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1

Hypotension  

MedlinePLUS

... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Cardiogenic Shock Heart Attack Arrhythmia Heart Valve Disease Anemia Related ... stomach). In extreme cases, hypotension can lead to shock . Outlook In a healthy person, low blood pressure ...

2

[Postprandial hypotension: an unclear clinical entity].  

PubMed

Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a clinical entity considered to affect above all elderly people with hypertension. It is equally common in diastolic heart failure, Parkinson's disease, diabetes mellitus and autonomic dysfunction. Diagnosis is based on a minimum of 20 mmHg drop of the systolic blood pressure oron a symptomatic systolic blood pressure decrease within 2 hours of the meal. Post-prandial dizziness, fatigue, syncope and falls must raise suspicion for this entity. Although more frequent than orthostatic hypotension, PPH is less searched for. Socio-economical repercussions associated to falls require a better screening of PPH in hospital and ambulatory conditions. PMID:17120714

Samaras, D; Carmona, G; Vischer, U; Perrenoud, J J

2006-11-01

3

Orthostatic hypotension of prolonged weightlessness: Clinical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orthostatic intolerance on return from space is a widely known consequence of space travel. Development of countermeasures against this problem is a major priority of the field of space physiology and medicine. The bedrest model is widely used in the investigation of this phenomenon, and has provided important data, but questions remain. In this article, we suggest that the disorders that produce chronic orthostatic hypotension have significant potential as models of microgravity-induced orthostatic intolerance. Understanding the pathophysiology of these syndromes may be useful to those involved in improving the operational aspects of manned space flight; four such syndromes and their possible relevance to space flight are described.

Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Mosqueda-Garcia, Rogelio; Robertson, Rose Marie

4

Fluoxetine in orthostatic hypotension of Parkinson's disease: a clinical and experimental pilot study.  

PubMed

Recent clinical studies have reported a beneficial effect of fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in patients with severe refractory orthostatic hypotension. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine in orthostatic hypotension occurring during Parkinson's disease on both blood pressure values and number of clinical symptoms during orthostatic procedure evaluated using a validated clinical rating scale. In a pilot study performed in fourteen patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease plus orthostatic hypotension, fluoxetine hydrochloride (20 mg orally daily during one month) significantly reduced the fall in systolic blood pressure [-33 +/- 21 (SD) mmHg before fluoxetine vs -22 +/- 19 mmHg after fluoxetine, P = 0.03] elicited by standing without modifying heart rate. The drug also significantly reduced the number of postural symptoms occurring during the orthostatic procedure [2.9 +/- 1.5 (SD) before fluoxetine vs 1.2 +/- 1.3 after fluoxetine, P = 0.006]. A similar pattern of response was obtained in an experimental model of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension obtained in chronically sino-aortic denervated dogs submitted to an 80 degrees head-up tilt test procedure under chloralose anaesthesia. Fluoxetine did not change plasma noradrenaline levels. This pilot study suggests a slight but clinically significant effect of fluoxetine on both hemodynamic parameters and clinical symptoms in parkinsonian patients suffering from orthostatic hypotension. PMID:9711461

Montastruc, J L; Pelat, M; Verwaerde, P; Brefel-Courbon, C; Tran, M A; Blin, O; Rascol, O; Senard, J M

1998-01-01

5

Clinical Note: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension-hypovolemia associated with tacrolimus  

PubMed Central

There is little precedent for a medication-induced spontaneous intracranial hypotension/CSF hypovolemia (SIH). This case history of a woman with low CSF pressure, orthostatic headache, and radiographic findings consistent with SIH but without a detectable leak was notable for its association, both onset and resolution, with the use of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (FK506). A literature review for potential causes of a tacrolimus-induced CSF hypotension suggests many potential mechanisms of action, including effects on blood brain barrier and dural compliance, and supports further vigilance for this condition in the medically complex setting of tacrolimus use.

Ahn, Andrew H.; Berman, Brian D.; Dillon, William P.

2014-01-01

6

Intracranial hypotension secondary to spinal arachnoid cyst rupture presenting with acute severe headache: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Headache is a common presenting complaint and has a wide differential diagnosis. Clinicians need to be alert to clues that may suggest an underlying secondary aetiology. We describe a novel case of headache secondary to intracranial hypotension which was precipitated by the rupture of a spinal arachnoid cyst. Case report A 51-year-old Indian female presented with sudden onset severe headache suggestive of a subarachnoid haemorrage. Investigations including a computed tomography brain scan, cerebrospinal fluid examination and a magnetic resonance angiogram were normal. The headache persisted and magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral thin subdural collections, a spinal subarachnoid cyst and a right-sided pleural effusion. This was consistent with a diagnosis of headache secondary to intracranial hypotension resulting from spinal arachnoid cyst rupture. Conclusions Spinal arachnoid cyst rupture is a rare cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a common yet under-diagnosed heterogeneous condition. It should feature significantly in the differential diagnosis of patients with new-onset daily persistent headache.

2010-01-01

7

The patient with supine hypertension and orthostatic hypotension: a clinical dilemma  

PubMed Central

Coexistent supine hypertension and orthostatic hypotension (SH?OH) pose a particular therapeutic dilemma, as treatment of one aspect of the condition may worsen the other. Studies of SH?OH are to be found by and large on patients with autonomic nervous disorders as well as patients with chronic arterial hypertension. In medical practice, however, the aetiologies and clinical presentation of the syndrome seem to be more varied. In the most typical cases the diagnosis is straightforward and the responsible mechanism evident. In those patients with mild or non?specific symptoms, the diagnosis is more demanding and the investigation may benefit from results of the tilt test, bedside autonomic tests as well as haemodynamic assessment. Discrete patterns of SH?OH may be recognisable. This review focuses on the management of the patient with coexistent SH?OH.

Naschitz, J E; Slobodin, G; Elias, N; Rosner, I

2006-01-01

8

Comparison of Dialysis and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Frequent and Occasional Hemodialysis-Associated Hypotension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Symptomatic dialysis hypotension (DH) continues to be a common problem. By comparing patients prone and resistant to DH, several dialysis session and patient related characteristics have been identified that confer susceptibility to DH. Less is known, however, about the comparison of patients with frequent and only occasional DH. The aim of the study was to compare clinical and dialysis-session-

András Tislér; Katalin Akócsi; Ibolya Hárshegyi; Gábor Varga; Sándor Ferenczi; Mária Grosz; Imre Kulcsár; Lajos Löcsey; József Sámik; István Solt; János Szegedi; Eszter Tóth; Gyula Wágner; István Kiss

2002-01-01

9

Types of Hypotension  

MedlinePLUS

... loss, certain severe infections, severe burns and allergic reactions, and poisoning. Shock can be fatal if it's not treated right away. Rate This Content: Hypotension Clinical Trials Clinical trials are ...

10

Orthostatic hypotension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic orientation of the article, by the leader of a group of medical researchers associated with hospitals in Lyon, France, is toward definition and classification. A table divides OH (orthostatic hypotension) according to physiopathological classification into sympathicotonic and asympathicotonic types and then each of these into primary and secondary with subdivisions. The figure sketches organization and functioning of the baroreflex arc. Applications to clinical study of circulatory reflexes, listing measurement tests and the biological study of hormonal regulation listing the appropriate kinds of studies. Data are not given.

Ninet, J.

1981-01-01

11

[Spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome].  

PubMed

Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a rare syndrome, characterized by orthostatic headaches, low CSF pressure and characteristic aspects on MRI. The authors describe a clinical case of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension, in which the MRI investigation revealed a low position of the cerebellar tonsils, a diffuse and symmetric dural enhancement and an engorgement of the cervical epidural venous plexus. The authors make a review of the physiopathology, clinical and radiological aspects related to this syndrome. PMID:12868402

Sousa, Rita; Gouveia, Raquel; Lopes, Leonor; Ruivo, Nuno; Henriques, Nuno; Sá, Graça; Coutinho, David; Campos, Jorge

2003-01-01

12

Intradialytic hypotension: frequency, sources of variation and correlation with clinical outcome.  

PubMed

Intradialytic hypotension (IH) is a frequent complication of hemodialysis (HD) and is associated with increased patient mortality and cardiovascular events. We studied IH to determine its variability, correlates, and clinical impact in 13 outpatient HD facilities. Blood pressure was captured by machine download. IH was defined as >30 mmHg decrease in systolic blood pressure to <90 mmHg. Risk factors were assessed by logistic regression and hospitalization by Poisson regression. Time to death and first hospitalization were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis in patients completing >20 HD treatments. We studied IH in 44,801 treatments (Tx) in 1137 patients. IH was frequent (17.2% of treatments) and highly variable by patient (0-100% Tx) and dialysis facility (11.1-25.8% Tx). 25.1% of patients had no IH (0% Tx) and 16.2% had IH on >35% Tx. Increased IH frequency was associated with age, female gender, diabetes, Hispanic origin, longer end stage renal disease vintage, higher body mass index, higher ultrafiltration volume, the second and third weekly Tx, lower pre-HD systolic blood pressure, higher difference between prescribed and achieved post-HD weight, and higher dialysate temperature. Dialysis facility was an independent predictor of IH frequency. Patients with >35% IH treatments had poorer survival (P = 0.036), and more frequent and longer hospitalization (P = 0.04, P = 0.002, respectively) than patients without IH. In conclusion, IH frequency was highly variable, associated with individual facilities, patient and treatment characteristics, and correlated with mortality and hospitalization. Identifying practice patterns associated with IH coupled with routine reporting of IH will facilitate medical management and may result in the prevention of IH, decreased mortality, and decreased hospitalization. PMID:24467830

Sands, Jeffrey J; Usvyat, Len A; Sullivan, Terry; Segal, Jonathan H; Zabetakis, Paul; Kotanko, Peter; Maddux, Franklin W; Diaz-Buxo, Jose A

2014-04-01

13

Atrial myxoma presenting with orthostatic hypotension in an 84-year-old Hispanic man: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Left atrial myxomas remain the most common benign primary cardiac tumors, and these cardiac growths can masquerade as mitral stenosis, infective endocarditis and collagen vascular disease. Atrial myxomas are found in approximately 14-20% of the population and can lead to embolization, intercardiac obstructions, conduction disturbances and lethal valve obstructions. Case presentation An 84-year-old Hispanic man presented with complaints of dizziness upon standing, and with no prior history of heart murmurs, syncope, shortness of breath, or chest pain. Physical examination revealed evidence of orthostatic hypotension and a soft grade 1/6 systolic murmur at the left sternal border. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a large atrial myxoma occupying the majority of the left atrium, with the posterior border of the large atrial mass defined by eccentric mitral regurgitation identified during cardiac catheterization. Left atrial myxoma excision was performed, revealing a 7 × 6.5 × 4.5 cm atrial tumor attached to a 4 × 3 × 2 cm stalk of atrial septal tissue. Conclusion This patient didn't present with the common symptoms associated with an atrial myxoma, which may include chest pain, dyspnea, orthopnea, peripheral embolism or syncope. Two-dimensional echocardiography provides substantial advantages in detecting intracardiac tumors. We recommend a two-dimensional echocardiogram in the workup of orthostatic hypotension of unknown etiology after the common causes such as autonomic disorders, dehydration, and vasodilative dysfunctions have been ruled out. By illustrating this correlation between orthostasis and an atrial myxoma, we hope to facilitate earlier identification of these intracardiac growths.

2009-01-01

14

Orthostatic Hypotension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Basic orientation of the article, by the leader of a group of medical researchers associated with hospitals in Lyon, France, is toward definition and classification. A table divides OH (orthostatic hypotension) according to physiopathological classificati...

J. Ninet

1981-01-01

15

[Postprandial hypotension].  

PubMed

Postprandial hypotension is the independent risk factor of general mortality, coronary disorders and stroke. It is reviewed risk factors, pathogenesis, symptoms, treatment and prognosis of this disease. PMID:23951909

Lyzohub, V H; Zaval's'ka, T V; Stakhurs'ka, L A; Pliskevych, D A; Dolynna, O V; Banas, T S

2013-01-01

16

Orthostatic hypotension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following a brief physiopathological review, orthostatic hypotension is classified into three groups: organic, functional and medication-dependent. The importance of etiological diagnosis, the use of objective tests and appropriate therapy, especially concerning the organic forms, is stressed.

Grimm, J. J.

1980-01-01

17

Cutaneous sporotrichosis: unusual clinical presentations.  

PubMed

Three unusual clinical forms of sporotrichosis described in this paper will be a primer for the clinicians for an early diagnosis and treatment, especially in its unusual presentations. Case 1, a 52-year-old man, developed sporotrichosis over pre-existing facial nodulo-ulcerative basal cell carcinoma of seven-year duration, due to its contamination perhaps from topical herbal pastes and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis over right hand/forearm from facial lesion/herbal paste. Case 2, a 25-year-old woman, presented with disseminated systemic-cutaneous, osteoarticular and possibly pleural (effusion) sporotrichosis. There was no laboratory evidence of tuberculosis and treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATT) did not benefit. Both these cases were diagnosed by histopathology/culture of S. schenckii from tissue specimens. Case 3, a 20-year-old girl, had multiple intensely pruritic, nodular lesions over/around left knee of two-year duration. She was diagnosed clinically as a case of prurigo nodularis and histologically as cutaneous tuberculosis, albeit, other laboratory investigations and treatment with ATT did not support the diagnosis. All the three patients responded well to saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) therapy. A high clinical suspicion is important in early diagnosis and treatment to prevent chronicity and morbidity in these patients. SSKI is fairly safe and effective when itraconazole is not affordable/available. PMID:20445301

Mahajan, Vikram K; Sharma, Nand Lal; Shanker, Vinay; Gupta, Poonam; Mardi, Kavita

2010-01-01

18

[Sarcoidosis. Clinical presentation and prognosis].  

PubMed

We analyzed clinical characteristics of 26 patients with suggesting clinical picture and histopatological diagnosis of sarcoidosis. We identified mortality-related variables in the follow-up. We examined clinical data and several complementary tests. Follow-up was performed by clinical consultation and telephonic interview. The patients mean age was 42.6 ± 12.7 years old, and 53.8% were female. Pulmonary affection was present in 88.4% of patients and extrapulmonary manifestation were seen in 30.7%. Radiological stage II was the most frequent (34.7%). The predominant spirometric abnormality was a low carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) in 56.5% of cases. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 34.7% of cases. Steroid therapy was performed in 69.2%. The follow-up was completed in 96.1% of patients with a mean of 98 ± 73 months (range 3 to 228). The mortality rate was 23% (n = 6). The factors significantly associated with mortality were: blood arterial gases with lower partial oxygen pressure (41.5 mm Hg vs. 73.3 mm Hg; p = 0.041); higher partial carbon dioxide pressure (59.5 mm Hg vs. 39.6 mm Hg; p = 0.0008); presence of pulmonary hypertension (83.3% vs. 16.6%; p = 0.001) and higher pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (12.5 mm Hg vs. 9.5 mm Hg; p = 0.041). There was a tendency to higher mortality in patients with radiological stage III/IV (66% vs. 27%; p = 0.082) and lower DLCO (33.5% vs. 51.4%; p = 0.087). Clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis in our serie differed from others publications in international literature. Mortality-related factors were associated with severity of disease. PMID:21163735

González, Enzo L; Vigliano, Carlos; Cáneva, Jorge

2010-01-01

19

[Arterial hypertension with orthostatic hypotension].  

PubMed

Arterial hypertension (AH) with orthostatic hypotension (OH) is quite important clinical problem, present especially in older age and in various forms of autonomic nervous system (ANS) failure. ANS damage may be primary, or secondary, most offen in diabetes mellitus. In older age OH occurrence is about 30% and postprandial hypotension is also possible. Various antihypertensive drugs, also tricyclic antidepressants, alpha1-adrenergic receptors antagonists and diuretics may provoke OH. Diagnostic value has simple screening bedside orthostatic test, respectively head up tilt table test and cardiovascular reflex tests. Therapy is non-medicamentous with enough fluids, compression of legs and higher head and neck position in the night. AH with OH can be treated with short-acting antihypertensive drugs, eventually with transdermal nitroglycerin. OH can be treated with clonidine, midodrine, fludrocortisone or beta1-blocker. PMID:21137166

Krahulec, B; Bartosová, Z

2010-09-01

20

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.  

PubMed Central

The clinical features and radiological appearances of spontaneous intracranial hypotension are described in three patients and the medical literature is reviewed. Awareness of this condition and its differentiation from more sinister meningitic processes is important to avoid unnecessary invasive investigations and to allow prompt diagnosis and effective treatment. Images

Renowden, S A; Gregory, R; Hyman, N; Hilton-Jones, D

1995-01-01

21

Prediction of intradialytic hypotension using photoplethysmography.  

PubMed

Intradialytic hypotension is the most common acute complication during conventional hemodialysis treatment. Prediction of such events is highly desirable in clinical routine for prevention. This paper presents a novel prediction method of acute symptomatic hypotension in which the photoplethysmographic signal is analyzed with respect to changes in amplitude, reflecting vasoconstriction, and cardiac output. The method is based on a statistical model in which the noise is assumed to have Laplacian amplitude distribution. The performance is evaluated on 11 hypotension-prone patients who underwent hemodialysis treatment, resulting in seven events with acute symptomatic hypotension and 17 without. The photoplethysmographic signal was continuously acquired during treatment as was information on blood pressure and oxygen saturation. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the proposed method predicted six out of seven hypotensive events, while producing 1 false prediction out of 17 possible. The performance was achieved when the prediction threshold was chosen to be in the range 57%-65% of the photoplethysmographic envelope at treatment onset. PMID:20176537

Solem, Kristian; Olde, Bo; Sörnmo, Leif

2010-07-01

22

Risk Factors of Postprocedural Hypotension Following Carotid Artery Stenting  

PubMed Central

Summary This study is performed to investigate risk factors of hypotension in response to elective carotid stenting. Forty-four lesions of 40 consecutive patients (mean age 70.4 ± 8.2 years) were retrospectively analyzed. Easy Wall stent was applied in 15 lesions and SMART stent in 29 lesions. We investigated correlations between the occurrence rate of postoperative hypotension below 90 mmHg and persisting over three hours and findings of preoperative angiograms, ultrasonograms and clinical characteristics. Postprocedural hypotension occurred in 19 patients (47.5%) and medical treatment (intravenous administration of catecholamines) was required in eleven patients (27.5%). Although there was no permanent neurological deficits related with postprocedural hypotension, transient neurological deficits were found in three patients. Risk factors of prolonged postprocedural hypotension were statistically analyzed. On angiographic characteristics; 1) distance between the carotid bifurcation and the lesion with maximum stenosis (?10 mm vs. >10 mm: p = 0.031), 2) type of stenosis (eccentric vs. concentric: p = 0.014) On ultrasonographic characteristics; 1) calcifications at the carotid bifurcation (present vs. absent: p< 0.001). Other variables, including age and degree of stenosis, were not associated with postprocedural hypotension after carotid stenting. These angiographic and ultrasonographic variables can be used to identify patients at risk for postprocedural hypotension after carotid stenting. Such identification may help in selection of patients who will benefit from appropriate pharmacological treatment.

Nonaka, T.; Oka, S.; Miyata, S.; Baba, T.; Mikami, T.; Houkin, K.

2006-01-01

23

Postprandial hypotension in clinical geriatric patients and healthy elderly: prevalence related to patient selection and diagnostic criteria.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to find out whether Postprandial hypotension (PPH) occurs more frequently in patients admitted to a geriatric ward than in healthy elderly individuals, what the optimal interval between blood pressure measurements is in order to diagnose PPH and how often it is associated with symptoms.The result of this study indicates that PPH is present in a high number of frail elderly, but also in a few healthy older persons. Measuring blood pressure at least every 10 minutes for 60 minutes after breakfast will adequately diagnose PPH, defined as >20?mmHg systolic fall, in most patients. However with definition of PPH as >30?mmHg systolic fall, measuring blood pressure every 10 minutes will miss PPH in one of three patients. With the latter definition of PPH the presence of postprandial complaints is not associated with the existence of PPH. PMID:21152196

Van Orshoven, Narender P; Jansen, Paul A F; Oudejans, Irène; Schoon, Yvonne; Oey, P Liam

2010-01-01

24

Postprandial hypotension.  

PubMed

Postprandial hypotension is both common in geriatric patients and an important but under-recognized cause of syncope. Other populations at risk include those with Parkinson disease and autonomic failure. The mechanism is not clearly understood, but appears to be secondary to a blunted sympathetic response to a meal. This review discusses the epidemiology, risk factors, and pathophysiology of postprandial hypotension in the elderly, as well as diagnosis and treatment strategies. Diagnosis can be made based on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and patient symptoms. Lifestyle modifications such as increased water intake before eating or substituting 6 smaller meals daily for 3 larger meals may be effective treatment options. However, data from randomized, controlled trials are limited. Increased awareness of this disease may lead to improved quality of life, decreased falls and injuries, and the avoidance of unnecessary testing. PMID:20193838

Luciano, Gina L; Brennan, Maura J; Rothberg, Michael B

2010-03-01

25

Intradialytic hypotension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is common in children during conventional, 4 hour haemodialysis (HD) sessions. The declining\\u000a blood pressure (BP) was originally believed to be caused by ultrafiltration (UF) and priming of the HD circuit, however emerging\\u000a data now supports a multifactorial aetiology. Therefore strategies to improve haemodynamic stability need to be diverse and\\u000a address specific patient requirements or risks. In

Wesley Hayes; Daljit K. Hothi

2011-01-01

26

Intradialytic hypotension.  

PubMed

Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is common in children during conventional, 4 hour haemodialysis (HD) sessions. The declining blood pressure (BP) was originally believed to be caused by ultrafiltration (UF) and priming of the HD circuit, however emerging data now supports a multifactorial aetiology. Therefore strategies to improve haemodynamic stability need to be diverse and address specific patient requirements or risks. In the treatment of IDH immediate action is required to stop or reduce the severity of symptoms that may precede or follow. Typically UF is slowed or stopped, a fluid bolus is given and in resistant cases the HD session is prematurely discontinued. Patients complete their treatment under-dialysed and volume expanded. Chronically, repeated episodes of IDH cause devastating, multi-system morbidity with an increased risk of mortality. This had provided the impetus for more haemodynamically friendly dialysis prescriptions that attenuate the risk of IDH. During pediatric HD several preventative strategies have been tested but with variable success. Of these, dialysate sodium profiling, UF guided by relative blood volume (RBV) algorithms, cooling and intradialytic mannitol appear to be the most effective. However in refractory cases one may be left with no option but to switch dialysis modality to haemodiafiltration (HDF) or more frequent or prolonged HD regimens. PMID:20967553

Hayes, Wesley; Hothi, Daljit K

2011-06-01

27

Orthostatic hypotension after delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol marihuana inhalation.  

PubMed

3 male glaucoma subjects experienced orthostatic hypotension within 10 min after completing 2% delta 9-THC ranging from 57 to 233 ng/ml were found 5 min after smoking. Peripheral venodilation appeared responsible for the precipitous decrease in systolic blood pressure in all 3 subjects. These orthostatic episodes which clinically simulated the typical 'faint' were characterized by the absence of tachycardia and their relief by assuming a reclining position. The postural hypotension occurred despite differences in inhalation technique, level of delta (9)-THC present in plasma, previous marihuana experience of body habitus. PMID:6283454

Merritt, J C; Cook, C E; Davis, K H

1982-01-01

28

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension with camptocormia.  

PubMed

Camptocormia is defined as an abnormal flexion of the thoracolumbar spine that appears while standing or walking. It is associated with several clinical situations such as parkinsonism, dystonia, and neuromuscular disorders.(1,2) We present the case of a 33-year-old man who had marked camptocormia with acute onset (video on the Neurology® Web site at Neurology.org). The patient also had a 2-day history of severe orthostatic headache. Through brain MRI and CSF examination, he was diagnosed with spontaneous intracranial hypotension. After an autologous blood patch, postural headache and camptocormia were dramatically improved. Camptocormia in this patient may have occurred to compensate for severe orthostatic headache. PMID:24821934

Park, In-Seok; Kim, Joong-Seok

2014-05-13

29

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension: case report.  

PubMed

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a well defined entity, however it is characterised by a relevant clinical heterogeneity. The main feature is orthostatic headache, often accompanied by other symptoms. The diagnosis is easily made in the presence of orthostatic headache, excluding an obvious aetiology of low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, and often there is no evidence of direct or indirect CSF leak. PMID:16388348

Merlo, P; Clerici, A M; Stival, B; Rebecchi, V; Noce, M; Mazza, S

2005-12-01

30

N sup G -methyl-L-arginine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced hypotension: Implications for the involvement of nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical assessment of the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) against human cancer has been limited by a dose-dependent cardiovascular toxicity, most frequently hypotension. TNF is also thought to mediate the vascular collapse resulting from bacterial endotoxin. The present studies address the mechanism by which TNF causes hypotension and provide evidence for elevated production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator

R. G. Kilbourn; J. Adams; S. S. Gross; O. W. Griffith; R. Levi; A. Jubran; R. F. Lodato

1990-01-01

31

Acute kidney injury in septic shock: clinical outcomes and impact of duration of hypotension prior to initiation of antimicrobial therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To describe the incidence and outcomes associated with early acute kidney injury (AKI) in septic shock and explore the association\\u000a between duration from hypotension onset to effective antimicrobial therapy and AKI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Retrospective cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects  A total of 4,532 adult patients with septic shock from 1989 to 2005.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Intensive care units of 22 academic and community hospitals in Canada, the United

Sean M. Bagshaw; Stephen Lapinsky; Sandra Dial; Yaseen Arabi; Peter Dodek; Gordon Wood; Paul Ellis; Jorge Guzman; John Marshall; Joseph E. Parrillo; Yoanna Skrobik; Anand Kumar

2009-01-01

32

Principal Forms of Intracranial Hypotension, Second Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After a short historical survey and a discussion of some anatomical-surgical considerations, the clinical aspects of intercranial hypotension are evaluated in detail. The synthesis of physiopathological concepts now known makes it possible to carry out an...

P. Puech P. Guilly J. Morice M. Brun

1974-01-01

33

[Clinical presentation and diagnosis of epileptic auras].  

PubMed

To define clinical presentations of visual auras and to reveal their clinical, encephalographic and neuroimaging correlates, we examined 23 patients, aged from 5 to 25 years (mean 14±6 years), with focal forms of epilepsy. Patients had visual auras regardless of the etiology of epilepsy which developed immediately before epileptic seizures or were isolated. Patients had simple or complex visual hallucinations, the former occurring more frequently, visual illusions and ictal amaurosis. Positive visual phenomena were noted more frequently than negative ones. In most of the patients, visual hallucinations were associated with the pathological activity in cortical occipital regions of the brain and, in some cases, in temporal and parietal regions. The different pathologies (developmental defects, post-ischemic, atrophic and other disturbances) identified by MRI were found in a half of patients. PMID:23120768

Barletova, E I; Kremenchugskaia, M R; Mukhin, K Iu; Glukhova, L Iu; Mironov, M B

2012-01-01

34

[Spontaneous nerve root cerebrospinal fluid leaks and intracranial hypotension: case report].  

PubMed

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a rare syndrome, characterized by pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid ranging between 50 and 70 mmH2O and postural headache. Its diagnosis is made through the clinical presentation, measurement of the cerebrospinal fluid pressure and neurorimage features. The clinical recognition of this pathology has been increasing and the differential diagnosis must be made with inflammatory meningeal processes and tumor. We report a case of spontaneous nerve root cerebrospinal fluid leaks in a 34 year-old man and intracranial hypotension. A literature review was performed evaluating the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this unusual pathology. PMID:12715038

Falavigna, Asdrubal; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani; Boscato, Giovana; Shimokawa, Marcos

2003-03-01

35

A Rare Clinical Presentation of Darier's Disease  

PubMed Central

Darier's disease, also known as keratosis follicularis or dyskeratosis follicularis, is a rare disorder of keratinization. It is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with high penetrance and variable expressivity. Its manifestation appears as hyperkeratotic papules, primarily affecting seborrheic areas on the head, neck, and thorax and less frequently on the oral mucosa. When oral manifestations are present, the palatal and alveolar mucosae are primarily affected. They are usually asymptomatic and are discovered in routine dental examination. Histologically, the lesions are presented as suprabasal clefts in the epithelium with acantholytic and dyskeratotic cells represented by “corps ronds and grains”. This paper reports a case of a 53-year-old woman that was admitted to our clinic with more than 10-year history of keratotic papules, presented on the hands and feet, nose, ears, genitalia, and whitish lesions on palatal mucosae.

Ferizi, Mybera; Begolli-Gerqari, Antigona; Luzar, Bostjan; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Ferizi, Mergita

2013-01-01

36

Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy: clinical presentation and underlying mechanism.  

PubMed

Since Dr Sato at Hiroshima City Hospital first recognized and reported the concept of tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy in 1990, this disorder has become accepted worldwide as a distinct clinical entity. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy is an important disorder as a differential diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. This disorder usually occurs in postmenopausal women of an advanced age, and is characterized by transient left ventricular apical wall motion abnormalities associated with emotional or physical stress. Typically, left ventricular apical wall motion abnormalities are transient and resolve during a period of days to weeks. The prognosis is generally favorable. However, several acute complications have been reported such as congestive heart failure, cardiac rupture, hypotension, left ventricular apical thrombosis, or Torsade de Pointes. Several possible mechanisms such as multivessel coronary artery spasm, coronary microvascular dysfunction, myocarditis, or catecholamine toxicity have been proposed to explain tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy, but its pathophysiology is not well understood. PMID:23078863

Kurisu, Satoshi; Kihara, Yasuki

2012-12-01

37

Noninvasive techniques for prevention of intradialytic hypotension.  

PubMed

Episodes of hypotension during hemodialysis treatment constitutes an important clinical problem which has received considerable attention in recent years. Despite the fact that numerous approaches to reducing the frequency of intradialytic hypotension (IDH) have been proposed and evaluated, the problem has not yet found a definitive solution--an observation which, in particular, applies to episodes of acute, symptomatic hypotension. This overview covers recent advances in methodology for predicting and preventing IDH. Following a brief overview of well-established hypotension-related variables, including blood pressure, blood temperature, relative blood volume, and bioimpedance, special attention is given to electrocardiographic and photoplethysmographic (PPG) variables and their significance for IDH prediction. It is concluded that cardiovascular variables which reflect heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence, and baroreflex sensitivity are important to explore in feedback control hemodialysis systems so as to improve their performance. The analysis of hemodialysis-related changes in PPG pulse wave properties hold considerable promise for improving prediction. PMID:23231988

Sörnmo, Leif; Sandberg, Frida; Gil, Eduardo; Solem, Kristian

2012-01-01

38

Recurrent erysipelas - risk factors and clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Background Erysipelas is a common infection that often recurs, but the impact of specific risk factors for reoccurrence remains elusive. In the present study we aimed at clarifying predisposing conditions for reoccurrence. Methods Medical records were reviewed from all patients ?18 years of age diagnosed with erysipelas at the Department of Infectious Diseases at Skåne University Hospital, Sweden, from January 2007 to February 2011. 502 patients were included, of which 357 were single episode erysipelas and 145 had recurrent erysipelas. These two groups were compared regarding underlying conditions and clinical presentation. Results Erysipelas in the lower limbs had the greatest propensity of recurrence. The associations between underlying conditions and recurrence were largely depending on the site of erysipelas. Overall, the most prominent risk factor for recurrence was lymphedema and other conditions causing a chronic impairment of the defence against microbes. Conditions temporarily disrupting the skin barrier (e.g. a local wound or toe web intertrigo), although likely being risk factors for erysipelas per se, did not seem to predispose to repeated episodes. Individuals with recurrent erysipelas tended to seek medical attention earlier, and were less likely to be hospitalized or receive intravenous antibiotics, but there was no evidence of any difference in inflammatory reaction when taking confounding factors into account. Conclusions In this large cross-sectional study of over 500 patients with erysipelas, lymphedema was the most prominent risk factors for recurrence although the distribution of predisposing conditions varies depending on the site of erysipelas.

2014-01-01

39

Clinical presentation of femoroacetabular impingement in adolescents.  

PubMed

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a recently recognized hip disorder resulting from an abnormal morphology of the proximal femur and acetabulum. This morphology results in increased hip contact forces with hip motion, specifically flexion. This may lead to labral-cartilage injury and pain. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical presentation and diagnosis of FAI as a cause of hip pain in adolescents.Thirty-five patients with FAI as the etiology of chronic hip pain from one institution were reviewed. The common symptoms, physical examination, and radiographic findings were analyzed.The age range was 13 to 18 years. There were 30 girls and 5 boys. All patients complained of anterior groin pain. All patients performed a sport/activity that contributed to the symptoms such as dancing. Patients had decreased flexion and limited internal rotation on physical examination. All patients had a positive impingement test. Fifteen patients (43%) had primarily pincer impingement with a crossover sign or acetabular retroversion. Cam impingement was the primary type in 2 patients (6%). There were findings of cam and pincer in 18 patients (51%). Sixteen of 28 patients had a positive labral tear on magnetic resonance imaging (57%). Femoroacetabular impingement is a cause of hip pain in the adolescent population. The diagnosis can be derived from reproducible history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. It is more common in female adolescents, and pincer type is more prevalent. PMID:19034169

Sink, Ernest L; Gralla, Jane; Ryba, Alison; Dayton, Michael

2008-12-01

40

Clinical presentations and classification of rosacea.  

PubMed

Rosacea is a chronic skin disease affecting up to 10% of the population in some European countries. Rosacea manifests as various combinations of characteristic signs and symptoms in a centrofacial distribution. At present, there is no consensus about the definition or classification of the clinical patterns of rosacea. Initially, four stages were differentiated (pre-rosacea then stages I through III), with several variants (e.g., persistent erythema and edema, rosacea conglobata, and rosacea fulminans). The National Rosacea Society (NRS) in the USA has classified rosacea into four subtypes (erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular) and one variant (lupoid or granulomatous rosacea). This classification scheme does not mention progression from one type to another and makes no reference to pathophysiological considerations. It uses major and minor diagnostic criteria based on the physical findings and symptoms. The NRS has also developed criteria for grading disease severity. The classification of rosacea into stages or subtypes, without considering the possibility of progression from one to another, will probably remain controversial until additional knowledge on the pathophysiology of rosacea is obtained. PMID:22183098

Jansen, T

2011-11-01

41

[Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly].  

