Sample records for hypertrophica presenting spinal

  1. Unusual presentation of spinal lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, William; Kauflin, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition characterized by overgrowth of normal adipose tissue in the extradural space within the spinal canal that can lead to significant spinal cord compression. It is most commonly reported in patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Other causes can include obesity and hypercortisolism. Occasionally, idiopathic SEL will occur in patients with no known risk factors, but cases are more generally reported in obesity and males. We present the case of a 35 year-old non-obese woman found to have rapidly progressive SEL that was not associated with any of the common causes of the disorder. PMID:25285024

  2. Intramedullary Astrocytoma Presenting as Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabiha Aysun; Mine Cinbis; Osman Ekin Özcan

    1993-01-01

    We present a 6-year-old patient with a spinal cord tumor who had been followed with the diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy since the age of 23 months. Reasons for reevaluating the diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy were the early onset of scoliosis, the slight asymmetry in weakness of extremities, and the appearance of urinary retention in the last 3 days.

  3. [Lumbar spinal stenosis. Classification and clinical presentation].

    PubMed

    van Akkerveeken, P F

    1993-08-01

    A review is presented of the nomenclature, taxonomy and clinical presentation of the lumbar canal and lateral stenosis. A historical review of the literature illustrates the growing importance of this clinical entity in the narrow spinal canal. The definition of Verbiest is introduced and explained. It distinguishes two main groups of spinal stenosis: congenital and developmental stenosis. Developmental stenosis contains several subgroups. Special attention is paid to "central" lumbar canal stenosis and lateral spinal stenosis. Both entities are discussed with a description of the etiology, anatomy, and symptomatology. The importance of nerve root infiltration as a diagnostic tool in asymptomatic radiculopathy is emphasized. PMID:8414475

  4. A rare presentation of spinal epidural abscess

    PubMed Central

    Crowest, Paul Robert Oliver; Hughes, Paul James; Elkins, Andrew; Jackson, Mark; Ranu, Harpreet

    2011-01-01

    A 77-year-old retired engineer presented to accident and emergency with deteriorating shortness of breath that had been troubling him for several months. At that time, he was being investigated by a chest physician who had identified bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis on ultrasound and was awaiting further imaging. Clinical assessment and nerve conduction studies on this admission were compatible with a diagnosis of motor neuron disease but specialist neurology input recommended an MRI to rule out cord pathology. This proved problematic as the patient was non-invasive ventilation dependent and unable to lay supine as this further compromised his respiratory function. To ensure that a potentially reversible cause for his symptoms was identified, the patient was intubated for an MRI which subsequently demonstrated multi level spinal epidural empyema. The benefits of neurosurgical intervention were judged to be uncertain at best, and following discussion with the family, active care was withdrawn. The patient passed away shortly thereafter. PMID:22675058

  5. Magnetic Resonance Image findings of Spinal Tuberclosis at first presentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spinal tuberculosis presents in various pathological patterns. The clinical presentation and often the management depend on exact pathological findings. Objective of study was to evaluate the Pathology of spinal tuberculosis as depicted by MRI findings in 119 consecutive cases of spinal TB. Methodology It was a cross sectional and observational study conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi from July 2010 to December 2012.Total numbers of participants were 119. Diagnosis was based on positive histopathology results along with the supportive evidence in MRI. A pre-structured questionnaire was constructed to record the data. Study was ethically approved by Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. Sample size was calculated by using Open-EPI software. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result There were 119 patients who participated in this study out of which 52 were males and 67 were females. Most common level was Dorso-lumbar (33.6%) and 87.5% of them had spondylodiscitis while 90% had cord compression. All 6 (100%) patients who had their upper- dorsal region affected had gibbus formation while all those patients having lumbosacral region involved had thecal compression 4 (100%). Most common mode of treatment used in patients having Spinal TB at Lumbar region was conservative (86.2%). Conclusion MRI findings were mostly shadowed with features such as disc destruction and thecal or cord compression. MRI scan could be used for early detection of spinal TB which can reduce disability and deaths in patients. Major clinical findings in spinal TB were fever, Para paresis and back pain. PMID:24655918

  6. POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Modeling axial spinal segments of the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Modeling axial spinal segments of the salamander central pattern a mini- mal biophysical model of the salamander axial locomo- tor CPG. Our model is composed of Hodgkin of the salamander Pleurodeles waltlii [3]. The model yields oscillating hemisegments with a relation for cycle

  7. Spinal Myeloid Sarcoma “Chloroma” Presenting as Cervical Radiculopathy: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaobang; Shahab, Imran; Lieberman, Isador H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Myeloid sarcoma (also known as chloroma) is a rare, extramedullary tumor composed of immature granulocytic cells. It may occur early in the course of acute or chronic leukemia or myeloproliferative disorders. Spinal cord invasion by myeloid sarcoma is rare. The authors report a rare case of spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy. Methods?A previously healthy 43-year-old man presented with progressive neck, right shoulder, and arm pain. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a very large enhancing extradural soft tissue mass extending from C7 through T1, with severe narrowing of the thecal sac at the T1 level. The patient underwent posterior cervical open biopsy, laminectomy, and decompression. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Postoperatively, a bone marrow biopsy was done, which showed myeloproliferative neoplasm with eosinophilia. The patient then received systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Results?At the 10-month follow-up, the patient reported complete relief of arm pain and neck pain. X-rays showed that the overall cervical alignment was intact and there was no evidence of a recurrent lesion. MRI showed no evidence of compressive or remnant lesion. Conclusions?Spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy is rare, and it may be easily misdiagnosed. Knowledge of its clinical presentation, imaging, and histologic characterization can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:26131394

  8. Spinal Myeloid Sarcoma "Chloroma" Presenting as Cervical Radiculopathy: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaobang; Shahab, Imran; Lieberman, Isador H

    2015-06-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Myeloid sarcoma (also known as chloroma) is a rare, extramedullary tumor composed of immature granulocytic cells. It may occur early in the course of acute or chronic leukemia or myeloproliferative disorders. Spinal cord invasion by myeloid sarcoma is rare. The authors report a rare case of spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy. Methods?A previously healthy 43-year-old man presented with progressive neck, right shoulder, and arm pain. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a very large enhancing extradural soft tissue mass extending from C7 through T1, with severe narrowing of the thecal sac at the T1 level. The patient underwent posterior cervical open biopsy, laminectomy, and decompression. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Postoperatively, a bone marrow biopsy was done, which showed myeloproliferative neoplasm with eosinophilia. The patient then received systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Results?At the 10-month follow-up, the patient reported complete relief of arm pain and neck pain. X-rays showed that the overall cervical alignment was intact and there was no evidence of a recurrent lesion. MRI showed no evidence of compressive or remnant lesion. Conclusions?Spinal myeloid sarcoma presenting as cervical radiculopathy is rare, and it may be easily misdiagnosed. Knowledge of its clinical presentation, imaging, and histologic characterization can lead to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:26131394

  9. Spinal Cord Injury—Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, William H

    2007-01-01

    Summary: This special report traces the path of spinal cord injury (SCI) from ancient times through the present and provides an optimistic overview of promising clinical trials and avenues of basic research. The spinal cord injuries of Lord Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson, President James A. Garfield, and General George Patton provide an interesting perspective on the evolution of the standard of care for SCI. The author details the contributions of a wide spectrum of professionals in the United States, Europe, and Australia, as well as the roles of various government and professional organizations, legislation, and overall advances in surgery, anesthesia, trauma care, imaging, pharmacology, and infection control, in the advancement of care for the individual with SCI. PMID:17591221

  10. Atypical presentations of spinal muscular atrophy type III (Kugelberg–Welander disease)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Kang; K. S. Krishnamoorthy; R. M. Jones; F. D. Shapiro; B. T. Darras

    2006-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy type III (SMA III, Kugelberg–Welander disease) typically presents with symmetric proximal weakness, areflexia, and hypotonia. We present four children with spinal muscular atrophy type III who had atypical phenotypes. Three patients clearly had asymmetric weakness at presentation and two had upper motor neuron signs in the lower extremities (one patient had both features). Two of the patients

  11. Metastatic mast cell tumour in a dog presenting with spinal pain.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M A; Bennett, P F; Laverty, P H

    2009-04-01

    The clinical, advanced imaging and surgical features of a case of canine extradural mast cell tumour are presented. This rare location has only been reported once before as a primary lesion, although the present case may be a metastatic lesion. Given the frequent occurrence and treatment of cutaneous mast cell tumours in dogs, the finding of spinal metastasis is an important reminder to consider metastatic neoplasia in cases of previously treated cancers presenting with spinal pain. PMID:19335472

  12. Spinal epidural hematoma in a patient with hemophilia B presenting as acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Nirupam, Nilay; Pemde, Harish; Chandra, Jagdish

    2014-09-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare complication in patients of haemophilia. We report the case of a 9-year-old boy with severe haemophilia B who presented with acute abdomen of 5 days duration. Acute onset of neck/back pain,walking impairment and urinary retention has usually been described as symptom complex in SSEH. The hematoma was identified by magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal column. Our case calls attention to recognition of abdominal pain (with no other localizing features) as initial symptom of SSEH and prompt evaluation and management before more overt symptoms of spinal cord compression becomes evident. PMID:25332535

  13. Spinal cord compression as initial presentation of metastatic occult follicular thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md Nuruzzaman; Sharfuzzaman, AMSM; Mostafa, Md Golam

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic tumors are the most common tumors of the spine, accounting for 98% of all spine lesions. But spinal cord compression as the initial presentation of metastatic occult follicular carcinoma without any thyroid enlargement is unusual and relatively rare. This report describes a 35-years-old female patient presenting with paraplegia and urinary incontinence for the last two months. She had no thyroid enlargement; no thyroid related symptoms and her biochemical thyroid profile was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine shows a huge mass compressing the spinal cord at D11-D12 involving both the spinal and paraspinal areas. The patient was treated by surgery and radioiodine ablation as the histopathology showed metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. This case was reported because of the rarity of the disease. Early diagnosis and initiation of the treatment should promise a good prognosis for a patient with metastatic spinal cord compression. PMID:24966555

  14. Neuroschistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium presenting as spinal cord tumor.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Claudia; Kiruga, Japhet Mbae; Figaji, Anthony; Simat, Koriata; Padayachy, Llewellyn; Pillay, Komala; Yogev, Ram

    2011-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is rarely encountered in the United States, but immigration and travel to endemic areas make it important to know its various presentations to improve diagnosis and treatment. We present our experience with a child with Schistosoma haematobium pseudotumor, initially diagnosed as a cord neoplasm. PMID:21734619

  15. Intramedullary spinal epidermoid presenting after thoracic meningocele repair: case report.

    PubMed

    Grobelny, Bartosz T; Weiner, Howard L; Harter, David H

    2015-06-01

    A 4-year-old girl with a history of thoracic meningocele repair at the age of 3 months presented with progressive myelopathy. An intramedullary thoracic epidermoid was identified on MRI. The patient underwent excision of the epidermoid and subsequently returned to neurological baseline. This case illustrates the potential for delayed development of intraspinal epidermoid after initial repair of a simple meningocele. PMID:25815631

  16. Hypercalcaemia in infancy; a presenting feature of spinal muscular atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Khawaja; W T Houlsby; S Watson; K Bushby; T Cheetham

    2004-01-01

    A 10 month old girl presented with a history of constipation from early life. She was found to be hypercalcaemic with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Her mild motor delay and hypotonia were thought to be linked to chronic hypercalcaemia, but when these features failed to improve despite normocalcaemia on a low calcium diet the possibility of neuromuscular disease was explored in

  17. Role of Decompression in Late Presentation of Cervical Spinal Cord Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sakale, Harshal; Dulani, Rajesh; Singh, Pradeep K; Sanrakhia, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study conducted at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, India. Purpose To show the efficacy of decompression in the late presentation of cervical spinal cord disorders. Overview of Literature Studies by various authors have shown that early spinal decompression results in better neurological outcomes. Methods From January 2003 to January 2005, 11 of the 41 patients with cervical spinal cord compression, meeting the inclusion criteria, underwent anterior decompression; interbody graft placement and stabilization by anterior cervical locking plate. The neurologic and functional outcomes were recorded. Results Five patients had spinal cord injury and 6 patients had compressive cervical myelopathy. Complications included 1 death and 1 plate loosening. No patient lost their preoperative neurological status. One patient had no improvement, 2 patients showed full recovery. The mean follow-up is 28.3 month. At the of rehabilitation, 6 were able to walk without support), 2 could walk with support, and 1 needed a wheelchair. The average American Spinal Injury Association motor score on admission to the hospital, 32.8 (standard deviation [SD], 30.5); admission to rehabilitation, 38.6 (SD, 32.4); discharge from rehabilitation, 46.2 (SD, 33.7). The most recent follow-up was 64.0 (SD, 35.3). Conclusions The anterior approach for cervical decompression allows for adequate decompression. This decompression is the best chance offered in even late reported cases, including posttraumatic cases where there is no evidence of cord transactions. The use of anterior cervical plates reduces the chances of graft loosening, extruding, or collapsing. PMID:24761201

  18. Intramedullary Sarcoidosis Presenting with Delayed Spinal Cord Swelling after Cervical Laminoplasty for Compressive Cervical Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Du Ho; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology that may affect any organ in the body. The nervous system is involved in 5-16% of cases of sarcoidosis. Here, we report a case of intramedullary sarcoidosis presenting with delayed spinal cord swelling after laminoplasty for the treatment of compressive cervical myelopathy. A 56-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of upper extremity pain and gait disturbance. The patient had undergone laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy 3 months previously. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large solitary intramedullary lesion with associated extensive cord swelling, signal changes, and heterogeneous enhancement of spinal cord from C2 to C7. Spinal cord biopsy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas with signs of chronic inflammation. The final diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based upon laboratory data, imaging findings, histological findings, and the exclusion of other diagnoses. Awareness of such presentations and a high degree of suspicion of sarcoidosis may help arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:25535524

  19. Spinal arteriovenous malformation presenting as spastic monoplegic cerebral palsy in a child.

    PubMed

    Flett, Peter John; Baulderstone, David; Russo, Remo; Davies, Roger Philip

    2012-01-01

    A case of spinal arterio-venous malformation (AVM) initially diagnosed as unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) is reported. The presentation was of a long-standing spastic monoparesis of the left leg, with initial response to Botulinum toxin injections to the calf and tibialis posterior muscles. This was followed by progressive deterioration occurring over a 3-month period before further investigation and definitive diagnosis at 7 years. Imaging demonstrated a large extra-medullary spinal AVM compressing the mid-thoracic cord. This was successfully managed by embolisation with a non-adhesive polymer: ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer injected into the dominant feeding vessel. This case highlights the need to consider alternative diagnoses when a child with a diagnosis of CP presents with atypical clinical features such as monoparesis and has worsening or altered clinical signs. Moreover, a normal magnetic resonance imaging brain scan and the absence of ipsilateral upper limb neurological signs or functional impairment should raise suspicion even in the context of static lower limb signs. A literature review was performed on the management of spinal AVM in children and this will be is discussed. PMID:20546106

  20. Spinal cord compression due to primary intramedullary tuberculoma of the spinal cord presenting as paraplegia: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Das, Deepak; Das, Srikanta; Mohanta, Itibrata; Tripathy, Soubhagya Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord compression can be due to various causes but spinal intramedullary tuberculoma is a rare cause. We report a case that had an intramedullary spinal cord tuberculomas in which the diagnosis was made histologically, without evidence of symptoms of systemic tuberculosis. This lesion, located in the thoracic region, mimicked as an intramedullary tumor radiologically. Case Description: The patient was a 25-year-old male who presented with a history of progressive paraparesis. Initial diagnosis was made as an intramedullary tumor by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The treatment of the patient involved is complete surgical excision of intramedullary lesion followed by appropriate antituberculous therapy. Postoperatively, his neurological symptoms were dramatically improved. With combination of both surgical and medical treatments, excellent clinical outcome was obtained. Conclusion: This case illustrates the risk of misdiagnosis and the importance of histological confirmation of a pathological lesion as spinal cord tuberculoma prior to surgical therapy, which should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis of the intramedullary spinal cord tumors. PMID:25883834

  1. Spinal cord compression injury in the mouse: presentation of a model including assessment of motor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Farooque, M

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a spinal cord injury model in the mouse. Various degrees of extradural compression were used to induce mild, moderate or severe compression injuries. Furthermore, a locomotor rating scale was developed by which the functional outcome of the spinal cord injury could be assessed. The introduction of such a model will be useful for further studies on the pathogenesis and treatment strategies of spinal cord injury. To assess hindlimb motor function, a 10-point scale was used. Initially, the animals were allowed to move freely in an open field and were rated 0-5, 0 being no movement and 5 being almost normal. Animals scoring a 5 were then assessed using steel bars with decreasing widths from 2 cm to 5 mm. For each bar successfully crossed over, they gained additional points. Before injury the hindlimb motor function score (MFS) in all the animals was 10. In mice with mild compression, MFS was decreased slightly on day 1 and recovered to 9 +/- 0.6 on day 14. For mice with moderate compression, the MFS decreased to 4.6 +/- 0.4 on day 1 after injury and gradually improved to 8.1 +/- 0.6 on day 14. Severe injury resulted in paraplegia of the hindlimbs day 1 after injury with a score of 0.6 +/- 0.2. By day 14 after injury, these animals gradually recovered to 3.9 +/- 0.1, could bear the weight on the hindlimbs and walk with a severe deficit. There was a 3%, 9% and 19% decrease in the total cross-sectional area of the spinal cord 14 days after mild, moderate and severe injury, respectively. Microtubule-associated protein immunostaining revealed that the gray matter decreased to 61 +/- 7% in moderately injured animals, while severe compression resulted in a complete loss of gray matter. White matter decreased to 86 +/- 6% in moderately injured animals and 29 +/- 11% in severely injured animals. This study shows that the mouse can be used to achieve reproducible spinal cord compression injuries of various degrees of severity. The force of the impact correlates well with the neurological and light microscopic outcome. The motor function test presented in this paper and the computerized quantification of tissue damage can be used to evaluate the efficacy of different treatment strategies. PMID:10912915

  2. Characteristics of lumbar disc herniation with exacerbation of presentation due to spinal manipulative therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Li; Liu, Yan-Xi; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Zhang, Ji; Yan, Hong-Wei

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article was to delineate the characteristics of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in patients with exacerbation of symptoms caused by spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). The main emphasis should be on the prevention of this condition by identifying relevant risk factors. Detailed clinico-radiological profiles of a total number of 10 LDH patients with exacerbation of presentation after SMT were reviewed. All the patients underwent neurological and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Laminectomy and discectomy were performed, and follow-up was carried out in all patients. The duration of symptoms in the patients before SMT was 4-15 years. After the therapy, an acute exacerbation of back and radicular pain was observed within 24?h. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that L4-L5 was the most frequently affected level observed (7 patients), and each patient had a large disc fragment in the spinal canal. The disc fragments were classified into 3 types according to their localizations. The time internal between the exacerbation of presentation and surgery was 23.1 days. No perioperative complications were noted. All the patients were relieved of radicular pain a few days after surgery. During postoperative follow-up, all patients regained the ability to walk; one patient received catheterization for 1 month and another for 6 months. Eight patients reported a complete resolution of presentation and the rest 2 patients were significantly improved. SMT should be prohibited in some LDH patients to prevent neurological damages, in whom there are 5 possible risk factors. Surgical results for these patients are encouraging. PMID:25816037

  3. Use of spinal manipulation in a rheumatoid patient presenting with acute thoracic pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chadwick L. R.; Mior, Silvano A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited research related to spinal manipulation of uncomplicated thoracic spine pain and even less when pain is associated with comorbid conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. In the absence of trial evidence, clinical experience and appropriate selection of the type of intervention is important to informing the appropriate management of these cases. Case presentation: We present a case of a patient with long standing rheumatoid arthritis who presented with acute thoracic pain. The patient was diagnosed with costovertebral joint dysfunction and a myofascial strain of the surrounding musculature. The patient was unresponsive to treatment involving a generalized manipulative technique; however, improved following the administration of a specific applied manipulation with modified forces. The patient was deemed recovered and discharged with ergonomic and home care recommendations. Discussion: This case demonstrates a clinical situation where there is a paucity of research to guide management, thus clinicians must rely on experience and patient preferences in the selection of an appropriate and safe therapeutic intervention. The case highlights the need to contextualize the apparent contraindication of manipulation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and calls for further research. Finally the paper advances evidence based decision making that balances the available research, clinical experience, as well as patient preferences. PMID:26136606

  4. SPINAL CORD 9:00 12:00 Presentations by Residents and Fellows

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Neurological Institute and Hospital 1:00 ­ 1:25 Genetics of chiari malformation with syringomyelia: from dogs and Interventional Neuroradiology Montreal Neurological Hospital and Institute Spinal Arteriovenous Fistulas

  5. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with cerebral spinal fluid hypovolemia as initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematous.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Garcia, Me; Gomez-Delgado, F; Gomez-Garduño, A; Blanco-Molina, A; Puebla, Ra Fernandez de la

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man with thickening of the dura mater associated with the presence of subdural collections as a consequence of cerebral spinal fluid hypovolemia (CSFH) and hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) as presentation of systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). The patient complained about fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, headache and skin lesions. In the laboratory tests minimal normocytic anemia, mild leukopenia, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (dsDNA), antibodies against extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) type SSA-Ro, anti-Smith antigen antibodies (anti-Sm) and anti-ribonucleoprotein antibodies (anti-RNP) were detected. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with and without gadolinium enhancement, revealed generalized thickening of the dura mater more severe at the right parieto-occipital lobes with the presence of subdural collections. The patient was diagnosed with SLE associated both with CSFH and HP. A conservative treatment with prednisone 60 mg daily, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 1 g daily and hydroxychloroquine 200 mg twice a day was started with significant clinical and radiological improvement (almost complete resolution of the subdural collections and clear decrease of meningeal thickness). The authors emphasize that HP associated with CSFH in the context of SLE is a rare entity, which makes this case unique. PMID:24351279

  6. Severity of presentation is associated with time to recovery in spinal epidural lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Praver, Moshe; Kennedy, Benjamin C; Ellis, Jason A; D'Amico, Randy; Mandigo, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    We present a patient with prednisone-induced spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) and relatively acute neurologic deterioration followed by rapid recovery after surgical decompression. SEL is a rare disease characterized by hypertrophy of epidural fat, most commonly associated with exogenous steroid use. To our knowledge, an analysis of the dynamics of steroid dose related to time to onset has never been performed, or of patient presentation features with respect to patient outcome. We retrospectively reviewed the literature for English language series and case reports of SEL associated with prednisone use from 1975-2013. Data were compiled for 41 patients regarding the prescribed dose of prednisone and length of treatment, as well as the severity of symptoms on the Ranawat scale, time to onset, time to recovery, and degree of recovery of neurological symptoms. Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance were used for comparing proportions, and p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. We found that the mean cumulative dose of prednisone trended towards an association with a lack of recovery (p=0.06) and may be related to rate of recovery. Prescribed prednisone dose varied inversely with the time before onset of neurological symptoms, but failed to reach statistical significance. Higher severity of presenting symptoms on the Ranawat scale were found to be associated with a higher likelihood of delayed recovery (p=0.035). Patients with symptoms lower on the Ranawat scale more frequently experienced complete neurologic recovery, though this did not reach significance. The acuity of neurological deterioration was not related to the time to recovery or ultimate degree of recovery. Severity of presentation on the Ranawat scale is associated with rate of recovery and may be related to degree of recovery in SEL patients. Cumulative dose of prednisone may be related to degree and rate of recovery. Prescribed dose of prednisone may be related to time to onset of neurological symptoms. Acuity of neurological deterioration is not related to rate or degree of recovery. PMID:26067546

  7. Multipotent CNS Stem Cells Are Present in the Adult Mammalian Spinal Cord and Ventricular Neuroaxis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Weiss; Christine Dunne; Jennifer Hewson; Cheryl Wohl; Matt Wheatley; Alan C. Peterson; Brent A. Reynolds

    Neural stem cells in the lateral ventricles of the adult mouse CNS participate in repopulation of forebrain structures in vivo and are amenable to in vitro expansion by epidermal growth factor (EGF). There have been no reports of stem cells in more caudal brain regions or in the spinal cord of adult mammals. In this study we found that although

  8. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  9. Hemophilia A in a Senior Patient: A Case Report of Spinal Epidural Hematoma as First Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo Shik; Lee, Jae Il

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia A is a hereditary coagulation disorder. Most cases are diagnosed at birth or at least during childhood. A spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma was developed in a 74-year-old male patient who hadn't had a family or past medical history of bleeding disorders. On magnetic resonance imaging, epidural hematoma at L1-2 was accompanied by spinal stenosis at L4-5 and spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at L5. Hematoma evacuation and surgery for distal lumbar lesions were performed at once. After transient improvement, complete paraplegia was developed due to redevelopment of large epidural hematomas at L1-2 and L4-S1 which blocked epidural canal completely. Emergency evacuation was performed and we got to know that he had a hemophilia A. Factor VIII was 28% of normal value. Mild type hemophilia A could have not been diagnosed until adulthood. Factor VIII should have been replaced before the surgical decompression.

  10. The present status of spinal fusion in the treatment of lumbar intervertebral joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Farfan, H F; Kirkaldy-Willis, W H

    1981-01-01

    Every type of fusion has its enthusiastic supporters. Unfortunately, the literature includes comparative analyses of various fusion procedures. Much of the effort spent in the clinical assessment of spinal fusion must be reinvested; neither the indications for diskectomy nor spinal fusion have been sufficiently clear-cut and accurately recorded. Moreover, spinal fusions often have not been applied to treat the disorder or to correct the deformity. It is essential at the outset to establish the mechanical fault; this is achieved only by a thorough understanding of the underlying pathologic lesion. Diagnosis follows a careful history and physical examination assisted by plain radiographs, lateral radiographs in flexion and extension, radiographs (anteroposterior in left and right lateral bending), and by information obtained from the CAT scan. We have designed a protocol for a prospective investigation wherein a specific fault with a specific etiology and pathologic anatomy is identified and submitted to a surgical procedure in a specified sequence. In future reviews, emphasis must be paid to selection of patients, the individual joint requiring stabilization and the type of fusion performed. Only then can we put this theoretically effective procedure to the acid test of objective clinical evaluation. PMID:6456101

  11. Spinal Crawlers: Deformable Organisms for Spinal Cord Segmentation and Analysis

    E-print Network

    Hamarneh, Ghassan

    Spinal Crawlers: Deformable Organisms for Spinal Cord Segmentation and Analysis Chris Mc, Canada {cmcintos, hamarneh}@cs.sfu.ca Abstract. Spinal cord analysis is an important problem relating to the study of various neurological diseases. We present a novel approach to spinal cord segmentation

  12. Anterior spinal cord syndrome of unknown etiology

    PubMed Central

    Klakeel, Merrine; Thompson, Justin; McDonald, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A spinal cord injury encompasses a physical insult to the spinal cord. In the case of anterior spinal cord syndrome, the insult is a vascular lesion at the anterior spinal artery. We present the cases of two 13-year-old boys with anterior spinal cord syndrome, along with a review of the anatomy and vasculature of the spinal cord and an explanation of how a lesion in the cord corresponds to anterior spinal cord syndrome. PMID:25552812

  13. A case of neuro-Behcet's disease presenting with lumbar spinal cord involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Zhao; L He; X-H Lai

    2010-01-01

    Study design:Case report.Objectives:To report an unusual case of neuro-Behcet's disease (NBD) presenting with isolated myelitis that affected the lumbar cord.Setting:Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.Methods:A 19-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of paresthesia and weakness in both the legs. He had a 6-year history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers with erythema nodosum on his legs.

  14. An unusual presentation of whiplash injury: long thoracic and spinal accessory nerve injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Omar; F. Alvi; M. S. Srinivasan

    2007-01-01

    Whiplash injuries from motor vehicle accidents are very common. The usual presentation and course of this condition normally\\u000a results in resolution of symptoms within a few weeks. Brachial plexus traction injuries without any bone or joint lesion of\\u000a the cervical spine have been reported before. We report a case where a gentleman was involved in a rear end vehicle collision,

  15. [Physical rehabilitation of the patients presenting with dorsopathies following decompression surgery in the lumbosacral spinal area].

    PubMed

    Sichinava, N V; Stiazhkina, E M; Gurkina, M V; Iashina, I V; Nuvakhova, M B

    2013-01-01

    The present study included 80 patients at the age varying from 24 to 59 years examined at different time (from 3 months to 3 years) after the surgical treatment of herniated intervertebral disks, mostly with clinical signs of L(v)-, S1-root radiculopathy. Coordination gymnastics included a complex of specific isotonico-isometric, isometric, and isotonic exercises designed to affect the deep stabilization system. The exercises were performed in five starting positions in a continuous mode with a small or medium amplitude of the movements synchronized with breathing. It was shown that coordination gymnastics in combination with magnetic therapy and iodine-bromine baths results in the statistically significant relief of pain syndrome (p<0.001) and formation of the muscular corset. Moreover, it increases stability of the vertebral column, improves its adaptation to physical activity, eliminates regional postural imbalance, and promotes formation of the proper movement patterns. Taken together, these effects constitute secondary prophylaxis of vertebrogenic pain syndrome and progressive degenerative changes. PMID:24640651

  16. Spinal Metastases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan H. Sherman; Dawit G. Aregawi; Mark E. Shaffrey; David Schiff

    Spinal cord metastases are a common complication of systemic malignancy, most commonly from lung, breast, and prostate cancer.\\u000a Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, most notably pain and weakness. The ultimate goals in managing these patients\\u000a include maximizing neurologic function, length of survival, and quality of life. These goals can best be reached via early,\\u000a accurate diagnosis followed

  17. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the spine. Other surgery, such as a diskectomy , laminectomy , or a foraminotomy , is almost always done first. ... procedures for spinal stenosis , such as foraminotomy or laminectomy After diskectomy in the neck Spinal fusion may ...

  18. Spinal Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edzard Ernst; Elaine Harkness

    2001-01-01

    For many years, spinal manipulation has been a popular form of treatment. Yet the debate about its clinical efficacy continues. The research question remains: Does spinal manipulation convey more than a placebo effect? To summarize the evidence from sham-controlled clinical trials of spinal manipulation as a treatment of various conditions, and to assess the methodological quality of these studies, a

  19. Spinal Tap

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the area. The sample is sent to a lab for analysis and testing. Your doctor might ask you to lie on your back for a few hours after the procedure. Safety A spinal tap is considered a safe procedure ...

  20. Spinal Stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the spinal cord and nerve roots pass. Ligaments. Elastic bands of tissue that support the spine by ... explanations from researchers, and links to how to search for a trial or enroll in a research- ...

  1. Spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, W P

    1986-12-01

    Spinal deformity is a relatively common disorder, particularly in teenage girls. Early detection is possible by a simple, quick visual inspection that should be a standard part of the routine examination of all preteen and teenage patients. Follow-up observation will reveal those curvatures that are progressive and permit orthotic treatment to prevent further increase in the deformity. Spinal fusion offers correction and stabilization of more severe degrees of scoliosis. PMID:3786010

  2. Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome? Is ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome? Tethered spinal cord syndrome is a neurological ...

  3. Lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

    1993-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

  4. [A universal stereotactic device for spinal cord surgery].

    PubMed

    Novák, Z; Kosík, E

    2001-07-01

    Technical description of a universal stereotactic system for spinal cord operations is presented after a short overview of the history of spinal cord stereotaxis. When combined with the topometric atlas of the cord, new era of spinal cord stereotaxis can be opened, which is going to expand the amount of knowledge about the physiology of the spinal cord. PMID:11505685

  5. Retraining the injured spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; Tobin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.

  6. Congenital spinal lipomatous malformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natarajan Muthukumar

    2009-01-01

    Background  To report this author’s experience with patients with a congenital spinal lipomatous malformation with special emphasis on\\u000a variations in clinical presentation, operative findings, and outcome based on the classification scheme proposed in the first\\u000a part of this two part article.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From January 1995 to July 2005, 80 patients with a congenital spinal lipomatous malformation were treated. All patients underwent\\u000a routine

  7. Motorcycle-related spinal injury: crash characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zulkipli, Zarir Hafiz; Abdul Rahmat, Abdul Manap; Mohd Faudzi, Siti Atiqah; Paiman, Noor Faradila; Wong, Shaw Voon; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of crash characteristics of motorcyclists who sustained spinal injuries in motorcycle crashes. The aim of the study is to identify the salient crash characteristics that would help explain spinal injury risks for motorcyclists. Data were retrospectively collected from police case reports that were archived at MIROS from year 2005 to 2007. The data were categorized into two subcategories; the first group was motorcycle crashes with spinal injury (case) and the second group was motorcycle crashes without spinal injury (control). A total of 363 motorcyclists with spinal injury and 873 motorcyclists without spinal injury were identified and analyzed. Descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis were performed in order to determine the odds of each characteristic in contributing to spinal injury. Single vehicle crash, collision with fixed objects and crash configuration were found to have significant influence on motorcyclists in sustaining spinal injury (p<0.05). Although relatively few than other impact configurations, the rear-end impacted motorcyclist shows the highest risk of spinal injury. Helmets have helped to reduce head injury but they did not seem to offer corresponding protection for the spine in the study. With a growing number of young motorcyclists, further efforts are needed to find effective measures to help reduce the crash incidents and severity of spinal injury. In sum, the study provides some insights on some vital crash characteristics associated with spinal injury that can be further investigated to determine the appropriate counter-measures and prevention strategies to reduce spinal injury. PMID:23036400

  8. Management of spinal metastases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank D Vrionis; Rafael Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Spinal metastasis is a frequent oncologic and neurosurgical emergency in patients with cancer. Most patients present with back pain and the diagnosis is established with a screening MRI of the spine. Treatment options include steroids, biphosphonates, radiation therapy, surgery and radiosurgery. Pain management is a very important aspect and includes opioids, anti-inflammatory agents, newer anticonvulsants and tricyclic anti-depressants, as well

  9. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiying Zhong; Haifeng Chen; Chao You; Jin Li; Yi Liu; Siqing Huang

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare emergent condition. It may result in paraplegia, quadriplegia and even death. Prompt diagnosis and emergent decompressive surgical management have been recommended to prevent mortality and morbidity. Although several factors have been associated with prognosis, controversy remains, partly due to its rarity. Thus, the history, clinical presentation, physical examination findings, radiological images, and

  10. Dorsal epidural spinal lipomatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Chibbaro; G Mirone; M Nouri; P Di Emidio; M Polivka; M Marsella; B George

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the

  11. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are a good resource for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury Association - ...

  12. Spinal Cord Infarction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Spinal Cord Infarction Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Spinal Cord Infarction? Spinal cord infarction is a stroke either ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  14. Spinal Cord Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals back ... of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such ...

  15. Spinal cord contusion

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yazhou; Zhao, Xianghui

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability with devastating neurological outcomes and limited therapeutic opportunities, even though there are thousands of publications on spinal cord injury annually. There are two major types of spinal cord injury, transaction of the spinal cord and spinal cord contusion. Both can theoretically be treated, but there is no well documented treatment in human being. As for spinal cord contusion, we have developed an operation with fabulous result. PMID:25206890

  16. Acquired lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Deasy, JoAnn

    2015-04-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most frequent reason for spinal surgery in patients over age 65 years. In this condition, narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal and nerve root canals leads to painful, debilitating compression of spinal nerves and blood vessels. As the population ages, an increasing number of patients will be diagnosed and treated for lumbar spinal stenosis by primary care providers. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of lumbar spinal stenosis in adults over age 50 years. PMID:25763664

  17. International Spinal Cord Injury Data Sets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Biering-Sørensen; S Charlifue; M DeVivo; V Noonan; M Post; T Stripling; P Wing

    2006-01-01

    Study design:Discussion and development of final consensus.Objective:Present the background, purpose, and process for the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Sets development.Setting:International.Methods:An international meeting on SCI data collection and analysis occurred at a workshop on May 2, 2002, before the combined meeting of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) in Vancouver, British Columbia,

  18. Relationship between Spinal Cord Volume and Spinal Cord Injury due to Spinal Shortening.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feng; Yang, Jin-Cheng; Ma, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Jun-Jie; Yang, Qing-Lei; Zhou, Xin; Xiao, Yao-Sheng; Hu, Hai-Sheng; Xia, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral column resection is associated with a risk of spinal cord injury. In the present study, using a goat model, we aimed to investigate the relationship between changes in spinal cord volume and spinal cord injury due to spinal shortening, and to quantify the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height in order to clarify a safe limit for shortening. Vertebral column resection was performed at T10 in 10 goats. The spinal cord was shortened until the somatosensory-evoked potential was decreased by 50% from the baseline amplitude or delayed by 10% relative to the baseline peak latency. A wake-up test was performed, and the goats were observed for two days postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the spinal cord volume, T10 height, disc height, osteotomy segment height, and spinal segment height pre- and postoperatively. Two of the 10 goats were excluded, and hence, only data from eight goats were analyzed. The somatosensory-evoked potential of these eight goats demonstrated meaningful changes. With regard to neurologic function, five and three goats were classified as Tarlov grades 5 and 4 at two days postoperatively. The mean shortening distance was 23.6 ± 1.51 mm, which correlated with the d-value (post-pre) of the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height of the osteotomy segment (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) and with the height of the T10 body (r = 0.79, p = 0.02). The mean d-value (post-pre) of the spinal cord volume per 1-mm height of the osteotomy segment was 142.87 ± 0.59 mm3 (range, 142.19-143.67 mm3). The limit for shortening was approximately 106% of the vertebral height. The mean volumes of the osteotomy and spinal segments did not significantly change after surgery (t = 0.310, p = 0.765 and t = 1.241, p = 0.255, respectively). Thus, our results indicate that the safe limit for shortening can be calculated using the change in spinal cord volume per 1-mm height. PMID:26001196

  19. The localization of instrumental learning within the spinal cord 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Grace Alexandra Tsu-Chi

    2013-02-22

    Spinal neurons of surgically transected rats can support a simple form of instrumental learning. Rats learn to maintain leg flexion as a response to shock. The present experiments localized the region of the spinal cord that mediates this learning...

  20. Neurotrophins and spinal circuit function

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Vanessa S.; Mendell, Lorne M.

    2014-01-01

    Work early in the last century emphasized the stereotyped activity of spinal circuits based on studies of reflexes. However, the last several decades have focused on the plasticity of these spinal circuits. These considerations began with studies of the effects of monoamines on descending and reflex circuits. In recent years new classes of compounds called growth factors that are found in peripheral nerves and the spinal cord have been shown to affect circuit behavior in the spinal cord. In this review we will focus on the effects of neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), on spinal circuits. We also discuss evidence that these molecules can modify functions including nociceptive behavior, motor reflexes and stepping behavior. Since these substances and their receptors are normally present in the spinal cord, they could potentially be useful in improving function in disease states and after injury. Here we review recent findings relevant to these translational issues. PMID:24926235

  1. Persistent paralysis after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Zaphiratos, Valerie; McKeen, Dolores M; Macaulay, Bruce; George, Ronald B

    2015-02-01

    Anterior spinal artery syndrome has rarely been reported as a cause of permanent neurologic complications after neuraxial anesthesia in obstetric patients. A parturient developed anterior spinal artery syndrome after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. A healthy 32-year-old parturient presented at 41(2/7) weeks for primary elective caesarean delivery for breech presentation. Spinal anesthesia was easily performed with clear cerebrospinal fluid, and block height was T4 at 5 minutes. Intraoperative course was uneventful except for symptomatic bradycardia (37-40 beats per minute) and hypotension (88/44 mm Hg) 4 minutes postspinal anesthesia, treated with ephedrine and atropine. Dense motor block persisted 9 hours after spinal anesthesia, and magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral region was normal, finding no spinal cord compression or lesion. Physical examination revealed deficits consistent with a spinal cord lesion at T6, impacting the anterior spinal cord while sparing the posterior tracts. PMID:25433726

  2. Spinal accessory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wiater, J M; Bigliani, L U

    1999-11-01

    Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can lead to dysfunction of the trapezius. The trapezius is a major scapular stabilizer and is composed of three functional components. It contributes to scapulothoracic rhythm by elevating, rotating, and retracting the scapula. The superficial course of the spinal accessory nerve in the posterior cervical triangle makes it susceptible to injury. Iatrogenic injury to the nerve after a surgical procedure is one of the most common causes of trapezius palsy. Dysfunction of the trapezius can be a painful and disabling condition. The shoulder droops as the scapula is translated laterally and rotated downward. Patients present with an asymmetric neckline, a drooping shoulder, winging of the scapula, and weakness of forward elevation. Evaluation should include a complete electrodiagnostic examination. If diagnosed within 1 year of the injury, microsurgical reconstruction of the nerve should be considered. Conservative treatment of chronic trapezius paralysis is appropriate for older patients who are sendentary. Active and healthy patients in whom 1 year of conservative treatment has failed are candidates for surgical reconstruction. Studies have shown the Eden-Lange procedure, in which the insertions of the levator scapulae, rhomboideus minor, and rhomboideus major muscles are transferred, relieves pain, corrects deformity, and improves function in patients with irreparable injury to the spinal accessory nerve. PMID:10613148

  3. History of spinal osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Dennis S; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2014-07-01

    Spinal deformity is one of the oldest known diseases with descriptions documented many of the earliest civilizations. Historical treatments have had little efficacy, especially in adults. However, in the modern era, there has been a rapid expansion of new technologies and surgical techniques aided by advances in supportive care that now allow the spinal surgeon to have powerful tools to correct spinal deformity. In this manuscript, we review the origins of spinal deformity surgery and the development of spinal instrumentation. The focus of the manuscript is to review the relationship of these developments to the implementation of spinal osteotomies for deformity correction. PMID:24390043

  4. Treadmill training promotes spinal changes leading to locomotor recovery after partial spinal cord injury in cats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marina; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Rossignol, Serge

    2013-06-01

    After a spinal hemisection at thoracic level in cats, the paretic hindlimb progressively recovers locomotion without treadmill training but asymmetries between hindlimbs persist for several weeks and can be seen even after a further complete spinal transection at T13. To promote optimal locomotor recovery after hemisection, such asymmetrical changes need to be corrected. In the present study we determined if the locomotor deficits induced by a spinal hemisection can be corrected by locomotor training and, if so, whether the spinal stepping after the complete spinal cord transection is also more symmetrical. This would indicate that locomotor training in the hemisected period induces efficient changes in the spinal cord itself. Sixteen adult cats were first submitted to a spinal hemisection at T10. One group received 3 wk of treadmill training, whereas the second group did not. Detailed kinematic and electromyographic analyses showed that a 3-wk period of locomotor training was sufficient to improve the quality and symmetry of walking of the hindlimbs. Moreover, after the complete spinal lesion was performed, all the trained cats reexpressed bilateral and symmetrical hindlimb locomotion within 24 h. By contrast, the locomotor pattern of the untrained cats remained asymmetrical, and the hindlimb on the side of the hemisection was still deficient. This study highlights the beneficial role of locomotor training in facilitating bilateral and symmetrical functional plastic changes within the spinal circuitry and in promoting locomotor recovery after an incomplete spinal cord injury. PMID:23554433

  5. Solitary spinal dural syphilis granuloma mimicking a spinal meningioma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heng-Jun; Zhan, Ren-Ya; Chen, Man-Tao; Cao, Fei; Zheng, Xiu-Jue

    2014-01-01

    Dural granuloma is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there has no case reported solitary spinal dural syphilis granuloma worldwide so far. Here we report our findings in a 49-year-old woman, who presented with 10-year progressive left lower-limb numbness and two weeks of right lower-limb numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a homogeneous enhanced spindle-shaped lesion, 2.9 × 1.5 cm in size, occupying the spinal intradural extramedullary space, at the level of Thoracic (T)-2/3, which mimicked the appearance of spinal meningioma. The Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test titer of 1:8, and the venereal diseases research laboratory of cerebral spinal fluid (VDRL-CSF) was reactive, so confirmed neurosyphilis was considered. After formal anti-syphilis treatment, posterior laminectomy surgery was performed, and the lesion was completely separated and extirpated. Final histopathologic diagnosis of the lesion was confirmed as chronic granulomatous inflammation, combined with the neurosyphilis history, spinal dural syphilis granuloma was finally diagnosed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered without any further treatment. PMID:24831378

  6. Spinal subdural abscess following epidural steroid injection.

    PubMed

    Kraeutler, Matthew J; Bozzay, Joseph D; Walker, Matthew P; John, Kuruvilla

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man who presented with a cervicothoracolumbosacral spinal subdural abscess about a month after receiving an epidural steroid injection for management of low-back pain due to L5-S1 disc herniation. Although he presented with symptoms concerning for a spinal etiology, the subdural empyema was not evident on the initial MRI study and was observed on imaging 5 days later. This patient was successfully managed with surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment, and he is doing well more than 21 months after the operation. It is possible that a prior history of disc herniation or other spinal abnormality may increase a patient's risk of developing spinal subdural empyema. This case illustrates the risk of infection following spinal epidural steroid injections and the importance of early recognition and intervention to successfully treat an extensive subdural abscess. PMID:25343407

  7. Regeneration of long-tract axons through sites of spinal cord injury using templated agarose scaffolds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Gros; Jeff S. Sakamoto; Armin Blesch; Leif A. Havton; Mark H. Tuszynski

    2010-01-01

    Previously we reported that templated agarose scaffolds can orient and guide local spinal cord axons after injury. In the present study we examined whether growth of long-projecting spinal cord axons could also be promoted into, and then beyond, templated agarose scaffolds placed into a spinal cord lesion site. Ascending spinal cord dorsal column sensory axons were transected at the C4

  8. Spinal cord stimulation

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses a mild electric current to block nerve impulses ... stretched into the space on top of your spinal cord. These wires will be connected to a small ...

  9. What Is Spinal Stenosis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Public 3 One type of spinal stenosis, cauda equine syndrome, is very serious. This type occurs when ... spinal stenosis, such treatments include chiropractic treatment and acupuncture. More research is needed on the value of ...

