SMA. Moving on, the SMA Science area provides high-quality animations that illustrate the various processes involved with the SMN gene (mutations of which are responsible for SMA) and protein splicing. Visitors can also click on the SMA Therapies to learn more about what's being done for people living with SMA, along with potential new treatments.

2011-01-01

360

Syringomyelia Associated with Spinal Arachnoiditis Treated by Partial Arachnoid Dissection and Syrinx-Far Distal Subarachnoid Shunt  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a new modified surgical approach to minimize the postoperative recurrence of a syrinx after surgery to treat syringomyelia associated with spinal adhesive arachnoiditis in two cases. Both patients presented with progressive gait disturbance without any remarkable history, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a syrinx and broad irregular disappearance of the subarachnoid space and/or deformity of the cord. We successfully performed a partial arachnoid dissection and syrinx-far distal subarachnoid shunt for both cases. PMID:25232285

Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Ninomiya, Koshi; Moriwaki, Takashi; Ohkawa, Toshika

2014-01-01

361

Distinctive spinal changes in two patients with unusual forms of autosomal dominant endosteal hyperostosis: a case series  

PubMed Central

Endosteal hyperostosis was encountered in a 26-year-old-man and his 6-month-old daughter. Both the father and his daughter presented with fractures. Odontoid process hyperplasia, and progressive sclerosis of the posterior spinal elements, was the other significant features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical report describing distinctive spinal changes in association with fractures and endosteal hyperostosis. PMID:18031587

Al Kaissi, Ali; Varga, Franz; Zandieh, Shahin; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

2007-01-01

362

Syringomyelia associated with spinal arachnoiditis treated by partial arachnoid dissection and syrinx-far distal subarachnoid shunt.  

PubMed

The authors describe a new modified surgical approach to minimize the postoperative recurrence of a syrinx after surgery to treat syringomyelia associated with spinal adhesive arachnoiditis in two cases. Both patients presented with progressive gait disturbance without any remarkable history, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a syrinx and broad irregular disappearance of the subarachnoid space and/or deformity of the cord. We successfully performed a partial arachnoid dissection and syrinx-far distal subarachnoid shunt for both cases. PMID:25232285

Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Ninomiya, Koshi; Moriwaki, Takashi; Ohkawa, Toshika

2014-01-01

363

Reticulo-spinal neurons participating in the control of synergic eye and head movements during orienting in the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we described physiological properties of pontine reticulo-spinal neurons which generate bursts and decaying tonic discharges related to eye movements and neck muscle activity during ipsiversive gaze shifts (Grantyn and Berthoz 1987). Two of these “eye-neck reticulo-spinal neurons” (EN-RSN) were labeled by intra-axonal injections of HRP. The present report provides a detailed description of their morphology with an emphasis on

A. Grantyn; V. Ong-Meang Jacques; A. Berthoz

1987-01-01

364

Role of spinal P2Y6 and P2Y11 receptors in neuropathic pain in rats: possible involvement of glial cells  

PubMed Central

Background The participation of spinal P2X receptors in neuropathic pain is well recognized. However, the role of P2Y receptors has been less studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of spinal P2Y6,11 receptors following peripheral nerve damage induced by spinal nerve ligation. In addition, we determined the expression of P2Y6,11 receptors in the dorsal spinal cord in presence of the selective P2Y6,11 receptors antagonists. Furthermore, we evaluated the participation of spinal microglia and astrocytes in the pronociceptive role of P2Y6,11 receptors. Results Spinal administration of the selective P2Y6 (MRS2578, 10–100 ?M) and P2Y11 (NF340, 0.3–30 ?M) receptor antagonists reduced tactile allodynia in spinal nerve ligated rats. Nerve injury increased the expression of P2Y6,11 receptors at 7, 14 and 21 days after injury. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of MRS2578 (100 ?M/day) and NF340 (30 ?M/day) for 3 days significantly reduced spinal nerve injury-induced increase in P2Y6,11 receptors expression, respectively. Spinal treatment (on day 14 after injury) with minocycline (100 ?g/day) or fluorocitrate (1 nmol/day) for 7 days reduced tactile allodynia and spinal nerve injury-induced up-regulation in Iba-1 and GFAP, respectively. In addition, minocycline reduced nerve injury-induced up-regulation in P2Y6,11 receptors whereas that fluorocitrate diminished P2Y11, but not P2Y6, receptors up-regulation. Intrathecal treatment (on day 21 after injury) with the selective P2Y6 (PSB0474, 3–30 ?M) and P2Y11 (NF546, 1–10 ?M) receptor agonists produced remarkable tactile allodynia in nerve ligated rats previously treated with minocycline or fluorocitrate for 7 days. Conclusions Our data suggest that spinal P2Y6 is present in spinal microglia while P2Y11 receptors are present in both spinal microglia and astrocytes, and both receptors are up-regulated in rats subjected to spinal nerve injury. In addition, our data suggest that the spinal P2Y6 and P2Y11 receptors participate in the maintenance of neuropathic pain. PMID:24886406

2014-01-01

365

Genetics Home Reference: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy  

MedlinePLUS

... Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, also known as Kennedy disease, is a disorder of specialized nerve cells that ... muscular atrophy? bulbospinal muscular atrophy, X-linked KD Kennedy disease Kennedy's disease Kennedy spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy ...

366

The neuroprotective mechanism of puerarin in the treatment of acute spinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is linked to cyclin-dependent kinase 5.  

PubMed

Puerarin is shown to exert a variety of pharmacological effects including neuroprotective properties. However, mechanisms of the action are not fully understood. This study was designed to explore the mechanism of puerarin in treatment of acute spinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Acute spinal ischemia-reperfusion injury was conducted by aortic occlusion in twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighting 230-250g. The animals were randomly divided into four groups. In the animals with puerarin treatment, 50mg/kg of puerarin was injected intraperitoneally after reperfusion, and followed by the same dose of injection every 24h for 2 days. In the animals with roscovitine pre-treatment, 30mg/kg roscovitine was intravenously administrated 60min before spinal ischemia started. After spinal ischemia for 60min followed by 48h of reperfusion, the motor function, spinal infarction volume, apoptosis indices and the activities of Cdk5 and p25 were examined. Acute spinal ischemia-reperfusion resulted in an injury of the spines associated with motor deficit, elevation of Cdk5 and p25 activities, and increase in the spinal apoptosis number and spinal infarction volume. Puerarin improved motor function associated with the decreased apoptosis number, spinal infarction volume, and Cdk5 and p25 activities. The present study indicated that reduction of spinal injury was associated with inhibition of Cdk5 and p25, and that inhibition of Cdk5 and p25 was one of the neuroprotective mechanisms in the puerarin treatment of acute ischemia/reperfusion-induced spinal injury in rats. PMID:25301568

Tian, Feng; Xu, Li-Hui; Wang, Bin; Tian, Li-Jie; Ji, Xiang-Lu

2015-01-01

367

Idiopathic Ventral Spinal Cord Herniation: An Increasingly Recognized Cause of Thoracic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH), where a segment of the spinal cord has herniated through a ventral defect in the dura, is a rarely encountered cause of thoracic myelopathy. The purpose of our study was to increase the clinical awareness of this condition by presenting our experience with seven consecutive cases treated in our department since 2005. All the patients developed pronounced spastic paraparesis or Brown-Séquard syndrome for several years (mean, 4.7 years) prior to diagnosis. MRI was consistent with a transdural spinal cord herniation in the mid-thoracic region in all the cases. The patients underwent surgical reduction of the herniated spinal cord and closure of the dural defect using an artificial dural patch. At follow-up, three patients experienced considerable clinical improvement, one had slight improvement, one had transient improvement, and two were unchanged. Two of the four patients with sphincter dysfunction regained sphincter control. MRI showed realignment of the spinal cord in all the patients. ISCH is probably a more common cause of thoracic myelopathy than previously recognized. The patients usually develop progressive myelopathy for several years before the correct diagnosis is made. Early diagnosis is important in order to treat the patients before the myelopathy has become advanced. PMID:25336997

Berg-Johnsen, Jon; Ilstad, Eivind; Kolstad, Frode; Züchner, Mark; Sundseth, Jarle

2014-01-01

368

Semi-automatic segmentation and quantification of 3D spinal cord data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Delineation of objects within medical images is often difficult to perform reproducibly when one relies upon hand-segmentation. To avoid inter- and intra-user variability, a semi-automatic segmentation method can more accurately and consistently determine the object boundaries. This paper presents a semi-automatic process for determining the length and volume of the spinal cord between adjacent pairs of intervertebral discs and the total length and volume of the spinal cord. A level set segmentation was performed on MRI data with user selected landmarks in order to obtain a segmentation of the spinal cord. The length and volume measurements were performed on 20 segments from C1 to L1 with five sets of user selected landmarks. Our results show that the average spinal cord segment length was 21.55 mm with a standard deviation of 25.11% and the average spinal cord segment volume was 2,217.16 mm 3 with a standard deviation of 80.51%. The measurement variability of a single anatomical length across multiple trials of different sets of seed points was three orders of magnitude lower (0.06%) than the variability across different anatomical lengths (25.23%), while the measurement variability of a single anatomical volume across multiple trials of different sets of seed points was two orders of magnitude lower (0.37%) than the variability across different anatomical volumes (79.24%). Our method has been demonstrated to be potentially insensitive to intra- and inter-user variability.