PubMed

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mmHg, or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mmHg within three minutes of standing. It results from an inadequate response to postural changes in blood pressure. Common symptoms include dizziness, light-headedness, blurred vision, weakness, fatigue, nausea, palpitations, sweating, head and neck ache, slow cognitive performance and transient loss of conscientiousness. OH is a common problem among elderly patients and its aetiology is diverse, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction, cardiac problems, medication side effects, ageing changes or transitory deregulation of blood volume. The instrumental diagnosis can be easily accomplished by the tilt-table test, with continuous monitoring of blood pressure and cardiac parameters. It is a non-invasive technique and needs minimal collaboration from the patient. In our experience, when reviewing 327 patients, aged over 40 years and examined because of clinical suspicion of OH, the prevalence thereof was 51% whereas if focused in subjects older than 70, OH was proven in 90% of the cases. The older the patients, the more frequently they presented general deterioration, neurological or cardiac problems as well as pharmacological side effects. Ruling out neurological or cardiac malfunction can drastically improve the prognosis with possible reversibility of symptoms. Some nonpharmacological and pharmacological approaches to improve management of OH and life quality are described for guidance. PMID:23483469

Ferrer-Gila, Teresa; Rízea, Cristian

2013-03-16

42

Orthostatic hypotension: framework of the syndrome  

PubMed Central

According to the 1996 consensus definition, orthostatic hypotension (OH) is diagnosed when a fall in systolic blood pressure of at least 20?mm?Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure of at least 10?mm?Hg within 3?min of standing is recorded. The elements of orthostatic blood pressure drop that are relevant to the definition of OH include magnitude of the drop, time to reach the blood pressure difference defined as OH, and reproducibility of the orthostatic blood pressure drop. In each of these elements, there exist issues that argue for modification of the presently accepted criteria of OH. Additional questions need to be addressed. Should one standard orthostatic test be applied to different patient populations or should tests be tailored to the patients' clinical circumstances? Are different OH thresholds relevant to various clinical settings, aetiologies of OH and comorbidity? Which test has the best predictive power of morbidity and mortality?

Naschitz, Jochanan E; Rosner, Itzhak

2007-01-01

43

Living with Hypotension  

MedlinePLUS

... legs before changing your position. Eat small, low-carbohydrate meals if you have postprandial hypotension (a form ... Drink plenty of fluids, such as water or sports drinks that contain nutrients like sodium and potassium. ...

44

What Causes Hypotension?  

MedlinePLUS

... your risk of orthostatic hypotension. These medicines include: Diuretics, also called "water pills" Calcium channel blockers Angiotensin- ... insulin) Severe diarrhea Severe kidney disease Overuse of diuretics A major decrease in the heart's ability to ...

45

Sheehan's syndrome presenting as psychosis: a rare clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Sheehan's syndrome (SS) refers to the occurrence of varying degree of hypopituitarism after parturition (1). It is a rare cause of hypopituitarism in developed countries owing to advances in obstetric care and its frequency is decreasing worldwide. However, it is still frequent in underdeveloped and developing countries. Sheehan's syndrome is often diagnosed late as it evolves slowly (2,3). Reports of psychoses in patients with Sheehan's syndrome are rare. Herein, a case report of psychosis in a 31 year old woman who developed Sheehan's syndrome preceded by postpartum haemorrhage is presented. Treatment with thyroxine and glucocorticoids resulted in complete remission after attaining euthyroid and eucortisolemic state.

Dar, Mohamand Maqbool; Arif, Tasleem; Bashir, Haamid; Bhat, Mohammad Hayat; Ahmed, Javid

2013-01-01

46

[Anticoagulation clinics, present situation and future perspectives].  

PubMed

There are several modalities to monitor oral anticoagulant therapy, namely: monitoring by a secondary care specialist in the hospital setting; monitoring by the general practitioner/ family doctor in the primary care setting; monitoring by private laboratories of clinical analysis; self-monitoring with point-of-care devices. In Portugal, the most frequent modality is still the hospital monitoring/anticoagulation clinics, although monitoring in the primary care/routine medical care setting has began to be implemented in some areas of the country since five years ago. Anticoagulation clinics are still actually the organizations that optimize better the clinical and laboratorial follow up of the patients anticoagulated with warfarin. In 2011, anticoagulation control quality was evaluated, in the setting of an anticoagulation clinic (Santo António Hospital, Porto Hospital Center) by determining the proportion of INRs within the therapeutic range. The evaluation focused ambulatory patients, during a period of two months, corresponding to 1067 controls from 687 patients (mean age: 69±13 years; 54%, n=567, female gender). 71% of controls (n=756) were within the therapeutic range. 27% of controls were outside the therapeutic range, after exclusion of patients with programmed surgery or invasive proceedings. 13.8% of controls were below the therapeutic range and 8.6% (n=92) of the latter had INR ? 1.5. Above therapeutic range were 13.2% (n=139), from which 4.4% (n=46) had an INR between 5-8 and 0.3% (n=4) an INR ? 8. The group of primary care Health Centers (Portuguese acronym ACES) of the Baixo Tâmega region conducted, also in 2011, an evaluation of the anticoagulant control quality, by determining the proportion of INRs within the therapeutic range. The results were similar to those found in the anticoagulation clinic of the Hospital de Santo António which shows that the quality of monitoring in the primary care setting can have the same quality of the anticoagulation clinics monitoring. The introduction of the new oral anticoagulants, that don't require laboratorial monitoring constitutes a challenge. In Portugal, there is no experience yet to respond to the question if, in this new context, the anticoagulation clinics will be fundamental for the registration of patients, the evaluation of the hemorrhagic risk, the clinical follow up or the evaluation of the adherence to therapy. PMID:22541036

Cruz, Eugénia; Campos, Manuel

2012-04-01

47

Sarcoidosis: clinical presentation, immunopathogenesis, and therapeutics.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder that most often affects the lungs and may cause significant morbidity. Sarcoidosis can manifest as neurological disease, uveitis, blindness, end-stage pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, dysrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, hypercalcemia, and renal failure. Sarcoidosis persists as chronic disease in approximately one-third of those affected. Clinical pitfalls and misconceptions about the course of disease place this population at risk for delayed or inadequate care. While noncaseating granulomas are the histopathological hallmark of sarcoidosis, they also are nonspecific. No pathognomonic diagnostic test exists for sarcoidosis, so the diagnosis remains one of exclusion. While the etiology of sarcoidosis is still unknown, recent insights into its immunopathogenesis have moved investigators closer to finding more effective treatments. Corticosteroids remain the standard of care when treatment is indicated, despite their adverse effect profile. Clinical investigations of novel drugs and biological agents targeting mechanisms involving CD4 type 1 helper T cells may provide more effective, better tolerated therapies. PMID:21266686

Iannuzzi, Michael C; Fontana, Joseph R

2011-01-26

48

Clinical and electrophysiological presentation of pronator syndrome.  

PubMed

Median neuropathy at the elbow (pronator syndrome [PS]) is rare compared to compression at the wrist. We sought to evaluate the clinical/electrophysiological parameters of this focal neuropathy. Between 1992 and 2002, we retrospectively reviewed records of eighty-three limbs in seventy-two patients with PS. Electrodiagnostic data as well as clinical symptoms, physical findings, demographic information and treatment modalities were examined. The main symptoms were forearm pain, numbness and weakness. One patient (two limbs) had nocturnal paresthesias. Twenty-five limbs (30%) showed decreased median forearm velocity. Fifty-four (65%) had abnormal median sensory studies of either abnormal conduction velocity or amplitude. Needle exam showed an abnormality of at least one median innervated muscle, abductor pollicis brevis, flexor carpi radialis, or pronator teres, in 70% (58/83). Sixteen limbs were identified as having undergone surgical decompression. In the surgical group, 10/16 (63%) were found to have constriction with a band which was released during surgery. Eight of the sixteen patients who underwent surgery were found to have documented improvement. Eleven patients (13%) had undergone previous surgery for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) without benefit. The clinical and electrophysiological features of PS are quite different from patients with CTS. Proper localization is crucial to treatment options. Surgery can provide benefit in selected cases. PMID:17479724

Bridgeman, C; Naidu, S; Kothari, M J

2007-01-01

49

Endophthalmitis: Pathogenesis, clinical presentation, management, and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Endophthalmitis is a rare but sight-threatening complication that can occur after ocular surgery or trauma or as a consequence of systemic infection. To optimize visual outcome, early diagnosis and treatment are essential. Over recent decades, advances in hygienic standards, improved microbiologic and surgical techniques, development of powerful antimicrobial drugs, and the introduction of intravitreal antibiotic therapy have led to a decreased incidence and improved management of endophthalmitis. However, endophthalmitis still represents a serious clinical problem. This review focuses on current principles and techniques for evaluation and treatment of endophthalmitis. In addition, it addresses recent developments regarding antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis of infectious endophthalmitis.

Kernt, M; Kampik, A

2010-01-01

50

Clinical presentations of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis.  

PubMed

Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis (Lbb) is probably the most serious, leishmanial infection of the New World. Although epidemiological information is incomplete, its distribution is believed to extend from Belize in Central America to northern Argentina, involving all countries east of the Andes. Lbb causes a variety of clinical lesions and is one of the most difficult forms of leishmaniasis to treat. We still do not know how many patients suffer from mucosal disease requiring treatment. In this review of 10 years field experience in an endemic area of Brazil, Philip Marsden shows that parasitologists have much to contribute, especially in improving diagnostic methods, developing better animal models, and providing new drugs suitable for routine treatment on a large-scale. PMID:15275583

Marsden, P D

1985-11-01

51

Cholangiocarcinoma: risk factors and clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a cancer originating from the neoplastic transformation of the biliary epithelium, is characterized by a progressive increase in incidence and prevalence. A number of risk factors have been identified including primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infestation, and hepatolithiasis. More recently, hepatitis viruses (HCV, HBV) have been taken into consideration as risk factors for the intrahepatic CCA and this could explain the increased incidence seen in the last two decades. All these risk factors induce chronic inflammation in the biliary epithelium together with partial bile obstruction. These two conditions are considered the background (chronic inflammation) favouring the cancer development. The only effective treatment is the radical surgical resection but, this is applicable in less than 40% of the patients since CCA is mostly diagnosed at an advanced stage. This mainly occurs because, in the majority of the cases, CCA is clinically silent, with symptoms only developing at an advanced stage but also for the lack of effective biomarkers to be used for a screening purpose. A number of serum and bile biomarkers have been recently proposed for the diagnosis of CCA but, their impact on the early diagnosis is still under the evaluation. PMID:20496549

Gatto, M; Alvaro, D

2010-04-01

52

Atypical presentations of rhinosporidiosis: a clinical dilemma?  

PubMed

Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic inflammatory disease common in India and Sri Lanka. Its manifestations are mostly nasal, though extranasal ones in head and neck region are not rare. Occasionally these presentations lead to diagnostic dilemma. Here we present some cases with its associated confusions if any. In this study thirty five patients were included. Extranasal manifestations were noted in nine cases. Two patients attended with laryngopharyngeal and one with lacrimal sac presentation-subsequent nasal endoscopic examination revealed presence of nasal masses, too. Other six cases presented with polypoidal mass hanging from nasopharynx into oropharynx. One of them was confused with nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Two laryngopharyngeal masses were removed successfully with rigid laryngoscope followed by cauterisation of the base. The solitary lacrimal sac mass was excised by external approach combined with nasal endoscope guided excision of nasal mass. The other six cases with nasopharyngeal attachment were subjected to nasal endoscope guided removal. In all these cases, the base of the lesions was cauterised. The experience about the various manifestations and diagnostic problems is discussed here. PMID:22754802

Saha, Jayanta; Basu, Asim Jiban; Sen, Indranil; Sinha, Ramanuj; Bhandari, Achintya Kr; Mondal, Satadal

2011-07-01

53

Medical Therapy and Physical Maneuvers in the Treatment of the Vasovagal Syncope and Orthostatic Hypotension  

PubMed Central

Patients with vasovagal syncope and neurogenic orthostatic hypotension can both present with pre-syncope and syncope resulting from systemic hypotension. While not directly responsible for increased mortality, both of these conditions can have a tremendous deleterious impact on the daily lives of patients. This negative impact can take the form of both physical symptoms and injury, but also a psychological impact from living in fear of the next syncopal episode. Despite these similarities, these are different disorders with fixed damage to the autonomic nerves in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, as opposed to a transient reflex hypotension in “neurally mediated” vasovagal syncope. The treatment approaches for both disorders are parallel. The first step is to educate the patient about the pathophysiology and prognosis of their disorder. Next, offending medications should be withdrawn when possible. Non-pharmacological therapies and maneuvers can be used, both in an effort to prevent the symptoms and to prevent syncope at the onset of presyncope. This is all that is required in many patients with vasovagal syncope. If needed, pharmacological options are also available for both vasovagal syncope and neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, many of which are focused on blood volume expansion, increasing cardiac venous return, or pressor agents to increase vascular tone. There is a paucity of high quality clinical trial data to support the use of these pharmacological agents. We aim to review the literature on these different therapy choices and to give recommendations on tailored approaches to the treatment of these conditions.

Raj, Satish R; Coffin, Samuel T

2012-01-01

54

Confounders of vasovagal syncope: orthostatic hypotension.  

PubMed

A syncope evaluation should start by identifying potentially life-threatening causes, including valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathies, and arrhythmias. Most patients who present with syncope, however, have the more benign vasovagal (reflex) syncope. A busy syncope practice often also sees patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension presenting with syncope or severe recurrent presyncope. Recognition of these potential confounders of syncope might be difficult without adequate knowledge of their presentation, and this can adversely affect optimal management. This article reviews the presentation of the vasovagal syncope confounder and the putative pathophysiology of orthostatic hypotension, and suggests options for nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic management. PMID:23217690

Nwazue, Victor C; Raj, Satish R

2013-02-01

55

A man with small vessel vasculitis presenting with brachial diplegia, multiple cranial mononeuropathies and severe orthostatic hypotension in diabetes mellitus: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We report a rare case of fulminant vasculitic mononeuropathy resulting in brachial diplegia, with suspected brainstem and autonomic nervous system involvement in a patient with diabetes mellitus. Case presentation A 58-year-old Hispanic Caucasian man with diabetes mellitus presented with a 1-year history of progressive bilateral upper extremity weakness, orthostatic intolerance and progressive memory decline. Diagnostic evaluation including laboratory tests for progressive encephalopathies, systemic inflammatory and non-inflammatory neuropathies, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, electrodiagnostic studies, and nerve biopsy were performed. Clinical examination revealed moderate cognitive deficits on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale, bilateral facial weakness and weakness of bilateral shoulder girdle and intrinsic hand muscles. Cerebrospinal fluid analyses revealed elevated protein and an elevated immunoglobulin G synthesis rate, suggesting an immune-mediated process. Further laboratory work up was non-diagnostic. Electrodiagnostic studies demonstrated chronic asymmetric axonal mononeuropathies with ongoing denervation. A superficial radial nerve biopsy showed a chronic vasculitic neuropathy. Glucocorticosteroid treatment, symptomatic pharmacologic and supportive non-pharmacologic therapies resulted in improved clinical outcomes despite challenges with glycemic control. Conclusions This case report emphasizes the importance of a thorough evaluation of atypical or uncommon neuromuscular presentations in diabetic patients without etiological presumptions. This is necessary in order to promptly establish a diagnosis, initiate appropriate therapies and prevent irreversible nerve injury.

2013-01-01

56

A reversible cause of skin hyperpigmentation and postural hypotension.  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 deficiency results in neuropsychiatric, hematologic, gynecologic, cardiovascular, and cutaneous manifestations. It is seen most commonly in the elderly, malabsorption diseases??(>60% of all cases), vegans, and vegetarians. Manifestations of pernicious anemia may be similar to Addison disease and may lead to a misdiagnosis. Herein, we report two cases of vitamin B12 deficiency in which clinical features shared many similarities with Addison disease. Both patients presented with progressive darkening of hands and postural hypotension that reversed with replenishment of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in patients presenting with skin lesions especially with other coexisting autoimmune diseases. PMID:23840983

Cherqaoui, Rabia; Husain, Mehreen; Madduri, Sujay; Okolie, Pamela; Nunlee-Bland, Gail; Williams, James

2013-01-01

57

N sup G -methyl-L-arginine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced hypotension: Implications for the involvement of nitric oxide  

SciTech Connect

Clinical assessment of the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) against human cancer has been limited by a dose-dependent cardiovascular toxicity, most frequently hypotension. TNF is also thought to mediate the vascular collapse resulting from bacterial endotoxin. The present studies address the mechanism by which TNF causes hypotension and provide evidence for elevated production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator initially characterized as endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nitric oxide is synthesized by several cell types, including endothelial cells and macrophages, from the guanidino nitrogen of L-arginine; the enzymatic pathway is competitively inhibited by N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. The authors found that hypotension induced in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs by TNF was completely reversed within 2 min following administration of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. In contrast, N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine failed to reverse the hypotensive response to an equivalent depressor dose of nitroglycerin, a compound that acts by forming nitric oxide by a monenzymatic, arginine-independent mechanism. The effect of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine on TNF-induced hypotension was antagonized, and the hypotension restored, by administration of excess L-arginine findings suggest that excessive nitric oxide production mediates the hypotensive effect of TNF.

Kilbourn, R.G.; Adams, J. (Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA)); Gross, S.S.; Griffith, O.W.; Levi, R. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (USA)); Jubran, A.; Lodato, R.F. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston (USA))

1990-05-01

58

Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is defined as a fall in blood pressure of at least 20 mmHg systolic or 10 mmHg diastolic when\\u000a standing or during head-up tilt testing. The prevalence of OH increases with age, with disorders that affect autonomic nerve\\u000a transmission, and with increasingly severe orthostatic stress. In normal elderly subjects, the prevalence of OH is reported\\u000a to be

Phillip A. Low

2008-01-01

59

Intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Although most patients with intracranial hypotension typically present with headaches, the rest of the clinical spectrum is characteristically non-specific and often quite variable. In a patient with concurrent pathologies that can produce a similar clinical picture, a high index of suspicion must be maintained to achieve the correct diagnosis. The authors report a patient with intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 63-year-old woman with a family history of ruptured intracranial aneurysms presented after a sudden thunderclap headache and was found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Imaging revealed anterior communicating and superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms. Following the uneventful clipping of both aneurysms, the patient experienced a delayed return to her neurological baseline. After it was noted that the patient had an improved neurological examination when she was placed supine, further investigation confirmed intracranial hypotension from perineural cyst rupture. The patient improved and returned to her neurological baseline after undergoing a high-volume blood patch and remained neurologically intact at postoperative follow-up. Although intracranial hypotension is known to be commonly associated with cerebrospinal fluid leak, its causal and temporal relationship with subarachnoid hemorrhage has yet to be elucidated. PMID:24314847

Sivakumar, Walavan; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cutler, Aaron; Couldwell, William T

2014-06-01

60

The Management of Orthostatic Hypotension in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common and disabling symptom affecting Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. We present the effect of the different therapies commonly used to manage PD on this clinical manifestation. For this purpose, we describe the relationship between OH and the current treatments employed in PD, such as L-DOPA, dopaminergic agonists, and continuous dopaminergic stimulation therapies. Additionally, we review the therapeutic measures that could be used to ameliorate OH. There are different approaches to deal with this manifestation, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, although none of them is specifically aimed for treating OH in PD.

Sanchez-Ferro, Alvaro; Benito-Leon, Julian; Gomez-Esteban, Juan Carlos

2013-01-01

61

[Postprandial hypotension in patients with compression of the celiac trunk].  

PubMed

One of the causes of the development of postprandial hypotension is thought to be impaired vegetative nervous regulation of arterial pressure. Patients with the syndrome of the celiac trunk compression also have signs of dysautonomy. The investigation performed has shown that syndrome of the celiac trunk compression is often combined with postprandial hypotension. Patients with such combination much more often have complains associated with asthenia and dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system. After operative treatment of patients with the celiac trunk compression (decompression of the celiac trunk) the frequency of symptoms of postprandial hypotension and clinical manifestations of asthenia and dysautonomy become less often in such patients. PMID:21137264

Ignashov, A M; Tiurina, T V; Vrabi?, A A; Maslevtsov, D V

2010-01-01

62

Acquired perforating dermatosis and Addison's disease due to disseminated histoplasmosis: Presentation and clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

Acquired perforating dermatosis (APD) is a rare disorder characterized by transepidermal elimination of contents from dermis with minimal disruption of surrounding structures, believed to be due to altered expression of dermal proteins. Its occurrence in patients with systemic mycosis has never been reported. We report a 60-y gentleman who presented with features of adrenal insufficiency (nausea vomiting, hypotension and increased pigmentation) for 4 mo, multiple hyperpigmented pruritic nodules with central keratinous plug over extensor surface of both lower limbs along with hepatosplenomegaly of one month duration. Investigations revealed low cortisol (2.3 ?g/dl; normal: 5-34 ?g/dl), elevated ACTH (68 pg/ml; normal: 5-15 pg/ml), enlarged bilateral adrenals with hepatosplenomegaly on CT. Methanamine silver staining of fine needle aspiration from the adrenals and bone marrow aspiration showed numerous oval yeast cells suggestive of histoplasma. Histopathology of biopsy of one of the skin nodules revealed transepidermal elimination process characterized by invagination of epidermis with extrusion of collagen bundles suggestive of APD. Patient improved with hydrocortisone replacement and there was clinical improvement with resolution of skin lesions following amphotericin-B and itraconazole therapy. This is probably the first reported case of APD in a patient with disseminated histoplasmosis who had presented with Addison's disease. PMID:24194970

Choudhary, Nidhi; Aggarwal, Ishad; Dutta, Deep; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun Ghosh Sujoy; Chatterjee, Gobinda; Chowdhury, Subhankar

2013-04-01

63

The current clinical presentation of complete molar pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the current clinical presentation of complete molar pregnancy. Method: Retrospective study of the clinical and ultrasonographic records of 41 patients with complete hydatidiform mole. Results: 17 (41%) patients were asymptomatic. 24 patients (58%) presented with vaginal bleeding, 6 (15%) had excessive uterine size,\\u000a 1 (2%) had anemia and 1 (2%) had hyperemesis. Non of the patients had

Ofer Gemer; Shmuel Segal; Alexander Kopmar; Essi Sassoon

2000-01-01

64

Orthostatic hypotension in older adults with dementia.  

PubMed

HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at https://villanova.gosignmeup.com/dev_students.asp?action=browse&main=Nursing+Journals&misc=564. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Orthostatic Hypotension in Older Adults with Dementia" found on pages 22-29, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2016. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the significance of orthostatic hypotension in older adults with dementia. 2. Identify factors that contribute to orthostatic hypotension. 3. Review nursing interventions to minimize a drop in blood pressure with position change. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the author have any conflicts of interest to disclose. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) in older adults with dementia is associated with increased confusion, dizziness, syncope, and falls. These problems may result in a negative, downward spiral accompanied by high morbidity and mortality. The literature supports that nonpharmacological interventions are effective in the reduction of symptoms and prevention of orthostasis. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to increase staff knowledge and skill in the assessment, documentation, and care of residents with OH in dementia care units within a continuing care retirement community. An in-service program using a protocol based on clinical practice guidelines was presented to RNs, licensed practical nurses, therapists, and unlicensed caregivers. Assessments, documentation of assessments, and interventions for residents with OH increased following the in-service program. As staff continue to apply their knowledge in care routines, it is expected that this evidence-based practice will reduce symptoms of OH and increase safety and quality of life within this specific population. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 40(6), 22-29.]. PMID:24779368

Momeyer, Mary Alice

2014-06-01

65

Hypotensive anaesthesia and bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery: an observational study.  

PubMed

Significant bleeding during functional endoscopic naso-sinusal surgery (FESS) impairs recognition of anatomical references and may negatively affect surgical outcome. Through their hypotensive effect, adjuvant anaesthetic agents may influence intraoperative bleeding. The present study compared intraoperative bleeding in patients undergoing FESS administered a clonidine-based anaesthetic regimen and in patients receiving other an anaesthetic combination with higher acquisition costs. Prospective observational study included 37 subjects undergoing FESS in 2011. Assessment of intraoperative bleeding was according to type of anaesthesia (clonidine vs. opioid derivatives). Patients receiving clonidine (N = 11; 29.7 %) presented significantly lower surgical field bleeding scores than those receiving opioid derivatives (N = 26; 70.3 %) [mean (SD) Boezaart scores 1.91 (0.53) vs. 2.92 (0.79), p < 0.0001]. The multivariate analysis including baseline characteristics and risk factors related to bleeding intensity showed that the type of drug used for controlled hypotensive anaesthesia was the best predictor of bleeding during FESS, with an OR of 0.03 for clonidine based vs. opioid based anaesthesia (p = 0.014). The anaesthetic combination including clonidine for controlled hypotensive anaesthesia produces lower levels of surgical field bleeding during FESS. Compared with other hypotensive anaesthetics, clonidine is inexpensive and associated with better surgical conditions during FESS. If confirmed through randomized clinical trials, the use of clonidine during FESS can reduce surgical time and improve surgical results through a less bloody field, resulting in lower patient morbidity and improvement of operating room resources. PMID:24052249

Cardesín, A; Pontes, C; Rosell, R; Escamilla, Y; Marco, J; Escobar, M J; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M

2014-06-01

66

[Siblings present different clinical manifestations in white sponge nevus].  

PubMed

White sponge nevus (WSN) is a rare, autosomal-dominant hereditary disease. This article reported two siblings affected by white sponge nevus. Because of smoking or not, they presented different clinical manifestations. PMID:23991589

Lin, Duanxian; Wu, Lanyan; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Hongmei

2013-08-01

67

[Causes and clinical presentation of physical pain in childhood].  

PubMed

Pain is the most common symptom of pathological process in childhood, presenting with different clinical symptoms. Pain can produce physical and psychical distress in the child, and its management is rarely practiced in pediatric population. The aim of this review is to present patophysiological mechanism of acute and chronic pain in childhood, its clinical signs, the causes of pain, and also differential diagnosis regarding organ systems: headache, chest pain, abdominal pain, and neck pain. PMID:17489515

Zakanj, Zora

2007-01-01

68

Catatonia as presenting clinical feature of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.  

PubMed

Catatonia is not a usual clinical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), especially in the initial stages of illness. However, there is only one reported case of SSPE presenting as catatonia among children. In this report, however, there were SSPE-specific changes on EEG and the catatonia failed to respond to lorazepam. We describe a case of SSPE in a child presenting as catatonia that presented with clinical features of catatonia and did not have typical EEG findings when assessed at first contact. He responded to lorazepam and EEG changes emerged during the course of follow-up. PMID:24891908

Dayal, Prabhoo; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

2014-01-01

69

Catatonia as presenting clinical feature of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis  

PubMed Central

Catatonia is not a usual clinical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), especially in the initial stages of illness. However, there is only one reported case of SSPE presenting as catatonia among children. In this report, however, there were SSPE-specific changes on EEG and the catatonia failed to respond to lorazepam. We describe a case of SSPE in a child presenting as catatonia that presented with clinical features of catatonia and did not have typical EEG findings when assessed at first contact. He responded to lorazepam and EEG changes emerged during the course of follow-up.

Dayal, Prabhoo; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

2014-01-01

70

Crisis management during anaesthesia: hypotension  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypotension is commonly encountered in association with anaesthesia and surgery. Uncorrected and sustained it puts the brain, heart, kidneys, and the fetus in pregnancy at risk of permanent or even fatal damage. Its recognition and correction is time critical, especially in patients with pre-existing disease that compromises organ perfusion. Objectives: To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD–A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a specific sub-algorithm for hypotension, in the management of hypotension when it occurs in association with anaesthesia. Methods: Reports of hypotension during anaesthesia were extracted and studied from the first 4000 incidents reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS). The potential performance of the COVER ABCD algorithm and the sub-algorithm for hypotension was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetist involved. Results: There were 438 reports that mentioned hypotension, cardiovascular collapse, or cardiac arrest. In 17% of reports more than one cause was attributed and 550 causative events were identified overall. The most common causes identified were drugs (26%), regional anaesthesia (14%), and hypovolaemia (9%). Concomitant changes were reported in heart rate or rhythm in 39% and oxygen saturation or ventilation in 21% of reports. Cardiac arrest was documented in 25% of reports. As hypotension was frequently associated with abnormalities of other vital signs, it could not always be adequately addressed by a single algorithm. The sub-algorithm for hypotension is adequate when hypotension occurs in association with sinus tachycardia. However, when it occurs in association with bradycardia, non-sinus tachycardia, desaturation or signs of anaphylaxis or other problems, the sub-algorithm for hypotension recommends cross referencing to other relevant sub-algorithms. It was considered that, correctly applied, the core algorithm COVER ABCD would have diagnosed 18% of cases and led to resolution in two thirds of these. It was further estimated that completion of this followed by the specific sub-algorithm for hypotension would have led to earlier recognition of the problem and/or better management in 6% of cases compared with actual management reported. Conclusion: Pattern recognition in most cases enables anaesthetists to determine the cause and manage hypotension. However, an algorithm based approach is likely to improve the management of a small proportion of atypical but potentially life threatening cases. While an algorithm based approach will facilitate crisis management, the frequency of co-existing abnormalities in other vital signs means that all cases of hypotension cannot be dealt with using a single algorithm. Diagnosis, in particular, may potentially be assisted by cross referencing to the specific sub-algorithms for these.

Morris, R; Watterson, L; Westhorpe, R; Webb, R

2005-01-01

71

Cognitive performance in hypotensive persons with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Due to sympathetic de-centralization, individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially those with tetraplegia, often\\u000a present with hypotension, worsened with upright posture. Several investigations in the non-SCI population have noted a relationship\\u000a between chronic hypotension and deficits in memory, attention and processing speed and delayed reaction times.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To determine cognitive function in persons with SCI who were normotensive or hypotensive

Adejoke B. Jegede; Dwindally Rosado-Rivera; William A. Bauman; Christopher P. Cardozo; Mary Sano; Jeremy M. Moyer; Monifa Brooks; Jill Maria Wecht

2010-01-01

72

Hypotensive syndromes are not associated with cognitive impairment in geriatric patients.  

PubMed

To investigate the association of the hypotensive syndromes orthostatic hypotension (OH), postprandial hypotension (PPH), and carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) with cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment/dementia). Continuous measurements of blood pressure (Finapres) were performed during active standing, meal test, and carotid sinus massage, among 184 elderly patients presenting with falls. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia were diagnosed following a multidisciplinary assessment. The study design was a retrospective cohort study. The OH, PPH, and CSH were observed in 104 (58%), 108 (64%), and 78 (51%) patients, respectively. A total of 79 (43%) patients were cognitively impaired (MCI impairment n = 44; dementia n = 35). The prevalence of cognitive impairment varied little across the hypotensive syndromes (32%-43%) and was similar in patients with and without hypotensive syndromes (P = .59). In this geriatric population with a high prevalence of both hypotensive syndromes and cognitive impairment, patients with one or more hypotensive syndromes were not likely to have cognitive impairment. PMID:23242123

Schoon, Yvonne; Lagro, Joep; Verhoeven, Yolanda; Rikkert, Marcel Olde; Claassen, Jurgen

2013-02-01

73

Pulmonary Vasculitis: Clinical Presentation, Differential Diagnosis, and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on vasculitides with prominent pulmonary manifestations and discusses key contributions from the recent\\u000a literature. Pulmonary vasculitis should be considered when clinical findings include alveolar hemorrhage, nodular and cavitary\\u000a lung disease, airway stenosis, pulmonary artery aneurysms, or pulmonary artery stenosis. The differential diagnostic considerations\\u000a for common clinical presentations of vasculitis in the lung are important, and several recent

Jennifer Ramsey; Mohammed Amari; Stephen P. Kantrow

2010-01-01

74

Pedunculated and Telangiectatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma: An Unusual Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin that classically presents on chronic sun-damaged skin as a skin-colored, red or violaceous, firm and nontender papule or nodule with a smooth and shiny surface. Ulcerations can be observed very seldom and only in very advanced lesions. We present a unique case of a MCC presenting with two unusual clinical features: The Telangiectatic surface and the pedunculated aspect.

Errichetti, Enzo; Piccirillo, Angelo; Ricciuti, Federico; Ricciuti, Francesco

2013-01-01

75

Insights into the clinical management of the syndrome of supine hypertension - orthostatic hypotension (SH-OH): The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA)  

PubMed Central

Background Our previously proposed morphological classification of orthostatic hypotension (MOH) is an approach to the definition of three typical orthostatic hemodynamic patterns using non-invasive beat-to-beat monitoring. In particular, the MOH pattern of large drop/non-recovery (MOH-3) resembles the syndrome of supine hypertension–orthostatic hypotension (SH-OH), which is a treatment challenge for clinicians. The aim of this study was to characterise MOH-3 in the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing (TILDA), with particular attention to concurrent symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI), prescribed medications and association with history of faints and blackouts. Methods The study included all TILDA wave 1 participants who had a Finometer® active stand. Automatic data signal checks were carried out to ensure that active stand data were of sufficient quality. Characterisation variables included demographics, cardiovascular and neurological medications (WHO-ATC), and self-reported information on comorbidities and disability. Multivariable statistics consisted of logistic regression models. Results Of the 4,467 cases, 1,456 (33%) were assigned to MOH-1 (small drop, overshoot), 2,230 (50%) to MOH-2 (medium drop, slower but full recovery), and 781 (18%) to MOH-3 (large drop, non-recovery). In the logistic regression model to predict MOH-3, statistically significant factors included being on antidepressants (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.50 – 2.64, P < 0.001) and beta blockers (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.26 – 2.04, P < 0.001). MOH-3 was an independent predictor of OI after full adjustment (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.25 – 1.73, P < 0.001), together with being on hypnotics or sedatives (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.31 – 2.54, P < 0.001). In addition, OI was an independent predictor of history of falls/blackouts after full adjustment (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09 – 1.48, P = 0.003). Conclusions Antidepressants and beta blockers were independently associated with MOH-3, and should be used judiciously in older patients with SH-OH. Hypnotics and sedatives may add to the OI effect of MOH-3. Several trials have demonstrated the benefits of treating older hypertensive patients with cardiovascular medications that were not associated with adverse outcomes in our study. Therefore, the evidence of benefit does not necessarily have to conflict with the evidence of potential harm.