  10. The effects of a polyphenol present in olive oil, oleuropein aglycone, in an experimental model of spinal cord injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Impellizzeri, Daniela; Esposito, Emanuela; Mazzon, Emanuela; Paterniti, Irene; Di Paola, Rosanna; Bramanti, Placido; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Procopio, Antonio; Perri, Enzo; Britti, Domenico; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2012-05-15

    Several olive oil phenolic compounds, such us oleuropein have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant activity, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effect of oleuropein aglycone, a hydrolysis product of oleuropein, in the inflammatory response, in particular in the secondary injury associated with the mouse model of spinal cord trauma. The injury was induced by application of vascular clips to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy in mice. Oleuropein aglycone was administered in mice (100 ?g/kg, 40 ?g/kg, 20 ?g/kg, 10% ethanol, i.p.) 1h and 6h after the trauma. The treatment with oleuropein aglycone significantly decreased: (1) histological damage, (2) motor recovery, (3) nuclear factor (NF)-?B expression and IKB-? degradation, (4) protein kinase A (PKA) activity and expression, (5) pro-inflammatory cytokines production such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), 6) inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, (7) neutrophil infiltration, (8) lipid peroxidation, (9) nitrotyrosine and poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) formation, (10) glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels, (11) apoptosis (TUNEL staining, FAS ligand expression, Caspase 3, Bax and Bcl-2 expression). Thus, we propose that olive oil phenolic constituents such as oleuropein aglycone may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:22342994

  11. Coexistence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with neuro-Behçet's disease presenting as a longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion: clinicopathologic features of an autopsied patient.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomoe; Ouchi, Haruka; Shimbo, Junsuke; Sato, Aki; Yamazaki, Motoyoshi; Hashidate, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi; Kakita, Akiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    We report the clinical and autopsy features of a 65-year-old Japanese man who clinically exhibited overlap of both neuro-Behçet's disease (NBD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The patient had a HLA-B51 serotype, a recent history of uveitis and had suffered paraparesis, sensory and autonomic disturbance, frontal signs and tremor. A brain and spine MRI study revealed a longitudinally extensive thoracic cord (Th) lesion, but no apparent intracranial abnormalities. The lesion extended ventrally from Th4 to Th9, exhibiting low intensity on T1-weighted images, high intensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images and gadolinium enhancement. The patient's upper and lower motor neuron signs and sensory disturbance worsened and he died 16 months after admission. At autopsy, the spinal cord and brain exhibited characteristic histopathological features of both NBD and ALS, including chronic destruction of the ventral thoracic white and gray matter, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration, binucleated neurons, lower and upper motor neuron degeneration, Bunina bodies and skein-like inclusions. Although incidental coexistence of these rare disorders could occur in an individual, this case raises the possibility of a pathomechanistic association between NBD and ALS. PMID:24118427

  12. Rehabilitation in spinal infection diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Karakoç, Mehmet; Ayd?n, Abdulkadir; Öne?, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord infections were the diseases defined by Hypocrite yet the absence of modern medicine and there was not a real protocol in rehabilitation although there were many aspects in surgical treatment options. The patients whether surgically or conservatively treated had a lot of neurological, motor, and sensory disturbances. Our clinic has quite experience from our previous researchs. Unfortunately, serious spinal cord infections are still present in our region. In these patients the basic rehabilitation approaches during early, pre-operation, post-operation period and in the home environment will provide significant contributions to improve the patients’ sensory and motor skills, develop the balance and proriocaption, increase the independence of patients in daily living activities and minimize the assistance of other people. There is limited information in the literature related with the nature of the rehabilitation programmes to be applied for patients with spinal infections. The aim of this review is to share our clinic experience and summarise the publications about spinal infection rehabilitation. There are very few studies about the rehabilitation of spinal infections. There are still not enough studies about planning and performing rehabilitation programs in these patients. Therefore, a comprehensive rehabilitation programme during the hospitalisation and home periods is emphasised in order to provide optimal management and prevent further disability. PMID:25621205

  13. Spinal morphine anesthesia and urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Mahan, K T; Wang, J

    1993-11-01

    Spinal anesthetic is a common form of surgical anesthetic used in foot and ankle surgery. Spinal morphine anesthetic is less common, but has the advantage of providing postoperative analgesia for 12 to 24 hr. A number of complications can occur with spinal anesthesia, including urinary retention that may be a source of severe and often prolonged discomfort and pain for the patient. Management of this problem may require repeated bladder catheterization, which may lead to urinary tract infections or impairment of urethrovesicular function. This study reviews the incidence of urinary retention in 80 patients (40 after general anesthesia and 40 after spinal anesthesia) who underwent foot and ankle surgery at Saint Joseph's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Twenty-five percent of the patients who had spinal anesthesia experienced urinary retention, while only 7 1/2% of the group who had general anesthesia had this complication. Predisposing factors, treatment regimen, and recommendations for the prevention and management of urinary retention are presented. PMID:8258772

  14. Spinal Cord Ischemia Secondary to Hypovolemic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Siddhant; Koh, Roy KM; Yang, Eugene WR; Hee, Hwan-Tak

    2014-01-01

    A 44-year-old male presented with symptoms of spinal cord compression secondary to metastatic prostate cancer. An urgent decompression at the cervical-thoracic region was performed, and there were no complications intraoperatively. Three hours postoperatively, the patient developed acute bilateral lower-limb paralysis (motor grade 0). Clinically, he was in class 3 hypovolemic shock. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, showing no epidural hematoma. He was managed aggressively with medical therapy to improve his spinal cord perfusion. The patient improved significantly, and after one week, he was able to regain most of his motor functions. Although not commonly reported, spinal cord ischemia post-surgery should be recognized early, especially in the presence of hypovolemic shock. MRI should be performed to exclude other potential causes of compression. Spinal cord ischemia needs to be managed aggressively with medical treatment to improve spinal cord perfusion. The prognosis depends on the severity of deficits, and is usually favorable. PMID:25558328

  15. Spinal cord infarction with cervical angina.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Yoshiharu; Johkura, Ken; Kudo, Yosuke; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-15

    Cervical angina is defined as chest pain resembling true cardiac angina but originating from disorders of the cervical spine. Cervical angina is caused by cervical spondylosis in most cases. A 66-year-old man presented with bilateral arm palsy after chest pain resembling angina pectoris. Neurological examination revealed motor and sensory disturbances of the C7 to T1 level, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a hyperintense spinal cord lesion on T2-weighted imaging. Spinal cord infarction was diagnosed. Severe sinus bradycardia was identified on admission, and improved over the course of 5 weeks. Sympathetic afferent fibers from the heart and coronary arteries generally have their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia of the C8 to T9 spinal segments. Electrical stimulation of cardiopulmonary afferent fibers excites spinothalamic tract cells in the T1 to T6 segments of the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury can result in the loss of supraspinal control of the sympathetic system and can cause bradycardia, as commonly seen in patients with severe lesions of the cervical or high-thoracic (T6 or above) spinal cord. Bradycardia in the present case suggested impairment of the sympathetic system at the cervical and thoracic levels. These findings indicated that cervical angina in this case was mediated through the sympathetic nervous system. This represents only the second report of cervical angina caused by spinal cord infarction. PMID:23199591

  16. Normal intraoperative spinal sonography.

    PubMed

    Quencer, R M; Montalvo, B M

    1984-12-01

    The normal intraoperative sonographic features of the spinal canal, spinal cord, conus medullaris, and cauda equina are described and illustrated. Important observations concerning the normal spinal cord include its highly reflective dorsal and ventral surfaces, its uniform hypoechogenicity, and the presence of a central echo. Other easily identified structures within the spinal canal include the dura-arachnoid layer, subarachnoid space, denticulate ligament, dorsal arachnoid septations, and the roots of the cauda equina. In addition the sonographic appearance of commonly encountered iatrogenically introduced material including Gelfoam, Pantopaque, cottonoid pledgets, suture material, Harrington rods, and freeze-dried dura is also demonstrated. These normal images can serve as a baseline for the interpretation of various pathologic conditions of the spinal canal and its contents as seen with intraoperative spinal sonography. PMID:6388284

  17. Dorsal epidural spinal lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Chibbaro, S; Mirone, G; Nouri, M; Di Emidio, P; Polivka, M; Marsella, M; George, B

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the excision of the mass confirmed to be a fibrolipoma by pathological analysis. The patient attained complete neurological recovery and at 18 months follow-up she reported a generalised well-being. Thoracic lipomas are rare lesions that presenting mostly with back pain; however, in rare instances they may cause progressive and/or abrupt neurological dysfunction. Appropriate imaging can help in the diagnosis and management of such cases. PMID:22707370

  18. Dorsal epidural spinal lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Chibbaro, S; Mirone, G; Nouri, M; Di Emidio, P; Polivka, M; Marsella, M; George, B

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a thoracic epidural spinal lipomatosis causing severe neurological deficits along the review of pertinent literature. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who presented with acute onset of severe paraparesis; she was investigated with cervical and thoracic MRI and then surgically managed because of an intraspinal mass compressing the cord. The operation consisted in the excision of the mass confirmed to be a fibrolipoma by pathological analysis. The patient attained complete neurological recovery and at 18 months follow-up she reported a generalised well-being. Thoracic lipomas are rare lesions that presenting mostly with back pain; however, in rare instances they may cause progressive and/or abrupt neurological dysfunction. Appropriate imaging can help in the diagnosis and management of such cases. PMID:22707370

  19. Unusual Spinal Dysraphic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Pollyana; Wanderley, Luiz Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Human tail and multiple spinal dysraphism are unusual congenital malformations. Human tail appeared as a prominent lesion from the lumbosacrococcygeal region, generally without connection between the tail and the neurospinal axis. Spinal dysraphisms are usually isolated, reaching 0.038% of incidence of multiple spinal dysraphisms in the same child. There were three cases described of unusual spinal dysraphic lesions: two cases of human tail and a case of a multiple thoracic myelomeningocele. The literature about diagnosis and treatment was reviewed. Microsurgical technique was performed to provide better exploration of the lesions, and resection could be done in those congenital malformations, without morbidity. PMID:24194997

  20. [Traumatic recurrence of idiopathic spinal cord herniation].

    PubMed

    Lorente-Muñoz, Asís; Cortés-Franco, Severiano; Moles-Herbera, Jesús; Casado-Pellejero, Juan; Rivero-Celada, David; Alberdi-Viñas, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare cause of thoracic myelopathy and its recurrence is even more infrequent. Cord herniation is through an anterior dural defect in thoracic spine with unknown causes. Symptomatic cases must be surgically treated to reduce the hernia and seal the defect to prevent recurrences. We report a patient presenting a Brown-Séquard syndrome secondary to a D5 spinal cord herniation treated successfully and its posterior traumatic recurrence. PMID:23453309

  1. Spinal Dysraphism: Trends in Northern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raj Kumar; S. N. Singh

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical profiles, image findings and surgical outcome of 155 cases of spinal dysraphism. Methods: 155 patients were studied prospectively (143) or retrospectively (12). The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Mean age at presentation was 5.7 years. Out of 155 cases of spinal dysraphism, 119 had open spina bifida [meningomyelocele (MMC) in 113 (72%), meningocele in

  2. Pulmonary Function in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Samaha; C. R. Buncher; B. S. Russman; M. L. White; S. T. Iannaccone; L. Barker; K. Burhans; C. Smith; B. Perkins; L. Zimmerman

    1994-01-01

    We present the first prospective study on pulmonary function in spinal muscular atrophy patients. Seventy-seven spinal muscular atrophy patients, ages 5 to 18 years, from three centers, were studied with regard to forced vital capacity, using height as a predictor. Patients were categorized into four motor function categories. The highest-functioning group had normal or near-normal values, and those who sat

  3. Multiple sclerosis of the spinal cord: Magnetic resonance appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Thielen, K.R.; Miller, G.M. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)] [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    To determine the MR appearance of spinal cord multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques in patients presenting with myclopathy by using a high-field (1.5 T) imager. We studied 119 patients who underwent high-field (1.5 T) MR studies of the spinal cord for evaluation of myelopathy. All 119 patients were thought to have possible findings of spinal cord MS at the time of the MRI interpretation. Sixty-four plaques were studied in 47 patients with clinically definite MS and adequate quality MRI. Of these patients 68% had a single spinal cord plaque, 19% had two plaques, and 13% had three or more plaques. Sixty-two percent of the plaques occurred in the cervical spinal cord and most frequently involved the posterior (41%) and lateral (25%) aspects of the spinal cord. None of the 64 lesions involved the entire thickness of the spinal cord. The lesion length varied from 2 to 60 mm, with 84% of the lesions <15 mm in length. The spinal cord diameter was unchanged in 84% of plaques, enlarged at the level of the lesion in 14%, and atrophic in 2%. Just over half (55%) of the plaques enhanced with intravenously administered gadolinium. Of the patients who received synchronous head and spinal cord examinations on the same day, 24% had normal findings on the MR study of the head. Follow-up spinal cord studies were available in nine patients. New lesions developed in two patients, while previously described lesions resolved. In three patients only new lesions developed. In four patients no change occurred in the existing number of cord plaques. Spinal cord demyelinating plaques present as well-circumscribed foci of increased T2 signal that asymmetrically involve the spinal cord parenchyma. Knowledge of their usual appearance may prevent unnecessary biopsy. An MR examination of the head may confirm the imaging suggestion of spinal cord demyelinating disease, because up to 76% of patients have abnormal intracranial findings. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  4. A maladaptive gait abnormality in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, D C; Ehrenthal, S R

    1996-01-01

    A maladaptive pattern of abnormally increased anterior pelvic tilt during gait was documented using quantitative gait analysis in two patients presenting with lumbar spinal stenosis. Both patients also had, by physical examination, mild bilateral hip flexion contracture impairments which mayor may not have been directly related to the spinal stenosis. There is no literature to date supporting the presence of either hip flexion contractures or excessive anterior pelvic tilt during gait in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. The excessive anterior pelvic tilt present in these patients was presumably a compensation for the hip flexion contractures to achieve reasonable step lengths. Increased anterior pelvic tilt induces increased hyperextension of the lumbosacral spine, which in a patient with spinal stenosis, could cause pain and lead to further spinal nerve impingement. Since hip flexion contracture impairments are amenable to stretching, their presence should be especially pursued in patients with spinal stenosis. PMID:24572555

  5. Les amyotrophies spinales distales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Devic; P. Petiot

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionDistal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN), also known as spinal muscular atrophy, represents a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases caused by degenerations of spinal motor neurons and leading to distal muscle weakness and wasting. Nerve conduction studies reveal a pure motor axonopathy and needle examination shows chronic denervation.

  6. Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petur Ludvigsson; Elias Olafsson; W. Allen Hauser

    1999-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is among the commonest degenerative disorders of the nervous system in childhood. This is an inherited autosomal recessive disease which results in premature death of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord and is manifested by progressive weakness and atrophy of skeletal muscles. Few studies have looked at the frequency of the disease in a defined

  7. Spinal tuberculosis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Somvanshi, Dilip Singh

    2011-01-01

    Spinal tuberculosis is a destructive form of tuberculosis. It accounts for approximately half of all cases of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is more common in children and young adults. The incidence of spinal tuberculosis is increasing in developed nations. Genetic susceptibility to spinal tuberculosis has recently been demonstrated. Characteristically, there is destruction of the intervertebral disk space and the adjacent vertebral bodies, collapse of the spinal elements, and anterior wedging leading to kyphosis and gibbus formation. The thoracic region of vertebral column is most frequently affected. Formation of a ‘cold’ abscess around the lesion is another characteristic feature. The incidence of multi-level noncontiguous vertebral tuberculosis occurs more frequently than previously recognized. Common clinical manifestations include constitutional symptoms, back pain, spinal tenderness, paraplegia, and spinal deformities. For the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive imaging technique than x-ray and more specific than computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently demonstrates involvement of the vertebral bodies on either side of the disk, disk destruction, cold abscess, vertebral collapse, and presence of vertebral column deformities. Neuroimaging-guided needle biopsy from the affected site in the center of the vertebral body is the gold standard technique for early histopathological diagnosis. Antituberculous treatment remains the cornerstone of treatment. Surgery may be required in selected cases, e.g. large abscess formation, severe kyphosis, an evolving neurological deficit, or lack of response to medical treatment. With early diagnosis and early treatment, prognosis is generally good. PMID:22118251

  8. Bacterial meningitis following spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J; Parry, H

    1991-03-01

    We report a case of meningitis caused by inadvertent introduction of bacteria following spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section. The technique of performing the spinal anaesthesia is reviewed. Meningitis may occur, although very rarely, despite meticulous aseptic techniques. It is vital that meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnoses of post-spinal headache when patients present with headaches, pyrexia and meningism in the postoperative or postpartum period. PMID:2015156

  9. Low-level laser therapy for spinal cord injury in rats: effects of polarization

    E-print Network

    Ando, Takahiro

    The effects of laser polarization on the efficacy of near-infrared low-level laser therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI) are presented. Rat spinal cords were injured with a weight-drop device, and the lesion sites were ...

  10. Spinal transection induces widespread proliferation of cells along the length of the spinal cord in a weakly electric fish

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Antiño R.; Smith, G. Troy

    2013-01-01

    The ability to regenerate spinal cord tissue after tail amputation has been well studied in several species of teleost fish. The present study examined proliferation and survival of cells following complete spinal cord transection rather than tail amputation in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. To quantify cell proliferation along the length of the spinal cord, fish were given a single bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) injection immediately after spinal transection or sham surgery. Spinal transection significantly increased the density of BrdU+ cells along the entire length of the spinal cord at 1 day post transection (dpt), and most newly generated cells survived up to 14 dpt. To examine longer term survival of the newly proliferated cells, BrdU was injected for 5 days after the surgery, and fish were sacrificed 14 or 30 dpt. Spinal transection significantly increased proliferation and/or survival, as indicated by an elevated density of BrdU+ cells in the spinal cords of spinally transected compared to sham-operated and intact fish. At 14 dpt, BrdU+ cells were abundant at all levels of the spinal cord. By 30 dpt, the density of BrdU+ cells decreased at all levels of the spinal cord except at the tip of the tail. Thus, newly generated cells in the caudal-most segment of the spinal cord survived longer than those in more rostral segments. Our findings indicate that spinal cord transection stimulates widespread cellular proliferation; however, there were regional differences in the survival of the newly generated cells. PMID:23147638

  11. Spinal Astrocytes Produce and Secrete Dynorphin Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Wahlert, Andrew; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Fitzsimmons, Bethany; Yaksh, Tony; Hook, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Dynorphin peptide neurotransmitters (neuropeptides) have been implicated in spinal pain processing based on the observations that intrathecal delivery of dynorphin results in proalgesic effects and disruption of extracellular dynorphin activity (by antisera) prevents injury evoked hyperalgesia. However, the cellular source of secreted spinal dynorphin has been unknown. For this reason, this study investigated the expression and secretion of dynorphin-related neuropeptides from spinal astrocytes (rat) in primary culture. Dynorphin A(1-17), dynorphin B, and -neoendorphin were found to be present in the astrocytes, illustrated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, in a discrete punctate pattern of cellular localization. Measurement of astrocyte cellular levels of these dynorphins by radioimmunoassays confirmed the expression of these three dynorphin-related neuropeptides. Notably, BzATP (3?-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5?-triphosphate) and KLA (di[3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonyl]-lipid A) activation of purinergic and toll-like receptors, respectively, resulted in stimulated secretion of dynorphins A and B. However, -neoendorphin secretion was not affected by BzATP or KLA. These findings suggest that dynorphins A and B undergo regulated secretion from spinal astrocytes. These findings also suggest that spinal astrocytes may provide secreted dynorphins that participate in spinal pain processing. PMID:23290538

  12. Traumatic spinal perimedullary arteriovenous fistula: a case report.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Hongqi; Chen, Yanfei; Ling, Feng

    2010-08-01

    Spinal perimedullary arteriovenous fistula, a subtype of spinal arteriovenous malformation, is generally considered to be a congenital lesion by maldevelopment of the spinal vascular system. However, several cases of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula had been reported in the literature, which were thought to be acquired lesions. We presented a case of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula, which was believed to be derived from spinal cord trauma. The etiology and pathophysiology of this case were discussed, and it might provide further insight into the pathogenesis of such lesions. PMID:20333416

  13. Pregnancy following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, L. L.; Meythaler, J. M.; Tuel, S. M.; Cross, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Each year about 2,000 women of childbearing age in the United States have a spinal cord injury. Only a few mostly anecdotal reports describe pregnancy after such an injury. In a retrospective study of 16 women with a spinal cord injury, half of whom have a complete injury and about half quadriplegia, 25 pregnancies occurred, with 21 carried to full term. The women delayed pregnancy an average of 6.5 years after their injury, with an average age at first pregnancy of 26.8 years. Cesarean section was necessary in 4 patients because of inadequate progress of labor. In 5 deliveries an episiotomy and local anesthesia were required, 7 required epidural anesthesia, including all cesarean sections, and 10 did not require anesthesia. Several complications have been identified in the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods including autonomic hyperreflexia, premature labor, pressure sores, urinary tract infections, abnormal presentation, and failure to progress. Ultrasonography and amniocentesis were used selectively. Women with spinal cord injuries can have healthy children, although there are significant risks and these women have special needs. PMID:1866960

  14. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with spinal cord injuries and aggressive treatment and rehabilitation can minimize damage to the nervous system and ... given within the first 8 hours after injury. Rehabilitation programs combine physical therapies with skill-building activities ...

  15. Axonal Neuropathy and Predominance of Type II Myofibers in Infantile Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heymut Omran; Uwe-Peter Ketelsen; Florian Heinen; Manfred Sauer; Sabine Rudnik-Schönebom; Brunhilde Wirth; Klaus Zerres; Wilfried Kratzer; Rudolf Korinthenberg

    1998-01-01

    Two affected siblings with infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA I) presented with generalized muscular hypotonia, which progressed to early death. Quadriceps muscle biopsy did not show the typical neurogenic pattern of spinal muscular atrophy. The histochemical fiber type determination revealed a predominance of type II fibers without type I hypertrophy, an unprecedented finding in spinal muscular atrophy. Sural nerve biopsy

  16. Flexible Microfabricated Parylene Multielectrode Arrays for Retinal Stimulation and Spinal Cord Field Modulation

    E-print Network

    Meng, Ellis

    Flexible Microfabricated Parylene Multielectrode Arrays for Retinal Stimulation and Spinal Cord-arc neuromodulation in cases of spinal cord damage or transection, are presented. A single metal layer 16 ×16 retinal of these flexible electrode arrays in spinal cord stimulation experiments in animal models has proven their efficacy

  17. Evidence that descending serotonergic systems protect spinal cord plasticity against the disruptive effect of uncontrollable stimulation

    E-print Network

    Grau, James

    Evidence that descending serotonergic systems protect spinal cord plasticity against the disruptive Available online 31 August 2005 Abstract Prior work has demonstrated that spinal cord neurons, isolated from (e.g., intermittent tailshock). The present experiments examined whether spinal cord neurons are more

  18. Projections from the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus to the Cochlear Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Ryugo, David K.

    Projections from the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus to the Cochlear Nucleus in the Rat CHARLES to the granule cell domain (GCD) of the cochlear nucleus have been shown to arise from somatosensory brain stem structures, but the nature of the projection from the spinal trigeminal nucleus is unknown. In the present

  19. Spinal muscular atrophy of the scapulo-peroneal-type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Schuchmann

    1970-01-01

    A case report is given on a non-familial muscular atrophy with scapuloperoneal distribution in an 8 year old boy. A muscle biopsy and electromyographic studies indicated a neurogenic lesion. Spinal muscular atrophy appears to be the most probable diagnosis. Similar cases cited in the literature are compared with the present case. The differences to spinal muscular atrophy of the Kugelberg-Welander

  20. The Clinical Syndrome Associated with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khean Jin Goh; Waël Khalifa; Philip Anslow; Tom Cadoux-Hudson; Michael Donaghy

    2004-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis is well defined in patho-anatomical terms but its clinical features are heterogeneous. We carried out a comprehensive retrospective review of the clinical features, radiological changes and outcome of 75 patients with radiologically diagnosed lumbar spinal stenosis in order to define its clinical spectrum. The presenting complaints were of weakness, numbness\\/tingling, radicular pain and neurogenic claudication in almost

  1. Gait Analysis of Adult Paraplegic Rats after Spinal Cord Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrich Cheng; Susanne Almström; Lydia Giménez-Llort; Robert Chang; Sven Ove Ögren; Barry Hoffer; Lars Olson

    1997-01-01

    This study presents a novel detailed method of analysis of rat gait and uses this method to demonstrate recovery of forward locomotion patterns in adult rats made paraplegic by surgical spinal cord transection and subjected to a novel strategy for spinal cord repair. Six normal rats were compared to five animals in which the cord was transected at T8–T9, and

  2. Extramedullary haematopoiesis in thalassaemia major causing spinal cord compression.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Q L L; Lau, K K

    2007-04-01

    A 33-year-old, homozygous beta-thalassaemic, Jehovah witness man presented with subacute spinal cord compression secondary to extramedullary haematopoiesis within the thoracic spinal canal. In this case, MRI showed characteristic features of extramedullary haematopoiesis, leading to an early diagnosis. PMID:17419864

  3. Spinal hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    I?lekel, S; Er?ahin, Y; Zileli, M; Oktar, N; Oner, K; Ovül, I; Ozdamar, N; Tunçbay, E

    1998-03-01

    Vertebral hydatid cysts are rare and found in less than 1% of all the cases of hydatidosis. Neural compression is common in vertebral hydatidosis. The prognosis is generally regarded as very poor. This paper examines the natural history and complications which may arise during the treatment of vertebral hydatid cyst, and discusses their treatment. Thirteen cases of hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae are presented. The patients were admitted with symptoms of spinal cord compression. Twelve were treated by laminectomy and one by costotransversectomy. Low back pain radiating to the legs and lower extremity weakness were the predominant symptoms. Different degrees of pareses were present in 12 patients. Nine patients had impaired sensation in lower extremities. In 13 patients, 27 operations were performed. The major complication of surgery was the death of one patient due to the formaline irrigation. The surgical goal should be an extensive removal of the cysts and affected bone. The surgical area needs to be irrigated with hypertonic saline. Mebendazole or albendazole therapy seems to retard the recurrences and control the disease. PMID:9554015

  4. Spinal muscular atrophies.

    PubMed

    Viollet, Louis; Melki, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophies (SMA) are genetic disorders characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons. The most frequent form is caused by mutations of the survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1). The identification of this gene greatly improved diagnostic testing and family-planning options of SMA families. SMN plays a key role in metabolism of RNA. However, the link between RNA metabolism and motor neuron degeneration remains unknown. A defect in mRNA processing likely generates either a loss of function of some critical RNA or abnormal transcripts with toxic property for motor neurons. Mutations of SMN in various organisms highlighted an essential role of SMN in motor axon and neuromuscular junction development or maintenance. The quality of life of patients has greatly improved over recent decades through the improvement of care and management of patients. In addition, major advances in translational research have been made in the field of SMA. Various therapeutic strategies have been successfully developed aiming at acting on SMN2, a partially functional copy of the SMN1 gene which remains present in patients. Drugs have been identified and some are already at preclinical stages. Identifying molecules involved in the SMA degenerative process should represent additional attractive targets for therapeutics in SMA. PMID:23622363

  5. What Is Spinal Cord Injury?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... with SCI is the lowest point on the spinal cord below which sensory feeling and motor movement diminish ...

  6. Living with Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... techniques that may prevent injury and disease. A spinal cord injury (SCI) can result from trauma, such as ... with daily living skills. What can persons with spinal cord injuries and their friends and families do? ? Get ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips Preventing SCI Biking prevention tips While many cycling injuries are head injuries, the ... NeurosurgeryToday.org Every year, an estimated 11,000 spinal cord injury (SCI) accidents occur in the United States. ...

  8. Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The cervical spinal column is made up of vertebral bodies which protect the spinal cord. ... Cervical spine disease is usually caused by herniated intervertebral discs, abnormal growth of bony processes on the ...

  9. Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home ... Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury What's ...

  10. Spinal muscular atrophy in childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Moosa; V. Dubowitz

    1973-01-01

    A coarse tremor was noted in 13 children suffering from the childhood form of spinal muscular atrophy. Tremor has not been seen in any other condition producing proximal muscle weakness in childhood, and its presence should therefore suggest the diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy.In addition, the feet of patients with spinal muscular atrophy tended to evert, whereas in Duchenne muscular

  11. Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel G Pickar

    2002-01-01

    Background context: Despite clinical evidence for the benefits of spinal maniputation and the apparent wide usage of it, the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of spinal manipulation are not known. Although this does not negate the clinical effects of spinal manipulation, it hinders acceptance by the wider scientific and health-care communities and hinders rational strategies for improving the delivery of

  12. Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel G. Pickar

    2002-01-01

    Background context: Despite clinical evidence for the benefits of spinal maniputation and the appar- ent wide usage of it, the biological mechanisms underlying the effects of spinal manipulation are not known. Although this does not negate the clinical effects of spinal manipulation, it hinders acceptance by the wider scientific and health-care communities and hinders rational strategies for improving the delivery

  13. Spinal muscular atrophy: manifestations and management.

    PubMed

    Mesfin, Addisu; Sponseller, Paul D; Leet, Arabella I

    2012-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a homozygous deletion in the SMN1 gene and is manifested by loss of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. Classifications of the disorder are based on age of onset and the patient's level of function. Scoliosis and hip subluxation or dislocation are two musculoskeletal manifestations associated with SMA. Severity of scoliosis correlates with age at presentation. Bracing has been unsuccessful in halting curve progression and may interfere with respiratory effort. Early onset scoliosis associated with SMA has been successfully treated with growing rod constructs, and posterior spinal fusion can be used in older children. Hip subluxations and dislocations are best treated nonsurgically if the patient reports no pain because a high rate of recurrent dislocation has been reported with surgical intervention. PMID:22661569

  14. Brain and spinal tumour.

    PubMed

    Goh, C H; Lu, Y Y; Lau, B L; Oy, J; Lee, H K; Liew, D; Wong, A

    2014-12-01

    This study reviewed the epidemiology of brain and spinal tumours in Sarawak from January 2009 till December 2012. The crude incidence of brain tumour in Sarawak was 4.6 per 100,000 population/year with cumulative rate 0.5%. Meningioma was the most common brain tumour (32.3%) and followed by astrocytoma (19.4%). Only brain metastases showed a rising trend and cases were doubled in 4 years. This accounted for 15.4% and lung carcinoma was the commonest primary. Others tumour load were consistent. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and astrocytoma were common in paediatrics (60%). We encountered more primary spinal tumour rather than spinal metastases. Intradural schwannoma was the commonest and frequently located at thoracic level. The current healthcare system in Sarawak enables a more consolidate data collection to reflect accurate brain tumours incidence. This advantage allows subsequent future survival outcome research and benchmarking for healthcare resource planning. PMID:25934956

  15. Spinal Cord Injury

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program discusses how spinal cord injuries are caused and their treatment options. It also includes tips on how to prevent spinal cord injuries. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  16. Acute onset of infantile spinal muscular atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarit Ravid; Leon Topper; Lydia Eviatar

    2001-01-01

    Two patients with acute generalized weakness and areflexia are presented. The electrophysiologic studies in both revealed evidence of decreased conduction velocity and mixed axonal and demyelinating neuropathy, suggestive of the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The young ages of the patients and their failure to respond to immunoglobulin therapy were the major clues to the final diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy

  17. Lumbar spinal stenosis: surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Nasca, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    Spinal stenosis is an acquired or congenital narrowing of the spinal or nerve-root canals. Surgical treatment is often effective. Acquired spinal stenosis most commonly occurs in those with degenerative disk disease and arthritic facets. If the degenerative process stabilizes and there is adequate room to accommodate the neural contents, symptomatic patients become asymptomatic. Residual stability after decompression must be assessed in patients having multilevel decompression. Fusion maybe indicated. In women with osteoporosis coexisting with degenerative scoliosis and spinal stenosis, decompression for concave nerve-root compression and fusion are necessary. Spinal fusion is not indicated in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis having unilateral decompression for lateral stenosis. Patients with central-mixed stenosis may not need fusion. Patients with spinal stenosis after laminectomies and diskectomies had better results when arthrodesis was done in conjunction with repeated decompression. Arthrodesis with instrumentation and decompression is recommended for patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. PMID:12539936

  18. Spinal Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Rasouli, Mohammad R.; Mirkoohi, Maryam; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Yarandi, Kourosh Karimi

    2012-01-01

    The spinal column is involved in less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB). Spinal TB is a very dangerous type of skeletal TB as it can be associated with neurologic deficit due to compression of adjacent neural structures and significant spinal deformity. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of spinal TB has special importance in preventing these serious complications. In order to extract current trends in diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment of spinal TB we performed a narrative review with analysis of all the articles available for us which were published between 1990 and 2011. Althoug h the development of more accurate imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and advanced surgical techniques have made the early diagnosis and management of spinal TB much easier, these are still very challenging topics. In this review we aim to discuss the diagnosis and management of spinal TB based on studies with acceptable design, clearly explained results and justifiable conclusions. PMID:23275816

  19. Spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Winter; Hina Pattani

    2008-01-01

    The annual incidence of acute spinal cord injury in the UK is 15–40 cases per million. More than half these injuries are the result of road traffic accidents, with falls, industrial accidents, sports or violence making up most of the remainder. Violent injury accounts for only a small percentage of cases in this country. The typical patient is male (male

  20. Spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Winter; Hina Pattani

    2011-01-01

    The annual incidence of acute spinal cord injury in the UK is 15–40 cases per million. More than half of these injuries are the result of road traffic accidents, with falls, industrial accidents, sports or violence making up most of the remainder. Violent injury accounts for only a small percentage of cases in the UK. The typical patient is male

  1. Posterior spinal anatomy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The vertebral column is divided into the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar region. It provides structural support for the trunk and surrounds and protects the spinal cord. The vertebral column also provides attachment points for the muscles of the back and ribs.

  2. Acute Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Witiw, Christopher D; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    Our understanding of the pathophysiological processes that comprise the early secondary phases of spinal cord injury such as spinal cord ischemia, cellular excitotoxicity, ionic dysregulation, and free-radical mediated peroxidation is far greater now than ever before, thanks to substantial laboratory research efforts. These discoveries are now being translated into the clinical realm and have led to targeted upfront medical management with a focus on tissue oxygenation and perfusion and include avoidance of hypotension, induction of hypertension, early transfer to specialized centers, and close monitoring in a critical care setting. There is also active exploration of neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agents; a number of which are currently in late stage clinical trials including minocycline, riluzole, AC-105, SUN13837, and Cethrin. Furthermore, new data have emerged demonstrating that the timing of spinal cord decompression after injury impacts recovery and that early decompression leads to significant improvements in neurological recovery. With this review we aim to provide a concise, clinically relevant and up-to-date summary of the topic of acute spinal cord injury, highlighting recent advancements and areas where further study is needed. PMID:26098670

  3. Spinal cord stimulator activation by an antitheft device. Case report.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, E; Waisbrod, H

    1997-12-01

    The authors present a case in which electrical injury to the central nervous system resulted from uncontrolled activation of a cervical spinal cord stimulation device by an antitheft device. The injury resulted in long-term neurological sequelae. PMID:9384412

  4. Surgical Treatment of Spinal Tuberculosis Complicated with Extensive ABSCESS

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Joaquim Soares Do; Tirado, António; Fernandes, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tuberculosis can be responsible for extensive spinal lesions. Despite the efficacy of medical treatment, surgery is indicated to avoid or correct significant deformity, treat spinal instability, prevent neurological compromise, and to eradicate an extensive tuberculous abscess. In this paper we present our experience in the surgical management of spinal tuberculosis complicated with large abscess. Patients and Methods Fifteen patients with spinal tuberculosis complicated with extensive abscess were identified; and nine of those patients had extension of the infection into the epidural space. The average age at treatment was 34 years old. Seven patients had thoracic infection, seven patients had lumbar infection and one had thoracolumbar infection. Six patients had neurological deficit at presentation. All patients were surgically treated with abscess debridement, spinal stabilization and concurrent antituberculous chemotherapy. A single anterior surgical approach was used in three cases, a posterior approach was used in four others and a combined approach was performed in eight patients. Results Surgical management allowed for effective abscess debridement and sspinal stabilization in this cohort. In combination with antituberculous drugs, surgical treatment resulted in infection eradication and bone fusion in all patients at 24 month average follow-up. Satisfactory neurological outcomes with improved American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scores were observed in 100% of patients. Conclusion Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis abscess can lead to satisfactory clinical outcomes. PMID:25328472

  5. Spinal arteriovenous malformation associated with spinal metameric syndrome: a treatable cause of long-term paraplegia?

    PubMed

    Linfante, Italo; Tari Capone, Francesca; Dabus, Guilherme; Gonzalez-Arias, Sergio; Lau, Patricio E; Samaniego, Edgar A

    2012-04-01

    Cutaneomeningospinal angiomatosis, or Cobb syndrome, is a rare metameric developmental disorder presenting as an extradural-intradural vascular malformation that involves bone, muscle, skin, spinal cord, and nerve roots. A 14-year-old girl with a red nevus involving the T6-9 dermatomes on the left side of her back presented with a 5-year history of bowel and bladder incontinence, paraplegia, and lower-extremity sensory loss. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a hemangioma in the T-8 and T-9 vertebral bodies and a spinal cord AVM nidus extending from T-6 to T-9. The AVM was successfully embolized and the patient regained lower-extremity strength, ambulation, and normal sphincter functions after 5 years of having been wheelchair bound. The authors report the restoration of ambulation after endovascular embolization of a large spinal AVM in a patient with long-standing paraplegia due to Cobb syndrome. PMID:22225485

  6. Dorsal spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Darshana; Munshi, Mihir; Kulkarni, Bijal; Kumar, Abhaya

    2010-01-01

    A 61-year-old female patient presented with diffuse pain in the dorsal region of the back of 3 months duration. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an extramedullary, extradural space occupative lesion on the right side of the spinal canal from D5 to D7 vertebral levels. The mass was well marginated and there was no bone involvement. Compression of the adjacent thecal sac was observed, with displacement to the left side. Radiological differential diagnosis included nerve sheath tumor and meningioma. The patient underwent D6 hemilaminectomy under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, the tumor was purely extradural in location with mild extension into the right foramina. No attachment to the nerves or dura was found. Total excision of the extradural compressing mass was possible as there were preserved planes all around. Histopathology revealed cavernous hemangioma. As illustrated in our case, purely epidural hemangiomas, although uncommon, ought to be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal epidural soft tissue masses. Findings that may help to differentiate this lesion from the ubiquitous disk prolapse, more common meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors are its ovoid shape, uniform T2 hyperintense signal and lack of anatomic connection with the neighboring intervertebral disk or the exiting nerve root. Entirely extradural lesions with no bone involvement are rare and represent about 12% of all intraspinal hemangiomas. PMID:21572634

  7. Arachnoiditis ossificans after spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Di; Zhao, Song; Liu, Wan-Guo; Zhang, Shao-Kun

    2015-05-01

    This article presents an unusual case of arachnoiditis ossificans after spinal surgery. A case of arachnoiditis ossificans secondary to lumbar fixation and decompression surgery for the treatment of multilevel lumbar fractures is reported and the relevant literature is reviewed. A 29-year-old man who previously underwent posterior pedicle screw fixation and fusion for multiple lumbar spine fractures reported lower back stiffness and discomfort 23 months postoperatively. A laminectomy was performed at L2 and at L3-L4. At L2, bone fragments from the burst fracture had injured the dural sac and some nerve roots. A posterolateral fusion was performed using allogeneic bone. Postoperatively, there were no signs of fever, infection, or systemic inflammatory responses. Arachnoiditis ossificans of the thecal sac from L1-L5 was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography at the 2-year follow-up. His postoperative neurological status progressively improved and he regained motor and sensory functions. Because of neurological improvements, fixation hardware was removed without further decompression. The authors report a case of arachnoiditis ossificans secondary to lumbar fixation and decompression surgery, which involved a large region. Arachnoiditis ossificans is a relatively rare disorder with unclear etiologies and limited treatment options. Spinal surgical intervention of arachnoiditis ossificans should be carefully considered because it may lead to poor outcomes and multiple revision surgeries. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(5):e437-e442.]. PMID:25970374

  8. Spontaneous Spinal Subdural Hematoma with Simultaneous Cranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hwan-Su; Kim, Sang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma is reported at a rare level of incidence, and is frequently associated with underlying coagulopathy or those receiving anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents; some cases accompany concomitant intracranial hemorrhage. The spontaneous development of spinal subdural hemorrhage (SDH) is a neurological emergency; therefore, early diagnosis, the discontinuation of anticoagulant, and urgent surgical decompression are required to enable neurological recovery. In this report, we present a simultaneous spinal subdural hematoma and cranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, which mimicked an aneurysmal origin in a female patient who had been taking warfarin due to aortic valve replacement surgery.

  9. Spinal Arteriovenous Fistula with Progressive Paraplegia after Spinal Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Argyrakis, Nikolaos; Matis, Georgios K.; Mpata-Tshibemba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    A case of an iatrogenic spinal arteriovenous fistula with progressive paraplegia in a young woman is reported. The fistula was eventually created after repetitive lumbar punctures performed in the process of spinal anaesthesia. Her symptoms were progressed to paraplegia over a period of 2 years. The digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a single-hole fistula, involving the anterior spinal artery and vein. The lesion was occluded by embolization with immediate improvement. The potential mechanism is discussed. PMID:24653807

  10. Combined Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery: Dose-Dependent Effects of Hyperbaric Bupivacaine on Maternal Hemodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Van de Velde; Dominique Van Schoubroeck; Jacques Jani; An Teunkens; Carlo Missant; Jan Deprest

    2006-01-01

    Hypotension remains an important side effect of spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. There is limited evidence that reducing the spinal dose has a favorable effect on maternal hemodynamic stability. We designed the present randomized trial to test the hypothesis that reducing the spinal dose of local anesthetics results in equally effective anesthesia and less maternal hypotension. Fifty term pregnant patients

  11. Intrinsically organized resting state networks in the human spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yazhuo; Eippert, Falk; Beckmann, Christian F.; Andersson, Jesper; Finsterbusch, Jürgen; Büchel, Christian; Tracey, Irene; Brooks, Jonathan C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of the brain have repeatedly been observed when no task or external stimulation is present. These fluctuations likely reflect baseline neuronal activity of the brain and correspond to functionally relevant resting-state networks (RSN). It is not known however, whether intrinsically organized and spatially circumscribed RSNs also exist in the spinal cord, the brain’s principal sensorimotor interface with the body. Here, we use recent advances in spinal fMRI methodology and independent component analysis to answer this question in healthy human volunteers. We identified spatially distinct RSNs in the human spinal cord that were clearly separated into dorsal and ventral components, mirroring the functional neuroanatomy of the spinal cord and likely reflecting sensory and motor processing. Interestingly, dorsal (sensory) RSNs were separated into right and left components, presumably related to ongoing hemibody processing of somatosensory information, whereas ventral (motor) RSNs were bilateral, possibly related to commissural interneuronal networks involved in central pattern generation. Importantly, all of these RSNs showed a restricted spatial extent along the spinal cord and likely conform to the spinal cord’s functionally relevant segmental organization. Although the spatial and temporal properties of the dorsal and ventral RSNs were found to be significantly different, these networks showed significant interactions with each other at the segmental level. Together, our data demonstrate that intrinsically highly organized resting-state fluctuations exist in the human spinal cord and are thus a hallmark of the entire central nervous system. PMID:25472845

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves local microenvironment after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Shuquan; Luo, Min; Li, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves motor function in patients with spinal cord injury. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms associated with the recovery of neurological function after hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a rat model of spinal cord injury. We established an acute spinal cord injury model using a modification of the free-falling object method, and treated the animals with oxygen at 0.2 MPa for 45 minutes, 4 hours after injury. The treatment was administered four times per day, for 3 days. Compared with model rats that did not receive the treatment, rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen had fewer apoptotic cells in spinal cord tissue, lower expression levels of aquaporin 4/9 mRNA and protein, and more NF-200 positive nerve fibers. Furthermore, they had smaller spinal cord cavities, rapid recovery of somatosensory and motor evoked potentials, and notably better recovery of hindlimb motor function than model rats. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduces apoptosis, downregulates aquaporin 4/9 mRNA and protein expression in injured spinal cord tissue, improves the local microenvironment for nerve regeneration, and protects and repairs the spinal cord after injury. PMID:25657740

  13. Primary spinal epidural lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Cugati, Goutham; Singh, Manish; Pande, Anil; Ramamurthi, Ravi; Balasubramanyam, Mahalakshmi; Sethi, Sumer K.; Singh, Ajai Kumar

    2011-01-01

    An epidural location for lymphoma is observed in 0.1–6.5% of all the lymphomas. Primary spinal epidural lymphoma (PSEL) is a subset of lymphomas, where there are no other recognizable sites of lymphomas at the time of diagnosis. The incidence of this subset of lymphomas is much less. It, however, is increasingly diagnosed, due to the increased use of more sensitive imaging modalities. For the electronic search, Pubmed was used to identify journals that enlisted and enumerated PSEL from 1961 to January 2011. The following combination of terms: “primary,” “spinal,” “epidural,” and “lymphoma” were used. The most significant articles and their bibliographies were analyzed by the authors. The symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnostic workup, histopathology, treatment, and outcome have been analyzed in a systematic manner PMID:22013369

  14. Cerebral and spinal schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Carod Artal, Francisco Javier

    2012-12-01

    Cerebral schistosomiasis and spinal schistosomiasis are severe underrecognized complications of Schistosoma sp. infection, and can occur at any time during the parasitic infection. Neuroschistosomiasis has been increasingly reported not only in endemic areas but also in Western countries owing to immigration and international travel. Immunogenic interaction between schistosome egg deposition and the delayed hypersensitivity reaction of the host are the main neuropathogenic mechanisms involved. Eggs induce a periovular granulomatous reaction in the tissues. In some cases, schistosome adult worms may aberrantly migrate to the central nervous system via the vertebral venous plexus and place the ova at an ectopic site. Headache and seizures are common in cerebral schistosomiasis, and intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus may occur in tumour-like and cerebellar schistosomiasis. Spinal schistosomiasis may manifest itself as acute myelitis and/or myeloradiculopathy. Recognition of neuroschistosomiasis is important so that early treatment with praziquantel and steroids can be started in an attempt to prevent severe disability. PMID:22903225

  15. MASCIS Spinal Cord Contusion Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wise Young

    The impactor is the most widely used rodent spinal cord injury model. The Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study (MASCIS)\\u000a adopted the model in 1993 and standardized protocols for anesthesia, surgery, spinal cord contusion, and post-injury care\\u000a of rats, as well as specific outcome measures. The MASCIS model stipulates Long-Evan's hooded rats that are 77 ± 1-day old\\u000a and anesthetized

  16. Spinal muscular atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Talbot

    1999-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a common cause of disability in childhood and is characterized by weakness and wasting of voluntary\\u000a muscle. It is frequently fatal. The gene for this disorder has been identified as the SMN gene and is part of a highly complex\\u000a duplicated region of chromosome 5 that is subject to a high rate of gene deletion and

  17. Spinal muscular atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan T. Iannaccone; Stephen A. Smith; Louise R. Simard

    2004-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a common genetic disease of the motor neuron (frequency of eight cases per 100,000 live births)\\u000a with a high mortality during infancy and no known treatment. Death is caused by severe and progressive restrictive lung disease.\\u000a New information regarding the nature and function of the SMN protein and the availability of new pharmacologic agents now\\u000a make

  18. Malignant spinal cord compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhuri Yalamanchili; Glenn J. Lesser

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  Malignant spinal cord compression is one of the most dreaded complications of cancer. If untreated, it can lead to worsening\\u000a neurologic function culminating in paralysis and sphincter incontinence. The most challenging aspect in the management of\\u000a this complication is early diagnosis because the single most important factor determining outcome is the level of neurologic\\u000a function at initiation of therapy.

  19. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, B.F. III (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN); Weiner, M.H.; McGee, Z.A.

    1982-12-17

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host.

  20. Spinal Subdural Abscess: A Rare Complication of Decubitus Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Usoltseva, Natalia; Medina-Flores, Rafael; Rehman, Ateeq; Samji, Swetha; D’Costa, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Spinal subdural abscess (SSA) is an uncommon entity. The exact incidence is unknown, with very few cases reported in the literature. This condition may result in spinal cord compression, thus constituting a medical and neurosurgical emergency. The pathogenesis of SSA is not well-described, and the available knowledge is based on case observations only. There is only one case report that describes direct seeding from decubitus ulcers as a possible mechanism for development of SSA. We report a case of subacute onset of quadriplegia in a male patient, age 55 years, due to spinal cord compression from SSA and superimposed spinal subdural hematoma. The direct seeding from decubitus ulcers is thought to be the cause of infection in our patient. We present this case of SSA to elucidate and review the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities, and treatment regarding management of this rare disorder. PMID:24667217

  1. Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy is phenotypically similar but molecularly distinct from human spinal muscular atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Blazej; C. S. Mellersh; L. C. Cork; E. A. Ostrander

    1998-01-01

    Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) is an autosomal dominant mo- tor neuron disease that is similar in pathology and clinical presentation to various forms of human motor neuron disease. We have tested the hypothesis that the canine survival motor neuron (SMN) gene is responsible for HCSMA by genetic and molecular analysis of a colony of mixed breed dogs, all

  2. Effects of reversible spinalization on individual spinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Zelenin, Pavel V; Lyalka, Vladimir F; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N; Deliagina, Tatiana G

    2013-11-27

    Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of the postural system responsible for stabilization of dorsal-side-up trunk orientation in quadrupeds. Spinalization causes spinal shock, that is a dramatic reduction of extensor tone and spinal reflexes, including PLRs. The goal of our study was to determine changes in activity of spinal interneurons, in particular those mediating PLRs, that is caused by spinalization. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits, activity of individual interneurons from L5 was recorded during stimulation causing PLRs under two conditions: (1) when neurons received supraspinal influences and (2) when these influences were temporarily abolished by a cold block of spike propagation in spinal pathways at T12 ("reversible spinalization"; RS). The effect of RS, that is a dramatic reduction of PLRs, was similar to the effect of surgical spinalization. In the examined population of interneurons (n = 199), activity of 84% of them correlated with PLRs, suggesting that they contribute to PLR generation. RS affected differently individual neurons: the mean frequency decreased in 67% of neurons, increased in 15%, and did not change in 18%. Neurons with different RS effects were differently distributed across the spinal cord: 80% of inactivated neurons were located in the intermediate area and ventral horn, whereas 50% of nonaffected neurons were located in the dorsal horn. We found a group of neurons that were coactivated with extensors during PLRs before RS and exhibited a dramatic (>80%) decrease in their activity during RS. We suggest that these neurons are responsible for reduction of extensor tone and postural reflexes during spinal shock. PMID:24285903

  3. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Spinal Metastases Recurring in Close Proximity to Previously Irradiated Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Clara Y.H.; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Chang, Steven D.; Jackson, Paul S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Minn, A. Yuriko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Lieberson, Robert E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Soltys, Scott G., E-mail: sgsoltys@stanford.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: As the spinal cord tolerance often precludes reirradiation with conventional techniques, local recurrence within a previously irradiated field presents a treatment challenge. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 51 lesions in 42 patients treated from 2002 to 2008 whose spinal metastases recurred in a previous radiation field (median previous spinal cord dose of 40 Gy) and were subsequently treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Results: SRS was delivered to a median marginal dose of 20 Gy (range, 10-30 Gy) in 1-5 fractions (median, 2), targeting a median tumor volume of 10.3 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.2-128.6 cm{sup 3}). Converting the SRS regimens with the linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 3), the median spinal cord maximum single-session equivalent dose (SSED) was 12.1 Gy{sub 3} (range, 4.7-19.3 Gy{sub 3}). With a median follow-up of 7 months (range, 2-47 months), the Kaplan-Meier local control and overall survival rates at 6/12 months were 87%/73% and 81%/68%, respectively. A time to retreatment of {<=}12 months and the combination of time to retreatment of {<=}12 months with an SSED of <15 Gy{sub 10} were significant predictors of local failure on univariate and multivariate analyses. In patients with a retreatment interval of <12 months, 6/12 month local control rates were 88%/58%, with a SSED of >15 Gy{sub 10}, compared to 45%/0% with <15 Gy{sub 10}, respectively. One patient (2%) experienced Grade 4 neurotoxicity. Conclusion: SRS is safe and effective in the treatment of spinal metastases recurring in previously irradiated fields. Tumor recurrence within 12 months may correlate with biologic aggressiveness and require higher SRS doses (SSED >15 Gy{sub 10}). Further research is needed to define the partial volume retreatment tolerance of the spinal cord and the optimal target dose.

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery and immunotherapy for metastatic spinal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Caruso, James P; Cohen-Inbar, Or; Bilsky, Mark H; Gerszten, Peter C; Sheehan, Jason P

    2015-03-01

    The management of metastatic spinal melanoma involves maximizing local control, preventing recurrence, and minimizing treatment-associated toxicity and spinal cord damage. Additionally, therapeutic measures should promote mechanical stability, facilitate rehabilitation, and promote quality of life. These objectives prove difficult to achieve given melanoma's elusive nature, radioresistant and chemoresistant histology, vascular character, and tendency for rapid and early metastasis. Different therapeutic modalities exist for metastatic spinal melanoma treatment, including resection (definitive, debulking, or stabilization procedures), stereotactic radiosurgery, and immunotherapeutic techniques, but no single treatment modality has proven fully effective. The authors present a conceptual overview and critique of these techniques, assessing their effectiveness, separately and combined, in the treatment of metastatic spinal melanoma. They provide an up-to-date guide for multidisciplinary treatment strategies. Protocols that incorporate specific, goal-defined surgery, immunotherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery would be beneficial in efforts to maximize local control and minimize toxicity. PMID:25727228

  5. Biomaterial Design Strategies for the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Straley, Karin S.; Po Foo, Cheryl Wong

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The highly debilitating nature of spinal cord injuries has provided much inspiration for the design of novel biomaterials that can stimulate cellular regeneration and functional recovery. Many experts agree that the greatest hope for treatment of spinal cord injuries will involve a combinatorial approach that integrates biomaterial scaffolds, cell transplantation, and molecule delivery. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of biomaterial-scaffold design strategies currently being applied to the development of nerve guidance channels and hydrogels that more effectively stimulate spinal cord tissue regeneration. To enhance the regenerative capacity of these two scaffold types, researchers are focusing on optimizing the mechanical properties, cell-adhesivity, biodegradability, electrical activity, and topography of synthetic and natural materials, and are developing mechanisms to use these scaffolds to deliver cells and biomolecules. Developing scaffolds that address several of these key design parameters will lead to more successful therapies for the regeneration of spinal cord tissue. PMID:19698073

  6. Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2015-07-01

    Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2?mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:25006043

  7. Spinal muscular atrophy: MR evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G.-C. Liu; Y.-J. Jong; C.-H. Chiang; C.-W. Yang

    1992-01-01

    The neurogenic myopathy of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is degeneration of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord and associated muscle weakness. In three patients with the severe type, according to Dubowitz's classification, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lower extremity showed severe atrophy of the entire muscle bundles of the thigh and the calf. Nine intermediate type patients had

  8. Medication-assisted Spinal Manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J Kohlbeck; Scott Haldeman

    2002-01-01

    Background context: The acceptance of spinal manipulation as a reasonable method of treating certain patients with spinal pain over the past decade has led to a renewed interest and increased use of these techniques performed in conjunction with commonly used medications and procedures. Manual therapy is increasingly being used in conjunction with anesthetics, sedatives or analgesics as well as local,

  9. Contemporary Management of Spinal Osteomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali R. Rezai; Henry H. Woo; Thomas J. Errico; Paul R. Cooper

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We review the results of treatment of a series of patients with spinal osteomyelitis, to formulate a systematic and comprehensive approach to the management of this disease in light of recent technical and conceptual advances in imaging, spinal biomechanics, and internal fixation.