Van Uitert, Robert; Bitter, Ingmar; Butman, John A.

2006-03-01

369

Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis with severe obesity at a young age.  

PubMed

Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder characterized by overgrowth of fat in the extradural space. Most patients have an underlying endocrine disorder, such as Cushing's syndrome, or have taken exogenous steroids chronically. Although less common, obesity alone is thought to be a cause of spinal epidural lipomatosis, representing <25% of reported cases. Patients rarely become symptomatic before middle age without chronic exogenous steroid use. The usual clinical manifestations are similar to degenerative lumbar stenosis with neurogenic claudication, resulting in decreased walking and standing endurance with variable neurological deficits.This article describes 2 unique cases of spinal epidural lipomatosis, both in young patients with underlying morbid obesity who presented with acute progressive leg weakness and urinary retention. The patients had no underlying endocrinopathy, nor any history of exogenous steroid use. They underwent emergency laminectomy and removal of epidural fat, and histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of epidural lipomatosis. Postoperatively, the patients demonstrated significant improvement.We conducted a review of the available English literature and compared the age distribution in each group. Based on our review, our 2 patients are considerably younger than those in past reports, especially in the patient group to which the steroid was not administered. In addition, few cases exist of spinal epidural lipomatosis with acute sphincter dysfunction and paraparesis. Our cases suggest that morbid obesity can lead to juvenile spinal epidural lipomatosis with acute neurological changes. PMID:21667917

Ohba, Tetsuro; Saito, Toshiki; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Maekawa, Shingo; Haro, Hirotaka

2011-06-01

370

Unplanned Reoperation within 30 Days of Fusion Surgery for Spinal Deformity  

PubMed Central

No recent studies have analyzed the rates of or reasons for unanticipated revision surgery within 30 days of primary surgery in spinal deformity patients. Our aim was to examine the incidence, characteristics, reasons, and risk factors for unplanned revision surgery in spinal deformity patients treated at one institution. All patients with a diagnosis of spinal deformity presenting for primary instrumented spinal fusion at a single institution from 1998 to 2012 were reviewed. All unplanned reoperations performed within 30 days after primary surgery were analyzed in terms of demographics, surgical data, and complications. Statistical analyses were performed to obtain correlations and risk factors for anticipated revision. Of 2758 patients [aged 16.07 years (range, 2–71), 69.8% female] who underwent spinal fusion surgery, 59 (2.1%) required reoperation within 30 days after primary surgery. The length of follow up for each patient was more than 30 days. Of those that required reoperation, 87.0% had posterior surgery only, 5.7% had anterior surgery, and 7.3% underwent an anteroposterior approach. The reasons for reoperation included implant failure (n?=?20), wound infection (n?=?12), neurologic deficit (n?=?9), pulmonary complications (n?=?17), and coronal plane imbalance (n?=?1). The risk factors for reoperation were age, diagnosis, and surgical procedure with osteotomy. PMID:24595145

Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Qiu, Guixing; Yu, Haiquan; Wang, Yipeng; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Yu; Li, Shugang; Weng, Xisheng; Liang, Jinqian; Zhao, Lijuan

2014-01-01

371

Transthyretin-derived amyloidosis: Probably a common cause of lumbar spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) derived from wild-type transthyretin is a fairly common condition of old individuals, particularly men. The main presentation is by cardiac involvement, which can lead to severe restrictive cardiomyopathy. SSA is, however, a systemic disease, and amyloid deposits may appear in many other tissues but are thought to be without clinical symptoms outside the heart. Amyloid is a very common finding in cartilage and ligaments of elderly subjects, and transthyretin has been demonstrated in some deposits. Lumbar spinal stenosis is also a condition of usually elderly individuals in whom narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal leads to compression of nerves to the lower limbs. Results We questioned whether lumbar spinal stenosis sometimes could be a manifestation of undiagnosed SSA. In this first report we have studied the presence of amyloid in material obtained at surgery for spinal stenosis in 26 patients. Amyloid was found in 25 subjects. Transthyretin was demonstrated immunohistochemically in 5 out of 15 studied resected tissues. Four of the positive materials were analyzed with Western blot revealing both full-length transthyretin (TTR) and C-terminal TTR fragments, typically seen in SSA. Conclusion We conclude that lumbar spinal stenosis quite frequently may be a consequence of SSA and that further studies are warranted. PMID:24620715

Suhr, Ole B.; Berg, Svante

2014-01-01

372

MRI Evaluation of Spinal Length and Vertebral Body Angle During Loading with a Spinal Compression Harness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weight bearing by the spinal column during upright posture often plays a role in the common problem of low back pain. Therefore, we developed a non-ferromagnetic spinal compression harness to enable MRI investigations of the spinal column during axial loading. Human subjects were fitted with a Nest and a footplate which were connected by adjustable straps to an analog load cell. MRI scans of human subjects (5 males and 1 female with age range of 27-53 yrs) during loaded and unloaded conditions were accomplished with a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa scanner. Studies of two subjects undergoing sequentially increasing spinal loads revealed significant decreases (r(sup 2) = 0.852) in spinal length between T4 and L5 culminating in a 1.5 to 2% length decrease during loading with 75% body weight. Sagittal vertebral body angles of four subjects placed under a constant 50% body weight load for one hour demonstrated increased lordotic and kyphotic curvatures. In the lumbar spine, the L2 vertebral body experienced the greatest angular change (-3 deg. to -5 deg.) in most subjects while in the thoracic spine, T4 angles increased from the unloaded state by +2 deg. to +9 deg. Overall, our studies demonstrate: 1) a progressive, although surprisingly small, decrease in spinal length with increasing load and 2) relatively large changes in spinal column angulation with 50% body weight.

Campbell, James A.; Hargens, Alan R.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan, R.; Sanchez, E.; Yang, C.; Mitsui, I.; Schwandt, D.; Fechner, K. P.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

373

Spinal Cord Tolerance in the Age of Spinal Radiosurgery: Lessons from Pre-clinical Studies  

PubMed Central

Clinical implementation of spinal radiosurgery has increased rapidly in recent years but little is known regarding human spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction irradiation. In contrast, preclinical studies in single-fraction spinal cord tolerance have been ongoing since the 1970’s. The influences of field length, dose rate, inhomogeneous dose distributions and reirradiation have all been investigated. This review summarizes literature regarding single-fraction spinal cord tolerance in pre-clinical models with an emphasis on practical clinical significance. The outcomes of studies that incorporate uniform irradiation are surprisingly consistent among multiple small and large animal models. Extensive investigation of inhomogeneous dose distributions in the rat has demonstrated a significant dose-volume effect while preliminary results from one pig study are contradictory. Pre-clinical spinal cord dose-volume studies indicate that dose distribution is more critical than the volume irradiated suggesting that neither dose volume histogram analysis nor absolute volume constraints are effective in predicting complications. Reirradiation data is sparse, but results from guinea pig, rat and pig studies are consistent with the hypothesis that the spinal cord possesses a large capacity for repair. The mechanisms behind the phenomena observed in spinal cord studies are not readily explained and the ability of dose response models to predict outcomes is variable underscoring the need for further investigation. Animal studies provide insight into the phenomena and mechanisms of radiosensitivity but the true significance of animal studies can only be discovered through clinical trials. PMID:21183290

Medin, Paul M.; Boike, Thomas P.

2010-01-01

374

Atypical neurocytoma of the spinal cord in a young child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Extraventricular neurocytoma is a well-established entity, and non-classical sites like the cerebellum and spinal cord have\\u000a occasionally been reported.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case  We report a rare case of intramedullary neurocytoma in an 8-year-old boy who presented with paraparesis and urinary incontinence.\\u000a This tumour was isointense on T1-weighted image and hyperintense on T2-weighted image, and showed heterogenous contrast enhancement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Findings  Pathological examination showed atypical histology

Avninder Singh; Karam Chand; Hukum Singh; Chitra Sarkar; Mehar C. Sharma

2007-01-01

375

Ventrally Located Cervical Dumbbell Ganglioneuroma Producing Spinal Cord Compression  

PubMed Central

Ganglioneuroma is an uncommon benign tumor and arise from neural crest cells or sympathetic and peripheral nerves. A 13-year-old boy was referred to our institute and presented with three-day history of right upper extremity weakness associated with neck pain for nearly one month. Magnetic resonance imaging showed right side dumbbell shaped extramedullary lesion at the C2-3 level extending outside through neural foramen. Paraspinal and posterior neck mass, cafe au lait spot was identified. We performed surgical decompression of the spinal cord by resection of intradural portion mass. Histopathological diagnosis was ganglioneuroma. PMID:24891857

Son, Dong Wuk; Kim, Young Ha; Lee, Sang Weon

2013-01-01

376

Ventrally located cervical dumbbell ganglioneuroma producing spinal cord compression.  