2013-01-01

76

Correlation of Angiographic Morphology and Clinical Presentation in Unstable Angina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to correlate angiographically detected complex lesions and intracoronary thrombus with the severity of clinical presentation in unstable angina (UA).Background. Unstable angina is usually related to acute thrombosis superimposed on a disrupted plaque. Complex and thrombotic lesions are more prevalent in UA and have been associated with a worse prognosis. The highest levels of the Braunwald classification

George Dangas; Roxana Mehran; Sylvan Wallenstein; Nikolaos A Courcoutsakis; Venu Kakarala; Jacqueline Hollywood; John A Ambrose

1997-01-01

77

Interactive multimedia software for preparation and presentation of clinical conferences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: To present a multimedia presentation platform that allows retrieving data from any digital or analog imaging modality. The system includes an authoring environment allowing users to select key images and cine sequences and to prepare a script of a presentation stored in an XML file. Methods: The software was initially implemented for multidisciplinary cardiac conferences involving different cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons. A typical presentation requires concise presentations of patient data and images and summary reports of data obtained from the different procedures. An XML-based scripting methodology was developed to allow for preparation of these presentations. The image display program uses the generated script for the sequential presentation of different documents in a pre-determined presentation settings. Results: A workstation equipped with the software platform was tested in an integrated electronic setting where selected images and data are gathered from different sources and transferred to the workstation. The XML script of a given presentation can further be saved as part of the patient record for subsequent review of the documents and images that supported a given medical or therapeutic decision. Discussion and conclusion: The script-based presentation mode allows for shorter and more effective clinical presentations that are much less time consuming than traditional conferences where analog data must be reviewed on different devices. This also constitutes a perfect documentation method for surgeons and physicians responsible of therapeutic procedures that were decided upon during the clinical conference. It allows them to review the relevant data that supported a given therapeutic decision.

Ratib, Osman M.; Do, Steven; Allada, Vivekanand; Dahlbom, Magdalena; Lapstra, Lorelle

2004-04-01

78

The Natural History and Clinical Presentation of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) refers to impaired function of the spinal cord caused by degenerative changes of the cervical spine resulting in spinal cord compression. It is the most common disorder in the United States causing dysfunction of the spinal cord. A literature review of the natural history of mild cervical myelopathy is undertaken. Clinical presentation and current concepts of pathophysiology are also discussed. While many patients with mild signs of CSM will stabilize or improve over time with conservative treatment, the clinical course of a specific individual patient cannot be predicted. Asymptomatic patients with cervical stenosis and abnormalities on electrophysiologic studies may be at higher risk for developing myelopathy.

Yarbrough, Chester K.; Murphy, Rory K. J.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Stewart, Todd J.

2012-01-01

79

Metastatic breast cancer mimicking cholecystitis. A rare clinical presentation.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 61-year-old lady who presented with central chest and epigastric pain. A clinical diagnosis of cholecystitis was established, and a cholecystectomy was carried out. Microscopic examination of the gallbladder showed chronic cholecystitis and metastatic carcinoma of probable breast lobular carcinoma origin. The report was followed by further clinical and mammographic examination, which showed a focal area of thickening in the left breast. Core biopsy of this lesion confirmed the diagnosis of lobular carcinoma of the breast. Her tumor was treated with surgery followed by chemo/hormone therapy. The patient died 5 years after the cholecystectomy from disseminated breast malignancy. PMID:23047208

Al-Rawi, Haitham; Al-Jafari, Mohammad; Mathew, Hitesh

2012-10-01

80

Pleural mesothelioma presenting as periumbilical metastasis: the first clinical documentation.  

PubMed

Introduction. Pleural mesothelioma with metastasis to the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal wall at first diagnosis and without penetration into the peritoneum is an extremely rare clinical presentation. Methods. Patients with pleural mesothelioma have low survival rate. Usually, the disease at presentation is confined to its site of origin (most often the pleural cavity). A 55-year-old man was referred to our center due to increasing dyspnea and a painful periumbilical mass in the anterior abdominal wall. CT scan revealed both advanced mesothelioma of the pleura and a tumor mass confined to the subcutaneous fatty tissue without penetration through the peritoneum. Results. Video-assisted thoracoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid pleural mesothelioma, which was also confirmed by a biopsy of the periumbilical mass. Systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed was initiated. Under the ongoing systemic chemotherapy, the evaluation revealed partial remission of pleura mesothelioma and its subcutaneous manifestation of the abdominal wall. Conclusion. Mesothelioma of the pleura with a simultaneous metastasis to the subcutaneous fatty tissue of the abdominal wall at presentation without penetration of peritoneum is a rare clinical presentation of mesothelioma disease. The knowledge of its natural history is very limited. This is the first ever clinical documentation of a patient with pleura mesothelioma and simultaneous subcutaneous manifestation of abdominal wall. PMID:23691382

Falkenstern-Ge, R F; Kimmich, M; Bode-Erdmann, S; Friedel, G; Ott, G; Kohlhäufl, M

2013-01-01

81

Intracranial hypotension and hypertension in children and adolescents.  

PubMed

The specific aim of this review is to report the features of intracranial pressure changes [spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)] in children and adolescents, with emphasis on the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment modalities. Headache associated with intracranial pressure changes are relatively rare and less known in children and adolescents. SIH is a specific syndrome involving reduced intracranial pressure with orthostatic headache, frequently encountered connective tissue disorders, and a good prognosis with medical management, initial epidural blood patching, and sometimes further interventions may be required. IIH is an uncommon condition in children and different from the disease in adults, not only with respect to clinical features (likely to present with strabismus and stiff neck rather than headache or pulsatile tinnitus) but also different in outcome. Consequently, specific ICP changes of pediatric ages required specific attention both of exact diagnosis and entire management. PMID:24880802

Ozge, Aynur; Bolay, Hayrunnisa

2014-07-01

82

Suprasellar cysts: clinical presentation, surgical indications, and optimal surgical treatment  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the clinical presentation of suprasellar cysts (SSCs) and surgical indications, and compare the treatment methods of endoscopic ventriculocystostomy (VC) and ventriculocystocisternotomy (VCC). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 73 consecutive patients with SSC who were treated between June 2002 and September 2009. Twenty-two patients were treated with VC and 51 with VCC. Outcome was assessed by clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Results The patients were divided into five groups based on age at presentation: age less than 1 year (n = 6), 1-5 years (n = 36), 6-10 years (n = 15), 11-20 years (n = 11), and 21-53 years (n = 5). The main clinical presentations were macrocrania (100%), motor deficits (50%), and gaze disturbance (33.3%) in the age less than 1 year group; macrocrania (75%), motor deficits (63.9%), and gaze disturbance (27.8%) in the 1-5 years group; macrocrania (46.7%), symptoms of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) (40.0%), endocrine dysfunction (40%), and seizures (33.3%) in the 6-10 years group; symptoms of raised ICP (54.5%), endocrine dysfunction (54.5%), and reduced visual field or acuity (36.4%) in the 11-20 years group; and symptoms of raised ICP (80.0%) and reduced visual field or acuity (40.0%) in the 21-53 years group. The overall success rate of endoscopic fenestration was 90.4%. A Kaplan-Meier curve for long-term efficacy of the two treatment modalities showed better results for VCC than for VC (p = 0.008). Conclusions Different age groups with SSCs have different main clinical presentations. VCC appears to be more efficacious than VC.

2011-01-01

83

Comparison of effects of ephedrine, lidocaine and ketamine with placebo on injection pain, hypotension and bradycardia due to propofol injection: a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

Propofol is a widely used anesthetic drug because of its minor complication and also its fast effect. One of most popular complication in using this drug is pain during injection that is more sever in new generation of its components (lipid-free microemulsion). Other complications of propofol are bradycardia and hypotension. This study compares 3 drugs with placebo in control of these complications of propofol. In this double blinded randomized placebo controlled trial 140 patient who were candidates for elective surgery were divided in 4 groups (35 patients in each groups) and drugs (ephedrine, lidocaine, ketamine and NaCl solution (as placebo) were tried on each group by a blinded technician and responses to drugs were evaluated under supervision of a blinded anesthesiologist. Pain after injection, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured 5 times during anesthesia process of each patient. All gathered data were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square under SPSS software. Our data shows that in pain management all tested drugs can decrease pain significantly comparing with placebo (P=0.017). In control of hemodynamic parameters ephedrine could efficiently control SBP, DBP, MAP at the time 1 min after intubation. Based on our study ephedrine can be an appropriate suggestion for control of both pain and hemodynamic changes induced by propofol, although because of inconsistent result in other studies it is recommended to design a systematic review to draw a broader view on this issue. PMID:23165810

Ayatollahi, Vida; Behdad, Shekoufeh; Kargar, Saeed; Yavari, Tayebe

2012-01-01

84

Clinical presentation of sarcoidosis and diagnostic work-up.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown cause characterized by the formation of immune granulomas which most often involve the lung and the lymphatic system. Sarcoidosis may encompass numerous different clinical presentations. Typical presentations often prompt a rapid diagnosis while in 25 to 50% of cases, diverse and less typical presentations may lead to delayed diagnosis. The mediastinopulmonary sphere is involved in 85 to 95% of cases, associated with extrapulmonary localizations in half of cases while extrapulmonary localizations without lung involvement may be seen in 5 to 15% of cases. Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy is the most typical sign at chest radiography. Computed tomography (CT) is essential face for atypical manifestations of the disease to avoid confusion with differential diagnoses and, sometimes, comorbidities. CT typically evidences diffuse pulmonary perilymphatic micronodules, with a perilobular and fissural distribution and upper and posterior predominance, even when an atypical CT pattern is predominant. CT allows deciphering pulmonary lesions in cases of pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and airflow limitation. Pulmonary function tests generally correlate with the overall disease process. Forced vital capacity is the simplest and most accurate parameter to reflect the impact of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing helps in understanding the mechanism behind dyspnea of uncertain origin. Endoscopic transbronchial needle aspiration is an extra tool to support diagnosis in addition to more classical biopsy means. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) may be used for individual patients while it is not really decisive for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis for most patients. Diagnosis relies on compatible clinical and radiological presentation, evidence of noncaseating granulomas and exclusion of other diseases with a similar presentation or histology. The probability of diagnosis at presentation is variable from case to case and may often be reinforced with time. Some investigations are mandatory at diagnosis to assess organ involvement and disease activity. However, there are important variations in diagnostic work-up due to diverse expressions of sarcoidosis and differences in clinical practices among physicians. PMID:25007086

Valeyre, Dominique; Bernaudin, Jean-François; Uzunhan, Yurdagul; Kambouchner, Marianne; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Soussan, Michael; Nunes, Hilario

2014-06-01

85

Effect of gender on clinical presentation in systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

The incidence of SLE is markedly increased in females of child-bearing age. Although males are protected in terms of incidence of disease, it is unclear whether a distinct phenotype of male lupus exists in those who do develop SLE. We sought to explore through a detailed literature review whether gender exerts an influence on the clinical presentation and outcome of SLE. We found that males experience less of the typical mucocutaneous and musculoskeletal symptoms commonly present at diagnosis in women. On the other hand, there is limited evidence to support a negative prognostic association between male gender and disease activity or mortality. PMID:23641038

Murphy, Grainne; Isenberg, David

2013-12-01

86

Psychiatric symptoms as a clinical presentation of Cushing's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Cushing’s syndrome can present with a spectrum of symptoms; however, it is less recognised that psychiatric symptoms can form part of the clinical presenting features. In the investigations for an organic cause for a psychiatric illness, Cushing’s syndrome needs to be considered, especially if there are other features such as hirsutism or hypertension. In this article, the two cases reported demonstrate that a prompt diagnosis is not only important for psychiatric management but also crucial for timely institution of the necessary treatment of life-threatening causes of hypercortisolaemia such as metastatic adrenal carcinoma.

2013-01-01

87

Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as acute adrenal insufficiency: a rare clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement with varied presentation. Autoimmune adrenal disease, on the other hand, can be associated with other autoimmune diseases. Adrenal insufficiency as a presenting feature of Systemic lupus erythematosus is a rare occurrence. We hereby report a case of a 20 year-old female who presented to us in an acute hypoadrenal state and was found to have Systemic lupus erythematosus with renal involvement. Patient was successfully managed with steroids and improved clinically. PMID:24669348

Bhat, Ra; Khan, I; Mir, T; Khan, I; Wani, M

2014-01-01

88

Induced hypotension during anesthesia with special reference to orthognathic surgery.  

PubMed Central

Since Gardner first used arteriotomy during anesthesia to improve visibility in the surgical field, various techniques and pharmacological agents have been tried for the same purpose. With reports documenting the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome through blood transfusions, prevention of homologous blood transfusions during surgery has also become a major concern. Induced hypotension has been used to reduce blood loss and thereby address both issues. In orthognathic surgery, induced hypotension during anesthesia has been used for similar reasons. It is recommended that hypotensive anesthesia be adjusted in relation to the patient's preoperative blood pressure rather than to a specific target pressure and be limited to that level necessary to reduce bleeding in the surgical field and in duration to that part of the surgical procedure deemed to benefit by it. A mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) 30% below a patient's usual MAP, with a minimum MAP of 50 mm Hg in ASA Class I patients and a MAP not less than 80 mm Hg in the elderly, is suggested to be clinically acceptable. Various pharmacological agents have been used for induced hypotension during orthognathic surgery. In addition, there are many drugs that have been used in other types of surgery that could be used in orthognathic surgery to induce hypotension. Recent reports using control groups do not show significant differences in morbidity and mortality attributable to induced hypotension during anesthesia. Appropriate patient evaluation and selection, proper positioning and monitoring, and adequate fluid therapy are stressed as important considerations in patients undergoing induced hypotension during orthognathic surgery.

Rodrigo, C.

1995-01-01

89

Head Turning-Induced Hypotension in Elderly People  

PubMed Central

Carotid sinus hypersensitivity has a high prevalence in the elderly and is a possible cause of falls. In carotid sinus hypersensitivity, external triggers cause sudden reductions in blood pressure, leading to dizziness or syncope, resulting in falls. Turning of the head is considered an important example of such an external trigger in everyday life, wherein rotation of the neck is thought to manipulate the hypersensitive carotid sinus. However, direct evidence for this is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of head turning in elderly with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. We performed a prospective, observational study in 105 elderly patients who visited a geriatric falls clinic in a university teaching hospital and in 25 community dwelling healthy elderly subjects. Continuous measurements of blood pressure and heart rate (Finapres) were performed before, during, and after head turning. Head turning-induced hypotension was defined as a drop in systolic blood pressure of at least 20 mmHg during head turning. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity was examined with carotid sinus massage. We also tested for two other common geriatric hypotensive syndromes, orthostatic hypotension and post prandial hypotension, using active standing and a meal test. All three hypotensive syndromes were defined using consensus definitions. Head turning resulted in hypotension in 39% of patients (mean systolic blood pressure drop 36 mm Hg) and in 44% of the healthy elderly, irrespective of the direction of the head movement. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity was associated with head-turning induced hypotension (OR= 3.5, 95% CI= 1.48 to 8.35). We conclude that head turning is indeed an important cause of sudden drops in blood pressure in elderly with carotid sinus hypersensitivity.

Schoon, Yvonne; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G. M.; Rongen, Sara; Lagro, Joep; Schalk, Bianca; Claassen, Jurgen A. H. R.

2013-01-01

90

Significance of the clinical presentation in ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation.  

PubMed

We examined the hypothesis that clinical presentation in patients with sustained ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) predicts clinical, electrophysiologic (EP) findings and long-term outcome. We included in the study 121 consecutive patients seen in our EP laboratory with documented and inducible sustained VT/VF. Patients were categorized into three groups according to their clinical presentation: (1) cardiac arrest (CA)-53 patients; (2) syncope (S)-20 patients; (3) palpitations/dizziness (P)-48 patients. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or prevalence of underlying heart disease between groups. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly lower for patients with CA (mean +/- S.D.; 31 +/- 14%) or S (30 +/- 11%) when compared with P (39 +/- 15%) (p less than 0.05). Induction of VT/VF required a more aggressive stimulation protocol (three extrastimuli) in patients with CA (53%) when compared with patients with S (30%) or P (29%) (p less than 0.05). The cycle length of the induced VT was shorter for CA (239 +/- 64 msec) patients as compared with the S (294 +/- 67 msec) or the P (319 +/- 94 msec) patients (p less than 0.01). Polymorphic VT or VF was induced in 28% of CA patients, in 9% of S patients, and in 12% of P patients (p less than 0.05). There were significantly more sudden deaths observed during the 4-year follow-up interval in patients presenting with CA compared to the P group (p less than 0.05). The 4-year survival was 67 +/- 8% for P, 45 +/- 15% for S, and 45 +/- 10% for CA patients (N.S.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2801476

Saxon, L A; Uretz, E F; Denes, P

1989-10-01

91

Tuberculosis Presenting as Dysphagia: Clinical, Endoscopic, Radiological and Endosonographic Features  

PubMed Central

Objective: Dysphagia as a presenting manifestation of tuberculosis is rare and there is paucity of data on the clinical, endoscopic and endosonographic features of these patients. We present our data related to the features over last four years. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the clinical, endoscopic, radiological, endosonographic and cytological findings in 14 patients (male: 10; mean age: 37.7 ± 10.4 years) with dysphagia due to tuberculosis presenting to us over last 4 years. Results: Nine patients (64.3%) had Grade 1 dysphagia, 4 (28.6%) patients had Grade 2 and 1 patient (7.1%) had Grade 3. Mid esophagus was the commonest site of involvement. Endoscopic findings were extrinsic bulge (50%), linear ulcers (28.6%) and pol-ypoidal ulcerated lesion (7.1%). Endoscopic biopsies were inconclusive. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) demonstrated mediastinal lymph nodes being responsible for endoscopic bulge and their infiltration into esophageal wall leading on to ulcers. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration from these nodes established diagnosis in all patients. Conclusion: Dysphagia in tuberculosis is most commonly caused by compression by the surrounding mediastinal lymph nodes. EUS is a useful investigation for assessment of these patients.

Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Rao, Chalapathi; Srinivasan, Radhika; Singh, Kartar

2013-01-01

92

Clinical presentation and metabolic features of overt and occult urolithiasis.  

PubMed

Although pediatricians are frequently confronted with patients presenting urolithiasis symptoms without obvious stones, the syndrome of occult urolithiasis may be still viewed with some skepticism. We have compared the clinical and metabolic features of 197 children with obvious calculi, 189 with microcalculi (diameter ? 3 mm based on renal sonography), and 114 with symptoms of urolithiasis and normal renal sonography findings. Only microcalculi and normal sonography subjects with a urinary abnormality potentially leading to urolithiasis were included in the study. Age at presentation increased significantly (p?=?0.0001) in the groups in the order normal sonography to microcalculi to calculi groups. There was no significant difference among the three groups in terms of family history of urolithiasis, gender distribution, and degree of hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, hyperoxaluria, or hypocitraturia. The average frequency of pain attacks of patients with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) ranged from 3.6 to 4.6 days of pain per month among the three groups, which is four to ninefold lower than that reported for children with functional or organic gastrointestinal RAP. The consistency of many clinical and urinary metabolic characteristics indicates a common underlying disorder in overt and occult urolithiasis. The increase of age at presentation from the normal sonography to microcalculi and calculi groups may reflect progressive crystal accretion leading ultimately to overt stone formation. PMID:21688190

Polito, Cesare; Apicella, Andrea; Marte, Antonio; Signoriello, Giuseppe; La Manna, Angela

2012-01-01

93

The medically important yeasts present in clinical specimens.  

PubMed

In an effort to determine the yeast species present in clinical specimens obtained from patients attending a busy Saudi hospital, the present study was undertaken. More than 1614 yeasts were isolated in culture from pathologic specimens of over 1303 patients with diverse clinical conditions. Organisms identified in 22 species of eight general included: Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lipolytica, C. guilliermondii, C. pseudotropicalis, C. pinotolopesii, C. humicola, C. stellatoidea, C. lusitaniae, Torulopsis glabrata, T. inconspicua, T. candida, Trichosporon beigelii, T. capitatum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cryptococcus neoformans, C. albidus, Rhodotorula glutinis, Hansenula anomala and Prototheca zopfii. The details of specimen types yielding these yeasts in culture are presented in the text. The most frequently isolated yeasts was C. albicans, followed by T. glabrata, C. parapsolosis, C. tropicalis, T. inconspicua, C. krusei, S. cerevisiae, T. candida, and T. beigelii. Twenty isolates of six species were recovered from blood of which C. albicans was also the most common. Crytococcus neoformans was found causing cryptococcal meningitis being isolated from the CSF on an 8-year-old female patient. Future studied assessing the incidence of yeast infections in each homogeneous group of patients are recommended. PMID:17589130

Al-Hedaithy, S S

1992-01-01

94

Subacute thyroiditis: clinical presentation and long term outcome.  

PubMed

Few studies have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA) to describe the clinical presentation and long term outcomes of subacute thyroiditis (SAT). Our aim was to review the demographic, anthropometric, clinical presentation, laboratory results, treatment, and disease outcome in Riyadh region and to compare those with results from different regions of the Kingdom and different parts of the world. We reviewed the medical files of patients who underwent thyroid uptake scan during an 8-year period in King Khalid University Hospital. Only 25 patients had confirmed diagnosis of thyroiditis. Age and gender distribution were similar to other studies. Most patients presented with palpitation, goiter, and weight change. Elevated thyroid hormones, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and elevated ESR were reported. Among those, 7 cases of SAT were recorded. ? -Blockers were prescribed to 57% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to 29% of SAT. Long follow-up demonstrated that 85.7% of SAT cases recovered, while 14.3% developed permanent hypothyroidism. In conclusion, SAT is uncommon in the central region of SA. Compared to the western region, corticosteroid is not commonly prescribed, and permanent hypothyroidism is not uncommon. A nation-wide epidemiological study to explain these interprovincial differences is warranted. PMID:24803929

Alfadda, Assim A; Sallam, Reem M; Elawad, Ghadi E; Aldhukair, Hisham; Alyahya, Mossaed M

2014-01-01

95

Subacute Thyroiditis: Clinical Presentation and Long Term Outcome  

PubMed Central

Few studies have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA) to describe the clinical presentation and long term outcomes of subacute thyroiditis (SAT). Our aim was to review the demographic, anthropometric, clinical presentation, laboratory results, treatment, and disease outcome in Riyadh region and to compare those with results from different regions of the Kingdom and different parts of the world. We reviewed the medical files of patients who underwent thyroid uptake scan during an 8-year period in King Khalid University Hospital. Only 25 patients had confirmed diagnosis of thyroiditis. Age and gender distribution were similar to other studies. Most patients presented with palpitation, goiter, and weight change. Elevated thyroid hormones, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and elevated ESR were reported. Among those, 7 cases of SAT were recorded. ?-Blockers were prescribed to 57% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to 29% of SAT. Long follow-up demonstrated that 85.7% of SAT cases recovered, while 14.3% developed permanent hypothyroidism. In conclusion, SAT is uncommon in the central region of SA. Compared to the western region, corticosteroid is not commonly prescribed, and permanent hypothyroidism is not uncommon. A nation-wide epidemiological study to explain these interprovincial differences is warranted.

Alfadda, Assim A.; Sallam, Reem M.; Elawad, Ghadi E.; AlDhukair, Hisham; Alyahya, Mossaed M.

2014-01-01

96

Paraneoplastic pemphigus (paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome): clinical presentations and pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Paraneoplastic pemphigus is a rare condition with extremely high rates of mortality. Although its pathogenesis is incompletely understood, its pathologic findings have significant overlap with other autoimmune blistering diseases, such as pemphigus vulgaris, bullous pemphigoid, erythema multiforme and erosive lichen planus. A universally accepted consensus definition is needed to firmly define the condition. This would aid in identification of paraneoplastic pemphigus and the institution of timely and appropriate treatment to avoid rapid patient deterioration as well as recruitment for trials to further examine the pathogenesis and new therapeutic modalities. This article reviews the varied clinical presentations and pathologic characteristics pertaining to paraneoplastic pemphigus. PMID:21605807

Frew, John W; Murrell, Dédée F

2011-07-01

97

American tegumentary leishmaniasis: an uncommon clinical and histopathological presentation*  

PubMed Central

We report a case of an unusual presentation of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis involving a male patient with a solitary lesion on the ear lobe, persisting with minimal increase for at least six months without ulceration or related symptoms. The histological sections showed epithelial atrophy and a large number of structures consistent with Leishmania sp. amastigotes within macrophages. Treatment commenced with meglumine antimoniate resulting in regression of the condition. This report is of importance given the unusual clinical manifestation and histopathological findings in this case and the fact that there was low correlation with the extended duration of the disease.

Adriano, Adrilena Lopes; Leal, Paula Azevedo Borges; Breckenfeld, Marcelle Parente; Costa, Igor dos Santos; Almeida, Clarisse; de Sousa, Antonio Rene Diogenes

2013-01-01

98

The clinical presentation of celiac disease: experiences from northeastern iran.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore demographic characteristics and clinical presentations of celiac disease (CD) in Northeastern Iran. METHODS This was a cross-sectional retrospective study of 193 adults with CD who presented to Mashhad University Gastroenterology Clinic between 2008 and 2013. Patient data that included mode of presentation and the presence of any concomitant illnesses were collected. Intestinal biopsy and serum anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) were used for diagnosis. Mucosal lesions were classified according to modified Marsh classification. RESULTS Overall, 132 females and 61 males, with a mean age at diagnosis of 32.6 ± 13.2 years were included. The patient's chief complaints in order of decreasing frequency were dyspepsia (24.6%), diarrhea (20%), anemia (12.8%), and flatulence (7.2%). Bone disease was seen (osteopenia, osteoporosis) in 30% of patients. A positive family history of CD was found in 17.9% of cases. There were 64% who had serum anti-tTG >200 units/ml and 78% had a Marsh classification grade 3 on duodenal biopsy. The histology grade (Marsh) did not show any correlation with anti-tTG serum levels, age, body mass index (BMI) or hemoglobin levels. CONCLUSION In Northeastern Iran, CD was seen more commonly in females and with non-diarrheal presentations. Abdominal discomfort, anemia and bone disease were most common primary presentations in this area. Histology grade showed no significant correlation with level of anti-tTG, BMI or hemoglobin levels. We suggest screening for CD in unexplained abdominal discomfort, bone disease and anemia. PMID:24872868

Ganji, Azita; Esmaielzadeh, Abbas; Aafzal Aghayee, Mehdi; Goshayeshi, Ladan; Ghaffarzadegan, Kamran

2014-04-01

99

The Clinical Presentation of Celiac Disease: Experiences from Northeastern Iran  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore demographic characteristics and clinical presentations of celiac disease (CD) in Northeastern Iran. METHODS This was a cross-sectional retrospective study of 193 adults with CD who presented to Mashhad University Gastroenterology Clinic between 2008 and 2013. Patient data that included mode of presentation and the presence of any concomitant illnesses were collected. Intestinal biopsy and serum anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) were used for diagnosis. Mucosal lesions were classified according to modified Marsh classification. RESULTS Overall, 132 females and 61 males, with a mean age at diagnosis of 32.6 ± 13.2 years were included. The patient’s chief complaints in order of decreasing frequency were dyspepsia (24.6%), diarrhea (20%), anemia (12.8%), and flatulence (7.2%). Bone disease was seen (osteopenia, osteoporosis) in 30% of patients. A positive family history of CD was found in 17.9% of cases. There were 64% who had serum anti-tTG >200 units/ml and 78% had a Marsh classification grade 3 on duodenal biopsy. The histology grade (Marsh) did not show any correlation with anti-tTG serum levels, age, body mass index (BMI) or hemoglobin levels. CONCLUSION In Northeastern Iran, CD was seen more commonly in females and with non-diarrheal presentations. Abdominal discomfort, anemia and bone disease were most common primary presentations in this area. Histology grade showed no significant correlation with level of anti-tTG, BMI or hemoglobin levels. We suggest screening for CD in unexplained abdominal discomfort, bone disease and anemia.

Ganji, Azita; Esmaielzadeh, Abbas; Aafzal Aghayee, Mehdi; Goshayeshi, Ladan; Ghaffarzadegan, Kamran

2014-01-01

100

Symptomatic intradialytic hypotension and mortality: an opinionated review.  

PubMed

The unchanging rate of symptomatic hypotension that attends maintenance hemodialysis and its link to sodium/volume overload are explored. Correlations between interdialytic weight gain, ultrafiltration rate, hypertension, and mortality are found to be strong. Suggestions/opinions for correcting this unfortunate clinical reality are offered. PMID:22452289

Henderson, Lee W

2012-05-01

101

Bacillary angiomatosis: microbiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Bacillary angiomatosis is known to be caused by a rickettsial organism; Rochalimaea henselae. This causative agent has been compared with different microorganisms and clinical conditions that appear in similar settings buy have been clearly differentiated from them; e.i. Cat-scratch disease (Afipia felis), Bartonella bacilliformis, other Rochalimaea sp., Kaposi's sarcoma, Lobular capillary hemangioma, Angiosarcoma, and Epithelioid hemangioma. Clinically the bacillary angiomatosis (BA) skin lesions vary from a single lesion to thousands. The cutaneous lesion appears as a bright-red round papule, subcutaneous nodule, or as a cellulitic plaque. When the lesion is biopsied it tends to blanch-out, bleed, and cause pain. The patient might present with signs and symptoms of chills, headaches, fever, malaise, and anorexia with or without weight loss. The extracutaneous lesions found in BA tend to be from multiple organs affecting from the oral lesions to anal mucosal lesions to widespread visceral lesions. The sites of preference for BA lesion manifestation tend to be the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone. To diagnose bacillary angiomatosis the physician should prepare a differential diagnosis based primarily on its histopathological and clinical characteristics. To confirm the results from the stain, electron microscopy can identify the bacillus and pin-point the diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis. The lesions presented by BA respond well to therapy with erythromycin 500 mg four times daily for a duration of 2 weeks to 2 months. In case of intolerance to erythromycin the second line of drug that successfully treats the BA bacillus is doxycyline. If relapses of the BA lesion recur, then a prolonged antibiotic therapy is necessary and in AIDS patients the duration may be extended as life-long suppressive therapy. PMID:8703269

Ramírez Ramírez, C R; Saavedra, S; Ramírez Ronda, C

1995-01-01

102

Bacillary angiomatosis: microbiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Bacillary angiomatosis is known to be caused by a rickettsial organism; Rochalimaea henselae. This causative agent has been compared with different microorganisms and clinical conditions that appear in similar settings but that have been clearly differentiated from them; e.i. Cat-scratch disease (Afipia felis), Bartonella bacilliformis, other Rochalimaea sp., Kaposi;s sarcoma, Lobular capillary hemangioma, Angiosarcoma, and Epithelioid hemangioma. Clinically the bacillary angiomatosis (BA) skin lesions vary from a single lesion to thousands. The cutaneous lesion appears as a bright-red round papule, subcutaneous nodule, or as a cellulitic plaque. When the lesion is biopsied it tends to blanch-out, bleed, and cause pain. The patient might present with signs and symptoms of chills, headaches, fever, malaise, and anorexia with or without weight loss. The extracutaneous lesions found in BA tend to be from multiple organs affecting from the oral lesions to anal mucosal lesions to widespread visceral lesions. The sites of preferences for BA lesion manifestation tend to be the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone. To diagnose bacillary angiomatosis the physician should prepare a differential diagnosis based primarily on its histopathological and clinical characteristics. To confirm the results from the stain, electron microscopy can identify the bacillus and pin-point the diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis. The lesions presented by BA respond well to therapy with erythromycin 500mg four times daily for a duration of 2 weeks to 2 months. In case of intolerance to erythromycin the second line of drug that successfully treats the BA bacillus is doxycycline. If relapses of the BA lesion recur, then a prolonged antibiotic therapy is necessary and in AIDS patients the duration may be extended as life-long suppressive therapy. PMID:8916440

Ramírez Ramírez, C R; Saavedra, S; Ramírez Ronda, C H

1996-01-01

103

Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in Children: Clinical Presentations and Management  

PubMed Central

Background: Idiopathic intracranial is common in adults, particularly obese young women, but also occurs in children and adolescents. Aim: Clinical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension in the pediatric population and how the presenting signs and symptoms may be different from those seen among adult patients. Results: This study is a prospective study conducted in the Alexandria Medical School, Egypt, between the periods starting from January 2003 till December 2007. Ten patients were included in this study, 9 patients were treated with repeated spinal taps while only one patient necessitated insertion of a theco-peritoneal shunt. Conclusion: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension may occur in children as among adults. If diagnosed early, visual acuity can be saved with proper management.

Aboul Enein, Hisham A.; Abo Khair, Amr F.