  10. Simultaneous Brain–Cervical Cord fMRI Reveals Intrinsic Spinal Cord Plasticity during Motor Sequence Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Adad, Julien; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The spinal cord participates in the execution of skilled movements by translating high-level cerebral motor representations into musculotopic commands. Yet, the extent to which motor skill acquisition relies on intrinsic spinal cord processes remains unknown. To date, attempts to address this question were limited by difficulties in separating spinal local effects from supraspinal influences through traditional electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Here, for the first time, we provide evidence for local learning-induced plasticity in intact human spinal cord through simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord during motor sequence learning. Specifically, we show learning-related modulation of activity in the C6–C8 spinal region, which is independent from that of related supraspinal sensorimotor structures. Moreover, a brain–spinal cord functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that the initial linear relationship between the spinal cord and sensorimotor cortex gradually fades away over the course of motor sequence learning, while the connectivity between spinal activity and cerebellum gains strength. These data suggest that the spinal cord not only constitutes an active functional component of the human motor learning network but also contributes distinctively from the brain to the learning process. The present findings open new avenues for rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, as they demonstrate that this part of the central nervous system is much more plastic than assumed before. Yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this intrinsic functional plasticity in the spinal cord warrant further investigations. PMID:26125597

  11. Spinal and Paraspinal Ewing Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Keole, Sameer R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Shahlaee, Amir H. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pincus, David W. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Marcus, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To perform a review of the 40-year University of Florida experience treating spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 27 patients were treated between 1965 and 2007. For local management, 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 6 with surgery plus RT. All patients with metastatic disease were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 17 years, and the most frequent subsite was the sacral spine (n = 9). The median potential follow-up was 16 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 62%, 62%, and 90%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 22), the 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 71%, 71%, and 89%, respectively. The local control rate was 84% for patients treated with RT alone vs. 100% for those treated with surgery plus RT. Patients who were >14 years old and those who were treated with intensive therapy demonstrated superior local control. Of 9 patients in our series with Frankel C or greater neurologic deficits at presentation, 7 experienced a full recovery with treatment. Of the 27 patients, 37% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3 or greater toxicity, including 2 deaths from sepsis. Conclusion: Aggressive management of spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors with RT with or without surgery results in high toxicity but excellent local control and neurologic outcomes. Efforts should be focused on identifying disease amenable to combined modality local therapy and improving RT techniques.

  12. Onyx injection by direct puncture for the treatment of hypervascular spinal metastases close to the anterior spinal artery: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Clarençon, Frédéric; Di Maria, Federico; Cormier, Evelyne; Sourour, Nader-Antoine; Enkaoua, Eric; Sailhan, Frédéric; Iosif, Christina; Le Jean, Lise; Chiras, Jacques

    2013-06-01

    Presurgical devascularization of hypervascular spinal metastases has been shown to be effective in preventing major blood loss during open surgery. Most often, embolization can be performed using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microparticles. However, in some cases, the close relationship between the feeders of the metastases and the feeders of the anterior spinal artery (ASA) poses a risk of spinal cord ischemia when PVA microparticle embolization is performed. The authors present their early experience in the treatment of spinal metastases close to the ASA; in 2 cases they injected Onyx-18, by direct puncture, into hypervascular posterior arch spinal metastases situated close to the ASA. Two women, one 36 and the other 55 years of age, who presented with spinal lesions (at the posterior arch of C-4 and T-6, respectively) from thyroid and a kidney tumors, were sent to the authors' department to undergo presurgical embolization. After having performed a complete spinal digital subtraction angiography study, a regular angiography catheter was positioned at the ostium of the artery that mainly supplied the lesion. Then, with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position, direct puncture with 18-gauge needles of the lesion was performed using roadmap guidance. Onyx-18 was injected through the needles under biplanar fluoroscopy. Satisfactory devascularization of the lesions was obtained; the ASA remained patent in both cases. The metastases were surgically removed in both cases within the 48 hours after the embolization and major blood loss did not occur. Presurgical devascularization of hypervascular spinal metastases close the ASA by direct puncture with Onyx-18 seems to be an effective technique and appears to be safe in terms of the preserving the ASA's patency. PMID:23600580

  13. Selective Type II Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy in Severe Infantile Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Kingma; Daniel L. Feeback; Warren A. Marks; Gary B. Bobele; Richard W. Leech; Roger A. Brumback

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic muscle biopsy finding in severe infantile spinal muscular atrophy (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, SMA type 1) is considered to be large-group atrophy with isolated clusters of hypertrophic type I myofibers. We present a unique case of severe infantile spinal muscular atrophy with selective hypertrophy of type II myofibers. A male infant presented at age 2 months with breathing difficulties and

  14. Robust, accurate and fast automatic segmentation of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    De Leener, Benjamin; Kadoury, Samuel; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2014-09-01

    Spinal cord segmentation provides measures of atrophy and facilitates group analysis via inter-subject correspondence. Automatizing this procedure enables studies with large throughput and minimizes user bias. Although several automatic segmentation methods exist, they are often restricted in terms of image contrast and field-of-view. This paper presents a new automatic segmentation method (PropSeg) optimized for robustness, accuracy and speed. The algorithm is based on the propagation of a deformable model and is divided into three parts: firstly, an initialization step detects the spinal cord position and orientation using a circular Hough transform on multiple axial slices rostral and caudal to the starting plane and builds an initial elliptical tubular mesh. Secondly, a low-resolution deformable model is propagated along the spinal cord. To deal with highly variable contrast levels between the spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid, the deformation is coupled with a local contrast-to-noise adaptation at each iteration. Thirdly, a refinement process and a global deformation are applied on the propagated mesh to provide an accurate segmentation of the spinal cord. Validation was performed in 15 healthy subjects and two patients with spinal cord injury, using T1- and T2-weighted images of the entire spinal cord and on multiecho T2*-weighted images. Our method was compared against manual segmentation and against an active surface method. Results show high precision for all the MR sequences. Dice coefficients were 0.9 for the T1- and T2-weighted cohorts and 0.86 for the T2*-weighted images. The proposed method runs in less than 1min on a normal computer and can be used to quantify morphological features such as cross-sectional area along the whole spinal cord. PMID:24780696

  15. Expression of RBMX after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinlong; Li, Debao; Shen, Aiguo; Mao, Hui; Jin, Huricha; Huang, Wei; Xu, Dawei; Fan, Jianbo; Chen, Jiajia; Yang, Longfei; Cui, Zhiming

    2013-02-01

    RBMX (RNA-binding motif gene, X chromosome) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein that associates with the spliceosome, binds RNA, and influences alternative splicing. The gene encoding RBMX is located on chromosome Xq26 and is ubiquitously expressed. However, its expression and function in spinal cord injury are still unclear. In this study, we performed an acute spinal cord contusion injury (SCI) model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of RBMX expression in spinal cord. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that RBMX was present in normal spinal cord. It gradually increased, reached a peak at 1 day, and then declined to basal levels at 14 days after spinal cord injury. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that RBMX immunoreactivity was found in neurons and astrocytes, but not in microglia. Interestingly, RBMX expression was increased predominantly in neurons and astrocytes. Moreover, colocalization of RBMX/proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and RBMX/active caspase-3 was detected in GFAP and NeuN, respectively. We also examined the expression profiles of active caspase-3, bcl-2, Bax, and PCNA, whose changes were correlated with the expression profiles of RBMX. In conclusion, this is the first description of RBMX expression in spinal cord injury. Our results suggested that RBMX might play crucial roles in CNS pathophysiology after SCI. PMID:23180094

  16. Neuroblastoma in a Patient With Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type I: Is It Just a Coincidence?

    PubMed

    Sag, Erdal; Sen, Hilal Susam; Haliloglu, Goknur; Yalcin, Bilgehan; Kutluk, Tezer

    2015-07-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord resulting in hypotonia, skeletal muscle atrophy, and weakness. Herein, we report a 4-month-old male infant who presented to our hospital with an abdominal mass that was diagnosed as neuroblastoma and spinal muscular atrophy type I. We would like to discuss the course and differential diagnosis with an algorithm leading to the diagnosis in this peculiar patient. To our knowledge, coexistence of spinal muscular atrophy type I and neuroblastoma is defined for the first time in the literature. PMID:25123529

  17. Spinal nephroblastoma in an Irish wolfhound.

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Scott, T; Goldin, J; Nesbit, J W

    1999-03-01

    A 1-year-old Irish wolfhound was presented with a history of slowly progressive left pelvic limb paresis. A neurological examination demonstrated bilateral deficits referable to the thoracolumbar spinal cord. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid contained neoplastic cells. An intradural, extramedullary mass was demonstrated by myelography at the caudal aspect of T13. Surgical excision was abandoned owing to severe macroscopic damage to, and apparent infiltration of, the cord, and the dog was euthanased. The tumour was diagnosed histologically as an extrarenal nephroblastoma. Nephroblastoma should be suspected in young, large-breed dogs with intradural extramedullary masses over spinal segments T10-L2. The prognosis for complete recovery after surgical excision is guarded to poor. PMID:10855819

  18. Potential Clinical Applications for Spinal Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kornelsen, Jennifer; Mackey, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) of the spinal cord is a noninvasive technique for obtaining information regarding spinal cord neuronal function. This article provides a brief overview of recent developments in spinal cord fMRI and outlines potential applications, as well as the limitations that must be overcome, for using spinal fMRI in the clinic. This technique is currently used for research purposes, but significant potential exists for spinal fMRI to become an important clinical tool. PMID:17504642

  19. Hypothalamic paraventricular axons projecting to the female rat lumbosacral spinal cord contain oxytocin immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Puder, B A; Papka, R E

    2001-04-01

    Oxytocin-containing axons project from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the neurohypophysis and thoracic spinal cord to ultimately influence uterine contractions and autonomic activity, respectively. Whether or not oxytocin-immunoreactive axons project to the female rat lumbosacral spinal cord to influence autonomic outflow to pelvic organs has not been investigated. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the presence, distribution, and origin of oxytocin-immunoreactive axons in the female rat lumbosacral spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry, spinal cord transections, and axonal tracing with Fluorogold, True Blue, and pseudorabies virus were used. Oxytocin-immunoreactive nerve fibers were present in the L6/S1 segments of the spinal cord. Prominent varicose axons were evident throughout the dorsal horn, along the lateral and medial collateral pathways, in the dorsal intermediate gray area, around the central canal in lamina X, and throughout the sacral parasympathetic nucleus. Injection of retrograde tracer into the L6/S1 spinal cord labeled neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Transection of the thoracic spinal cord eliminated oxytocin-immunoreactive nerve axons in the L6/S1 spinal cord. In addition, transection of the thoracic spinal cord eliminated transport of retrograde axonal tracer from the L6/S1 spinal cord to the paraventricular nucleus. Pseudorabies virus, a transneuronal retrograde tracer, injected into the uterus and cervix marked uterine-related preganglionic neuronal cell bodies in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus and uterine-related neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Double immuno-labeling of viral-infected spinal cord sections showed oxytocin-immunoreactive axons closely associated with viral labeled uterine-related preganglionic cell bodies of the sacral parasympathetic nucleus. The results of this study revealed that oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus project axons to the lumbosacral spinal cord to areas involved in sensory processing and parasympathetic outflow to the uterus. PMID:11276051

  20. Nociceptive spinal withdrawal reflexes but not spinal dorsal horn wide-dynamic range neuron activities are specifically inhibited by halothane anaesthesia in spinalized rats.

    PubMed

    You, Hao-Jun; Colpaert, Francis C; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the spinal cord effects and sites of action of different inhaled concentrations (0.5-2%) of the anaesthetic, halothane. Simultaneous recordings were made of 3 Hz, suprathreshold (1.5 x T) electrically evoked spinal dorsal horn (DH) wide-dynamic range (WDR) neuron responses and of single motor unit (SMU) electromyographic (EMG) responses underlying the spinal withdrawal reflex in spinalized Wistar rats. Compared with the baseline responses obtained with 0.5% halothane, the electrically evoked early responses of the DH WDR neurons as well as the SMUs were only depressed by the highest, 2% concentration of halothane. In contrast, 1.5% halothane markedly inhibited the late responses of the DH WDR neurons, whereas 1% halothane started to significantly depress the late responses of the SMUs. Likewise, wind-up of the WDR neuron late responses was inhibited by 1.5-2% halothane, whereas 1-2% halothane significantly depressed wind-up of the SMU EMG late responses. The inhibitory effects of 2% halothane on the early and the late responses of the DH WDR neurons, but not of the SMUs, were completely reversed by opioid micro-receptor antagonist naloxone (0.04 mg/kg). However, no significant effects of naloxone were found on different responses of the DH WDR neurons as well as the SMUs at 0.5-1% halothane, suggesting that different concentrations of halothane may modulate different spinal receptors. We conclude that halothane at high concentrations (1.5-2%) seems to play a predominant inhibitory role via spinal multireceptors on ventral horn (VH) motor neurons, and less on DH sensory WDR neurons, of the spinal cord. PMID:16045488

  1. Spinal Cord Stimulation in a Patient with Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Zhang; Monica J. Wood; Christopher Gilligan

    2011-01-01

    Background and ObjectiveSpinal cord stimulation is the most commonly used implantable neurostimulation modality for management of pain syndromes. For treatment of lower extremity pain, the spinal cord stimulator lead is typically placed in the thoracic epidural space, at the T10–T12 levels. Typically, satisfactory stimulation can be obtained relatively easily. Anatomical variability in the epidural space, such as epidural scarring, has

  2. Spinal Congenital Dermal Sinuses: A 30Year Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie L. Ackerman; Arnold H. Menezes

    Objective. Dermal sinus tracts are an un- common form of spinal dysraphism often presenting in childhood with skin findings, neurologic deficit, or in- fection. We reviewed our surgical experience, examining presenting symptomatology, operative findings, and pa- tient outcomes. Methods. A retrospective analysis of operated dermal sinus tract cases by the senior author (A.H.M.) from 1970 to present was made. Results.

  3. MRI Features of Spinal Epidural Angiolipomas

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Su; Hu, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xi-ming; Dai, Hui; Fang, Xiang-ming; Cui, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the MRI findings in ten patients of spinal epidural angiolipoma for differentiated diagnosis presurgery. Materials and Methods Ten surgically proved cases of spinal epidural angiolipomas were retrospectively reviewed, and the lesion was classified according to the MR findings. Results Ten tumors were located in the superior (n = 4), middle (n = 2), or inferior (n = 4) thoracic level. The mass, with the spindle shape, was located in the posterior epidural space and extended parallel to the long axis of the spine. All lesions contained a fat and vascular element. The vascular content, correlating with the presence of hypointense regions on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and hyperintense signals on T2-weighted imaging, had marked enhancement. However, there were no flow void signs on MR images. All tumors were divided into two types based on the MR features. In type 1 (n = 3), the mass was predominantly composed of lipomatous tissue (> 50%) and contained only a few small angiomatous regions, which had a trabeculated or mottled appear. In type 2 (n = 7), the mass, however, was predominantly composed of vascular components (> 50%), which presented as large foci in the center of the mass. Conclusion Most spinal epidural angiolipomas exhibit hyperintensity on T1WI while the hypointense region on the noncontrast T1WI indicates to be vascular, which manifests an obvious enhancement with gadolinium administration. PMID:24043978

  4. Visualizing the spinal neuronal dynamics of locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Kalpathi R.; Bashor, D. P.; Miller, M. T.; Foster, J. A.

    2004-06-01

    Modern imaging and simulation techniques have enhanced system-level understanding of neural function. In this article, we present an application of interactive visualization to understanding neuronal dynamics causing locomotion of a single hip joint, based on pattern generator output of the spinal cord. Our earlier work visualized cell-level responses of multiple neuronal populations. However, the spatial relationships were abstract, making communication with colleagues difficult. We propose two approaches to overcome this: (1) building a 3D anatomical model of the spinal cord with neurons distributed inside, animated by the simulation and (2) adding limb movements predicted by neuronal activity. The new system was tested using a cat walking central pattern generator driving a pair of opposed spinal motoneuron pools. Output of opposing motoneuron pools was combined into a single metric, called "Net Neural Drive", which generated angular limb movement in proportion to its magnitude. Net neural drive constitutes a new description of limb movement control. The combination of spatial and temporal information in the visualizations elegantly conveys the neural activity of the output elements (motoneurons), as well as the resulting movement. The new system encompasses five biological levels of organization from ion channels to observed behavior. The system is easily scalable, and provides an efficient interactive platform for rapid hypothesis testing.

  5. Effect of spinal cord compression on local vascular blood flow and perfusion capacity.

    PubMed

    Alshareef, Mohammed; Krishna, Vibhor; Ferdous, Jahid; Alshareef, Ahmed; Kindy, Mark; Kolachalama, Vijaya B; Shazly, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can induce prolonged spinal cord compression that may result in a reduction of local tissue perfusion, progressive ischemia, and potentially irreversible tissue necrosis. Due to the combination of risk factors and the varied presentation of symptoms, the appropriate method and time course for clinical intervention following SCI are not always evident. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element fluid-structure interaction model of the cervical spinal cord was developed to examine how traditionally sub-clinical compressive mechanical loads impact spinal arterial blood flow. The spinal cord and surrounding dura mater were modeled as linear elastic, isotropic, and incompressible solids, while blood was modeled as a single-phased, incompressible Newtonian fluid. Simulation results indicate that anterior, posterior, and anteroposterior compressions of the cervical spinal cord have significantly different ischemic potentials, with prediction that the posterior component of loading elevates patient risk due to the concomitant reduction of blood flow in the arterial branches. Conversely, anterior loading compromises flow through the anterior spinal artery but minimally impacts branch flow rates. The findings of this study provide novel insight into how sub-clinical spinal cord compression could give rise to certain disease states, and suggest a need to monitor spinal artery perfusion following even mild compressive loading. PMID:25268384

  6. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... colleagues, with an educational grant from Pfizer Inc. University of Washington-operated SCI Clinics: Harborview Medical Center ... Spinal Cord Injury Clinic nurses: 206-744-5862 University of Washington Medical Center Rehabilitation Medicine Clinic 1959 ...

  7. Spinal Interneurons and Forelimb Plasticity after Incomplete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa Janine; Rombola, Angela M; Rousseau, Celeste A; Mercier, Lynne M; Fitzpatrick, Garrett M; Reier, Paul J; Fuller, David D; Lane, Michael A

    2015-06-15

    Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) disrupts bulbospinal projections to motoneurons controlling the upper limbs, resulting in significant functional impairments. Ongoing clinical and experimental research has revealed several lines of evidence for functional neuroplasticity and recovery of upper extremity function after SCI. The underlying neural substrates, however, have not been thoroughly characterized. The goals of the present study were to map the intraspinal motor circuitry associated with a defined upper extremity muscle, and evaluate chronic changes in the distribution of this circuit following incomplete cSCI. Injured animals received a high cervical (C2) lateral hemisection (Hx), which compromises supraspinal input to ipsilateral spinal motoneurons controlling the upper extremities (forelimb) in the adult rat. A battery of behavioral tests was used to characterize the time course and extent of forelimb motor recovery over a 16 week period post-injury. A retrograde transneuronal tracer - pseudorabies virus - was used to define the motor and pre-motor circuitry controlling the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) muscle in spinal intact and injured animals. In the spinal intact rat, labeling was observed unilaterally within the ECRL motoneuron pool and within spinal interneurons bilaterally distributed within the dorsal horn and intermediate gray matter. No changes in labeling were observed 16 weeks post-injury, despite a moderate degree of recovery of forelimb motor function. These results suggest that recovery of the forelimb function assessed following C2Hx injury does not involve recruitment of new interneurons into the ipsilateral ECRL motor pathway. However, the functional significance of these existing interneurons to motor recovery requires further exploration. PMID:25625912

  8. AN AUTOMATIC SEGMENTATION METHOD OF THE SPINAL CANAL FROM CLINICAL MR IMAGES BASED ON AN ATTENTION MODEL AND AN ACTIVE CONTOUR MODEL

    E-print Network

    Chaudhary, Vipin

    AN AUTOMATIC SEGMENTATION METHOD OF THE SPINAL CANAL FROM CLINICAL MR IMAGES BASED ON AN ATTENTION present an unsupervised segmentation method that automatically extracts the spinal canal in the sagittal, as compared to the Dice's similarity index of 0.90 between two observers. Index Terms-- spinal canal

  9. Diaphragmatic paralysis due to spinal muscular atrophy. An unrecognised cause of respiratory failure in infancy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R C McWilliam; D Gardner-Medwin; D Doyle; J B Stephenson

    1985-01-01

    An unusual form of spinal muscular atrophy presenting with respiratory failure was observed in four infants from two families. In one, whose death was attributed to pneumonia, the diagnosis was inferred retrospectively after two siblings died from an identical illness and were shown to have diaphragmatic paralysis and the typical electrophysiological and histological features of spinal muscular atrophy. Other signs

  10. Changes in ornithine decarboxylase activity and putrescine concentrations after spinal cord compression injury in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika E. M. Mautes; Wulf Paschen; Gabriele Röhn; Amadeo C. Nacimiento

    1999-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury results in direct physical damage to structures and the generation of local factors contributing to secondary pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated changes in polyamine metabolism after spinal cord compression injury in the rat. This is a stress induced metabolic pathway, of which an activation may indicate both, secondary pathogenesis or induction of neuroprotective response.

  11. Prophylactic ephedrine and hypotension associated with spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. King; M. A. Rosen

    1998-01-01

    Hypotension commonly accompanies induction of spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. To determine whether intravenous ephedrine prophylaxis would benefit prehydrated obstetrical patients presenting for elective cesarean section, we studied 30 patients randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups. All patients were preloaded with crystalloid (15 ml\\/kg), given spinal anesthesia and positioned with left uterine displacement (LUD). During induction, all patients

  12. Subanesthetic concentrations of lidocaine selectively inhibit a nociceptive response in the isolated rat spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Jaffe; Michael A. Rowe

    1995-01-01

    Systemically administered local anesthetics are known to provide analgesia in a variety of pain states; however, the site of action and the mechanism by which these effects are produced remain in question. In the present study, the effects of low (subblocking for nerve conduction) concentrations of lidocaine on a spinal cord nociceptive potential were studied. Spinal cords were removed from

  13. Erythropoietin in spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios K. Matis; Theodossios A. Birbilis

    2009-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition for individual patients and costly for health care systems requiring significant\\u000a long-term expenditures. Cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein mediating cytoprotection in a variety of tissues,\\u000a including spinal cord, through activation of multiple signaling pathways. It has been reported that EPO exerts its beneficial\\u000a effects by apoptosis blockage, reduction of inflammation, and

  14. Emergency neurological life support: spinal cord compression (SCC).

    PubMed

    O'Phelan, Kristine H; Bunney, E Bradshaw; Weingart, Scott D; Smith, Wade S

    2012-09-01

    Acute spinal cord compression (SCC) is the most serious of the diseases of the cord and should be accorded special attention in neurocritical care. Patients with SCC have a combination of motor and sensory dysfunction that has a distribution referable to one, or a few contiguous, spinal levels. Bowel and bladder dysfunction and neck or back pain are usually part of the clinical presentation but are not uniformly present. Because interventions are time-sensitive, the recognition and treatment of SCC was chosen as an ENLS protocol. PMID:22956117

  15. [Gene expression profile of spinal ventral horn in ALS].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2007-10-01

    The causative pathomechanism of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not clearly understood. Using microarray technology combined with laser-captured microdissection, gene expression profiles of degenerating spinal motor neurons as well as spinal ventral horn from autopsied patients with sporadic ALS were examined. Spinal motor neurons showed a distinct gene expression profile from the whole spinal ventral horn. Three percent of genes examined were significantly downregulated, and 1% were upregulated in motor neurons. In contrast with motor neurons, the total spinal ventral horn homogenates demonstrated 0.7% and 0.2% significant upregulation and downregulation of gene expression, respectively. Downregulated genes in motor neurons included those associated with cytoskeleton/axonal transport, transcription and cell surface antigens/receptors, such as dynactin 1 (DCTN1) and early growth response 3 (EGR3). In particular, DCTN1 was markedly downregulated in most residual motor neurons prior to the accumulation of pNF-H and ubiquitylated protein. Promoters for cell death pathway, death receptor 5 (DR5), cyclins C (CCNC) and A1 (CCNA), and caspases were upregulated, whereas cell death inhibitors, acetyl-CoA transporter (ACATN) and NF-kappaB (NFKB) were also upregulated. In terms of spinal ventral horn, the expression of genes related to cell surface antigens/receptors, transcription and cell adhesion/ECM were increased. The gene expression resulting in neurodegenerative and neuroprotective changes were both present in spinal motor neurons and ventral horn. Moreover, Inflammation-related genes, such as belonging to the cytokine family were not, however, significantly upregulated in either motor neurons or ventral horn. The sequence of motor neuron-specific gene expression changes from early DCTN1 downregulation to late CCNC upregulation in sporadic ALS can provide direct information on the genes leading to neurodegeneration and neuronal death, and are helpful for developing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:17969353

  16. Intraoperative sonography in spinal surgery: current state of the art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Montalvo; R. M. Quencer

    1986-01-01

    Intraoperative spinal sonography (IOSS) has significant impact on the surgical management of spinal lesions. This paper describes the techniques involved, illustrates the sonographic anatomy of the spinal canal and its contents and discusses the role of IOSS in the surgical management of spinal trauma, spinal tumors, spinal stenosis and congenital anomalies.

  17. Special considerations in the respiratory management of spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Mary K

    2009-05-01

    This is a summary of the presentation on special considerations in the respiratory management of spinal muscular atrophy, presented as part of the program on pulmonary management of patients with pediatric neuromuscular disorders at the 30th annual Carrell-Krusen Neuromuscular Symposium on February 20, 2008. PMID:19420154

  18. Prognostic value of cortical magnetic stimulation in spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C E Clarke; H Modarres-Sadeghi; J A Twomey; A A Burt

    1994-01-01

    Cortical magnetic stimulation was performed in a consecutive series of 10 patients presenting within 15 days of traumatic spinal cord injury. In those patients with complete paraplegia or quadriplegia, motor evoked potentials at presentation were absent below the level of the lesion. Six months after the injury, potentials had returned in the biceps brachii and abductor pollicis brevis muscles in

  19. Pathophysiology of primary spinal syringomyelia

    PubMed Central

    Heiss, John D.; Snyder, Kendall; Peterson, Matthew M.; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Butman, John A.; Smith, René K.; DeVroom, Hetty L.; Sansur, Charles A.; Eskioglu, Eric; Kammerer, William A.; Oldfield, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Object The pathogenesis of syringomyelia in patients with an associated spinal lesion is incompletely understood. The authors hypothesized that in primary spinal syringomyelia, a subarachnoid block effectively shortens the length of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), reducing compliance and the ability of the spinal theca to dampen the subarachnoid CSF pressure waves produced by brain expansion during cardiac systole. This creates exaggerated spinal subarachnoid pressure waves during every heartbeat that act on the spinal cord above the block to drive CSF into the spinal cord and create a syrinx. After a syrinx is formed, enlarged subarachnoid pressure waves compress the external surface of the spinal cord, propel the syrinx fluid, and promote syrinx progression. Methods To elucidate the pathophysiology, the authors prospectively studied 36 adult patients with spinal lesions obstructing the spinal SAS. Testing before surgery included clinical examination; evaluation of anatomy on T1-weighted MRI; measurement of lumbar and cervical subarachnoid mean and pulse pressures at rest, during Valsalva maneuver, during jugular compression, and after removal of CSF (CSF compliance measurement); and evaluation with CT myelography. During surgery, pressure measurements from the SAS above the level of the lesion and the lumbar intrathecal space below the lesion were obtained, and cardiac-gated ultrasonography was performed. One week after surgery, CT myelography was repeated. Three months after surgery, clinical examination, T1-weighted MRI, and CSF pressure recordings (cervical and lumbar) were repeated. Clinical examination and MRI studies were repeated annually thereafter. Findings in patients were compared with those obtained in a group of 18 healthy individuals who had already undergone T1-weighted MRI, cine MRI, and cervical and lumbar subarachnoid pressure testing. Results In syringomyelia patients compared with healthy volunteers, cervical subarachnoid pulse pressure was increased (2.7 ± 1.2 vs 1.6 ± 0.6 mm Hg, respectively; p = 0.004), pressure transmission to the thecal sac below the block was reduced, and spinal CSF compliance was decreased. Intraoperative ultrasonography confirmed that pulse pressure waves compressed the outer surface of the spinal cord superior to regions of obstruction of the subarachnoid space. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the theory that a spinal subarachnoid block increases spinal subarachnoid pulse pressure above the block, producing a pressure differential across the obstructed segment of the SAS, which results in syrinx formation and progression. These findings are similar to the results of the authors' previous studies that examined the pathophysiology of syringomyelia associated with obstruction of the SAS at the foramen magnum in the Chiari Type I malformation and indicate that a common mechanism, rather than different, separate mechanisms, underlies syrinx formation in these two entities. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00011245. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2012.8.SPINE111059) PMID:22958075

  20. Spinal mechanisms underlying potentiation of hindpaw responses observed after transient hindpaw ischemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Sasaki, Mika; Komagata, Seiji; Tsukano, Hiroaki; Hishida, Ryuichi; Kohno, Tatsuro; Baba, Hiroshi; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2015-01-01

    Transient ischemia produces postischemic tingling sensation. Ischemia also produces nerve conduction block that may modulate spinal neural circuits. In the present study, reduced mechanical thresholds for hindpaw-withdrawal reflex were found in mice after transient hindpaw ischemia, which was produced by a high pressure applied around the hindpaw for 30?min. The reduction in the threshold was blocked by spinal application of LY354740, a specific agonist of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. Neural activities in the spinal cord and the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) were investigated using activity-dependent changes in endogenous fluorescence derived from mitochondrial flavoproteins. Ischemic treatment induced potentiation of the ipsilateral spinal and contralateral S1 responses to hindpaw stimulation. Both types of potentiation were blocked by spinal application of LY354740. The contralateral S1 responses, abolished by lesioning the ipsilateral dorsal column, reappeared after ischemic treatment, indicating that postischemic tingling sensation reflects a sensory modality shift from tactile sensation to nociception in the spinal cord. Changes in neural responses were investigated during ischemic treatment in the contralateral spinal cord and the ipsilateral S1. Potentiation already appeared during ischemic treatment for 30?min. The present findings suggest that the postischemic potentiation shares spinal mechanisms, at least in part, with neuropathic pain. PMID:26165560

  1. The validity of multimodal intraoperative monitoring (MIOM) in surgery of 109 spine and spinal cord tumors

    PubMed Central

    Eggspuehler, Andreas; Grob, Dieter; Jeszenszky, Dezsö; Benini, Arnaldo; Porchet, Francois; Mueller, Alfred; Dvorak, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    In a prospective study of 109 patients with tumor of the spine MIOM was performed during the surgical procedure between March 2000 and December 2005. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of MIOM techniques used to monitor spinal cord and nerve root function during surgical procedure of spinal tumors. MIOM become an integrated procedure during surgical approach to intramedullar and extramedullar spine tumors. The combination of monitoring ascending and descending pathways may provide more sensitive and specific results than SEP alone giving immediate feedback information regarding any neurological deficit during the operation. Intraoperative sensory spinal and cerebral evoked potential combined with EMG recordings and motor evoked potential of the spinal cord and muscles were evaluated and compared with postoperative clinical neurological changes. One hundred and nine consecutive patients with spinal tumors of different aetiologies were monitored by the means of MIOM during the entire surgical procedure. Eighty-two patients presented true negative findings while two patients monitored false negative, one false positive and 24 patients true positive findings where neurological deficits after the operation were present. All patients with neurological deficit recovered completely or to pre-existing neurological situation. The sensitivity of MIOM applied during surgery of spinal tumors has been calculated of 92% and specificity 99%. Based upon the results of the study MIOM is an effective method of monitoring the spinal cord and nerve root function during surgical approach of spinal tumors and consequently can reduce or prevent the occurrence of postoperative neurological deficit. PMID:17661095

  2. Clinical analysis of 36 multiple myeloma patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma invasion of the spinal canal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiajia; Zhong, Yuping

    2015-06-01

    Few physicians are familiar with extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) invasion of the spinal canal in multiple myeloma (MM) patients, and little information about this rare disease is available. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the clinical features, prognosis and treatment of MM patients with EMP invasion of the spinal canal. We evaluated 36 MM patients with EMP invasion of the spinal canal. EMP invasion was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and/or histopathological analysis of bone marrow biopsy samples. Patients underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy or received chemotherapy alone. Chemotherapy consisted of bortezomib-containing regimens and other combination therapies. The patients' median age was 58.6?years (range, 31-78?years). Eight patients had negative immunofixation electrophoresis results, and nine patients had a bone marrow plasma cell infiltration rate of less than 5%. Of the 36 MM patients with EMP invasion of the spinal canal that we identified, 19 had thoracic spinal cord involvement, 10 had lumbar spinal cord involvement, 2 had sacral spinal cord involvement and 5 had both lumbar and thoracic spinal cord involvement. The findings of our study, which is the largest study in MM patients with EMP spinal canal invasion conducted to date, suggest the importance of the early detection of spinal invasion in MM patients. Extramedullary disease was resistant to conventional treatments but responded well to regimens containing novel drugs such as bortezomib. In patients with symptoms of nerve root involvement, the tumour should be resected as soon as possible to relieve spinal cord compression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24395149

  3. Electrophysiological mapping of rat sensorimotor lumbosacral spinal networks after complete paralysis.

    PubMed

    Gad, Parag; Roy, Roland R; Choe, Jaehoon; Zhong, Hui; Nandra, Mandheeraj Singh; Tai, Yu-Chong; Gerasimenko, Yury; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of the spinal cord has been shown to have great potential for improving function after motor deficits caused by injury or pathological conditions. Using a wide range of animal models, many studies have shown that stimulation applied to the neural networks intrinsic to the spinal cord can result in a dramatic improvement of motor ability, even allowing an animal to step and stand after a complete spinal cord transection. Clinical use of this technology, however, has been slow to develop due to the invasive nature of the implantation procedures and the difficulty of ascertaining specific sites of stimulation that would provide optimal amelioration of the motor deficits. Moreover, the development of tools available to control precise stimulation chronically via biocompatible electrodes has been limited. In this chapter, we outline the use of a multisite electrode array in the spinal rat model to identify and stimulate specific sites of the spinal cord to produce discrete motor behaviors in spinal rats. The results demonstrate that spinal rats can stand and step when the spinal cord is stimulated tonically via electrodes located at specific sites on the spinal cord. The quality of stepping and standing was dependent on the location of the electrodes on the spinal cord, the specific stimulation parameters, and the orientation of the cathode and anode. The spinal motor evoked potentials in selected muscles during standing and stepping are shown to be critical tools to study selective activation of interneuronal circuits via responses of varying latencies. The present results provide further evidence that the assessment of functional networks in the background of behaviorally relevant functional states is likely to be a physiological tool of considerable importance in developing strategies to facilitate recovery of motor function after a number of neuromotor disorders. PMID:25890138

  4. Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Won; Seong, Han Yu

    2013-01-01

    Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare disease and uncommon cause of compressive myelopathy. The etiology remains still unclear. We experienced 2 cases of SEACs and reviewed the cases and previous literatures. A 59-year-old man complained of both leg radiating pain and paresthesia for 4 years. His MRI showed an extradural cyst from T12 to L3 and we performed cyst fenestration and repaired the dural defect with tailored laminectomy. Another 51-year-old female patient visited our clinical with left buttock pain and paresthesia for 3 years. A large extradural cyst was found at T1-L2 level on MRI and a communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space was illustrated by CT-myelography. We performed cyst fenestration with primary repair of dural defect. Both patients' symptoms gradually subsided and follow up images taken 1-2 months postoperatively showed nearly disappeared cysts. There has been no documented recurrence in these two cases so far. Tailored laminotomy with cyst fenestration can be a safe and effective alternative choice in treating SEACs compared to traditional complete resection of cyst wall with multi-level laminectomy. PMID:24294463

  5. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Genevay, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is most commonly due to degenerative changes in older individuals. LSS is being more commonly diagnosed and may relate to better access to advanced imaging and to an aging population. This review focuses on radicular symptoms related to degenerative central and lateral stenosis and updates knowledge of LSS pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Since patients with anatomic LSS can range from asymptomatic to severely disabled, the clinical diagnosis focuses on symptoms and examination findings associated with LSS. Imaging findings are helpful for patients with persistent, bothersome symptoms in whom invasive treatments are being considered. There is limited information from high quality studies about the relative benefits and harms of commonly used treatments. Interpreting and comparing results of available research is limited by a lack of consensus about the definition of LSS. Nevertheless, evidence supports decompressive laminectomy for patients with persistent and bothersome symptoms. Recommendations favor a shared decision making approach due to important trade-offs between alternative therapies and differences among patients in their preferences and values. PMID:20227646

  6. Pain Management Following Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Center Spinal Cord Injury InfoSheet 10 Level - Consumer Pain Management following Spinal Cord Injury coming from somewhere other ... pain is described as burning, cramping and constant. PAIN MANAGEMENT Pain management usually includes treatment with medications, modified ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury Model System Information Network

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact the UAB-SCIMS UAB Spinal Cord Injury Model System Newly Injured Health Daily Living Consumer Groups ... University of Alabama at Birmingham Spinal Cord Injury Model System (UAB-SCIMS) maintains this Information Network as ...

  8. [Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma as cause of incomplete spinal cord injury].

    PubMed

    Spalteholz, M; Rödel, L

    2013-11-01

    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas are rare but are of differential diagnostic importance due to the potentially dramatic progression through to irreversible neurological deficits. At the beginning the clinical symptoms are non-specific and the development of neurological deficits leads to the diagnosis. We present the case of a 73-year-old female patient who initially reported uncharacteristic neck pain and developed incomplete quadriplegia during the next day as well as the case of a 78-year-old male patient, who complained of acute back pain and developed paraplegia a short time afterwards. Early microsurgery and spinal canal evacuation led to complete remission of the neurological deficits in both cases. PMID:23999927

  9. Spinal axis irradiation with electrons: Measurements of attenuation by the spinal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Muller-Runkel, R.; Vijayakumar, S.

    1986-07-01

    Electrons may be used beneficially for spinal axis irradiation in medulloblastoma children to avoid some of the long-term sequelae induced by megavoltage photons. However, the attenuation by the intervening bone ought to be considered. Three-dimensional computer treatment planning with inhomogeneity correction for electron beams is not yet generally available, and alternate methods are needed to evaluate the attenuation by the complex bony structure of the spine. Here, we present our experimental data showing the alteration in the electron isodoses due to the intervening spinous processes. Film dosimetric measurements were made in the vertebral columns obtained from autopsies of a goat, a dog, and a child. Our results show that electron beam therapy for the spinal axis is a viable option.

  10. Pantopaque mimicking spinal lipoma: MR pitfall.

    PubMed

    Suojanen, J; Wang, A M; Winston, K R

    1988-01-01

    We present a patient with an intraspinal, high-signal-intensity lesion in the lumbosacral region on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and a thin line of signal void between this region and the CSF on T2-weighted images. These findings were interpreted initially as representing an extradural spinal lipoma. However, CT revealed an intrathecal collection of iophendylate (Pantopaque), which was subsequently removed via a lumbar puncture. The apparent separation of Pantopaque from the CSF (seen on T2-weighted images and interpreted as the dura) was probably caused by chemical shift artifact, chemical shift contour, and/or CSF motion artifact. PMID:3351056

  11. Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Fang, Marong; Chen, Haohao; Gou, Fangming; Ding, Mingxing

    2014-01-01

    Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies. PMID:25598784

  12. Stem Cells for Spinal Cord Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fanie Barnabe; Jonas Frisen

    2008-01-01

    The spinal cord is the main relay for signals between the brain and the body. Spinal cord injury completely or partially deprives the individual of mobility and sensory input as well as autonomic nervous system control below the level of the lesion. The major- ity of spinal cord injuries affect the cervical segments, leaving the patient para- or tetraplegic depending

  13. Myocardial stunning after resuscitation from cardiac arrest following spinal anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kurhekar, Pranjali Madhav; Yachendra, VSG; Babu, Simi P; Govindasamy, Raghavelu

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrest associated with spinal anaesthesia has been well researched. Myocardial stunning after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest is seen in up to 2/3rd of in-hospital cardiac arrests. Myocardial stunning after resuscitation from cardiac arrest associated with spinal anaesthesia has probably not been reported earlier. Our case, an ASA physical status I lady, posted for tubal reanastomosis surgery developed bradycardia followed by asystole, approximately 5 minutes after giving subarachnoid block. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved within 2 minutes with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation for pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Patient developed delayed pulmonary oedema, which was probably due to myocardial stunning. In the present case, inadequate preloading could have precipitated bradycardia progressing to cardiac arrest which, after resuscitation led to reversible myocardial dysfunction. We conclude that early vasopressor infusion, titrated fluids and echocardiography should be considered in immediate post cardiac arrest phase following spinal anaesthesia. PMID:24963188

  14. Myocardial stunning after resuscitation from cardiac arrest following spinal anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kurhekar, Pranjali Madhav; Yachendra, Vsg; Babu, Simi P; Govindasamy, Raghavelu

    2014-03-01

    Cardiac arrest associated with spinal anaesthesia has been well researched. Myocardial stunning after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest is seen in up to 2/3(rd) of in-hospital cardiac arrests. Myocardial stunning after resuscitation from cardiac arrest associated with spinal anaesthesia has probably not been reported earlier. Our case, an ASA physical status I lady, posted for tubal reanastomosis surgery developed bradycardia followed by asystole, approximately 5 minutes after giving subarachnoid block. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved within 2 minutes with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation for pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Patient developed delayed pulmonary oedema, which was probably due to myocardial stunning. In the present case, inadequate preloading could have precipitated bradycardia progressing to cardiac arrest which, after resuscitation led to reversible myocardial dysfunction. We conclude that early vasopressor infusion, titrated fluids and echocardiography should be considered in immediate post cardiac arrest phase following spinal anaesthesia. PMID:24963188

  15. Clinical Applications of the Tubular Retractor on Spinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Seung Jae

    2007-01-01

    Tubular retractor system as a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) technique has many advantages over other conventional MIS techniques. It offers direct visualization of the operative field, anatomical familiarity to spine surgeons, and minimizing tissue trauma. With technical advancement, many spinal pathologies are being treated using this system. Namely, herniated discs, lumbar and cervical stenosis, synovial cysts, lumbar instability, trauma, and even some intraspinal tumors have all been treated through tubular retractor system. Flexible arm and easy change of the tube direction are particularly useful in contralateral spinal decompression from an ipsilateral approach. Careful attention to surgical technique through narrow space will ensure that complications are minimized and will provide improved outcomes. However, understanding detailed anatomies and keeping precise surgical orientation are essential for this technique. Authors present the technical feasibility and initial results of use a tubular retractor system as a minimally invasive technique for variaties of spinal disorders with a review of literature. PMID:19096551

  16. 17-Year-Delayed Fistula Formation After Elective Spinal Instrumentation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Etemadrezaei, Hamid; Zabihyan, Samira; Shakeri, Aidin; Ganjeifar, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A late-developing infection after an uneventful initial spinal instrumentation procedure is rare. Delayed infection and new fistula formation have been reported from a few months to 13 years. Here we report an unusual 17-year-delayed fistula formation after primary spinal instrumentation. The patient underwent hardware removal surgery with antibiotic therapy as a definitive treatment. Case Presentation Here we report an unusual 17-year delayed fistula formation after primary spinal instrumentation due to spinal trauma. He was admitted to Ghaem General Hospital, a chief referral center, Mashhad, North-East of Iran in August 2014. The patient underwent hardware removal surgery with antibiotic therapy as a definitive treatment. Conclusions Late inflammation may occur around spinal instruments and results in cutaneous fistula formation. After oral or intravenous antibiotic treatment, total device extraction is the cornerstone of treatment.

  17. A ‘tool box’ for deciphering neuronal circuits in the developing chick spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Hadas, Yoav; Etlin, Alex; Falk, Haya; Avraham, Oshri; Kobiler, Oren; Panet, Amos; Lev-Tov, Aharon; Klar, Avihu

    2014-01-01

    The genetic dissection of spinal circuits is an essential new means for understanding the neural basis of mammalian behavior. Molecular targeting of specific neuronal populations, a key instrument in the genetic dissection of neuronal circuits in the mouse model, is a complex and time-demanding process. Here we present a circuit-deciphering ‘tool box’ for fast, reliable and cheap genetic targeting of neuronal circuits in the developing spinal cord of the chick. We demonstrate targeting of motoneurons and spinal interneurons, mapping of axonal trajectories and synaptic targeting in both single and populations of spinal interneurons, and viral vector-mediated labeling of pre-motoneurons. We also demonstrate fluorescent imaging of the activity pattern of defined spinal neurons during rhythmic motor behavior, and assess the role of channel rhodopsin-targeted population of interneurons in rhythmic behavior using specific photoactivation. PMID:25147209

  18. Teaching neuroimages: neuromyelitis optica misdiagnosed as spinal cord tumor.

    PubMed

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kontokostas, Stefanos; Boviatsis, Efstathios; Bonakis, Anastasios; Stefanis, Leonidas; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-28

    A 17-year-old girl presented with acute-onset cervical pain, followed by left arm weakness and gait disturbances. Spinal cord astrocytoma was diagnosed by MRI performed at an outpatient facility (figure, A and B). The patient was admitted to the neurosurgery department to undergo spinal cord biopsy. A second neurologic evaluation indicated neuromyelitis optica (NMO) as the most likely diagnosis, which was confirmed by NMO-immunoglobulin G seropositivity. The patient was treated with rescue plasmapheresis with substantial clinical and radiologic (figure, C) improvement. PMID:24470607

  19. Acute management of traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ropper, Alexander E; Neal, Matthew T; Theodore, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    Patients with acute cervical spinal cord injury present complex clinical challenges. These injuries may result in motor and sensory deficits and also in cardiovascular and respiratory perturbations. Increased attention to critical care support has led to improved survival and recovery in many patients. The methods and technology used to diagnose and classify these injuries as well as medical and surgical treatments have evolved significantly in recent decades. We review important aspects of the diagnosis and acute care of patients with traumatic cervical spinal cord injuries, emphasising the recent evidence. PMID:25986457

  20. Chronic intrathecal morphine treatment does not cause down-regulation of spinal adenosine A 1 receptors in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pao-Luh Tao; Chih-Shung Wong; Mei-Chuan Lin

    1996-01-01

    We have shown previously that systemic chronic morphine treatment causes down-regulation of spinal adenosine A1 receptors in rats. Recently, we have found that chronic supraspinal morphine treatment also causes this effect. In the present study, we investigated whether chronic spinal morphine treatment has the same effect of down-regulation of spinal adenosine A1 receptors. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were rendered tolerant

  1. A histopathological analysis of the human cervical spinal cord in patients with acute traumatic central cord syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Jimenez; A Marcillo; ADO Levi

    2000-01-01

    Study design: We have applied conventional histochemical and morphometric techniques to study the changes within the human spinal `hand' motor neuron pool after spinal cord injury in patients who presented with acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS).Objective: To determine whether a reduction of large alpha motor neurons at the C7, C8 and T1 spinal cord levels underlies the mechanism which

  2. Novel alternative therapy for spinal tuberculosis during surgery: reconstructing with anti-tuberculosis bioactivity implants.