PubMed

Ganglioneuroma is an uncommon benign tumor and arise from neural crest cells or sympathetic and peripheral nerves. A 13-year-old boy was referred to our institute and presented with three-day history of right upper extremity weakness associated with neck pain for nearly one month. Magnetic resonance imaging showed right side dumbbell shaped extramedullary lesion at the C2-3 level extending outside through neural foramen. Paraspinal and posterior neck mass, cafe au lait spot was identified. We performed surgical decompression of the spinal cord by resection of intradural portion mass. Histopathological diagnosis was ganglioneuroma. PMID:24891857

Son, Dong Wuk; Song, Geun Sung; Kim, Young Ha; Lee, Sang Weon

2013-12-01

377

MRI of extradural spinal tumours at 0.3 T  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-one patients with extradural spinal tumours were examined by magnetic resonance imaging. There were 76 metastases (6 from unknown primary tumours). Seven patients had primary spinal tumours and 8 had multiple myeloma. Sixteen had bulging, diseased vertebral bodies compressing the subarachnoid space and 67 had extradural tumour compressing the spinal cord. Sixty patients had paravertebral involvement. Intraspinal involvement did not

M. H. Li; S. Holtås; E. M. Larsson

1993-01-01

378

Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation  

E-print Network

Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation Richard Al'o 1 , Kenneth Al is a discrete optimization problem, e.g., for pain relief methodologies such as acupuncture and spinal cord problems related to pain relief: ffl problems of acupuncture, and ffl problems related to spinal cord

Kreinovich, Vladik

379

The Neuroanatomy of an Amphibian Embryo Spinal Cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horseradish peroxidase has been used to stain spinal cord neurons in late embryos of the clawed toad (Xenopus laevis). It has shown clearly the soma, dendrites and axonal projections of spinal sensory, motor and interneurons. On the basis of light microscopy we describe nine differentiated spinal cord neuron classes. These include the Rohon-Beard cells and extramedullary cells which are both

Alan Roberts; J. D. W. Clarke

1982-01-01

380

Twisted tail: spinal epidural lipomatosis responding to chemotherapy in a patient with non-small-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare condition, described in corticoadrenal hyperactivity. It is most commonly seen in association with steroid administration and occasionally with Cushing's syndrome. This is the first case report of spinal epidural lipomatosis as presenting finding in a patient with non-small-cell lung carcinoma without any evidence of endogenous or exogenous hypercortisolism. The additional interesting feature is the paraneoplastic behaviour of this condition and even more interestingly its resolution following chemo-treatment of the primary cancer. Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a benign condition, which must be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord compression in this category of patients. Its pathophysiology remains to be discovered in future. PMID:19032401

Nasoodi, A; McAleese, J; Grey, A; Stranex, S

2008-10-01

381

Acute onset of intracranial subdural hemorrhage five days after spinal anesthesia for knee arthroscopic surgery: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spinal anesthesia is a widely used general purpose anesthesia. However, serious complications, such as intracranial subdural hemorrhage, can rarely occur. Case presentation We report the case of a 73-year-old Japanese woman who had acute onset of intracranial subdural hemorrhage five days after spinal anesthesia for knee arthroscopic surgery. Conclusion This case highlights the need to pay attention to acute intracranial subdural hemorrhage as a complication after spinal anesthesia. If the headache persists even in a supine position or nausea occurs abruptly, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain should be conducted. An intracranial subdural hematoma may have a serious outcome and is an important differential diagnosis for headache after spinal anesthesia. PMID:22394604

2012-01-01

382

The use of ultrasound to facilitate spinal anesthesia in a patient with previous lumbar laminectomy and fusion: a case report.  

PubMed

We describe a case of ultrasound (US)-facilitated spinal anesthesia in a patient with a prior lumbar laminectomy and spinal fusion who presented for total knee arthroplasty. Traditional, landmark-guided spinal anesthesia had previously failed. Although pre-procedural US identified a soft-tissue window at L3/4, a 25G pencilpoint needle encountered resistance. Reassured from US imaging that this was not bone, we used a 22G cutting tip needle successfully. We believe spinal anesthesia would not have been possible in this patient without US, adding to the evidence that US-facilitated neuraxial anesthesia is useful, particularly in technically difficult, if not 'impossible,' cases. PMID:19455701

Chin, Ki Jinn; Macfarlane, Alan J R; Chan, Vincent; Brull, Richard

2009-10-01

383

The transformation of spinal curvature into spinal deformity: pathological processes and implications for treatment  

PubMed Central

Background This review summarizes what is known about the pathological processes (e.g. structural and functional changes), by which spinal curvatures develop and evolve into spinal deformities. Methods Comprehensive review of articles (English language only) published on 'scoliosis,' whose content yielded data on the pathological changes associated with spinal curvatures. Medline, Science Citation Index and other searches yielded > 10,000 titles each of which was surveyed for content related to 'pathology' and related terms such as 'etiology,' 'inheritance,' 'pathomechanism,' 'signs and symptoms.' Additional resources included all books published on 'scoliosis' and available through the Arizona Health Sciences Library, Interlibrary Loan, or through direct contact with the authors or publishers. Results A lateral curvature of the spine–'scoliosis'–can develop in association with postural imbalance due to genetic defects and injury as well as pain and scarring from trauma or surgery. Irrespective of the factor that triggers its appearance, a sustained postural imbalance can result, over time, in establishment of a state of continuous asymmetric loading relative to the spinal axis. Recent studies support the longstanding hypothesis that spinal deformity results directly from such postural imbalance, irrespective of the primary trigger, because the dynamics of growth within vertebrae are altered by continuous asymmetric mechanical loading. These data suggest that, as long as growth potential remains, evolution of a spinal curvature into a spinal deformity can be prevented by reversing the state of continuous asymmetric loading. Conclusion Spinal curvatures can routinely be diagnosed in early stages, before pathological deformity of the vertebral elements is induced in response to asymmetric loading. Current clinical approaches involve 'watching and waiting' while mild reversible spinal curvatures develop into spinal deformities with potential to cause symptoms throughout life. Research to define patient-specific mechanics of spinal loading may allow quantification of a critical threshold at which curvature establishment and progression become inevitable, and thereby yield strategies to prevent development of spinal deformity. Even within the normal spine there is considerable flexibility with the possibility of producing many types of curves that can be altered during the course of normal movements. To create these curves during normal movement simply requires an imbalance of forces along the spine and, extending this concept a little further, a scoliotic curve is produced simply by a small but sustained imbalance of forces along the spine. In fact I would argue that no matter what you believe to be the cause of AIS, ultimately the problem can be reduced to the production of an imbalance of forces along the spine [1]. PMID:16759413

Hawes, Martha C; O'Brien, Joseph P

2006-01-01

384

[Spinal infarction in the anterior spinal territory with possible relation with bilharziasis].  

PubMed

We report a case of spinal cord infarction in the anterior spinal artery territory with selective involvement of the anterior horns. A 35-year-old Mauritanian woman was hospitalized because of an acute and severe flaccid paraplegia without any sphincter dysfunction or sensory disturbance. MRI abnormalities (hypersignal on T2-weighted sequences) were restricted to the anterior horns of the lower thoracic spinal cord and conus medullaris. Adamkiewicz's artery appeared abnormally thin at arteriography. The infarction was probably related to vasculitis of schistosomal origin. PMID:1962071

Liblau, R; Chiras, J; Orssaud, C; Dormont, D; Duclos, H; Gentilini, M

1991-01-01

385

Vascular dysfunctions following spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to analyze the vascular dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Vascular dysfunctions are common complications of SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. Neuroanatomy and physiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic, is reviewed. SCI implies disruption of descendent pathways from central centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating in intermediolateral nuclei of T1–L2 cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant vascular dysfunction. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and it is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe arterial hypotension and bradycardia. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life–threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5–T6). Arterial hypotension with orthostatic hypotension occurs in both acute and chronic phases. The etiology is multifactorial. We described a few factors influencing the orthostatic hypotension occurrence in SCI: sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, low plasma catecholamine levels, rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone activity, peripheral alpha–adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness, impaired function of baroreceptors, hyponatremia and low plasmatic volume, cardiovascular deconditioning, morphologic changes in sympathetic neurons, plasticity within spinal circuits, and motor deficit leading to loss of skeletal muscle pumping activity. Additional associated cardiovascular concerns in SCI, such as deep vein thrombosis and long–term risk for coronary heart disease and systemic atherosclerosis are also described. Proper prophylaxis, including non–pharmacologic and pharmacological strategies, diminishes the occurrence of the vascular dysfunction following SCI. Each vascular disturbance requires a specific treatment. PMID:20945818

Popa, F; Grigorean, VT; Onose, G; Sandu, AM; Popescu, M; Burnei, G; Strambu, V; Sinescu, C