2008-01-01

104

Sciatica presenting as post-amputation neuroma: presentation and clinical findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design  Case report, level-5 evidence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To highlight the clinical challenges associated with lumbar disc disease in an amputee.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Summary of background  Radicular compression in a patient with lower limb amputation may present as phantom limb pain. Furthermore, nerve root tension\\u000a signs as a diagnostic sign of nerve root compression may be meaningless on the amputated side due to the absence of

Ali Mofidi; Amit Kotecha; Robin Banerjee; Chandra M. Rao; J. M. Trivedi

2010-01-01

105

Clinical spectrum of rhabdomyolysis presented to pediatric emergency department  

PubMed Central

Background Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening syndrome that can develop from a variety of causes. The aim of the work is to analyze the clinical spectrum and to evaluate the prevalence of various etiologies in children, who present to the emergency department (ED) with rhabdomyolysis. Methods During a 6-year study period, we retrospectively analyzed the medical charts of patients, aged 18 years or younger, with a definite diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis and serum creatinine phosphokinase (CK) levels greater than 1000IU/L. We analyzed the clinical spectrum and evaluated the potential risk factors of acute renal failure (ARF). Results Thirty-seven patients (mean age = 10.2 ± 5.5 years), including 26 males and 11 females, were enrolled in the study. Two of the most common presented symptoms in these 37 patients were muscle pain and muscle weakness (83.8% and 73%, respectively). Dark urine was reported in only 5.4% of the patients. The leading cause of rhabdomyolysis in the 0- to 9-year age group was presumed infection, and the leading cause in the 10- to 18-year age group was trauma and exercise. The incidence of ARF associated with rhabdomyolysis was 8.1 % and no child needed for renal replacement therapy (RRT). We did not identify any reliable predictors of ARF or need for RRT. Conclusions The classic triad of symptoms of rhabdomyolysis includes myalgia, weakness and dark urine are not always presented in children. The cause of rhabdomyolysis in younger age is different from that of teenager group. However, the prognosis of rhabdomyolysis was good with appropriate management.

2013-01-01

106

Fibrosing mediastinitis: clinical presentation, therapeutic outcomes, and adaptive immune response.  

PubMed

Fibrosing mediastinitis (FM) is a rare disorder characterized by the invasive proliferation of fibrous tissue within the mediastinum. FM frequently results in the compression of vital mediastinal structures and has been associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Its pathogenesis remains unknown. However, in North America most cases are thought to represent an immune-mediated hypersensitivity response to Histoplasma capsulatum infection. To characterize the clinical disease spectrum, natural disease progression, responses to therapy, and overall survival, we retrospectively analyzed all 80 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of FM evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, from 1998 to 2007. Furthermore, we characterized the adaptive immune response in 15 representative patients by immunohistochemistry. The majority of patients presented with nonspecific respiratory symptoms due to the compression of mediastinal broncho-vascular structures. Chest radiographic imaging most frequently revealed localized, invasive, and frequently calcified right-sided mediastinal masses. Most patients had radiographic or serologic evidence of previous histoplasmosis. In contrast to earlier reports summarizing previously reported FM cases, the clinical course of our patients appeared to be more benign and less progressive. The overall survival was similar to that of age-matched controls. There were only 5 deaths, 2 of which were attributed to FM. These differences may reflect publication bias associated with the preferential reporting of more severely affected FM patients in the medical literature, as well as the more inclusive case definition used in our consecutive case series. Surgical and nonsurgical interventions effectively relieved symptoms caused by the compression of mediastinal vascular structures in these carefully selected patients. In contrast, antifungal and antiinflammatory agents appeared ineffective. Histologic examination and immunostaining revealed mixed inflammatory infiltrates consistent with a fibroinflammatory tissue response in these histoplasmosis-associated FM cases. The immune cell infiltrates included large numbers of CD20-positive B lymphocytes. As B lymphocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease, therapeutic B-cell depletion should be investigated as a therapeutic strategy for FM. PMID:22033450

Peikert, Tobias; Colby, Thomas V; Midthun, David E; Pairolero, Peter C; Edell, Eric S; Schroeder, Darrell R; Specks, Ulrich

2011-11-01

107

Clinical Presentation of Hypertensive Crises in Emergency Medical Services  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the incidence and clinical presentation of hypertensive crises in the Emergency medical services of the Community Health Centre “Dr. Mustafa Šehovi?” Tuzla in relation to age, sex, duration and severity of hypertension, as well as the prevalence of accompanying symptoms and clinical manifestations. Methods: The study was conducted between November 2009 and April 2010 and included 180 subjects of both sexes, aged 30-80 with a diagnosis of arterial hypertension. All subjects were divided into two groups: a control group, which consisted of subjects without hypertensive crisis (95 subjects) and an experimental group that consisted of subjects with hypertensive crisis (85 subjects). Results: The study results indicate that female subjects were significantly over- represented compared to men (60% vs. 40 %, p=0.007). The average age of the male subjects was 55.83±11.06 years, while the female subjects’ average age was 59.41±11.97 years. The incidence of hypertensive crisis was 47.22%, with hypertensive urgency significantly more represented than emergency (16.47% vs. 83.53%, p<0.0001). The majority of subjects in the experimental group (28.23%) belonged to the age group of 60-69 years of age: 26.76% urgency and 35.71% emergency. The most common accompanying symptoms in hypertensive subjects were headache (75%), chest pain (48.33%), vertigo (44.44%), shortness of breath (38.88%) and nausea (33.89%). The most common symptoms in subjects with hypertensive crisis were headache (74.11%), chest pain and shortness of breath (62.35%), vertigo (49.41%), and nausea and vomiting (41.17%). Conclusions: Chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting were significantly over-represented in subjects with hypertensive crisis (p<0.005). Clinical manifestations of hypertensive emergencies in almost all subjects included acute coronary syndrome, and only one subject had acute pulmonary edema.

Salkic, Sabina; Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Ljuca, Farid; Brkic, Selmira

2014-01-01

108

Orthostatic Hypotension: Evaluation and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) may be dependent upon various neurogenic and non-neurogenic disorders and conditions. Neurogenic causes include the main autonomic failure syndromes, primary (multiple system atrophy, pure autonomic failure, and autonomic failure associated with Parkinson's disease) and secondary (central nervous system diseases, peripheral neuropathies and systemic diseases). Non-neurogenic causes of OH include cardiac impairment, fluid and electrolyte loss, vasodilatation, and

Simona Maule; Grazia Papotti; Diego Naso; Corrado Magnino; Elisa Testa; Franco Veglio

109

Update on transcobalamin deficiency: clinical presentation, treatment and outcome.  

PubMed

Transcobalamin (TC) transports cobalamin from blood into cells. TC deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder usually presenting in early infancy with failure to thrive, weakness, diarrhoea, pallor, anemia, and pancytopenia or agammaglobulinemia. It can sometimes resemble neonatal leukemia or severe combined immunodeficiency disease. Diagnosis of TC deficiency is suspected based on megaloblastic anemia, elevation of total plasma homocysteine, and blood or urine methylmalonic acid. It is confirmed by studying the synthesis of TC in cultured fibroblasts, or by molecular analysis of the TCN2 gene. TC deficiency is treatable with supplemental cobalamin, but the optimal type, route and frequency of cobalamin administration and long term patient outcomes are unknown. Here we present a series of 30 patients with TC deficiency, including an update on multiple previously published patients, in order to evaluate the different treatment strategies and provide information about long term outcome. Based on the data presented, current practice appears to favour treatment of individuals with TC deficiency by intramuscular injections of hydroxy- or cyanocobalamin. In most cases presented, at least weekly injections (1 mg IM) were necessary to ensure optimal treatment. Most centres adjusted the treatment regimen based on monitoring CBC, total plasma homocysteine, plasma and urine methylmalonic acid, as well as, clinical status. Finally, continuing IM treatment into adulthood appears to be beneficial. PMID:24305960

Trakadis, Y J; Alfares, A; Bodamer, O A; Buyukavci, M; Christodoulou, J; Connor, P; Glamuzina, E; Gonzalez-Fernandez, F; Bibi, H; Echenne, B; Manoli, I; Mitchell, J; Nordwall, M; Prasad, C; Scaglia, F; Schiff, M; Schrewe, B; Touati, G; Tchan, M C; Varet, B; Venditti, C P; Zafeiriou, D; Rupar, C A; Rosenblatt, D S; Watkins, D; Braverman, N

2014-05-01

110

Presentation of clinically suspected persistent chlamydial infection: a case series.  

PubMed

In vivo antimicrobial resistance has yet to be documented in Chlamydia trachomatis; however, there have been anecdotal reports of persistent infection. The purpose of this case series was to describe a group of patients who have persistent chlamydia infection despite adequate treatment and where re-infection was considered unlikely. Patients were selected using a clinical questionnaire. For inclusion patients had to have tested positive for C. trachomatis, at least twice, using a nucleic acid amplification test despite having been fully compliant with at least two rounds of recommended therapy and be deemed to be at low risk of re-infection. Patients were grouped into categories based on sexual behaviour. Twenty-eight patients are included in this case series; 46% declared no sexual contact since initial diagnosis (category 1), a further 36% declaring contact that was considered low risk of re-infection (categories 2-4); 61% showed signs and symptoms at initial presentation increasing to 75% at re-attendance. Thirty-nine percent of patients received azithromycin only while 48% received doxycycline also. This case series identifies patients with persistent chlamydia despite receiving treatment. There is a need for a case definition of clinical treatment failure, development of susceptibility testing methods and guidance on appropriate treatment for patients with persistent infection. PMID:23970750

Pitt, R A; Alexander, S; Horner, P J; Ison, C A

2013-06-01

111

Clinical and Radiological Presentations of Late-Onset Spondyloarthritis  

PubMed Central

The last few years have witnessed considerable progress in the diagnosis and treatment of spondyloarthritis (SpA). Tools are now available for establishing the diagnosis at an early stage, when appropriate treatment may be able to control the inflammatory process, limit the functional impairments, and improve quality of life. Late-onset SpA after the age of 50 years is uncommon. All the spondyloarthritis subgroups are represented in the elderly. Thus, late onset spondyloarthritis is underdiagnosed in favour of other inflammatory disorders that are more frequently observed in the elderly because the clinical or radiological presentations of late-onset spondyloarthritis are modified in the elderly. They deserve further attention because age population is increasing and new criteria for axial SpA including sacroiliitis detected by MRI may help the clinician with diagnosis. Specific studies evaluating the benefit/risk ratio of TNF?-blocking agents in late onset SpA patients are required.

Hmamouchi, Ihsane; Bahiri, Rachid; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

2011-01-01

112

Update on Management of Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension  

PubMed Central

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is common in the elderly and in disorders like diabetes and Parkinson's disease. It is important to grade its severity and its impact on the person's quality of life. It is also possible to quantitate the severity of OH. Symptoms of OH vary with orthostatic stress, and it is important to recognize subtle symptoms such as tiredness and cognitive impairment. Standard drug treatment is efficacious in improving OH and its symptoms but will worsen supine hypertension. Pyridostigmine will modestly but significantly improve OH without worsening supine hypertension. Since orthostatic stress varies from moment to moment and drug treatment is suboptimal, it is necessary to combine drug treatment of OH with non-pharmacological approaches, such as compression of venous capacitance bed, use of physical counter-maneuvers, and intermittent water bolus treatment. Search Strategy: The manuscript is based on a focused review. To achieve this, references for this review were identified by searches of PubMed between 1995 and January 2008 using the search term “orthostatic hypotension”. Articles were also identified through searches of the authors own files. Only papers published in English were selected. The final reference list was generated on the basis of originality and relevance to the topic covered in this review, with a particular focus on data supported by clinical trials.

Low, Phillip A.; Singer, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

113

Orthostatic hypotension in patients, bed rest subjects, and astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic hypotension after even short space flights has affected a significant number of astronauts. Given the need for astronauts to function at a high level of efficiency during and after their return from space, the application of pharmacologic and other treatments is strongly indicated. This report addresses the clinical problem of orthostatic hypotension and its treatments to ascertain whether pharmacologic or physiologic treatment may be useful in the prevention of orthostatic hypotension associated with space flight. Treatment of orthostatic hypotension in patients now includes increasing intravascular volume with high sodium intake and mineralocorticoids, or increasing vascular resistance through the use of drugs to stimulate alpha or block beta vascular receptors. Earlier treatment used oral sympathomimetic ephedrine hydrochloride alone or with "head-up" bed rest. Then long-acting adrenocortical steroid desoxycorticosterone preparations with high-salt diets were used to expand volume. Fludrocortisone was shown to prevent the orthostatic drop in blood pressure. The combination of the sympathomimetic amine hydroxyamphetamine and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine has been used, as has indomethacin alone. Davies et al. used mineralocorticoids at low doses concomitantly with alpha-agonists to increase vasoconstrictor action. Schirger et al used tranylcypromine and methylphenidate with or without a Jobst elastic leotard garment or the alpha-adrenergic agonist midodrine (which stimulates both arterial and venous systems without direct central nervous system or cardiac effects). Vernikos et al established that the combination of fludrocortisone, dextroamphetamine, and atropine exhibited a beneficial effect on orthostatic hypotension induced by 7-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest (a model used to simulate the weightlessness of space flight). Thus, there are numerous drugs that, in combination with mechanical techniques, including lower body negative pressure to elevate transmural pressure, could be studied to treat orthostatic hypotension after space flight.

Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.

1994-01-01

114

Clinical Presentation, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita  

PubMed Central

Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a chronic mucocutaneous autoimmune skin blistering disease. The pathogenic relevance of autoantibodies targeting type VII collagen (COL7) has been well-documented. Therefore, EBA is a prototypical autoimmune disease with a well-characterized pathogenic relevance of autoantibody binding to the target antigen. EBA is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.2 new cases per million and per year. The current treatment of EBA relies on general immunosuppressive therapy, which does not lead to remission in all cases. Therefore, there is a high, so far unmet medical need for the development of novel therapeutic options. During the last 10 years, several novel in vitro and in vivo models of EBA have been established. These models demonstrated a critical role of the genetic background, T cells, and cytokines for mediating the loss of tolerance towards COL7. Neutrophils, complement activation, Fc gamma receptor engagement, cytokines, several molecules involved in cell signaling, release of reactive oxygen species, and matrix metalloproteinases are crucial for autoantibody-induced tissue injury in EBA. Based on this growing understanding of the diseases' pathogenesis, several potential novel therapeutic targets have emerged. In this review, the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options for EBA are discussed in detail.

Ludwig, Ralf J.

2013-01-01

115

Clinical presentation and operative repair of Morgagni hernia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Morgagni hernia (MH) is an uncommon type of diaphragmatic hernia. This study aimed to summarize clinically relevant data with respect to MHs in adults. METHODS We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent surgical repair of foramen due to MH at our hospitals between 1996 and 2010. Data were collected on patient demographics, presenting symptoms, modes of diagnosis, surgical procedures, surgery outcomes, recurrence of hernia and follow-up of the patients. RESULTS We included 36 patients with the mean age of 50.2 years. Of these 66.7% (n = 24) were female. Thirty-one patients had MH on the right side and 1 patient had bilateral MH. Most of the patients experienced abdominal symptoms. 72.2% of patients underwent laparotomy (n = 26, 72.2%), (n = 6, 16.7%) thoracotomy (n = 6, 16.7%), and a thoraco-abdominal approach (n = 4, 11.1%). Resection of the hernia sac and insertion of a mesh were not done in any patients. No recurrence occurred. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that preoperative diagnosis and early diagnosis of MH by using laparotomy and thoracotomy is useful for safe and effective repair. Also we suggest that resection of the hernia sac and insertion of a mesh are not necessary.

Aghajanzadeh, Manouchehr; Khadem, Shahram; Khajeh Jahromi, Sina; Gorabi, Hamed Esmaili; Ebrahimi, Hannan; Maafi, Alireza Amir

2012-01-01

116

Clinical Presentation of Klinefelter's Syndrome: Differences According to Age  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to establish the characteristics of presentation of 94 patients with Kinelfelter's syndrome (KS) referred to the endocrinologist at different ages. The diagnosis of KS was more frequent in the age group between 11 and 20 years (46.8%). Most of the patients (83.7%) showed the classic 47,XXY karyotype and 7.1% showed a 47,XXY/46,XY mosaicism. Half of the patients younger than 18 years presented mild neurodevelopmental disorders. The most frequent clinical findings were cryptorchidism in prepubertal patients, and small testes, cryptorchidism, and gynecomastia in pubertal patients. FSH, LH, AMH, and inhibin B levels were normal in prepubertal patients and became abnormal from midpuberty. Most adults were referred for small testes, infertility, and gynecomastia; 43.6% had sexual dysfunction. Testosterone levels were low in 45%. Mean stature was above the 50th percentile, and 62.5% had BMI ?25.0?kg/m2. In conclusion, the diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome seems to be made earlier nowadays probably because pediatricians are more aware that boys and adolescents with neuro-developmental disorders and cryptorchidism are at increased risk. The increasing use of prenatal diagnosis has also decreased the mean age at diagnosis and allowed to get insight into the evolution of previously undiagnosed cases, which probably represent the mildest forms. In adults average height and weight are slightly higher than those in the normal population. Bone mineral density is mildly affected, more at the spine than at the femoral neck level, in less than half of cases.

Pacenza, Nestor; Pasqualini, Titania; Gottlieb, Silvia; Knoblovits, Pablo; Costanzo, Pablo R.; Stewart Usher, Jorge; Rey, Rodolfo A.; Martinez, Maria P.; Aszpis, Sergio

2012-01-01

117

Clinical presentation of tuberculoid leprosy in an epidermodysplasia verruciformis patient.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is triggered by a variety of mechanisms that at least partly include genetic background. We present a Brazilian man with a 30-year history of flat, wart-like lesions with clinical, histopathological, and evolutive aspects consistent with papillomavirus (HPV)-associated EV. Histological analysis of the wart lesions showed epidermis with hyperkeratosis, regular acanthosis, hypergranulosis, and cells with abundant basophilic cytoplasm. Moreover, a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate was found in the superficial dermis, consistent with a viral wart. Type-2-HPV DNA was detected in various fragments of skin-wart lesions using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two years after the EV diagnosis, the patient presented with an anesthetic well-demarcated, erythematous and mildly scaly plaque on his right forearm. A histopathological analysis of this lesion demonstrated the presence of a compact tuberculoid granuloma. Ziehl-Neelsen staining demonstrated the presence of rare acid-fast bacilli and confirmed the tuberculoid leprosy diagnosis. The patient's Mitsuda Intradermal Reaction was positive. To elucidate the possible mechanism involved in this case of EV, we genotyped the HLA genes of this patient. DQB genotyping showed the polymorphic HLA alleles DQB1*0301 and 0501. The patient was treated with a paucibacillary multi-drug therapy scheme, and the disease was cured in six months. This report describes an EV patient with an M. leprae infection, confirming that tuberculoid leprosy patients possess a relatively specific and efficient cell-mediated immunity against the bacillus and, therefore, localized forms of the disease. Moreover, we show the possible involvement of the polymorphic HLA alleles DQB1*0301 and 0501 in EV induction mechanisms. PMID:22711134

Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; Silva, Márcia G; Cristofano, Carlos; Crivelin, Luciana Leite; Calabreta, Carmela Beatriz Ramos; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto; Morgado de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez

2012-06-01

118

Acute mechanical bowel obstruction: Clinical presentation, etiology, management and outcome  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify and analyze the clinical presentation, management and outcome of patients with acute mechanical bowel obstruction along with the etiology of obstruction and the incidence and causes of bowel ischemia, necrosis, and perforation. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of all adult patients admitted with acute mechanical bowel obstruction between 2001 and 2002. RESULTS: Of the 150 consecutive patients included in the study, 114 (76%) presented with small bowel and 36 (24%) with large bowel obstruction. Absence of passage of flatus (90%) and/or feces (80.6%) and abdominal distension (65.3%) were the most common symptoms and physical finding, respectively. Adhesions (64.8%), incarcerated hernias (14.8%), and large bowel cancer (13.4%) were the most frequent causes of obstruction. Eighty-eight patients (58.7%) were treated conservatively and 62 (41.3%) were operated (29 on the first day). Bowel ischemia was found in 21 cases (14%), necrosis in 14 (9.3%), and perforation in 8 (5.3%). Hernias, large bowel cancer, and adhesions were the most frequent causes of bowel ischemia (57.2%, 19.1%, 14.3%), necrosis (42.8%, 21.4%, 21.4%), and perforation (50%, 25%, 25%). A significantly higher risk of strangulation was noticed in incarcerated hernias than all the other obstruction causes. CONCLUSION: Absence of passage of flatus and/or feces and abdominal distension are the most common symptoms and physical finding of patients with acute mechanical bowel obstruction, respectively. Adhesions, hernias, and large bowel cancer are the most common causes of obstruction, as well as of bowel ischemia, necrosis, and perforation. Although an important proportion of these patients can be nonoperatively treated, a substantial portion requires immediate operation. Great caution should be taken for the treatment of these patients since the incidence of bowel ischemia, necrosis, and perforation is significantly high.

Markogiannakis, Haridimos; Messaris, Evangelos; Dardamanis, Dimitrios; Pararas, Nikolaos; Tzertzemelis, Dimitrios; Giannopoulos, Panagiotis; Larentzakis, Andreas; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Manouras, Andreas; Bramis, Ioannis

2007-01-01

119

Orientation of the New Optometry Student through Clinical Case Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Southern California orientation program involves a new optometry student immediately by having the student see an actual clinic patient in a college clinic. The program gives students a feeling of belonging to the profession and also demonstrates the relevance of basic and visual sciences to practice. (Author/MSE)

Brookman, Kenneth E.

1982-01-01

120

Hypotensive activity of terpenes found in essential oils.  

PubMed

The cardiovascular activity of essential oils has been reported. Some studies showed that the main chemical components of these oils contribute to their pharmacological activity. Therefore, the cardiovascular activity of four monoterpenes and one sesquiterpene was evaluated in the present work. In non-anaesthetized normotensive rats, (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-beta-pinene, (+/-)-citronellol and (+/-)-linalool (1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.v.) induced hypotension [maximal effect: (-35 +/- 3)%, (-46 +/- 4)%, (-48 +/- 2)% and (-40 +/- 2)%, respectively; n=6] and tachycardia [maximal effect: (13 +/- 4)%, (16 +/- 7)%, (21 +/- 1)% and (19 +/- 3)%, respectively; n=6] while (-)-a-bisabolol (1, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, i.v.) induced hypotension [maximal effect: (-47 +/- 8)%, n=6] and bradycardia [maximal effect: (-57 +/- 3)%]. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that all terpenes tested had hypotensive activity in rats and that the pharmacological effect of the terpene alcohols was more effective than that of the terpene hydrocarbons. PMID:21138056

Menezes, Igor A C; Barreto, Carmélia M N; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Santos, Márcio R V; de Sousa, Damião P

2010-01-01

121

Intracranial hypotension following scoliosis surgery: dural penetration of a thoracic pedicle screw  

PubMed Central

The authors report on a 14 years old female with intracranial hypotension who had a history of spinal instrumentation surgery for scoliosis 3 months prior to her admission. She had been diagnosed with migraine in a neurology clinic and was under medical therapy when presented. During the investigation process, a right thoracic pedicle screw, which was penetrating and transversing the dura mater at the T3–T4 level was identified. The diagnosis and management of such a case is discussed. Knowledge of this entity is of extreme importance to spine surgeons, in order to prevent delayed diagnosis and possible complications.

Ulu, Mustafa Onur; Hanimoglu, Hakan; Kaynar, Mehmet Yasar; Hanci, Murat

2008-01-01

122

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of New Patients Presenting to a Community Teaching Clinic  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We compare patient populations attending chiropractors in the field to those in teaching clinics to allow educational institutions to determine if students are exposed to a similar case mix. The purpose of our study was to describe and compare descriptively the clinical case mix of a recently opened community-based teaching clinic to previously published practice data. Methods: A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using new patient records completed at a clinic. Data were extracted using a specifically designed abstraction form. Results: We manually abstracted 649 files. A total of 580 new patient files was included in the analysis, among which 57.7% included female patients with a mean age of 43 years (SD 18), and 42.1% presented with a chief complaint of more than one year in duration. The vast majority of patients complained of spinal pain (81.4%), most commonly low back pain. Almost 92% of the diagnoses were classified as simple (sprain/strain). The average number of visits per patient was 7.4 (SD 11.3); 54.7% received spinal manipulation on their first visit. The majority of patients were referred by the treating intern (64.8%) and about 24% of patients were local residents. Conclusions: Our study contributed to the few studies detailing patients attending chiropractic academic teaching clinics. It provided benchmark demographic and clinical data that may be used for operational planning. Our study suggested that the case mix of this teaching clinic provides interns with appropriate learning opportunities to achieve entry to practice competencies.

Lishchyna, Natalia; Mior, Silvano

2012-01-01

123

Senile Systemic Amyloidosis: Clinical Features at Presentation and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac amyloidosis is a fatal disease whose prognosis and treatment rely on identification of the amyloid type. In our aging population transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is common and must be differentiated from other amyloid types. We report the clinical presentation, natural history, and prognostic features of ATTRwt compared with cardiac?isolated AL amyloidosis and calculate the probability of disease diagnosis of ATTRwt from baseline factors. Methods and Results All patients with biopsy?proven ATTRwt (102 cases) and isolated cardiac AL (36 cases) seen from 2002 to 2011 at the UK National Amyloidosis Center were included. Median survival from the onset of symptoms was 6.07 years in the ATTRwt group and 1.7 years in the AL group. Positive troponin, a pacemaker, and increasing New York Heart Association (NYHA) class were associated with worse survival in ATTRwt patients on univariate analysis. All patients with isolated cardiac AL and 24.1% of patients with ATTRwt had evidence of a plasma cell dyscrasia. Older age and lower N?terminal pro?B?type natriuretic peptide (NT pro?BNP) were factors significantly associated with ATTRwt. Patients aged 70 years and younger with an NT pro?BNP <183 pmol/L were more likely to have ATTRwt, as were patients older than 70 years with an NT pro?BNP <1420 pmol/L. Conclusions Factors at baseline associated with a worse outcome in ATTRwt are positive troponin T, a pacemaker, and NYHA class IV symptoms. The age of the patient at diagnosis and NT pro?BNP level can aid in distinguishing ATTRwt from AL amyloidosis.

Pinney, Jennifer H.; Whelan, Carol J.; Petrie, Aviva; Dungu, Jason; Banypersad, Sanjay M.; Sattianayagam, Prayman; Wechalekar, Ashutosh; Gibbs, Simon D. J.; Venner, Christopher P.; Wassef, Nancy; McCarthy, Carolyn A.; Gilbertson, Janet A.; Rowczenio, Dorota; Hawkins, Philip N.; Gillmore, Julian D.; Lachmann, Helen J.

2013-01-01

124

[Present status of PET images: clinical FDG PET in oncology].  

PubMed

The clinical application of positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET) in the field of cancer diagnosis is expanding rapidly. FDG PET has been proven to be a clinically useful tool for the detection and staging of malignant tumors, differentiation of mass lesions, and follow-up and monitoring of malignant diseases after treatment. Several factors relating to the clinical spread of FDG PET, including the simplification of FDG production, establishment of an FDG delivery system, shortening of the data acquisition time for whole body imaging, development of a coincidence gamma camera, and reimbursement from medical insurance, are reviewed and discussed in this article. PET oncology currently has greater potential as a result of the development of new radiopharmaceuticals based on the tumor characteristics of biochemical and genetic processes. The recent development of clinical FDG PET might be simply a stepping stone for the development of more advanced PET oncology in the near future. PMID:10614103

Inoue, T

1999-11-01

125

Predicting Acute Hypotensive Episode by Bhattacharyya Distance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acute hypotensive episode (AHE) is a serious clinical event, which can lead to irreversible organ damage and sometimes death. When detected in time, an appropriate intervention can significantly lower the risks for the patient. An algorithm is developed for automated statistical prediction of AHE in patients, using mean arterial pressure (MAP). The dataset used for this work is from MIMIC II of PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology. The algorithm consists of probability distributions of MAP and information divergence methods for calculating the statistical distance between two probability distributions. The Bhattacharyya Distance is found out to be most accurate method for calculating such statistical distance. Beat classification of AHE patients with respect to Non-AHE patient is carried out by using training set of MIMIC II database. The comparison is also carried out for feasibility of Bhattacharyya distance with another divergence method like KL ivergence

Awandekar, Vaibhav; Cheeran, A. N.

2013-03-01

126

The clinical presentation and management of carcinoid heart disease.  

PubMed

Carcinoid heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Although cases of carcinoid syndrome and severe carcinoid heart disease requiring urgent intervention are well described, many patients with significant carcinoid heart disease may have insidious symptoms or even be asymptomatic. As haemodynamically significant carcinoid heart disease may be clinically silent, specific and individualised considerations must be made as to the most appropriate clinical criteria and time point at which surgical valve replacement should be undertaken in patients with carcinoid heart disease. PMID:24636550

Dobson, R; Burgess, M I; Pritchard, D M; Cuthbertson, D J

2014-04-15

127

Multifactorial Model and Treatment Approaches of Refractory Hypotension in a Patient Who Took an ACE Inhibitor the Day of Surgery  

PubMed Central

In the field of anesthesiology, there is wide debate on discontinuing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy the day of noncardiac surgery. Although there have been many studies attributing perioperative hypotension to same-day ACEI and ARB use, there are many additional variables that play a role in perioperative hypotension. Additionally, restoring blood pressure in these patients presents a unique challenge to anesthesiologists. A case report is presented in which a patient took her ACEI the day of surgery and developed refractory hypotension during surgery. The evidence of ACEI use on the day of surgery and development of hypotension is reviewed, and additional variables that contributed to this hypotensive episode are discussed. Lastly, current challenges in restoring blood pressure are presented, and a basic model on treatment approaches for refractory hypotension in the setting of perioperative ACEI use is proposed.

Srivastava, Karan; Sacher, Vikas Y.; Nelson, Craig T.; Lew, John I.

2013-01-01

128

Clinical electrophysiology in veterinary ophthalmology – the past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to the world of clinical veterinary electroretinography. An important indication for ERG recordings in the dog is the early diagnosis of progressive retinal atrophy, an inherited form of photoreceptor degeneration, analogous to retinitis pigmentosa in humans. In most of the 20 canine breeds in which the disease has been studied

Ron Ofri

2002-01-01

129

History, epidemiology, and clinical presentation of Peyronie's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peyronie's disease is a localized connective tissue disorder that involves the tunica albuginea of the penis. The formation of fibrotic plaques in the tunica albuginea and surrounding cavernosal tissue alters penile anatomy and can cause different degrees of bending and narrowing, as well as penile pain and erectile dysfunction. Although long recognized as an important clinical entity of the male

W J G Hellstrom

2003-01-01

130

Clinical presentation of canine pyometra and mucometra: a review.  

PubMed

Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) in the bitch can result in either pyometra, hematometra, or hydrometra, and many facets of these uterine diseases can make them difficult to differentiate. The conditions differ in their systemic effects, since pyometra, particularly closed-cervix pyometra, can be a life-threatening condition that must be recognized, managed, and treated expeditiously. Mucometra is an accumulation of sterile intraluminal mucoid fluid, hematometra is an accumulation of sterile, bloody fluid, and hydrometra is an accumulation of sterile, watery fluid; none of which have any significant systemic outward clinical signs. This paper will describe the definitions, signalment, historical findings, incidence, clinical signs, physical exam findings, and diagnostic findings in canine pyometra and mucometra, and hematometra and hydrometra. PMID:18513791

Pretzer, S D

2008-08-01

131

Applications of PET CT in clinical practice: Present and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide imaging and specially positron emission tomography (PET) has already demonstrated its benefits in three major medical subjects, i.e. neurology, cardiology and particularly clinical oncology. More recently the combination of PET and X-ray computed tomography (CT) as PET-CT led to a significant increment of the already large number of clinical applications of this imaging modality. This "anatomy-metabolic fusion" also known as Metabolic Imaging has its future assured if we can: (1) improve resolution reducing partial volume effect, (2) achieve very fast whole body imaging, (3) obtain accurate quantification of specific functions with higher contrast resolution and, if possible, (4) reduce exposure rates due to the unavoidable use of ionizing radiation.

Costa, Durval Campos

2007-02-01

132

Peyronie's disease: Epidemiology and clinical presentation of 134 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate epidemiological and clinical features of Peyronie's disease in an unselected group of patients not seen by\\u000a a urologist before. Patients and methods: A series of 134 consecutive cases with Peyronie's disease was evaluated regarding to the age at diagnosis, the symptoms\\u000a and signs of the disease, and the site and formation of the scar. The medical history

P. Perimenis; A. Athanasopoulos; K. Gyftopoulos; G. Katsenis; G. Barbalias

2001-01-01

133

AIDS: clinical and scientific issues past, present and future.  

PubMed

The time from the recognition that AIDS was an infectious disease, to the discovery of HIV as the causative agent and the identification of the first specific antiviral agent that showed some clinical benefit, was impressively short. Over the last few years it would appear that progress against AIDS has slowed down considerably. Neither new treatments nor vaccines have given much grounds for optimism and back to basics has been the main battle cry. However it is easy to overlook the tremendous improvements that have taken place in the management of HIV disease in the absence of a curative treatment. Many of the opportunistic infections that used to kill patients are not only treatable but are able to be treated prophylactically. This has altered the clinical spectrum of disease with many patients surviving several years with virtually no CD4 lymphocytes only to succumb to other HIV related disease such as non Hodgkins lymphoma. This review identifies the major advances that have occurred in our understanding of AIDS and identifies the major problems to be overcome in the next few years at both the clinical and basic levels. PMID:7552939

Dalgleish, A G; Moyle, G J; Easterbrook, P; Gazzard, B G

1995-09-01

134

Clinical Presentation of Patients with Symptomatic Anterior Hip Impingement  

PubMed Central

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is considered a cause of labrochondral disease and secondary osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, the clinical syndrome associated with FAI is not fully characterized. We determined the clinical history, functional status, activity status, and physical examination findings that characterize FAI. We prospectively evaluated 51 patients (52 hips) with symptomatic FAI. Evaluation of the clinical history, physical exam, and previous treatments was performed. Patients completed demographic and validated hip questionnaires (Baecke et al., SF-12, Modified Harris hip, and UCLA activity score). The average patient age was 35 years and 57% were male. Symptom onset was commonly insidious (65%) and activity-related. Pain occurred predominantly in the groin (83%). The mean time from symptom onset to definitive diagnosis was 3.1 years. Patients were evaluated by an average 4.2 healthcare providers prior to diagnosis and inaccurate diagnoses were common. Thirteen percent had unsuccessful surgery at another anatomic site. On exam, 88% of the hips were painful with the anterior impingement test. Hip flexion and internal rotation in flexion were limited to an average 97° and 9°, respectively. The patients were relatively active, yet demonstrated restrictions of function and overall health. These data may facilitate diagnosis of this disorder. Level of Evidence: Level II, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Knaus, Evan R.; Hunt, Devyani M.; Lesher, John M.; Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Prather, Heidi

2009-01-01

135

Nonspecific dizziness: frequency of supine hypertension associated with hypotensive reactions on head-up tilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical syndrome of supine hypertension associated with orthostatic hypotension (OH) in given individuals is recognized by specialists, but is underdiagnosed in the community. The objective of this study was to assess supine hypertension associated with hypotensive reactions on head-up tilt (SH-HRT) among patients evaluated for nonspecific dizziness. Consecutive patients with nonspecific dizziness were studied with a 10-min supine 30-min

J E Naschitz; R Mussafia-Priselac; Y Kovalev; N Zaigraykina; G Slobodin; N Elias; S Storch; I Rosner

2006-01-01

136

Bluish vomiting: a rare clinical presentation of poisoning.  