    PubMed

    Dong, JunFeng; Zhang, ShengMin; Liu, HaoMing; Li, XinZhi; Liu, YongHui; Du, YingYing

    2014-03-01

    Accompanied with the worsening of the pulmonary tuberculosis bacterium (TB) epidemic, the incidence of spinal TB has increased in recent years. Spinal reconstruction and stabilisation, and bone defect repair play a crucial role in the surgical treatment of spinal TB. Unfortunately, the existing materials have not completely met the requirements for spinal TB reconstruction due to their diverse deficiencies. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel reconstructing implants. Poly-DL-lactide (PDLLA) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) are two promising drug delivery systems (DDS) and materials for bone repair, which could help us to overcome the difficulties in spinal TB reconstruction in the future. In this article, we discuss the properties of PDLLA and nHA, two potential drug delivering and bone repair materials for spinal TB reconstruction. We also presented two alternatives for spinal TB in future. Two strategies have the potential for treating spinal TB in the future. One such strategy consists of mixing anti-TB drugs, PDLLA with nHA to fabricate a novel three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffold via 3D printing (3DP) technology. Another is preparing a novel titanium mesh implant coated with drugs/PDLLA/nHA composites by solvent evaporation and low-temperature drying technology. These two hypotheses have recently been tested in a laboratory setting by our team. PMID:24328922

  3. Phenotypic variability in siblings with type III spinal muscular atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M M K Muqit; J Moss; C Sewry

    2004-01-01

    Autosomal recessive spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) shows substantial phenotypic variability, presenting at a variety of ages from infancy to adult life. Diagnostic difficulties may arise because SMA sometimes produces a dystrophic or myopathic phenotype rather than classical neurogenic abnormalities. Two brothers are described who illustrate this principle and highlight the increasing importance of molecular genetics in investigating patients with neuromuscular

  4. Injectable hydrogel materials for spinal cord regeneration: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Macaya; M Spector

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) presents a complex regenerative problem due to the multiple facets of growth inhibition that occur following trauma to the cord parenchyma and stroma. Clinically, SCI is further complicated by the heterogeneity in the size, shape and extent of human injuries. Many of these injuries do not breach the dura mater and have continuous viable axons through

  5. Protective Effect of Sildenafil (Viagra) in Transient Spinal Cord Ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ömer Anlar; Süleyman Özen

    2008-01-01

    Prospective study of the neuroprotective activity of sildenafil in a rat spinal ischemia model. The present study involved 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into 3 groups. Physiological serum was administered intraperitoneally to the 8 rats in the control group at the beginning of reperfusion for a period of 20 min after abdominal aortal occlusion. Sildenafil (Viagra®) was

  6. Melatonin lowers edema after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Chen, Xiao; Qiao, Suchi; Liu, Xinwei; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Degang; Su, Jiacan; Wang, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin has been shown to diminish edema in rats. Melatonin can be used to treat spinal cord injury. This study presumed that melatonin could relieve spinal cord edema and examined how it might act. Our experiments found that melatonin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) could reduce the water content of the spinal cord, and suppress the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein after spinal cord injury. This suggests that the mechanism by which melatonin alleviates the damage to the spinal cord by edema might be related to the expression of aquaporin-4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein. PMID:25657743

  7. Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell-induced neural stem cells to treat spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Ye; Jia, Jingqiao; Yang, Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    Because of their strong proliferative capacity and multi-potency, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells have gained interest as a cell source in the field of nerve damage repair. In the present study, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural stem cells, which were then transplanted into the spinal cord after local spinal cord injury in rats. The motor functional recovery and pathological changes in the injured spinal cord were observed for 3 successive weeks. The results showed that human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neuron-like cells and that induced neural stem cells contribute to the restoration of injured spinal cord without causing transplant rejection. Thus, these cells promote the recovery of motor and sensory functions in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Therefore, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells may be useful as seed cells during the repair of spinal cord injury. PMID:25657742

  8. Myelopathy Caused by Spinal Dural Arterio-Venous Fistula after First Lumbar Vertebral Body Fracture - A Case Report -

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Joo, Young-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Song, Sun-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is a rare vascular lesion of the spinal cord associated with progressive myelopathy. Symptoms include progressive gait dysfunction, weakness, sensory loss, and bowel and bladder dysfunction. Because these symptoms overlap with other common causes of myelopathy and the disease is rare, spinal dural arteriovenous fistula is often not suspected and the time to diagnosis is long. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with progressive lower limb weakness and gait disturbance diagnosed as spinal dural arteriovenous fistula involving a fractured L1 vertebral body. PMID:22506198

  9. Causes of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the causes of spinal cord injury (SCI) and associated factors is critical in the development of successful prevention programs. Objective: This study analyzed data from the National SCI Database (NSCID) and National Shriners SCI Database (NSSCID) in the United States to examine specific etiologies of SCI by age, sex, race, ethnicity, day and month of injury, and neurologic outcomes. Methods: NSCID and NSSCID participants who had a traumatic SCI from 2005 to 2011 with known etiology were included in the analyses (N=7,834). Thirty-seven causes of injury documented in the databases were stratified by personal characteristics using descriptive analysis. Results: The most common causes of SCI were automobile crashes (31.5%) and falls (25.3%), followed by gunshot wounds (10.4%), motorcycle crashes (6.8%), diving incidents (4.7%), and medical/surgical complications (4.3%), which collectively accounted for 83.1% of total SCIs since 2005. Automobile crashes were the leading cause of SCI until age 45 years, whereas falls were the leading cause after age 45 years. Gunshot wounds, motorcycle crashes, and diving caused more SCIs in males than females. The major difference among race/ethnicity was in the proportion of gunshot wounds. More SCIs occurred during the weekends and warmer months, which seemed to parallel the increase of motorcycle- and diving-related SCIs. Level and completeness of injury are also associated with etiology of injury. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that prevention strategies should be tailored to the targeted population and major causes to have a meaningful impact on reducing the incidence of SCI. PMID:23678280

  10. Involvement of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling in spinal long term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Bian, Chao; Zhao, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Yu-Qiu; Lü, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The long-term potentiation (LTP) of spinal C-fiber-evoked field potentials is considered as a fundamental mechanism of central sensitization in the spinal cord. Accumulating evidence has showed the contribution of spinal microglia to spinal LTP and pathological pain. As a key signaling of neurons-microglia interactions, the involvement of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling in pathological pain has also been investigated extensively. The present study examined whether CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling plays a role in spinal LTP. The results showed that 10-trains tetanic stimulation (100 Hz, 2s) of the sciatic nerve (TSS) produced a significant LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials lasting for over 3 h in the rat spinal dorsal horn. Blockade of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling with an anti-CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody (CX3CR1 AB) markedly suppressed TSS-induced LTP. Exogenous CX3CL1 significantly potentiated 3-trains TSS-induced LTP in rats. Consistently, spinal LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials was also induced by TSS (100 Hz, 1s, 4 trains) in all C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice. However, in CX3CR1-/- mice, TSS failed to induce LTP and behavioral hypersensitivity, confirming an essential role of CX3CR1 in spinal LTP induction. Furthermore, blockade of IL-18 or IL-23, the potential downstream factors of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling, with IL-18 BP or anti-IL-23 neutralizing antibody (IL-23 AB), obviously suppressed spinal LTP in rats. These results suggest that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling is involved in LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials in the rodent spinal dorsal horn. PMID:25768734

  11. Involvement of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 Signaling in Spinal Long Term Potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Chao; Zhao, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Yu-Qiu; Lü, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The long-term potentiation (LTP) of spinal C-fiber-evoked field potentials is considered as a fundamental mechanism of central sensitization in the spinal cord. Accumulating evidence has showed the contribution of spinal microglia to spinal LTP and pathological pain. As a key signaling of neurons-microglia interactions, the involvement of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling in pathological pain has also been investigated extensively. The present study examined whether CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling plays a role in spinal LTP. The results showed that 10-trains tetanic stimulation (100 Hz, 2s) of the sciatic nerve (TSS) produced a significant LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials lasting for over 3 h in the rat spinal dorsal horn. Blockade of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling with an anti-CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody (CX3CR1 AB) markedly suppressed TSS-induced LTP. Exogenous CX3CL1 significantly potentiated 3-trains TSS-induced LTP in rats. Consistently, spinal LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials was also induced by TSS (100 Hz, 1s, 4 trains) in all C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice. However, in CX3CR1-/- mice, TSS failed to induce LTP and behavioral hypersensitivity, confirming an essential role of CX3CR1 in spinal LTP induction. Furthermore, blockade of IL-18 or IL-23, the potential downstream factors of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling, with IL-18 BP or anti-IL-23 neutralizing antibody (IL-23 AB), obviously suppressed spinal LTP in rats. These results suggest that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling is involved in LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials in the rodent spinal dorsal horn. PMID:25768734

  12. Vestibulo-spinal reflex mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    The specific objectives of experiments designed to investigate postural reflex behavior during sustained weightlessness are discussed. The first is to investigate, during prolonged weightlessness with Hoffmann response (H-reflex) measurement procedures, vestibulo-spinal reflexes associated with vestibular (otolith) responses evoked during an applied linear acceleration. This objective includes not only an evaluation of otolith-induced changes in a major postural muscle but also an investigation with this technique of the adaptive process of the vestibular system and spinal reflex mechanisms to this unique environment. The second objective is to relate space motion sickness to the results of this investigation. Finally, a return to the vestibulo-spinal and postural reflexes to normal values following the flight will be examined. The flight experiment involves activation of nerve tissue (tibial N) with electrical shock and the recording of resulting muscle activity (soleus) with surface electrodes. Soleus/spinal H-reflex testing procedures will be used in conjuction with linear acceleration through the subject's X-axis.

  13. SPINAL CORD INJURY (SCI) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Spinal Cord Injury Database has been in existence since 1973 and captures data from SCI cases in the United States. Since its inception, 24 federally funded Model SCI Care Systems have contributed data to the National SCI Database. Statistics are derived from this da...

  14. Morphine Administered in the Substantia Gelatinosa of the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus Caudalis Inhibits Nociceptive Activities in the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus Oralis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radhouane Dallel; Christian Duale; Jean-Louis Molat

    1998-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of morphine micro- injection into the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C) or the spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis (Sp5O) on C-fiber-evoked activities of Sp5O convergent neurons, after supramaximal per- cutaneous electrical stimulation in halothane-anesthetized rats. When it was microinjected into the Sp5O, morphine (2.5 m gi n 0.25 ml) never depressed the C-fiber-evoked responses of

  15. THE ROLE OF OXYBUTYNIN IN SPINAL CORD INJURED PATIENTS WITH INDWELLING CATHETERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young H. Kim; Erin T. Bird; Michael Priebe; Timothy B. Boone

    1997-01-01

    PurposeThe long-term benefits of oral oxybutynin in spinal cord injured patients with indwelling catheters is unknown. We reviewed our experience with this population of men and present the results of our analysis.

  16. Anatomical study of the arterial blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, David; Danko, Jan; Petrovova, Eva; Supuka, Peter; Supukova, Anna

    2014-06-26

    Guinea pigs are frequently used as experimental models in studies of ischemic spinal cord injury. The aim of this study was to describe the arterial blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in 20 adult English self guinea pigs using the corrosion and dissection techniques. The dorsal intercostal arteries arising from the dorsal surface of the thoracic aorta were found as follows: in eight pairs in 70 % of cases, in seven pairs in 20 % of cases and in nine pairs in 10 % of cases. Paired lumbar arteries were present as seven pairs in all the cases. The occurrence of the ventral and dorsal branches of the spinal rami observed in the thoracic and lumbar region was higher on the left than on the right. The artery of Adamkiewicz was present in 60 % of cases as a single vessel and in 40 % of cases as a double vessel. On the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, we found two dorsal spinal arteries in 60 % of cases and three in 40 % of cases. The presence of the artery of Adamkiewicz and nearly regular segmental blood supplying the thoracolumbar part of the spinal cord in all our studied animals is the reason for using guinea pigs as a simple model of ischemic damage to the thoracolumbar part of the spinal cord. PMID:24966109

  17. Dexmedetomidine for an awake fiber-optic intubation of a parturient with Klippel-Feil syndrome, Type I Arnold Chiari malformation and status post released tethered spinal cord presenting for repeat cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Tanmay H.; Badve, Manasi S.; Olajide, Kowe O.; Skorupan, Havyn M.; Waters, Jonathan H.; Vallejo, Manuel C.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) have congenital fusion of their cervical vertebrae due to a failure in the normal segmentation of the cervical vertebrae during the early weeks of gestation and also have myriad of other associated anomalies. Because of limited neck mobility, airway management in these patients can be a challenge for the anesthesiologist. We describe a unique case in which a dexmedetomidine infusion was used as sedation for an awake fiber-optic intubation in a parturient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome, who presented for elective cesarean delivery. A 36-year-old female, G2P1A0 with KFS (fusion of cervical vertebrae) who had prior cesarean section for breech presentation with difficult airway management was scheduled for repeat cesarean delivery. After obtaining an informed consent, patient was taken in the operating room and non-invasive monitors were applied. Dexmedetomidine infusion was started and after adequate sedation, an awake fiber-optic intubation was performed. General anesthetic was administered after intubation and dexmedetomidine infusion was continued on maintenance dose until extubation. Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) is a rare congenital disorder for which the true incidence is unknown, which makes it even rare to see a parturient with this disease. Patients with KFS usually have other congenital abnormalities as well, sometimes including the whole thoraco-lumbar spine (Type III) precluding the use of neuraxial anesthesia for these patients. Obstetric patients with KFS can present unique challenges in administering anesthesia and analgesia, primarily as it relates to the airway and dexmedetomidine infusion has shown promising result to manage the airway through awake fiberoptic intubation without any adverse effects on mother and fetus. PMID:24765318

  18. Clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of primary spinal paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenlong; Li, Guang; Fang, Jingyi; Wu, Liang; Yang, Tao; Deng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Yulun

    2015-05-01

    Spinal paragangliomas are extremely rare tumors, most frequently involving the cauda equina and the filum terminale. We aimed to investigate the clinical manifestations, radiological features, management, and follow-up data of primary spinal paraganglioma. We present the clinical data and long-term outcomes from a consecutive surgical series of 19 patients with pathologically diagnosed spinal paragangliomas. All of the patients had undergone surgical resection. Pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging was performed and follow-up data and neurological functional assessment are presented and discussed. The mean age at diagnosis was 47.7 years, with a significant male predominance. The primary clinical symptoms were low back pain and sciatica. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed characteristic signs that help differentiate paragangliomas from other spinal tumors, including a "salt & pepper" sign, serpiginous flow void, and a peripheral hypointense rim. Also, a well-encapsulated appearance can be found intraoperatively. During a mean follow-up period of 62.1 months, remnant tumor progression was noted on MRI in three patients with incomplete resection. Pain symptoms were relieved immediately after surgical intervention, while motor and sphincter dysfunction were much slower to improve. Differential diagnosis of paraganglioma based on MR images alone is challenging, but the presence of specific characteristic features provides suggestive clues; however, accurate diagnosis depends on pathological criteria. Despite the benign course, gross total resection is ideal, given an increased risk of recurrence in situ. Timely recognition and surgical treatment should be emphasized to avoid progressive neurological deficits. PMID:25720695

  19. Extramedullary intradural spinal tumors: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Beall, Douglas P; Googe, David J; Emery, Robert L; Thompson, Darin B; Campbell, Scot E; Ly, Justin Q; DeLone, David; Smirniotopoulos, James; Lisanti, Chris; Currie, T Jenks

    2007-01-01

    Defining the location of tumors and mass lesions of the spine in relation to the spinal cord and the dura is of the utmost importance as certain types of lesions tend to occur in certain locations. The differential diagnostic considerations will vary according to location of the mass lesion as will the treatment and prognosis of these various lesions. The category of extramedullary intradural masses includes a variety of lesions from meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors (neurofibromas, schwannomas) to less common tumors (hemangiopericytoma), metastases, benign tumors (lipoma, dermoid, epidermoid), inflammatory disorders (arachnoid adhesions, sarcoidosis), vascular lesions (spinal-dural arteriovenous fistula), and cystic lesions (perineural or Tarlov cysts). Characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings are helpful for localization and characterization of these lesions before treatment, as well as for follow-up after treatment. We present a pictorial review of the various extramedullary intradural lesions of the spine, with pathologic correlation. We discuss imaging features that are typical for the various entities and describe various therapeutic options that are important considerations for surgical treatment of these lesions. PMID:17765798

  20. Histogram based quantification of spinal cord injury level using somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Mir, Hasan; Al-Nashash, Hasan; Kerr, Douglas; Thakor, Nitish; All, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses an entropy based metric to study the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) in rodents afflicted with focal demyelination spinal cord injury (SCI). It has been shown that amplitude characteristics of the SEP signal are a strong indicator of the integrity of the spinal cord sensory pathways. Compared to conventional correlation based metrics, the metric used in this paper exploits the amplitude histogram of SEP signals to provide a robust assessment of the different degrees of demyelination in the spinal cord. Results are presented using actual SEP signals collected on rodents with various levels of SCI. PMID:21096668

  1. Speckle variance optical coherence tomography of the rodent spinal cord: in vivo feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Cadotte, David W.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Cadotte, Adam; Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Wilson, Brian C.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the combined advantage of high temporal (µsec) and spatial (<10µm) resolution. These features make it an attractive tool to study the dynamic relationship between neural activity and the surrounding blood vessels in the spinal cord, a topic that is poorly understood. Here we present work that aims to optimize an in vivo OCT imaging model of the rodent spinal cord. In this study we image the microvascular networks of both rats and mice using speckle variance OCT. This is the first report of depth resolved imaging of the in vivo spinal cord using an entirely endogenous contrast mechanism. PMID:22567584

  2. Cervicothoracic Spinal Epidural Hematoma after Anterior Cervical Spinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a rare case of a cervicothoracic spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) after anterior cervical spine surgery. A 60-year-old man complained of severe neck and arm pain 4 hours after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at the C5-6 level. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a postoperative SEH extending from C1 to T4. Direct hemostasis and drainage of loculated hematoma at the C5-6 level completely improved the patient's condition. When a patient complains of severe neck and/or arm pain after anterior cervical spinal surgery, though rare, the possibility of a postoperative SEH extending to non-decompressed, adjacent levels should be considered as with our case. PMID:21430984

  3. Axonal regeneration of Clarke’s neurons beyond the spinal cord injury scar after treatment with chondroitinase ABC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leung-Wah Yick; Pik-To Cheung; Kwok-Fai So; Wutian Wu

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that enzymatic digestion of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) at the scar promotes the axonal regrowth of Clarke’s nucleus (CN) neurons into an implanted peripheral nerve graft after hemisection of the spinal cord. The present study examined whether degradation of CSPG using chondroitinase ABC promoted the regeneration of CN neurons through the scar into the rostral spinal

  4. Expression of synaptophysin during the prenatal development of the rat spinal cord: Correlation with basic differentiation processes of neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. BERGMANN; G. LAHR; A. MAYERHOFER; M. GRATZLt

    1991-01-01

    The development of the spinal cord involves the proliferation of neurons, tbeir migration to well-defined areas, fiber outgrowth and synapse formation. The present study was designed to correlate the spatiotemporal pattern of expression of synaptophysin, an integral membrane protein of small synaptic vesic1es, with tbese basic processes occurring during tbe embryonic development of the rat spinal cord. Thoracic segments of

  5. A Simple Method for Diagnosis of Autosomal Recessive Spinal Muscular Atrophy by Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalucia Mazzei; Francesca Luisa Conforti; Maria Muglia; Teresa Sprovieri; Alessandra Patitucci; Angela Magariello; Anna Lia Gabriele; Aldo Quattrone

    2003-01-01

    Autosomal recessive spinal muscular atrophy is caused by mutations in the survival motoneuron (SMN ) gene. There are two nearly identical copies of this gene present on chromosome 5q13; however, only the telomeric copy of this gene is affected in spinal muscular atrophy. In this study, we describe a new method to detect SMN gene deletion by denaturing high-performance liquid

  6. Functional Recovery of Paraplegic Rats and Motor Axon Regeneration in Their Spinal Cords by Olfactory Ensheathing Glia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almudena Ramón-Cueto; M. Isabel Cordero; Fernando F. Santos-Benito; Jesús Avila

    2000-01-01

    Axonal regeneration in the lesioned mammalian central nervous system is abortive, and this causes permanent disabilities in individuals with spinal cord injuries. In adult rats, olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) transplants successfully led to functional and structural recovery after complete spinal cord transection. From 3 to 7 months post surgery, all OEG-transplanted animals recovered locomotor functions and sensorimotor reflexes. They presented

  7. Reconstruction of the contused cat spinal cord by the delayed nerve graft technique and cultured peripheral non-neuronal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Wrathall; D. D. Rigamonti; M. R. Braford; C. C. Kao

    1982-01-01

    Previously, surgical reconstruction of the transected dog spinal cord by the delayed nerve graft technique has been shown to result in reinnervation of the nerve graft by axons. In the present study, we compared the results of surgical reconstruction of the severely contused cat spinal cord by the delayed nerve graft technique alone to those after reconstruction with a similar

  8. Spine day 2012: spinal pain in Swiss school children– epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The key to a better understanding of the immense problem of spinal pain seems to be to investigate its development in adolescents. Based on the data of Spine Day 2012 (an annual action day where Swiss school children were examined by chiropractors on a voluntary basis for back problems), the aim of the present study was to gain systematic epidemiologic data on adolescent spinal pain in Switzerland and to explore risk factors per gender and per spinal area. Method Data (questionnaires and physical examinations) of 836 school children were descriptively analyzed for prevalence, recurrence and severity of spinal pain. Of those, 434 data sets were included in risk factor analysis. Using logistic regression analysis, psycho-social parameters (presence of parental back pain, parental smoking, media consumption, type of school bag) and physical parameters (trunk symmetry, posture, mobility, coordination, BMI) were analyzed per gender and per spinal area. Results Prevalence of spinal pain was higher for female gender in all areas apart from the neck. With age, a steep increase in prevalence was observed for low back pain (LBP) and for multiple pain sites. The increasing impact of spinal pain on quality of life with age was reflected in an increase in recurrence, but not in severity of spinal pain. Besides age and gender, parental back pain (Odds ratio (OR)=3.26, p=0.011) and trunk asymmetry (OR=3.36, p=0.027) emerged as risk factors for spinal pain in girls. Parental smoking seemed to increase the risk for both genders (boys: OR=2.39, p=0.020; girls: OR=2.19, p=0.051). Risk factor analysis per spinal area resulted in trunk asymmetry as risk factor for LBP (OR=3.15, p=0.015), while parental smoking increased the risk for thoracic spinal pain (TSP) (OR=2.83, p=0.036) and neck pain (OR=2.23, p=0.038). The risk for TSP was further enhanced by a higher BMI (OR=1.15, p=0.027). Conclusion This study supports the view of adolescent spinal pain as a bio-psycho-social problem that should be investigated per spinal area, age and gender. The role of trunk asymmetry and passive smoking as risk factors as well as the association between BMI and TSP should be further investigated, preferably in prospective studies. PMID:24094041

  9. Dysfunction of axonal membrane conductances in adolescents and young adults with spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Vucic, Steve; Lin, Cindy S.-Y.; Park, Susanna B.; Johnston, Heather M.; du Sart, Desirée; Bostock, Hugh; Kiernan, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is distinct among neurodegenerative conditions of the motor neuron, with onset in developing and maturing patients. Furthermore, the rate of degeneration appears to slow over time, at least in the milder forms. To investigate disease pathophysiology and potential adaptations, the present study utilized axonal excitability studies to provide insights into axonal biophysical properties and explored correlation with clinical severity. Multiple excitability indices (stimulus–response curve, strength–duration time constant, threshold electrotonus, current–threshold relationship and recovery cycle) were investigated in 25 genetically characterized adolescent and adult patients with spinal muscular atrophy, stimulating the median motor nerve at the wrist. Results were compared with 50 age-matched controls. The Medical Research Council sum score and Spinal Muscular Atrophy Functional Rating Scale were used to define the strength and motor functional status of patients with spinal muscular atrophy. In patients with spinal muscular atrophy, there were reductions in compound muscle action potential amplitude (P?spinal muscular atrophy, there was reduction of peak amplitude without alteration in axonal excitability; in contrast, in the non-ambulatory or severe spinal muscular atrophy cohort prominent changes in axonal function were apparent. Specifically, there were steep changes in the early phase of hyperpolarization in threshold electrotonus (P?spinal muscular atrophy supported a mixed pathology comprising features of axonal degeneration and regeneration. The present study has provided novel insight into the pathophysiology of spinal muscular atrophy, with identification of functional abnormalities involving axonal K+ and Na+ conductances and alterations in passive membrane properties, the latter linked to the process of neurodegeneration. PMID:21926101

  10. The current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging: Methods

    PubMed Central

    Stroman, P.W.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.; Bacon, M.; Schwab, J.M.; Bosma, R.; Brooks, J.; Cadotte, D.; Carlstedt, T.; Ciccarelli, O.; Cohen-Adad, J.; Curt, A.; Evangelou, N.; Fehlings, M.G.; Filippi, M.; Kelley, B.J.; Kollias, S.; Mackay, A.; Porro, C.A.; Smith, S.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Summers, P.; Tracey, I.

    2015-01-01

    A first-ever spinal cord imaging meeting was sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust and the Wings for Life Foundation with the aim of identifying the current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging, the current greatest challenges, and greatest needs for future development. This meeting was attended by a small group of invited experts spanning all aspects of spinal cord imaging from basic research to clinical practice. The greatest current challenges for spinal cord imaging were identified as arising from the imaging environment itself; difficult imaging environment created by the bone surrounding the spinal canal, physiological motion of the cord and adjacent tissues, and small cross-sectional dimensions of the spinal cord, exacerbated by metallic implants often present in injured patients. Challenges were also identified as a result of a lack of “critical mass” of researchers taking on the development of spinal cord imaging, affecting both the rate of progress in the field, and the demand for equipment and software to manufacturers to produce the necessary tools. Here we define the current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging, discuss the underlying theory and challenges, and present the evidence for the current and potential power of these methods. In two review papers (part I and part II), we propose that the challenges can be overcome with advances in methods, improving availability and effectiveness of methods, and linking existing researchers to create the necessary scientific and clinical network to advance the rate of progress and impact of the research. PMID:23685159

  11. Contusive spinal cord injury up regulates mu-opioid receptor (mor) gene expression in the brain and down regulates its expression in the spinal cord: possible implications in spinal cord injury research.

    PubMed

    Michael, Felicia Mary; Mohapatra, Alok Nath; Venkitasamy, Lavanya; Chandrasekar, Kirubhanand; Seldon, Tenzin; Venkatachalam, Sankar

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the dreaded neurological conditions and finding a cure for it has been a hot area of research. Naloxone - a mu-opiate receptor (mor) antagonist was considered for SCI treatment based on its positive effects under shock conditions. In contrary to animal studies based reports about the potential benefits of naloxone in treating SCI, a large scale clinical trial [National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study II (NASCIS II)] conducted in USA failed to witness any effectiveness. The inconsistency noticed was intriguing. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to re-examine the role of naloxone in treating SCI using a highly standardised Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study (MASCIS) animal model of contusive SCI. Results indicated that naloxone produced negligible and insignificant neuroprotection. In an attempt to understand the cause for the failure, it was found that mu-opioid receptor (mor) gene expression was upregulated in the brain but was down regulated in the spinal cord after contusive SCI. Given that the beneficial effects of naloxone are through its action on the mor, the results indicate that unlike the brain, spinal cord might not be bracing to utilise the opiate system in the repair process. This could possibly explain the failure of naloxone treatment in NASCIS II. To conclude, opiate antagonists like naloxone may be neuroprotective for treating traumatic brain injuries, but not for traumatic/contusive spinal cord injuries. PMID:26039701

  12. A Rare Case of Multiregional Spinal Stenosis: Clinical Description, Surgical Complication, and Management Concept Review

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Liu, Ka Po Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Case report and literature review. Objective?Multiregional spinal stenosis (MRSS) has not been described in the English literature, although a few studies report the concept of tandem spinal stenosis. Due to the concurrent spinal stenosis occurring in three separate regions of the spine, clinical presentation of MRSS may be less distinct, and its surgical treatment priorities and challenges differ from single-region spinal stenosis. The purpose of this article is to describe a new concept and a rare case of MRSS as separated segments of spinal stenosis in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. Methods?A retrospective case description of MRSS and surgical strategies used in managing such extensive multiregional stenosis and its potential complications. Results ?A novel surgical strategy using a combination of laminectomies with fusion and laminoplasty without fusion to treat this patient with such extensive cervical to thoracic myelopathic cord compression is described. Initial good recovery after cervical cord decompression was followed by a delayed recurrence of symptoms from thoracic cord compression. The subsequent thoracic surgical decompression, its complications and management, and patient recovery are discussed with a literature review highlighting the possible mechanisms for postoperative loss of neurologic function after thoracic decompression. Conclusion?MRSS is a rare cause of extensive compression of multiple regions of the spinal cord. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this report is the first to use the term multiregional spinal stenosis to describe this new emergent clinical entity, surgical management strategies, and potential complications. PMID:25648605

  13. 21 CFR 880.2500 - Spinal fluid manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spinal fluid manometer. 880.2500 Section 880.2500...Monitoring Devices § 880.2500 Spinal fluid manometer. (a) Identification. A spinal fluid manometer is a device used to measure...

  14. 21 CFR 880.2500 - Spinal fluid manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spinal fluid manometer. 880.2500 Section 880.2500...Monitoring Devices § 880.2500 Spinal fluid manometer. (a) Identification. A spinal fluid manometer is a device used to measure...

  15. 21 CFR 880.2500 - Spinal fluid manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spinal fluid manometer. 880.2500 Section 880.2500...Monitoring Devices § 880.2500 Spinal fluid manometer. (a) Identification. A spinal fluid manometer is a device used to measure...

  16. 21 CFR 880.2500 - Spinal fluid manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spinal fluid manometer. 880.2500 Section 880.2500...Monitoring Devices § 880.2500 Spinal fluid manometer. (a) Identification. A spinal fluid manometer is a device used to measure...

  17. 21 CFR 880.2500 - Spinal fluid manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spinal fluid manometer. 880.2500 Section 880.2500...Monitoring Devices § 880.2500 Spinal fluid manometer. (a) Identification. A spinal fluid manometer is a device used to measure...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... catalog Conditions > Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... What is spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy? Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA- ...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3060 - Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis. 888.3060 Section 888.3060...Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis. (a) Identification. A spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis is a device intended to...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3060 - Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis. 888.3060 Section 888.3060...Spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis. (a) Identification. A spinal intervertebral body fixation orthosis is a device intended to...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3050 - Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis. 888.3050 Section 888.3050...3050 Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis. (a) Identification. A spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis is a device intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 888.3050 - Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis. 888.3050 Section 888.3050...3050 Spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis. (a) Identification. A spinal interlaminal fixation orthosis is a device intended to...

  3. Testosterone Plus Finasteride Treatment After Spinal Cord Injury

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-11

    Spinal Cord Injury; Spinal Cord Injuries; Trauma, Nervous System; Wounds and Injuries; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Spinal Cord Diseases; Gonadal Disorders; Endocrine System Diseases; Hypogonadism; Genital Diseases, Male

  4. Technical standards and guidelines for spinal muscular atrophy testing.

    PubMed

    Prior, Thomas W; Nagan, Narasimhan; Sugarman, Elaine A; Batish, Sat Dev; Braastad, Corey

    2011-07-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a common autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron (SMN1) gene, affecting approximately 1 in 10,000 live births. The disease is characterized by progressive symmetrical muscle weakness resulting from the degeneration and loss of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and brainstem nuclei. The disease is classified on the basis of age of onset and clinical course. Two almost identical SMN genes are present on 5q13: the SMN1 gene, which is the spinal muscular atrophy-determining gene, and the SMN2 gene. The homozygous absence of the SMN1 exon 7 has been observed in the majority of patients and is being used as a reliable and sensitive spinal muscular atrophy diagnostic test. Although SMN2 produces less full-length transcript than SMN1, the number of SMN2 copies has been shown to modulate the clinical phenotype. Carrier detection relies on the accurate determination of the SMN1 gene copies. This document follows the outline format of the general Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Laboratories. It is designed to be a checklist for genetic testing professionals who are already familiar with the disease and methods of analysis. PMID:21673580

  5. Spinal Nerve Root Haemangioblastoma Associated with Reactive Polycythemia

    PubMed Central

    Law, Eric K. C.; Lee, Ryan K. L.; Griffith, James F.; Siu, Deyond Y. W.; Ng, Ho Keung

    2014-01-01

    Haemangioblastomas are uncommon tumours that usually occur in the cerebellum and, less commonly, in the intramedullary spinal cord. The extramedullary spinal canal is an uncommon location for these tumours. Also haemangioblastoma at this site is not known to be associated with polycythemia. We present the clinical, imaging, and histological findings of an adult patient with extramedullary spinal haemangioblastoma and reactive polycythemia. Radiography and computed tomography (CT) revealed a medium-sized tumour that most likely arose from an extramedullary spinal nerve root. This tumour appeared to be slow growing as evidenced by the accompanying well-defined bony resorption with a sclerotic rim and mild neural foraminal widening. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed prominent flow voids consistent with tumoural hypervascularity. CT-guided biopsy was performed. Although preoperative angiographic embolisation was technically successful, excessive intraoperative tumour bleeding necessitated tumour debulking rather than complete tumour resection. Histology of the resected specimen revealed haemangioblastoma. Seven months postoperatively, the patients back pain and polycythemia have resolved. PMID:25431722

  6. Craniospinal Irradiation With Spinal IMRT to Improve Target Homogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Panandiker, Atmaram Pai [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Ning, Holly [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Likhacheva, Anna [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Ullman, Karen [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Arora, Barbara [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Ondos, John C. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Karimpour, Shervin [Memorial Regional Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology, Hollywood, FL (United States); Packer, Roger [Division of Neurology and Pediatrics, Children's National Medical Center, Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. (United States); Miller, Robert [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Citrin, Deborah [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)]. E-mail: citrind@mail.nih.gov

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To report a new technique for the spinal component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in the supine position, to describe a verification procedure for this method, and to compare this technique with conventional plans. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients were treated between 1998 and 2006 with CSI using a novel technique. Sixteen children were treated with a conventional field arrangement. All patients were followed for outcomes and toxicity. CSI was delivered using a posteroanterior (PA) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) spinal field matched to conventional, opposed lateral cranial fields. Treatment plans were generated for each patient using the IMRT technique and a standard PA field technique. The resulting dosimetry was compared to determine target homogeneity, maximum dose to normal tissues, and total monitor units delivered. Results: Evaluation of the spinal IMRT technique compared with a standard PA technique reveals a 7% reduction in the target volume receiving {>=}110% of the prescribed dose and an 8% increase in the target volume receiving {>=}95% of the prescribed dose. Although target homogeneity was improved, the maximum dose delivered in the paraspinal muscles was increased by approximately 8.5% with spinal IMRT compared to the PA technique. Follow-up evaluations revealed no unexpected toxicity associated with the IMRT technique. Conclusions: A new technique of spine IMRT is presented in combination with a quality assurance method. This method improves target dose uniformity compared to the conventional CSI technique. Longer follow-up will be required to determine any benefit with regard to toxicity and disease control.

  7. Glycoconjugates Distribution during Developing Mouse Spinal Cord Motor Organizers

    PubMed Central

    Vojoudi, Elham; Ebrahimi, Vahid; Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Alireza; Fazel, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this research was to study the distribution and changes of glycoconjugates particularly their terminal sugars by using lectin histochemistry during mouse spinal cord development. Methods: Formalin-fixed sections of mouse embryo (10-16 fetal days) were processed for lectin histochemical method. In this study, two groups of horseradish peroxidase-labeled specific lectins were used: N-acetylgalactosamine, including Dolichos biflorus, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), Vicia villosa, Glycine max as well as focuse-binding lectins, including tetragonolobus, Ulex europaeus, and Orange peel fungus (OFA). All sections were counterstained with alcian blue (pH 2.5). Results: Our results showed that only WFA and OFA reacted strongly with the floor plate cells from early to late embryonic period of developing spinal cord. The strongest reactions were related to the 14, 15, and 16 days of tissue sections incubated with OFA and WFA lectins. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that cellular and molecular differentiation of the spinal cord organizers is a wholly regulated process, and ?-L-fucose, ?-D-GalNAc, and ?/?-D-GalNAc terminal sugars play a significant role during the prenatal spinal cord development. PMID:25605492

  8. Emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Rhudy, Jamie L.; DelVentura, Jennifer L.; Terry, Ellen L.; Bartley, Emily J.; Olech, Ewa; Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L.

    2013-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain, as well as affective disturbance (e.g., depression). Given that emotional processes are known to modulate pain, a disruption of emotion and emotional modulation of pain and nociception may contribute to FM. The present study used a well-validated affective picture-viewing paradigm to study emotional processing and emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception. Participants were 18 individuals with FM, 18 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 19 healthy pain-free controls (HC). Mutilation, neutral, and erotic pictures were presented in four blocks; two blocks assessed only physiological-emotional reactions (i.e., pleasure/arousal ratings, corrugator EMG, startle modulation, skin conductance) in the absence of pain and two blocks assessed emotional reactivity and emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a physiological measure of spinal nociception) evoked by suprathreshold electric stimulations over the sural nerve. In general, mutilation pictures elicited displeasure, corrugator activity, subjective arousal, and sympathetic activation, whereas erotic pictures elicited pleasure, subjective arousal, and sympathetic activation. However, FM was associated with deficits in appetitive activation (e.g., reduced pleasure/arousal to erotica). Moreover, emotional modulation of pain was observed in HC and RA, but not FM, even though all three groups evidenced modulation of NFR. Additionally, NFR thresholds were not lower in the FM group, indicating a lack of spinal sensitization. Together, these results suggest that FM is associated with a disruption of supraspinal processes associated with positive affect and emotional modulation of pain, but not brain-to-spinal cord circuitry that modulates spinal nociceptive processes. PMID:23622762

  9. Intracranial metastasis of spinal intramedullary anaplastic astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Rashim; Bhasme, Vishal; Chopra, Sanjeev; Sinha, V D; Singhvi, Shashi

    2011-07-01

    Meningeal spread of spinal intramedullary astrocytoma into the cranium is rare. Only few case reports are available so far in the literature. We report a case of intramedullary high grade astrocytoma of the conus, developing intracranial metastasis after three months of partial excision of the spinal mass. The need for radical surgery, entire neuroaxis radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy is suggested in the management of malignant spinal cord astrocytoma to prevent dissemination. PMID:22347337

  10. Intracranial metastasis of spinal intramedullary anaplastic astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Kataria, Rashim; Bhasme, Vishal; Chopra, Sanjeev; Sinha, V. D.; Singhvi, Shashi

    2011-01-01

    Meningeal spread of spinal intramedullary astrocytoma into the cranium is rare. Only few case reports are available so far in the literature. We report a case of intramedullary high grade astrocytoma of the conus, developing intracranial metastasis after three months of partial excision of the spinal mass. The need for radical surgery, entire neuroaxis radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy is suggested in the management of malignant spinal cord astrocytoma to prevent dissemination. PMID:22347337

  11. The biopsychosocial model and spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KM Mathew; G Ravichandran; K May; K Morsley

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the importance of taking the psychological, social and biological aspects into consideration when dealing with somatic complaints of spinal cord injured patients.Setting: Supra-regional Spinal Injury Unit in the UK.Study design: Case study series.Material and methods: The somatic complaints of four patients with spinal cord injury were assessed and their relationship to psychological and social issues were correlated.

  12. Biomechanical Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Oxland; Timothy Bhatnagar; Anthony M. Choo; Marcel F. Dvorak; Wolfram Tetzlaff; Peter A. Cripton

    \\u000a Research into the biomechanics of spinal cord injury has progressed rapidly over the past decade via a number of research\\u000a approaches. Cadaveric experimentation, animal model development and computational simulations continue to contribute much\\u000a insight into the relation between spinal column injury (i.e. vertebrae, discs, ligaments) and spinal cord damage. Efforts\\u000a in this research field are directed towards providing clinicians information

  13. New Directions in Spinal Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian F. Dunn; Marc E. Eichler

    Evolving technological sophistication has resulted in ongoing modifications of traditional surgical approaches to correct\\u000a disorders of the spinal axis. Advances in instrumentation and pre- and intraoperative imaging have fueled a move toward minimally\\u000a invasive, minimal access spine surgery (1), by which the same surgical goals of conventional open techniques are met through a smaller access corridor. An early and\\u000a now

  14. Erythropoietin in Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Brines; Anthony Cerami

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition lacking a clearly effective pharmacological treatment. The cytokine erythropoietin\\u000a (EPO), which mediates cytoprotection in a variety of tissues through activation of multiple signaling pathways, is markedly\\u000a effective in preclinical models of ischemic, traumatic and inflammatory SCI. The recent development of non-erythropoietic\\u000a derivatives of EPO with outstanding preclinical characteristics encourages evaluation of tissue-protective

  15. Multiple extradural spinal arachnoid cysts: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bitaraf, Mohammad Ali; Zeinalizadeh, Mehdi; Meybodi, Keyvan Tayebi; Habibi, Zohreh

    2009-01-01

    Extradural spinal arachnoid cysts are rare lesions, which may become symptomatic due to mass effect. Multiple cysts are even rarer of which few are reported to date. A 17-year-old male with acute onset urinary retention and progressive paraparesis is presented. Magnetic resonance imaging of spine revealed multiple spinal extradural arachnoid cysts located dorsal to the spinal cord, causing mass effect. The patient underwent surgery for excision of the cyst and closure of dural defects. He gained urinary continence and near normal muscle strength of lower extremities over a period of two weeks following operation. Up to date, there have been only sixteen reported cases of multiple spinal extradural arachnoid cysts in the literature and the present case appears to be the second most extensive one reported so far. Appreciation of the rarity of such lesions as well as the importance of surgical planning (especially pre-operative localization of the dural defects) is highlighted. PMID:19829999

  16. Focused review: spinal anesthesia in severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Henke, Vanessa G; Bateman, Brian T; Leffert, Lisa R

    2013-09-01

    Spinal anesthesia is widely regarded as a reasonable anesthetic option for cesarean delivery in severe preeclampsia, provided there is no indwelling epidural catheter or contraindication to neuraxial anesthesia. Compared with healthy parturients, those with severe preeclampsia experience less frequent, less severe spinal-induced hypotension. In severe preeclampsia, spinal anesthesia may cause a higher incidence of hypotension than epidural anesthesia; however, this hypotension is typically easily treated and short lived and has not been linked to clinically significant differences in outcomes. In this review, we describe the advantages and limitations of spinal anesthesia in the setting of severe preeclampsia and the evidence guiding intraoperative hemodynamic management. PMID:23868886

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor contributes to spinal long-term potentiation and mechanical hypersensitivity by activation of spinal microglia in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Yang, Tao; Wei, Xiao; Liu, Yong; Xin, Wen-Jun; Chen, Yuan; Pang, Rui-Ping; Zang, Ying; Li, Yong-Yong; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2011-02-01

    It has been shown that following peripheral nerve injury brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) released by activated microglia contributes to neuropathic pain, but whether BDNF affects the function of microglia is still unknown. In the present work we found that spinal application of BDNF, which induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber evoked field potentials, activated spinal microglia in naïve animals, while pretreatment with microglia inhibitor minocycline blocked BDNF-induced LTP. In addition, following LTP induction by BDNF, both phosphorylated Src-family kinases (p-SFKs) and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) were up-regulated only in spinal microglia but not in neurons and astrocytes, whilst spinal application of SFKs inhibitor (PP2 or SU6656) or p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) blocked BDNF-induced LTP and suppressed microglial activation. As spinal LTP at C-fiber synapses is considered to underlie neuropathic pain, we subsequently examined whether BDNF may contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity by activation of spinal microglia using spared nerve injury (SNI) model. Following SNI BDNF and TrkB receptor were up-regulated mainly in dorsal horn neurons and in activated microglia, and p-SFKs and p-p38 MAPK were increased exclusively in microglia. Intrathecal injection of BDNF scavenger TrkB-Fc starting before SNI, which prevented the behavioral sign of neuropathic pain, suppressed both microglial activation and the up-regulation of p-SFKs and p-p38 MAPK produced by SNI. Thus, the increased BDNF/TrkB signaling in spinal dorsal horn may contribute to neuropathic pain by activation of microglia following peripheral nerve injury and inhibition of SFKs or p38 MAPK may selectively inhibit microglia in spinal dorsal horn. PMID:20933591

  18. Activation of spinal locomotor circuits in the decerebrated cat by spinal epidural and/or intraspinal electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Igor; Musienko, Pavel E; Selionov, Victor A; Zdunowski, Sharon; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie; Gerasimenko, Yury

    2015-03-10

    The present study was designed to further compare the stepping-like movements generated via epidural (ES) and/or intraspinal (IS) stimulation. We examined the ability to generate stepping-like movements in response to ES and/or IS of spinal lumbar segments L1-L7 in decerebrate cats. ES (5-10 Hz) of the dorsal surface of the spinal cord at L3-L7 induced hindlimb stepping-like movements on a moving treadmill belt, but with no rhythmic activity in the forelimbs. IS (60 Hz) of the dorsolateral funiculus at L1-L3 (depth of 0.5-1.0mm from the dorsal surface of the spinal cord) induced quadrupedal stepping-like movements. Forelimb movements appeared first, followed by stepping-like movements in the hindlimbs. ES and IS simultaneously enhanced the rhythmic performance of the hindlimbs more robustly than ES or IS alone. The differences in the stimulation parameters, site of stimulation, and motor outputs observed during ES vs. IS suggest that different neural mechanisms were activated to induce stepping-like movements. The effects of ES may be mediated more via dorsal structures in the lumbosacral region of the spinal cord, whereas the effects of IS may be mediated via more ventral propriospinal networks and/or brainstem locomotor areas. Furthermore, the more effective facilitation of the motor output during simultaneous ES and IS may reflect some convergence of pathways on the same interneuronal populations involved in the regulation of locomotion. PMID:25446455

  19. Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor mimicking as chronic inflammatory demyelination polyneuropathy: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sophelia H S; Tsang, Dickson S F; Wong, Virginia C N; Chan, Godfrey C F

    2015-02-01

    We report a young boy who presented with progressive weakness of lower extremities associated with areflexia and abnormal electrophysiological findings initially suggestive of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Initial lumbosacral spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickened descending spinal nerve roots only. Immunomodulating therapy was given but with limited clinical response. Repeated spine magnetic resonance imaging showed cauda equina and also new spinal cord extramedullary contrast enhancement. The initial extensive investigations including open biopsy did not point to any specific diagnosis. Only through pursuing a repeated biopsy, the diagnosis of the spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor was confirmed. This case highlights the diagnostic challenges of the spinal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor that could have an initial chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy-like presentation. The literature review confirms that this is a rare condition and cauda equina origin has only been reported in adults and teenagers, and this is the first reported case in a young child. PMID:24659733

  20. Biomechanical effect of different interspinous devices on lumbar spinal range of motion under preload conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Hartmann; Sven-Oliver Dietz; Hans Hely; Pol Maria Rommens; Erol Gercek

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Interspinous devices are used as an alternative to the current gold standard treatment, decompressive surgery with or without\\u000a fusion, for lumbar spinal stenosis. They are supposed to limit extension and expand the spinal canal and foramen at the symptomatic\\u000a level, but still allow lateral bending and axial rotation in the motion segment. The aim of the present study is the

  1. Role of electrical stimulation for rehabilitation and regeneration after spinal cord injury: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samar Hamid; Ray Hayek

    2008-01-01

    Structural discontinuity in the spinal cord after injury results in a disruption in the impulse conduction resulting in loss\\u000a of various bodily functions depending upon the level of injury. This article presents a summary of the scientific research\\u000a employing electrical stimulation as a means for anatomical or functional recovery for patients suffering from spinal cord\\u000a injury. Electrical stimulation in the

  2. What are the clinical and radiological characteristics of spinal injuries from physical abuse: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Kemp; A. H. Joshi; M. Mann; V. Tempest; A. Liu; S. Holden; S. Maguire

    2010-01-01

    AimSystematic review of ‘What are the clinical and radiological characteristics of inflicted spinal injury?’MethodsLiterature search of 20 electronic databases, websites, references and bibliographies (1950–2009) using selected keywords. Critical appraisal: by two trained reviewers, (a third review, if discrepant). Inclusion criteria: primary studies of inflicted spinal injury in children <18 years, alive at presentation, with a high surety of diagnosis of

  3. Independent evaluation of a clinical prediction rule for spinal manipulative therapy: a randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Hancock; Christopher G. Maher; Jane Latimer; Robert D. Herbert; James H. McAuley

    2008-01-01

    A clinical prediction rule to identify patients most likely to respond to spinal manipulation has been published and widely\\u000a cited but requires further testing for external validity. We performed a pre-planned secondary analysis of a randomised controlled\\u000a trial investigating the efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy in 239 patients presenting to general practice clinics for\\u000a acute, non-specific, low back pain. Patients

  4. Intracranial Germinoma Presenting as Polyradiculopathy Due to Widespread Spinal Dissemination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. D. Hengstman; R. A. R. Gons; P. P. A. Lenssen; A. C. Kappelle

    2006-01-01

    To the editor An 18-year-old man, with no relevant past medical history, consulted a neurologist because of subacute onset of progressive symmetrical muscle weakness of the lower extremities, numbness of the feet, and tingling in both hands. There were no other neurological complaints. He had experienced a flu-like episode with diarrhea several days prior to onset. Physical examination revealed bilateral

  5. Surgical outcome after spinal fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Sapkas, George; Kateros, Konstantinos; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Galanakos, Spyros; Brilakis, Emmanuel; Machairas, George; Katonis, Pavlos

    2009-01-01

    Background Ankylosing spondylitis is a rheumatic disease in which spinal and sacroiliac joints are mainly affected. There is a gradual bone formation in the spinal ligaments and ankylosis of the spinal diarthroses which lead to stiffness of the spine. The diffuse paraspinal ossification and inflammatory osteitis of advanced Ankylosing spondylitis creates a fused, brittle spine that is susceptible to fracture. The aim of this study is to present the surgical experience of spinal fractures occurring in patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis and to highlight the difficulties that exist as far as both diagnosis and surgical management are concerned. Methods Twenty patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis were operated due to a spinal fracture. The fracture was located at the cervical spine in 7 cases, at the thoracic spine in 9, at the thoracolumbar junction in 3 and at the lumbar spine in one case. Neurological defects were revealed in 10 patients. In four of them, neurological signs were progressively developed after a time period of 4 to 15 days. The initial radiological study was negative for a spinal fracture in twelve patients. Every patient was assessed at the time of admission and daily until the day of surgery, then postoperatively upon discharge. Results Combined anterior and posterior approaches were performed in three patients with only posterior approaches performed on the rest. Spinal fusion was seen in 100% of the cases. No intra-operative complications occurred. There was one case in which superficial wound inflammation occurred. Loosening of posterior screws without loss of stability appeared in two patients with cervical injuries. Frankel neurological classification was used in order to evaluate the neurological status of the patients. There was statistically significant improvement of Frankel neurological classification between the preoperative and postoperative evaluation. 35% of patients showed improvement due to the operation performed. Conclusion The operative treatment of these injuries is useful and effective. It usually succeeds the improvement of the patients' neurological status. Taking into consideration the cardiovascular problems that these patients have, anterior and posterior stabilization aren't always possible. In these cases, posterior approach can be performed and give excellent results, while total operation time, blood loss and other possible complications are decreased. PMID:19646282

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Spine in Children: Spinal Incidental Findings in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramadorai, Uma E.; Hire, Justin M.; DeVine, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective case series. Objective?To determine the rate of spinal incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in the pediatric population. Methods?We reviewed MRI imaging of the neuraxial spine in patients less than 18 years of age and documented abnormal spinal findings. We then reviewed the charts of these patients to determine the reason for ordering the study. Those who presented with pain were considered symptomatic. Those who had no presenting complaint were considered asymptomatic. The data were analyzed to break down the rate of spinal incidental findings in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, respectively. Results?Thirty-one of the 99 MRIs had positive findings, with the most common being disk protrusion (51.6%). Spinal incidental findings were most common in the lumbar spine (9.4%) versus the cervical spine (8%) or thoracic spine (4.7%). In this group, Schmorl nodes and disk protrusion were the two most common findings (37.5% each). Other spinal incidental findings included a vertebral hemangioma and a Tarlov cyst. In the thoracic spine, the only spinal incidental finding was a central disk protrusion without spinal cord or nerve root compression. Conclusion?MRI is a useful modality in the pediatric patient with scoliosis or complaints of pain, but the provider should remain cognizant of the potential for spinal incidental findings. PMID:25396102

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in children: spinal incidental findings in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ramadorai, Uma E; Hire, Justin M; DeVine, John G

    2014-12-01

    Study Design?Retrospective case series. Objective?To determine the rate of spinal incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in the pediatric population. Methods?We reviewed MRI imaging of the neuraxial spine in patients less than 18 years of age and documented abnormal spinal findings. We then reviewed the charts of these patients to determine the reason for ordering the study. Those who presented with pain were considered symptomatic. Those who had no presenting complaint were considered asymptomatic. The data were analyzed to break down the rate of spinal incidental findings in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, respectively. Results?Thirty-one of the 99 MRIs had positive findings, with the most common being disk protrusion (51.6%). Spinal incidental findings were most common in the lumbar spine (9.4%) versus the cervical spine (8%) or thoracic spine (4.7%). In this group, Schmorl nodes and disk protrusion were the two most common findings (37.5% each). Other spinal incidental findings included a vertebral hemangioma and a Tarlov cyst. In the thoracic spine, the only spinal incidental finding was a central disk protrusion without spinal cord or nerve root compression. Conclusion?MRI is a useful modality in the pediatric patient with scoliosis or complaints of pain, but the provider should remain cognizant of the potential for spinal incidental findings. PMID:25396102

  8. [Spontaneous resolution of idiopathic spinal subdural hematoma: case report].