2010-01-01

386

Metal levels in corrosion of spinal implants  

PubMed Central

Corrosion affects spinal instrumentations and may cause local and systemic complications. Diagnosis of corrosion is difficult, and nowadays it is performed almost exclusively by the examination of retrieved instrumentations. We conducted this study to determine whether it is possible to detect corrosion by measuring metal levels on patients with posterior instrumented spinal fusion. Eleven asymptomatic patients, with radiological signs of corrosion of their stainless steel spinal instrumentations, were studied by performing determinations of nickel and chromium in serum and urine. Those levels were compared with the levels of 22 patients with the same kind of instrumentation but without evidence of corrosion and to a control group of 22 volunteers without any metallic implants. Statistical analysis of our results revealed that the patients with spinal implants without radiological signs of corrosion have increased levels of chromium in serum and urine (P < 0.001) compared to volunteers without implants. Corrosion significantly raised metal levels, including nickel and chromium in serum and urine when compared to patients with no radiological signs of corrosion and to volunteers without metallic implants (P < 0.001). Metal levels measured in serum have high sensibility and specificity (area under the ROC curve of 0.981). By combining the levels of nickel and chromium in serum we were able to identify all the cases of corrosion in our series of patients. The results of our study confirm that metal levels in serum and urine are useful in the diagnosis of corrosion of spinal implants and may be helpful in defining the role of corrosion in recently described clinical entities such as late operative site pain or late infection of spinal implants. PMID:17256156

Beguiristain, Jose; Duart, Julio

2007-01-01

387

Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Mouse Brain Stem and Cervical Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

In vivo diffusion tensor imaging measurements of the mouse brain stem and cervical spinal cord are presented. Utilizing actively decoupled transmit/receive coils, high resolution diffusion images (117 × 59 × 500 ?m3) were acquired at 4.7 T within an hour. Both brain stem and cervical spine displayed clear gray-white matter contrast. The cervical spinal cord white matter showed similar tissue characteristics as seen in the thoracic cord. The coherent fiber orientation in the white matter was observed in both the brain stem and the cervical spinal cord. The results may serve as a reference for future inter-lab comparison in mouse brain stem and cervical spine diffusion measurements. PMID:18834905

Kim, Joong Hee; Haldar, Justin; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Song, Sheng-Kwei

2009-01-01

388

Men's adjustment to spinal cord injury: the unique contributions of conformity to masculine gender norms.  

PubMed

Men constitute 82% of the approximately 250,000 people in the United States living with a spinal cord injury. Unfortunately, however, little is known about the impact of men's adherence to gender norms on their adjustment to such injuries. The present investigation examined the utility of masculine norms in explaining variance in depression beyond that accounted for by commonly identified predictors of men's adjustment following spinal cord injury. As hypothesized, results suggested that men's adherence to masculine norms accounted for unique variance in their depression scores beyond that contributed by social support, environmental barriers/access, and erectile functioning. Respondents who adhered to norms stressing the primacy of men's work demonstrated lower rates of depression, whereas those who conformed to norms for self-reliance demonstrated higher depression scores. The authors discuss future research directions and potential psychotherapeutic strategies for working with men with spinal cord injuries. PMID:19477753

Burns, Shaun Michael; Hough, Sigmund; Boyd, Briana L; Hill, Justin

2010-06-01

389

Multiple Spinal Cord Recurrences of an Intracranial Ependymoma after 14 Years  

PubMed Central

Ependymoma can spread via cerebrospinal fluid, but late spinal recurrences of intracranial tumor are very rare. We describe a case of a 33-year-old male who presented with multiple, delayed, recurrent lesions in the spinal cord from an intracranial ependymoma. The patient underwent gross total resection and postoperative radiation therapy 14 years prior to visit for a low grade ependymoma in the 4th ventricle. The large thoraco-lumbar intradural-extramedullary spinal cord tumor was surgically removed and the pathologic diagnosis was an anaplastic ependymoma. An adjuvant whole-spine radiation therapy for residual spine lesions was performed. After completion of radiation therapy, a MRI showed a near complete response and the disease was stable for three years. PMID:24527198

Hong, Semie; Moon, Chang Taek

2013-01-01

390

Multiple spinal cord recurrences of an intracranial ependymoma after 14 years.  

PubMed

Ependymoma can spread via cerebrospinal fluid, but late spinal recurrences of intracranial tumor are very rare. We describe a case of a 33-year-old male who presented with multiple, delayed, recurrent lesions in the spinal cord from an intracranial ependymoma. The patient underwent gross total resection and postoperative radiation therapy 14 years prior to visit for a low grade ependymoma in the 4th ventricle. The large thoraco-lumbar intradural-extramedullary spinal cord tumor was surgically removed and the pathologic diagnosis was an anaplastic ependymoma. An adjuvant whole-spine radiation therapy for residual spine lesions was performed. After completion of radiation therapy, a MRI showed a near complete response and the disease was stable for three years. PMID:24527198

Hong, Semie; Choe, Woo Jin; Moon, Chang Taek

2013-12-01

391

Totally extradural spinal en plaque meningiomas – Diagnostic dilemmas and treatment strategies  

PubMed Central

Background: Meningiomas are the second most common intraspinal tumors, constituting ~25% of all intraspinal tumors; however, in the context of extradural spinal lesions, the diagnosis of meningioma is an uncommon one. Purely extradural spinal meningiomas, especially of the en plaque variety, frequently mimic metastatic disease and may result in inadequate therapy. Case Description: We report two cases of totally extradural en-plaque meningiomas of the spine, one each in the cervical and dorsal spine. We present the significant diagnostic dilemmas posed by these cases and discuss the pathogenesis, treatment strategies, and long-term behavior of these uncommon lesions. Conclusion: Attention needs to be drawn to this dangerous preoperative and intraoperative misinterpretation. Intraoperative histopathology support for correct identification, gross total resection at surgery, inclusion of a durotomy to rule out intradural extension, and long-term follow-up are cornerstones for successful management of totally extradural en plaque spinal meningiomas. PMID:25289148

Savardekar, Amey; Chatterjee, Debarshi; Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Mohindra, Sandeep; Salunke, Pravin

2014-01-01

392

Spinal epidural lipomatosis due to a bronchial ACTH-secreting carcinoid tumour.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition characterized by abnormal deposits of fat in the epidural space. In a severe form this may cause compression of neural elements. This is the second report of SEL secondary to a carcinoid tumour. Our patient was a 34-year-old Caucasian male farm worker presenting with acute spinal cord compression. He had gained 11kg, and had developed Type II diabetes mellitus in the preceding 12months. On examination he displayed characteristic features of Cushing's syndrome. MRI demonstrated posterior epidural lipomatosis, with cord compression from T3 to T8. Urgent spinal cord decompression was performed. Further investigation confirmed a biochemical Cushing's syndrome secondary to an ACTH-producing pulmonary carcinoid tumour. PMID:20709555

Bhatia, K; Frydenberg, E; Steel, T; Ow-Yang, M; Ho, K; Grainger, E

2010-11-01

393

Suspected cervical spinal cord vascular anomaly in an African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus).  

PubMed

Vascular myelopathies of the spinal cord have not been described in Suidae, and are a rare finding in companion animals. An 8.5-yr female African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) presented with an acute onset of tetraparesis. Based on neurologic findings, a cervical spinal cord lesion between C7-T2 was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe intramedullary hemorrhage with suspected abnormal vessels in the spinal cord at the level of the seventh cervical vertebrae. The acute onset of clinical signs and rapid deterioration of neurological status precluded surgical managements. A vascular anomaly was suspected on gross pathology and histology. Immunohistochemistry identified the lesion as a spontaneous intramedullary hematoma. Spontaneous intramedullary hematomyelia should be considered as a differential for acute onset of paresis in suid species. PMID:17319141

Whiteside, Douglas P; Shury, Todd K; Black, Sandra R; Raverty, Stephen

2006-09-01

394

Introduction: Intradural Spinal Surgery video supplement.  

PubMed

This Neurosurgical Focus video supplement contains detailed narrated videos of a broad range of intradural pathology such as neoplasms, including intramedullary, extramedullary, and dumbbell tumors, vascular malformations, functional disorders, and rare conditions that are often overlooked or misdiagnosed such as arachnoid cysts, ventral spinal cord herniation, and dorsal arachnoid web. The intent of this supplement is to provide meaningful educational and instructional content at all levels of training and practice. As such, the selected video submissions each provide a comprehensive detailed narrative description and coordinated video that contains the entire spectrum of relevant information including imaging, operative setup and positioning, and exposure, as well as surgical strategies, techniques, and sequencing toward the safe and effective achievement of the operative objective. This level of detail often necessitated a more lengthy video duration than is typically presented in oral presentations or standard video clips from peer reviewed publications. Unfortunately, space limitations precluded the inclusion of several other excellent video submissions in this supplement. While most videos in this supplement reflect standard operative approaches and techniques there are also submissions that describe innovative exposures and techniques that have expanded surgical options such as ventral approaches, stereotactic guidance, and minimally invasive exposures. There is some redundancy in both the topics and techniques both to underscore fundamental surgical principles as well as to provide complementary perspective from different surgeons. It has been my privilege to serve as guest editor for this video supplement and I would like to extend my appreciation to Mark Bilsky, Bill Krauss, and Sander Connolly for reviewing the large number submitted videos. Most of all, I would like to thank the authors for their skill and effort in the preparation of the outstanding videos that constitute this video supplement. PMID:25175569