PubMed

Bluish vomiting is a symptom of poisoning that is rarely seen in Western emergency departments. Consequently, physicians are not aware of the diagnosis, complications, and treatment of this unusual form of intoxication. In this article, we report a case of bluish vomiting that occurred after an accidental ingestion of copper sulphate. In the discussion, we review three life-threatening causes of bluish vomiting (copper sulphate, boric acid, and paraquat ingestion), and we discuss their respective clinical manifestations, specificities, complications, and management therapies. PMID:24846181

Higny, J; Vanpee, D; Boulouffe, C

2014-08-01

137

[Subrenal coarctation of the aorta. Presentation of a clinical case].  

PubMed

Coarctation of abdominal aorta constitutes a rare group of vascular abnormalities, including segmental stenoses and extended hypoplasia below the restriction. Usually hypertension is the only clinical evidence. The natural history of the surgically untreated disease foresees a decline of life expectancy; while surgical operation permit an almost complete "restitutio ad integrum". The Authors report a case of coarctation of the abdominal aorta come to their observation whose particularly was determined by the absence of high blood pressure, the aortic stenoses being located under the renal arteries. PMID:1780082

Occhionorelli, S; Taddia, M C; Romano, D; Vasquez, G; Mari, F; Pollinzi, V; Cavagna, E; Saletti, A; Mascoli, F

1991-01-01

138

Chronic pelvic ischemia: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management.  

PubMed

Overactive bladder (OAB) and bladder pain syndrome (BPS) although common, are vaguely defined and difficult to diagnose and manage etiologies of storage-type lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The lack of optimal management options is a direct consequence of deficient understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying these conditions. These conditions are especially prevalent in females, and cumulative contemporary epidemiological, clinical and laboratory evidence implicates ischemia as one of the key players in the pathophysiologic foundation of both these disorders. Taken together they make up "the" diagnostic as well as therapeutic black-hole in urologic practice. Much akin to chronic ischemic heart disease, chronic ischemia-reperfusion has been shown to cause degenerative changes at cellular and subcellular level in the bladder mucosa, smooth muscle fibers, and vesical neural and microvascular structures leading to a hypersensitive, hyperactive bladder initially, which with time invariably progresses into a failed, fibrotic and pressurized bladder. Diagnosis and management of these diseases are currently symptom focused and remains a source of much frustration. Consideration of role of ischemia connotates hope and could lead to a paradigm shift in the management of these patients with a completely new therapeutic armamentarium attacking the pathology itself. The aim of the current review is to provide a clinical thought perspective on the etiology/pathophysiology of chronic pelvic ischemia and its role as a precursor to the aforementioned conditions, and shed some light upon the potential management strategies to consider. PMID:24988204

Kapoor, H; Gupta, E; Sood, A

2014-06-01

139

Acute, transient hemorrhagic hypotension does not aggravate structural damage or neurologic motor deficits but delays the long-term cognitive recovery following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives Posttraumatic hypotension is believed to increase morbidity and mortality in traumatically brain-injured patients. Using a clinically relevant model of combined traumatic brain injury with superimposed hemorrhagic hypotension in rats, the present study evaluated whether a reduction in mean arterial blood pressure aggravates regional brain edema formation, regional cell death, and neurologic motor/cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injury. Design Experimental prospective, randomized study in rodents. Setting Experimental laboratory at a university hospital. Subjects One hundred nineteen male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-385 g. Interventions Experimental traumatic brain injury of mild to moderate severity was induced using the lateral fluid percussion brain injury model in anesthetized rats (n = 89). Following traumatic brain injury, in surviving animals one group of animals was subjected to pressure-controlled hemorrhagic hypotension, maintaining the mean arterial blood pressure at 50-60 mm Hg for 30 mins (n = 47). The animals were subsequently either resuscitated with lactated Ringer’s solution (three times shed blood volume, n = 18) or left uncompensated (n = 29). Other groups of animals included those with isolated traumatic brain injury (n = 34), those with isolated hemorrhagic hypotension (n = 8), and sham-injured control animals receiving anesthesia and surgery alone (n = 22). Measurements and Main Results The withdrawal of 6-7 mL of arterial blood significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure by 50% without decreasing arterial oxygen saturation or Pao2. Brain injury induced significant cerebral edema (p < .001) in vulnerable brain regions and cortical tissue loss (p < .01) compared with sham-injured animals. Neither regional brain edema formation at 24 hrs postinjury nor the extent of cortical tissue loss assessed at 7 days postinjury was significantly aggravated by superimposed hemorrhagic hypotension. Brain injury-induced neurologic deficits persisted up to 20 wks after injury and were also not aggravated by the hemorrhagic hypotension. Cognitive dysfunction persisted for up to 16 wks postinjury. The superimposition of hemorrhagic hypotension significantly delayed the time course of cognitive recovery. Conclusions A single, acute hypotensive event lasting 30 mins did not aggravate the short- and long-term structural and motor deficits but delayed the speed of recovery of cognitive function associated with experimental traumatic brain injury.

Schutz, Christian; Stover, John F.; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Hoover, Rachel C.; Morales, Diego M.; Schouten, Joost W.; McMillan, Asenia; Soltesz, Kristie; Motta, Melissa; Spangler, Zachery; Neugebauer, Edmund; McIntosh, Tracy K.

2008-01-01

140

Pseudobulbar affect: the spectrum of clinical presentations, etiologies and treatments.  

PubMed

Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) consists of uncontrollable outbursts of laughter or crying inappropriate to the patient's external circumstances and incongruent with the patient's internal emotional state. Recent data suggest disruption of cortico-pontine-cerebellar circuits, reducing the threshold for motor expression of emotion. Disruption of the microcircuitry of the cerebellum itself may likewise impair its ability to act as a gate-control for emotional expression. Current evidence also suggests that serotonergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission play key roles. Although antidepressants have shown benefit, the supportive clinical data have often derived from small numbers of patients and unvalidated measures of PBA severity. Dextromethorphan/quinidine, the first FDA-approved PBA medication, is a novel therapy with antiglutamatergic actions. As life expectancy lengthens and the neurologic settings of PBA become more common, the need for treatment can be expected to increase. PMID:21539437

Miller, Ariel; Pratt, Hillel; Schiffer, Randolph B

2011-07-01

141

An unusual clinical presentation of rhabdomyomatous Wilms' tumor.  

PubMed

Wilms' tumor (WT) is the most common primary malignant renal tumor in children and usually presents as an abdominal mass. Rhabdomyomatous nephroblastoma is a rare histologic variant of WT. Herein we report an unusual case of WT with rhabdomyomatous differentiation presenting with hematuria and the passage of tissue via the urethra in a 2-year-old male. PMID:20156392

Leocádio, Dean E; Koyle, Martin A; Mangray, Shamlal; Caldamone, Anthony A

2010-02-01

142

Orthostatic hypotension: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic hypotension is characterized by low upright blood pressure levels and symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion. Whereas orthostatic hypotension is heterogeneous, correct pathophysiologic diagnosis is important because of therapeutic and prognostic considerations. Although therapy is not usually curative, it can be extraordinarily beneficial if it is individually tailored. Management of the Shy-Drager syndrome (multiple-system atrophy) remains a formidable challenge.

Jacob, G.; Robertson, D.

1995-01-01

143

Clinical Focus Presentations: Can You Talk the Talk?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When students are asked to do a class presentation about a disease affecting the human body, they often end up simply relaying facts and basic knowledge. This activity has very little relevancy to the actual tasks they would be completing in the medical field. This learning activity was designed to allow students to practice two different modes of real world communication: 1. Professional communication among colleagues 2. Bedside communication with patients. Students work in pairs to develop oral presentations that address these two very different set of skills. This resource includes guidelines for the activity, a rubric to assess student performance, and a suggested list of topics for the presentations.

PhD Cynthia J Miller (University of Louisville Physiology & Biophysics)

2011-01-01

144

Amphetamine, past and present - a pharmacological and clinical perspective  

PubMed Central

Amphetamine was discovered over 100 years ago. Since then, it has transformed from a drug that was freely available without prescription as a panacea for a broad range of disorders into a highly restricted Controlled Drug with therapeutic applications restricted to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. This review describes the relationship between chemical structure and pharmacology of amphetamine and its congeners. Amphetamine’s diverse pharmacological actions translate not only into therapeutic efficacy, but also into the production of adverse events and liability for recreational abuse. Accordingly, the balance of benefit/risk is the key challenge for its clinical use. The review charts advances in pharmaceutical development from the introduction of once-daily formulations of amphetamine through to lisdexamfetamine, which is the first d-amphetamine prodrug approved for the management of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The unusual metabolic route for lisdexamfetamine to deliver d-amphetamine makes an important contribution to its pharmacology. How lisdexamfetamine’s distinctive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile translates into sustained efficacy as a treatment for ADHD and its reduced potential for recreational abuse is also discussed.

Smith, Sharon L; Gosden, Jane; Nutt, David J

2013-01-01

145

Clinical studies in lysosomal storage diseases: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are made of over 40 diseases. Costly treatments have been developed. In this review, we consider the regulatory context in which LSDs studies are performed, and highlight design specificities and operational aspects. Orphan drug legislations in Europe and US were effective to stimulate LSDs drug development. However the flexibility of regulators to facilitate approval is inconsistent leading to worldwide differences in access to LSD treatments. Study designs are impacted because only few patients can be studied. This implies LSDs treatments need to demonstrate a large efficacy effect. Otherwise the level of evidence is difficult to demonstrate. While biomarkers could accelerate approvals, in LSDs none have been accepted as primary outcome of efficacy. Enrichment of study population can increase the chance of success, especially with clinical outcome. Adaptive designs are challenging. Innovative methods of analysis can be used, notably using a patient as his/her own control and responder analysis. Other characteristics include extension phases and patient registries to further data collection. Few patients are available per centers and more centers need to be initiated in multiple countries. This impacts time-lines and budget. For LSDs, development program should be individualized. Regulators flexibility will be essential to provide patients access to innovative treatments. PMID:24380125

Boudes, Pol F

2013-11-01

146

Clinical presentation and manual therapy for lower quadrant musculoskeletal conditions  

PubMed Central

Chronic lower quadrant injuries constitute a significant percentage of the musculoskeletal cases seen by clinicians. While impairments may vary, pain is often the factor that compels the patient to seek medical attention. Traumatic injury from sport is one cause of progressive chronic joint pain, particularly in the lower quarter. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms in different lower quadrant pain syndromes, such as lumbar spine related leg pain, osteoarthritis of the knee, and following acute injuries such as lateral ankle sprain and anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Proper management of lower quarter conditions should include assessment of balance and gait as increasing pain and chronicity may lead to altered gait patterns and falls. In addition, quantitative sensory testing may provide insight into pain mechanisms which affect management and prognosis of musculoskeletal conditions. Studies have demonstrated analgesic effects and modulation of spinal excitability with use of manual therapy techniques, with clinical outcomes of improved gait and functional ability. This paper will discuss the evidence which supports the use of manual therapy for lower quarter musculoskeletal dysfunction.

Courtney, Carol A; Clark, Jeffrey D; Duncombe, Alison M; O'Hearn, Michael A

2011-01-01

147

Clinical presentation and diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in Japan.  

PubMed

Distinguishing life-threatening toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) from brain lymphoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be difficult. Empiric anti-toxoplasmosis treatment is often initiated because of the reluctance in performing brain biopsies, which may delay the diagnosis and treatment of brain lymphoma in Japan. In this study, we retrospectively examined the clinical characteristics of 13 AIDS patients with TE in Japan, including magnetic resonance imaging and thallium 201 (201TI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings, cerebral spinal fluid analysis, serology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. All patients improved on anti-toxoplasmosis treatment. Of the 11 patients who underwent serological testing, 6 (55%) had a positive serological result. Of the 7 patients who underwent PCR testing, 3 (42.9%) had a positive PCR result. Nine of 11 patients with TE (81.8%) had multiple lesions. Analysis of the sites of TE lesions did not reveal a difference in site predilection between TE and brain lymphoma. Uptake was negative in all 9 patients who underwent 201Tl SPECT. The study findings suggest that toxoplasma serostatus and PCR may be used to discriminate TE from brain lymphoma. No focal accumulation of 201TI is strongly suggestive of TE in patients with AIDS in Japan. PMID:24929035

Sakamoto, Naoya; Maeda, Takuya; Mikita, Kei; Kato, Yasuyuki; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Suganuma, Akihiko; Imamura, Akifumi; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko; Ohnishi, Kenji; Ajisawa, Atsushi

2014-10-01

148

Parotid lymphoma: a review of clinical presentation and management.  

PubMed

Lymphoma of the parotid gland is a relatively rare occurrence among head and neck tumors. Presentation is indistinguishable from other swellings of the parotid gland; therefore, it is important to consider lymphoma in the differential diagnosis when examining parotid swellings. Parotid lymphomas are most likely to be B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of 1 of 3 types, which include follicular, marginal zone, and diffuse large B cell, although other histologic patterns have been described. We present a review of 3 patients with parotid lymphoma who presented to the University of Maryland Medical Center's Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with facial swelling. Two patients were diagnosed with follicular lymphoma, whereas the third was diagnosed with marginal zone lymphoma. PMID:24405648

Shum, Jonathan W; Emmerling, Max; Lubek, Joshua E; Ord, Robert A

2014-07-01

149

Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a group of underrecognized hematologic clonal malignancies with variable propensity for leukemic transformation that can present a diagnostic challenge because they lack hallmark symptoms. MDS can present with varying degrees of anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia, and at presentation can range from indolent to life threatening. The clinician should have a heightened level of suspicion when treating elderly patients and those with prior exposure to chemotherapy, radiation, and environmental toxins in the presence of unexplained cytopenias. Chronic anemia should not be considered a natural consequence of aging. Approximately 1 in 6 patients with unexplained anemia may have findings compatible with MDS, suggesting that MDS should be considered higher in the differential diagnosis. Primary care physicians are encouraged to conduct comprehensive evaluations to exclude non-MDS-related causes for persistent cytopenias. Patients with pancytopenia, bicytopenia, or any persistent and unexplained isolated cytopenia (and particularly unexplained macrocytic anemia) should be referred to a specialist to establish a diagnosis. PMID:22735753

Foran, James M; Shammo, Jamile M

2012-07-01

150

Clinical presentation and operative repair of hernia of Morgagni  

PubMed Central

A 77 year old woman who presented with an incarcerated hernia of Morgagni was successfully treated without complications. A Medline search (1996 to date) along with cross referencing was done to quantify the number of acute presentations in adults compared to children. Different investigating modalities—for example, lateral chest and abdominal radiography, contrast studies or, in difficult cases, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging—can be used to diagnose hernia of Morgagni. The favoured method of repair—laparotomy or laparoscopy—is also discussed. A total of 47 case reports on children and 93 case reports on adults were found. Fourteen percent of children (seven out of 47) presented acutely compared with 12% of adults (12 out of 93). Repair at laparotomy was the method of choice but if uncertain, laparoscopy would be a useful diagnostic tool before attempted repair. Laparoscopic repair was favoured in adults especially in non-acute cases.

Loong, T; Kocher, H

2005-01-01

151

The watermelon stomach: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The watermelon stomach syndrome is an increasingly recognized cause of persistent acute or occult gastrointestinal bleeding, typically in elderly women. This disorder often presents with severe iron deficiency anemia, and a variety of associated conditions including autoimmune disease, cirrhosis, achlorhydria, and hypochlorhydria. Diagnosis is made by the characteristic endoscopic appearance of visible linear watermelon-like vascular stripes in the antrum. Histology

Jeffrey E. Gretz; Sami R. Achem

1998-01-01

152

The Clinical Spectrum of Schwannomas Presenting With Visual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schwannomas (neurilemomas) are benign tumors that arise from Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. The most commonly involved nerves that cause neuro-ophthalmic manifestations are cranial nerves V and VIII. In this series of three women, schwannomas presented as intraconal masses that mimicked a cavernous hemangioma, a superior orbital mass transgressing the superior orbital fissure, and an expansive frontal lobe

Kimberly Peele Cockerham; Glenn C Cockerham; Richard Stutzman; Ahmed A Hidayat; Mark H Depper; Roger E Turbin; John S Kennerdell

1999-01-01

153

Renal calyceal microlithiasis: clinical presentation may precede sonographic evidence.  

PubMed

Calyceal microlithiasis (CM) is characterized by the sonographic finding of hyperechogenic spots less than 3 mm in diameter in renal calyces, and it may be the first step in calculus formation. From January 1992 to January 1998, we have observed 216 children with CM. The present report deals with 34 of them in whom renal sonography was negative at first observation and the diagnosis of CM was made only on repeated sonographic examinations. The presenting symptoms were recurrent abdominal pain, dysuria, and hematuria occurring alone or in combination. Half of the patients had hypercalciuria. A history of urolithiasis in at least one first- or second-degree relative was present in 85% of patients. Renal sonography was repeated after 6-22 months (mean 11) and showed unilateral CM in 16 subjects and bilateral in 18. The finding of CM may be preceded by a period of time when symptoms and/or signs are present while microcalculi are not yet detectable. Repeated ultrasound examinations may be needed not only in patients with hypercalciuria but also in those with recurrent abdominal pain, dysuria, and/or hematuria not associated with hypercalciuria. PMID:10500884

Polito, C; Cioce, F; La Manna, A; Maiello, R; Di Toro, R

1999-09-01

154

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: clinical presentation with varied forms of lesions.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare inherited skin disorder spread by HPV, with cases linked to chromosome X. It is characterized by hypo- or hyper-pigmented macular lesions, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and an early tendency to develop skin malignancies. We present a case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis with a variety of lesions such as multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and aggressive squamous cell carcinoma on the face. PMID:22068772

Sá, Naiana Bittencourt de; Guerini, Marina Besen; Barbato, Mariana Tremel; Di Giunta, Gabriella; Nunes, Daniel Holthausen

2011-01-01

155

Atypical clinical course subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as acute Encephalitis.  

PubMed

We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with loss of consciousness and gait instability. The electroencephalogram (EEG) showed generalized slowing with irregular activity and cerebral magnetic imaging revealed asymmetrical nonspecific signals on basal ganglia. His second electroencephalogram revealed periodical generalized high-voltage slow wave complexes which did not disappear with diazepam induction. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was considered and the diagnosis was confirmed with the identification of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings show that SSPE should be in mind in the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and highlight the significance of EEG in the diagnosis of unidentified cases. PMID:23248691

Komur, Mustafa; Arslankoylu, Ali E; Okuyaz, Cetin; Kuyucu, Necdet

2012-05-01

156

Diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic effect of Phyllanthus amarus.  

PubMed

Diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic effects of Phyllanthus amarus (syn. Phyllanthus niruri) on human subjects were assessed. Nine mild hypertensives (four of them also suffering from diabetes mellitus) were treated with a preparation of the whole plant of P. amarus for 10 days. Suitable parameters were studied in the blood and urine samples of the subjects, along with physiological profile and dietary pattern before and after the treatment period. Significant increase in 24 hr urine volume, urine and serum Na levels was observed. A significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in non-diabetic hypertensives and female subjects was noted. Blood glucose was also significantly reduced in the treated group. Clinical observations revealed no harmful side effects. These observations indicate that P. amarus is a potential diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic drug for humans. PMID:8786163

Srividya, N; Periwal, S

1995-11-01

157

Orthostatic Hypotension in Drug-Na?ve Patients with Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is known to be present even in patients with early Parkinson’s disease (PD). To affirm the presence of OH and find correlation between OH and other dysautonomic symptoms in PD, this study has done in newly-diagnosed PD patients. Methods Forty-five non-demented patients with no prior history of treatment for PD were recruited (17 men, 63.8 ± 10.1 years of age). All the patients were evaluated for OH before starting medications. Autonomic symptoms were evaluated with structured questionnaires. Clinical characteristics of PD were evaluated (median Hoehn and Yahr stage 2.0 (1–3), 1.3 ± 1.1 years of disease duration), and comorbid medical conditions that could affect blood pressure were also recorded. Results OH was prevalent, and eighteen patients (40%) showed orthostatic hypotension, and twenty-seven (60%) did not (normotensive group). There was no significant difference in demographic and clinical characteristics between groups. The presence or severity of symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in the OH group also not differed from those of the normotensive group. Conclusions OH was prevalent even in the early stage of PD, and was not related to presence or severity of any other symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. Our findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to OH from the early stage of disease.

Bae, Hyo-Jin; Cheon, Sang-Myung; Kim, Jae Woo

2011-01-01

158

A review of the clinical presentation of dientamoebiasis.  

PubMed

Among 750 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, Dientamoeba fragilis was detected at a prevalence of 5.2% and more common than Giardia intestinalis. Most infected patients presented with diarrhea and abdominal pain with symptoms greater than 2 weeks duration being common. Bacterial and viral causes of infection were excluded by routine microbiological techniques. Treatment of D. fragilis infection with either iodoquinol, paromomycin, or combination therapy resulted in the eradication of the parasite and complete resolution of symptoms. Treatment failure/relapses were associated only with the use of metronidazole. Nineteen patients were examined for pin worm, no Enterobius vermicularis, a proposed vector of transmission, were detected. Intermittent shedding of D. fragilis was found to be highly variable. These studies confirm the pathogenic nature of D. fragilis and we recommend laboratories routinely test for the organism. PMID:20348509

Stark, Damien; Barratt, Joel; Roberts, Tamalee; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John

2010-04-01

159

A Review of the Clinical Presentation of Dientamoebiasis  

PubMed Central

Among 750 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, Dientamoeba fragilis was detected at a prevalence of 5.2% and more common than Giardia intestinalis. Most infected patients presented with diarrhea and abdominal pain with symptoms greater than 2 weeks duration being common. Bacterial and viral causes of infection were excluded by routine microbiological techniques. Treatment of D. fragilis infection with either iodoquinol, paromomycin, or combination therapy resulted in the eradication of the parasite and complete resolution of symptoms. Treatment failure/relapses were associated only with the use of metronidazole. Nineteen patients were examined for pin worm, no Enterobius vermicularis, a proposed vector of transmission, were detected. Intermittent shedding of D. fragilis was found to be highly variable. These studies confirm the pathogenic nature of D. fragilis and we recommend laboratories routinely test for the organism.

Stark, Damien; Barratt, Joel; Roberts, Tamalee; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John

2010-01-01

160

Multiple Autoimmune Syndromes Associated with Psoriasis: A Rare Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune diseases are known to have association with each other but it is very rare to see multiple autoimmune diseases in one patient. The combination of at least three autoimmune diseases in the same patient is referred to as multiple autoimmune syndrome. The case we are reporting features multiple autoimmune syndrome with five different conditions. The patient had type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, systemic lupus erythematosus, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Psoriasis has rarely been reported previously under the spectrum of autoimmune syndrome. Although the relationship of autoimmune conditions with each other has been explored in the past, this case adds yet another dimension to the unique evolution of autoimmune pathologies. The patient presented with a combination of five autoimmune diseases, which makes it consistent type three multiple autoimmune syndromes with the addition of psoriasis. The current case is unique in this aspect that the combination of these five autoimmune disorders has never been reported in the past.

Masood, Sadia; Sajid, Sara; Jafferani, Asif; Tabassum, Saadia; Ansar, Sobia

2014-01-01

161

Solitary schwannoma of the sural nerve: An unusual clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Schwannomas may arise from any peripheral nerve containing Schwann cells. However, sural nerve schwannoma is extremely rare. In this study, a case of solitary schwannoma originating from the sural nerve in a 42-year-old male is presented. Physical examination revealed a 3-cm, elastic-hard, mobile, non-tender mass, while neurovascular examinations, including Tinel’s sign, were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an oval-shaped subcutaneous mass with iso-signal intensity relative to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted sequences. T2-weighted spectral presaturation with inversion recovery sequences showed higher signal intensity peripherally and lower signal intensity centrally, representing a target sign. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences demonstrated a marked central enhancement of the mass. The tumor was completely enucleated using an intracapsular technique. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a schwannoma, consisting mainly of Antoni A tissue. The patient had no evidence of local recurrence and no neurological deficit at the final follow-up. Although rare, schwannoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a well-defined, oval, subcutaneous mass in the posterior aspect of the lower leg.

YAMAMOTO, KOSUKE; NISHIO, JUN; YANO, SHINTARO; NAITO, MASATOSHI

2014-01-01

162

Occult breast cancer presenting as metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary: clinical presentation, immunohistochemistry, and molecular analysis.  

PubMed

We report a rare presentation of a 66-year-old female with diffuse metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary involving liver, lymphatic system and bone metastases. The neoplastic cells were positive for CK7 and OC125, while negative for CK20, thyroid transcription factor 1, CDX2, BRST-2, chromogranin, synaptophysin, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu). Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed no amplification of the HER2/neu gene. Molecular profiling reported a breast cancer origin with a very high confidence score of 98%. The absence of immunohistochemistry staining for ER, PR, and HER2/neu further classified her cancer as triple-negative breast cancer. Additional studies revealed high expression levels of topoisomerase (Topo) I, androgen receptor, and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit; the results were negative for thymidylate synthase, Topo II-a and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The patient was initially treated with a combination regimen of cisplatin and etoposide, and she experienced a rapid resolution of cancer-related symptoms. Unfortunately, her therapy was complicated by a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), which was thought to be related to cisplatin and high serum mucin. After recovery from the CVA, the patient was successfully treated with second-line chemotherapy based on her tumor expression profile. We highlight the role of molecular profiling in the diagnosis and management of this patient and the implication of personalized chemotherapy in this challenging disease. PMID:22379471

Wang, Jue; Talmon, Geoffrey; Hankins, Jordan H; Enke, Charles

2012-01-01

163

Occult Breast Cancer Presenting as Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of Unknown Primary: Clinical Presentation, Immunohistochemistry, and Molecular Analysis  

PubMed Central

We report a rare presentation of a 66-year-old female with diffuse metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary involving liver, lymphatic system and bone metastases. The neoplastic cells were positive for CK7 and OC125, while negative for CK20, thyroid transcription factor 1, CDX2, BRST-2, chromogranin, synaptophysin, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu). Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed no amplification of the HER2/neu gene. Molecular profiling reported a breast cancer origin with a very high confidence score of 98%. The absence of immunohistochemistry staining for ER, PR, and HER2/neu further classified her cancer as triple-negative breast cancer. Additional studies revealed high expression levels of topoisomerase (Topo) I, androgen receptor, and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit; the results were negative for thymidylate synthase, Topo II-a and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The patient was initially treated with a combination regimen of cisplatin and etoposide, and she experienced a rapid resolution of cancer-related symptoms. Unfortunately, her therapy was complicated by a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), which was thought to be related to cisplatin and high serum mucin. After recovery from the CVA, the patient was successfully treated with second-line chemotherapy based on her tumor expression profile. We highlight the role of molecular profiling in the diagnosis and management of this patient and the implication of personalized chemotherapy in this challenging disease.

Wang, Jue; Talmon, Geoffrey; Hankins, Jordan H.; Enke, Charles

2012-01-01

164

Graded Compression Stockings Prevent Post-spaceflight Orthostatic Hypotension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance is characterized by hypotension and presyncope in 20-30% of returning astronauts. Previous data from our laboratory suggests that this is largely a result of decreased venous return. Currently, NASA astronauts wear an anti-gravity suit (AGS) which consists of inflatable air bladders over the calves, thighs and abdomen, which are typically pressurized from 0.5 to 1.5 PSI (27 to 78 mmHg). ISS crew members sometimes wear Russian Kentavr suits which consist of laced compression shorts and gaiters, providing 30 mmHg nominally. While these garments are effective during reentry, there are a number of drawbacks that make them impractical for postflight use. We studied the ability of commercially available, custom fit, graded compression stockings (Jobst, 55 mmHg at ankle to 6 mmHg at top of thigh, 25 mmHg mean compression) to prevent postflight orthostatic intolerance, hypothesizing that these garments would prevent orthostatic intolerance following short duration space flight. Crew members from a single Space Shuttle flight were tilted to 80 degrees for 10 min while wearing the stockings (n=5 males) upon arrival at the clinic (2 hrs after landing). Hemodynamic data were compared to data from all crewmembers tilted (without countermeasures) since return to flight (n=9). Two-way, repeated measures ANOVA, using the entire tilt time curve (0-10 min) show that systolic blood pressure (SBP, group effect p=0.008), stroke volume (SV, group effect p=0.003), and cardiac output (CO, group effect p=0.004) were higher in crewmembers who wore the Jobst stockings. A one-way ANOVA comparing the last minute standing also showed that SV (p=0.001) and CO (p less than 0.001) were higher and SBP tended to be higher (p=0.06) in Jobst subjects compared to controls. Control subjects had a higher rate of presyncope than Jobst subjects (3/9 vs 0/5) during the tilt on landing day. Orthostatic hypotension continues to present following spaceflight, despite fluid loading and other countermeasures. This preliminary study shows that commercially available compression stockings may ameliorate this problem. These stockings are readily available, inexpensive, and can be worn for days following landing. We have observed similar protection against orthostatic intolerance in ground-based studies of hypovolemic test subjects. Further refinements to the design and compression of the stockings are in progress.

Platts, S. H.; Brown, A. K.; Locke, J.; Stenger, M. B.

2008-01-01

165

Sympathoinhibition and hypotension in carotid sinus hypersensitivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity is a known cause of syncope in humans. The condition is characterized by cardioinhibition and vasodepression, each to varying degrees. The extent and importance of sympathoinhibition has not been determined in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. This study reports on the extent of sympathoinhibition measured directly directly during carotid massage with and without atrioventricular sequential pacing, in a patient with symptomatic carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity. Carotid massage elicited asystole, hypotension and complete inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Carotid massage during atrioventricular pacing produced similar sympathoinhibition, but with minimal hypotension. Therefore, sympathoinhibition did not contribute importantly to the hypotension during carotid massage in the supine position in this patient. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relation of sympathoinhibition to hypotension in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity in the upright position.

Smith, M. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

1992-01-01

166

Adenosine triphosphate-induced arterial hypotension in the dog.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the potential use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a naturally occurring vasodilator, for producing profound intraoperative hypotension. Six mongrel dogs were anesthetized with morphine, nitrous oxide, and oxygen, paralyzed with pancuronium, and ventilated to a PaCO2 of 40. The mean arterial pressure was lowered to 40 mm Hg with an intravenous infusion of ATP (10.6 +/- 3.5 (SE) mg/kg/minute). Blood flow was determined using the radioactive microsphere technique. Measurements were made before and 20, 40, and 60 minutes after the induction of hypotension and after a 40-minute recovery. Infusion of ATP to lower the mean arterial pressure to 40 mm Hg resulted in a reduction of mean arterial pressure of 64% and an increase in heart rate of 11% accompanied by frequent cardiac arrhythmias. However, cardiac output decreased only 8%. Myocardial flow increased 137%, kidney flow decreased 71%, and masseter muscle flow increased 333%. A severe metabolic acidosis developed with a reduction in pH from control values of 7.39 +/- 0.03 to 7.16 +/- 0.03 after 60 minutes of hypotension. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, determined using the oxygen content of the sagittal sinus, was not affected. Cerebral hemisphere blood flow decreased 21%, caudate nucleus flow decreased 31%, and corpus callosum flow decreased 43%. Blood flow to the brain stem and cerebellum was unchanged. Hypotension was readily induced, maintained, and reversed using ATP, without apparent tachyphylaxis. However, the profound metabolic acidosis and cardiac arrhythmias that occurred may be serious contraindications to the use of this agent clinically. PMID:6483146

Boarini, D J; Kassell, N F; Sprowell, J A; Olin, J J; Coester, H C

1984-09-01

167

Hyoscine-N-butyl-bromide-induced hypotension and myocardial ischemia.  

PubMed

Hyoscine N-butyl bromide, also known as scopolamine, is a type of antimuscarinic agent. This drug is associated with numerous common side effects, including abdominal fullness, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision, skin flushing, tachycardia, decreased sweating, and salivation. The most unfavorable side effect is hemodynamic instability. In the present case, hypotension and acute myocardial infarction developed after intravenous hyoscine injection as a premedication therapy for colonoscopy. It was difficult to differentiate the cause-effect relationship between myocardial infarction and hypotension. Because both conditions were present under drug effects, we considered 2 possible diagnoses. One was coronary spasm with cardiogenic shock, and the other was myocardial ischemic sequela due to shock status. The latter diagnosis was confirmed after a series of examinations. PMID:24829823

Chen, Guan-Liang; Hsu, Wen-Hsiu

2013-01-01

168

Hyoscine-N-Butyl-Bromide-Induced Hypotension and Myocardial Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Hyoscine N-butyl bromide, also known as scopolamine, is a type of antimuscarinic agent. This drug is associated with numerous common side effects, including abdominal fullness, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision, skin flushing, tachycardia, decreased sweating, and salivation. The most unfavorable side effect is hemodynamic instability. In the present case, hypotension and acute myocardial infarction developed after intravenous hyoscine injection as a premedication therapy for colonoscopy. It was difficult to differentiate the cause-effect relationship between myocardial infarction and hypotension. Because both conditions were present under drug effects, we considered 2 possible diagnoses. One was coronary spasm with cardiogenic shock, and the other was myocardial ischemic sequela due to shock status. The latter diagnosis was confirmed after a series of examinations.