    PubMed

    Tamano, Y; Iwata, Y; Baba, M; Izawa, M; Takakura, K

    1998-11-01

    A 32-year-old female presented with about a week's history of dull pain in the head and neck pain. On the day of admission, she experienced a sudden onset of severe pain, extending from the occipital to the lower back region and hypesthesia and paresthesia of the right C8-Th3 dermatome. On admission, she was alert but there was a band of hypesthesia and paresthesia at the level of C8-Th3. Cervical X-ray, computed tomography scan (CT) and magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the head revealed no definite abnormalities. The peripheral blood picture was normal, and the bleeding and clotting times were in the normal range. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was bloody and the CSF pressure was 220 mm H2O. An emergent 4-vessel intracranial angiography disclosed no abnormal findings. MRI and myelography revealed an intradural extramedullary lesion extending from the Th2 to the Th5 levels, ventral to the spinal cord. A T1-weighted MR image showed iso-low intensity and a T2-weighted MR image showed low intensity at these lesions. Spinal angiography revealed no abnormal vessels. In one month, spinal compression cleared gradually without surgery and her clinical symptoms disappeared about 40 days after admission. Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma is uncommon and only 28 cases have been reported. 15 cases have been treated with surgical procedure, but spinal compression cleared spontaneously in this case. This spontaneous recovery is such a rare event that only 3 such cases have been reported in the literature. However, with the prevailing MRI, this disease will be detected more frequently in the future. PMID:9834497

  9. Spinal Schistosomiasis: Differential Diagnosis for Acute Paraparesis in a US Resident

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Tapan N; Yamazaki, Michael K; Zhao, Holly; Becker, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Spinal schistosomiasis is a severe presentation of Schistosoma mansoni infection, which is endemic in South America, the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa. With increasing international travel, a disease can spread from an endemic area to another part of the world easily. Objective: To present a case of a US resident who developed acute paraparesis due to spinal schistosomiasis after traveling to sub-Saharan Africa. Participant: A 45-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain radiating into the bilateral lower extremities. She was diagnosed with a pelvic mass and underwent an urgent hysterectomy with right salpingo-oopherectomy. Postoperatively, she developed progressive weakness with worsening pain in her bilateral lower extremities and neurogenic bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an abnormal T2 hyperintense signal in the entire spinal cord below the T3 level with abnormal contrast enhancement from T9 through the conus medullaris. Spinal fluid analysis showed lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein. The patient was diagnosed with transverse myelitis. Subsequently, a detailed history revealed a visit to Ethiopia 2 years earlier. Tests for S mansoni were positive. After treatment with praziquantel and prednisone, her neurologic function began to improve. Conclusions: An increasing incidence of international travel is increasing the likelihood of US physicians' encountering this treatable condition. Travelers with spinal schistosomiasis may not have symptoms of systemic infection. Therefore, it is important to include spinal schistosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of acute inflammatory myelopathy, particularly with a history of travel to endemic areas. PMID:20737799

  10. Multicentric glioma of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    al-Wahhabi, B; Choudhury, A R; Chaudhri, K A; Haleem, A; Sharif, H

    1992-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis presented with a 1.5-year history of pain in the neck, both shoulders and back, and a 4-month history of progressively increasing weakness of all the limbs and inability to walk. The limb weakness fluctuated and, at the height of the weakness, it was associated with hesitancy and retention of urine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a fusiform enlargement of the upper cervical cord with obliteration of the subarachnoid space. Imaging after gadolinium-DTPA injection revealed inhomogeneous enhancement extending from the lower medulla down to the C4 cord level, and homogeneous enhancement at D3 to D4 and D6 to D8 cord levels. The spinal cord at the lower two levels appeared morphologically normal. At operation the fusiform enlargement of the cervical cord was confirmed. The tumour was partially removed. Histology revealed it to be a fibrillary astrocytoma. PMID:1449675

  11. Melanotic cyst of L5 spinal root: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Hariprakash

    2012-10-01

    Till date, 85 cases of melanotic schwannoma and 11 cases of spinal root melanoma have been reported in literature. We are reporting a case of a 45-year-old lady who presented with primary low back pain, and magnetic resonance imaging of lumbo-sacral spine showed at left L5-S1 foraminal lesion extending to the para-spinal compartment. Hemi-laminectomy, facetectomy, and excision of the lesion were done. It was primarily a cystic lesion with attachment to the exiting spinal nerve root. Histopathology of the cyst wall showed a fibro-collagenous stroma with no specific cell lining containing melanin pigment suggestive of a melanotic cyst. The patient was completely relieved of the back pain, and had no recurrence over a follow-up period of one and half years. This case is probably the first reported predominantly cystic, pigmented lesion, affecting the spinal root. PMID:23559992

  12. Perfusion assessment in rat spinal cord tissue using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Justin P.; Cibert-Goton, Vincent; Langford, Richard M.; Shortland, Peter J.

    2013-03-01

    Animal models are widely used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of spinal cord injury (SCI), most commonly in rats. It is well known that compromised blood flow caused by mechanical disruption of the vasculature can produce irreversible damage and cell death in hypoperfused tissue regions and spinal cord tissue is particularly susceptible to such damage. A fiberoptic photoplethysmography (PPG) probe and instrumentation system were used to investigate the practical considerations of making measurements from rat spinal cord and to assess its suitability for use in SCI models. Experiments to assess the regional perfusion of exposed spinal cord in anesthetized adult rats using both PPG and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were performed. It was found that signals could be obtained reliably from all subjects, although considerable intersite and intersubject variability was seen in the PPG signal amplitude compared to LDF. We present results from 30 measurements in five subjects, the two methods are compared, and practical application to SCI animal models is discussed.

  13. Multiple spinal and cranial meningiomas: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Jain, S K; Sundar, I Vijay; Sharma, Vinod; Goel, Ravishankar S; Prasanna, K L

    2015-01-01

    Though meningiomas are common neoplasms of the nervous system, the occurrence of multiple meningiomas in different neuraxial compartments is rather rare. We report a case of a 62-year-old female who presented with spastic paraparesis in both lower limbs, and was found to have multiple homogenously enhancing tumors of dorsolumbar spine. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple bilateral supratentorial meningiomas. She underwent multiple level laminectomy and total removal of spinal tumors after which power improved in both lower limbs. Histopathology revealed psammomatous meningiomas. Only around 19 cases of multiple cranial and spinal meningiomas have been reported, of which, only five cases have more than one spinal meningioma. The implication of the incidence of such multiple meningiomas in the same patient with relevance to investigations and decision making are discussed along with a brief review of literature of cases with multiple spinal and cranial meningiomas. PMID:25972948

  14. Acute spinal epidural abscess

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Peter; C. F. Kieck; J. C. De Villiers

    1992-01-01

    Twelve children under the age of 14 years were operated upon for acute epidural abscess during the period 1968–1990. Four presented with abdominal pain and tenderness, 2 with pain in the back attributed to local trauma, 3 had a sudden simultaneous onset of back pain and paraplegia, 1 developed quadriplegia after drainage of tibial osteitis, 1 was suspected of having

  15. Effect of locomotor training in completely spinalized cats previously submitted to a spinal hemisection.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marina; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Leblond, Hugues; Rossignol, Serge

    2012-08-01

    After a spinal hemisection in cats, locomotor plasticity occurring at the spinal level can be revealed by performing, several weeks later, a complete spinalization below the first hemisection. Using this paradigm, we recently demonstrated that the hemisection induces durable changes in the symmetry of locomotor kinematics that persist after spinalization. Can this asymmetry be changed again in the spinal state by interventions such as treadmill locomotor training started within a few days after the spinalization? We performed, in 9 adult cats, a spinal hemisection at thoracic level 10 and then a complete spinalization at T13, 3 weeks later. Cats were not treadmill trained during the hemispinal period. After spinalization, 5 of 9 cats were not trained and served as control while 4 of 9 cats were trained on the treadmill for 20 min, 5 d a week for 3 weeks. Using detailed kinematic analyses, we showed that, without training, the asymmetrical state of locomotion induced by the hemisection was retained durably after the subsequent spinalization. By contrast, training cats after spinalization induced a reversal of the left/right asymmetries, suggesting that new plastic changes occurred within the spinal cord through locomotor training. Moreover, training was shown to improve the kinematic parameters and the performance of the hindlimb on the previously hemisected side. These results indicate that spinal locomotor circuits, previously modified by past experience such as required for adaptation to the hemisection, can remarkably respond to subsequent locomotor training and improve bilateral locomotor kinematics, clearly showing the benefits of locomotor training in the spinal state. PMID:22875930

  16. Cooling athletes with a spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Katy E; Price, Michael J; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2015-01-01

    Cooling strategies that help prevent a reduction in exercise capacity whilst exercising in the heat have received considerable research interest over the past 3 decades, especially in the lead up to a relatively hot Olympic and Paralympic Games. Progressing into the next Olympic/Paralympic cycle, the host, Rio de Janeiro, could again present an environmental challenge for competing athletes. Despite the interest and vast array of research into cooling strategies for the able-bodied athlete, less is known regarding the application of these cooling strategies in the thermoregulatory impaired spinal cord injured (SCI) athletic population. Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) have a reduced afferent input to the thermoregulatory centre and a loss of both sweating capacity and vasomotor control below the level of the spinal cord lesion. The magnitude of this thermoregulatory impairment is proportional to the level of the lesion. For instance, individuals with high-level lesions (tetraplegia) are at a greater risk of heat illness than individuals with lower-level lesions (paraplegia) at a given exercise intensity. Therefore, cooling strategies may be highly beneficial in this population group, even in moderate ambient conditions (~21 °C). This review was undertaken to examine the scientific literature that addresses the application of cooling strategies in individuals with an SCI. Each method is discussed in regards to the practical issues associated with the method and the potential underlying mechanism. For instance, site-specific cooling would be more suitable for an athlete with an SCI than whole body water immersion, due to the practical difficulties of administering this method in this population group. From the studies reviewed, wearing an ice vest during intermittent sprint exercise has been shown to decrease thermal strain and improve performance. These garments have also been shown to be effective during exercise in the able-bodied. Drawing on additional findings from the able-bodied literature, the combination of methods used prior to and during exercise and/or during rest periods/half-time may increase the effectiveness of a strategy. However, due to the paucity of research involving athletes with an SCI, it is difficult to establish an optimal cooling strategy. Future studies are needed to ensure that research outcomes can be translated into meaningful performance enhancements by investigating cooling strategies under the constraints of actual competition. Cooling strategies that meet the demands of intermittent wheelchair sports need to be identified, with particular attention to the logistics of the sport. PMID:25119157

  17. Spinal Instrumentation With A Low Complication Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A Shapiro; William Snyder

    1997-01-01

    BackgroundSpinal instrumentation has become an increasing part of the armamentarium of neurosurgery and neurosurgical training. For noncontroversial indications for spine fusion the arthrodesis rate seems to be better. For both noncontroversial and controversial indications, the reported complication rate with spinal instrumentation tends to be greater than that with noninstrumented spine surgeries. These reported complications include a 2–3% neurologic injury rate,

  18. Spinal Cord Simulation for Chronic Pain Management

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Spinal Cord Simulation for Chronic Pain Management: Towards an Expert System Kenneth M. Al'o 1 , Richard Al'o 2 , Andre de Korvin 2 , and Vladik Kreinovich 3 1 Pain and Health Management Center 17270 Red@cs.utep.edu Abstract Chronic pain is a serious health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Currently, spinal

  19. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Mellies, Uwe; Dohna-Schwake, Christian; Stehling, Florian; Voit, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing is a common but under-diagnosed complication causing sleep disturbance and daytime symptoms in children with spinal muscular atrophy. Non-invasive (positive pressure) ventilation is an established treatment of respiratory failure; its role in treatment of sleep disordered breathing though remains controversial. Aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that nocturnal non-invasive ventilation has beneficial impact on breathing during sleep, sleep quality and daytime complaints in children with spinal muscular atrophy. Twelve children with spinal muscular atrophy type I or II (7.8+/-1.9 years) underwent polysomnography and were asked to fill out a symptom questionnaire. Seven patients (six with spinal muscular atrophy I and one with spinal muscular atrophy II) had sleep disordered breathing and received non-invasive ventilation during sleep. Five less severely affected patients (one with spinal muscular atrophy I and four with spinal muscular atrophy II) had no sleep disordered breathing and served as reference group. Patients were restudied after 6-12 months. In patients with sleep disordered breathing both sleep architecture and disease related symptoms were significantly worse than in the reference-group. Non-invasive ventilation during sleep completely eliminated disordered breathing, normalized sleep architecture and improved symptoms (P<0.05 for all). In children with spinal muscular atrophy sleep disordered breathing may cause relevant impairment of sleep and well-being. Both can be highly improved by nocturnal non-invasive ventilation. PMID:15564035

  20. Injectable multifunctional scaffold for spinal cord repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren Conova; Pamela Kubinski; Ying Jin; Jennifer Vernengo; Birgit Neuhuber; Itzhak Fischer; Anthony Lowman

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects thousands of Americans each year. The injury results in local cell loss in the spinal cord, interrupting the connections between brain and periphery. Current treatment options for SCI are limited due to the inability of adult neurons to regenerate in the inhibitory environment of the injured central nervous system (CNS). The primary goal of this

  1. Psychological Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniel W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviewing literature on the psychological impact of spinal cord injury suggests: (a) depression may not be a precondition for injury adjustment; (b) many persons sustaining cord injury may have experienced psychological disruption prior to injury; and (c) indexes of rehabilitation success need to be developed for the spinal cord injured. (Author)

  2. Ergonomics, spinal injury, and industrial vehicle safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. McLay; D. G. Wilder; M. K. Molloy

    1996-01-01

    Explores the mechanisms of spinal injury in industrial vehicle accidents. The biomechanics of balance, response to sudden loads, and impact and vibration are shown to influence the nature of trauma. A simulation of the occupant motion in a sit-down forklift shows the loads in a tipover. The packaging of the driver is discussed to reduce the probability of spinal injury

  3. The Development of Spinal Cord Anatomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. S. Pearce

    2008-01-01

    A panel illustrating spinal cord injury in The Dying Lioness in the British Museum dates to 650 BC. This paper outlines the subsequent progression of knowledge of the anatomy of the spinal cord. The animal dissections of Galen are considered because his deductions persisted through the Dark Ages until the late 18th century. Anatomy advanced gradually to yield discoveries of

  4. Spinal stenosis subsequent to juvenile lumbar osteochondrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaj Tallroth; Dietrich Schlenzka

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes eight patients with spinal stenosis associated with marked osteochondrous changes in the vertebral bodies due to juvenile lumbar osteochondrosis (Scheuermann's disease). In no case was the midsagittal or interpedicular diameter of the spinal canal indicative of bony stenosis. On the other hand, in the myelograms the sagittal diameter of the dural sac was in all cases significantly

  5. Bladder training in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Menon, E B; Tan, E S

    1992-11-01

    Immediately following severe injury to the spinal cord or conus medullaris, there is a stage of flaccid paralysis of the bladder. The smooth muscle of the detrusor and rectum is affected. Drainage of the bladder is very important in the early care of such patients. From August 1989 to August 1990, 55 spinal cord injury patients were studied on admission to our department. The current bladder training method used for these patients is presented. A patient was deemed to have been successfully bladder trained when catheter-free, continent, and able to consistently maintain a residual volume of 100 mL or less with the aid of tapping and compression. On discharge 45 patients (82%) were successfully bladder trained, 8 (15%) employed a regimen of clean intermittent self-catheterization, and 2 went home/institutional care with an indwelling catheter. The material presented is applicable to any type of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. PMID:1441039

  6. Ventral occipito-atlanto-axial fluid-filled lesion causing dynamic spinal cord compression in a cat.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Hammond, Gawain; Wessmann, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Cystic lesions affecting the vertebral canal or spinal cord have rarely been reported in cats. A 3-year-old female neutered domestic longhair cat presented for evaluation of a 2-year-history of episodes of ataxia and paresis affecting all limbs. Neurological examination was consistent with a lesion in the C1-C5 spinal cord segments. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a fluid-filled lesion at the occipito-atlanto-axial region causing dynamic spinal cord compression on flexion of the neck. The imaging characteristics were compatible with a juxta-articular cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a fluid-filled lesion causing dynamic cervical spinal cord compression in a cat and highlights the importance of performing flexion-extension MRI views in diagnosing cases with dynamic spinal cord compression. PMID:24101745

  7. Diffusion tensor tractography demonstration of partially injured spinal cord tracts in a patient with posttraumatic Brown Sequard syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Shanmughanathan; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Karunanithi, Rajamanickam; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad

    2010-10-01

    The authors report the utility of diffusion tensor tractography in demonstrating the partially severed spinal cord tracts on one side with normal, intact, distally traceable tracts on the opposite side in a patient with posttraumatic Brown Sequard syndrome. A 30-year-old man presented with typical clinical features of a hemisection injury of the thoracic spinal cord, 2 months after he had sustained a back stab injury. Routine MRI showed T2 hyperintense zones in the thoracic spinal cord at the level of T5. We did axial single shot echo planar diffusion tensor imaging with a 1.5 Tesla MR machine. Tractography effectively depicted the injured spinal cord tracts on the left side with normal intact tracts on the right side, which could be traced distally. The fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient values showed significant changes at the level of injury. Tractographic demonstration of human spinal cord injury is reported for the first time. PMID:20882629

  8. Safety of instrumentation and fusion at the time of surgical debridement for spinal infection.

    PubMed

    Talia, Adrian J; Wong, Michael L; Lau, Hui C; Kaye, Andrew H

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to assess the results of single-stage instrumentation and fusion at the time of surgical debridement of spinal infections; vertebral osteomyelitis or epidural abscess. Nine patients with spinal infection were treated with instrumentation and fusion after radical debridement in a single-stage operation. Predisposing factors and comorbidities, pain, American Spinal Injury Association motor scores, primary pathologies, microbiology and perioperative markers were recorded. Seven patients with pyogenic and two with tuberculous spinal infection were encountered; the most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus. Five patients were predisposed to infection because of diabetes mellitus. Duration of antibiotic therapy lasted up to 12months. Six patients had thoracic infection, two lumbar and one cervical. No post-operative complications were encountered. There was a significant reduction in pain scores compared to pre-operatively. All patients with neurological deficits improved post-operatively. Despite introduction of hardware, no patients had a recurrence of their infection in the 12month follow up period. Single-stage debridement and instrumentation appeared to be a safe and effective method of managing spinal infections. The combination of debridement and fusion has the dual benefit of removing a focus of infection and stabilising the spine. The current series confirms that placing titanium cages into an infected space is safe in a majority of patients. Stabilisation and correction of spinal deformity reduces pain, aids neurologic recovery and improves quality of life. The small patient population and retrospective nature limit the present study. PMID:25911501

  9. Isolated thoracic (D5) intramedullary epidermoid cyst without spinal dysraphism: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Satapathy, Mani Charan; Deo, Rama Chandra; Tripathy, Soubhagya Ranjan; Senapati, Satya Bhusan

    2015-01-01

    Spinal epidermoid cyst, congenital or acquired, is mainly congenital associated with spinal dysraphism, rarely in isolation. Intramedullary epidermoid cysts (IECs) are rare with less than 60 cases reported so far; isolated variety (i.e., without spinal dysraphism) is still rarer. Complete microsurgical excision is the dictum of surgical treatment. A 14-year-old boy presented with 4-month history of upper backache accompanied with progressive descending paresthesia with paraparesis with early bladder and bowel involvement. His condition deteriorated rapidly making him bedridden. Neurological examination revealed upper thoracic myeloradiculopathy probably of neoplastic origin with sensory localization to D5 spinal level. Digital X-ray revealed no feature suggestive of spinal dysraphism. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics clinched the presumptive diagnosis. Near-total microsurgical excision was done leaving behind a small part of the calcified capsule densely adhered to cord. Histopathological features were confirmative of an epidermoid cyst. Postoperatively, he improved significantly with a gain of motor power sufficient to walk without support within a span of 6 months. Spinal IECs, without any specific clinical presentation, are often diagnosed based upon intraoperative and histopathological findings, however early diagnosis is possible on complete MRI valuation. Complete microsurgical excision, resulting in cessation of clinical progression and remission of symptoms, has to be limited to sub-total or near-total excision if cyst is adherent to cord or its confines.

  10. Virchow's Triad and spinal manipulative therapy of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Symons, Bruce P; Westaway, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this review paper is to borrow Virchow's Triad as a conceptual framework to examine the state of the art in research on thrombosis, specifically in the vertebrobasilar system as a consequence of high velocity, low amplitude spinal manipulation of the cervical spine. A revised Virchow's Triad is presented which emphasizes the interactions between various risk factors, as a tool for clinicians and researchers to use in their analyses of vertebrobasilar stroke. Endothelial injury, abnormal blood flow and hypercoagulability are discussed.

  11. Theophylline for Bradycardia Secondary to Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farid SadakaSoophia; Soophia Khan Naydenov; John J. Ponzillo

    2010-01-01

    Background  Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease process that can occur as a consequence of motor vehicle collisions, falls,\\u000a or other traumatic injuries. Persistent bradycardia was found to be universally present in all high cervical SCI patients.\\u000a Limited data exists to suggest the most effective therapy for the bradycardia associated with high cervical SCI. Treatment\\u000a includes atropine, epinephrine, dopamine,

  12. Burden of spinal cord injury in Tehran, Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Rahimi-Movaghar; M Moradi-Lakeh; M R Rasouli; A R Vaccaro

    2010-01-01

    Study Design:Investigation of burden of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) using disease modeling.Objectives:The present paper is intended to estimate the SCI burden for the year 2008.Setting:Tehran, capital of Iran.Methods:Epidemiological data needed to calculate Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) for SCI, was estimated according to prevalence, duration and relative risk of mortality using DISMOD software. For DALY calculation, the years of life lost

  13. Trauma of the spine and spinal cord: imaging strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Parizel; T. van der Zijden; S. Gaudino; M. Spaepen; M. H. J. Voormolen; C. Venstermans; F. De Belder; L. van den Hauwe; J. Van Goethem

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic injuries of the spine and spinal cord are common and potentially devastating lesions. We present a comprehensive\\u000a overview of the classification of vertebral fractures, based on morphology (e.g., wedge, (bi)concave, or crush fractures)\\u000a or on the mechanism of injury (flexion-compression, axial compression, flexion-distraction, or rotational fracture-dislocation\\u000a lesions). The merits and limitations of different imaging techniques are discussed, including plain

  14. Combinational Spinal GAD65 Gene Delivery and Systemic GABA-Mimetic Treatment for Modulation of Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kakinohana, Osamu; Hefferan, Michael P.; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Nejime, Tetsuya; Marsala, Silvia; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Kucharova, Karolina; Strnadel, Jan; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Lazar, Peter; Galik, Jan; Vinay, Laurent; Marsala, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background Loss of GABA-mediated pre-synaptic inhibition after spinal injury plays a key role in the progressive increase in spinal reflexes and the appearance of spasticity. Clinical studies show that the use of baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist), while effective in modulating spasticity is associated with major side effects such as general sedation and progressive tolerance development. The goal of the present study was to assess if a combined therapy composed of spinal segment-specific upregulation of GAD65 (glutamate decarboxylase) gene once combined with systemic treatment with tiagabine (GABA uptake inhibitor) will lead to an antispasticity effect and whether such an effect will only be present in GAD65 gene over-expressing spinal segments. Methods/Principal Findings Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to transient spinal ischemia (10 min) to induce muscle spasticity. Animals then received lumbar injection of HIV1-CMV-GAD65 lentivirus (LVs) targeting ventral ?-motoneuronal pools. At 2–3 weeks after lentivirus delivery animals were treated systemically with tiagabine (4, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg or vehicle) and the degree of spasticity response measured. In a separate experiment the expression of GAD65 gene after spinal parenchymal delivery of GAD65-lentivirus in naive minipigs was studied. Spastic SD rats receiving spinal injections of the GAD65 gene and treated with systemic tiagabine showed potent and tiagabine-dose-dependent alleviation of spasticity. Neither treatment alone (i.e., GAD65-LVs injection only or tiagabine treatment only) had any significant antispasticity effect nor had any detectable side effect. Measured antispasticity effect correlated with increase in spinal parenchymal GABA synthesis and was restricted to spinal segments overexpressing GAD65 gene. Conclusions/Significance These data show that treatment with orally bioavailable GABA-mimetic drugs if combined with spinal-segment-specific GAD65 gene overexpression can represent a novel and highly effective anti-spasticity treatment which is associated with minimal side effects and is restricted to GAD65-gene over-expressing spinal segments. PMID:22291989

  15. Parasitic and rare spinal infections.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Lázaro Luís Faria; Nunes, Renato Hoffmann; da Rocha, Antonio Jose

    2015-05-01

    The imaging features of spinal parasitic diseases and other rare infections are herein discussed. These diseases are distributed worldwide, with increased prevalence in areas with poor sanitary conditions and in developing countries. In nonendemic areas, sporadic cases may occur, consequent to increased international travel and immunocompromising conditions. Infectious diseases are usually treatable, and early detection is often crucial. A thorough comprehension of the imaging patterns associated with the clinical features, epidemiology, and laboratory results allows the radiologist to narrow down the options for differential diagnosis and facilitates the timely implementation of appropriate therapies. PMID:25952177

  16. [Cerebrospinal fluid in the diagnosis of spinal schistosomiasis].

    PubMed

    Tesser, Egídio; Reis, Maria de Lourdes Amud Ali dos; Borelli, Primavera; Matas, Sandro Luiz de Andrade; Reis Filho, João Baptista dos

    2005-09-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in spinal schistosomiasis have been described. Its characteristic features are mild to moderate pleocytosis, presence of eosinophils, slight to moderate protein increase, elevated gamma globulin concentration and a positive immune assay. Nevertheless, these abnormalities are not always present together and therefore difficulties may arise in the assessment of the diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the importance of each CSF alteration concerning the diagnosis in 22 cases of spinal schistosomiasis. According to the results, only 20% of the cases had all the five feature that are considered to be characteristic of spinal schistosomiasis. Abnormal cell count was present in 86%, protein increase in 77.3%, immunoglobulin G increase in 60,8%, eosinophils were present in 36.8% and indirect fluorescent antibody test was positive in 68.2%. In three cases all CSF parameters studied were within the normal limits. As the most specific test among those described was the indirect fluorescent antibody test, it should be regarded for the diagnosis. PMID:16172719

  17. PLASTICITY OF THE SPINAL NEURAL CIRCUITRY AFTER INJURY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Reggie Edgerton; Niranjala J. K. Tillakaratne; Allison J. Bigbee; Ray D. de Leon; Roland R. Roy

    2004-01-01

    ? Abstract Motor function is severely disrupted following spinal cord injury (SCI). The spinal circuitry, however, exhibits a great degree of automaticity and plasticity after an injury. Automaticity implies that the spinal circuits have some,capacity to perform complex motor tasks following the disruption of supraspinal input, and evidence for plasticity suggests that biochemical,changes at the cellular level in the spinal

  18. Hereditary spinal neurofibromatosis: a rare form of NF1?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Poyhonen; E L Leisti; S Kytölä; J Leisti

    1997-01-01

    We describe a family in which seven members in three generations were affected with a rare spinal neurofibromatosis. The affected adults showed, at the ages of 32, 37, 38, and 61, respectively, multiple spinal neurofibromas symmetrically affecting all spinal roots. Two patients were operated on for histopathologically proven cervical spinal neurofibromas. All patients had café au lait spots, one had

  19. Acute infra-renal aortic dissection presenting as back pain and transient paralysis of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a rare complication in patients with aortic dissection. Spinal ischaemia has been reported as a complication of aortic dissection due to impairment of its extrinsic supply in the great radicular artery (GRA) of Adamkiewicz. The extrinsic arterial blood supply to the spinal cord, diminishes caudally and is believed to become critically dependent upon the GRA.(1) infra-renal aortic dissections (IAAD) inducing spinal ischaemia are exceptionally rare in the literature. We present a case of an infra-renal aortic dissection (IAAD) presenting with transient spinal ischaemia. PMID:22288040

  20. Characterization of Vascular Disruption and Blood–Spinal Cord Barrier Permeability following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Sarah A.; Khosravi, Ramak; Legasto, Jean M.; Tseng, Yun-Fan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significant vascular changes occur subsequent to spinal cord injury (SCI), which contribute to progressive pathophysiology. In the present study, we used female Wistar rats (300–350?g) and a 35-g clip-compression injury at T6 to T7 to characterize the spatial and temporal vascular changes that ensue post-SCI. Before sacrifice, animals were injected with vascular tracing dyes (2% Evans Blue (EB) or fluorescein isothiocyanate/Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin [FITC-LEA]) to assess blood–spinal cord barrier (BSCB) integrity or vascular architecture, respectively. Spectrophotometry of EB tissue showed maximal BSCB disruption at 24?h postinjury, with significant disruption observed until 5 days postinjury (p<0.01). FITC-LEA-identified functional vasculature was dramatically reduced by 24?h. Similarly, RECA-1 immunohistochemistry showed a significant decrease in the number of vessels at 24?h postinjury, compared to uninjured animals (p<0.01), with slight increases in endogenous revascularization by 10 days postinjury. White versus gray matter (GM) quantification showed that GM vessels are more susceptible to SCI. Finally, we observed an endogenous angiogenic response between 3 and 7 days postinjury: maximal endothelial cell proliferation was observed at day 5. These data indicate that BSCB disruption and endogenous revascularization occur at specific time points after injury, which may be important for developing effective therapeutic interventions for SCI. PMID:24237182

  1. Are Spinal GABAergic Elements Related to the Manifestation of Neuropathic Pain in Rat?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehee; Back, Seung Keun; Lim, Eun Jeong; Cho, Gyu Chong; Kim, Myung Ah; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Min Hee

    2010-01-01

    Impairment in spinal inhibition caused by quantitative alteration of GABAergic elements following peripheral nerve injury has been postulated to mediate neuropathic pain. In the present study, we tested whether neuropathic pain could be induced or reversed by pharmacologically modulating spinal GABAergic activity, and whether quantitative alteration of spinal GABAergic elements after peripheral nerve injury was related to the impairment of GABAergic inhibition or neuropathic pain. To these aims, we first analyzed the pain behaviors following the spinal administration of GABA antagonists (1 µg bicuculline/rat and 5 µg phaclofen/rat), agonists (1 µg muscimol/rat and 0.5 µg baclofen/rat) or GABA transporter (GAT) inhibitors (20 µg NNC-711/rat and 1 µg SNAP-5114/rat) into naïve or neuropathic animals. Then, using Western blotting, PCR or immunohistochemistry, we compared the quantities of spinal GABA, its synthesizing enzymes (GAD65, 67) and its receptors (GABAA and GABAB) and transporters (GAT-1, and -3) between two groups of rats with different severity of neuropathic pain following partial injury of tail-innervating nerves; the allodynic and non-allodynic groups. Intrathecal administration of GABA antagonists markedly lowered tail-withdrawal threshold in naïve animals, and GABA agonists or GAT inhibitors significantly attenuated neuropathic pain in nerve-injured animals. However, any quantitative changes in spinal GABAergic elements were not observed in both the allodynic and non-allodynic groups. These results suggest that although the impairment in spinal GABAergic inhibition may play a role in mediation of neuropathic pain, it is not accomplished by the quantitative change in spinal elements for GABAergic inhibition and therefore these elements are not related to the generation of neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. PMID:20473376

  2. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; ?ah, Volkan; Ayd?n, Abdulkadir; Öne?, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients’ family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary. PMID:25621206

  3. Spinal cord involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: a clinical and MRI study.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Parissis, Dimitris; Karapanayiotides, Theodoros; Maiovis, Pantelis; Karacostas, Dimitris; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Concomitant central nervous system (CNS) involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is rare. Although the spinal nerve roots may present MRI abnormalities in CIDP, hitherto, the spinal cord has been investigated in a single study. We retrospectively investigated clinically and with MRI a cohort of patients with definite CIDP diagnosis (EFNS/PNS criteria) for evidence of brain and spinal cord involvement, who were initially admitted in our department during the last 4 years. Among 12 patients with CIDP (men: 8, mean age: 59.3 years, mean disease duration: 3.8 years), nine patients had their MRI scan during a clinical relapse and three during remission. Brain MRI did not document typical multiple sclerosis lesions in any patient. We did not identify any MRI abnormalities in ten patients without clinical evidence of spinal cord involvement. Conversely, MRI disclosed extensive lesions of the thoracic cord in two patients with an overt spinal cord syndrome, whom we describe. This represents the biggest MRI study of CIDP patients who have been investigated for spinal cord involvement. Our data support earlier observations that a minority of CIDP patients may additionally develop CNS involvement of variable degree. PMID:24988899

  4. Cryptic organisation within an apparently irregular rostrocaudal distribution of interneurons in the embryonic zebrafish spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Simon, E-mail: simon.wells@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia) [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); The Special Research Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Conran, John G., E-mail: john.conran@adelaide.edu.au [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Tamme, Richard, E-mail: rtamme@ttu.ee [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)] [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Gaudin, Arnaud, E-mail: a.gaudin@uq.edu.au [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)] [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Webb, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.webb@worc.ox.ac.uk [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)] [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Lardelli, Michael, E-mail: michael.lardelli@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia) [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); The Special Research Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    The molecules and mechanisms involved in patterning the dorsoventral axis of the developing vertebrate spinal cord have been investigated extensively and many are well known. Conversely, knowledge of mechanisms patterning cellular distributions along the rostrocaudal axis is relatively more restricted. Much is known about the rostrocaudal distribution of motoneurons and spinal cord cells derived from neural crest but there is little known about the rostrocaudal patterning of most of the other spinal cord neurons. Here we report data from our analyses of the distribution of dorsal longitudinal ascending (DoLA) interneurons in the developing zebrafish spinal cord. We show that, although apparently distributed irregularly, these cells have cryptic organisation. We present a novel cell-labelling technique that reveals that DoLA interneurons migrate rostrally along the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of the spinal cord during development. This cell-labelling strategy may be useful for in vivo analysis of factors controlling neuron migration in the central nervous system. Additionally, we show that DoLA interneurons persist in the developing spinal cord for longer than previously reported. These findings illustrate the need to investigate factors and mechanisms that determine 'irregular' patterns of cell distribution, particularly in the central nervous system but also in other tissues of developing embryos.

  5. Recovery of neuronal and network excitability after spinal cord injury and implications for spasticity

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Jessica M.; Condliffe, Elizabeth G.; Martins, Karen J. B.; Bennett, David J.; Gorassini, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    The state of areflexia and muscle weakness that immediately follows a spinal cord injury (SCI) is gradually replaced by the recovery of neuronal and network excitability, leading to both improvements in residual motor function and the development of spasticity. In this review we summarize recent animal and human studies that describe how motoneurons and their activation by sensory pathways become hyperexcitable to compensate for the reduction of functional activation of the spinal cord and the eventual impact on the muscle. Specifically, decreases in the inhibitory control of sensory transmission and increases in intrinsic motoneuron excitability are described. We present the idea that replacing lost patterned activation of the spinal cord by activating synaptic inputs via assisted movements, pharmacology or electrical stimulation may help to recover lost spinal inhibition. This may lead to a reduction of uncontrolled activation of the spinal cord and thus, improve its controlled activation by synaptic inputs to ultimately normalize circuit function. Increasing the excitation of the spinal cord with spared descending and/or peripheral inputs by facilitating movement, instead of suppressing it pharmacologically, may provide the best avenue to improve residual motor function and manage spasticity after SCI. PMID:24860447

  6. Rapamycin ameliorates neuropathic pain by activating autophagy and inhibiting interleukin-1? in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Yin, Qin; Weng, Ze-lin; Zhang, Jian-cheng; Wang, Kun-feng; Yuan, Shi-ying; Cheng, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Autophagy acts as an important homoeostatic mechanism by degradation of cytosolic constituents and plays roles in many physiological processes. Recent studies demonstrated that autophagy can also regulate the production and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1? (IL-1?), which plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. In the present study, the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were significantly decreased after spinal nerve ligation (SNL), and the changes were accompanied by inhibited autophagy in the spinal microglia and increased mRNA and protein levels of IL-1? in the ipsilateral spinal cord. We then investigated the antinociceptive effect of rapamycin, a widely used autopahgy inducer, on SNL-induced neuropathic pain in rats and found that treatment with intrathecal rapamycin significantly attenuated the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Moreover, rapamycin significantly enhanced autophagy in the spinal microglia, whereas it reduced the mRNA and protein levels of IL-1? in the ipsilateral spinal cord. Our results showed that rapamycin could ameliorate neuropathic pain by activating autophagy and inhibiting IL-1? in the spinal cord. PMID:25480578

  7. Spinal circuits formation: a study of developmentally regulated markers in organotypic cultures of embryonic mouse spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Avossa; M. D Rosato-Siri; F Mazzarol; L Ballerini

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we have addressed the issue of neural circuit formation using the mouse spinal cord as a model system. Our primary objective was to assess the suitability of organotypic cultures from embryonic mouse spinal cord to investigate, during critical periods of spinal network formation, the role of the local spinal cellular environment in promoting circuit development and refinement.

  8. Learning from the spinal cord: How the study of spinal cord plasticity informs our view of learning

    E-print Network

    Grau, James

    Review Learning from the spinal cord: How the study of spinal cord plasticity informs our view o Article history: Available online xxxx Keywords: Spinal cord Instrumental conditioning Pavlovian training can induce a lasting change in spinal cord function. A framework for the study of learning

  9. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Who Should Be Fused? An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Ashjazadeh, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is mostly caused by osteoarthritis (spondylosis). Clinically, the symptoms of patients with LSS can be categorized into two groups; regional (low back pain, stiffness, and so on) or radicular (spinal stenosis mainly presenting as neurogenic claudication). Both of these symptoms usually improve with appropriate conservative treatment, but in refractory cases, surgical intervention is occasionally indicated. In the patients who primarily complain of radiculopathy with an underlying biomechanically stable spine, a decompression surgery alone using a less invasive technique may be sufficient. Preoperatively, with the presence of indicators such as failed back surgery syndrome (revision surgery), degenerative instability, considerable essential deformity, symptomatic spondylolysis, refractory degenerative disc disease, and adjacent segment disease, lumbar fusion is probably recommended. Intraoperatively, in cases with extensive decompression associated with a wide disc space or insufficient bone stock, fusion is preferred. Instrumentation improves the fusion rate, but it is not necessarily associated with improved recovery rate and better functional outcome. PMID:25187873

  10. Spinal stimulator peri-electrode masses: case report.

    PubMed

    Scranton, Robert A; Skaribas, Ioannis M; Simpson, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a case of delayed spastic quadriparesis caused by a peri-electrode mass following the implantation of a minimally invasive percutaneous spinal cord stimulator (SCS). Prior reports with paddle-type electrodes are reviewed, and a detailed histological and pathophysiological comparison with the present case is made. The patient developed tolerance to a cervical percutaneous SCS 4 months after implantation, followed by the onset of spastic quadriparesis 9 months after implantation. The stimulator was removed, and contrast-enhanced MRI revealed an enhancing epidural mass where the system had been placed, with severe spinal cord compression. Decompression was carried out, and the patient experienced neurological improvement. Pathological examination revealed fibrotic tissue with granulomatous and multinucleated giant cell reactions. No evidence of infection or hemorrhage was found. Professionals treating patients with SCSs or contemplating their insertion should be aware of this delayed complication and associated risk factors. PMID:25380541

  11. Intramedullary thoracic spinal metastasis from small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Katsenos, S; Nikolopoulou, M

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer with intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM) is a rare event exhibiting dismal prognosis. In the present paper, we describe a 74-year-old male who developed bilateral leg weakness with associated backache and non-productive cough. Chest imaging evaluation demonstrated pronounced bilateral mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a nodular opacity in the right lower lobe. The patient was diagnosed with small cell lung cancer through bronchoscopic procedures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord with contrast-enhancement revealed an intramedullary lesion consistent with metastasis at the T5-T6 level. Despite chemotherapy and thoracic spine radiotherapy, he eventually succumbed to the disease 3 months after diagnosis. A brief overview of the current literature is also provided laying emphasis on the therapeutic strategies of this unusual extrathoracic metastatic disease. PMID:24761534

  12. Primary cervical spinal epidural Extra-osseous Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, M; Asazuma, T; Iso, K; Koike, Y; Domoto, H; Aida, S; Fujikawa, K

    2004-09-01

    Cases of primary spinal epidural Extra-osseous Ewing's sarcoma (EES) are rarely seen and a good prognosis for EES cannot be expected since a high incidence of local recurrence and metastasis frequently occur. We present a case of cervical spinal epidural EES in a 7-year-old girl with long survival after tumour resection. She also received adjuvant treatment with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). This management successfully improved her condition and she was in complete remission without neurological deficit 60 months after surgery. Such a good prognosis of EES in the cervical spine is very rare. It is likely that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lead to a diagnosis of this rare type of EES at an early stage of the disease. PBSCT could be useful as an adjuvant to prolong the period of complete remission. PMID:15340820

  13. Cervical Spinal Epidural Hematoma Following Cervical Posterior Laminoforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year-old man who had lateral cervical disc herniation underwent cervical posterior laminoforaminotomy at C5-6 and C6-7 level right side. During the operation, there was no serious surgical bleeding event. After operation, he complained persistent right shoulder pain and neck pain. Repeated magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed diffuse cervical epidural hematoma (EDH) extending from C5 to T1 level right side and spinal cord compression at C5-6-7 level. He underwent exploration. There was active bleeding at muscular layer. Muscular active bleeding was controlled and intramuscular hematoma was removed. The patient's symptom was reduced after second operation. Symptomatic postoperative spinal EDH requiring reoperation is rare. Meticulous bleeding control is important before wound closure. In addition, if patient presents persistent or aggravated pain after operation, rapid evaluation using MRI and second look operation is needed as soon as possible. PMID:23560180

  14. Lumbar spinal stenosis: who should be fused? An updated review.

    PubMed

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Ashjazadeh, Amir

    2014-08-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is mostly caused by osteoarthritis (spondylosis). Clinically, the symptoms of patients with LSS can be categorized into two groups; regional (low back pain, stiffness, and so on) or radicular (spinal stenosis mainly presenting as neurogenic claudication). Both of these symptoms usually improve with appropriate conservative treatment, but in refractory cases, surgical intervention is occasionally indicated. In the patients who primarily complain of radiculopathy with an underlying biomechanically stable spine, a decompression surgery alone using a less invasive technique may be sufficient. Preoperatively, with the presence of indicators such as failed back surgery syndrome (revision surgery), degenerative instability, considerable essential deformity, symptomatic spondylolysis, refractory degenerative disc disease, and adjacent segment disease, lumbar fusion is probably recommended. Intraoperatively, in cases with extensive decompression associated with a wide disc space or insufficient bone stock, fusion is preferred. Instrumentation improves the fusion rate, but it is not necessarily associated with improved recovery rate and better functional outcome. PMID:25187873

  15. Spinal 2Chloroprocaine: The Effect of Added Fentanyl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie S. Vath; Dan J. Kopacz

    2004-01-01

    Spinal 2-chloroprocaine is being investigated as an al- ternative short-acting spinal anesthetic to replace lido- caine for outpatient surgery. Adding dextrose increases the baricity of solutions and alters the characteristics of spinal anesthesia. In this study, we compared 2-chloroprocaine spinal anesthesia performed with or without the addition of dextrose (1.1%). Eight volun- teers underwent 2 spinal anesthetics, receiving 40 mg

  16. Nanomedicine for treating spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Jacqueline Y.; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-09-01

    Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent uses of nanomaterials including nanowires, micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes, and carbon-based nanomaterials for neuroprotection in the acute phase. We also review the design and neural regenerative application of electrospun scaffolds, conduits, and self-assembling peptide scaffolds.

  17. Spinal muscular atrophy variant with congenital fractures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T E; Amoroso, K; Ferre, M; Blanco, J; Allinson, P; Prior, T W

    1999-11-01

    A single report of brothers born to first-cousin parents with a form of acute spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and congenital fractures suggested that this combination represented a distinct form of autosomal recessive SMA. We describe a boy with hypotonia and congenital fractures whose sural nerve and muscle biopsies were consistent with a form of spinal muscular atrophy. Molecular studies identified no abnormality of the SMN(T) gene on chromosome 5. This case serves to validate the suggestion of a distinct and rare form of spinal muscular atrophy while not excluding possible X-linked inheritance. PMID:10528250

  18. The changing pattern of spinal arachnoiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, M D; Russell, J A; Grossart, K W

    1978-01-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is a rare condition. Eighty cases, diagnosed during a period when 7600 spinal contrast investigations were undertaken, have been reviewed. The majority had suffered a previous spinal condition, the most common being lumbar disc disease. There has been a change in the distribution of arahnoiditis with the lumbar region now most frequently involved. This accounts for the persistence of radicular symptoms and the relatively low incidence of paraplegia when compared with earlier series. Surgery does not appear to have any role in the treatment. Images PMID:632824

  19. Serotonergic pharmacotherapy promotes cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ganzer, Patrick D.; Moxon, Karen A.; Knudsen, Eric B.; Shumsky, Jed S.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical reorganization plays a significant role in recovery of function after injury of the central nervous system. The neural mechanisms that underlie this reorganization may be the same as those normally responsible for skilled behaviors that accompany extended sensory experience and, if better understood, could provide a basis for further promoting recovery of function after injury. The work presented here extends studies of spontaneous cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury to the role of rehabilitative strategies on cortical reorganization. We use a complete spinal transection model to focus on cortical reorganization in response to serotonergic (5-HT) pharmacotherapy without any confounding effects from spared fibers left after partial lesions. 5-HT pharmacotherapy has previously been shown to improve behavioral outcome after SCI but the effect on cortical organization are unknown. After a complete spinal transection in the adult rat, 5-HT pharmacotherapy produced more reorganization in the sensorimotor cortex than would be expected by transection alone. This reorganization was dose dependent, extended into intact (forelimb) motor cortex, and, at least in the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex, followed a somatotopic arrangement. Animals with the greatest behavioral outcome showed the greatest extent of cortical reorganization suggesting that the reorganization is likely to be in response to both direct effects of 5-HT on cortical circuits and indirect effects in response to the behavioral improvement below the level of the lesion. PMID:23262119

  20. Mechanisms of Chronic Central Neuropathic Pain after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hulsebosch, Claire E.; Hains, Bryan C.; Crown, Eric D.; Carlton, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Not all spinal contusions result in mechanical allodynia, in which non-noxious stimuli become noxious. The studies presented use the NYU impactor at 12.5 mm drop or the Infinite Horizons Impactor (150 kdyne, 1 sec dwell) devices to model spinal cord injury (SCI). Both of these devices and injury parameters, if done correctly, will result in animals with above level (forelimb), at level (trunk) and below level (hindlimb) mechanical allodynia that model the changes in evoked somatosensation experienced by the majority of people with SCI. The sections are as follows: 1) Mechanisms of Remote Microglial Activation and Pain Signaling in “Below-Level” Central Pain 2) Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms in Central Sensitization in “At-Level” Pain 3) Peripheral Sensitization Contributes to “Above Level” Injury Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury and 4) Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Central Sensitization in Regional Neuropathic Pain Following SCI. To summarize, differential regional mechanisms contribute to the regional chronic pain states. We propose the importance of understanding the mechanisms in the differential regional pain syndromes after SCI in the chronic condition. Targeting regional mechanisms will be of enormous benefit to the SCI population that suffer chronic pain, and will contribute to better treatment strategies for other chronic pain syndromes. PMID:19154757

  1. Spinal gas accumulation causing lumbar discogenic disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ayberk, Giyas; Özveren, Mehmet Faik; Y?ld?r?m, Timur

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum disc phenomenon is seen frequently with degenerative disc disease and is characterized by the collection of gas in the disc space. Although the accumulation of gas within the disc space does not have clinical significance, symptoms may develop when occurring within the spinal canal. We present a 60-year-old female patient with low back and left leg pain occurring for 3 months before admission to our clinic. Straight leg raise test was 50 degrees in the left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a narrowing of the L5-S1 disc space with vacuum disc phenomenon and hypointense cystic mass in T1 and T2-weighted images. The decision for surgery was made and left L5-S1 hemilaminectomy and foraminotomy was performed. The cyst wall was adherent to the root and dura mater and was partially excised. The patient was pain-free on the first postoperative day. In cases of gas accumulation in the spinal canal, discogenic pain may occur. Surgical therapy is still an acceptable method for the treatment of vacuum disc phenomenon and accumulation of gas within the spinal canal. PMID:25803262

  2. Three-Dimensional Distribution of Sensory Stimulation-Evoked Neuronal Activity of Spinal Dorsal Horn Neurons Analyzed by In Vivo Calcium Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn. PMID:25100083

  3. Integrating spinal codes into wireless systems

    E-print Network

    Iannucci, Peter Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Rateless spinal codes [47] promise performance gains for future wireless systems. These gains can be realized in the form of higher data rates, longer operational ranges, reduced power consumption, and greater reliability. ...

  4. Spinal cord implants for nerve regeneration

    E-print Network

    Abbaschian, Lara Suzanne, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    It has only been in the last couple decades that the potential for regeneration in the spinal cord became accepted. However, there is still no proven method for enabling this regeneration. An implant model was developed ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Spinal muscular atrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... children. Spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity, dominant (SMA-LED) is characterized by leg muscle weakness that is ... to another. DYNC1H1 gene mutations that cause SMA-LED disrupt the function of the dynein complex. As ...

  6. Epidural Angiolipoma With Spinal Cord Compression

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Tung P.; Behbahani, M.; Matoso, Ivone M.; Katz, Marcia A.; Pearl, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    A case of epidural angiolipoma is reported. This tumor rarely occurs in the spinal canal. The most common location is in the thoracic region, and its histogenesis is probably congenital. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:3351973

  7. Spinal cord dysfunction complicating meningococcal meningitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Khan; I. Altafullah; M. Ishaq

    1990-01-01

    A 29 year old male developed paraplegia during the acute phase of meningococcal meningitis. Possible mechanisms for this unusual complication are discussed and the literature regarding spinal cord complications of pyogenic meningitis is reviewed.