McCormick, Paul C

2014-09-01

395

Managing Inflammation after Spinal Cord Injury through Manipulation of Macrophage Function  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers inflammation with activation of innate immune responses that contribute to secondary injury including oligodendrocyte apoptosis, demyelination, axonal degeneration, and neuronal death. Macrophage activation, accumulation, and persistent inflammation occur in SCI. Macrophages are heterogeneous cells with extensive functional plasticity and have the capacity to switch phenotypes by factors present in the inflammatory microenvironment of the injured spinal cord. This review will discuss the role of different polarized macrophages and the potential effect of macrophage-based therapies for SCI. PMID:24288627

Ren, Yi; Young, Wise

2013-01-01

396

Spinal epidural lipomatosis: a review of its causes and recommendations for treatment.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis is most commonly observed in patients receiving long-term exogenous steroid therapy, but can also be seen in patients with endogenous steroid overproduction, obesity, or idiopathic disease. With this condition, there is hypertrophy of the epidural adipose tissue, causing a narrowing of the spinal canal and compression of neural structures. A majority of patients will present with progressive myelopathy, but radicular symptoms are also common. Conservative treatment--weaning from steroids or weight loss--can reverse the hypertrophy of the adipose tissue and relieve the neural compression. If conservative management fails, surgery with decompressive laminectomy is also very successful at improving the patient's neurological symptoms. PMID:15191340

Fassett, Daniel R; Schmidt, Meic H

2004-04-15

397

Use of dynamic spinal brace in the management of neuromuscular scoliosis: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Neuromuscular scoliosis is difficult to treat with braces because the collapsing trunk with the spinal deformity cannot tolerate the hard materials used for most orthoses. The dynamic spinal brace (DSB) is a novel three-point support brace used in Japan. We present our preliminary findings of 52 pediatric patients with neuromuscular scoliosis treated using DSBs. A positive correlation was found between the Cobb angle at the initiation of bracing and the degree of scoliosis progression. We concluded that DSBs may be effective for early-stage scoliosis. We also found that DSB improved sitting stability and thereby caregiver satisfaction. PMID:24476687

Nakamura, Naoyuki; Uesugi, Masaaki; Inaba, Yutaka; Machida, Jiro; Okuzumi, Shigeharu; Saito, Tomoyuki

2014-05-01

398

Spinal Cord Glioneuronal Tumor with Rosetted Neuropil-Like Islands in Pediatric Age Group  

PubMed Central

Glioneuronal neoplasms are rare tumors. Recently, an unusual glioneuronal tumor histologically showing neuropil-like islands has been described. Here, we present such a tumor originating from spinal cord of a 14-year-old girl, who has scoliosis and urinary incontinence. Microscopically, the glial component was chiefly fibrillary astrocytic, punctuated by neuropil-like islands. Immunohistochemically, glial tissue was GFAP positive, and neuropil-like areas and big neurons were synaptophysin reactive. For astrocytic component Ki-67 proliferation index was 1% and p53 was immunonegative. This case is unique in that in the literature it is the second reported case in pediatric age group that is located at spinal cord.

Comunoglu, Nil; Kilickesmez, Ozgur; Oz, Buge

2014-01-01

399

Chiropractic spinal manipulative treatment of cervicogenic dizziness using Gonstead method: a case study  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to present the response of a patient with chronic nonresponsive cervicogenic dizziness to chiropractic care. Case report A 29-year-old man had a 10-year history of progressive cervicogenic dizziness with symptoms including a sensation of excessive motion, imbalance, and spinning associated with neck pain and stiffness. After treatment, he reported a reduction in pain and dizziness and an improved quality of life following Gonstead method of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy. Conclusion This case study suggests that a patient with nonresponsive cervicogenic dizziness might respond to chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy approach using Gonstead method. PMID:22014910

Chaibi, Aleksander; Tuchin, Peter J.

2011-01-01

400

Spinal mechanisms of antinociceptive action caused by guanosine in mice.  

PubMed

It is well known that adenine-based purines exert multiple effects on pain transmission. Recently, we have demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administered guanine-based purines are antinociceptive against chemical and thermal pain models in mice. The present study was designed to further investigate the antinociceptive effects of guanosine in mice. Animals received an intrathecal (i.t.) injection of vehicle (0.1 mN NaOH) or guanosine (10 to 400 nmol). Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) purine levels and spinal cord glutamate uptake were performed. Guanosine produced dose-dependent antinociceptive effects against tail-flick, hot-plate, intraplantar (i.pl.) capsaicin, and i.pl. glutamate tests. Additionally, i.t. guanosine produced significant inhibition of the biting behavior induced by i.t. injection of glutamate (175 nmol/site), AMPA (135 pmol/site), kainate (110 pmol/site), trans-ACPD (50 nmol/site), and substance P (135 ng/site), with mean ID(50) values of 140 (103-190), 136 (100-185), 162 (133-196), 266 (153-461) and 28 (3-292) nmol, respectively. However, guanosine failed to affect the nociception induced by NMDA (450 pmol/site) and capsaicin (30 ng/site). Intrathecal administration of guanosine (200 nmol) induced an approximately 120-fold increase on CSF guanosine levels. Guanosine prevented the increase on spinal cord glutamate uptake induced by i.pl. capsaicin. This study provides new evidence on the mechanism of action of guanosine presenting antinociceptive effects at spinal sites. This effect seems to be at least partially associated with modulation of glutamatergic pathways by guanosine. PMID:19379722

Schmidt, André P; Böhmer, Ana Elisa; Schallenberger, Cristhine; Antunes, Catiele; Pereira, Mery Stéfani L; Leke, Renata; Wofchuk, Susana T; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Souza, Diogo O

2009-06-24

401

Spinal Paraganglioma Adherent to the Cauda Equina  

PubMed Central

Paragangliomas are rare among intradural spinal tumors. Most of them are benign, but aggressive behavior and local recurrence can occur. Cases of paraganglioma are, difficult to diagnose radiologically; hence, diagnosis is confirmed histopathologically. Radiologically, paragangliomas are similar to ependymomas, and, histopathologically, they are similar to neuroendocrine tumors. We evaluated the case of a 76-year-old woman with a spinal paraganglioma that was associated with back pain and radiating pain in both the lower extremities. She underwent an operation, and her symptoms were relieved. Here, we describe a rare case of paraganglioma that was adherent to the cauda equina.

Oh, Han San; Park, Kwan Ho

2014-01-01

402

Spinal Angiolipoma: Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Spinal angiolipoma (SAL) is an uncommon clinico-pathological entity. Design: Single case report. Methods: Retrospective data analysis. Findings: An obese woman with a 1-year history of progressive spastic paraparesis and acute deterioration underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine, the results of which suggested a tumor compressing the thoracic spinal cord. The histopathological examination of the completely resected tumor revealed an epidural angiolipoma. Conclusions: This case report offers a reminder that SAL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of long-standing, slowly progressive paraparesis. It remains unclear whether an increased body mass index might be a contributing factor to the development of SAL. PMID:18795485

Hungs, Marcel; Paré, Laura S

2008-01-01

403

Cardiac myxosarcoma with thoracic spinal metastasis.  

PubMed

Echocardiography revealed a left atrial tumor in a 59-year-old man with back pain that concurrently worsened with left foot drop and loss of the left ankle reflex soon after admission to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an epidural tumor extending from Th5 with spinal cord compression. The patient was immediately treated by emergency Th4-5 laminectomy and epidural decompression. One month later, a cardiac tumor excised via the left atrial approach was histopathologically diagnosed as myxosarcoma, and the Th5 tumor was consistent with this finding. This is the first report to describe spinal metastasis of cardiac myxosarcoma. PMID:23677508

Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Kikuchi, Chizuo; Takahashi, Yoshiki; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Satoshi

2014-07-01

404

Common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery  

PubMed Central

The rapid growth of spine degenerative surgery has led to unrelenting efforts to define and prevent possible complications, the incidence of which is probably higher than that reported and varies according to the region of the spine involved (cervical and thoracolumbar) and the severity of the surgery. Several issues are becoming progressively clearer, such as complication rates in primary versus revision spinal surgery, complications in the elderly, the contribution of minimally invasive surgery to the reduction of complication rate. In this paper the most common surgical complications in degenerative spinal surgery are outlined and discussed. PMID:23610753

Papadakis, Michael; Aggeliki, Lianou; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Girardi, Federico P

2013-01-01

405

A Modified Sagittal Spine Postural Classification and Its Relationship to Deformities and Spinal Mobility in a Chinese Osteoporotic Population  