Hsu, Wen-Hsiu

2013-01-01

169

Cerebral venous thrombosis in post-lumbar puncture intracranial hypotension: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

The spectrum of presentation of intracranial hypotension is clinically perplexing. We report a case of 31-year-old post-partum woman who underwent an uneventful caesarean section under spinal anesthesia. From the second day of surgery she developed postural headache, the headache lost its postural character after few days. She then developed seizures and ataxic hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed features of severe intracranial hypotension in the brain and the spinal cord, and magnetic resonance venography showed cortical vein and partial superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Prothrombotic (etiological) work-up showed Protein C and S deficiency. She responded to anticoagulation therapy and recovered completely. On review of literature two distinct groups could be identified obstetric and non-obstetric. The non-obstetric group included patients who underwent diagnostic lumbar puncture, intrathecal injection of medications and epidural anesthesia for non-obstetric surgeries. Poor outcome and mortality was noted in non-obstetric group, while obstetric group had an excellent recovery. PMID:24627803

Kate, Mahesh P; Thomas, Bejoy; Sylaja, P N

2014-01-01

170

Severe Unexplained Relative Hypotension and Bradycardia in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

A precipitous episode of hypotension with concomitant bradycardia is a true medical emergency especially in patients with chronic hypertension and often requires hospitalization for detailed interrogation of the underlying causes. We describe herein a case of a patient with chronic labile hypertension who presented to the ED with a sharp drop in blood pressure and heart rate which was not simply explained by an antihypertensive overdose but more so by an aggregate of the patient's multiple chronic medical conditions. This report highlights the complexities of treating simultaneous hypotension and bradycardia and the importance of discerning the underpinnings of the causes including past medical issues, patient medications, and the timeline of key events leading to the issue at hand.

Norman, Candice; Hoelle, Robyn M.

2014-01-01

171

Cardiovascular autonomic functions & cerebral autoregulation in patients with orthostatic hypotension  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Patients of orthostatic hypotension may or may not have symptoms of the cerebral hypoperfusion despite fall in the blood pressure. The present study was done to quantify autonomic functions and cerebral autoregulation in patients of orthostatic hypotension with or without symptoms. Methods: The study was conducted in 15 patients of orthostatic hypotension and 15 age, sex matched control subjects. The sympathetic reactivity was measured by diastolic blood pressure response to handgrip test (?DBP in HGT) and cold pressor test (?DBP in CPT). The parasympathetic reactivity was measured by E:I ratio during deep breathing test (DBT) and Valsalva ratio (VR) during Valsalva maneuver. The cerebral autoregulation was computed from the changes in the cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular conductance and blood pressure measured during different time points during head-up tilt (HUT). Results: The sympathetic reactivity was lower in patients as compared to controls [?DBP in HGT: 10 (4 - 16) vs 18 (12 - 22) mmHg, P<0.01; ?DBP in CPT : 10 (4-12) vs 16 (10-20) mmHg, P<0.01]. The parasympathetic reactivity was also lower in patients as compared to controls. The sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity was comparable in the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The maximum fall in blood pressure during HUT was comparable between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (29.14 ± 10.94 vs 29.50 ± 6.39 mmHg), however, the percentage fall in the cerebral blood flow was significantly higher in the symptomatic (P<0.05) compared to asymptomatics. Interpretation & conclusions: Patients with orthostatic hypotension had deficits in sympathetic and parasympathetic control of cardiovascular system. Cerebral autoregulation was present in asymptomatic patients (increase in cerebrovascular conductance) during HUT while it was lost in symptomatic patients.

Khandelwal, Ekta; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Deepak, K.K.

2011-01-01

172

Orthostatic hypotension associated with baroreceptor dysfunction: treatment approaches.  

PubMed

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a relatively common heterogeneous and multifactorial disorder often caused by autonomic dysfunction. This condition has a deleterious impact on quality of life and contributes to higher mortality rates. Supine hypertension is very common in patients with autonomic failure, limits the use of pressor agents, and can result in end-organ damage. Current recommendations on the optimal management of these patients are based on expert opinion and poor-quality small cross-sectional studies including patients with primary autonomic failure and severe orthostatic hypotension. The authors present their treatment approach in 12 patients with disabling orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension not related to primary autonomic failure, presenting to a referral center over a 4-year period. The first step is to educate the patient about the pathophysiology and course of their disorder. Nonpharmacologic therapies and maneuvers are usually effective in relieving symptoms and preventing syncope. If needed, pharmacologic options such as fludrocortisones and midodrine are also available in patients with severe symptoms. Supine hypertension represents a challenge in the treatment of this condition. Therefore, elevation of the bed of the head and dosing of short-acting antihypertensive agents at bedtime is often indicated. PMID:24588814

Briasoulis, Alexandros; Silver, Adam; Yano, Yuichiro; Bakris, George L

2014-02-01

173

21 CFR 50.54 - Clinical investigations not otherwise approvable that present an opportunity to understand...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...52, or § 50.53, the clinical investigation may proceed only...finds and documents that the clinical investigation presents a...disciplines (for example: science, medicine, education, ethics, law...determines either: (1) That the clinical investigation in fact...

2010-04-01

174

21 CFR 50.54 - Clinical investigations not otherwise approvable that present an opportunity to understand...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...52, or § 50.53, the clinical investigation may proceed only...finds and documents that the clinical investigation presents a...disciplines (for example: science, medicine, education, ethics, law...determines either: (1) That the clinical investigation in fact...

2009-04-01

175

Evaluation and management of orthostatic hypotension.  

PubMed

Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mm Hg or a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg within three minutes of standing when compared with blood pressure from the sitting or supine position. It results from an inadequate physiologic response to postural changes in blood pressure. Orthostatic hypotension may be acute or chronic, as well as symptomatic or asymptomatic. Common symptoms include dizziness, lightheadedness, blurred vision, weakness, fatigue, nausea, palpitations, and headache. Less common symptoms include syncope, dyspnea, chest pain, and neck and shoulder pain. Causes include dehydration or blood loss; disorders of the neurologic, cardiovascular, or endocrine systems; and several classes of medications. Evaluation of suspected orthostatic hypotension begins by identifying reversible causes and underlying associated medical conditions. Head-up tilt-table testing can aid in confirming a diagnosis of suspected orthostatic hypotension when standard orthostatic vital signs are nondiagnostic; it also can aid in assessing treatment response in patients with an autonomic disorder. Goals of treatment involve improving hypotension without excessive supine hypertension, relieving orthostatic symptoms, and improving standing time. Treatment includes correcting reversible causes and discontinuing responsible medications, when possible. Nonpharmacologic treatment should be offered to all patients. For patients who do not respond adequately to nonpharmacologic treatment, fludrocortisone, midodrine, and pyridostigmine are pharmacologic therapies proven to be beneficial. PMID:21888303

Lanier, Jeffrey B; Mote, Matthew B; Clay, Emily C

2011-09-01

176

Demographic survey of pediatric patients presenting to a chiropractic teaching clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Considering the increasing use of alternative therapies for children, it is appropriate to determine the demographic profile of pediatric patients entering a chiropractic clinic. METHODS: Collection of demographic data including age, gender, condition at presentation, previous clinicians consulted and medical referral rates of pediatric patients presenting to a chiropractic teaching clinic between 2006 and 2010. RESULTS: Over-all, 20.5% of

Joyce Miller

2010-01-01

177

Ischemic Posterior Circulation Stroke: A Review of Anatomy, Clinical Presentations, Diagnosis, and Current Management  

PubMed Central

Posterior circulation strokes represent approximately 20% of all ischemic strokes (1, 2). In contrast to the anterior circulation, several differences in presenting symptoms, clinical evaluation, diagnostic testing, and management strategy exist presenting a challenge to the treating physician. This review will discuss the anatomical, etiological, and clinical classification of PC strokes, identify diagnostic pitfalls, and overview current therapeutic regimens.

Nouh, Amre; Remke, Jessica; Ruland, Sean

2014-01-01

178

Current concepts in orthostatic hypotension management.  

PubMed

Orthostatic hypotension is a condition commonly affecting the elderly and is often accompanied by disabling presyncopal symptoms, syncope and impaired quality of life. The pathophysiology of orthostatic hypotension is linked to abnormal blood pressure regulatory mechanisms and autonomic insufficiency. As part of its diagnostic evaluation, a comprehensive history and medical examination focused on detecting symptoms and physical findings of autonomic neuropathy should be performed. In individuals with substantial falls in blood pressure upon standing, autonomic function tests are recommended to detect impairment of autonomic reflexes. Treatment should always follow a stepwise approach with initial use of nonpharmacologic interventions including avoidance of hypotensive medications, high-salt diet and physical counter maneuvers. If these measures are not sufficient, medications such as fludrocortisone and midodrine can be added. The goals of treatment are to improve symptoms and to make the patient as ambulatory as possible instead of targeting arbitrary blood pressure values. PMID:23832761

Arnold, Amy C; Shibao, Cyndya

2013-08-01

179

Clinical Implications of Pneumococcal Serotypes: Invasive Disease Potential, Clinical Presentations, and Antibiotic Resistance  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae can asymptomatically colonize the nasopharynx and cause a diverse range of illnesses. This clinical spectrum from colonization to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) appears to depend on the pneumococcal capsular serotype rather than the genetic background. According to a literature review, serotypes 1, 4, 5, 7F, 8, 12F, 14, 18C, and 19A are more likely to cause IPD. Although serotypes 1 and 19A are the predominant causes of invasive pneumococcal pneumonia, serotype 14 remains one of the most common etiologic agents of non-bacteremic pneumonia in adults, even after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction. Serotypes 1, 3, and 19A pneumococci are likely to cause empyema and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Serotype 1 pneumococcal meningitis is prevalent in the African meningitis belt, with a high fatality rate. In contrast to the capsule type, genotype is more closely associated with antibiotic resistance. CC320/271 strains expressing serotype 19A are multidrug-resistant (MDR) and prevalent worldwide in the era of PCV7. Several clones of MDR serotype 6C pneumococci emerged, and a MDR 6D clone (ST282) has been identified in Korea. Since the pneumococcal epidemiology of capsule types varies geographically and temporally, a nationwide serosurveillance system is vital to establishing appropriate vaccination strategies for each country.

Nahm, Moon H.; Moseley, M. Allen

2013-01-01

180

Genetics and molecular biology of hypotension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major strides in the molecular biology of essential hypertension are currently underway. This has tended to obscure the fact that a number of inherited disorders associated with low blood pressure exist and that these diseases may have milder and underrecognized phenotypes that contribute importantly to blood pressure variation in the general population. This review highlights some of the gene products that, if abnormal, could cause hypotension in some individuals. Diseases due to abnormalities in the catecholamine enzymes are discussed in detail. It is likely that genetic abnormalities with hypotensive phenotypes will be as interesting and diverse as those that give rise to hypertensive disorders.

Robertson, D.

1994-01-01

181

Cough headache secondary to spontaneous intracranial hypotension complicated by cerebral venous thrombosis.  

PubMed

Cough headache may be the clinical manifestation, sometimes isolated, of an intracranial disease. There are several possible causes of secondary cough headache. The hypothesis that cough headache may be the expression of spontaneous intracranial hypotension has been advanced only recently. In fact, this would represent an exception to the rule that cough headache is generally secondary to conditions leading to an increase in intracranial pressure and/or volume. We report and discuss a case of cough headache secondary to spontaneous intracranial hypotension in an otherwise healthy 59-year-old man. The condition was complicated by cerebral venous thrombosis. PMID:21904865

Ferrante, T; Latte, L; Abrignani, G; Russo, M; Manzoni, G C; Torelli, P

2012-04-01

182

Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Assessment guidelines based on clinical presentation to a specialty clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 143 adults presenting for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) evaluation, 46 (32%) clearly met diagnostic criteria, 46 (32%) clearly did not meet diagnostic criteria, and another 51 (36%) with current ADHD-like features did not meet criteria due to either a lack of childhood history and\\/or complicating severe psychiatric or substance abuse comorbidity. The three groups were similar in demographics, psychiatric

Peter Roy-Byrne; Leonard Scheele; John Brinkley; Nicholas Ward; Connie Wiatrak; Joan Russo; Brenda Townes; Christopher Varley

1997-01-01

183

[Significance, pathomechanism and prevention of risk factors in first-dose-hypotension in the therapeutic use of ACE inhibitors].  

PubMed

A number of megatrials gave convincing evidence concerning the beneficial effect of ACE inhibitors in acute myocardial infarction. But according to the trials mentioned above, the phenomenon of first dose hypotension is unfavourable by all means, especially in the subgroup of patients with borderline hypotension. The arising question is whether the first dose hypotension is an inevitable concomitant of the ACE inhibitor therapy. The authors review in details the results of experiments and clinical experiences concerning the pathomechanism of first dose hypotension, as well as the potential explanation of the lack of this phenomenon as regards perindopril therapy. The authors render account of their experiences gained with reference to administrating perindopril to 78 patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:9454106

Moser, G; Együd, F

1998-01-01

184

Design of documentation for handheld ergonomics: presenting clinical evidence at the point of care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical doctors require high quality clinical evidence at the point of care in order to support their decision-making. Presentation of clinical evidence on handheld devices, and in a timely fashion, requires an integrated approach to documentation and ergonomic design. This paper reports on results from The Bringing Evidence to the Point of Care Project at the University of Toronto, concerning

Michelle Graham; Mark H. Chignell; Harumi Takeshita

2002-01-01

185

NCI Spanish-Language Presentations on Clinical Trials | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

These three PowerPoint presentations, which are in Spanish, provide a basic overview of clinical trials. They can be used by community leaders, advocates and health care providers when discussing clinical trials with Spanish-speaking audiences who are not familiar with the topic.

186

Profiling the clinical presentation of diagnostic characteristics of a sample of symptomatic TMD patients  

PubMed Central

Background Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients might present a number of concurrent clinical diagnoses that may be clustered according to their similarity. Profiling patients’ clinical presentations can be useful for better understanding the behavior of TMD and for providing appropriate treatment planning. The aim of this study was to simultaneously classify symptomatic patients diagnosed with a variety of subtypes of TMD into homogenous groups based on their clinical presentation and occurrence of comorbidities. Methods Clinical records of 357 consecutive TMD patients seeking treatment in a private specialized clinic were included in the study sample. Patients presenting multiple subtypes of TMD diagnosed simultaneously were categorized according to the AAOP criteria. Descriptive statistics and two-step cluster analysis were used to characterize the clinical presentation of these patients based on the primary and secondary clinical diagnoses. Results The most common diagnoses were localized masticatory muscle pain (n?=?125) and disc displacement without reduction (n?=?104). Comorbidity was identified in 288 patients. The automatic selection of an optimal number of clusters included 100% of cases, generating an initial 6-cluster solution and a final 4-cluster solution. The interpretation of within-group ranking of the importance of variables in the clustering solutions resulted in the following characterization of clusters: chronic facial pain (n?=?36), acute muscle pain (n?=?125), acute articular pain (n?=?75) and chronic articular impairment (n?=?121). Conclusion Subgroups of acute and chronic TMD patients seeking treatment can be identified using clustering methods to provide a better understanding of the clinical presentation of TMD when multiple diagnosis are present. Classifying patients into identifiable symptomatic profiles would help clinicians to estimate how common a disorder is within a population of TMD patients and understand the probability of certain pattern of clinical complaints.

2012-01-01

187

Clinical presentation of leptospirosis: a retrospective study of 201 patients in a metropolitan city of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionLeptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide importance. The disease is endemic in Brazil. This study was conducted to describe the clinical and laboratory presentation of leptospirosis in a metropolitan city of Brazil.

Elizabeth F. Daher; Rafael S. A. Lima; Geraldo B. Silva Júnior; Eveline C. Silva; Nahme N. N. Karbage; Raquel S. Kataoka; Paulo C. Carvalho Júnior; Max M. Magalhães; Rosa M. S. Mota; Alexandre B. Libório

2010-01-01

188

Clinical presentation of GB-C virus infection in drug abusers with chronic hepatitis C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Recently, the hepatitis GB-C virus (GBV-C) has been identified as another virus potentially causing chronic hepatitis. Although high rates of coinfection are emerging in drug addicts with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, no detailed data on clinical presentation are available. Therefore, co-infection was sought in hepatitis C virus patients to determine the impact of GB-C virus on clinical presentation.Methods:

Tobias Goeser; Stefanie Seipp; Rafael Wahl; Hubert M. Müller; Wolfgang Stremmel; Lorenz Theilmann

1997-01-01

189

Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome as a Cause for Infant Hypotension  

PubMed Central

Infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) may present to the emergency department (ED) with vomiting and hypotension. A previously healthy, 5-month-old male presented with vomiting and hypotension 2 to 3 hours after eating squash. The patient was resuscitated with intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and admitted for presumed sepsis. No source of infection was ever found and the patient was discharged. The patient returned 8 days later with the same symptoms after eating sweet potatoes; the diagnosis of FPIES was made during this admission. Two additional ED visits occurred requiring hydration after new food exposure. FPIES should be considered in infants presenting with gastrointestinal complaints and hypotension. A dietary history, including if a new food has been introduced in the last few hours, may help facilitate earlier recognition of the syndrome.

Coates, Ryan W; Weaver, Kevin R; Lloyd, Rezarta; Ceccacci, Nicole; Greenberg, Marna Rayl

2011-01-01

190

Clinical presentations and imaging findings of neuroblastoma beyond abdominal mass and a review of imaging algorithm  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in childhood. The most common clinical presentation of this tumour is abdominal mass. However, affected children may have various clinical presentations as a result of disseminated metastatic disease or associated paraneoplastic syndromes at the time of diagnosis. In this article we have outlined the imaging findings in seven patients with “extra-abdominal” presentation of neuroblastoma and the pitfalls in making the correct diagnosis. The purpose of this pictorial review is to alert the general radiologist to the possible presentations of this common childhood malignancy to derive early detection and diagnosis.

Chu, C M; Rasalkar, D D; Hu, Y J; Cheng, F W T; Li, C K; Chu, W C W

2011-01-01

191

Atypical clinical presentations of the A3243G mutation, usually associated with MELAS.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a clinical syndrome associated with mitochondrial abnormalities. In approximately 80% of patients, the syndrome is associated with the A3243G mutation. However, it has been realized that the A3243G mutation is not uncommon in the general population and is found in many patients with clinical presentations other than MELAS. We present four patients who presented with rhabdomyolysis, muscle fatigue, external ophthalmoplegia and myoclonic jerks respectively. These patients were all found to have the A3243G mutation on muscle biopsy. These patients illustrate the variety of presentations associated with A3243G mutation. PMID:22747555

Blum, S; Robertson, T; Klingberg, S; Henderson, R D; McCombe, P

2011-02-01

192

Pathophysiological basis of orthostatic hypotension in autonomic failure  

PubMed Central

In patients with autonomic failure orthostatic hypotension results from an impaired capacity to increase vascular resistance during standing. This fundamental defect leads to increased downward pooling of venous blood and a consequent reduction in stroke volume and cardiac output that exaggerates the orthostatic fall in blood pressure. The location of excessive venous blood pooling has not been established so far, but present data suggest that the abdominal compartment and perhaps leg skin vasculature are the most likely candidates. To improve the orthostatic tolerance in patients with autonomic failure, protective measures that reduce excessive orthostatic blood pooling have been developed and evaluated. These measures include physical counter-manoeuvres and abdominal compression.

Smit, Adrianus A J; Halliwill, John R; Low, Phillip A; Wieling, Wouter

1999-01-01

193

[Orthostatic hypotension. Case report of the Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome].  

PubMed

A case of a 71-year-old woman with idiopathic orthostatic hypotension is presented. Several diagnostic procedures which can detect sympathetic pathway lesion are reported. The value of blood pressure measurement and heart rate response to the supine and standing position deep breath, Valsalva maneuver and cold pressor test in differential diagnosis are emphasized. The venoconstriction, venous reflexes and tyramine tests are described, as well. The authors favour an individual therapeutic approach with no limitation of mineralocorticoid dosage. Nonpharmacological measures, such as an increased salt intake, elastic support stockings and swimming are highly recommended. PMID:8170276

Bagatin, J; Sardeli?, S; Rumboldt, Z; Pivac, N; Simuni?, M; Poli?, S

1993-01-01

194

Severe Rift Valley Fever May Present with a Characteristic Clinical Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an emerging pathogen that is transmitted in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Egypt, and the Arabian peninsula. Outbreaks of RVF, like other diseases caused by hemorrhagic fever viruses, typically present in locations with very limited health resources, where initial diagnosis must be based only on history and physical examination. Although general signs and symptoms of human RVF have been documented, a specific clinical syndrome has not been described. In 2007, a Kenyan outbreak of RVF provided opportunity to assess acutely ill RVF patients and better delineate its presentation and clinical course. Our data reveal an identifiable clinical syndrome suggestive of severe RVF, characterized by fever, large-joint arthralgia, and gastrointestinal complaints and later followed by jaundice, right upper-quadrant pain, and delirium, often coinciding with hemorrhagic manifestations. Further characterization of a distinct RVF clinical syndrome will aid earlier detection of RVF outbreaks and should allow more rapid implementation of control.

Kahlon, Summerpal S.; Peters, Clarence J.; LeDuc, James; Muchiri, Eric M.; Muiruri, Samuel; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Breiman, Robert F.; Clinton White, A.; King, Charles H.

2010-01-01

195

Neurosarcoidosis: clinical review of a disorder with challenging inpatient presentations and diagnostic considerations.  

PubMed

Neurosarcoidosis is frequently on the differential diagnosis for neurohospitalists. The diagnosis can be challenging due to the wide variety of clinical presentations as well as the limitations of noninvasive diagnostic testing. This article briefly touches on systemic features that may herald suspicion of this disorder and then expands in depth on the neurological clinical presentations. Common patterns of neurological presentations are reviewed and unusual presentations are also included. A discussion of noninvasive testing is undertaken, exploring dilemmas that may be encountered with sensitivity and specificity. Drawing from a broad range of clinical clues and diagnostic data, a systematic approach of pursuing a potential tissue diagnosis is then highlighted. Correctly diagnosing neurosarcoidosis is critical, as treatment with appropriate immunosuppression protocols can then be initiated. Additionally, treatment of refractory disease, the trend toward exploring targeted immunomodulation options, and other therapeutic issues are discussed. PMID:24707339

Hoyle, J Chad; Jablonski, Courtney; Newton, Herbert B

2014-04-01

196

[Acquired factor V deficiency: a rare bleeding disorder with variable clinical presentations].  

PubMed

Acquired anti-factor V (FV) antibodies are uncommon and the majority of reported cases are idiopathic or associated with pregnancy, malignancy, autoimmune diseases or the use of bovine thrombin preparations. Clinical presentation is highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening bleeding and the optimal treatment is not clearly established. We here report two patients with different clinical presentations. The first patient presented with an acute severe rectal bleeding related to acquired FV deficiency and recurrent colon cancer while the second patient was asymptomatic with a FV inhibitor detected during a routine blood testing. We discuss treatment modalities that are not consensual. PMID:20638758

Alcantara, M; Ducastelle, S; Rugeri, L; Dargaud, Y

2011-05-01

197

Severe and isolated headache associated with hypertension as unique clinical presentation of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a potentially reversible clinicoradiologic syndrome characterized by headache, mental confusion, visual disturbances and seizures associated with posterior cerebral lesions on radiological imaging. Prompt treatment of this condition is mandatory to avoid severe irreversible complications. Case presentation We report a 9-year-old boy with arterial hypertension and headache as unique clinical presentation of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Conclusions Severe and isolated headache associated with arterial hypertension can be the unique clinical presentation of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. This syndrome must be considered even in absence of all typical symptoms to prevent the progression of a potentially life threatening condition.

2014-01-01

198

Endothelin 1 levels in relation to clinical presentation and outcome of Henoch Schonlein purpura  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Henoch Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a common vasculitis of small vessels whereas endothelin-1 (ET-1) is usually reported elevated in vasculities and systematic inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ET-1 levels are correlated with the clinical presentation and the outcome of HSP. METHODS: The study sample consisted of thirty consecutive patients with HSP. An equal

S Fessatou; P Nicolaidou; D Gourgiotis; H Georgouli; K Douros; M Moustaki; A Fretzayas

2008-01-01

199

Diagnoses and Presenting Symptoms in an Infant Psychiatry Clinic: Comparison of Two Diagnostic Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To present data from a general infant psychiatry clinic, including range and frequency of presenting symptoms, relationship between symptoms and diagnoses, and comparison of two diagnostic systems, DSM-IV and Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC: 0-3). Method: A…

Frankel, Karen A.; Boyum, Lisa A.; Harmon, Robert J.

2004-01-01

200

Multimedia platform for authoring and presentation of clinical rounds in cardiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a multimedia presentation platform that allows retrieving data from any digital and analog modalities and to prepare a script of a clinical presentation in an XML format. This system was designed for cardiac multi-disciplinary conferences involving different cardiology specialists as well as cardiovascular surgeons. A typical presentation requires preparation of summary reports of data obtained from the different investigations and imaging techniques. An XML-based scripting methodology was developed to allow for preparation of clinical presentations. The image display program uses the generated script for the sequential presentation of different images that are displayed on pre-determined presentation settings. The ability to prepare and present clinical conferences electronically is more efficient and less time consuming than conventional settings using analog and digital documents, films and videotapes. The script of a given presentation can further be saved as part of the patient record for subsequent review of the documents and images that supported a given medical or therapeutic decision. This also constitutes a perfect documentation method for surgeons and physicians responsible of therapeutic procedures that were decided upon during the clinical conference. It allows them to review the relevant data that supported a given therapeutic decision.

Ratib, Osman M.; Allada, Vivekanand; Dahlbom, Magdalena; Lapstra, Lorelle

2003-05-01

201

Osteosarcoma of the Maxilla: A Rare Case with Unusual Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma (OS) is a malignant mesenchymal tumor, which rarely occurs in the maxilla. Although variable histologic and radiographic features of OS have been reported previously, in the majority of the cases painful swelling of the jaw is mentioned as the first clinical presentation. Furthermore, early diagnosis and wide surgical resection of the tumor are the most important determinant factors of prognosis. Therefore, the unusual clinical presentations of OS should be considered meticulously to expedite the diagnosis process. We describe a case of OS of the maxilla with extremely unusual presenta-tion in a 42-year-old female, that was initially designated as “epulis fissuratum”. Here, we highlight the importance of com-bining the clinical, radiographic and histopathologic examination to obtain a definitive diagnosis and also the significance ofearly effective surgical intervention in evaluation of pathologic lesions.

Amini Shakib, Pouyan; Foroughi, Ramin; Seyedmajidi, Maryam

2013-01-01

202

Radial neck fracture presenting to a Chiropractic clinic: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient that presented with a Mason type II radial neck fracture approximately three weeks following a traumatic injury. Clinical features A 59-year old female presented to a chiropractic practice with complaints of left lateral elbow pain distal to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and pain provocation with pronation, supination and weight bearing. The complaint originated three weeks prior following a fall on her left elbow while hiking. Intervention and outcome Plain film radiographs of the left elbow and forearm revealed a transverse fracture of the radial neck with 2mm displacement--classified as a Mason Type II fracture. The patient was referred for medical follow-up with an orthopedist. Conclusion This report discusses triage of an elbow fracture presenting to a chiropractic clinic. This case study demonstrates the thorough clinical examination, imaging and decision making that assisted in appropriate patient diagnosis and management.

2014-01-01

203

Limited surgical treatment of suspected necrotizing fasciitis of the upper extremity with a benign clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly evolving, potentially fatal infection. Current recommendations advocate antibiotic administration and early aggressive surgical debridement. Aggressive surgery is associated with significant morbidity, leaving patients with substantial tissue loss and complex wounds. A case of suspected necrotizing fasciitis treated with minimal surgery is described. A previously healthy 48-year-old man presented with increased erythema, swelling and blistering of his left upper extremity. Despite a benign systemic clinical presentation, the hand and forearm were suspicious for necrotizing fasciitis, prompting surgical treatment. Surgical exploration found a significant amount of intradermal and subdermal clear fluid. It was decided to limit the amount of debridement. The diagnosis was Wells syndrome, eosinophilic cellulitis. Treated with steroids, the wounds healed uneventfully. It is important to consider the complete clinical picture before aggressive surgical treatment. A negative history for diabetes, atypical clinical presentation and benign operative findings are suggestive of a more benign diagnosis.

Gander, Brian; Kaye, Marc; Wollstein, Ronit

2012-01-01

204

Characterization of the hypotensive effects of glucagon-like peptide-2 in anesthetized rats.  

PubMed

Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a proglucagon-derived peptide released from enteroendocrine cells and neurons. We recently reported that GLP-2 induced hypotension. In the present study, we characterized the mechanisms of GLP-2-induced hypotension. GLP-2 was administered peripherally or centrally to male Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane and ?-chloralose. The rats were vagotomized or systemically pretreated with atropine, prazosin, or propranolol before the GLP-2 administration. The central and peripheral administration of GLP-2 reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). The maximum change of MAP (maximum ?MAP) was reduced by vagotomy or prazosin, but not propranolol. The effects of the central but not peripheral administration of GLP-2 were reduced by atropine. These results suggest that GLP-2 modulates vagal afferent inputs and inhibits the sympathetic nervous system in the brain to induce hypotension. PMID:23867714

Iwai, Takashi; Kaneko, Maki; Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

2013-08-29

205

Norepinephrine Precursor Therapy in Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—In patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH), the availability of the sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) in the synaptic cleft is insufficient to maintain blood pressure while in the standing posture. Methods and Results—We determined the effect of oral administration of the synthetic amino acid L-threo-3,4- dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), which is decarboxylated to NE by the enzyme L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (L-AADC)

Horacio Kaufmann; Daniela Saadia; Andrei Voustianiouk; David S. Goldstein; Courtney Holmes; Melvin D. Yahr; Rachel Nardin; Roy Freeman

2010-01-01

206

Interval between clinical presentation of necrotizing enterocolitis and bowel perforation in neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To define the interval between clinical presentation of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and bowel perforation in neonates.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Charts of neonates with discharge diagnosis of NEC (n = 124) from our NICU during 2004–2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data were collected. Acute episode of NEC\\u000a was defined as the interval between clinical presentations to resumption of enteral feeds. Neonates are followed, as a standard

Tasnim A. NajafNeeta; Neeta A. Vachharajani; Brad W. WarnerAkshaya; Akshaya J. Vachharajani

2010-01-01

207

Attending rounds: A patient with intradialytic hypotension.  

PubMed

Intradialytic hypotension is the most common adverse event that occurs during the hemodialysis procedure. Despite advances in machine technology, it remains a difficult management issue. The pathophysiology of intradialytic hypotension and measures to reduce its frequency are discussed. An accurate assessment of dry weight is crucial in all patients on dialysis and especially those patients prone to intradialytic hypotension. The presence of edema and hypertension has recently been shown to be a poor predictor of volume overload. Noninvasive methods to assess volume status, such as whole body and segmental bioimpedance, hold promise to more accurately assess fluid status. Reducing salt intake is key to limiting interdialytic weight gain. A common problem is that patients are often told to restrict fluid but not salt intake. Lowering the dialysate temperature, prohibiting food ingestion during hemodialysis, and midodrine administration are beneficial. Sodium modeling in the absence of ultrafiltration modeling should be abandoned. There is not enough data on the efficacy of l-carnitine to warrant its routine use. PMID:24385517

Reilly, Robert F

2014-04-01

208

Intracranial Hypotension with Multiple Complications: An Unusual Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background. Undiagnosed intracranial hypotension can result in several complications including subdural hematoma (SDH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), dural venous sinuses thrombosis (CVT), cranial nerve palsies, and stupor resulting from sagging of the brain. It is rare to see all the complications in one patient. Furthermore, imaging of the brain vasculature may reveal incidental asymptomatic small aneurysms. Given the combination of these imaging findings and a severe headache, the patients are often confused to have a primary subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case Report. We present a patient with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) who had an incidental ophthalmic artery aneurysm on MR imaging, and this presentation led to coiling of the aneurysm. The key aspect in the history “postural headaches” was missed, and this led to life threatening complications and unnecessary interventions. Revisiting the history and significant improvement in symptoms following an epidural blood patch resulted in the diagnosis of SIH. Conclusion. We strongly emphasize that appropriate history taking is the key in the diagnosis of SIH and providing timely treatment with an epidural blood patch could prevent potentially life threatening complications.

Moonis, Majaz

2013-01-01

209

Aetiology and clinical presentations of auditory processing disorders—a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auditory processing disorders may have detrimental consequences on a child's life, if undiagnosed and untreated. We review causes of auditory processing disorders in order to raise clinical awareness. Auditory processing disorders may present against a background of neurological disease or developmental disorders, as well as in isolation. Clinicians need to be aware of potential causes and implications of auditory processing

D-E Bamiou; F E Musiek; L M Luxon

2001-01-01

210

Prenatal diagnosis of pulmonary atresia: impact on clinical presentation and early outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The impact of prenatal diagnosis on morbidity and mortality for certain types of congenital heart disease (obstructive left heart lesions and transposition of the great arteries) is well established. No data are available for lesions with duct dependent pulmonary flow. We aimed to assess the impact of prenatal diagnosis of pulmonary atresia on clinical presentation and neonatal outcome.Method: Fifty-eight

Aphrodite Tzifa; Claire Barker; Shane M Tibby; John M Simpson

2007-01-01

211

Clinical presentation of non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteraemia in Malawian children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the clinical presentation and outcome of 299 Malawian children with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) bacteraemia and no evidence of focal sepsis, admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Blantyre, over a 26-month period (February 1996–April 1998). A peak incidence during the rainy season was noted. Salmonella typhimurium (79%) and S. enteritidis (13%) were the commonest isolates. For children aged

Stephen M. Graham; Amanda L. Walsh; Elizabeth M. Molyneux; Amos J. Phiri; Malcolm E. Molyneux

2000-01-01

212

Age-related differences in the clinical presentation of food-induced anaphylaxis  

PubMed Central

Food-induced anaphylaxis may be more difficult to recognize in younger children. We describe age-related patterns in the clinical presentation of children with anaphylaxis, which may facilitate the early recognition and treatment of this potentially life-threatening condition.