  8. Tuning of the spinal generators: modelling study.

    PubMed

    Zmys?owski, W; Kasicki, S

    1980-01-01

    To solve the problem of minimalization of the control (tuning) signals to the spinal generator organizing the locomotor pattern of limb movements a model of neuronal net, forming a part of spinal generator which coordinates limb movements was designed. The model net was constructed of analog inhibitory neurons. The model was verified on the basis of data obtained in electrophysiological and behavioral investigations of cat locomotion. The results support the hypothesis that limb coordination is due to supraspinal influences determining the level of excitation and the way of coupling of spinal subsystems. The control of model?s acting can be achieved by tonic excitatory signals only. It is proposed that the spinal structures taking part in a process of limb coordination form two subsystems, one generating the general cycle of limb movement and the second one controlling the activity of individual muscles. PMID:7234517

  9. Groupwise Multi-Atlas Segmentation of the Spinal Cord’s Internal Structure

    PubMed Central

    Asman, Andrew J.; Bryan, Frederick W.; Smith, Seth A.; Reich, Daniel S.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-01-01

    The spinal cord is an essential and vulnerable component of the central nervous system. Differentiating and localizing the spinal cord internal structure (i.e., gray matter vs. white matter) is critical for assessment of therapeutic impacts and determining prognosis of relevant conditions. Fortunately, new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences enable clinical study of the in vivo spinal cord’s internal structure. Yet, low contrast-to-noise ratio, artifacts, and imaging distortions have limited the applicability of tissue segmentation techniques pioneered elsewhere in the central nervous system. Additionally, due to the inter-subject variability exhibited on cervical MRI, typical deformable volumetric registrations perform poorly, limiting the applicability of a typical multi-atlas segmentation framework. Thus, to date, no automated algorithms have been presented for the spinal cord’s internal structure. Herein, we present a novel slice-based groupwise registration framework for robustly segmenting cervical spinal cord MRI. Specifically, we provide a method for (1) pre-aligning the slice-based atlases into a groupwise-consistent space, (2) constructing a model of spinal cord variability, (3) projecting the target slice into the low-dimensional space using a model-specific registration cost function, and (4) estimating robust segmentations using geodesically appropriate atlas information. Moreover, the proposed framework provides a natural mechanism for performing atlas selection and initializing the free model parameters in an informed manner. In a cross-validation experiment using 67 MR volumes of the cervical spinal cord, we demonstrate sub-millimetric accuracy, significant quantitative and qualitative improvement over comparable multi-atlas frameworks, and provide insight into the sensitivity of the associated model parameters. PMID:24556080

  10. Spinal glial activation in a new rat model of bone cancer pain produced by prostate cancer cell inoculation of the tibia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui-Xin Zhang; Bing Liu; Linbo Wang; Ke Ren; Jian-Tian Qiao; Brian M. Berman; Lixing Lao

    2005-01-01

    Studies suggest that astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord are involved in the development of persistent pain induced by tissue inflammation and nerve injury. However, the role of glial cells in bone cancer pain is not well understood. The present study evaluated the spinal glial activation in a novel rat model of bone cancer pain produced by injecting AT-3.1

  11. Age at Disease Onset Predicts Likelihood and Rapidity of Growth Failure Among Infants and Young Children With Spinal Muscular Atrophy Types 1 and 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas M. Sproule; Ridda Hasnain; Dorcas Koenigsberger; Megan Montgomery; Darryl C. De Vivo; Petra Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    Growth failure is nearly universal in spinal muscular atrophy type 1 and common in type 2, although acuity is often underappreciated at initial diagnosis. We reviewed 44 consecutive spinal muscular atrophy patients (28 type 1, 16 type 2) under 3 years at initial presentation. Growth failure was conventionally defined: weight below the fifth percentile or dropping 2 major percentiles over

  12. Electro-acupuncture promotes survival, differentiation of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as well as functional recovery in the spinal cord-transected rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Ding; Qing Yan; Jing-Wen Ruan; Yan-Qing Zhang; Wen-Jie Li; Yu-Jiao Zhang; Yan Li; Hongxin Dong; Yuan-Shan Zeng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the potential tools for treatment of the spinal cord injury; however, the survival and differentiation of MSCs in an injured spinal cord still need to be improved. In the present study, we investigated whether Governor Vessel electro-acupuncture (EA) could efficiently promote bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) survival and differentiation,

  13. Distribution of nitric oxide-producing cells along spinal cord in urodeles

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mayada A.; Fahmy, Gehan H.; Moftah, Marie Z.; Sabry, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a unique neurotransmitter, which participates in many physiological and pathological processes in the organism. There are little data about the neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of amphibians. In this respect, the present study aims to investigate the distribution of nitric oxide producing cells in the spinal cord of urodele and to find out the possibility of a functional locomotory role to this neurotransmitter. The results of the present study demonstrate a specific pattern of NADPH-d labeling in the selected amphibian model throughout the spinal cord length as NADPH-d-producing cells and fibers were present in almost all segments of the spinal cord of the salamander investigated. However, their number, cytological characteristics and labeling intensity varied significantly. It was noticed that the NO-producing cells (NO-PC) were accumulated in the ventral side of certain segments in the spinal cord corresponding to the brachial and sacral plexuses. In addition, the number of NO-PC was found to be increased also at the beginning of the tail and this could be due to the fact that salamanders are tetrapods having bimodal locomotion, namely swimming and walking. PMID:25309330

  14. Value of Prominent Flow Voids without Cord Edema in the Detection of Spinal Arteriovenous Fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Alhilali, Lea M.; Reynolds, Arich R.; Fakhran, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae (SDAVF) in patients presenting with prominent vascular flow voids on imaging without other imaging findings suggestive of SDAVF. Methods We retrospectively identified patients from January 1, 2005 to March 1, 2012 who underwent spinal angiography for suspected SDAVF with prominent vascular flow voids on prior imaging. We excluded patients with other major spinal pathology or other imaging findings of SDAVF including cord hyperintensity, enhancement, or expansion. We calculated the proportion of patients with positive findings for SDAVF on angiography and evaluated the prevalence of SDAVF for this finding alone and in correlation with clinical findings. Results 18 patients underwent spinal angiography for prominent flow voids on imaging without other spinal pathology or imaging findings of SDAVF. Three had a SDAVF detected on angiography. The prevalence of SDAVF in this population was low, only 17% (95% CI 6-39%). All of the patients with positive angiography findings had myelopathy, increasing the prevalence to 100% if the additional clinical finding of myelopathy was present. Conclusions Prominent flow voids without other imaging findings suggestive of SDAVF is poorly predictive of the presence of a SDAVF, unless myelopathy is present clinically. PMID:24905497

  15. Spinal inhibitory neurotransmission in neuropathic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley K. Taylor

    2009-01-01

    Nerve injury increases the spinal cord expression and\\/or activity of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, peptide receptors,\\u000a and neuroimmune factors, which then drive dorsal horn neuron hyperexcitability. The intensity and duration of this central\\u000a sensitization is determined by the net activity of local excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems, together with\\u000a ongoing\\/evoked primary afferent activity and descending supraspinal control. Spinal endogenous

  16. [Spinal muscular atrophies in the adult].

    PubMed

    Camu, W

    2004-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophies are heterogeneous group. The diagnostic process should be careful to uncover the main differential diagnoses and to identify familial cases. Clinical phenotype is highly variable. In familial ALS cases with SOD1 mutation, the clinical scene may mimic spinal muscular atrophy. A careful questionning and a complete electroneuromyographic exam are warranted to allow the neurologist to choose among more invasive investigations for differential and positive diagnosis such as MRI, nerve or muscle biopsy, genetic analysis. PMID:15034481

  17. Embryology of the Spine and Spinal Cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Catala

    \\u000a The spine and spinal cord form a couple of structures whose development is highly coordinated, explaining why abnormal development\\u000a of one structure is usually associated with the maldevelopment of the other. The spinal cord differentiates, as does the whole\\u000a central nervous system, from the neural tube. The spine is yielded by the somites, which form the so-called paraxial mesoderm.\\u000a The

  18. CGRP in Spinal Cord Pain Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Neugebauer

    \\u000a Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has emerged as an important molecule at different levels of the pain neuraxis. Anatomical,\\u000a neurochemical, electrophysiological and behavioral data strongly suggest that CGRP in the spinal cord enhances neurotransmission,\\u000a neuronal excitability, and nocifensive behaviors in preclinical pain models. Spinal CGRP also modulates the transmission of\\u000a nociceptive information to supraspinal sites, thus contributing to high integrated pain

  19. Review of spinal cord injuries in Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R J O'Connor; P C Murray

    2006-01-01

    Study Design:Prospective data collection on all patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) admitted for a comprehensive management programme.Objectives:To examine the epidemiology of SCI in Ireland over 1 year.Setting:Ireland's National Spinal Cord Injury Centre.Methods:Systematic data collection on all patients admitted with SCI for management.Results:A total of 46 patients (40 males) were admitted from January to December 2000; median age was 37

  20. Patterns and risks in spinal trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B W Martin; E Dykes; F E Lecky

    2004-01-01

    population. Results: Of 19 538 on the database, 527 (2.7%) suffered spinal column fracture\\/dislocation without cord injury and 109 had cord injury (0.56% of all children; 16.5% of spine injured children). Thirty children (0.15% of all children; 4.5% of spine injured children) sustained spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality (SCIWORA). Cord injury and SCIWORA occurred more commonly in children aged

  1. The colon, anorectum, and spinal cord patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter E. Longo; Garth H. Ballantyne; Irvin M. Modlin

    1989-01-01

    As humans have become more mechanized, the number of persons sustaining spinal cord injuries resulting in quadriplegia or\\u000a paraplegia has increased. Because colorectal function is modulated by a combination of neural, hormonal, and luminal influences,\\u000a many of the normal regulatory mechanisms remain intact in patients with spinal cord injuries. Management of these patients,\\u000a however, requires an understanding of altered function

  2. Widespread spinal cord involvement in corticobasal degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasushi Iwasaki; Mari Yoshida; Manabu Hattori; Yoshio Hashizume; Gen Sobue

    2005-01-01

    We examined spinal cord lesions in eight patients with a pathological diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Using Gallyas-Braak (G-B) staining or AT-8 tau immunostaining, a few neuropil threads were identified in the white matter of the CBD spinal cords, mainly in the anterior funiculus, whereas the posterior funiculus was well preserved without threads. In the gray matter of the CBD

  3. Ganglioside patterns in human spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CK Vorwerk

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine the distribution of gangliosides in human cervical and lumbar spinal cord.Setting: Magdeburg, Germany.Methods: The ganglioside distribution of human cervical and lumbar spinal cord enlargements from 10 neurological normal patients was analyzed. Gangliosides were isolated from different areas corresponding to the columna anterior, columna lateralis and columna posterior.Results: Ganglioside GfD1b\\/GD1b and GD3 were the most abundant gangliosides in

  4. Uncommon Progression of an Extradural Spinal Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Boughamoura, Mohamed; Mahmoudi, Houda; Kilani, Mohamed; Hattab, Nejib

    2014-01-01

    Extradural spinal meningiomas are rare. Our understanding of purely extradural spinal meningiomas is still incomplete and they may be easily confused with malignant neoplasms, much more common in this location. We report a rare case of a purely extradural thoracic spine meningioma in a 70-year-old man, with an unusual progression. In addition we discuss the pathogenesis of these tumors and the potential pitfalls in differential diagnosis and review the relevant literature concerning their treatment and outcome. PMID:25243091

  5. Spatial patterns of spinal cord [14C]-2-deoxyglucose metabolic activity in a rat model of painful peripheral mononeuropathy.

    PubMed

    Mao, J; Price, D D; Coghill, R C; Mayer, D J; Hayes, R L

    1992-07-01

    Spatial patterns of spinal cord glucose metabolic activity were examined in unanesthetized rats with painful peripheral mononeuropathy produced by sciatic nerve ligation (chronic constrictive injury, CCI). Spinal cord metabolic activity was assessed 10 days after nerve ligation by using the fully quantitative [14C]2-deoxyglucose technique. This technique allows simultaneous examination of both neural activity inferred from local glucose utilization and its spatial distribution in multiple spinal regions previously implicated in nociceptive processing. Rats used in the experiment exhibited thermal hyperalgesia to radiant heat applied to the hind paw ipsilateral to nerve ligation and behaviors indicative of spontaneous pain. Sciatic nerve ligation produced a significant increase in spinal cord metabolic activity in four sampling regions (laminae I-IV, V-VI, VII and VIII-IX) of lumbar segments compared to sham-operated rats. The pattern of altered metabolic activity in CCI rats presented 3 distinct features. (1) The spinal cord grey matter both ipsilateral and contralateral to nerve ligation exhibited substantial increases in metabolic activity compared to sham-operated rats. (2) This increase in metabolic activity was somatotopically specific, i.e., higher metabolic rates were observed on the side ipsilateral to nerve ligation than on the contralateral side, and higher metabolic rates were seen in the medial portion of the ipsilateral spinal cord dorsal horn than in the lateral portion. The peak metabolic activity occurred in laminae V-VI of CCI rats, a region involved in nociceptive processing. (3) The increase in spinal cord metabolic activity of CCI rats extended from lumbar segment L1 to L5 in all 4 sampling regions. The substantial increase in metabolic activity in both the ipsilateral and contralateral spinal cord that occurs over an extensive rostro-caudal area in CCI rats may represent a unique pattern of spinal cord metabolic activity distinct from that observed in rats exposed to acute thermal pain. This pattern of spinal cord neural activity in CCI rats may reflect possible radiation of neuropathic pain. In addition, the procedure of curare-induced paralysis in a separate group of CCI rats did not change the extent and patterns of metabolic activity seen in non-paralyzed CCI rats, reflecting a minimal influence of the afferent feedback from flexor motor reflexes on spinal cord metabolic activity following sciatic nerve ligation. This chronic increase in spinal cord neural activity in the absence of overt peripheral stimulation suggests a spinal cord hyperactive state and may account for behaviors suggestive of spontaneous pain in CCI rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1325049

  6. Spinal stenosis: pathophysiology, clinical and radiologic classification.

    PubMed

    Truumees, Eeric

    2005-01-01

    Stenosis is the narrowing of a hollow tube, in this case the central lumbar spinal canal, lateral recess, or foramen. Clinically, this narrowing produces neurovascular compression that may lead to pain. Lumbar spinal stenosis may be classified by etiology (for example, congenital or acquired) or by symptom complex (radiculopathy, neurogenic claudication, or mechanical back pain). Stenosis can also be classified radiographically, by the location of the stenosis (for example, central canal, lateral recess, or intervertebral foramen) or by the presence of deformity such as spondylolisthesis or scoliosis. Overlap occurs in these schemes of classification in that central stenosis with thecal sac compression typically leads to neurogenic claudication, whereas lateral recess compression is associated with compression of an individual nerve root and, therefore, radiculopathy. Because radiographic changes associated with stenosis are very common with aging, understanding the pathophysiology of lumbar spinal stenosis is critical in the assessment and management of related symptom complexes. Although symptoms may arise from narrowing of the spinal canal, not all patients with narrowing develop symptoms. The reason why some patients develop symptomatic stenosis and others do not is still unknown. Therefore, the term lumbar spinal stenosis refers not to the pathoanatomic finding of spinal canal narrowing, but rather to a clinical syndrome of lower extremity pain caused by mechanical compression on the neural elements or their blood supply. PMID:15948457

  7. Diffusion tensor MRI of spinal decompression sickness

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Elizabeth B.; Sobakin, Aleksey S.; Meyerand, Mary E.; Eldridge, Marlowe; Ferrazzano, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop more sensitive imaging tools for clinical use and basic research of spinal decompression sickness (DCS), we used diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) validated by histology to assess DCS-related tissue injury in sheep spinal cords. DTI is based on the measurement of water diffusion indices, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusion (MD) to detect tissue microstructural abnormalities. In this study, we measured FA and MD in white and gray matter spinal cord regions in samples taken from sheep following hyperbaric exposure to 60–132 fsw and 0–180 minutes of oxygen pre-breathing treatment before rapid decompression. The main finding of the study was that decompression from >60 fsw resulted in reduced FA that was associated with cell death and disrupted tissue microstructure in spinal cord white matter tracts. Additionally, animals exposed to prolonged oxygen pre-breathing prior to decompression demonstrated reduced MD in spinal cord gray matter regions regardless of dive depth. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the utility of DTI for the investigation of DCS-related injury and to define DTI biomarkers of spinal DCS. PMID:23397865

  8. Patterns and risks in spinal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, B; Dykes, E; Lecky, F

    2004-01-01

    Background: Spinal injury in children is rare, and poses many difficulties in management. Aims: To ascertain the prevalence of spinal injury within the paediatric trauma population, and to assess relative risks of spinal injury according to age, conscious level, injury severity score (ISS), and associated injuries. Methods: Spine injured children were identified from the UK Trauma Audit & Research Network Database from 1989 to 2000. Relative risks of injury were calculated against the denominator paediatric trauma population. Results: Of 19 538 on the database, 527 (2.7%) suffered spinal column fracture/dislocation without cord injury and 109 had cord injury (0.56% of all children; 16.5% of spine injured children). Thirty children (0.15% of all children; 4.5% of spine injured children) sustained spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality (SCIWORA). Cord injury and SCIWORA occurred more commonly in children aged ?8. The risk of spine fracture/dislocation without cord injury was increased with an ISS >25 and with chest injuries. The risk of cord injury was increased with reduced GCS, head injury, and chest injury. Conclusions: Spinal cord injury and SCIWORA occur more frequently in young children. Multiple injuries and chest injuries increase the risk of fracture/dislocation and of cord injury. Reduced GCS and head injuries increase the risk of cord injury. PMID:15321867

  9. Effect of a single dose of pamidronate administered at the time of surgery in a rabbit posterolateral spinal fusion model

    PubMed Central

    Briceno, Jorge; Carmona, Maximiliano; Olavarria, Fernando; Hodgson, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    Spinal fusion is usually performed on patients who receive bisphosphonates (BP); however, limited data on their action on spinal fusion are available. Previous studies in animal models have shown that chronic administrations of BP reduced spinal fusion rates, and only one study has shown that a single dose administration of zolendronic acid increased fusion rate. The objective of the present study was to evaluate if pamidronate (PA), which was previously demonstrated to reduce spinal fusion rate when administered continuously for 8 weeks, would increase the spinal fusion rate if administered in a single dose at the time of surgery in a rabbit model. Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits underwent an L5–L6 posterolateral intertransverse fusion with iliac crest autograft. Animals were randomized to receive either PA 3 mg/kg in a single dose immediately after surgery, or normal saline. Animals were killed 8 weeks after surgery and fusion was determined by manual palpation and radiographic analysis. Fusion healing was obtained in eight rabbits (50%) in the PA group and in four animals (25%) in the control group, p = 0.137. In a rabbit model, a single dose of PA did not decrease lumbar spinal arthrodesis consolidation rates, but it obtained a nonsignificant higher spinal fusion rate. PMID:20127496

  10. Spinal Fixator for the Management of Spinal Injury (the Mechanical Rationale)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M Rezaian; E T Dombrowski; D N Ghista

    1983-01-01

    The goal of successful treatment of spinal injury is to achieve a stable pain-free spine with no deformity and also the complete anterior decompression of the cord for maximum neurological recovery, the minimum bed-ridden time and hospitalization, and reduction of complications and expenses. A special ‘spinal fixator’ has been developed to fulfill these aims. It is a small apparatus with

  11. Assessing small-volume spinal cord dose for repeat spinal stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Kirby, Neil; Korol, Renee; Larson, David A.; Sahgal, Arjun

    2012-12-01

    Spinal cord biologically effective dose (BED) limits are critical to safe spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivery. In particular, when repeating SBRT to the same site, the problem of adding non-uniform BED distributions within small volumes of spinal cord has yet to be solved. We report a probability-based generalized BED (gBED) model to guide repeat spine SBRT treatment planning. The gBED was formulated by considering the sequential damaging probabilities of repeat spine SBRT treatments. Parameters from the standard linear-quadratic model, such as ?/? = 2 Gy for the spinal cord, were applied. We tested the model based on SBRT specific spinal cord tolerance using a simulated and ten clinical repeat SBRT cases. The gBED provides a consistent solution for superimposing non-uniform dose distributions from different fractionation schemes, analogous to the BED for uniform dose distributions. Based on ten clinical cases, the gBED was observed to eliminate discrepancies in the cumulative BED of approximately 5% to 20% within small volumes (e.g. 0.1-2.0 cc) of spinal cord, as compared to a conventional calculation method. When assessing spinal cord tolerance for repeat spinal SBRT treatments, caution should be exercised when applying conventional BED calculations for small volumes of spinal cord irradiated, and the gBED potentially provides more conservative and consistently derived dose surrogates to guide safe treatment planning and treatment outcome modeling.

  12. Spinal Column and Spinal Cord Injuries in Mountain BikersA 13Year Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily R. Dodwell; Brian K. Kwon; Barbara Hughes; David Koo; Andrea Townson; Allan Aludino; Richard K. Simons; Charles G. Fisher; Marcel F. Dvorak; Vanessa K. Noonan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Multiple studies have described in general the injuries associated with mountain biking, and detailed accounts of spine injuries sustained in hockey, gymnastics, skiing, snowboarding, rugby, and paragliding have previously been published. However, no large-scale detailed assessment of mountain biking associated spinal fractures and spinal cord injuries has previously been published.Purpose: This study was undertaken to describe the patient demographics,

  13. The nature of spinal shock communication IV. Atony of the motor neuron in spinal shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Sorokhtin; O. P. Minut-Sorokhtina; Yu. B. Temper

    1960-01-01

    The condition of motorneurons was studied during spinal shock in experiments on frogs. The myotatic reflex of the gastrocnemius muscle was recorded by electromyograms in the first series of experiments. The disappearance of the initial impulses or an increase of the anelectrotonic “silence period” was noted in the monosynaptic and polysynaptic impulses in spinal shock. In the second series of

  14. Spinal dysraphism: A challenge continued to be faced by neurosurgeons in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Amit; Sampley, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The incidence of spinal dysraphism has significantly decreased over the last few decades, all over the world; however, still the incidence is much higher in developing countries with poor socioeconomic status. Materials and Methods: The present study includes all patients managed for spinal dysraphism over a period of one year (January 2011-December 2011). Details including demographics, antenatal care history, site and type of lesion, neurological examination, imaging finding, associated congenital anomalies, management offered, and outcome were recorded. Results: A total of 27 children were operated for spinal dysraphism during the study period (17 males and 11 females). Median age was 120 days (age range, 1 day to 6 years). Mothers of 15 children did not seek any regular antenatal checkup and only 13 mothers received folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. Fourteen children were delivered at home and 13 were at hospital. The most common site was lumbosacral region (67.8%). Seven patients had rupture of the sac at the time of presentation, one child had local infection, and four patients had hydrocephalus (requiring shunt before surgical repair). Two patients developed hydrocephalus at follow up, needing shunt surgery. The mean hospital stay was 7 days (range, 5 days to 31 days; median, 10 days). Conclusion: Spinal dysraphism is still a major public health problem in developing countries. Management of patients with spinal dysraphism is complex and needs close coordination between pediatrician, neurologist, neurosurgeon, and rehabilitation experts. A large number of factors influence the outcome. PMID:25126121

  15. Idiopathic Spinal Cord Herniation: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sasani, Mehdi; Ozer, Ali F; Vural, Metin; Sarioglu, Ali C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is a rare cause of progressive myelopathy frequently present in Brown-Séquard syndrome. Preoperative diagnosis can be made with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many surgical techniques have been applied by various authors and are usually reversible by surgical treatment. Methods: Case report and review of the literature. Findings: A 45-year-old woman with Brown-Séquard syndrome underwent thoracic MRI, which revealed transdural spinal cord herniation at T8 vertebral body level. During surgery the spinal cord was reduced and the ventral dural defect was restorated primarily and reinforced with a thin layer of subdermal fat. The dural defect was then closed with interrupted stitches. Results: Although neurologic status improved postoperatively, postsurgical MRI demonstrated swelling and abnormal T2-signal intensity in the reduced spinal cord. Review of the English language literature revealed 100 ISCH cases. Conclusions: ISCH is a rare clinical entity that should be considered in differential diagnosis of Brown-Séquard syndrome, especially among women in their fifth decade of life. Outcome for patients who initially had Brown-Séquard syndrome was significantly better than for patients who presented with spastic paralysis. Although progression of neurologic deficits can be very slow, reduction of the spinal cord and repair of the defect are crucial in stopping or reversing the deterioration. PMID:19264054

  16. Clinical Assessment Of Stereotactic IGRT: Spinal Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Gerszten, Peter C. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)], E-mail: gersztenpc@upmc.edu; Burton, Steven A. [Departments of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial lesions is well established. Its use for the treatment of spinal lesions has been limited because of the availability of effective target immobilization devices. Recent advances in stereotactic IGRT have allowed for spinal applications. Large clinical experience with spinal radiosurgery to properly assess clinical outcomes has previously been limited. At our institution, we have developed a successful multidisciplinary spinal radiosurgery program in which 542 spinal lesions (486 malignant and 56 benign lesions) were treated with a single-fraction radiosurgery technique. Patient ages ranged from 18 to 85 years (mean 56 years). Lesion location included 92 cervical, 234 thoracic, 130 lumbar, and 86 sacral. The most common metastatic tumors were renal cell (89 cases), breast (74 cases), and lung (71 cases). The most common benign tumors were neurofibroma (24 cases), schwannoma (13 cases), and meningioma (7 cases). Eighty-nine cervical lesions were treated using skull tracking. Thoracic, lumbar, and sacral tumors were tracked relative to either gold or stainless steel fiducial markers. The maximum intratumoral dose ranged from 12.5 to 30 Gy (mean 20 Gy). Tumor volume ranged from 0.16 to 298 mL (mean 47 mL). Three hundred thirty-seven lesions had received prior external beam irradiation with spinal cord doses precluding further conventional irradiation. The primary indication for radiosurgery was pain in 326 cases, as a primary treatment modality in 70 cases, for tumor radiographic tumor progression in 65 cases, for post-surgical treatment in 38 cases, for progressive neurological deficit in 35 cases, and as a radiation boost in 8 cases. Follow-up period was at least 3 to 49 months. Axial and/or radicular pain improved in 300 of 326 cases (92%). Long-term tumor control was demonstrated in 90% of lesions treated with radiosurgery as a primary treatment modality and in 88% of lesions treated for radiographic tumor progression. Thirty of 35 patients (85%) with progressive neurological deficits experienced at least some improvement after treatment. Spinal stereotactic radiosurgery is now a feasible, safe, and clinically effective technique for the treatment of a variety of spinal lesions. The potential benefits of radiosurgical ablation of spinal lesions are short treatment time in an outpatient setting with essentially no recovery time and excellent symptomatic response. This technique offers a new therapeutic modality for the primary treatment of a variety of spinal lesions, including the treatment of neoplasms in medically inoperable patients, previously irradiated sites, for lesions not amenable to open surgical techniques, and as an adjunct to surgery.

  17. Tolerance of the Spinal Cord to Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Insights From Hemangioblastomas

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, Megan E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Choi, Clara Y.H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Adler, John R.; Chang, Steven D.; Lieberson, Robert E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States); Soltys, Scott G., E-mail: sgsoltys@stanford.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate spinal cord dose-volume effects, we present a retrospective review of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments for spinal cord hemangioblastomas. Methods and Materials: From November 2001 to July 2008, 27 spinal hemangioblastomas were treated in 19 patients with SRS. Seventeen tumors received a single fraction with a median dose of 20 Gy (range, 18-30 Gy). Ten lesions were treated using 18-25 Gy in two to three sessions. Cord volumes receiving 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 Gy and dose to 10, 100, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mm{sup 3} of cord were determined. Multisession treatments were converted to single-fraction biologically effective dose (SFBED). Results: Single-fraction median cord D{sub max} was 22.7 Gy (range, 17.8-30.9 Gy). Median V10 was 454 mm{sup 3} (range, 226-3543 mm{sup 3}). Median dose to 500 mm{sup 3} cord was 9.5 Gy (range, 5.3-22.5 Gy). Fractionated median SFBED{sub 3} cord D{sub max} was 14.1 Gy{sub 3} (range, 12.3-19.4 Gy{sub 3}). Potential toxicities included a Grade 2 unilateral foot drop 5 months after SRS and 2 cases of Grade 1 sensory deficits. The actuarial 3-year local tumor control estimate was 86%. Conclusions: Despite exceeding commonly cited spinal cord dose constraints, SRS for spinal hemangioblastomas is safe and effective. Consistent with animal experiments, these data support a partial-volume tolerance model for the human spinal cord. Because irradiated cord volumes were generally small, application of these data to other clinical scenarios should be made cautiously. Further prospective studies of spinal radiosurgery are needed.

  18. Techniques for precision irradiation of the lateral half of the rat cervical spinal cord using 150 MeV protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Luijk, P.; Bijl, H. P.; Coppes, R. P.; van der Kogel, A. J.; Konings, A. W. T.; Pikkemaat, J. A.; Schippers, J. M.

    2001-11-01

    Techniques for high precision irradiation experiments with protons, to investigate the volume dependence of the tolerance dose of the rat cervical spinal cord are described. In the present study, 50% of the lateral cross section of the spinal cord was irradiated. The diameter of the cross section of this part of the rat spinal cord is at maximum 3.5 mm. Therefore, a dedicated procedure was developed to comply with the needs for a very high positioning accuracy and high spatial resolution dosimetry. By using 150 MeV protons a steep dose gradient (20-80% = 1 mm) in the centre of the spinal cord was achieved. This yields a good dose contrast between the left and right halves of the cord. A home-made digital x-ray imager with a pixel resolution of 0.18 mm/pixel was used for position verification of the spinal cord. A positioning accuracy of 0.09 mm was obtained by using information of multiple pixels. The average position stability during the irradiation was found to be 0.08 mm (1 SD) without significant systematic deviations. Profiles of the dose distribution were measured with a 2D dosimetry system consisting of a scintillating screen and a CCD camera. Dose volume histograms of the whole spinal cord as well as separately of the white and grey matters were calculated using MRI imaging of the cross section of the rat cervical spinal cord. From the irradiation of 20 animals a dose-response curve has been established. MRI showed radiation-induced damage at the high dose side of the spinal cord. Analysis of the preliminary dose-response data shows a significant dose-volume effect. With the described procedure and equipment it is possible to perform high precision irradiations on selected parts of the spinal cord.

  19. Muscle Biopsy and the Clinical Course of Infantile Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin L. Zalneraitis; John J. Halperin; Margaret L. Grunnet; Barry S. Russman; Nancy Peress

    1991-01-01

    Eight infants with severe early infantile spinal muscular atrophy diagnosed by clinical presentation and muscle biopsy were studied. The extent of alterations in muscle histology, histochemistry, and ultrastructure did not reflect the relative severity of the clinical presentation or the course of the illness. In seven biopsies, ultrastructural studies demonstrated empty sleeves of basal lamina projecting from the surface of

  20. Case report MRI of spinal intradural arachnoid cyst formation following tuberculous meningitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S LOLGE; A CHAWLA; J SHAH; D PATKAR; King Edward; Balabhai Nanavati

    Secondary intradural arachnoid cyst involving the spine is uncommon. It is usually secondary to trauma, haemorrhage, surgery or inflammation. We present two cases of treated tuberculous meningitis, which presented with gradual onset of quadriplegia and paraplegia, respectively. MRI revealed intradural (cervical and thoracic) arachnoid cysts (ventral and dorsal to the spinal cord) with myelomalacic cord changes. Ventral location of such

  1. Nerve Regeneration Restores Supraspinal Control of Bladder Function after Complete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Jiang, Hai-Hong; DePaul, Marc; Lin, Vernon W.

    2013-01-01

    A life-threatening disability after complete spinal cord injury is urinary dysfunction, which is attributable to lack of regeneration of supraspinal pathways that control the bladder. Although numerous strategies have been proposed that can promote the regrowth of severed axons in the adult CNS, at present, the approaches by which this can be accomplished after complete cord transection are quite limited. In the present study, we modified a classic peripheral nerve grafting technique with the use of chondroitinase to facilitate the regeneration of axons across and beyond an extensive thoracic spinal cord transection lesion in adult rats. The novel combination treatment allows for remarkably lengthy regeneration of certain subtypes of brainstem and propriospinal axons across the injury site and is followed by markedly improved urinary function. Our studies provide evidence that an enhanced nerve grafting strategy represents a potential regenerative treatment after severe spinal cord injury. PMID:23804083

  2. Role of spinal P2Y6 and P2Y11 receptors in neuropathic pain in rats: possible involvement of glial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The participation of spinal P2X receptors in neuropathic pain is well recognized. However, the role of P2Y receptors has been less studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of spinal P2Y6,11 receptors following peripheral nerve damage induced by spinal nerve ligation. In addition, we determined the expression of P2Y6,11 receptors in the dorsal spinal cord in presence of the selective P2Y6,11 receptors antagonists. Furthermore, we evaluated the participation of spinal microglia and astrocytes in the pronociceptive role of P2Y6,11 receptors. Results Spinal administration of the selective P2Y6 (MRS2578, 10–100 ?M) and P2Y11 (NF340, 0.3–30 ?M) receptor antagonists reduced tactile allodynia in spinal nerve ligated rats. Nerve injury increased the expression of P2Y6,11 receptors at 7, 14 and 21 days after injury. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of MRS2578 (100 ?M/day) and NF340 (30 ?M/day) for 3 days significantly reduced spinal nerve injury-induced increase in P2Y6,11 receptors expression, respectively. Spinal treatment (on day 14 after injury) with minocycline (100 ?g/day) or fluorocitrate (1 nmol/day) for 7 days reduced tactile allodynia and spinal nerve injury-induced up-regulation in Iba-1 and GFAP, respectively. In addition, minocycline reduced nerve injury-induced up-regulation in P2Y6,11 receptors whereas that fluorocitrate diminished P2Y11, but not P2Y6, receptors up-regulation. Intrathecal treatment (on day 21 after injury) with the selective P2Y6 (PSB0474, 3–30 ?M) and P2Y11 (NF546, 1–10 ?M) receptor agonists produced remarkable tactile allodynia in nerve ligated rats previously treated with minocycline or fluorocitrate for 7 days. Conclusions Our data suggest that spinal P2Y6 is present in spinal microglia while P2Y11 receptors are present in both spinal microglia and astrocytes, and both receptors are up-regulated in rats subjected to spinal nerve injury. In addition, our data suggest that the spinal P2Y6 and P2Y11 receptors participate in the maintenance of neuropathic pain. PMID:24886406

  3. The effect of spinal osteotomies on spinal cord tension and dural buckling: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Safain, Mina G; Burke, Shane M; Riesenburger, Ron I; Zerris, Vasilios; Hwang, Steven W

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT The standard surgical release of a tethered cord may result in recurrent scar formation and occasionally be associated with retethering. The application of spinal shortening procedures to this challenging problem potentially can reduce tension on the retethered spinal cord while minimizing the difficulties inherent in traditional lumbosacral detethering revision. Although spinal shortening procedures have proven clinical benefit in patients with a recurrent tethered cord, it is unclear how much shortening is required to achieve adequate reduction in spinal cord tension or what impact these osteotomies have on dural buckling. METHODS The authors calculated mean values from 4 human cadavers to evaluate the effect of 3 different spinal shortening procedures-Smith-Petersen osteotomy (SPO), pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO), and vertebral column resection (VCR)-on spinal cord tension and dural buckling. Three cadavers were dedicated to the measurement of spinal cord tension, and 3 other cadavers were devoted to myelography to measure dural buckling parameters. RESULTS The SPO was associated with a maximal decrease in spinal cord tension of 16.1% from baseline and no dural buckling with any degree of closure. The PSO led to a mean maximal decrease in spinal cord tension of 63.1% from baseline at 12 mm of closure and demonstrated a direct linear relationship between dural buckling and increasing osteotomy closure. Finally, VCR closure correlated with a mean maximal decrease in spinal cord tension of 87.2% from baseline at 10 mm of closure and also showed a direct linear relationship between dural buckling and increases in osteotomy closure. CONCLUSIONS In this cadaveric experiment, the SPO did not lead to appreciable tension reduction, while a substantial response was seen with both the PSO and VCR. The rate of tension reduction may be steeper for the VCR than the PSO. Adequate tension relief while minimizing dural buckling may be optimal with 12-16 mm of posterior osteotomy closure based on this cadaveric experiment. PMID:25884344

  4. (+)Morphine attenuates the (?)-morphine-produced tail-flick inhibition via the sigma-1 receptor in the mouse spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon F. Tseng; Quinn H. Hogan; Hsiang-En Wu

    AimsWe have previously demonstrated that pretreatment with (+)-morphine given intrathecally attenuates the intrathecal (?)-morphine-produced tail-flick inhibition.The phenomenon has been defined as antianalgesia against (?)-morphine-produced analgesia. Present experiments were then undertaken to determine if the antianalgesic effect induced by (+)-morphine given spinally is mediated by the stimulation of the sigma-1 receptor in the mouse spinal cord.

  5. Rolipram attenuates acute oligodendrocyte death in the adult rat ventrolateral funiculus following contusive cervical spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher M. Whitaker; Eric Beaumont; Michael J. Wells; David S. K. Magnuson; Michal Hetman; Stephen M. Onifer

    2008-01-01

    Rolipram, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) proteins that hydrolyze cAMP, increases axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent evidence indicate that rolipram also protects against a multitude of apoptotic signals, many of which are implicated in secondary cell death post-SCI. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry and morphometry to determine potential spinal cord targets of rolipram and

  6. Reticulo-spinal neurons participating in the control of synergic eye and head movements during orienting in the cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Grantyn; V. Ong-Meang Jacques; A. Berthoz

    1987-01-01

    Previously we described physiological properties of pontine reticulo-spinal neurons which generate bursts and decaying tonic discharges related to eye movements and neck muscle activity during ipsiversive gaze shifts (Grantyn and Berthoz 1987). Two of these “eye-neck reticulo-spinal neurons” (EN-RSN) were labeled by intra-axonal injections of HRP. The present report provides a detailed description of their morphology with an emphasis on

  7. Low-dose combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in a patient with Eisenmenger’s syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Parneix; L. Fanou; E. Morau; P. Colson

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman (G3,P0) with Eisenmenger’s syndrome and positive HIV serology presented to hospital at 16 weeks of pregnancy. She was hospitalised at 20 weeks under the care of a multidisciplinary team. At 33 weeks caesarean section was performed under low-dose combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia using a needle-through-needle technique. Over a period of 10min, spinal anaesthesia produced a sensory block to

  8. New software applications for interchangeable instrumentation in spinal stereotaxis.

    PubMed

    Kim, K D; Johnson, J P; Bloch, O; Masciopinto, J E; Saracen, M J; Villablanca, J P

    1999-01-01

    Computer image-guided surgery has been widely accepted because it allows the surgeon to track an instrument through unvisualized critical structures of a patient in real-time, thus minimizing the risk of injury. Current spinal and cranial image-guided surgery is, however, limited by the lack of surgical instruments and software applications that would allow rapid interchange of useful instruments to perform the procedures. Most image-guided systems utilize a single standard probe or a few pre-defined instruments that are not necessarily useful for performing the actual surgical procedure. Present image-guided technology for screw placement in spinal surgery utilizes the standard probe only to confirm the entry point location and view the planned trajectory of the screw. The surgeon then resumes the procedure using standard surgical instruments to drill, tap and place screws without the benefit of image guidance. Our clinical laboratory experience with spinal image-guided surgery indicates that there is potential for error between each of these procedural steps of screw placement. Despite accurately locating an entry point, any deviation in the trajectory during drilling of a pilot hole, tapping or screw placement may result in significant errors in screw placement and potential neurovascular injury. We have developed custom software applications and universal hardware adaptation devices for spinal image-guided surgery that allow the use of standard instruments for intraoperative guidance. Utilizing universal dynamic registration hardware and software, standard surgical instruments are adapted for real-time image guided surgery. An array of light emitting diodes can be attached to essentially any rigid instrument with a definable tip and then calibrated to the system for intraoperative use. Laboratory tests using a cadaveric model indicate a difference in accuracy of less than 1.0 mm between the standard probe and a dynamically registered custom instrument and an absolute mean error of less than 2.0 mm for the image-guided system which is clinically insignificant in most cases. This technology is a significant step forward as it allows the surgeon to use a full array of instruments with image guidance and will ultimately make spinal and intracranial surgery safer and more accurate. PMID:10538351

  9. Spinal metastasis in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of head and neck cancer is relatively low in developed countries and highest in South East Asia. Notwithstanding advances in surgery and radiotherapy over the past several decades, the 5-year survival rate for head and neck cancer has stagnated and remains at 50–55%. This is due, in large part, to both regional and distant disease spread, including spinal metastasis. Spinal metastasis from head and neck cancer is rare, has a poor prognosis and can significantly impede end-stage quality of life; normally only palliative care is given. This study aims to conduct a systematic review of the evidence available on management of spinal metastasis from head and neck cancer and to use such evidence to draw up guiding principles in the management of the distant spread. Methods Systematic review of the electronic literature was conducted regarding the management of spinal metastasis of head and neck malignancies. Results Due to the exceptional rarity of head and neck cancers metastasizing to the spine, there is a paucity of good randomized controlled trials into the management of spinal metastasis. This review produced only 12 case studies/reports and 2 small retrospective cohort studies that lacked appropriate controls. Conclusion Management should aim to improve end-stage quality of life and maintain neurological function. This review has found that radiotherapy +/? medical adjuvant is considered the principle treatment of spinal metastasis of head and neck cancers. There is an absence of a definitive treatment protocol for head and neck cancer spinal metastasis. Our failure to find and cite high-quality scientific evidence only serves to stress the need for good quality research in this area. PMID:22716187

  10. Activation of p-38? MAPK contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability in caudal regions remote from spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Young S.; Unabia, Geda C.; Hulsebosch, Claire E.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether activation of p-38? MAPK modulates mechanical allodynia and neuronal hyperexcitability, and if propentofylline (PPF, a glial modulator) modulates specifically localized activated p-38? MAPK expression in caudal regions remote from a low thoracic hemisection injury in rats. T13 spinal hemisection produces bilateral mechanical allodynia in hindpaws with evoked (in response to mechanical stimuli) neuronal hyperexcitability in lumbar spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons compared to sham controls. The mechanical allodynia and the evoked activity of WDR neurons is attenuated by intrathecal and topical administration of SB203580, an inhibitor of p-38? MAPK activation, dose dependently (*p<0.05); however, the spontaneous activity showed no significant differences compared to sham controls. After T13 spinal hemisection, significantly increased phosphorylated (activated form) p-38? MAPK expression was present in both superficial and deep dorsal horn neurons as well as in microglia, but not in astrocytes, in the lumbar spinal cord compared to sham controls (*p<0.05). Intrathecal application of PPF significantly attenuated the expression of phosphorylated p-38? MAPK in superficial dorsal horn neurons (10 mM) and in microglia (1 and 10 mM) in the lumbar spinal cord compared to the hemisection group (*p<0.05). In conclusion, our present data demonstrate that activated neuronal and microglial, but not astrocytic, p-38? MAPK contributes to the maintenance of neuronal hyperexcitability in caudal regions following spinal cord injury. PMID:19699199

  11. Learn About Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    What is spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)? It is an inherited disease that affects approximately 1 in 10,000 infants born in the United States each year. There are four types of SMA, which can cause the muscles to function improperly and become smaller and weaker over time. Visitors to this site, which was created by researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, should start their journey here by clicking on the What is SMA? section. Here they can watch Dr. Darryl De Vivo provide an overview of the four types of SMA and then look through video clips from other professionals who provide additional insights into the genetics behind SMA. Moving on, the SMA Science area provides high-quality animations that illustrate the various processes involved with the SMN gene (mutations of which are responsible for SMA) and protein splicing. Visitors can also click on the SMA Therapies to learn more about what's being done for people living with SMA, along with potential new treatments.

  12. Bone and Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Vai, Silvia; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; Moroni, Isabella; Mastella, Chiara; Broggi, Francesca; Morandi, Lucia; Arnoldi, Maria Teresa; Bussolino, Chiara; Baranello, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease, leading to progressive denervation atrophy in the involved skeletal muscles. Bone status has been poorly studied. We assessed bone metabolism, bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in 30 children (age range 15-171months) affected by SMA types 2 and 3. Eighteen children (60%) had higher than normal levels of CTx (bone resorption marker); 25-OH vitamin D was in the lower range of normal (below 20ng/ml in 9 children and below 12ng/ml in 2). Lumbar spine BMAD (bone mineral apparent density) Z-score was below -1.5 in 50% of children. According to clinical records, four children had sustained four peripheral fractures; on spine X-rays, we observed 9 previously undiagnosed vertebral fractures in 7 children. There was a significant inverse regression between PTH and 25-OH D levels, and a significant regression between BMC and BMAD values and the scores of motor-functional tests. Even if this study could not establish the pathogenesis of bone derangements in SMA, its main findings - reduced bone density, low 25OH vitamin D levels, increased bone resorption markers and asymptomatic vertebral fractures also in very young patients - strongly suggest that even young subjects affected by SMA should be considered at risk of osteopenia and even osteoporosis and fractures. PMID:26055105

  13. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... “Warning: The safety and effectiveness of pedicle screw spinal systems have been established...requiring fusion with instrumentation. These conditions...pseudarthrosis). The safety and effectiveness of these...pedicle screw spinal systems should be...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “Warning: The safety and effectiveness of pedicle screw spinal systems have been established...requiring fusion with instrumentation. These conditions...pseudarthrosis). The safety and effectiveness of these...pedicle screw spinal systems should be...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “Warning: The safety and effectiveness of pedicle screw spinal systems have been established...requiring fusion with instrumentation. These conditions...pseudarthrosis). The safety and effectiveness of these...pedicle screw spinal systems should be...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3070 - Pedicle screw spinal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... “Warning: The safety and effectiveness of pedicle screw spinal systems have been established...requiring fusion with instrumentation. These conditions...pseudarthrosis). The safety and effectiveness of these...pedicle screw spinal systems should be...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, also known as Kennedy disease, is a disorder of specialized nerve cells ... muscular atrophy? bulbospinal muscular atrophy, X-linked KD Kennedy disease Kennedy's disease Kennedy spinal and bulbar muscular ...

  18. Vocational Rehabilitation of Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poor, Charles R.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews historical development of organized vocational rehabilitation programming for the spinal cord injured in the United States. Significant factors that affect vocational rehabilitation outcomes with spinal cord injured persons are listed and discussed. (Author)

  19. What Are the Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)? Skip sharing on social media links ... no known ways to reverse damage to the spinal cord. However, researchers are continually working on new treatments, ...

  20. AMPA-receptor mediated plasticity within the rat spinal cord 

    E-print Network

    Hoy, Kevin Corcoran

    2009-05-15

    Previous research from our laboratory has demonstrated that the spinal cord is capable of a simple form of instrumental learning. In this instrumental learning paradigm, rats typically receive a complete spinal transection ...

  1. Presentations: Giving Effective Presentations

    E-print Network

    speaking in public in lowrisk, unevaluated situations, such as the Student Learning Commons' English the whole presentation. o Focus on learning the flow of ideas rather than exact wording. o Memorize small and prepare their answers. Familiarize yourself with the room setup and the available technology. SPEAKING

  2. Presentations Giving Effective Presentations

    E-print Network

    speaking in public in low-risk situations, such as the English Conversation Group at the Student Learning Focus on learning the flow of ideas rather than exact wording. o Memorize small parts their answers. Familiarize yourself with the room setup and the available technology BEFORE your presentation

  3. Spasticity therapy reacts to astrocyte GluA1 receptor upregulation following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Goiriena, Eider; Taylor, Julian

    2010-11-01

    For almost three decades intrathecal baclofen therapy has been the standard treatment for spinal cord injury spasticity when oral medication is ineffective or produces serious side effects. Although intrathecal baclofen therapy has a good clinical benefit-risk ratio for spinal spasticity, tolerance and the life-threatening withdrawal syndrome present serious problems for its management. Now, in an experimental model of spinal cord injury spasticity, AMPA receptor blockade with NGX424(Tezampanel) has been shown to reduce stretch reflex activity alone and during tolerance to intrathecal baclofen therapy.These results stem from the observation that GluA1 receptors are overexpressed on reactive astrocytes following experimental ischaemic spinal cord injury. Although further validation is required, the appropriate choice of AMPA receptor antagonists for treatment of stretch hyperreflexia based on our recent understanding of reactive astrocyte neurobiology following spinal cord injury may lead to the development of a better adjunct clinical therapy for spasticity without the side effects of intrathecal baclofen therapy. PMID:20662840

  4. Neuroprotective Effect of Ulinastatin on Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bingbing; Huang, Weihua; Xiao, Xiaoshan; Xu, Yao; Ma, Songmei; Xia, Zhengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Ulinastatin (UTI), a trypsin inhibitor, is isolated and purified from human urine and has been shown to exert protective effect on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in patients. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of ulinastatin on neurologic functions after spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanism. The spinal cord IR model was achieved by occluding the aorta just caudal to the left renal artery with a bulldog clamp. The drugs were administered immediately after the clamp was removed. The animals were terminated 48 hours after reperfusion. Neuronal function was evaluated with the Tarlov Scoring System. Spinal cord segments between L2 and L5 were harvested for pathological and biochemical analysis. Ulinastatin administration significantly improved postischemic neurologic function with concomitant reduction of apoptotic cell death. In addition, ulinastatin treatment increased SOD activity and decreased MDA content in the spinal cord tissue. Also, ulinastatin treatment suppressed the protein expressions of Bax and caspase-3 but enhanced Bcl-2 protein expression. These results suggest that ulinastatin significantly attenuates spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and improves postischemic neuronal function and that this protection might be attributable to its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties.