PubMed Central

Background Abnormal posture and spinal mobility have been demonstrated to cause functional impairment in the quality of life, especially in the postmenopausal osteoporotic population. Most of the literature studies focus on either thoracic kyphosis or lumbar lordosis, but not on the change of the entire spinal alignment. Very few articles reported the spinal alignment of Chinese people. The purpose of this study was threefold: to classify the spinal curvature based on the classification system defined by Satoh consisting of the entire spine alignment; to identify the change of trunk mobility; and to relate spinal curvature to balance disorder in a Chinese population. Methodology/Principal Findings 450 osteoporotic volunteers were recruited for this study. Spinal range of motion and global curvature were evaluated noninvasively using the Spinal-Mouse® system and sagittal postural deformities were characterized. Results We found a new spine postural alignment consisting of an increased thoracic kyphosis and decreased lumbar lordosis which we classified as our modified round back. We did not find any of Satoh’s type 5 classification in our population. Type 2 sagittal alignment was the most common spinal deformity (38.44%). In standing, thoracic kyphosis angles in types 2 (58.34°) and 3 (58.03°) were the largest and lumbar lordosis angles in types 4 (13.95°) and 5 (?8.61°) were the smallest. The range of flexion (ROF) and range of flexion-extension (ROFE) of types 2 and 3 were usually greater than types 4 and 5, with type 1 being the largest. Conclusions/Significance The present study classified and compared for the first time the mobility, curvature and balance in a Chinese population based on the entire spine alignment and found types 4 and 5 to present the worst balance and mobility. This study included a new spine postural alignment classification that should be considered in future population studies. PMID:22693647

Wang, Hua-Jun; Giambini, Hugo; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Ye, Gan-Hu; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Li, Yi-Kai; Lan, Wen-Rui; Li, Jian-You; Jiang, Xue-Sheng; Zou, Qiu-Lan; Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Chao

2012-01-01

406

Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors and Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels in Long-Term Potentiation of Spinal Dorsal Horn Synapses and Pain Hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

Over the last twenty years of research on cellular mechanisms of pain hypersensitivity, long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn (DH) has emerged as an important contributor to pain pathology. Mechanisms that underlie LTP of spinal DH neurons include changes in the numbers, activity, and properties of ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA and NMDA receptors) and of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Here, we review the roles and mechanisms of these channels in the induction and expression of spinal DH LTP, and we present this within the framework of the anatomical organization and synaptic circuitry of the spinal DH. Moreover, we compare synaptic plasticity in the spinal DH with classical LTP described for hippocampal synapses. PMID:24224102

Youn, Dong-ho; Gerber, Gábor; Sather, William A.

2013-01-01

407

Neural correlates of sexual arousal in the spinal cords of able-bodied men: A spinal fMRI investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord (spinal fMRI) could be used to map neural activity throughout the lower thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal cord regions during sexual arousal in healthy men. To this end, it was found that viewing erotic films and genital self-stimulation both elicited predominantly increased signal,

Natalie Kozyrev; Chase R. Figley; Marcalee S. Alexander; J. Scott Richards; Rachael L. Bosma; Patrick W. Stroman

2012-01-01

408

Activation of Descending Pain Facilitatory Pathways from the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla by Cholecystokinin Elicits Release of PGE2 in the Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been suggested to be both pro-nociceptive and anti-opioid by actions on pain modulatory cells within the RVM. One consequence of activation of RVM CCK2 receptors may be enhanced spinal nociceptive transmission but how this might occur, especially in states of pathological pain is unknown. Here, in vivo microdialysis was used to demonstrate that levels of RVM CCK increased by approximately 2-fold following ligation of L5/L6 spinal nerves (SNL). Microinjection of CCK into the RVM of naïve rats elicited hypersensitivity to tactile stimulation of the hindpaw. Additionally, RVM CCK elicited a time-related increase in PGE2 measured in cerebrospinal fluid from the lumbar spinal cord. The peak increase in spinal PGE2 was approximately 5-fold and was observed at approximately 80-min post-RVM CCK, a time coincident with maximal RVM CCK-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Spinal administration of naproxen, a non-selective COX-inhibitor, significantly attenuated RVM CCK-induced hindpaw tactile hypersensitivity. RVM-CCK also resulted in a 2-fold increase in spinal 5-HIAA, a 5-HT metabolite, as compared to controls, and mechanical hypersensitivity that was attenuated by spinal application of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist. The present studies suggest that chronic nerve injury can result in activation of descending facilitatory mechanisms that may promote hyperalgesia via ultimate release of PGE2 and 5-HT in the spinal cord. PMID:22030324

Marshall, Timothy M.; Herman, David S.; Largent-Milnes, Tally M.; Badghisi, Hamid; Zuber, Konstantina; Holt, Shannon C.; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Vanderah, Todd W.

2011-01-01

409

Extensive Neuronal Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cell Grafts in Adult Rat Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Background Effective treatments for degenerative and traumatic diseases of the nervous system are not currently available. The support or replacement of injured neurons with neural grafts, already an established approach in experimental therapeutics, has been recently invigorated with the addition of neural and embryonic stem-derived precursors as inexhaustible, self-propagating alternatives to fetal tissues. The adult spinal cord, i.e., the site of common devastating injuries and motor neuron disease, has been an especially challenging target for stem cell therapies. In most cases, neural stem cell (NSC) transplants have shown either poor differentiation or a preferential choice of glial lineages. Methods and Findings In the present investigation, we grafted NSCs from human fetal spinal cord grown in monolayer into the lumbar cord of normal or injured adult nude rats and observed large-scale differentiation of these cells into neurons that formed axons and synapses and established extensive contacts with host motor neurons. Spinal cord microenvironment appeared to influence fate choice, with centrally located cells taking on a predominant neuronal path, and cells located under the pia membrane persisting as NSCs or presenting with astrocytic phenotypes. Slightly fewer than one-tenth of grafted neurons differentiated into oligodendrocytes. The presence of lesions increased the frequency of astrocytic phenotypes in the white matter. Conclusions NSC grafts can show substantial neuronal differentiation in the normal and injured adult spinal cord with good potential of integration into host neural circuits. In view of recent similar findings from other laboratories, the extent of neuronal differentiation observed here disputes the notion of a spinal cord that is constitutively unfavorable to neuronal repair. Restoration of spinal cord circuitry in traumatic and degenerative diseases may be more realistic than previously thought, although major challenges remain, especially with respect to the establishment of neuromuscular connections. PMID:17298165

Yan, Jun; Xu, Leyan; Welsh, Annie M; Hatfield, Glen; Hazel, Thomas; Johe, Karl; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

2007-01-01

410

Spinal Dysraphism: A Neurosurgical Review for the Urologist  

PubMed Central

Spinal neural tube defects are congenital malformations of the spine and spinal cord (eg, myelomeningocele) and are frequently seen in pediatric urology practice. These neurologic problems have many consequences in a child’s life and affect different parts of the body, such as the brain, spinal cord, limbs, bladder, and bowels. Because of the complexity and neurologic aspects of spinal dysraphism, many related terms and aspects of the disease are unfamiliar to the urologist. This review addresses some of the most commonly used neurosurgical terms and concepts related to spinal dysraphism. PMID:19680528

Netto, José Murillo B; Bastos, André N; Figueiredo, André A; Pérez, Luis M

2009-01-01

411

Primary intramedullary spinal cord germinoma: Case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary intramedullary spinal cord germinoma is a rare neoplasm and sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this report, a 16-year-old girl presented with pain and numbness of both thighs, difficulty in walking, followed by urinary disturbance. Neurological examination revealed motor weakness, hypotonicity, reduced deep tendon reflexes of both lower limbs, and decrease in sensation below Th12 level. MR examination demonstrated

Shunsuke Onodera; Satoshi Terae; Kohsuke Kudo; Khin Khin Tha; Kazuo Miyasaka; Kazutoshi Hida; Yoshinobu Iwasaki; Satoshi Ota

2006-01-01

412

Target-dependent Hormonal Control of Neuron Size in the Rat Spinal Nucleus of the Bulbocavernosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) in the rat is a cluster of sexually dimorphic motoneurons that innervate perineal muscles. In adult male rats, the size of SNB neurons is reduced following castration, and this effect is reversed by treatment with testosterone. However, androgen recep- tors are present in the perineal muscles as well as in SNB neurons. Therefore,

Motoy Kuno

1991-01-01

413

Transsynaptic shift in anion gradient in spinal lamina I neurons as a mechanism of neuropathic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern pain-control theory predicts that a loss of inhibition (disinhibition) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord is a crucial substrate for chronic pain syndromes. However, the nature of the mechanisms that underlie such disinhibition has remained controversial. Here we present evidence for a novel mechanism of disinhibition following peripheral nerve injury. It involves a trans-synaptic reduction in the

Jeffrey A. M. Coull; Dominic Boudreau; Karine Bachand; Steven A. Prescott; Francine Nault; Attila Sík; Paul De Koninck; Yves De Koninck

2003-01-01

414

Dwarfism, occult spinal dysraphism, and presacral myxopapillary ependymoma with an epidermoid cyst in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The authors present a case of a child with dwarfism that was noted to be developmentally delayed. Imaging revealed atlantoaxial instability, occult spinal dysraphism, and a presacral mass. Histopathology of the presacral lesion was that of a myxopapillary ependymoma with epidermoid cyst. We believe this to be the first report in the extant medical literature of this constellation of