Rudders, Susan A.; Banerji, Aleena; Clark, Sunday; Camargo, Carlos A.

2010-01-01

213

Glomerular filtration rate estimated by cystatin C among different clinical presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimates from serum creatinine has not been generalizable across all populations. Cystatin C has been proposed as an alternative marker for estimating GFR. The objective of this study was to compare cystatin C with serum creatinine for estimating GFR among different clinical presentations. Cystatin C and serum creatinine levels were obtained from adult patients (n=460) during

A D Rule; E J Bergstralh; J M Slezak; J Bergert; T S Larson

2006-01-01

214

Impact of HFE genetic testing on clinical presentation of hereditary hemochromatosis: new epidemiological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism in Northern European populations. The discovery of a candidate gene in 1996 (HFE), and of its main mutation (C282Y), has radically altered the way to diagnose this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the HFE gene discovery on the clinical presentation and

Virginie Scotet; Gérald Le Gac; Marie-Christine Mérour; Anne-Yvonne Mercier; Brigitte Chanu; Chandran Ka; Catherine Mura; Jean-Baptiste Nousbaum; Claude Férec

2005-01-01

215

Clinical hyperthermia of prostate cancer using magnetic nanoparticles: Presentation of a new interstitial technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the technique of magnetic fluid hyperthermia can be used for minimally invasive treatment of prostate cancer. This paper presents the first clinical appli- cation of interstitial hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles in locally recurrent prostate cancer. Treatment planning was carried out using computerized tomography (CT) of the prostate. Based on the

M. Johannsen; U. Gneveckow; L. Eckelt; A. Feussner; N. WaldÖFner; R. Scholz; S. Deger; P. Wust; S. A. Loening; A. Jordan

2005-01-01

216

[Orthostatic hypotension: 2nd part. Epidemiology, complications and treatments].  

PubMed

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a rather common phenomenon in clinical practice. It may occur in 5-10 % of normal individuals, but its prevalence increases with age and various pathologies, so that it may rise above 35 % in certain subgroups of patients. OH is associated with various comorbidities, in particular cardio-cerebro-vascular accidents and falls (especially in the elderly), and may even increase mortality. It is, however, difficult to determine whether OH is simply a marker of frailty or whether it is really a risk factor. OH treatment involves physical manoeuvres or medications, which aim at inducing a peripheral vasoconstriction (midodrine, etilefrine) or an increase of circulating blood volume (9-alpha-fluohydrocortisone). However, their use should be cautious, because of a risk of arterial hypertension in supine position. PMID:23755705

Tyberghein, M; Philips, J-C; Krzesinski, J-M; Scheen, A J

2013-04-01

217

Extracorporeal Ultrasound-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound: Implications from the Present Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Extracorporeal ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been clinically used for 15 years, and over 36000 cases have been reported. However, there yet lacked a consensus in the clinical values, suggesting the necessity of checking clinical findings. Clinical trials were searched and data reevaluated. HIFU was hardly performed alone; almost all present anticancer means have been applied during an HIFU treatment, and a specific regimen varied between trials; there were heterogeneity and disagreement between trials. The complexity made it difficult to distinguish the effect of HIFU. Based upon evaluable data, the efficacy of HIFU was similar to that of radio frequency, chemoembolization, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or hormone therapy; a combined therapy did not improve the efficacy. The survival rate of HIFU plus radiotherapy was lower than that of radical surgery in liver cancers. Adverse events had no downtrend in the past years. HIFU was not a standardized procedure where the intensity and insonation mode were modified constantly throughout a treatment, limiting an evaluation from the perspective of ultrasonics. These implied that HIFU should be applied as an alternative at most occasions. The present clinical trials had defects making against the understating of HIFU.

Yu, Tinghe; Fu, Xiao

2014-01-01

218

The Physiology of Prolonged Oligemic Hypotension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clinical case histories of forty patients with shock are presented in the first section of this report. The cases are discussed under the following classifications: (1) Surgical shock, (2)hemorrhagic shock, (3) septic shock, (4) septic shock with hemorrha...

F. A. Simeone R. W. Hopkins

1964-01-01

219

Subacute progressive ascending myelopathy following spinal cord injury: MRI appearances and clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Retrospective Case Review.Objectives:To describe the clinical presentation and course of patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of subacute progressive ascending myelopathy (SPAM). A rare complication of spinal cord injury.Setting:National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, UK.Materials and methods:A retrospective review of the case notes and MRI studies of 11 cases with typical MRI features of ascending myelopathy presenting

A C Planner; P M Pretorius; A Graham; T M Meagher

2008-01-01

220

Pituitary Apoplexy: A Review of Clinical Presentation, Management and Outcome in 45 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review clinical presentation, management and outcomes following different therapies in patients with pituitary apoplexy.\\u000a Methods: Retrospective analysis of case-records of patients with classical pituitary apoplexy treated in our hospitals between 1983–2004.\\u000a Results: Forty-five patients (28 men; mean age 49 years, range 16–72 years) were identified. Only 8 (18%) were known to have pituitary\\u000a adenomas at presentation. Thirty-four (81%)

Latika Sibal; Steve G. Ball; Vincent Connolly; Robert A. James; Philip Kane; William F. Kelly; Pat Kendall-Taylor; David Mathias; Petros Perros; Richard Quinton; Bijay Vaidya

2004-01-01

221

Contribution of Transjugular Liver Biopsy in Patients with the Clinical Presentation of Acute Liver Failure  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. Acute liver failure (ALF) treated with conservative therapy has a poor prognosis, although individual survival varies greatly. In these patients, the eligibility for liver transplantation must be quickly decided. The aim of this study was to assess the role of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) in the management of patients with the clinical presentation of ALF. Methods. Seventeen patients with the clinical presentation of ALF were referred to our institution during a 52 month period. A TJLB was performed using the Cook Quick-Core needle biopsy. Clinical data, procedural complications, and histologic findings were evaluated. Results. Causes of ALF were virus hepatitis B infection in 7 patients, drug toxicity in 4, mushroom in 1, Wilson's disease in 1, and unknown origin in 4. TJLB was technically successful in all patients without procedure-related complications. Tissue specimens were satisfactory for diagnosis in all cases. In 14 of 17 patients the initial clinical diagnosis was confirmed by TJLB; in 3 patients the initial diagnosis was altered by the presence of unknown cirrhosis. Seven patients with necrosis <60% were successfully treated with medical therapy; 6 patients with submassive or massive necrosis ({>=}85%) were treated with liver transplantation. Four patients died, 3 had cirrhosis, and 1 had submassive necrosis. There was a strict statistical correlation (r = 0.972, p < 0.0001) between the amount of necrosis at the frozen section examination and the necrosis found at routine histologic examination. The average time for TJLB and frozen section examination was 80 min. Conclusion. In patients with the clinical presentation of ALF, submassive or massive liver necrosis and cirrhosis are predictors of poor prognosis. TLJB using an automated device and frozen section examination can be a quick and effective tool in clinical decision-making, especially in deciding patient selection and the best timing for liver transplantation.

Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Luca, Angelo; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Minervini, Marta Ida; Vizzini, Giovanni; Arcadipane, Antonio; Gridelli, Bruno [Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione (IsMeTT) (Italy)

2006-12-15

222

Acute ataxia in children: approach to clinical presentation and role of additional investigations.  

PubMed

Acute ataxia is a fairly common emergency that confronts the pediatric neurologist in daily life. The differential diagnosis of acute pediatric ataxia is wide, but informed history and careful clinical examination can narrow it and help target investigations. This review discusses various etiologies of acute pediatric ataxia, focusing on clinical presentation, diagnostic considerations, and approach to investigation. Aspects of treatment and prognosis are also mentioned. Diseases with potentially high morbidity and mortality, such as acute cerebellitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, and cerebellar stroke, receive particular attention. PMID:23254568

Poretti, Andrea; Benson, Jane E; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Boltshauser, Eugen

2013-06-01

223

Within-patient variability in clinical presentation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal: a case report.  

PubMed

The emergence of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependence in the UK is described, with specific reference to a case study of serial episodes of GHB withdrawal. Symptoms are broadly similar to those for alcohol withdrawal, and rapid deterioration into delirium is common in severe dependence. This case report reflects the variability in clinical presentation of GHB withdrawal and response to treatment, even within the same patient. It is concluded that GHB withdrawal requires vigorous clinical management, preferably on an elective basis, in an inpatient setting if dependence is severe. PMID:15990433

Glasper, Anthony; McDonough, Michael; Bearn, Jenny

2005-01-01

224

[Meningiomas of the anterior cranial fossa: clinical and radiological presentation--report of 2 cases].  

PubMed

We reported two cases of the anterior cranial fossa meningiomas: cerebral falx meningioma and recurrence of olfactory groove meningioma. Since the tumors grow very slowly, they remain clinically undetectable during the early stages and can reach a very large size. Clinical manifestations are caused by pression of meningiomas on adjacent structures. The authors present possibilities of radiological examinations of intracranial tumors and treatment management. In the described cases meningiomas were diagnosed in CT examination with the use of angio option and reconstruction RT3D and MPR. PMID:18510084

Pluci?ska, Irena; Ca?ka, Karol; Ja?wiec, Przemys?aw; Bojarski, Boles?aw; Czerniewicz-Kami?ska, Aneta; Swiatkowska, Katarzyna; Sakowski, Jaros?aw; Patrzyk, Rafa?; Zwoli?ski, Jerzy; Prudlak, Edmund

2007-01-01

225

Bumblefoot: a comparison of clinical presentation and treatment of pododermatitis in rabbits, rodents, and birds.  

PubMed

Pododermatitis, also known as bumblefoot, is a common condition encountered in birds, rabbits, and rodents in clinical practice. This article compares the anatomy and physiology of the foot and the predisposing factors for pododermatitis in each of the species discussed. Clinical presentation, diagnostics, and treatment options, including medical and surgical therapies, are provided. In addition, alternative therapies, including natural remedies, therapeutic laser, and acupuncture, are explored. This article is intended to encourage practitioners to use a multimodal approach for successful management of this disease in all species. PMID:24018034

Blair, Jennifer

2013-09-01

226

Systemic Arthritis in Children: A Review of Clinical Presentation and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) constitutes a small part of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), yet has a disproportionally higher rate of mortality. Despite being grouped under JIA, it is considered to be a multifactorial autoinflammatory disease. The objective of this paper is to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetics, clinical manifestations, complications, therapy, prognosis, and outcome of sJIA. The presentation and clinical manifestations of sJIA have not changed much in the past several decades, but the collective understanding of the pathogenesis and the development of new targeted therapies (particularly the biologic agents) have transformed and improved the disease outcome for children with sJIA.

Gurion, R.; Lehman, T. J. A.; Moorthy, L. N.

2012-01-01

227

Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in Buenos Aires: epidemiology, microbiology and clinical presentation.  

PubMed

We performed a retrospective study of clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of patients with confirmed Mycobacterium bovis infection treated at Francisco Muñiz Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 1996 and 2008. A total of 39 patients were included, accounting for 0.4% of tuberculosis cases in our hospital. Of these, 93% had at least one risk factor for M. bovis; the most frequent was occupational exposure (65%), followed by history of living in a rural area (31%) and consumption of unpasteurised milk (4%). Pulmonary disease was the most frequent clinical presentation. Rifampicin resistance and multidrug resistance were seen in two patients, both of whom had human immunodeficiency virus infection. PMID:22230360

Cordova, E; Gonzalo, X; Boschi, A; Lossa, M; Robles, M; Poggi, S; Ambroggi, M

2012-01-01

228

Risk factors and clinical presentation of craniocervical arterial dissection: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Craniocervical arterial dissection is a major cause of ischaemic stroke in young adults. The pathogenesis is not fully understood but is thought to be related to a combination of an intrinsic weakness in the arterial wall and an external trigger. Intrinsic susceptibility is thought to be a generalised arteriopathy, vascular anomaly or genetic predisposition. Proposed extrinsic factors include recent viral infection and minor mechanical trauma to the neck, including neck manipulation, which has raised concerns amongst manual practitioners in particular as to the appropriate screening of patients and avoidance of more vigorous therapeutic techniques. The presenting features of dissection may mimic a musculoskeletal presentation, creating a diagnostic dilemma for primary care practitioners. Early recognition is critical so that appropriate management can be commenced. The aims of this study are to prospectively investigate young patients ?55?years admitted to hospital with radiologically diagnosed craniocervical arterial dissection compared to matched controls with stroke but not dissection, to identify risk factors and early presenting clinical features, so these may be more readily identified by primary care practitioners. Methods Patients ? 55?years presenting to hospital with craniocervical arterial dissection and controls will have their medical records reviewed and be interviewed and questioned about possible risk factors, preceding events to admission such as recent neck trauma, and presenting clinical features including any preceding transient ischaemic features. Clinical assessment will include a connective tissue screening examination to identify subclinical connective tissue disorders. Radiology and blood screening will be reviewed for typical features and inflammatory markers. Functional outcome will be reviewed to determine the burden of the stroke. Discussion This study will provide descriptive and comparative data on intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for craniocervical arterial dissection and outline the typical clinical presentation, including the nature of early presenting features which might assist practitioners to identify those patients for whom vigorous manual therapy of the neck is inappropriate and alert them to those for whom immediate urgent medical care should be sought.

2012-01-01

229

Noninvasive diagnosis and management of spontaneous intracranial hypotension in patients with marfan syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an uncommon clinical entity. Heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTD), such as Marfan syndrome, are frequently implicated as an underlying cause, due to dural structural weaknesses that predispose patients to spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Due to the high prevalence of multi-system disease in HCTD, diagnosis and treatment are often complicated. Case Description: We present a 58-year-old female with Marfan syndrome on anticoagulation for a mechanical aortic valve replacement who came to medical attention with severe, acute-onset headache following a straining episode. Noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) myelography confirmed thoracic CSF extravasations and multiple lumbar diverticula. The patient was treated conservatively and her symptoms resolved. Conclusion: We discuss the common presentation, diagnostic tools, and treatment options for spontaneous CSF leaks in patients with Marfan syndrome or related HCTD with an emphasis on noninvasive modalities and a review of the major radiographic criteria used to diagnose dural abnormalities, such as dural ectasia.

Bassani, Luigi; Graffeo, Christopher S.; Behrooz, Navid; Tyagi, Vineet; Wilson, Taylor; Penaranda, Saul; Zagzag, David; Rifkin, Daniel B; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Fatterpekar, Girish; Placantonakis, Dimitris

2014-01-01

230

Clinical presentations of critical cardiac defects in the newborn: Decision making and initial management  

PubMed Central

The risk of mortality and morbidity of patients with congenital heart defects (CHDs) is highest during neonatal period and increases when diagnosis and proper management are delayed. Neonates with critical CHDs may present with severe cyanosis, respiratory distress, shock, or collapse, all of which are also frequent clinical presentations of various respiratory problems or sepsis in the newborn. Early diagnosis and stabilization and timely referral to a tertiary cardiac center are crucial to improve the outcomes in neonates with CHDs. In this review, the clinical presentation of critical and potentially life-threatening CHDs is discussed along with brief case reviews to help understand the hemodynamics of these defects and ensure proper decision-making in critically ill patients.

2010-01-01

231

Mycobacterium avium complex with a distinct clinical and iconographic presentation: the Lady Windermere syndrome.  

PubMed

Clinically significant pulmonary disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) usually occurs upon pre-existing lung diseases or immune-deficiency. In 1992, a particular presentation of pulmonary MAC, occuring in otherwise healthy middle-aged women, was described with pulmonary consolidations localized in lingula and middle lobe. For this specific, rare condition, the term Lady Windermere syndrome was introduced. We report a particular case of this syndrome, in which an otherwise healthy individual developed clinically significant disease upon MAC (subtype: Mycobacterium avium) infection of the right middle lobe and lingula of the lung. The patient did not have the classical risk factors for developing this syndrome (e.g. habitual cough suppression, long and narrow bronchi) indicating their modest contribution in the pathogenesis. In our case, guideline based therapy was found to be inadequate because of multi-drug resistance, so an alternative treatment regime was given with good clinical result. PMID:16792339

Goeminne, H; Peleman, R A; Brusselle, G; Tournoy, K G

2006-01-01

232

Patient Attrition Between the Emergency Department and Clinic Among Individuals Presenting for HIV Nonoccupational Postexposure Prophylaxis.  

PubMed

Background.?Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is recommended after a sexual or parenteral exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Patients frequently seek care in an emergency department (ED) after an exposure and are usually referred to an HIV clinic for further management. There have been few data on determinants of attrition after presentation to EDs for nPEP. Methods.?From July 2010 to June 2011, we prospectively recorded all referrals to nPEP programs from 2 large EDs at 2 academic medical centers in Boston, Massachusetts. Data were recorded on patient demographics, nature of potential HIV exposures, referrals to and attendance at HIV clinics, and reported completion of 28 days of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors for (1) patient attrition between the ED and HIV clinic follow-up and (2) documented completion of ART. Results.?Of 180 individuals who were referred to clinic follow-up for nPEP care from the ED, 98 (54.4%) attended a first nPEP clinic visit and 43 (23.9%) had documented completion of a 28-day course of ART. Multivariable analysis revealed older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], .93-.99) and self-payment (aOR, 0.32; 95% CI, .11-.97) were significant predictors for failing to attend an initial HIV clinic appointment. Women were less likely than men to complete a 28-day ART regimen (aOR, 0.34; 95% CI, .15-.79). Conclusions.?Commonly used nPEP delivery models may not be effective for all patients who present with nonoccupational exposures to HIV. Interventions are needed to improve rates of follow-up and completion of nPEP to reduce the risk of preventable HIV infections. PMID:24723288

Bogoch, Isaac I; Scully, Eileen P; Zachary, Kimon C; Yawetz, Sigal; Mayer, Kenneth H; Bell, Chaim M; Andrews, Jason R

2014-06-01

233

Clinical Presentation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important and common comorbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have addressed how OSA presents in this patient population and whether it is clinically apparent. Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine if the prevalence and severity of sleep related symptoms distinguished CKD patients with OSA from those without apnea, and whether the clinical presentation of OSA in CKD patients differed from the general OSA population. Methods: One hundred nineteen patients were recruited from outpatient nephrology clinics. All patients completed a sleep history questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (daytime sleepiness, ESS > 10), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (poor sleep quality, PSQI > 5), and underwent overnight cardiopulmonary monitoring for determination of sleep apnea (respiratory disturbance index ? 15). CKD patients with OSA (n = 46) were compared to (1) CKD patients without OSA (n = 73) and (2) OSA patients without CKD (n = 230) who were referred to the sleep centre. Results: The prevalence of OSA symptoms and PSQI scores did not differ between CKD patients with OSA and CKD patients without apnea. Although the prevalence of daytime sleepiness was higher in CKD patients with OSA compared to CKD patients without apnea (39% vs. 19%, p = 0.033), both daytime sleepiness and other symptoms of sleep apnea were considerably less frequent than in OSA patients without a history of kidney disease. Conclusions: The presence of OSA in patients with CKD is unlikely to be clinically apparent. Consequently, objective cardiopulmonary monitoring during sleep is required to reliably identify this comorbidity. Citation: Nicholl DDM; Ahmed SB; Loewen AHS; Hemmelgarn BR; Sola DY; Beecroft JM; Turin TC; Hanly PJ. Clinical presentation of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(4):381-387.

Nicholl, David D. M.; Ahmed, Sofia B.; Loewen, Andrea H. S.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Sola, Darlene Y.; Beecroft, Jaime M.; Turin, Tanvir C.; Hanly, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

234

Clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients in Hyderabad: Pakistan.  

PubMed

Objective: To see the various clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients of Hyderabad Sindh. Methods: A total 60 suspected cases of adult celiac disease, both males and females were screened out from Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences hospital and private clinics at Sadar Hyderabad Sind by non probability purposive sampling during a period from July 2011 to December 2012.Age ranged between 18 to 55 Years. A detailed history and clinical examination was done. Patients already on gluten free diet, age <12years, tuberculosis or cancer of intestine/colon and patients of diabetes and thyroid disorder were excluded, while patients having positive ant tTG (value >15 iu/ml detected by ELISA) were included. The biochemical profile including serum albumin, calcium ,ferritin, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase and Haemoglobin were estimated in central Diagnostic laboratory LUMHS by taking 10 cc centrifuged blood sample. The data was plotted on SPSS 16, mean and percentages were calculated. Results: All patients were divided in to three groups according to age. The most common group was 18-30 years; (mean, 23.5±5.6) comprised 56.6%. The commonest clinical presentation was diarrhoea in 50%, menstrual irregularity in 21%, walking problems 21%, undue fatigue in 15% and edema in 15%. P values calculated in quantitative variable of males and females. The p value was significant in between serum calcium (p 0.004), haemoglobin (p 0,004), serum ferritin (<0.005) and alkaline phosphatise (<0.005). Conclusion: This study showed that Adult celiac disease was present with entirely different clinical and biochemical profile in patients in this region. PMID:24772128

Masood, Naila; Ali Shaikh, Imran

2014-03-01

235

Clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients in Hyderabad: Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objective: To see the various clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients of Hyderabad Sindh. Methods: A total 60 suspected cases of adult celiac disease, both males and females were screened out from Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences hospital and private clinics at Sadar Hyderabad Sind by non probability purposive sampling during a period from July 2011 to December 2012.Age ranged between 18 to 55 Years. A detailed history and clinical examination was done. Patients already on gluten free diet, age <12years, tuberculosis or cancer of intestine/colon and patients of diabetes and thyroid disorder were excluded, while patients having positive ant tTG (value >15 iu/ml detected by ELISA) were included. The biochemical profile including serum albumin, calcium ,ferritin, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase and Haemoglobin were estimated in central Diagnostic laboratory LUMHS by taking 10 cc centrifuged blood sample. The data was plotted on SPSS 16, mean and percentages were calculated. Results: All patients were divided in to three groups according to age. The most common group was 18-30 years; (mean, 23.5±5.6) comprised 56.6%. The commonest clinical presentation was diarrhoea in 50%, menstrual irregularity in 21%, walking problems 21%, undue fatigue in 15% and edema in 15%. P values calculated in quantitative variable of males and females. The p value was significant in between serum calcium (p 0.004), haemoglobin (p 0,004), serum ferritin (<0.005) and alkaline phosphatise (<0.005). Conclusion: This study showed that Adult celiac disease was present with entirely different clinical and biochemical profile in patients in this region.

Masood, Naila; Ali Shaikh, Imran

2014-01-01

236

Children with Kaposi Sarcoma in Two Southern African Hospitals: Clinical Presentation, Management, and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Introduction. In 2010 more than 3 million children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were living in Sub-Saharan Africa. The AIDS epidemic has contributed to an abrupt increase of the frequency of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), especially in Southern Africa. There is a need to describe the clinical features of this disease, its management, and its outcome in HIV positive children in Southern Africa. The aim of the study is to describe two different populations with HIV and KS from two African hospitals in Namibia and South Africa. Material and Methods. A retrospective descriptive study of patients with KS who presented to Tygerberg Hospital (TH) and Windhoek Central Hospital (WCH) from 1998 to 2010. Demographic data, HIV profile, clinical picture of KS, and survival were documented. Results. The frequency of KS declined from 2006 to 2010 in TH but showed an increase in the same period in WCH. Children in TH were diagnosed at a much younger age than those in WCH (44.2 months versus 90 months). Cutaneous lesions were the most common clinical presenting feature, followed by lymphadenopathy, intrathoracic and oral lesions. Conclusions. The clinical characteristics of KS in South Africa and Namibia differ in many aspects between the 2 countries.

De Bruin, G. P.; Stefan, D. C.

2013-01-01

237

Clinical and genetic characteristics of Japanese Burkitt lymphomas with or without leukemic presentation.  

PubMed

To clarify the clinical and genetic features of Burkitt lymphoma with or without leukemic presentation, we have conducted clinical, cytogenetic, and genetic studies. Of 40 Japanese patients with Burkitt lymphoma examined by cytogenetic and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis or Southern blot analysis using MYC probes, 35 patients had t(8;14) translocations, and 5 had t(8;22). Breakpoints were located far upstream of MYC in 4 (12%) of 33 tumors with t(8;14), and Epstein-Barr virus infection was found in 3 (8%) of 40 tumors. These findings are similar to those reported for non-Japanese patients with the sporadic form of Burkitt lymphoma. Clinical and genetic characteristic were compared for 30 patients presenting with lymphoma and 10 presenting with leukemia. The overall survival was shorter in aggressively treated leukemia patients than in aggressively treated lymphoma patients (P = .003); however, the incidence rates of TP53 mutation, p16INK4a deletion, and p15INK4b deletion that were found in 6 (15%) of 40,3 (9%) of 35, and 2 (6%) of 35 tumors, respectively, were similar between the 2 subtypes. Thus, the present study has shown the different prognoses for the 2 subtypes of Burkitt lymphoma but has failed to clarify the genetic backgrounds that may explain the different outcomes. PMID:12841388

Namiki, Takeshi; Sakashita, Akiko; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Maseki, Nobuo; Izumo, Toshiyuki; Komada, Yoshihiro; Koizumi, Shoichi; Shikano, Takaaki; Kikuta, Atsushi; Watanabe, Arata; Suzumiya, Junji; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kaneko, Yasuhiko

2003-06-01

238

Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis resembling borderline-tuberculoid leprosy: a new clinical presentation?  

PubMed

Both cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are endemic in Northern Ethiopia. The different clinical presentations depend on the responsible organism and the host's immune response. Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis is the type most frequently seen. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis is relatively rare and usually associated with mucous membrane involvement. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis presents with multiple lesions, can be difficult to diagnose and responds less favourably to treatment. We report here 2 patients with unusual presentations of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis presenting with large hypopigmented skin lesions mimicking borderline-tuberculoid leprosy. To our knowledge this presentation has not been described before and may present difficulties in making a definite diagnosis in regions where both leprosy and cutaneous leishmaniasis are endemic. Lepromatous leprosy and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis are regularly confused, particularly when no skin smears for acid-fast bacillus or Leishman-Donovan bodies are performed. PMID:22434112

Dassoni, Federica; Abebe, Zerihun; Naafs, Bernard; Morrone, Aldo

2013-01-01

239

The benefits of using Guyton's model in a hypotensive control system.  

PubMed

In order to improve the intraoperative applications, this paper presents the advantages of using Guyton's model in hypotensive control system development. In this system, the mean arterial pressure is decreased and maintained at a low level during anaesthesia by controlling sodium nitroprusside infusion rate. The key of the study is to develop a physiological model of cardiovascular dynamics to present the mean arterial pressure response to sodium nitroprusside, which was considered as a linear model in most of known blood pressure control systems. Being linear, the previous models cannot accurately mimic a physiological system of human circulation, especially at deep hypotensive control with strong reaction of the body. The enhanced model in this study was modified based on Guyton's model of human circulation. It is useful to design a PID controller, which allows studying and handling the wide range of the body sensitivities. This model is also helpful for studying the behaviors of patients under anaesthesia conditions, such as the perfusion of organs and the reaction of the body at hypotensive state. A fuzzy gain scheduler and a supervising algorithm were also developed for online tuning the controller to handle the behavior of the body. The control system was tested on 25 experiments on seven pigs in the animal laboratory. Simulation and experiment results proved the usefulness of Guyton's model in control system design which can present the dynamical response of blood pressure in the circulation under and after hypotensive control. The results also indicated the safety and stability of the controller. PMID:17445945

Nguyen, Chi-Ngon; Simanski, Olaf; Kähler, Ralf; Schubert, Agnes; Janda, Matthias; Bajorat, Jörn; Lampe, Bernhard

2008-02-01

240

Herpes simplex encephalitis: clinical presentation, neurological sequelae and new prognostic factors. Ten years of experience.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most important viral encephalitis due to its high mortality and neurological sequelae. The aim of this study was to contribute to better characterise the HSE. We retrospectively analysed patients with a diagnosis of HSE in our hospital during 2000 and 2010. We included those patients who had a positive result for PCR for herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid and those with a negative result presenting with a consistent clinical and neuroimage profile. We included 26 patients (10 men, 16 women). Mean age was 58 years. Most frequent symptoms at admission were fever, confusion, aphasia and seizures. Mortality rate was 11 %. 2 patients presented a clinical relapse. In conclusion, the most frequent neurological sequelae were aphasia and amnesia. Disorientation, hyponatremia and abnormalities in initial brain CT were identified as new prognostic factors. PMID:23780666

Riancho, Javier; Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Sedano, Maria Jose; Polo, Jose Miguel; Berciano, Jose

2013-10-01

241

Infected pseudoaneurysm after carotid endarterectomy: mismatch between clinical presentation and origin.  

PubMed

Pseudoaneurysm after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a rare complication, with an incidence lower than 1%. Infection as a cause of carotid pseudoaneurysm is uncommon, and is mostly caused by staphylococci. An 81-year-old woman, treated with right carotid endarterectomy 7 years earlier, presented with a diagnosis of right carotid pseudoaneurysm. The patient was neurologically asymptomatic; clinical status, laboratory, and imaging findings were negative for infection. She was referred to surgical treatment consisting of patch excision and a carotid polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafting. During intervention a purulent fluid collection was discovered, and therefore an inverted great saphenous vein carotid bypass was performed. The postoperative course was normal. Microbiological examination on the purulent fluid collection and excised patch showed the presence of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Carotid pseudoaneurysms after CEA often arise in asymptomatic patients. Despite this common clinical presentation, an infective origin must always be taken into account before any intervention is planned. PMID:24495328

Menna, Danilo; Ruggiero, Massimo; Speziale, Francesco

2014-04-01

242

Influence of the timing of administration of crystalloid on maternal hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: preload versus coload  

PubMed Central

Background Prophylactic fluid preloading before spinal anesthesia has been a routine procedure to prevent maternal hypotension during cesarean delivery. Unlike colloid, timing of infusion of crystalloid may be important because of its short stay in intravascular space. We hypothesized that crystalloid loading just after intrathecal injection compared to preload would be more effective in preventing maternal hypotension. Methods In this prospective controlled study, sixty parturients were randomized to receive 15 ml/kg of crystalloid before (preload group) or after (coload group) intrathecal drug injection for spinal anesthesia. Hypotension was defined if systolic arterial pressure decreased below 80% of baseline and ephedrine was administered to treat hypotension. The incidence of hypotension and the total dose of ephedrine were checked. Blood pressure, heart rate and nausea before childbirth were assessed. Neonatal outcomes were evaluated with Apgar scores and umbilical blood gas analysis. Results The incidence of hypotension was lower in the coload group compared to the preload group (53% vs. 83%, P?=?0.026). The blood pressure showed the bigger drop during spinal anesthesia in the preload group (34?±?13 vs. 25?±?10 mmHg, P?=?0.002) and smaller dose of ephedrine was required in the coload group (7.5 [0–30] vs. 15 [0–40] mg, P?=?0.015). The incidence of nausea was also lower in the coload group (27% vs. 60%, P?=?0.019). Neonatal outcome measures were comparable between two groups. Conclusions In case of using crystalloids for cesarean delivery, coload is more effective than preload for the prevention of maternal hypotension after spinal anesthesia. Trial registration Clinical Research Information Service KCT0000324 (Jan 12th, 2012)

2014-01-01

243

Sclerema neonatorum: a review of nomenclature, clinical presentation, histological features, differential diagnoses and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To review published literature on sclerema neonatorum (SN) in order to clarify its clinical presentation, histological features and management compared with two other diseases: subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFN) and scleredema.Study Design:PubMed database was searched using the key words Sclerema neonatorum. A total of 55 articles from peer-reviewed journals were reviewed and summarized.Result:SN, SCFN and scleredema are diseases

A Zeb; G L Darmstadt

2008-01-01

244

Incidence and clinical correlates of aggression and violence at presentation in patients with first episode psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to identify the incidence and clinical correlates of aggression and violence in first episode psychosis. We prospectively recruited subjects with a first episode of DSM-psychosis presenting from a geographically defined catchment area to a secondary referral psychiatric service over a four-year period (n=157). We used the Modified Overt Aggression Scale to retrospectively assess aggression (a hostile or

Sharon R. Foley; Brendan D. Kelly; Mary Clarke; Orfhlaith McTigue; Maurice Gervin; Moyyad Kamali; Conall Larkin; Eadbhard O'Callaghan; Stephen Browne

2005-01-01

245

Incidence, clinical presentation and treatment of neurosyphilis in Denmark 1980-1997.  

PubMed

Neurosyphilis is now a rare disease in the developed countries. In Denmark 92 cases of neurosyphilis were identified in the period 1980-1997. We obtained the hospital records for 77 of these patients and studied the clinical presentation, treatment and result of the treatment. Most patients were treated with penicillin by the intramuscular or intravenous route, but the amounts and duration of the antibiotic treatment varied a lot among the patients. All patients treated with intravenous penicillin were cured. PMID:15844637

Danielsen, Anne Grethe; Weismann, Kaare; Jørgensen, Børge B; Heidenheim, Michael; Fugleholm, Anne Mette

2004-01-01

246

Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, attenuates postprandial hypotension in autonomic failure.  