  5. Herrmann multiple synostosis syndrome with neurological complications caused by spinal canal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J; Rowe, L; Petroff, V

    2000-11-13

    A young man was found to have multiple synostosis syndrome type I after presenting with a neck injury causing a cervical spinal cord contusion. Neurological symptoms and signs suggested spinal cord compression. Magnetic resonance (MR) and computerized tomography (CT) imaging of the spine showed spinal canal stenosis with cord compression at C3-C6, a deformed spinal canal flattened in the anteroposterior dimension, vertebral fusions and deformed lateral processes of the vertebrae. He had a long broad nose with hypoplasia of the alae nasi, conductive hearing loss requiring hearing aids, muscular build, stiff spine, prominent acromia, pectus excavatum, ischial prominences, short fifth fingers, fusion at the proximal interphalangeal joints of the fifth fingers with indistinct overlying creases, and toe syndactyly. Spinal cord stenosis is a serious complication of multiple synostosis syndrome, that should be kept in mind in considering the risk of neck or back injury associated with certain sports or other activities. In both the multiple synostosis syndrome and the less severe proximal symphalangism deafness syndrome, mutations have been detected in the human homologue of the noggin gene on chromosome 17q21-q22. PMID:11078560

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Ulinastatin on Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingbing; Huang, Weihua; Xiao, Xiaoshan; Xu, Yao; Ma, Songmei; Xia, Zhengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Ulinastatin (UTI), a trypsin inhibitor, is isolated and purified from human urine and has been shown to exert protective effect on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in patients. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of ulinastatin on neurologic functions after spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury and the underlying mechanism. The spinal cord IR model was achieved by occluding the aorta just caudal to the left renal artery with a bulldog clamp. The drugs were administered immediately after the clamp was removed. The animals were terminated 48 hours after reperfusion. Neuronal function was evaluated with the Tarlov Scoring System. Spinal cord segments between L2 and L5 were harvested for pathological and biochemical analysis. Ulinastatin administration significantly improved postischemic neurologic function with concomitant reduction of apoptotic cell death. In addition, ulinastatin treatment increased SOD activity and decreased MDA content in the spinal cord tissue. Also, ulinastatin treatment suppressed the protein expressions of Bax and caspase-3 but enhanced Bcl-2 protein expression. These results suggest that ulinastatin significantly attenuates spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and improves postischemic neuronal function and that this protection might be attributable to its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. PMID:26161241

  7. Rehabilitation and treatment of spinal cord tumors

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Vishwa S.; Lofton, LaTanya

    2013-01-01

    Context Due to advances in acute oncological treatment, patients with spinal cord tumors exhibit improved survival. However, these patients have not received the full benefits of rehabilitation services to address their neurological deficits and rehabilitation goals. Objective To evaluate the epidemiology and pathophysiology of spinal cord tumors, address methods of acute oncological management, review treatment for neurological sequelae, and understand the implications as they relate to rehabilitation. Methods An extensive literature review was performed regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, acute oncological management, neurological sequelae, and rehabilitation for patients with spinal cord tumors. Databases used included pubmed.gov and OVID, as well as individual journal and textbook articles. Results Access to treatment should be increased given improved survival and functional deficits for patients with spinal cord tumors. Individuals can benefit from inpatient rehabilitation programs, in spite of increased medical co-morbidity and neurological deficits. Specific areas of improvement include functionality, mood, quality of life, and survival. Adjustments to treatment plans must incorporate medical complications from cancer and its treatment, perceived quality of life, and prognosis. Conclusions Patients with spinal cord tumors who participate in rehabilitation programs show general improvement in function, mood, quality of life, and survival. Adaptations to care plans should be made to accommodate medical co-morbidities from cancer and its treatment, patient perceptions, and prognosis. PMID:23433329

  8. Dynorphin Promotes Abnormal Pain and Spinal Opioid Antinociceptive Tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd W. Vanderah; Luis R. Gardell; Shannon E. Burgess; Mohab Ibrahim; Ahmet Dogrul; Cheng-Min Zhong; En-Tan Zhang; T. Philip; Michael H. Ossipov; Josephine Lai; Frank Porreca

    2000-01-01

    The nonopioid actions of spinal dynorphin may promote aspects of abnormal pain after nerve injury. Mechanistic similarities have been suggested between opioid tolerance and neuropathic pain. Here, the hypothesis that spinal dynorphin might mediate effects of sustained spinal opioids was explored. Possible abnormal pain and spinal antinociceptive tolerance were evaluated after intrathecal administration of (D-Ala 2, N-Me-Phe 4, Gly-ol 5)enke

  9. Reduced Pulmonary Function in Patients with Spinal Osteoporotic Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Schlaich; H. W. Minne; T. Bruckner; G. Wagner; H. J. Gebest; M. Grunze; R. Ziegler; G. Leidig-Bruckner

    1998-01-01

    :   Vertebral deformation in spinal osteoporosis results in spinal and thoracic deformation, causing pain, disability and an\\u000a overall decrease in quality of life. We sought to determine whether thoracic spinal deformation may lead to impaired pulmonary\\u000a function. We studied expiratory relaxed vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in 34 patients with\\u000a spinal osteoporotic fractures and

  10. Resveratrol attenuates bone cancer pain through the inhibition of spinal glial activation and CX3CR1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Yu; Liu, He; Fan, Qin; Lu, Fei-Fei; Li, Jing; Yin, Qin; Yan, Chang-Dong

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of intrathecal use of resveratrol on pain hypersensitivities, spinal glia activation, and CX3CR1 expression in the model of bone cancer pain (BCP). The BCP model was established through intrathecally injecting Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells to Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that spinal CX3CR1 expression and glial activation aggravated after inoculation. Resveratrol (i.t.) attenuated bone cancer-induced pain hypersensitivities, decreased CX3CR1 expression and glial activation in the spine in a BCP model. Resveratrol (i.t.) also attenuated mechanical allodynia resulting from intrathecally injecting fractalkine in rats. Inhibition of spinal glial activation and CX3CR1 upregulation may involve in resveratrol's analgesic effects. These findings demonstrated that resveratrol attenuated pain facilitation through inhibiting spinal glial activation and CX3CR1 upregulation in a BCP model. PMID:24872145

  11. Spinal Cord Tolerance in the Age of Spinal Radiosurgery: Lessons From Preclinical Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Medin, Paul M., E-mail: Paul.medin@utsouthwestern.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Boike, Thomas P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Clinical implementation of spinal radiosurgery has increased rapidly in recent years, but little is known regarding human spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction irradiation. In contrast, preclinical studies in single-fraction spinal cord tolerance have been ongoing since the 1970s. The influences of field length, dose rate, inhomogeneous dose distributions, and reirradiation have all been investigated. This review summarizes literature regarding single-fraction spinal cord tolerance in preclinical models with an emphasis on practical clinical significance. The outcomes of studies that incorporate uniform irradiation are surprisingly consistent among multiple small- and large-animal models. Extensive investigation of inhomogeneous dose distributions in the rat has demonstrated a significant dose-volume effect while preliminary results from one pig study are contradictory. Preclinical spinal cord dose-volume studies indicate that dose distribution is more critical than the volume irradiated suggesting that neither dose-volume histogram analysis nor absolute volume constraints are effective in predicting complications. Reirradiation data are sparse, but results from guinea pig, rat, and pig studies are consistent with the hypothesis that the spinal cord possesses a large capacity for repair. The mechanisms behind the phenomena observed in spinal cord studies are not readily explained and the ability of dose response models to predict outcomes is variable underscoring the need for further investigation. Animal studies provide insight into the phenomena and mechanisms of radiosensitivity but the true significance of animal studies can only be discovered through clinical trials.

  12. MRI Evaluation of Spinal Length and Vertebral Body Angle During Loading with a Spinal Compression Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James A.; Hargens, Alan R.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan, R.; Sanchez, E.; Yang, C.; Mitsui, I.; Schwandt, D.; Fechner, K. P.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Weight bearing by the spinal column during upright posture often plays a role in the common problem of low back pain. Therefore, we developed a non-ferromagnetic spinal compression harness to enable MRI investigations of the spinal column during axial loading. Human subjects were fitted with a Nest and a footplate which were connected by adjustable straps to an analog load cell. MRI scans of human subjects (5 males and 1 female with age range of 27-53 yrs) during loaded and unloaded conditions were accomplished with a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa scanner. Studies of two subjects undergoing sequentially increasing spinal loads revealed significant decreases (r(sup 2) = 0.852) in spinal length between T4 and L5 culminating in a 1.5 to 2% length decrease during loading with 75% body weight. Sagittal vertebral body angles of four subjects placed under a constant 50% body weight load for one hour demonstrated increased lordotic and kyphotic curvatures. In the lumbar spine, the L2 vertebral body experienced the greatest angular change (-3 deg. to -5 deg.) in most subjects while in the thoracic spine, T4 angles increased from the unloaded state by +2 deg. to +9 deg. Overall, our studies demonstrate: 1) a progressive, although surprisingly small, decrease in spinal length with increasing load and 2) relatively large changes in spinal column angulation with 50% body weight.

  13. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the spinal canal: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MENG, XIAO-TONG; HE, SHI-SHENG

    2015-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare tumors of uncertain histogenesis that occur predominantly in children and young adults. The current study reports a case of PNET in a 60-year-old female, which presented clinically as an intraspinal tumor, causing symptoms of lower back pain, numbness and pain in the right lower extremity. The patient underwent tumorectomy. Following primary therapy, the symptoms of spinal cord compression were relieved. The patient underwent several courses of radiotherapy following surgery but refused to continue with chemotherapy. After a further four months, the tumors recurred and the patient succumbed to the disease. PMID:25789071

  14. Late onset GM2 gangliosidosis mimicking spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Z; Lugowska, A; Go??biowski, M; Królicki, L; M?czewska, J; Ku?ma-Kozakiewicz, M

    2013-09-25

    A case of late onset GM2 gangliosidodis with spinal muscular atrophy phenotype followed by cerebellar and extrapyramidal symptoms is presented. Genetic analysis revealed compound heterozygous mutation in exon 10 of the HEXA gene. Patient has normal intelligence and emotional reactivity. Neuroimaging tests of the brain showed only cerebellar atrophy consistent with MR spectroscopy (MRS) abnormalities. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18)F-FDG PET/CT of the brain revealed glucose hypometabolism in cerebellum and in temporal and occipital lobes bilaterally. PMID:23820084

  15. Chronic Spinal Compression Model in Minipigs: A Systematic Behavioral, Qualitative, and Quantitative Neuropathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Roman; Juhas, Stefan; Keshavarzi, Sassan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Johe, Karl; Marsala, Silvia; Scadeng, Miriam; Lazar, Peter; Tomori, Zoltan; Schulteis, Gery; Beattie, Michael; Ciacci, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The goal of the present study was to develop a porcine spinal cord injury (SCI) model, and to describe the neurological outcome and characterize the corresponding quantitative and qualitative histological changes at 4–9 months after injury. Adult Gottingen-Minnesota minipigs were anesthetized and placed in a spine immobilization frame. The exposed T12 spinal segment was compressed in a dorso-ventral direction using a 5-mm-diameter circular bar with a progressively increasing peak force (1.5, 2.0, or 2.5?kg) at a velocity of 3?cm/sec. During recovery, motor and sensory function were periodically monitored. After survival, the animals were perfusion fixed and the extent of local SCI was analyzed by (1) post-mortem MRI analysis of dissected spinal cords, (2) qualitative and quantitative analysis of axonal survival at the epicenter of injury, and (3) defining the presence of local inflammatory changes, astrocytosis, and schwannosis. Following 2.5-kg spinal cord compression the animals demonstrated a near complete loss of motor and sensory function with no recovery over the next 4–9 months. Those that underwent spinal cord compression with 2?kg force developed an incomplete injury with progressive partial neurological recovery characterized by a restricted ability to stand and walk. Animals injured with a spinal compression force of 1.5?kg showed near normal ambulation 10 days after injury. In fully paralyzed animals (2.5?kg), MRI analysis demonstrated a loss of spinal white matter integrity and extensive septal cavitations. A significant correlation between the magnitude of loss of small and medium-sized myelinated axons in the ventral funiculus and neurological deficits was identified. These data, demonstrating stable neurological deficits in severely injured animals, similarities of spinal pathology to humans, and relatively good post-injury tolerance of this strain of minipigs to spinal trauma, suggest that this model can successfully be used to study therapeutic interventions targeting both acute and chronic stages of SCI. PMID:22029501

  16. BDNF Facilitates Instrumental Learning and Spinal Plasticity In Vivo. 

    E-print Network

    Niemerski, Ashley

    2014-01-27

    of drug treatment was assessed by testing its effect on mechanical reactivity and spinal learning. Spinally transected rats had the BDNF-containing hydrogel applied over the lumbosacral spinal cord. Subjects were tested 3-24 hrs later. Prior work has shown...

  17. Compression behavior of porcine spinal cord white matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn J. Sparrey; Tony M. Keaveny

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury often results from a compressive load; however, the compression behavior of spinal cord white matter has not been clearly established. Quantifying the compression behavior is important for advancing our understanding of spinal cord injury mechanics and facilitating the use of finite element models to study injury. The objective of this study was to characterize the unconfined compression

  18. Original Article Electrophysiological changes in isolated spinal cord white matter

    E-print Network

    Shi, Riyi

    Original Article Electrophysiological changes in isolated spinal cord white matter in response pig spinal cord white matter. Objectives: To determine whether lack of oxygen can cause irreversible of reoxygenation, mammalian spinal cord white matter can partially recover electrical impulse conduction. However

  19. Technical Note Functional MRI of the Thoracic Spinal Cord During

    E-print Network

    Smith, Stephen D.

    Technical Note Functional MRI of the Thoracic Spinal Cord During Vibration Sensation Jennifer functional magnetic resonance images from thoracic spinal cord neurons. Materials and Methods: The lower spinal cord using a HASTE sequence on a 3 Tesla MRI system. Results: Signal increases were observed

  20. Introduction In the developing dorsal spinal cord, different classes of

    E-print Network

    Kharasch, Evan

    2047 Introduction In the developing dorsal spinal cord, different classes of postmitotic neurons are commissural neurons and migrate to the intermediate region of the spinal cord. What promotes early- born is the projection of different classes of primary sensory afferents within the spinal cord (Brown, 1981; Ozaki

  1. NOCICEPTIVE PLASTICITY INHIBITS ADAPTIVE LEARNING IN THE SPINAL CORD

    E-print Network

    Grau, James

    NOCICEPTIVE PLASTICITY INHIBITS ADAPTIVE LEARNING IN THE SPINAL CORD A. R. FERGUSON,a * E. D in central neurogenic pain. Over the last 100 years researchers have found that the spinal cord is also (response­outcome) learning in the spi- nal cord, we use a preparation in which spinally transected rats

  2. Chronic cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats

    E-print Network

    Schramm, Lawrence P.

    Chronic cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats JOHN W. OSBORN, ROBERT F cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats. Am. J. Physiol. 258(Regulatory Integra spinal cord injury are proneto acute, marked,hypertensive episodes,i.e., autonomic hyperreflexia

  3. Peripheral Inflammation Undermines the Plasticity of the Isolated Spinal Cord

    E-print Network

    Grau, James

    Peripheral Inflammation Undermines the Plasticity of the Isolated Spinal Cord Michelle A. Hook demonstrate that capsaicin also undermines the adaptive plasticity of the spinal cord, rendering the system the spinal cord against the maladaptive effects. Rats pretrained with controllable stimulation do not display

  4. Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation Richard Al'o 1 , Kenneth Al is a discrete optimization problem, e.g., for pain relief methodologies such as acupuncture and spinal cord problems related to pain relief: ffl problems of acupuncture, and ffl problems related to spinal cord

  5. Turkish Adaptation of Spinal Cord Independence Measure--Version III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesiktas, Nur; Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Sencan, Sureyya; Karan, Ayse; Muslumanoglu, Lutfiye

    2012-01-01

    Various rating scales have been used to assess ability in individuals with spinal cord injury. There is no specific functional assessment scale for Turkish patients with spinal cord injury. The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) is a specific test, which has become popular in the last decade. A study was conducted to validate and evaluate the…

  6. Sexuality Counseling with Clients Who Have Spinal Cord Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Examines effects of spinal cord injury on sexuality. Discusses areas of sexual concern. Provides suggestions for treating clients with spinal cord injuries experiencing sexual difficulties. Concludes that major goal in working with clients with spinal cord injuries who have sexual difficulties should be the facilitation of a creative and…

  7. Lumbar disc herniation in patients with developmental spinal stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Y. Dai; B. Ni; L. S. Jia; H. K. Liu

    1996-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar disc herniation are usually regarded as two pathogenetically different conditions, but in the literature lumbar disc herniation in patients with developmental spinal stenosis has been rarely documented. In a clinical retrospective study, 42 lumbar disc herniations with developmental spinal stenosis were reported and analyzed. Discectomy was performed after laminotomy. The patients were followed-up for an

  8. MR of Leptomeningeal Spinal and Posterior Fossa Amyloid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Horowitz; Chinnamma Thomas; Gregory Gruener; Sucha Nand; John F. Shea

    Summary: We report an unusual cause of leptomeningeal MR enhancement, amyloid, along the surfaces of the spinal cord and brain stem and in the spinal subarachnoid space, with sacral intradural and epidural deposition. Type I familial amyloid polyneuropathy may cause amyloid depo- sition along the leptomeninges of the spinal cord and brain in addition to the visceral organs and the

  9. Relationships between falls, spinal curvature, spinal mobility and back extensor strength in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Kasukawa, Yuji; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideaki; Kamo, Keiji; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Shimada, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Spinal mobility and back extensor strength (BES) are important in determining quality of life (QOL) for elderly people. However, the impact of spinal factors on falls remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify spinal factors related to falls in elderly people, including deformity of spinal curvature, spinal mobility and BES. Subjects comprised 92 elderly people divided into 3 groups: subjects without a history of falls or fear of falls (Non-falls group, n = 40); subjects with a history of fear of falls or requiring any support when walking (Fear of falls group, n = 36); and subjects with a history of falls (Falls group, n = 16). Kyphotic angles and mobility of the thoracic and/or lumbar spine, and spinal inclination were measured using a computer-assisted device. Postural imbalance was evaluated using a computerized stabilometer. Isometric BES was also measured. Angle of lumbar kyphosis, spinal inclination, and postural imbalance were significantly higher in the Falls group (p < 0.05) compared to those in the Non-falls group. Mobility of the lumbar spine and BES were significantly lower in the Falls group (p < 0.05) than in the Non-falls group. Multiple logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, gender, height, and body weight showed grip strength (p = 0.0028), BES (p = 0.0052), lumbar kyphosis (p = 0.0057), spinal inclination (p = 0.0378), mobility of lumbar spine (0.027), and mobility of spinal inclination (p = 0.0282) were significantly associated with presence/absence of falls in elderly individuals. PMID:19690799

  10. Minimally invasive surgical decompression for lumbar spinal metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Jon; Kusnezov, Nicholas A.; Pezeshkian, Patrick; Lu, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The risk of significant morbidity and mortality often outweighs the benefit of surgical resection as palliative treatment for patients with high systemic disease burden, poor cardiopulmonary status, and previous spinal surgeries. Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches to decompressing metastatic epidural cord compression (MECC) can address these issues and thereby make palliation a feasible option for these patients. Case Description: We present the cases of three consecutively collected patients with severe neurological compromise secondary to lumbar epidural metastases who underwent MIS decompression and achieved improved functional outcome and quality of life. The first patient is a 23-year-old female with metastatic Ewing's sarcoma who presented with 2 weeks of a right foot drop and radiculopathic pain. The next case is that of a 71-year-old male with metastatic prostate cancer who presented with significant radiculopathic L5-S1 pain and severe motor deficits in his lower extremities. The last case is that of a 73-year-old male with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma who presented with worsening left leg weakness, paresthesia, and dysethesia. Postoperatively, each patient experienced significant improvement and almost complete enduring return of function, strength, and resolution of pain. Conclusion: We demonstrate that MIS approaches to spinal decompression as palliative treatment for metastatic disease is a viable treatment in patients with a focal symptomatic lesion and comes with the benefits of decreased surgical morbidity inherent to the minimally invasive approach as well as excellent functional outcomes. PMID:23869278

  11. Spinal accessory neuropathy associated with the tumor located on the jugular foramen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoung; Yang, Shimo; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Inhwan

    2013-02-01

    Spinal accessory neuropathy is commonly caused by iatrogenic injury or secondary to trauma or infection. Nevertheless, the tumor related palsy is rare. We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient suffering from paralysis of his right trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle. An electrophysiologic diagnostic study confirmed the spinal accessory neuropathy of the proximal segment. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging showed the location of tumor on the jugular foramen. However, the type of the tumor was not confirmed through biopsy because the patient refused surgical procedure. Based on the study, it is hypothesized that the tumor located on the jugular foramen should be considered as a cause of the spinal accessory nerve of the proximal segment. PMID:23526381

  12. Biomaterial scaffolds used for the regeneration of spinal cord injury (SCI).

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonhang; Park, So Ra; Choi, Byung Hyune

    2014-11-01

    This review presents a summary of various types of scaffold biomaterials used alone or together with therapeutic drugs and cells to regenerate spinal cord injury (SCI). The inhibitory environment and loss of axonal connections after SCI give rise to critical obstacles to regeneration of lost tissues and neuronal functions. Biomaterial scaffolds can provide a bridge to connect lost tissues, an adhesion site for implanted or host cells, and sustained release of therapeutic drugs in the injured spinal cord. In addition, they not only provide a structural platform, but can play active roles by inhibiting apoptosis of cells, inflammation and scar formation, and inducing neurogenesis, axonal growth and angiogenesis. Many synthetic and natural biomaterial scaffolds have been extensively investigated and tested in vitro and in animal SCI models for these purposes. We summarized the literature on the biomaterials commonly used for spinal cord regeneration in terms of historical backgrounds and current approaches. PMID:24831814

  13. Men's adjustment to spinal cord injury: the unique contributions of conformity to masculine gender norms.

    PubMed

    Burns, Shaun Michael; Hough, Sigmund; Boyd, Briana L; Hill, Justin

    2010-06-01

    Men constitute 82% of the approximately 250,000 people in the United States living with a spinal cord injury. Unfortunately, however, little is known about the impact of men's adherence to gender norms on their adjustment to such injuries. The present investigation examined the utility of masculine norms in explaining variance in depression beyond that accounted for by commonly identified predictors of men's adjustment following spinal cord injury. As hypothesized, results suggested that men's adherence to masculine norms accounted for unique variance in their depression scores beyond that contributed by social support, environmental barriers/access, and erectile functioning. Respondents who adhered to norms stressing the primacy of men's work demonstrated lower rates of depression, whereas those who conformed to norms for self-reliance demonstrated higher depression scores. The authors discuss future research directions and potential psychotherapeutic strategies for working with men with spinal cord injuries. PMID:19477753

  14. Targeting Hyaluronan Interactions in Spinal Cord Astrocytomas and Diffuse Pontine Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Bernard L.; Gupta, Nalin; Gilg, Anne G.; Abdel-Wahab, May; Leonard, Anthony P.; Slomiany, Mark; Wheeler, William G.; Tolliver, Lauren B.; Babcock, Michael A.; Lucas, John T.; Toole, Bryan P.

    2013-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in treating malignant pediatric central nervous system tumors such as medulloblastoma, no effective therapy exists for diffuse pontine glioma or intramedullary spinal astrocytoma. Biology of these 2 tumors is poorly understood, in part because diffuse pontine gliomas are not treated surgically, and tumor specimens from intramedullary spinal astrocytomas are rare and minuscule. At the 2007 Neurobiology of Disease in Children Symposium, we presented evidence that malignant glioma behaviors, including antiapoptosis, invasiveness, and treatment resistance, are enhanced by hyaluronan, an extracellular glycosaminoglycan. We review the clinical course of pediatric intramedullary spinal astrocytoma and diffuse pontine glioma, and show expression of membrane proteins that interact with hyaluronan: CD44, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). Furthermore, we describe novel animal models of these tumors for preclinical studies. These findings suggest that hyaluronan antagonism has potential therapeutic value in malignant central nervous system tumors. PMID:18952588

  15. Totally extradural spinal en plaque meningiomas – Diagnostic dilemmas and treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Savardekar, Amey; Chatterjee, Debarshi; Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Mohindra, Sandeep; Salunke, Pravin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Meningiomas are the second most common intraspinal tumors, constituting ~25% of all intraspinal tumors; however, in the context of extradural spinal lesions, the diagnosis of meningioma is an uncommon one. Purely extradural spinal meningiomas, especially of the en plaque variety, frequently mimic metastatic disease and may result in inadequate therapy. Case Description: We report two cases of totally extradural en-plaque meningiomas of the spine, one each in the cervical and dorsal spine. We present the significant diagnostic dilemmas posed by these cases and discuss the pathogenesis, treatment strategies, and long-term behavior of these uncommon lesions. Conclusion: Attention needs to be drawn to this dangerous preoperative and intraoperative misinterpretation. Intraoperative histopathology support for correct identification, gross total resection at surgery, inclusion of a durotomy to rule out intradural extension, and long-term follow-up are cornerstones for successful management of totally extradural en plaque spinal meningiomas. PMID:25289148

  16. Intraaxial spinal cord hemorrhage secondary to atlantoaxial subluxation in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kent, Marc; Eagleson, Joseph S; Neravanda, Dharshan; Schatzberg, Scott J; Gruenenfelder, Fredrik I; Platt, Simon R

    2010-01-01

    A 1-year-old, 3.5-kg, spayed female, toy poodle was presented for acute-onset tetraplegia and neck pain. Neuroanatomical diagnosis was consistent with a first through fifth cervical (C(1) through C(5)) spinal cord lesion. Radiographs of the cervical vertebral column revealed atlantoaxial (AA) subluxation. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities consistent with intraaxial spinal cord hemorrhage at the level of the AA articulation. The dog was treated with external coaptation. After 8 days, the dog regained voluntary motor function in all four limbs. Surgical stabilization was pursued. Postoperatively, the dog regained the ability to ambulate. This report details the imaging findings and management of a dog with intraaxial spinal cord hemorrhage secondary to AA subluxation. PMID:20194370

  17. Schistosomiasis of the spinal cord: report of 5 cases from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Salim, A D; Arbab, M A; El Hassan, L A; El Hassan, M

    2012-03-01

    Schistosomiasis of the spinal cord is an uncommon but potentially curable form of schistosomiasis, if diagnosed and managed early. The spinal cord is more frequently affected in Schistosoma mansoni or S. haematobium infections. This paper describes the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of schistosomiasis of the spinal cord in 5 patients attending Shaab and Ibn Khuldoun Hospitals, Khartoum from 1997 to 2007. There were 4 males and 1 female aged 9-45 years. They presented with symptoms and signs due to cord compression at the lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Imaging studies revealed intramedullary masses compressing the cord. Biopsy showed ova of S. mansoni with surrounding inflammatory reaction. The cord showed demyelination near the ova and an associated inflammatory reaction. Patients responded well to surgical ecompression and treatment with praziquantel and oral steroids. PMID:22574486

  18. Multiple Spinal Cord Recurrences of an Intracranial Ependymoma after 14 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Semie; Moon, Chang Taek

    2013-01-01

    Ependymoma can spread via cerebrospinal fluid, but late spinal recurrences of intracranial tumor are very rare. We describe a case of a 33-year-old male who presented with multiple, delayed, recurrent lesions in the spinal cord from an intracranial ependymoma. The patient underwent gross total resection and postoperative radiation therapy 14 years prior to visit for a low grade ependymoma in the 4th ventricle. The large thoraco-lumbar intradural-extramedullary spinal cord tumor was surgically removed and the pathologic diagnosis was an anaplastic ependymoma. An adjuvant whole-spine radiation therapy for residual spine lesions was performed. After completion of radiation therapy, a MRI showed a near complete response and the disease was stable for three years. PMID:24527198

  19. Minimal access microsurgical ligation of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula with tubular retractor

    PubMed Central

    On Tsang, Anderson Chun; Hang Tse, Philip Yat; Ting Ng, Grace Hoi; Kit Leung, Gilberto Ka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open surgical ligation is an effective treatment of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF). Until recently, the procedure would require an open laminectomy, which may potentially cause significant postoperative pain, spinal deformity, and instability due to disruptions of the spinal mechanics. Development in minimal access spine surgery provides an alternative approach that can minimize bone and soft tissue trauma. Case Description: We report two patients who presented with progressive paraparesis secondary to thoracolumbar SDAVF. Minimal access microsurgical ligation was successfully performed through a tubular retractor using a paramedian muscle-splitting approach. Conclusion: With accurate localization of the fistulous point in each patient, only a hemilaminectomy and a small dura opening were required using the tube-assisted technique. This allows direct visualization and ligation of the fistulous point while minimizing postoperative morbidities. PMID:26110081

  20. Ionotropic glutamate receptors and voltage-gated Ca²? channels in long-term potentiation of spinal dorsal horn synapses and pain hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Youn, Dong-ho; Gerber, Gábor; Sather, William A

    2013-01-01

    Over the last twenty years of research on cellular mechanisms of pain hypersensitivity, long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn (DH) has emerged as an important contributor to pain pathology. Mechanisms that underlie LTP of spinal DH neurons include changes in the numbers, activity, and properties of ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA and NMDA receptors) and of voltage-gated Ca²? channels. Here, we review the roles and mechanisms of these channels in the induction and expression of spinal DH LTP, and we present this within the framework of the anatomical organization and synaptic circuitry of the spinal DH. Moreover, we compare synaptic plasticity in the spinal DH with classical LTP described for hippocampal synapses. PMID:24224102

  1. Foreign body reactions causing spinal cord tethering: a case-based update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan F. Martínez-Lage; Belen Ferri Ñiguez; María José Almagro; María Cristina Rodriguez; Miguel A. Pérez-Espejo

    2010-01-01

    Background  Patients operated on for myelomeningocele (MMC) and lipomeningocele (LMC) can suffer from late functional worsening that,\\u000a in many cases, is due to spinal cord tethering by the post-repair scarring process.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Illustrative cases  In this case-based update, we report two patients operated on for MMC and LMC, respectively, who presented the clinical manifestations\\u000a of spinal cord tethering, which we attributed to severe

  2. Managing Inflammation after Spinal Cord Injury through Manipulation of Macrophage Function

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yi; Young, Wise

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers inflammation with activation of innate immune responses that contribute to secondary injury including oligodendrocyte apoptosis, demyelination, axonal degeneration, and neuronal death. Macrophage activation, accumulation, and persistent inflammation occur in SCI. Macrophages are heterogeneous cells with extensive functional plasticity and have the capacity to switch phenotypes by factors present in the inflammatory microenvironment of the injured spinal cord. This review will discuss the role of different polarized macrophages and the potential effect of macrophage-based therapies for SCI. PMID:24288627

  3. A Malignant Transformation of a Spinal Epidural Mass from Ganglioneuroblastoma to Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Bilge; Aras, Yavuz; Izgi, Nail

    2015-01-01

    Ganglioneuromas are benign tumors. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice with very good prognosis. However, neuroblastomatous malignant transformation of ganglioneuromas was previously reported. We report a patient with spinal neuroblastoma recurrent from a ganglioneuroblastoma after disease free survival of 13 years. This is one of the rare examples of spinal neuroblastoma and to our knowledge the second case report with malignant transformation from a ganglioneuroblastoma or a ganglioneuroma. The present case is the only report in the literature with further genetic investigations. PMID:25810863

  4. Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in sheep spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharron Dolan; Neil P. Evans; Trevor A. Richter; Andrea M. Nolan

    2003-01-01

    Consistent with its neuroendocrine role, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is located principally within the hypothalamus, although extra-hypothalamic expression has been reported. The present study characterized the expression of GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) in sheep spinal cord using real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. Both GnRH and GnRH-R mRNA were detected in sheep spinal cord. Expression of GnRH peptide was localized to discrete

  5. Vascular anatomy of the spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The book summarizes the anatomic guidelines of external blood supply to the spinal cord. The basic principles of arterial supply and venous drainage are illustrated by explicit schemes for quick orientation. In the first part of the book, systematic radiologic-anatomic investigations of the superficial and deep vessels of all segments of the spinal cord are introduced. The microvascular morphology is portrayed by numerous microradiographic sections in all three dimensions without overshadowing. The three-dimensional representation of the vascular architecture illustrates elementary outlines and details of arterial territories, anastomotic cross-linking as well as the capillary system, particularly the hitherto unknown structure of the medullary venous system with its functionally important anastomoses and varying regional structures. These often now radiologic-anatomic findings are discussed as to their functional and pathophysiologic impact and constitute the basic on which to improve one's understanding of vascular syndromes of the spinal cord.

  6. Activation of Descending Pain Facilitatory Pathways from the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla by Cholecystokinin Elicits Release of PGE2 in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Timothy M.; Herman, David S.; Largent-Milnes, Tally M.; Badghisi, Hamid; Zuber, Konstantina; Holt, Shannon C.; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Vanderah, Todd W.

    2011-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been suggested to be both pro-nociceptive and anti-opioid by actions on pain modulatory cells within the RVM. One consequence of activation of RVM CCK2 receptors may be enhanced spinal nociceptive transmission but how this might occur, especially in states of pathological pain is unknown. Here, in vivo microdialysis was used to demonstrate that levels of RVM CCK increased by approximately 2-fold following ligation of L5/L6 spinal nerves (SNL). Microinjection of CCK into the RVM of naïve rats elicited hypersensitivity to tactile stimulation of the hindpaw. Additionally, RVM CCK elicited a time-related increase in PGE2 measured in cerebrospinal fluid from the lumbar spinal cord. The peak increase in spinal PGE2 was approximately 5-fold and was observed at approximately 80-min post-RVM CCK, a time coincident with maximal RVM CCK-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Spinal administration of naproxen, a non-selective COX-inhibitor, significantly attenuated RVM CCK-induced hindpaw tactile hypersensitivity. RVM-CCK also resulted in a 2-fold increase in spinal 5-HIAA, a 5-HT metabolite, as compared to controls, and mechanical hypersensitivity that was attenuated by spinal application of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist. The present studies suggest that chronic nerve injury can result in activation of descending facilitatory mechanisms that may promote hyperalgesia via ultimate release of PGE2 and 5-HT in the spinal cord. PMID:22030324

  7. [Spinal granuloma in a patient receiving a spinal infusion of morphine and clonidine].

    PubMed

    Abejón, D; del Saz, J M; Ley, L; Sánchez, M R; del Pozo, C

    2009-01-01

    Patients treated with long-term spinal infusion of high doses of morphine develop a granuloma at the location of the catheter tip. Diagnosis is based on a steady increase in intrathecal morphine dosage after a relatively prolonged period of stability, on the gradual development of neurologic signs and symptoms suggesting radicular or spinal cord compression, and on magnetic resonance images. We describe a man with central neuropathic pain after removal of a tumor. The presence of all 3 of the aforementioned diagnostic criteria led to suspicion of a spinal granuloma. PMID:19725346

  8. The transformation of spinal curvature into spinal deformity: pathological processes and implications for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Martha C; O'Brien, Joseph P

    2006-01-01

    Background This review summarizes what is known about the pathological processes (e.g. structural and functional changes), by which spinal curvatures develop and evolve into spinal deformities. Methods Comprehensive review of articles (English language only) published on 'scoliosis,' whose content yielded data on the pathological changes associated with spinal curvatures. Medline, Science Citation Index and other searches yielded > 10,000 titles each of which was surveyed for content related to 'pathology' and related terms such as 'etiology,' 'inheritance,' 'pathomechanism,' 'signs and symptoms.' Additional resources included all books published on 'scoliosis' and available through the Arizona Health Sciences Library, Interlibrary Loan, or through direct contact with the authors or publishers. Results A lateral curvature of the spine–'scoliosis'–can develop in association with postural imbalance due to genetic defects and injury as well as pain and scarring from trauma or surgery. Irrespective of the factor that triggers its appearance, a sustained postural imbalance can result, over time, in establishment of a state of continuous asymmetric loading relative to the spinal axis. Recent studies support the longstanding hypothesis that spinal deformity results directly from such postural imbalance, irrespective of the primary trigger, because the dynamics of growth within vertebrae are altered by continuous asymmetric mechanical loading. These data suggest that, as long as growth potential remains, evolution of a spinal curvature into a spinal deformity can be prevented by reversing the state of continuous asymmetric loading. Conclusion Spinal curvatures can routinely be diagnosed in early stages, before pathological deformity of the vertebral elements is induced in response to asymmetric loading. Current clinical approaches involve 'watching and waiting' while mild reversible spinal curvatures develop into spinal deformities with potential to cause symptoms throughout life. Research to define patient-specific mechanics of spinal loading may allow quantification of a critical threshold at which curvature establishment and progression become inevitable, and thereby yield strategies to prevent development of spinal deformity. Even within the normal spine there is considerable flexibility with the possibility of producing many types of curves that can be altered during the course of normal movements. To create these curves during normal movement simply requires an imbalance of forces along the spine and, extending this concept a little further, a scoliotic curve is produced simply by a small but sustained imbalance of forces along the spine. In fact I would argue that no matter what you believe to be the cause of AIS, ultimately the problem can be reduced to the production of an imbalance of forces along the spine [1]. PMID:16759413

  9. Clonidine and Dexmedetomidine Produce Antinociceptive Synergy in Mouse Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Fairbanks, Carolyn A.; Kitto, Kelley F; Nguyen, Oanh; Stone, Laura S.; Wilcox, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Synergy between drugs manifests with increased potency and/or efficacy of the combination relative to either agonist given alone. Synergy is typically observed between drugs of different classes, as is the case with the alpha-adrenergic-opioid receptor synergy often observed in preclinical studies. However, rare studies report synergy between agonists of the same class. The present study examined the analgesic interaction between two intrathecally injected alpha-2 adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists previously thought to act at the same receptor subtype when given spinally. Methods Mice were administered clonidine, dexmedetomidine, or the combination spinally to evaluate the interaction between these two agonists. The ED50 values were calculated and the interactions tested by isobolographic analysis. The rotarod test was performed in the same mice following the completion of analgesic assessment to assess motor or sedative effects. These experiments were performed in outbred mice as well as in mice with mutant alpha2A-ARs, alpha2C-AR-knock-out or wildtype controls. Finally, analgesic cross-tolerance between clonidine and dexmedetomidine was evaluated. Results Clonidine and dexmedetomidine interacted synergistically in all lines except the alpha2C-AR knockout line, implicating alpha2C-ARs in the interaction. Additionally, clonidine and dexmedetomidine did not show analgesic cross-tolerance in the outbred strain, suggesting that the two drugs have distinct mechanisms of action. Conclusions The present study introduces a new synergistic agonist pair, clonidine – dexmedetomidine. These two drugs appear to require the alpha2A-AR for spinal analgesia when given separately; when delivered as a combination, the resultant synergistic interaction requires the alpha2C-AR as well. PMID:19212267

  10. Mevalonate sensitizes the nociceptive transmission in the mouse spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Masahiro; Mutoh, Junpei; Hisa, Hiroaki

    2008-02-01

    Isoprenylation is crucial for the biological activation of small molecular G proteins. Activation of Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling has been reported to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of hyperalgesia caused by nerve injury and inflammation. The present study was then undertaken to examine whether the protein isoprenylation could affect thermal nociceptive threshold in the mouse spinal cord. Intrathecal administration of mevalonate (0.05-5.0 micromol) dose-dependently decreased the paw-withdrawal latencies for the thermal stimulation, indicating that mevalonate induces thermal hyperalgesia. Intrathecal pretreatment with a geranylgeranyl transferase I inhibitor GGTI-2133 (0.001-1.0 nmol) or a ROCK inhibitor Y27632 (0.001-1.0 nmol) completely blocked the mevalonate-induced thermal hyperalgesia. On the other hand, mevalonate-induced thermal hyperalgesia was only slightly attenuated by a farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277 (0.01-1.0 nmol). Intrathecal injection of mevalonate increased the amount of geranylgeranylated RhoA in the spinal cord, which was completely blocked by intrathecal pretreatment with GGTI-2133. Intrathecal injection of mevalonate also produced RhoA translocation from cytosol to plasma membrane. This mevalonate-induced RhoA translocation was also blocked by intrathecal pretreatment with GGTI-2133, indicating that the RhoA translocation is triggered by RhoA geranylgeranylation. Moreover, inhibition of mevalonate synthesis by HMG-CoA reductase inhibition with simvastatin attenuated the second phase, but not the first phase, of nociceptive response to formalin. Our present results suggest that mevalonate sensitizes the spinal nociceptive transmission, which is mediated by the activation of ROCK following the RhoA geranylgeranylation. PMID:17764839

  11. Metal levels in corrosion of spinal implants

    PubMed Central

    Beguiristain, Jose; Duart, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion affects spinal instrumentations and may cause local and systemic complications. Diagnosis of corrosion is difficult, and nowadays it is performed almost exclusively by the examination of retrieved instrumentations. We conducted this study to determine whether it is possible to detect corrosion by measuring metal levels on patients with posterior instrumented spinal fusion. Eleven asymptomatic patients, with radiological signs of corrosion of their stainless steel spinal instrumentations, were studied by performing determinations of nickel and chromium in serum and urine. Those levels were compared with the levels of 22 patients with the same kind of instrumentation but without evidence of corrosion and to a control group of 22 volunteers without any metallic implants. Statistical analysis of our results revealed that the patients with spinal implants without radiological signs of corrosion have increased levels of chromium in serum and urine (P < 0.001) compared to volunteers without implants. Corrosion significantly raised metal levels, including nickel and chromium in serum and urine when compared to patients with no radiological signs of corrosion and to volunteers without metallic implants (P < 0.001). Metal levels measured in serum have high sensibility and specificity (area under the ROC curve of 0.981). By combining the levels of nickel and chromium in serum we were able to identify all the cases of corrosion in our series of patients. The results of our study confirm that metal levels in serum and urine are useful in the diagnosis of corrosion of spinal implants and may be helpful in defining the role of corrosion in recently described clinical entities such as late operative site pain or late infection of spinal implants. PMID:17256156

  12. Vascular dysfunctions following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Popa, F; Grigorean, VT; Onose, G; Sandu, AM; Popescu, M; Burnei, G; Strambu, V; Sinescu, C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the vascular dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Vascular dysfunctions are common complications of SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. Neuroanatomy and physiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic, is reviewed. SCI implies disruption of descendent pathways from central centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating in intermediolateral nuclei of T1–L2 cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant vascular dysfunction. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and it is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe arterial hypotension and bradycardia. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life–threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5–T6). Arterial hypotension with orthostatic hypotension occurs in both acute and chronic phases. The etiology is multifactorial. We described a few factors influencing the orthostatic hypotension occurrence in SCI: sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, low plasma catecholamine levels, rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone activity, peripheral alpha–adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness, impaired function of baroreceptors, hyponatremia and low plasmatic volume, cardiovascular deconditioning, morphologic changes in sympathetic neurons, plasticity within spinal circuits, and motor deficit leading to loss of skeletal muscle pumping activity. Additional associated cardiovascular concerns in SCI, such as deep vein thrombosis and long–term risk for coronary heart disease and systemic atherosclerosis are also described. Proper prophylaxis, including non–pharmacologic and pharmacological strategies, diminishes the occurrence of the vascular dysfunction following SCI. Each vascular disturbance requires a specific treatment. PMID:20945818

  13. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Painful Spinal Tumors Adjacent to the Spinal Cord with Real-Time Monitoring of Spinal Canal Temperature: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro, E-mail: nakatuka@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Yamakado, Koichiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Uraki, Junji; Makita, Masashi; Oshima, Fumiyoshi; Takeda, Kan [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    PurposeTo prospectively evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical utility of bone radiofrequency (RF) ablation with real-time monitoring of the spinal canal temperature for the treatment of spinal tumors adjacent to the spinal cord.Materials and MethodsOur Institutional Review Board approved this study. Patients gave informed consent. The inclusion criteria were (a) a painful spinal metastasis and (b) a distance of 1 cm or less between the metastasis and the spinal cord. The thermocouple was placed in the spinal canal under CT fluoroscopic guidance. When the spinal canal temperature reached 45{sup o}C, RF application was immediately stopped. RF ablation was considered technically successful when the procedure was performed without major complications. Clinical success was defined as a fall in the visual analogue scale score of at least 2 points.ResultsTen patients with spinal tumors measuring 3-8 cm (mean, 4.9 {+-} 1.5 cm) were enrolled. The distance between the tumor and the spinal cord was 1-6 mm (mean, 2.4 {+-} 1.6 mm). All procedures were judged technically successful (100%). The spinal canal temperature did not exceed 45{sup o}C in 9 of the 10 patients (90%). In the remaining patient, the temperature rose to 48{sup o}C, resulting in transient neural damage, although RF application was immediately stopped when the temperature reached 45{sup o}C. Clinical success was achieved within 1 week in all patients (100%).ConclusionBone RF ablation with real-time monitoring of the spinal canal temperature is feasible, safe, and clinically useful for the treatment of painful spinal metastases adjacent to the spinal cord.

  14. Spinal Muscular Atrophy— Summary for Nutritional CareThe Consensus Statement for Standard of Care in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna DiVito; Susan Konek

    2010-01-01

    The Consensus Statement for Standard of Care in Spinal Muscular Atrophy was published in 2007 and provided guidance for interdisciplinary teams charged with the care of patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). This standard was developed by the International Standard of Care Committee for Spinal Muscular Atrophy, which was formed in 2005. It was the goal of this committee to

  15. Movements elicited by electrical stimulation of muscles, nerves, intermediate spinal cord, and spinal roots in anesthetized and decerebrate cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoichiro Aoyagi; Vivian K. Mushahwar; Richard B. Stein; Arthur Prochazka

    2004-01-01

    Electrical stimulation offers the possibility of restoring motor function of paralyzed limbs after spinal-cord injury or stroke, but few data are available to compare possible sites of stimulation, such as muscle, nerve, spinal roots, or spinal cord. The aim of this study was to establish some characteristics of stimulation at these sites in the anesthetized and midcollicular decerebrate cat. The

  16. Spinal Prostaglandins Are Involved in the Development But Not the Maintenance of Inflammation-Induced Spinal Hyperexcitability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Vasquez; Karl-Jürgen Bar; Andrea Ebersberger; Barbara Klein; Horacio Vanegas; Hans-Georg Schaible

    2001-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are local mediators of several functions in the CNS. Both primary afferent neurons and intrinsic cells in the spinal cord produce PGs, with a marked upregulation during peripheral inflammation. Therefore, the significance of spinal PGs in the neuronal processing of mechanosensory information was herein investigated. In anesthetized rats, the discharges of spinal nociceptive neurons with input from the

  17. Chronic spinal pain syndromes: A clinical pilot trial comparing acupuncture, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and spinal manipulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynton G. F. Giles; Reinhold Müller

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To compare needle acupuncture, medication (tenoxicam with ranitidine), and spinal manipulation for managing chronic (>13 weeks duration) spinal pain syndromes. Design: Prospective, randomized, independently assessed preintervention and postintervention clinical pilot trial. Setting: Specialized spinal pain syndrome outpatient unit at Townsville General Hospital, Queensland, Australia. Subjects: Seventy-seven patients (without contraindication to manipulation or medication) were recruited. Interventions: One of three

  18. Remyelination of the injured spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Masanori; Li, Bingcang; Lankford, Karen L.; Radtke, Christine; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

    2008-01-01

    Contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in necrosis of the spinal cord, but often long white matter tracts outside of the central necrotic core are demyelinated. One experimental strategy to improve functional outcome following SCI is to transplant myelin-forming cells to remyelinate these axons and improve conduction. This review focuses on transplantation studies using olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) to improve functional outcome in experimental models of SCI and demyelination. The biology of the OEC, and recent experimental research and clinical studies using OECs as a potential cell therapy candidate are discussed. PMID:17618995

  19. Spinal Angiolipoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Hungs, Marcel; Paré, Laura S

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: Spinal angiolipoma (SAL) is an uncommon clinico-pathological entity. Design: Single case report. Methods: Retrospective data analysis. Findings: An obese woman with a 1-year history of progressive spastic paraparesis and acute deterioration underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine, the results of which suggested a tumor compressing the thoracic spinal cord. The histopathological examination of the completely resected tumor revealed an epidural angiolipoma. Conclusions: This case report offers a reminder that SAL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of long-standing, slowly progressive paraparesis. It remains unclear whether an increased body mass index might be a contributing factor to the development of SAL. PMID:18795485

  20. Stimulation of the Human Lumbar Spinal Cord With Implanted and Surface Electrodes: A Computer Simulation Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Ladenbauer; Karen Minassian; Ursula S. Hofstoetter; Milan R. Dimitrijevic; Frank Rattay

    2010-01-01

    Human lumbar spinal cord networks controlling stepping and standing can be activated through posterior root stimulation using implanted electrodes. A new stimulation method utilizing surface electrodes has been shown to excite lumbar posterior root fibers similarly as with implants, an unexpected finding considering the distance to these target neurons. In the present study we apply computer modeling to compare the

  1. Automated Segmentation of the Lumbar Pedicle in CT Images for Spinal Fusion Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jongwon Lee; Sungmin Kim; Young Soo Kim; Wan Kyun Chung

    2011-01-01

    Exact information about the shape of a lumbar pedi- cle can increase operation accuracy and safety during computer- aided spinal fusion surgery, which requires extreme caution on the part of the surgeon, due to the complexity and delicacy of the procedure. In this paper, a robust framework for segmenting the lumbar pedicle in computed tomography (CT) images is presented. The

  2. Chronic Morphine Induces Downregulation of Spinal Glutamate Transporters: Implications in Morphine Tolerance and Abnormal Pain Sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianren Mao; Backil Sung; Ru-Rong Ji; Grewo Lim

    2002-01-01

    Tolerance to the analgesic effects of an opioid occurs after its chronic administration, a pharmacological phenomenon that has been associated with the development of abnormal pain sensitivity such as hyperalgesia. In the present study, we ex- amined the role of spinal glutamate transporters (GTs) in the development of both morphine tolerance and associated ther- mal hyperalgesia. Chronic morphine administered through

  3. The cellular and subcellular localization of zinc transporter 7 in the mouse spinal cord

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present work addresses the cellular and subcellular localization of the zinc transporter 7 (ZNT7, SLC30a7) protein and the distribution of zinc ions (Zn2+) in the mouse spinal cord. Our results indicated that the ZNT7 immunoreactive neurons were widely distributed in the Rexed’s laminae of the g...

  4. Health economic evaluation in lumbar spinal fusion: a systematic literature review anno 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rikke Soegaard; Finn B. Christensen

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this systematic literature review was to assess the evidence for cost-effectiveness of various surgical techniques in lumbar spinal fusion in conformity with the guidelines provided by the Cochrane Back Review Group. As new technology continuously emerges and divergent directions in clinical practice are present, economic evaluation is needed in order to facilitate the decision-makers’ budget allocations. NHS

  5. Chronic childhood spinal muscular atrophy in Germany (West-Thüringen) — an epidemiological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Thieme I; Beate Mitulla; Friedemann Schulze; Aribert W. J. Spiegler

    1994-01-01

    This study presents the most extensive epidemiological data on chronic forms of spinal muscular atrophy in childhood (CSMA) in West-Thüringen in Germany. The incidence of CSMA was calculated to be 1 in 9,420 live births. The prevalence was 1.624 in 100,000 of the general population (as of 31 December 1980).