R. S. Tubbs; D. R. Kelly; E. C. Mroczek-Musulman; K. Braune; A. Reddy; K. Georgeson; P. A. Grabb; W. J. Oakes

2005-01-01

415

Spinal function monitoring by evoked spinal cord potentials in aortic aneurysm surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evoked spinal cord potentials (ESCPs) were monitored in 12 patients who underwent repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm\\u000a with a high risk of spinal ischemia. A pair of bipolar catheter electrodes were introduced into the epidural space, one at\\u000a the level of the C5-T2 vertebrae and the other at the level of T11-L2. Conductive mixed ESCP in seven patients, conductive\\u000a sensory

Tatsuhiko Kano; Michiaki Sadanaga; Morimasa Matsumoto; Yoshihiro Ikuta; Hidehiro Sakaguchi; Hiraaki Gotoh; Yoshimasa Miyauchi

1995-01-01

416

Spinal SIRT1 Activation Attenuates Neuropathic Pain in Mice  

PubMed Central

Abnormal histone acetylation occurs during neuropathic pain through an epigenetic mechanism. Silent information regulator 1 (sir2 or SIRT1), a NAD-dependent deacetylase, plays complex systemic roles in a variety of processes through deacetylating acetylated histone and other specific substrates. But the role of SIRT1 in neuropathic pain is not well established yet. The present study was intended to detect SIRT1 content and activity, nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in the spinal cord using immunoblotting or mass spectroscopy over time in mice following chronic constriction injury (CCI) or sham surgery. In addition, the effect of intrathecal injection of NAD or resveratrol on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia was evaluated in CCI mice. Finally, we investigated whether SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 could reverse the anti-nociceptive effect of NAD or resveratrol. It was found that spinal SIRT1 expression, deacetylase activity and NAD/NAM decreased significantly 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after CCI surgery as compared with sham group. In addition, daily intrathecal injection of 5 µl 800 mM NAD 1 h before and 1 day after CCI surgery or single intrathecal injection of 5 µl 90 mM resveratrol 1 h before CCI surgery produced a transient inhibitory effect on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in CCI mice. Finally, an intrathecal injection of 5 µl 1.2 mM EX-527 1 h before NAD or resveratrol administration reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of NAD or resveratrol. These data indicate that the reduction in SIRT1 deacetylase activity may be a factor contributing to the development of neuropathic pain in CCI mice. Our findings suggest that the enhancement of spinal NAD/NAM and/or SIRT1 activity may be a potentially promising strategy for the prevention or treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:24959710

Shao, Haijun; Xue, Qingsheng; Zhang, Fujun; Luo, Yan; Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Honghai; Ding, Wenlong; Yu, Buwei

2014-01-01

417

Spinal SIRT1 activation attenuates neuropathic pain in mice.  

PubMed

Abnormal histone acetylation occurs during neuropathic pain through an epigenetic mechanism. Silent information regulator 1 (sir2 or SIRT1), a NAD-dependent deacetylase, plays complex systemic roles in a variety of processes through deacetylating acetylated histone and other specific substrates. But the role of SIRT1 in neuropathic pain is not well established yet. The present study was intended to detect SIRT1 content and activity, nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in the spinal cord using immunoblotting or mass spectroscopy over time in mice following chronic constriction injury (CCI) or sham surgery. In addition, the effect of intrathecal injection of NAD or resveratrol on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia was evaluated in CCI mice. Finally, we investigated whether SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 could reverse the anti-nociceptive effect of NAD or resveratrol. It was found that spinal SIRT1 expression, deacetylase activity and NAD/NAM decreased significantly 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after CCI surgery as compared with sham group. In addition, daily intrathecal injection of 5 µl 800 mM NAD 1 h before and 1 day after CCI surgery or single intrathecal injection of 5 µl 90 mM resveratrol 1 h before CCI surgery produced a transient inhibitory effect on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in CCI mice. Finally, an intrathecal injection of 5 µl 1.2 mM EX-527 1 h before NAD or resveratrol administration reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of NAD or resveratrol. These data indicate that the reduction in SIRT1 deacetylase activity may be a factor contributing to the development of neuropathic pain in CCI mice. Our findings suggest that the enhancement of spinal NAD/NAM and/or SIRT1 activity may be a potentially promising strategy for the prevention or treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:24959710

Shao, Haijun; Xue, Qingsheng; Zhang, Fujun; Luo, Yan; Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Honghai; Ding, Wenlong; Yu, Buwei

2014-01-01

418

Chronic spinal subdural abscess mimicking an intradural-extramedullary tumor.  

PubMed

Spinal subdural abscesses (SSA) are very rare disease. The etiologies of SSA are hematogenous spread, iatrogenic contamination, and local extension. Elevated WBC counts, ESR, and C-reactive protein are usually found in laboratory tests. But they are not sensitive indicators of SSA, especially chronic abscesses patient tend to have a less specific characteristic. We report the case of a healthy man with chronic subdural abscess referred to our hospital as an intradural-extramedullary (IDEM) tumor. The patient presented with voiding difficulty and pain in the back and left leg. In a contrast MRI scan, a rim-enhanced mass-like lesion was seen at the L5/S1 level. But adjacent ill-defined epidural fat enhancement that are unusual imaging manifestation for IDEM tumors was seen. He had no fever and normal WBC, ESR, and CRP. In addition, the patient had no previous infection history or other disease, but he did have an epidural block for back pain at another hospital 2 years previously. So, we repeated the MRI with a high-resolution 3-T scanner. The newly taken MR images in our hospital revealed a clear enlargement of lesion size compared to the previous MRI taken 1 week before in other hospital. We suspected a chronic spinal subdural abscess with recent aggravation and immediately performed surgical evacuation. In the surgical field, tensed dura was observed and pus was identified after opening the abscess capsule. Because chronic spinal subdural abscesses are difficult to diagnose, we could differentiate with IDEM tumor exactly and an exact history taking, contrast MRI are required. PMID:23397217

Lim, Hyo-Yeol; Choi, Hong-Jun; Kim, Sungjun; Kuh, Sung-Uk

2013-05-01

419

Spinal manipulation as a valid treatment for low back pain.  

PubMed

The practice of chiropractic has been regulated in the State of Delaware since 1937. Since that time, the battle lines in the state between medicine and chiropractic have been drawn. This war has existed on both the political and clinical fronts, and although it has always been believed by the chiropractic profession that once the "scientific evidence" of the benefit of chiropractic was proven, the war would end. This has not occurred to the extent believed. Even with its 1980 victory over the AMA, chiropractic has still been unable to achieve full acceptance as a clinical discipline among other professions. Many hospitals in this country have opened their doors to DCs. This by and large, has solely been for economic reasons and not as a recognition of the clinical benefit of manipulation. There is, however, a growing population of primary care physicians and researchers suggesting the benefit of manipulation for low back pain as well as suggesting that increased cooperation between MDs and DCs could be of extreme benefit to the patient population at large. This group continues to be in the minority. However, with increased knowledge of the benefits of spinal manipulation and the scientific evidence that now exists to support its efficacy, it is now believed that this interprofessional referral pattern will increase. In addition, many managed care programs now require primary care physicians to determine the necessity for referral to a chiropractor, thus causing a need for the primary physician to have some knowledge of spinal manipulation. This paper is presented to inform the physician community of Delaware of some of the evidence pointing to the efficacy of spinal manipulation as a treatment for low back pain. PMID:8867392

Vernon, L F

1996-03-01

420

Quality Assessment of Spinal Cord Injury Patient Education Resources.  

PubMed

Study Design. Analysis of spinal cord injury patient education resources.Objective. To assess the quality of online patient education materials written about spinal cord injury.Summary of Background Data. The use of online materials by healthcare consumers to access medical information presents unique challenges. Most Americans have access to the Internet and frequently turn to it as a first-line resource.Methods. The quality of online patient education materials was evaluated via a readability analysis. Materials provided by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS); Centers for Disease Control (CDC); American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS); National Spinal Cord Injury Association (NSCIA); Mayo Clinic (Mayo); Department of Veterans Affairs (VA); Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation (Kessler); American Academy of Neurology (AAN); Paralyzed Veterans of America (PVA); and the Shepherd Center (SC) were assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level evaluations with Microsoft Office Word software. Unnecessary formatting was removed and the readability was evaluated with the Spelling and Grammar function.Results. A total of 104 sections from 10 different websites were analyzed. Overall, the average values of the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (11.9) and Flesch Reading Ease (40.2) indicated that most Americans would not be able to fully comprehend this material.Conclusion. Results indicate that the language used on materials provided by the aforementioned sites is perhaps too advanced for the average American to fully comprehend. The quality of these education resources may be improved via website revisions, which might be beneficial for improved patient utilization. PMID:24718059

Agarwal, Nitin; Hansberry, David R; Singh, Priyanka L; Heary, Robert F; Goldstein, Ira M

2014-04-01

421

Return of spinal reflex after spinal cord surgery for brachial plexus avulsion injury.  