  6. ATP-evoked Increases in Intracellular Calcium in Neurons and Glia from the Dorsal Spinal Cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mw Salter; Janice L. Hicks

    1994-01-01

    ATP has been proposed as a possible chemical mediator of synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn on the basis that it is released in dorsal horn synaptosomes in a Ca2+- dependent manner and that its effects mimic those of syn- aptic inputs to dorsal horn neurons. In the present study we examined the actions of ATP on neurons and

  7. NCAM-mediated locomotor recovery from spinal cord contusion injury involves neuroprotection, axon regeneration, and synaptogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si Zhang; Yin Yan Xia; Han Chi Lim; Feng Ru Tang; Zhi Wei Feng

    2010-01-01

    The expression level of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), which plays a critical role in pathways involving development and plasticity of the nervous system, changes markedly after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the significance of NCAM-involved mechanisms in SCI remains elusive. The present study demonstrates that NCAM-deficient (ND) mice exhibited significantly poorer locomotor activity than wildtype (WT) littermates with the

  8. Prevention of spinal cord injuries in an Australian study (New South Wales)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J D Yeo

    1993-01-01

    The Spinal Awareness and Prevention Programme presented through the Royal North Shore Hospital and the Royal Rehabilitation Centre, in Sydney, NSW, Australia has grown considerably since 1982. Ten years later it is pleasing to report that the programme has grown in response to public demand and requires a full time coordinator, secretary and five disabled lecturers (part time). This prevention

  9. Acute ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction following opening of the spinal subarachnoid space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D. Smyth

    2009-01-01

    Tubbs et al. present a case series of five patients who experienced ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction with intraspinal subarachnoid surgical manipulation implicated as the pivotal factor in conversion of a stable, suboptimally functioning, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt system into an acutely obstructed one. They conjecture a “siphoning” effect in the subarachnoid cranial–spinal subarachnoid space as causative in proximal shunt obstruction; a

  10. Thoracic spondylosis presenting with spastic paraparesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Chana; F. Afshar

    1996-01-01

    Spondylotic change of the spine is common in the cervical and lumbar regions and may present with compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Myelopathy due to degenerative disease in the thoracic spine is exceptional. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature and these reports have described disease in the lower four thoracic segments. We report

  11. A Spinal Cord Window Chamber Model for In Vivo Longitudinal Multimodal Optical and Acoustic Imaging in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Azusa; Conroy, Leigh; McMullen, Jesse D.; Silver, Jason I.; Stapleton, Shawn; Vitkin, Alex; Lindsay, Patricia; Burrell, Kelly; Zadeh, Gelareh; Fehlings, Michael G.; DaCosta, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo and direct imaging of the murine spinal cord and its vasculature using multimodal (optical and acoustic) imaging techniques could significantly advance preclinical studies of the spinal cord. Such intrinsically high resolution and complementary imaging technologies could provide a powerful means of quantitatively monitoring changes in anatomy, structure, physiology and function of the living cord over time after traumatic injury, onset of disease, or therapeutic intervention. However, longitudinal in vivo imaging of the intact spinal cord in rodent models has been challenging, requiring repeated surgeries to expose the cord for imaging or sacrifice of animals at various time points for ex vivo tissue analysis. To address these limitations, we have developed an implantable spinal cord window chamber (SCWC) device and procedures in mice for repeated multimodal intravital microscopic imaging of the cord and its vasculature in situ. We present methodology for using our SCWC to achieve spatially co-registered optical-acoustic imaging performed serially for up to four weeks, without damaging the cord or induction of locomotor deficits in implanted animals. To demonstrate the feasibility, we used the SCWC model to study the response of the normal spinal cord vasculature to ionizing radiation over time using white light and fluorescence microscopy combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vivo. In vivo power Doppler ultrasound and photoacoustics were used to directly visualize the cord and vascular structures and to measure hemoglobin oxygen saturation through the complete spinal cord, respectively. The model was also used for intravital imaging of spinal micrometastases resulting from primary brain tumor using fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging. Our SCWC model overcomes previous in vivo imaging challenges, and our data provide evidence of the broader utility of hybridized optical-acoustic imaging methods for obtaining multiparametric and rich imaging data sets, including over extended periods, for preclinical in vivo spinal cord research. PMID:23516432

  12. Hartshill rectangle: failure of spinal stabilisation in acute spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Ward; Adrian R. Harvey; James Ramos; John E. Carvell; David J. Grundy

    2000-01-01

    A high rate of failure of the internal fixation of unstable spinal fractures in complete cord injured patients was noted\\u000a in patients referred to the Salisbury Spinal Centre who had been stabilised with a Hartshill rectangle. This prompted a review\\u000a of the operative notes, radiographs and clinical outcomes of all patients referred to the centre with a Hartshill rectangle\\u000a in

  13. AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF CULTURED RAT SPINAL CORD

    PubMed Central

    Bunge, Richard P.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Peterson, Edith R.

    1965-01-01

    Explants prepared from 17- to 18-day fetal rat spinal cord were allowed to mature in culture; such preparations have been shown to differentiate and myelinate in vitro (61) and to be capable of complex bioelectric activity (14–16). At 23, 35, or 76 days, the cultures were fixed (without removal from the coverslip) in buffered OsO4, embedded in Epon, sectioned, and stained for light and electron microscopy. These mature explants generally are composed of several strata of neurons with an overlying zone of neuropil. The remarkable cytological similarity between in vivo and in vitro nervous tissues is established by the following observations. Cells and processes in the central culture mass are generally closely packed together with little intervening space. Neurons exhibit well developed Nissl bodies, elaborate Golgi regions, and subsurface cisternae. Axosomatic and axodendritic synapses, including synaptic junctions between axons and dendritic spines, are present. Typical synaptic vesicles and increased membrane densities are seen at the terminals. Variations in synaptic fine structure (Type 1 and Type 2 synapses of Gray) are visible. Some characteristics of the cultured spinal cord resemble infrequently observed specializations of in vivo central nervous tissue. Neuronal somas may display minute synapse-bearing projections. Occasionally, synaptic vesicles are grouped in a crystal-like array. A variety of glial cells, many apparently at intermediate stages of differentiation, are found throughout the otherwise mature explant. There is ultrastructural evidence of extensive glycogen deposits in some glial processes and scattered glycogen particles in neuronal terminals. This is the first description of the ultrastructure of cultured spinal cord. Where possible, correlation is made between the ultrastructural data and the known physiological properties of these cultures. PMID:14326105

  14. Contributions of spinal D-amino acid oxidase to bone cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin-Lu; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Guo, Cheng; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2012-11-01

    D-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO), a FAD-dependent peroxisomal flavoenzyme that catalyzes oxidation of D-amino acids to hydrogen peroxide, is distributed in the spinal cord almost exclusively expressed within astrocytes. The present study aims to explore potential contributions of spinal DAAO to the development of bone cancer pain and morphine tolerance to analgesia. Tibia inoculation of carcinoma cells produced mechanical allodynia (but not heat hyperalgesia), in synchronous with induction of DAAO expression and DAAO enzymatic activity, as well as activation of spinal astrocytes marked by GFAP. Subcutaneous and intrathecal injection of the specific DAAO inhibitor CBIO (5-chloro-benzo[d]isoxazol-3-ol) blocked mechanical allodynia in a dose- and time-dependent manner in tumor-bearing rats, with maximum inhibition of 40-50 %. Multi-daily intrathecal injections of the DAAO gene silencer siRNA/DAAO also yielded anti-allodynic effects by approximately 40 % and the analgesia remained for at least 6 days. Subcutaneous injection of CBIO suppressed the production of spinal hydrogen peroxide and GFAP expression. 7-Day multiple bi-daily injections of CBIO produced anti-allodynia without inducing self-tolerance to analgesia or cross-tolerance to morphine, and concurrent injections of CBIO with morphine produced apparent additive anti-allodynia and completely prevented morphine tolerance in behaviors and spinal expression of ?-opioid receptors. Our results provide the first evidence that spinal DAAO contributes to the development of morphine tolerance to analgesia and bone cancer pain accounting for 40-50 % pain status, probably via production of hydrogen peroxide leading to activation of astrocytes. The unique characterizations of DAAO inhibitors make them a potential for the treatment of cancer pain when they are administered alone or in combination with morphine. PMID:22996731

  15. Imaging stretch-activated firing of spinal afferent nerve endings in mouse colon.

    PubMed

    Travis, Lee; Spencer, Nick J

    2013-01-01

    Spinal afferent neurons play a major role in detecting noxious and innocuous stimuli from visceral organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract. However, all our understanding about spinal afferents has been obtained from recordings of spinal afferent axons, or cell bodies that lie outside the gut wall, or peripheral organ they innervate. No recordings have been made directly from spinal afferent nerve endings, which is where sensory transduction occurs. We developed a preparation whereby recordings could be made from rectal afferent nerve endings in the colon, to characterize mechanisms underlying sensory transduction. Dorsal root ganglia (L6-S2) were removed from mice, whilst retaining neural continuity with the colon. Fluo-4-AM was used to record from rectal afferent nerve endings in myenteric ganglia and circular muscle at 36°C. In slack (unstretched) preparations of colon, no calcium transients were recorded from spinal afferent endings. However, in response to a maintained increase in circumferential diameter, a maintained discharge of calcium transients occurred simultaneously in multiple discrete varicosities along single axons of rectal afferents in myenteric ganglia and circular muscle. Stretch-activated calcium transients were resistant to hexamethonium and nifedipine, but were abolished by tetrodotoxin, CPA, BAPTA-AM, cobalt, gadolinium, or replacement of extracellular Na(+) with NMDG. In summary, we present a novel preparation in which stretch-activated firing of spinal afferent nerve endings can be recorded, using calcium imaging. We show that circumferential stretch of the colon activates a maintained discharge of calcium transients simultaneously in varicosities along single rectal afferent endings in myenteric ganglia and circular muscle. Non-selective cation channels, TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels and both extracellular calcium influx and intracellular Ca(2+) stores are required for stretch-activated calcium transients in rectal afferent endings. PMID:24109427

  16. Roles of Hedgehog pathway components and retinoic acid signalling in specifying zebrafish ventral spinal cord neurons

    PubMed Central

    England, Samantha; Batista, Manuel F.; Mich, John K.; Chen, James K.; Lewis, Katharine E.

    2011-01-01

    In mouse, Hedgehog (Hh) signalling is required for most ventral spinal neurons to form. Here, we analyse the spinal cord phenotype of zebrafish maternal-zygotic smoothened (MZsmo) mutants that completely lack Hh signalling. We find that most V3 domain cells and motoneurons are lost, whereas medial floorplate still develops normally and V2, V1 and V0v cells form in normal numbers. This phenotype resembles that of mice that lack both Hh signalling and Gli repressor activity. Ventral spinal cord progenitor domain transcription factors are not expressed at 24 hpf in zebrafish MZsmo mutants. However, pMN, p2 and p1 domain markers are expressed at early somitogenesis stages in these mutants. This suggests that Gli repressor activity does not extend into zebrafish ventral spinal cord at these stages, even in the absence of Hh signalling. Consistent with this, ectopic expression of Gli3R represses ventral progenitor domain expression at these early stages and knocking down Gli repressor activity rescues later expression. We investigated whether retinoic acid (RA) signalling specifies ventral spinal neurons in the absence of Hh signalling. The results suggest that RA is required for the correct number of many different spinal neurons to form. This is probably mediated, in part, by an effect on cell proliferation. However, V0v, V1 and V2 cells are still present, even in the absence of both Hh and RA signalling. We demonstrate that Gli1 has a Hh-independent role in specifying most of the remaining motoneurons and V3 domain cells in embryos that lack Hh signalling, but removal of Gli1 activity does not affect more dorsal neurons. PMID:22069186

  17. An acute growth factor treatment that preserves function after spinal cord contusion injury.

    PubMed

    Chehrehasa, Fatemeh; Cobcroft, Mitchell; Young, Yun Wai; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Goss, Ben

    2014-11-01

    Inflammation of the spinal cord after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to destruction of healthy tissue. This "secondary degeneration" is more damaging than the initial physical damage and is the major contributor to permanent loss of functions. In our previous study, we showed that combined delivery of two growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, significantly reduced secondary degeneration after hemisection injury of the spinal cord in the rat. Growth factor treatment reduced the size of the lesion cavity at 30 days, compared to control animals, and further reduced the cavity at 90 days in treated animals, whereas in control animals the lesion cavity continued to increase in size. Growth factor treatment also reduced astrogliosis and reduced macroglia/macrophage activation around the injury site. Treatment with individual growth factors alone had similar effects to control treatments. The present study investigated whether growth factor treatment would improve locomotor behavior after spinal contusion injury, a more relevant pre-clinical model of SCI. The growth factors were delivered for the first 7 days to the injury site by osmotic minipump. Locomotor behavior was monitored at 1-28 days after injury using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) score and at 30 days using automated gait analysis. Treated animals had BBB scores of 18; control animals scored 10. Treated animals had significantly reduced lesion cavities and reduced macroglia/macrophage activation around the injury site. We conclude that growth factor treatment preserved spinal cord tissues after contusion injury, thereby allowing functional recovery. This treatment has the potential to significantly reduce the severity of human spinal cord injuries. PMID:24836764

  18. Feasibility of 3.0 T diffusion-weighted nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of functional recovery of rats with complete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Duo; Li, Xiao-hui; Zhai, Xu; He, Xi-jing

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging is a sensitive way to reflect axonal necrosis and degeneration, glial cell regeneration and demyelination following spinal cord injury, and to display microstructure changes in the spinal cord in vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging technology is a sensitive method to diagnose spinal cord injury; fiber tractography visualizes the white matter fibers, and directly displays the structural integrity and resultant damage of the fiber bundle. At present, diffusion tensor imaging is restricted to brain examinations, and is rarely applied in the evaluation of spinal cord injury. This study aimed to explore the fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging and the feasibility of diffusion tensor tractography in the evaluation of complete spinal cord injury in rats. The results showed that the average combined scores were obviously decreased after spinal cord transection in rats, and then began to increase over time. The fractional anisotropy scores after spinal cord transection in rats were significantly lower than those in normal rats (P < 0.05); the apparent diffusion coefficient was significantly increased compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). Following spinal cord transection, fractional anisotropy scores were negatively correlated with apparent diffusion coefficient values (r = –0.856, P < 0.01), and positively correlated with the average combined scores (r = 0.943, P < 0.01), while apparent diffusion coefficient values had a negative correlation with the average combined scores (r = –0.949, P < 0.01). Experimental findings suggest that, as a non-invasive examination, diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging can provide qualitative and quantitative information about spinal cord injury. The fractional anisotropy score and apparent diffusion coefficient have a good correlation with the average combined scores, which reflect functional recovery after spinal cord injury. PMID:25878589

  19. Acute spinal subdural hematoma complicating lumbar decompressive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kok Chun; Samartzis, Dino; Luk, Keith D.K.; Cheung, Kenneth M.C.; Wong, Yat-Wa

    2012-01-01

    Study design:?A case report. Objective:?To report a rare case of acute spinal subdural hematoma (SSH) complicating lumbar spine surgery, its characteristic presenting symptoms, diagnostic imaging, possible cause, and pitfall in management. Methods:?A 59-year-old woman with lumbar spinal instability and stenosis underwent laminectomy and decompression at L3–L5 with instrumentation and fusion from L3–S1. Results:?Immediately following surgery, the patient presented with incapacitating pain of both lower extremities from the mid-thigh downward, which was not relieved by narcotic analgesia and was disproportional to surgical trauma. Left ankle and great toes weakness was detected at postoperative day 2 and deteriorated on day 6. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed urgently and revealed a characteristic SSH with thecal sac compression at the level of L2, proximal to the laminectomy. Emergency decompression and evacuation of the hematoma was performed. The patient had partial recovery 6 weeks postoperatively. Conclusion:?Acute SSH is a rare complication of lumbar spine surgery. This diagnosis must be considered when severe leg pain, unresolved with analgesia and disproportional to surgical trauma, with neurological deterioration occurring after lumbar spine surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice to assist in the differential diagnosis of an SSH. Early surgical decompression is necessary for optimal neurological recovery. PMID:23236307

  20. Radiology of intervertebral cages in spinal surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Hanley; M. T. Gun; O. Osti; E. M. Shanahan

    1999-01-01

    This pictorial essay reviews the normal appearances and the post-operative complications of intervertebral cages. These are implants which are being more widely used in spinal surgery. The text outlines the background leading to their development, the clinical indications and surgical techniques for insertion of the cages. The normal post-operative appearance of fusion and the complications that can occur are emphasized.

  1. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fin Biering-Sørensen; Poul Jennum; Michael Laub

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of

  2. Spinal anesthesia: Mechanisms, agents, methods, and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid Chiari; J. C. Eisenach

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of neurotransmitter and receptor pharmacology in the spinal cord have provided new directions for the development of novel analgesic compounds. Although IT opioids provide effective analgesia for most patients, limited duration of action, tolerance, and side effects represent a limitation. Nonopioids such as alpha-2 adrenergic and cholinergic agonists may be more suited as adjuvants rather

  3. Spinal cord compression due to brown tumor.

    PubMed

    Pikis, Stylianos; Cohen, José E; Vargas, Andres; Schroeder, Josh; Kaplan, Leon; Itshayek, Eyal

    2015-06-01

    We report a rare case of a vertebral brown tumor causing spinal cord compression and resulting in progressive paraparesis in a 27-year-old female with end-stage renal failure, managed with hemodialysis. Urgent neurosurgical intervention and gross total resection resulted in complete resolution of the symptoms. PMID:25769249

  4. Topical Review: Progressive Spinal Muscular Atrophies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan B. Strober; Gihan I. Tennekoon

    1999-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is the most common autosomal-recessive genetic disorder lethal to infants. It was first described in the 1890s. Since then our understanding of the disorder has progressed significantly. Progression of the disease is due to loss of anterior horn cells, thought to be caused by apoptosis. Diagnosis is based on the course of the illness, as well as

  5. Molecular diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Stewart; A Wallace; J McGaughran; R Mountford

    1998-01-01

    The frequency of deletions within the survival motor neurone (SMN) and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) genes in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and the impact of this on the diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis of SMA, were investigated by molecular analysis of stored DNA and retrospective review of case notes. In type I SMA, 16 of 17 cases were

  6. Modern Management of Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan T. Iannaccone

    2007-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is an incurable disease with a frequency of 8 per 100 000 live births. The disease gene, survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1), was identified with a disease modifying gene, SMN2. There is a high mortality rate in infancy and severe morbidity in childhood. Management depends on treating or preventing complications of weakness and maintaining quality of life.

  7. Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandrine Thuret; Lawrence D. F. Moon; Fred H. Gage

    2006-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to paraplegia or quadriplegia. Although there are no fully restorative treatments for SCI, various rehabilitative, cellular and molecular therapies have been tested in animal models. Many of these have reached, or are approaching, clinical trials. Here, we review these potential therapies, with an emphasis on the need for reproducible evidence of safety and efficacy.

  8. Embryonic GABAergic Spinal Commissural Neurons Project Rostrally

    E-print Network

    Cohen-Cory, Susana

    et al., 2001). Com- missural neurons were described by Ramo´n y Cajal (1933) as being among; Oppen- heim et al., 1988; Silos-Santiago and Snider, 1992; Sto- eckli and Landmesser, 1995; Kaprielian the earliest neurons born in the spinal cord and as being both numerous and diverse (Wentworth, 1984; Silos-Santiago

  9. Employment Outcomes Following Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, S.; Murphy, G. S.; Athanasou, J. A.; Hickey, L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 83 Australian adults with spinal cord injuries found that at least 56% had worked at some time post-injury and those who were working when surveyed had done so for an average of close to 10 years. Clerical, office, and administrative occupations proved to be the most suitable. (Author/CR)

  10. Accommodating Workers with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Denetta; Batiste, Linda; Whidden, Eddie

    1998-01-01

    Examination of over 1,000 calls to the Job Accommodation Network involving workers with spinal cord injury identified the nature of the industry, job, career progression, and accessibility solutions. The number of calls increased dramatically after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (SK)

  11. Autonomic function following cervical spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Krassioukov

    2009-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is commonly associated with devastating paralysis. However, this condition also results in a variety of autonomic dysfunctions, primarily: cardiovascular, broncho-pulmonary, urinary, gastrointestinal, sexual, and thermoregulatory. SCI and the resultant unstable autonomic control are responsible for increased mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory disease among individuals with SCI.Injury level and severity directly correlate to the severity of autonomic

  12. Some observations on spinal reflexes in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Magladery

    1955-01-01

    An attempt has been made to assess the functional significance of certain spinal reflexes demonstrable in man, and to consider their relationships to tendon jerks and tonus. Selected older studies have been reviewed in light of current knowledge of stretch reflex activity. The physiological basis of the electrically induced reflexes first described by Paul Hoffmann has been more strictly defined.

  13. Presynaptic Kainate Receptors Regulate Spinal Sensory Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey A. Kerchner; Timothy J. Wilding; Ping Li; Min Zhuo; James E. Huettner

    Small diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which in- clude cells that transmit nociceptive information into the spinal cord, are known to express functional kainate receptors. It is well established that exposure to kainate will depolarize C-fiber afferents arising from these cells. Although the role of kainate receptors on sensory afferents is unknown, it has been hypoth- esized that presynaptic

  14. Endovascular treatment in spinal perimedullary arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Phadke, Rajendra V; Bhattacharyya, Avik; Handique, Akash; Jain, Krishan; Kumar, Alok; Singh, Vivek; Baruah, Deb; Kumar, Tushant; Patwari, Sriram; Mohan, B Madan

    2014-01-01

    This study includes 20 patients with 21 spinal perimedullary fistulae. There were nine Type IVa (42.8%) lesions, ten Type IVb (47.6%) and two Type IVc (9.5%) lesions. The dominant arterial supply was from the anterior spinal artery (47.6%), posterior spinal artery (19%) and directly from the radiculomedullary artery (28.5%). Sixteen lesions in 15 patients were treated by endovascular route using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Endovascular treatment was not feasible in five patients. Of the ten patients with microfistulae, catheterization failed/was not attempted in 40%, complete obliteration of the lesion was seen in 60% but clinical improvement was seen in 40% of patients. Catheterization was feasible in all ten patients with macrofistulae (nine type IVb and two type IVc lesions). Complete obliteration of the lesions was seen in 60% and residue in 30%. Clinical improvement was seen in 80% and clinical deterioration in 10%. In conclusion, endovascular glue embolization is safe and efficacious in type IVb and IVc spinal perimedullary fistulae and should be considered the first option of treatment. It is also feasible in many of the type IVa lesions. PMID:24976100

  15. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after cervical spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Hsien; Wu, Jau-Ching; Cheng, Henrich; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is an unpredictable and rare complication of spinal surgery. We report five cases of RCH following cervical spinal surgery, and summarize another seven similar cases from the literature. Dural opening with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia seems to be an important factor contributing to RCH following cervical spinal surgery. As other authors have proposed, surgical positioning may be another factor contributing to RCH. RCH is thought to be hemorrhagic venous infarction, resulting from the stretching occlusion of the superior cerebellar vein by the cerebellar sag effect. Either intraoperative CSF loss or a postoperative CSF leak from drainage may cause cerebellar sag, further resulting in RCH. RCH is usually self-limiting, and most patients with RCH have an optimal outcome after conservative treatment. Severe cases that involved surgical intervention because of evidence of brainstem compression or hydrocephalus also had acceptable outcomes, compared to spontaneous CH. It has been suggested that one way to prevent RCH is to avoid extensive perioperative loss of CSF, by paying attention to surgical positioning during spinal surgery. We also underline the importance of early diagnosis and CSF expansion in the early treatment of RCH. PMID:23746536

  16. Spinal metaplasticity in respiratory motor control.

    PubMed

    Fields, Daryl P; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark feature of the neural system controlling breathing is its ability to exhibit plasticity. Less appreciated is the ability to exhibit metaplasticity, a change in the capacity to express plasticity (i.e., "plastic plasticity"). Recent advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms giving rise to respiratory motor plasticity lay the groundwork for (ongoing) investigations of metaplasticity. This detailed understanding of respiratory metaplasticity will be essential as we harness metaplasticity to restore breathing capacity in clinical disorders that compromise breathing, such as cervical spinal injury, motor neuron disease and other neuromuscular diseases. In this brief review, we discuss key examples of metaplasticity in respiratory motor control, and our current understanding of mechanisms giving rise to spinal plasticity and metaplasticity in phrenic motor output; particularly after pre-conditioning with intermittent hypoxia. Progress in this area has led to the realization that similar mechanisms are operative in other spinal motor networks, including those governing limb movement. Further, these mechanisms can be harnessed to restore respiratory and non-respiratory motor function after spinal injury. PMID:25717292

  17. Management of Pediatric Spinal Cord Astrocytomas: Outcomes With Adjuvant Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, Zachary D.; Moningi, Shalini [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Jallo, George I. [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Cohen, Kenneth J. [Division of Pediatric Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Division of Pediatric Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wharam, Moody D. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Terezakis, Stephanie A., E-mail: stereza1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors are exceedingly rare; in the United States, 100 to 200 cases are recognized annually, of these, most are astrocytomas. The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes in pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at a tertiary care center. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved retrospective single-institution study was performed for pediatric patients with spinal cord astrocytomas treated at our hospital from 1990 to 2010. The patients were evaluated on the extent of resection, progression-free survival (PFS), and development of radiation-related toxicities. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate regression model methods were used for analysis. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included in the study, 24 with grade 1 or 2 (low-grade) tumors and 5 with grade 3 or 4 (high-grade) tumors. The median follow-up time was 55 months (range, 1-215 months) for patients with low-grade tumors and 17 months (range, 10-52 months) for those with high-grade tumors. Thirteen patients in the cohort received chemotherapy. All patients underwent at least 1 surgical resection. Twelve patients received radiation therapy to a median radiation dose of 47.5 Gy (range, 28.6-54.0 Gy). Fifteen patients with low-grade tumors and 1 patient with a high-grade tumor exhibited stable disease at the last follow-up visit. Acute toxicities of radiation therapy were low grade, whereas long-term sequelae were infrequent and manageable when they arose. All patients with low-grade tumors were alive at the last follow-up visit, compared with 1 patient with a high-grade tumor. Conclusion: Primary pediatric spinal cord astrocytomas vary widely in presentation and clinical course. Histopathologic grade remains a major prognostic factor. Patients with low-grade tumors tend to have excellent disease control and long-term survival compared to those with high-grade tumors. This experience suggests that radiation therapy may enhance tumor control with an acceptably low risk of long-term sequelae in this sensitive patient population.

  18. Spinal Actions of Lipoxin A4 and 17(R)-Resolvin D1 Attenuate Inflammation-Induced Mechanical Hypersensitivity and Spinal TNF Release

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmoaty, Sally; Wigerblad, Gustaf; Bas, Duygu B.; Codeluppi, Simone; Fernandez-Zafra, Teresa; El-Awady, El-Sayed; Moustafa, Yasser; Abdelhamid, Alaa El-din S.; Brodin, Ernst; Svensson, Camilla I.

    2013-01-01

    Lipoxins and resolvins have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions and accumulating evidence indicates that these lipid mediators also attenuate pain-like behavior in a number of experimental models of inflammation and tissue injury-induced pain. The present study was undertaken to assess if spinal administration of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) or 17 (R)-resolvin D1 (17(R)-RvD1) attenuates mechanical hypersensitivity in the carrageenan model of peripheral inflammation in the rat. Given the emerging role of spinal cytokines in the generation and maintenance of inflammatory pain we measured cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after LXA4 or 17(R)-RvD1 administration, and the ability of these lipid metabolites to prevent stimuli-induced release of cytokines from cultured primary spinal astrocytes. We found that intrathecal bolus injection of LXA4 and17(R)-RvD1 attenuated inflammation-induced mechanical hypersensitivity without reducing the local inflammation. Furthermore, both LXA4 and 17(R)-RvD1 reduced carrageenan-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release in the CSF, while only 17(R)-RvD1attenuated LPS and IFN-?-induced TNF release in astrocyte cell culture. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that lipoxins and resolvins potently suppress inflammation-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, possibly by attenuating cytokine release from spinal astrocytes. The inhibitory effect of lipoxins and resolvins on spinal nociceptive processing puts them in an intriguing position in the search for novel pain therapeutics. PMID:24086560

  19. Overexpression of BDNF Increases Excitability of the Lumbar Spinal Network and Leads to Robust Early Locomotor Recovery in Completely Spinalized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ziemli?ska, Ewelina; Kügler, Sebastian; Schachner, Melitta; Wewiór, Iwona; Czarkowska-Bauch, Julita; Skup, Ma?gorzata

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to induce recovery from lesions of the spinal cord have not fully resulted in clinical applications. This is a consequence of a number of impediments that axons encounter when trying to regrow beyond the lesion site, and that intraspinal rearrangements are subjected to. In the present study we evaluated (1) the possibility to improve locomotor recovery after complete transection of the spinal cord by means of an adeno-associated (AAV) viral vector expressing the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in lumbar spinal neurons caudal to the lesion site and (2) how the spinal cord transection and BDNF treatment affected neurotransmission in the segments caudal to the lesion site. BDNF overexpression resulted in clear increases in expression levels of molecules involved in glutamatergic (VGluT2) and GABAergic (GABA, GAD65, GAD67) neurotransmission in parallel with a reduction of the potassium-chloride co-transporter (KCC2) which contributes to an inhibitory neurotransmission. BDNF treated animals showed significant improvements in assisted locomotor performance, and performed locomotor movements with body weight support and plantar foot placement on a moving treadmill. These positive effects of BDNF local overexpression were detectable as early as two weeks after spinal cord transection and viral vector application and lasted for at least 7 weeks. Gradually increasing frequencies of clonic movements at the end of the experiment attenuated the quality of treadmill walking. These data indicate that BDNF has the potential to enhance the functionality of isolated lumbar circuits, but also that BDNF levels have to be tightly controlled to prevent hyperexcitability. PMID:24551172

  20. Congenital spinal dermal tract: how accurate is clinical and radiological evaluation?

    PubMed

    Tisdall, Martin M; Hayward, Richard D; Thompson, Dominic N P

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT A dermal sinus tract is a common form of occult spinal dysraphism. The presumed etiology relates to a focal failure of disjunction resulting in a persistent adhesion between the neural and cutaneous ectoderm. Clinical and radiological features can appear innocuous, leading to delayed diagnosis and failure to appreciate the implications or extent of the abnormality. If it is left untreated, complications can include meningitis, spinal abscess, and inclusion cyst formation. The authors present their experience in 74 pediatric cases of spinal dermal tract in an attempt to identify which clinical and radiological factors are associated with an infective presentation and to assess the reliability of MRI in evaluating this entity. METHODS Consecutive cases of spinal dermal tract treated with resection between 1998 and 2010 were identified from the departmental surgical database. Demographics, clinical history, and radiological and operative findings were collected from the patient records. The presence or absence of active infection (abscess, meningitis) at the time of neurosurgical presentation and any history of local sinus discharge or infection was assessed. Magnetic resonance images were reviewed to evaluate the extent of the sinus tract and determine the presence of an inclusion cyst. Radiological and operative findings were compared. RESULTS The surgical course was uncomplicated in 90% of 74 cases eligible for analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging underreported the presence of both an intradural tract (MRI 46%, operative finding 86%) and an intraspinal inclusion cyst (MRI 15%, operative finding 24%). A history of sinus discharge (OR 12.8, p = 0.0003) and the intraoperative identification of intraspinal inclusion cysts (OR 5.6, p = 0.023) were associated with an infective presentation. There was no significant association between the presence of an intradural tract discovered at surgery and an infective presentation. CONCLUSIONS Surgery for the treatment of spinal dermal tract carries a low morbidity. While it seems intuitive that tracts without intradural extension carry a low risk of spinal cord tethering, it is not possible to reliably detect these cases using MRI. Similarly, intraspinal dermoid cannot be reliably excluded using MRI and carries an increased risk of infection. These points justify excision together with intradural exploration of all spinal dermal sinus tracts. PMID:26030333

  1. Gabapentin reduces CX3CL1 signaling and blocks spinal microglial activation in monoarthritic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spinal glia, particularly microglia and astrocytes, are of the utmost importance in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. A recent study from our laboratory revealed that gabapentin, a recommended first-line treatment for multiple neuropathic conditions, could also efficiently antagonize thermal hyperalgesia evoked by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced monoarthritis (MA). In the present study, we investigated whether the spinal glia are involved in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of gabapentin and how this event occurs. Results Unilateral intra-articular injection of CFA produced a robust activation of microglia and astrocytes. These cells exhibited large cell bodies, thick processes and increases in the ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1, a microglial marker) or the glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocytic marker). These cells also displayed immunoreactive signals, and an upregulation of the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) ?2/?-1 subunit, CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 expression levels in the spinal cord. These changes were associated with the development of thermal hyperalgesia. Immunofluorescence staining showed that VGCC ?2/?-1 subunit, a proposed gabapentin target of action, was widely distributed in primary afferent fibers terminals and dorsal horn neurons. CX3CL1, a potential trigger to activate microglia, colocalized with VGCC ?2/?-1 subunits in the spinal dorsal horn. However, its receptor CX3CR1 was mainly expressed in the spinal microglia. Multiple intraperitoneal (i.p.) gabapentin injections (100?mg/kg, once daily for 4?days with the first injection 60?min before intra-articular CFA) suppressed the activation of spinal microglia, downregulated spinal VGCC ?2/?-1 subunits decreased CX3CL1 levels and blocked the development of thermal hyperalgesia in MA rats. Conclusions Here we provide the first evidence that gabapentin diminishes CX3CL1 signaling and spinal microglia activation induced by joint inflammation. We also show that the VGCC ?2/?-1 subunits might be involved in these events. PMID:22647647

  2. Instrumental Learning Within the Rat Spinal Cord: Localization of the Essential Neural Circuit

    E-print Network

    Grau, James

    Instrumental Learning Within the Rat Spinal Cord: Localization of the Essential Neural Circuit A&M University Following spinal transection of the upper thoracic spinal cord, male Sprague and S3. Keywords: spinal cord, instrumental, learning, lumbar, sacral Spinal cord neurons can adapt

  3. BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #25 [m: Kinematics and Spinal Biomechanics

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    ME411/511 BIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ENGINEERS Session #25 [m: Kinematics and Spinal Biomechanics mechanical testing of the spine Central Framework: Kinematics is the study of motion. Spinal biomechanics;ME411/511 V. Spinal biomechanics Spinal anatomy Reasons to study spinal biomechanics Mechanical

  4. [Rosai-Dorfman disease with spinal and cranial tumors. A clinical case reported].

    PubMed

    Molina-Carrión, Luis Enrique; Mendoza-Álvarez, Sergio Alberto; Vera-Lastra, Olga Lidia; Caldera-Duarte, Agustín; Lara-Torres, Héctor; Hernández-González, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease, known as well as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a histiocytic proliferative disorder which may affect, with an extranodal presentation, the central nervous system, in 5 % of cases with exceptional reports of simultaneous development of spinal and cranial tumors. When it affects the central nervous system it appears more in men and it is shown as a mass in the cranial dura mater or in the spinal cord. The clinical symptoms of Rosai-Dorfman disease are fever, general malayse, weight loss, and nocturnal diaphoresis. Also, when Rosai-Dorfman disease affects the spinal cord, it has an impact on the thoracic spine, which causes paraparesis, quadriparesis, and sensory disorder. Histopathologically, the lymph nodes show emperipolesis. The diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease is usually good, since 40 % of the patients present a spontaneous remission if they are treated with oral corticosteroids, even though the lesion can be managed with fractionated radiotherapy or with radical surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old male who started with spinal injuries, and a year later showed intracranial lesions. PMID:24758863

  5. Full-endoscopic interlaminar removal of chronic lumbar epidural hematoma after spinal manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yen-Po; Lee, Kwo-Whei; Lin, Ping-Yi; Huang, Abel Po-Hao; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Ma, Hsin-I; Chen, Chien-Min; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spinal manipulation is widely used for low back pain treatments. Complications associated with spinal manipulation are seen. Lumbar epidural hematoma (EDH) is one of the complications reported in the literature. If lumbar chronic EDH symptoms are present, which are similar to those of a herniated nucleus pulposus, surgery may be considered if medical treatment fails. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy utilizing an interlaminar approach can be successfully applied to those with herniated nucleus pulposus. We use the same technique to remove the lumbar chronic EDH, which is the first documented report in the related literature. Methods: We present a case with chronic lumbar EDH associated with spinal manipulation. Neurologic deficits were noted on physical examination. We arranged for a full-endoscopic interlaminar approach to remove the hematoma for the patient with the rigid endoscopy (Vertebris system; Richard Wolf, Knittlingen, Germany). Results: After surgery, the patient's radiculopathy immediately began to disappear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up 10 days after the surgery revealed no residual hematoma. No complications were noted during the outpatient department follow up. Conclusions: Lumbar EDH is a possible complication of spinal manipulation. Patient experiencing rapidly progressive neurologic deficit require early surgical evacuation, while conservative treatment may only be applied to those with mild symptoms. A percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar approach may be a viable alternative for the treatment of those with chronic EDH with progressive neurologic deficits. PMID:24872917

  6. Spinal cord injury detection and monitoring using spectral coherence.

    PubMed

    Al-Nashash, Hasan; Fatoo, Noreen A; Mirza, Nabil N; Ahmed, Rabi I; Agrawal, Gracee; Thakor, Nitish V; All, Angelo H

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, spectral coherence (SC) is used to study the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) signals in rodent model before and after spinal cord injury (SCI). The SC technique is complemented with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) behavior analysis method to help us assess the status of the motor recovery. SC can be used to follow the effects of SCI without any preinjury baseline information. In this study, adult female Fischer rats received contusion injury at T8 level with varying impact heights using the standard New York University impactor. The results show that the average SC between forelimb and hindlimb SEP signals before injury was relatively high ( > or =0.7). Following injury, the SC between the forelimb and hindlimb SEP signals dropped to various levels ( < or =0.7) corresponding to the severity of SCI. The SC analysis gave normalized quantifiable results for the evaluation of SCI and recovery thereafter using the forelimb signals as an effective control, without the need of any baseline data. This technique solves the problems associated with the commonly used time-domain analysis like the need of a trained neurophysiologist to interpret the data and the need for baseline data. We believe that both SC and BBB may provide a comprehensive and complementary picture of the health status of the spinal cord after injury. The presented method is applicable to SCIs not affecting the forelimb SEP signals. PMID:19362907

  7. Telehealth: reaching out to newly injured spinal cord patients.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, V. L.; Vesmarovich, S.; Hauber, R.; Wiggers, E.; Egner, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors present preliminary results on health-related outcomes of a randomized trial of telehealth interventions designed to reduce the incidence of secondary conditions among people with mobility impairment resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Patients with spinal cord injuries were recruited during their initial stay at a rehabilitation facility in Atlanta. They received a video-based intervention for nine weeks, a telephone-based intervention for nine weeks, or standard follow-up care. Participants are followed for at least one year, to monitor days of hospitalization, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life. RESULTS: Health-related quality of life was measured using the Quality of Well-Being (QWB) scale. QWB scores (n = 111) did not differ significantly between the three intervention groups at the end of the intervention period. At year one post discharge, however, scores for those completing one year of enrollment (n = 47) were significantly higher for the intervention groups compared to standard care. Mean annual hospital days were 3.00 for the video group, 5.22 for the telephone group, and 7.95 for the standard care group. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary evidence suggests that in-home telephone or video-based interventions do improve health-related outcomes for newly injured SCI patients. Telehealth interventions may be cost-saving if program costs are more than offset by a reduction in rehospitalization costs, but differential advantages of video-based interventions versus telephone alone warrant further examination. PMID:11889278

  8. Adverse effects of the management of malignant spinal cord compression.

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, G F

    1984-01-01

    As a prelude to further work which attempts to improve the management of metastatic spinal cord compression the efficacy and adverse effects of existing therapy has been assessed. All papers dealing with the management of malignant spinal cord compression since 1960 have been reviewed. Data from this review is presented in a novel manner in order to identify not only the degree of successful return to ambulation achieved but more importantly the extent of the adverse effects which occur during existing management. It is seen that, while in general some 35% of patients treated in any manner retain or return to the ability to walk, some 20% to 25% sustain major neurological deterioration. In addition, those patients treated by laminectomy who do deteriorate may be subject to a significant rate of perioperative mortality and major structural complications related to the surgical wounds. In the light of the adverse factors described, the role of laminectomy as first-line management of malignant cord compression is questioned. Alternative modes of treatment are discussed and a tentative scheme of management described which it is hoped will lead to a better quality of survival of the group as a whole in addition to maintaining, or perhaps, improving the rate of successful return to ambulation. PMID:6470717

  9. Perceptions of Gain Following Spinal Cord Injury: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Significant research has focused on psychological difficulties following spinal cord injury (SCI), and there is a small prevalence of individuals who experience distress after injury. However, the converse is that many adjust well to injury and rate their quality of life highly. Despite this, there has been a comparative dearth of research investigating positive psychological outcomes after SCI, perceived by individuals living with this disability. Objective: To explore individuals’ perceptions of gain following the experience of SCI. Methods: Participants, who had sustained an SCI between the ages 16 and 83, responded to an open-ended written question: “What do you think you have gained from the experience of spinal cord injury?” This was administered at 4 time points post injury: 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Results: Participants’ responses were analyzed qualitatively using the framework of thematic analysis. Thirteen themes were identified: relationships, appreciation of relationships, perspective and appreciation of life, new goals or priorities, understanding of SCI or disability, appreciation of health or health care, changed personality, opportunity or challenge, knowledge of SCI or body, newly acquired skills, spirituality, acceptance, and nothing. Descriptive statistics were incorporated in the presentation of the data. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a broad range of positive as well as negative psychological outcomes are possible following SCI. More research is needed to better understand the process through which these outcomes arise and to inform how such outcomes may be communicated to persons experiencing this type of injury. PMID:23960704

  10. Bone blood flow after spinal paralysis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H.; Yamamuro, T.; Okumura, H.; Kasai, R.; Tada, K. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of paralysis induced by spinal cord section or sciatic neurotomy on bone blood flow in the rat. Regional bone blood flow was measured in the early stage with the hydrogen washout technique and the change of whole bone blood flow was measured in the early and the late stages with the radioactive microsphere technique. Four to 6 h after cordotomy at the level of the 13th thoracic vertebra, the regional bone blood flow in the denervated tibia increased significantly (p less than 0.01). After hemicordotomy with rhizotomy at the same level, the regional bone blood flow in the denervated tibia increased significantly (p less than 0.05) 6 h postoperatively. The whole bone blood flow in the denervated tibia had also increased significantly (p less than 0.05) at 6 h and at 4 and 12 weeks postoperatively. After sciatic neurotomy, the regional and the whole bone blood flow in the paralytic tibia did not change significantly. The present study demonstrated that monoplegic paralysis caused an increase in bone blood flow in the denervated hind limb from a very early stage. It was suggested that the spinal nervous system contributed to the control of bone blood flow.

  11. Correlation of Qualitative and Quantitative Mri Parameters with Neurological Status: A Prospective Study on Patients with Spinal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Puneet; Sandhu, Parambir; Saggar, Kavita; Gupta, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Spinal trauma is relatively more common in young active individuals. Although its mortality is low, it is an important cause of long term disability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can accurately depict presence and extent of spinal cord injury (SCI) in these patients. This study was aimed to look for various qualitative and quantitative MRI findings which are predictive of initial neurological deficit in patients with spinal trauma and final outcome on follow-up. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 50 patients with suspected acute cervical or dorsal spinal trauma presenting for MRI study. American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score was used for assessing neurological status at the time of presentation, at the time of discharge/2weeks and at 3-6 months follow up. Various MRI qualitative and quantitative parameters were evaluated for correlation with severity of spinal injury. Results: Normal baseline MRI (pattern 0) was seen in 12 subjects and was associated with incomplete SCI in 4 subjects (ASIA grade D) followed by complete recovery in all patients on follow-up examination. Pattern I (haemorrhage) was associated with complete spinal cord injury. Pattern II (oedema) was associated with incomplete SCI and good functional recovery on follow up.Pattern III (contusion) was associated with intermediate severity of injury. Compression and transection patterns were associated with complete neurological deficit at presentation and increased mortality at subsequent follow-up. All the three quantitative parameters i.e. lesion length,maximum (bony) canal compromise (MCC), maximum spinal cord compression (MSCC) were significantly increased in patients with complete SCI as compared to those with incomplete SCI. The best predictors for baseline ASIA score were MCC, cord oedema and cord haemorrhage. For the final ASIA score, the best predictors were baseline ASIA score and cord haemorrhage. Conclusion: MRI is excellent imaging modality for detecting and assessing severity of spinal trauma. In our study, presence of cord haemorrhage, MCC and cord oedema were best predictors of baseline neurological status at presentation, whereas baseline ASIA score and cord haemorrhage were best predictors of final neurological outcome. PMID:25584285

  12. Spinal Textiloma (Gossypiboma): A Report of Three Cases Misdiagnosed as Tumour

    PubMed Central

    ?ahin, Soner; Atabey, Cem; ?im?ek, Mehmet; Naderi, Sait

    2013-01-01

    Background: Textile products commonly used in surgery (e.g., sponges or gauze) have been known to cause complications after spinal surgery. Associated complications usually arise months or even years after the primary surgery. In case of spine surgery, these bodies are often detected during neuroradiological evaluations to investigate reported back pain; however, this complication often remains asymptomatic. Aims: The research is intended to increase awareness among both spinal surgeons and neuroradiologists of this potential complication. Study Design: Retrospective study. Methods: This study is a retrospective case series of three patients with retained surgical textile products who had been misdiagnosed with spinal tumour. The medical records of the patients were reviewed and demographic data, clinical aspects, initial diagnosis, surgical procedures, time interval between previous operation and onset of symptoms, laboratory findings, radiological findings, treatment, and outcome were analysed. Results: The three patients included two women and one man aged between 64 and 67 years. All patients had a previous surgery for lumbar disc herniation. The time from the previous surgical procedures to presentation ranged from 3 to 17 years. All patients presented with non-specific lower back pain and/or radiculopathy without clinical findings of infection. Laboratory parameters were otherwise normal. All three cases had been misdiagnosed as a spinal tumor based on magnetic resonance imaging findings. During new surgical procedures, gauze bandages, i.e., surgical textiles left during a previous operation, were found. Conclusion: Textiloma is an important and rarely mentioned potential neurosurgical complication that may remain asymptomatic for years. They are more common in obese patients, after emergency surgery, and with unplanned changes in surgical procedure such as bleeding and unintended neurosurgical complications. Neuroradiological findings are variable and non-specific; thus, patients could be misdiagnosed with a spinal tumor or abscess. Likewise, in patients with a history of spinal surgery, spinal abscesses, haematomas, hypertrophic scars, fibrosarcomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, and schwannomas should definitely be considered in the differential diagnosis and considered when planning diagnostic procedures. Appropriate antibiotic therapy is recommended when a suppurative complication is present or suspected. Textiloma is a medico-legal complication that can be prevented by the education of surgical staff, the counting method (preoperatively, at closure, and at the end), and use of products with radiopaque barcodes. PMID:25207152

  13. Gene therapy approaches for spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Corinne

    As the biomedical engineering field expands, combination technologies are demonstrating enormous potential for treating human disease. In particular, intersections between the rapidly developing fields of gene therapy and tissue engineering hold promise to achieve tissue regeneration. Nonviral gene therapy uses plasmid DNA to deliver therapeutic proteins in vivo for extended periods of time. Tissue engineering employs biomedical materials, such as polymers, to support the regrowth of injured tissue. In this thesis, a combination strategy to deliver genes and drugs in a polymeric scaffold was applied to a spinal cord injury model. In order to develop a platform technology to treat spinal cord injury, several nonviral gene delivery systems and polymeric scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Nonviral vector trafficking was evaluated in primary neuronal culture to develop an understanding of the barriers to gene transfer in neurons and their supporting glia. Although the most efficient gene carrier in vitro differed from the optimal gene carrier in vivo, confocal and electron microscopy of these nonviral vectors provided insights into the interaction of these vectors with the nucleus. A novel pathway for delivering nanoparticles into the nuclei of neurons and Schwann cells via vesicle trafficking was observed in this study. Reporter gene expression levels were evaluated after direct and remote delivery to the spinal cord, and the optimal nonviral vector, dose, and delivery strategy were applied to deliver the gene encoding the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the spinal cord. An injectable and biocompatible gel, composed of the amphiphillic polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG) was evaluated as a drug and gene delivery system in vitro, and combined with the optimized nonviral gene delivery system to treat spinal cord injury. Plasmid DNA encoding the bFGF gene and the therapeutic NEP1--40 peptide were incorporated in the PEG-PCL-PEG gel and injected into a lesion transecting the main dorsomedial and minor ventral medial corticospinal tract (CST). The degree of collateralization of the transected CST was quantified as an indicator of the regenerative potential of these treatments. At one month post-injury, we observed the robust rostral collateralization of the CST tract in response to the bFGF plasmid-loaded gel. In conclusion, we hope that this platform technology can be applied to the sustained local delivery of other proteins for the treatment of spinal cord injury.

  14. ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression and Recurrent Spinal Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Simon Shek-Man; Ryu, Samuel; Chang, Eric L; Galanopoulos, Nicholas; Jones, Joshua; Kim, Edward Y; Kubicky, Charlotte D; Lee, Charles P; Rose, Peter S; Sahgal, Arjun; Sloan, Andrew E; Teh, Bin S; Traughber, Bryan J; Van Poznak, Catherine; Vassil, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) is an oncologic emergency and if left untreated, permanent paralysis will ensue. The treatment of MESCC is governed by disease, patient, and treatment factors. Patient's preferences and goals of care are to be weighed into the treatment plan. Ideally, a patient with MESCC is evaluated by an interdisciplinary team promptly to determine the urgency of the clinical scenario. Treatment recommendations must take into consideration the risk-benefit profiles of surgical intervention and radiotherapy for the particular individual's circumstance, including neurologic status, performance status, extent of epidural disease, stability of the spine, extra-spinal disease status, and life expectancy. In patients with high spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) or retropulsion of bone fragments in the spinal canal, surgical intervention should be strongly considered. The rate of development of motor deficits from spinal cord compression may be a prognostic factor for ultimate functional outcome, and should be taken into account when a treatment recommendation is made. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:25974663

  15. Regulation of Neurotrophin-3 and Interleukin-1? and Inhibition of Spinal Glial Activation Contribute to the Analgesic Effect of Electroacupuncture in Chronic Neuropathic Pain States of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Wenzhan; Wang, Wansheng; Xi, Haiyan; He, Rong; Gao, Liping; Jiang, Songhe

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that neurotrophin-3, interleukin-1?, and spinal glia are involved in neuropathic pain derived from dorsal root ganglia to spinal cord. Electroacupuncture is widely accepted to treat chronic pain, but the precise mechanism underlying the analgesic effect of EA has not been fully demonstrated. In this study, the mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were recorded. We used immunofluorescence and western blots methods to investigate the effect of EA on the expression of NT-3 and IL-1? in DRG and spinal cord of CCI rats; we also examined the expression of spinal GFAP and OX-42 in spinal cord. In present study, the MWT and TWL of CCI group rats were lower than those in the Sham CCI group rats, but EA treatment increased the pain thresholds. Furtherly, we found that EA upregulates the expression of NT-3 in DRG and spinal cord of CCI rats, while EA downregulates the expression of IL-1?. Additionally, immunofluorescence exhibited that CCI-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes was inhibited significantly by EA treatment. These results demonstrated that the analgesic effect of EA may be achieved through promoting the neural protection of NT-3 as well as the inhibition of IL-1? production and spinal glial activity. PMID:26161124

  16. 21 CFR 880.2460 - Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor. 880.2460 Section...880.2460 Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor is an electrically...

  17. 21 CFR 880.2460 - Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor. 880.2460 Section...880.2460 Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor is an electrically...

  18. 21 CFR 880.2460 - Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor. 880.2460 Section...880.2460 Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor is an electrically...

  19. 21 CFR 880.2460 - Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor. 880.2460 Section...880.2460 Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor is an electrically...

  20. 21 CFR 880.2460 - Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor. 880.2460 Section...880.2460 Electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An electrically powered spinal fluid pressure monitor is an electrically...