PubMed

Motor but not sensory function has been described after spinal cord surgery in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury. In the featured case, motor-related nerve roots as well as sensory spinal nerves distal to the dorsal root ganglion were reconnected to neurons in the ventral and dorsal horns of the spinal cord by implanting nerve grafts. Peripheral and sensory functions were assessed 10 years after an accident and subsequent spinal cord surgery. The biceps stretch reflex could be elicited, and electrophysiological testing demonstrated a Hoffman reflex, or Hreflex, in the biceps muscle when the musculocutaneous nerve was stimulated. Functional MR imaging demonstrated sensory motor cortex activities on active as well as passive elbow flexion. Quantitative sensory testing and contact heat evoked potential stimulation did not detect any cutaneous sensory function, however. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case represents the first time that spinal cord surgery could restore not only motor function but also proprioception completing a spinal reflex arch. PMID:21838504

Carlstedt, Thomas; Misra, V Peter; Papadaki, Anastasia; McRobbie, Donald; Anand, Praveen

2012-02-01

422

Isolation and Characterization of Adult Spinal Disc Stem Cells from Healthy Human Spinal Disc Tissues  

PubMed Central

This report details the isolation, culture, and characterization of spinal disc stem cells derived from human adult spinal disc tissue specimens. Using stem cell suspension culture methods and biology, human adult spinal disc stem cells were isolated and monoclonally cultured into multicellular sphere-like clusters (discospheres). Discospheres from the first culture series were collected, processed, and replated as single stem cells for serial expansion studies using suspension culture, demonstrating linear expansion was possible. Discospheres and adult spinal disc stem cells were plated on matrix coated culture surfaces in stem cell media for several hours to allow fixation, and assayed for the stem cell biomarkers. Discospheres and adult spinal disc stem cells were plated on laminin-coated culture surfaces in chondrogenic media and culture conditions for 14 days to differentiate them into NP cells. NP cells cultured from these experiments demonstrated NP morphology and phenotype; NP biomarker expression, secretion of extracellular matrix, and the ability to be serially passaged with large volume expansion possible. Tissue engineering studies using the “burst kinetic assay”, demonstrated that discospheres have remarkable intrinsic developmental and tissue engineering biology that is robust and organized. In summary, adult disc stem cells and NP cells have been isolated, cultured, and characterized, from healthy spinal disc tissues. These findings demonstrate the important potential to be explored for using stem cell based tissue engineering for the treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD).

Duntsch, Christopher; Dillard, Erika; Akbar, Umar

2015-01-01

423

Spinal pain made worse by recumbency: a clue to spinal cord tumors.  

PubMed

In the absence of physical findings, pain in the low back, cervical or thoracic spine, or the extremities presents a diagnostic problem. On occasion the pain is present or made worse only when the patient lies down. We have attended four patients with underlying extradural tumors of the spinal canal. A 75-year-old woman with chronic back pain was treated for multiple myeloma with intravenous dexamethasone and 400 rads of x-ray irradiation to the lumbar spine and experienced marked pain relief in 24 hours. A 76-year-old woman with neck pain had complete pain relief after a vascular, calcified meningioma was removed surgically from under the 2nd and 3rd cervical nerve roots. A 38-year-old male with constant pain in the lumbar area and right leg and foot experienced marked relief from pain after a neurolemmoma of the cauda equina was surgically removed. A 57-year-old woman with knee pain became pain free 24 hours after radiation therapy to an enlarged nodular cauda equina. These four cases illustrate a diagnostic clue rarely mentioned in the literature. PMID:2945534

Nicholas, J J; Christy, W C

1986-09-01

424

Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... that spinal manipulation is as effective as other interventions for reducing pain and improving function. A 2010 review that looked ... Haldeman S. Synthesis of recommendations for the assessment and management of low back pain from recent clinical practice guidelines. Spine Journal . 2010; ...

425

Proprioceptive pathways of the spinal cord.  

PubMed Central

In the Macaque, surgical lesions were made in the dorsal funiculus, in the dorsolateral funiculus, and through half of the spinal cord. The somatosensory and motor capacity of the animal were examined neurologically and electrophysiologically. The exact lesion was then confirmed pathologically in detail. The results of these experiments indicate that limb position information from the distal limb and proximal limb are relayed to the brain in two different fashions. Distal limb position information, especially the cortical representation of the limbs' volar surface as it moves in space, is drastically impaired by dorsal funiculus or posterior white column lesions. Proximal limb position may or may not be impaired by similar lesions, for this information while initially in the dorsal or posterior white columns is sorted out (as it ascends in the spinal cord) to the dorsolateral funiculus or white columns. For example, in the lower thoracic spinal cord, both distal and proximal hind limb sensation are impaired by posterior white column damage; in the cervical cord, only distal sensation is impaired by the same lesion, and proximal information is spared. We refer to this neuroanatomic rearranging as "fibre sorting", and we believe that it is clinically significant in spinal cord disease. Images PMID:408463

Schneider, R J; Kulics, A T; Ducker, T B

1977-01-01

426

Radiology of intervertebral cages in spinal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pictorial essay reviews the normal appearances and the post-operative complications of intervertebral cages. These are implants which are being more widely used in spinal surgery. The text outlines the background leading to their development, the clinical indications and surgical techniques for insertion of the cages. The normal post-operative appearance of fusion and the complications that can occur are emphasized.

S. D. Hanley; M. T. Gun; O. Osti; E. M. Shanahan

1999-01-01

427

Spinal metastases from pituitary hemangiopericytic meningioma  

SciTech Connect

A rare, previously irradiated, recurrent malignant angioblastic meningioma of the pituitary, hemangiopericytic type, was locally controlled by a new endocurietherapy technique that allows delivery of very high (10,000 cGy), sharply localized irradiation. Rather than succumbing to the local tumor recurrence, as would otherwise be expected, the patient developed distant spinal metastases several years later.

Kumar, P.P.; Good, R.R.; Skultety, F.M.; Masih, A.S.; McComb, R.D.

1987-10-01

428

Spinal dural AV fistula: an unusual cause of chest pain.  

PubMed

A 22 -year-old man presented with 6 months of sudden onset, incapacitating, left-sided chest pain occurring 1-2 times a week. The severity of the pain caused loss of consciousness several times leading to multiple fractures. Investigation with echocardiogram, exercise tolerance test, Holter monitor, chest X-ray and V/Q scan revealed no abnormality as did EEG and 48 h video telemetry. MRI of the thoracic and lumbar spine showed a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) at the level of T6, confirmed on angiogram. The patient underwent division of the left T6 AV fistula. Following the operation, the patient has been completely pain free. Our patient, presenting in his early 20s does not fit the usual age demographic for SDAVF. A second atypical feature is his presentation with chest pain alone and no neurological symptoms. This case represents a rare presentation of SDAVF. PMID:24532234

Bioh, Gabriel; Bogle, Richard

2014-01-01

429

The volatile anesthetic methoxyflurane protects motoneurons against excitotoxicity in an in vitro model of rat spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Neuroprotection of the spinal cord during the early phase of injury is an important goal to determine a favorable outcome by prevention of delayed pathological events, including excitotoxicity, which otherwise extend the primary damage and amplify the often irreversible loss of motor function. While intensive care and neurosurgical intervention are important treatments, effective neuroprotection requires further experimental studies focused to target vulnerable neurons, particularly motoneurons. The present investigation examined whether the volatile general anesthetic methoxyflurane might protect spinal locomotor networks from kainate-evoked excitotoxicity using an in vitro rat spinal cord preparation as a model. The protocols involved 1h excitotoxic stimulation on day 1 followed by electrophysiological and immunohistochemical testing on day 2. A single administration of methoxyflurane applied together with kainate (1h), or 30 or even 60min later prevented any depression of spinal reflexes, loss of motoneuron excitability, and histological damage. Methoxyflurane per se temporarily decreased synaptic transmission and motoneuron excitability, effects readily reversible on washout. Spinal locomotor activity recorded as alternating electrical discharges from lumbar motor pools was fully preserved on the second day after application of methoxyflurane together with (or after) kainate. These data suggest that a volatile general anesthetic could provide strong electrophysiological and histological neuroprotection that enabled expression of locomotor network activity 1day after the excitotoxic challenge. It is hypothesized that the benefits of early neurosurgery for acute spinal cord injury (SCI) might be enhanced if, in addition to injury decompression and stabilization, the protective role of general anesthesia is exploited. PMID:25446348

Shabbir, A; Bianchetti, E; Nistri, A

2015-01-29

430

Episodic itch in a case of spinal glioma  

PubMed Central

Background Itch is a frequent complaint reported by patients and is usually ascribed to dermatological or metabolic causes. In neurological disorders, however, it is a very unusual symptom and thus its neurological aetiology is likely to be overlooked. There are only very few reports about permanent itch related to lesions of the central nervous system. To our knowledge we report the first case of episodic itch associated with a central nervous lesion. Case presentation A 74-year-old female suffered from long-standing episodes of itch of the dermatomes C2 to C6 on the right side that was refractory to any treatment. On occurrence it propagated in a proximal to distal fashion. Between the episodes the patient was asymptomatic. MRI of the cervical spine uncovered a spinal glioma that matched the location of the symptoms. Treatment with gabapentin led to a prompt reduction of the symptoms. Conclusion Patients with intractable pruritus and dermatomal presentation ought to undergo neurological examination and spinal cord imaging. Thus, ongoing frustrating and sometimes even harmful treatment trials could be avoided. PMID:24059641