PubMed

Postprandial hypotension is an important clinical condition that predisposes to syncope, falls, angina, and cerebrovascular events. The magnitude of the fall in blood pressure after meals depends on enteric glucose availability. We hypothesized that acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor that decreases glucose absorption in the small intestine, would attenuate postprandial hypotension. Acarbose or placebo was given 20 minutes before a standardized meal in 13 patients with postprandial hypotension in the setting of autonomic failure (age: 65+/-2.64 years; body mass index: 25+/-1.08 kg/m(2); supine plasma norepinephrine: 110+/-26.6 pg/mL). Four patients were studied in a single-blind protocol and 9 patients in a double-blind, randomized, crossover fashion. Patients were studied supine, and blood pressure, heart rate, and neuroendocrine parameters were obtained at baseline and for 90 minutes after meal intake. After adjusting for potential confounders, acarbose significantly attenuated the postprandial fall in systolic and diastolic blood pressures by 17 mm Hg (95% CI: 7 to 28; P=0.003) and 9 mm Hg (95% CI: 5 to 14; P=0.001), respectively. Furthermore, acarbose effectively reduced plasma levels of insulin, a known vasodilator, by 11 microU/mL (95% CI: 5 to 18; P=0.001) compared with placebo. After adjusting for insulin levels, the attenuation of postprandial hypotension by acarbose remained significant, indicating that additional mechanisms contribute to this effect. In conclusion, 100 mg of acarbose successfully improved postprandial hypotension in patients with severe autonomic failure. This effect is not explained solely by a reduction in insulin levels. PMID:17515447

Shibao, Cyndya; Gamboa, Alfredo; Diedrich, Andre; Dossett, Cynthia; Choi, Leena; Farley, Ginnie; Biaggioni, Italo

2007-07-01

247

Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Neuroblastoma Presenting Genomic Amplification of Loci Other than MYCN  

PubMed Central

Background Somatically acquired genomic alterations with MYCN amplification (MNA) are key features of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extra-cranial malignant tumour of childhood. Little is known about the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of NBs harbouring genomic amplification(s) distinct from MYCN. Methods Genomic profiles of 1100 NBs from French centres studied by array-CGH were re-examined specifically to identify regional amplifications. Patients were included if amplifications distinct from the MYCN locus were seen. A subset of NBs treated at Institut Curie and harbouring MNA as determined by array-CGH without other amplification was also studied. Clinical and histology data were retrospectively collected. Results In total, 56 patients were included and categorised into 3 groups. Group 1 (n?=?8) presented regional amplification(s) without MNA. Locus 12q13-14 was a recurrent amplified region (4/8 cases). This group was heterogeneous in terms of INSS stages, primary localisations and histology, with atypical clinical features. Group 2 (n?=?26) had MNA as well as other regional amplifications. These patients shared clinical features of those of a group of NBs MYCN amplified (Group 3, n?=?22). Overall survival for group 1 was better than that of groups 2 and 3 (5 year OS: 87.5%±11% vs 34.9%±7%, log-rank p<0.05). Conclusion NBs harbouring regional amplification(s) without MNA are rare and seem to show atypical features in clinical presentation and genomic profile. Further high resolution genetic explorations are justified in this heterogeneous group, especially when considering these alterations as predictive markers for targeted therapy.

Guimier, Anne; Ferrand, Sandrine; Pierron, Gaelle; Couturier, Jerome; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Combaret, Valerie; Mosseri, Veronique; Thebaud, Estelle; Gambart, Marion; Plantaz, Dominique; Marabelle, Aurelien; Coze, Carole; Rialland, Xavier; Fasola, Sylvie; Lapouble, Eve; Freneaux, Paul; Peuchmaur, Michel; Michon, Jean; Delattre, Olivier; Schleiermacher, Gudrun

2014-01-01

248

The risk of hypotension following co-prescription of macrolide antibiotics and calcium-channel blockers  

PubMed Central

Background The macrolide antibiotics clarithromycin and erythromycin may potentiate calcium-channel blockers by inhibiting cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4. However, this potential drug interaction is widely underappreciated and its clinical consequences have not been well characterized. We explored the risk of hypotension or shock requiring hospital admission following the simultaneous use of calcium-channel blockers and macrolide antibiotics. Methods We conducted a population-based, nested, case-crossover study involving people aged 66 years and older who had been prescribed a calcium-channel blocker between Apr. 1, 1994, and Mar. 31, 2009. Of these patients, we included those who had been admitted to hospital for the treatment of hypotension or shock. For each antibiotic, we estimated the risk of hypotension or shock associated with the use of a calcium blocker using a pair-matched analytic approach to contrast each patient’s exposure to each macrolide antibiotic (erythromycin, clarithromycin or azithromycin) in a seven-day risk interval immediately before admission to hospital and in a seven-day control interval one month earlier. Results Of the 7100 patients admitted to hospital because of hypotension while receiving a calcium-channel blocker, 176 had been prescribed a macrolide antibiotic during either the risk or control intervals. Erythromycin (the strongest inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4) was most strongly associated with hypotension (odds ratio [OR] 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3–15.0), followed by clarithromycin (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3–6.1). Azithromycin, which does not inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4, was not associated with an increased risk of hypotension (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.8–2.8). We found similar results in a stratified analysis of patients who received only dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers. Interpretation In older patients receiving a calcium-channel blocker, use of erythromycin or clarithromycin was associated with an increased risk of hypotension or shock requiring admission to hospital. Preferential use of azithromycin should be considered when a macrolide antibiotic is required for patients already receiving a calcium-channel blocker.

Wright, Alissa J.; Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Horn, John R.; Juurlink, David N.

2011-01-01

249

Diversity of the clinical presentation of the MMR gene biallelic mutations.  

PubMed

Constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency, due to biallelic mutations of MMR genes, results in a tumour spectrum characterized by leukaemias, lymphomas, brain tumours and adenocarcinomas of the gastro-intestinal tract, occurring mostly in childhood. We report here two families illustrating the phenotypic diversity associated with biallelic MMR mutations. In the first family, two siblings developed six malignancies including glioblastoma, lymphoblastic T cell lymphoma, rectal and small bowel adenocarcinoma with onset as early as 6 years of age. We showed that this dramatic clinical presentation was due to the presence of two complex genomic PMS2 deletions in each patient predicted to result into complete PMS2 inactivation. In the second family, the index case presented with an early form of Lynch syndrome with colorectal adenocarcinomas at ages 17 and 20 years, and urinary tract tumours at the age of 25 years. We identified in this patient two MSH6 mutations corresponding to a frameshift deletion and an in frame deletion. The latter was not predicted to result into complete inactivation of MSH6. These reports show that the clinical expression of biallelic MMR mutations depends on the biological impact of the second MMR mutation and that, in clinical practice, the presence of a second MMR mutation located in trans should also be considered in patients suspected to present a Lynch syndrome with an unusual early-onset of tumours. PMID:24068316

Bougeard, Gaëlle; Olivier-Faivre, Laurence; Baert-Desurmont, Stéphanie; Tinat, Julie; Martin, Cosette; Bouvignies, Emilie; Vasseur, Stéphanie; Huet, Frédéric; Couillault, Gérard; Vabres, Pierre; Le Pessot, Florence; Chapusot, Caroline; Malka, David; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Tosi, Mario; Frebourg, Thierry

2014-03-01

250

Presentation of clinical laboratory results: an experimental comparison of four visualization techniques  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate how clinical chemistry test results were assessed by volunteers when presented with four different visualization techniques. Materials and methods A total of 20 medical students reviewed quantitative test results from 4 patients using 4 different visualization techniques in a balanced, crossover experiment. The laboratory data represented relevant patient categories, including simple, emergency, chronic and complex patients. Participants answered questions about trend, overall levels and covariation of test results. Answers and assessment times were recorded and participants were interviewed on their preference of visualization technique. Results Assessment of results and the time used varied between visualization techniques. With sparklines and relative multigraphs participants made faster assessments. With relative multigraphs participants identified more covarying test results. With absolute multigraphs participants found more trends. With sparklines participants more often assessed laboratory results to be within reference ranges. Different visualization techniques were preferred for the four different patient categories. No participant preferred absolute multigraphs for any patient. Discussion Assessments of clinical chemistry test results were influenced by how they were presented. Importantly though, this association depended on the complexity of the result sets, and none of the visualization techniques appeared to be ideal in all settings. Conclusions Sparklines and relative multigraphs seem to be favorable techniques for presenting complex long-term clinical chemistry test results, while tables seem to suffice for simpler result sets.

Torsvik, Torbj?rn; Lillebo, B?rge; Mikkelsen, Gustav

2013-01-01

251

Endomysial antibodies predict celiac disease irrespective of the titers or clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the association between serum antibody levels and a subsequent celiac disease diagnosis in a large series of children and adults. METHODS: Besides subjects with classical gastrointestinal presentation of celiac disease, the study cohort included a substantial number of individuals with extraintestinal symptoms and those found by screening in at-risk groups. Altogether 405 patients underwent clinical, serological and histological evaluations. After collection of data, the antibody values were further graded as low [endomysial (EmA) 1:5-200, transglutaminase 2 antibodies (TG2-ab) 5.0-30.0 U/L] and high (EmA 1: ? 500, TG2-ab ? 30.0 U/L), and the serological results were compared with the small intestinal mucosal histology and clinical presentation. RESULTS: In total, 79% of the subjects with low and 94% of those with high serum EmA titers showed small-bowel mucosal villous atrophy. Furthermore, 96% of the 47 EmA positive subjects who had normal mucosal villi and remained on follow-up either subsequently developed mucosal atrophy while on a gluten-containing diet, or responded positively to a gluten-free diet. CONCLUSION: Irrespective of the initial serum titers or clinical presentation, EmA positivity as such is a very strong predictor of a subsequent celiac disease diagnosis.

Kurppa, Kalle; Rasanen, Tiia; Collin, Pekka; Iltanen, Sari; Huhtala, Heini; Ashorn, Merja; Saavalainen, Paivi; Haimila, Katri; Partanen, Jukka; Maki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri

2012-01-01

252

Preservation of renal blood flow during hypotension induced with fenoldopam in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of drugs that could induce hypotension with different pharmacological actions would be advantageous because\\u000a side effects unique to a specific drug could be minimized by selecting appropriate therapy. Specific dopamine-1, (DA1) and dopamine-2 (DA2) receptor agonists are now under clinical investigation. Fenoldopam mesylate is a specific DA1 receptor agonist that lowers blood pressure by vasodilatation. The hypothesis that

Solomon Aronson; Leon I. Goldberg; Steven Roth; Dana Glock; Jonathan Moss; Michael F. Roizen

1990-01-01

253

Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis presenting to a chiropractic clinic: a description of 2 cases  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe the presentation of 2 patients who presented to a chiropractic teaching clinic with Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS) and to discuss the potential role for conservative therapy in the management of symptoms. Clinical Features Two patients presented with a vascular and muscular findings suggesting activity-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. One patient presented with recent onset of symptoms (pain in the neck with a “pinched nerve sensation” in the left upper trapezius); and the other presented with chronic, low-grade neck pain of 1 year's duration. Intervention and Outcome The initial treatment approach for the patient with acute symptoms included soft tissue therapy. During the second appointment, he was immediately referred for medical evaluation and management because of worsening symptoms. He was diagnosed with thrombus in the left brachial vein, started immediately on a thrombolytic agent, and referred to a thrombosis clinic. Treatment for the second patient with chronic symptoms included soft tissue therapy, spinal manipulative therapy, and active care. Two months after 3 treatments, she reported improved symptoms. She remains under supportive care and has reported continued relief of her symptoms. Conclusion Although a rare condition, PSS has the potential to result in significant morbidity and potentially fatal complications; thus, it is critical that practitioners recognize the signs and symptoms to facilitate appropriate and timely referrals. Clinicians should be aware of the presentation and proposed pathogenesis of PSS, and consider this diagnosis in patients with unilateral upper limb and/or neck pain.

Stainsby, Brynne E.; Muir, Bradley J.; Miners, Andrew L.

2012-01-01

254

Risk factors for vascular dementia: hypotension as a key point.  

PubMed

Physiologically, the cerebral autoregulation system allows maintenance of constant cerebral blood flow over a wide range of blood pressure. In old people, there is a progressive reshape of cerebral autoregulation from a sigmoid curve to a straight line. This implies that any abrupt change in blood pressure will result in a rapid and significant change in cerebral blood flow. Hypertension has often been observed to be a risk factor for vascular dementia (VaD) and sometimes for Alzheimer disease although not always. Indeed, high blood pressure may accelerate cerebral white matter lesions, but white matter lesions have been found to be facilitated by excessive fall in blood pressure, including orthostatic dysregulation and postprandial hypotension. Many recent studies observed among other data, that there was a correlation between systolic pressure reduction and cognitive decline in women, which was not accounted for by other factors. Baseline blood pressure level was not significantly related to cognitive decline with initial good cognition. Some researchers speculate that blood pressure reduction might be an early change of the dementing process. The most confounding factor is that low pressure by itself might be a predictor of death; nevertheless, the effect of low blood pressure on cognition is underestimated because of a survival bias. Another explanation is that clinically unrecognized vascular lesions in the brain or atherosclerosis are responsible for both cognitive decline and blood pressure reduction. We discuss the entire process, and try to define a possible mechanism that is able to explain the dynamic by which hypotension might be related to dementia. PMID:18561514

Moretti, Rita; Torre, Paola; Antonello, Rodolfo M; Manganaro, Davide; Vilotti, Cristina; Pizzolato, Gilberto

2008-01-01

255

Clinical and laboratory presentation of EBV positive infectious mononucleosis in young adults.  

PubMed Central

Clinical descriptions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive infectious mononucleosis (IM) are rare and their results are inconsistent. Over a 4-year period, we prospectively studied 590 young adults with clinically suspected IM, all of whom were tested for the presence of EBV IgM antibodies. We investigated the demographical, clinical and laboratory features of subjects with positive EBV IgM serology and heterophile antibodies. Contrary to previous studies, we found a seasonal disease pattern with a peak incidence during summer months, and a lower-than-expected prevalence of lymphadenopathy (88.9%), leucocytosis (46.2%), atypical lymphocytosis (89.2%) and elevated liver enzymes (57.9%). The prevalence of hyperbilirubinemia was relatively high (14.9%). The classic triad of fever, sore throat and lymph-adenopathy had relatively low sensitivity (68.2%) and specificity (41.9%) for EBV infection. Our study provides a complete and updated description of the clinical and laboratory presentation of laboratory confirmed IM, which is important for both clinicians and epidemiologists.

Grotto, I.; Mimouni, D.; Huerta, M.; Mimouni, M.; Cohen, D.; Robin, G.; Pitlik, S.; Green, M. S.

2003-01-01

256

Unusual Clinical Presentation of Ethylene Glycol Poisoning: Unilateral Facial Nerve Paralysis  

PubMed Central

Ethylene glycol (EG) may be consumed accidentally or intentionally, usually in the form of antifreeze products or as an ethanol substitute. EG is metabolized to toxic metabolites. These metabolites cause metabolic acidosis with increased anion gap, renal failure, oxaluria, damage to the central nervous system and cranial nerves, and cardiovascular instability. Early initiation of treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity but different clinical presentations can cause delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Herein, we report a case with the atypical presentation of facial paralysis, hematuria, and kidney failure due to EG poisoning which progressed to end stage renal failure and permanent right peripheral facial nerve palsy.

Eroglu, Eray; Kocyigit, Ismail; Bahcebasi, Sami; Unal, Aydin; Sipahioglu, Murat Hayri; Kocyigit, Merva; Tokgoz, Bulent; Oymak, Oktay

2013-01-01

257

The Morel-Lavallée lesion: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment options.  

PubMed

Morel-Lavallée lesions are posttraumatic hemolymphatic collections related to shearing injury and disruption of interfascial planes between subcutaneous soft tissue and muscle. We review the pathophysiology of Morel-Lavallée lesions, clinical presentation, and potential sites of involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for characterization. We present the MRI classification and highlight the key imaging features that distinguish the different types, focusing on the three most common: seroma, subacute hematoma, and chronic organizing hematoma. Potential mimics of Morel-Lavallée lesions, such as soft tissue sarcoma and hemorrhagic prepatellar bursitis, are compared and contrasted. Treatment options and a management algorithm are also briefly discussed. PMID:23949106

Bonilla-Yoon, Iris; Masih, Sulabha; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Levine, Benjamin D; Chow, Kira; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Matcuk, George R

2014-02-01

258

Morbidity of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in the clinical presentation of panic disorder.  

PubMed

This study seeks to determine how panic disorder patients with anxiety and depression comorbidity differ from panic disorder patients without comorbidity at the time of presentation for treatment. One-hundred seventy-one panic disorder patients presenting for their initial assessment and treatment at the Payne Whitney Anxiety Disorders Clinic agreed to participate and completed self-report and diagnostic assessments. Sixty-seven percent of panic disorder subjects were found to have at least one comorbid anxiety or depression diagnosis. Age and gender ratio were not affected by the presence of comorbid diagnoses. Comorbidity significantly contributed to psychological distress and symptom load, overall impairment, and interpersonal impairment. PMID:11091930

Apfeldorf, W J; Spielman, L A; Cloitre, M; Heckelman, L; Shear, M K

2000-01-01

259

Epidemiological findings and clinical and magnetic resonance presentations in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.  

PubMed

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, inflammatory neurodegenerative disease. This study investigated the relationships of clinical stage with epidemiological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in SSPE by retrospective review of 76 cases (57 male) diagnosed by typical periodic electroencephalographic features, clinical symptoms and elevated measles antibody titre in cerebrospinal fluid. Clinical stage at diagnosis was I or II in 48 patients, III in 25 and IV in three. Prominent findings at presentation were atonic/myoclonic seizures (57.9%) and mental deterioration with behaviour alteration (30.3%). Frequent MRI findings (13 - 32 patients) were subcortical, periventricular and cortical involvement and brain atrophy; the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem were less frequently involved. Five patients had pseudotumour cerebri. Cranial MRI at initial diagnosis was normal in 21 patients (19 stage I/II, two stage III/IV). Abnormal MRI findings were significantly more frequent in the later stages, thus a normal initial cranial MRI does not exclude SSPE, which should, therefore, be kept in mind in childhood demyelinating diseases even when the presentation is unusual. PMID:21672364

Cece, H; Tokay, L; Yildiz, S; Karakas, O; Karakas, E; Iscan, A

2011-01-01

260

Presentation and Treatment of Subfertile Men with Balanced Translocations: The Cleveland Clinic Experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction Balanced chromosomal translocations are a relatively common (2–7%) finding among infertile couples. We report clinical features of males with translocations at our institution. Materials and Methods Data was collected on men presenting for infertility evaluation between July 2006 March 2010, including presentation, medical history, and infertility treatments. Criteria for genetic evaluation, consisting of karyotype and Y-linked microdeletion assay, included severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia (sperm concentration < 2.5×106/ml) or a history of recurrent miscarriages. Results Of the 4,612 patients in our male infertility clinic 306 met criteria for genetic evaluation. Three patients had a balanced translocation, of which 2 had Robertsonian translocations, and 1 had a balanced translocation. One patient had normal bulk semen parameters, normal volume azoospermia, and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. All patients were offered medical genetics consultation. Potential pregnancy outcomes were evaluated using a predictive software package. One patient had intratubular germ cell neoplasia and underwent orchiectomy; subsequent fertility evaluation has been deferred. The other 2 are considering in-vitro fertilization with pre-implantation genetic evaluation. Conclusions Given the low incidence of balanced translocations detected in our population, better clinical indicators other than semen parameters or history of recurrent pregnancy loss are needed to determine screening for this finding.

Ching, Christina B.; Ko, Edmund; Hecht, Bryan; Smith, Marissa; Sabanegh, Edmund

2012-01-01

261

Oral Lesion as the first Clinical Presentation in Sarcoidosis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a common multi-system disease characterized histolopathologically by the formation of non-caseating granulomas in the affected tissues. The oral involvement of sarcoidosis is relatively rare with less than 70 reported cases in literature while an oral lesion as the initial presenting sign is even less common. Oral lesions of sarcoidosis may mimic the lesions of other serious systemic diseases including Crohn’s disease and tuberculosis as well as lesions localized to the orofacial region such as orofacial granulomatosis. This report presents a case of non-progressive sarcoidosis where the initial presenting symptom was a lesion in the buccal vestibule attached to the gingivae. A brief review of the pathology and clinical features is also presented.

Al-Azri, Abdul Rahman S.; Logan, Richard M.; Goss, Alastair N.

2012-01-01

262

Orthostatic Hypotension-Related Hospitalizations in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension has been commonly described in elderly persons and is asso- ciated with an increased risk of falls, syncope, and cerebrovascular events. Nevertheless, the precise burden of this condition in the US is currently unknown. METHODS: We analyzed discharge data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify orthostatic hypotension-related hospitalizations and associated comorbidities after excluding acute causes of

Cyndya Shibao; Carlos G. Grijalva; Satish R. Raj; Italo Biaggioni; Marie R. Griffin

2007-01-01

263

Using dialysis machine technology to reduce intradialytic hypotension.  

PubMed

Intradialytic hypotension remains the most frequent complication associated with routine outpatient hemodialysis. Although increasing dialysis frequency and also lengthening dialysis session duration can reduce the risk of intradialytic hypotension, in practice, these options are limited to a small minority of dialysis patients. To help reduce intradialytic hypotension, a number of technological developments have been incorporated into the hemodialysis machine, based around relative blood volume monitoring, an indirect assessment of plasma volume. Further developments based on so called "fuzzy" logic feedback systems designed to adjust either or both the ultrafiltration rate and dialyzate sodium concentration according to relative changes in plasma volume. In addition, cooling and dissipation of the heat generated during dialysis also reduces the risk of intradialytic hypotension, and this can be regulated by cooling of the dialyzate using thermal control systems. In addition, convective therapies, such as online hemodialfiltration, have also been reported to reduce the frequency of intradialytic hypotension; whether this effect is simply due to increased cooling remains to be determined. Although all these developments have been reported to reduce the frequency of serious intradialytic hypotensive episodes, they have not been able to totally abolish hypotension, as they can not alone compensate for excessive weight gains and consequent excessive ultrafiltration requirements. Thus, in addition to the advances in hemodialysis machine technology designed to reduce intradialytic hypotension, attention also needs to be focused on reducing interdialytic weight gains, so reducing ultrafiltration requirement. PMID:22093599

Davenport, Andrew

2011-10-01

264

Severe postural hypotension following home canoe construction from polyester resins.  

PubMed

On two occasions a 36-year-old man developed severe postural hypotension and neurological signs after working with a polyester resin canoe building kit in an unventilated shed. It is likely that his recurrent illness was caused by styrene intoxication. Postural hypotension secondary to styrene exposure has not previously been reported. PMID:6463006

MacFarlane, I A; Wilkinson, R; Harrington, J M

1984-07-01

265

Voglibose inhibits postprandial hypotension in neurologic disorders and elderly people.  

PubMed

The authors examined blood pressure, glucose, insulin, and neurotensin before and after intake of 75 g glucose with or without voglibose in 28 neurologic patients and 20 healthy controls. Voglibose significantly prevented hypotension and neurotensin increment after glucose intake and had no influence on glucose or insulin increment. These results suggest that voglibose benefits postprandial hypotension. PMID:16682681

Maruta, Takahiro; Komai, Kiyonobu; Takamori, Masaharu; Yamada, Masahito

2006-05-01

266

Factors Associated with Hypotension and Bradycardia After Epidural Blockade  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify patient-, anesthesia-, and surgery- related factors influencing the probability of hypoten- sion and bradycardia after epidural blockade, an obser- vational study was conducted on 1050 nonpregnant patients. Backward stepwise logistic regression was performed on the variables hypotension (systolic blood pressure ~90 mm Hg) and bradycardia (heart rate 545 bpm). Hypotension and bradycardia occurred in 158 and

Michele Curatolo; Pasquale Scaramozzino; Francesco S. Venuti; Armando Orlando; Alex M. Zbinden

1996-01-01

267

Prevention of hypotension and prolongation of postoperative analgesia in emergency cesarean sections: A randomized study with intrathecal clonidine  

PubMed Central

Background and Context: Different adjuvants been tried out for neuraxial anesthesia in emergency caesarean section so that the dose of the local anesthetic can be reduced and hypotension thereby prevented. Aims and Objectives: The present study was carried out in patients presenting for emergency lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) to establish the dose of intrathecal clonidine that would allow reduction of the dose of local anesthetic (thereby reducing the incidence and magnitude of hypotension) while at the same time providing clinically relevant prolongation of spinal anesthesia without significant side effects. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical study was carried out in our institution among 100 pregnant females who underwent emergency caesarean section. The participants were divided randomly into four groups: A, B, C, and D, each comprising 25 parturients. Subarachnoid block was performed using a 26G Quincke needle, with 12 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine (LA) in group A, 9 mg of LA + 30 ?g of clonidine in group B, LA + 37.5 ?g of clonidine in group C, and LA + 45 ?g of clonidine in group D. The solution was uniformly made up to 2.2 mL with normal saline in all the groups. Onset of analgesia at T10 level, sensory and motor blockade levels, maternal heart rate and blood pressure, neonatal Apgar scores, postoperative block characteristics, and adverse events were looked for and recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS® version 10.0 for Windows®, using the ANOVA test with post hoc significance, the Chi-square test, and the Mann-Whitney U test. P<.05 was considered significant and P<.0001 as highly significant. Results: One hundred patients were enrolled for this study. The four groups were comparable with regard to demographic data and neonatal Apgar scores. Onset and establishment of sensory and motor analgesia was significantly shorter in groups C and D, while hypotension (and the use of vasopressors) was significantly higher in groups A and D. Perioperative shivering, nausea, and vomiting were significantly higher in groups A and D, while incidence of dry mouth was significantly higher in group D. Conclusions: The addition of 45 ?g, 37.5 ?g, and 30 ?g of clonidine to hyperbaric bupivacaine results in more prolonged complete and effective analgesia, allowing reduction of up to 18% of the total dose of hyperbaric bupivacaine. From the results of this study, 37.5 ?g of clonidine seems to be the optimal dose.

Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur; Kaur, Jasbir; Singh, Amarjit; Singh, Anita; Parmar, Surjit Singh

2012-01-01

268

Gender Differences in the Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation, and Outcomes of Ischemic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF) remains a frequent acute and long-term outcome of ischemic heart disease (IHD). In response to acute coronary ischemia, women are relatively protected from apoptosis, and experience less adverse cardiac remodeling than men, frequently resulting in preservation of left ventricular size and ejection fraction. Despite these advantages, women are at increased risk for HF-complicating acute MI when compared with men. However, women with HF retain a survival advantage over men with HF, including a decreased risk of sudden death. Sex-specific treatment of HF has been hindered by historical under-representation of women in clinical trials, though recent work has suggested that women may have a differential response to some therapies such as cardiac resynchronization. This review highlights the sex differences in the pathophysiology, clinical presentation and outcomes of ischemic heart failure and discusses key areas worthy of further investigation.

Dunlay, Shannon M.; Roger, Veronique L.

2013-01-01

269

Phenotypes as Clues to Deciphering the Clinical Presentations, Pathogenesis and Treatment of the Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies  

PubMed Central

The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies or myositis syndromes, the most common forms of which are polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis, are systemic autoimmune diseases defined by chronic muscle weakness and inflammation of unknown etiology resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. We describe a dermatomyositis patient who represents a newly recognized phenotype defined by anti-p155 autoantibodies. She presented with photosensitive skin rashes and had a chronic illness course with widespread skin disease and generalized lipodystrophy. Research suggests that categorizing the heterogeneous myositis syndromes into mutually exclusive and stable phenotypes by using clinical and immune response features is useful for predicting clinical signs and symptoms, associated genetic and environmental risk factors, responses to therapy and prognosis. Knowledge of myositis phenotypes should enhance clinicians’ ability to recognize and manage these rare disorders.

Miller, Frederick W.

2014-01-01

270

Aggressive Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: A Case Report with an Unusual Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an uncommon surgical entity. We report a case of aggressive disease with an unusual clinical presentation and we analyze current data on diagnosis and management of PMP. Case Presentation. A 71-year-old male patient presented with intermittent diarrhea and loss of appetite during the last two months, without any other classic symptoms of PMP. The clinical examination was misleading due to patient's obesity. The radiological evaluation revealed ascites of the abdomen and possible mucocele of the appendix, whereas the laboratory exams showed high values of specific tumour markers. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for definite diagnosis. Biopsies and immunohistochemical examination confirmed the diagnosis of an aggressive and extended peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis (PMCA). The patient was programmed for adjuvant systematic chemotherapy, which was not completed due to progression of the disease. Conclusions. Progressed PMP can present with unspecific symptoms that mislead diagnosis. Cytoreductive surgery in combination with systematic chemotherapy could be appropriate for aggressive PMCA, even with an unfavourable prognosis.

Kavouras, Nikolaos; Menis, Michalis; Lavant, Laurant

2013-01-01

271

Tuberculous Otitis with Proteus mirabilis Co-Infection: An Unsuspected Presentation Encountered in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis, a contagious bacterial disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily involves the lungs.Though Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is the commonest clinical presentation, there is a need for alertness towards uncommon presentations which involve other organs. Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is one such rare presentation seen in paediatric practice. It is characterized by painless otorrhoea which fails to respond to the routine antibacterial treatment. TOM usually occurs secondary to PTB. Here is a case of tuberculous otitis media with Proteus mirabilis co-infection, with no evidence of PTB. In the sample of ear discharge obtained from the patient, acid fast bacilli were demonstrated on direct microscopy after Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Culture done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium demonstrated slow-growing Mycobacterium. Bacteriological culture and identification helped in isolating Proteus mirabilis. PCR, followed by Line- Probe Assay for early identification and susceptibility testing to primary drugs, was done. Further, patient tested negative for the Mantoux test. Patient was enrolled in National Tuberculosis programme- RNTCP. This case emphasizes on one of the less common presentations of a common disease. A high clinical suspicion and laboratory confirmation are required for appropriate patient management.

Sardar, Moumita; Jadhav, Savita Vivek; Vyawahare, Chanda; Misra, Rabindranath

2014-01-01

272

Late clinical presentation of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in older children: findings from national paediatric surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the clinical presentation and sequelae, including salt-wasting crises of newly-diagnosed congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in children aged over 1?year in a contemporary population without screening. To appraise the potential benefit of newborn screening for late-presenting CAH. Design Active national surveillance undertaken in Great Britain prospectively from 2007–2009 through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Setting England, Wales and Scotland. Patients Children first presenting aged 1–15?years with clinical features of CAH and elevated 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Results Fifty-eight children (26 [45%] boys) aged 1–15?years were reported; 50 (86%) had 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Diagnosis was precipitated by secondary sexual characteristics (n=38 [66%]; median age 5.8 [IQR] 4.8, 7.6) years, genital virilisation (8 girls; 3.2 [IQR 1.3, 7.3] years) or an affected sibling (n=8; 10.0 [IQR 7.4, 13.3] years). At least 33 (57%) children had advanced bone age and 13 (30%) were obese (body mass index ?95th centile). No child had experienced a salt-wasting crisis. Conclusions In Great Britain, 30 children aged 1–15?years present annually for the first time with CAH. Older children frequently manifest prematurely advanced epiphyseal and pubertal maturation and genital virilisation, which are often irreversible and likely to have long-lasting consequences for adult health and wellbeing. Almost one-third of affected children are obese before commencing steroid therapy. Newborn screening offers the potential to avoid serious clinical manifestations in older children with unrecognised CAH; however, it may also detect some children who would otherwise remain asymptomatic and for whom the benefit from treatment is uncertain.

Knowles, Rachel L; Khalid, Javaria M; Oerton, Juliet M; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Kelnar, Christopher J; Dezateux, Carol

2014-01-01

273

Deliberate hypotensive anesthesia with the rapidly acting, vascular-selective, L-type calcium channel antagonist-clevidipine: a case report.  

PubMed

Abstract Deliberate hypotension is an important technique for use in select anesthetics for procedures such as orthognathic surgery, specifically LeFort I maxillary osteotomy. We present a case report of an anesthetic involving deliberate hypotension for a 17-year-old female patient who presented for a LeFort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal split of the mandible, and a genioplasty in order to correct a skeletal class III malocclusion. After reaching a steady-state general anesthetic, deliberate hypotension was induced solely with a bolus and subsequent continuous infusion of the ultrashort acting calcium channel blocker, clevidipine. The preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative course and anesthetic management are discussed. PMID:24697821

Croft, Kevin; Probst, Stephen

2014-01-01

274

A new measure of patient satisfaction with ocular hypotensive medications: The Treatment Satisfaction Survey for Intraocular Pressure (TSS-IOP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To validate the treatment-specific Treatment Satisfaction Survey for Intraocular Pressure (TSS-IOP). METHODS: Item content was developed by 4 heterogeneous patient focus groups (n = 32). Instrument validation involved 250 patients on ocular hypotensive medications recruited from ophthalmology practices in the Southern USA. Participants responded to demographic and test questions during a clinic visit. Standard psychometric analyses were performed on

Mark J Atkinson; William C Stewart; Joel M Fain; Jeanette A Stewart; Ravinder Dhawan; Essy Mozaffari; Jan Lohs

2003-01-01

275

Regional redistribution of blood flow in the external and internal carotid arteries during acute hypotension.  

PubMed

The present study examined to what extent an acute bout of hypotension influences blood flow in the external carotid artery (ECA) and the corresponding implications for blood flow regulation in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Nine healthy male participants were subjected to an abrupt decrease in arterial pressure via the thigh-cuff inflation-deflation technique. Duplex ultrasound was employed to measure beat-to-beat ECA and ICA blood flow. Compared with the baseline normotensive control, acute hypotension resulted in a heterogeneous blood flow response. ICA blood flow initially decreased following cuff release and then returned quickly to baseline levels. In contrast, the reduction in ECA blood flow persisted for 30 s following cuff release. Thus, the contribution of common carotid artery blood flow to the ECA circulation decreased during acute hypotension (-10 ± 4%, P < 0.001). This finding suggests that a preserved reduction in ECA blood flow, as well as dynamic cerebral autoregulation likely prevent a further decrease in intracranial blood flow during acute hypotension. The peripheral vasculature of the ECA may, thus, be considered an important vascular bed for intracranial cerebral blood flow regulation. PMID:24598464

Ogoh, Shigehiko; Lericollais, Romain; Hirasawa, Ai; Sakai, Sadayoshi; Normand, Hervé; Bailey, Damian M

2014-05-15

276

Spontaneous CSF Collection in the Cervical Spine may Cause Neurological Deficit and Intra-cranial Hypotension  

PubMed Central

Objective: a case is described of a spontaneously occurring cerebrospinal fluid collection in the ventral cervical spine which caused radiculopathy and spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Case: a sixty eight year old Caucasian man presented with a 2 year history of proximal upper limb weakness with a his-tory of trivial cervical trauma many years previously. Methods: the patient was investigated with blood tests for causes of peripheral neuropathy, nerve conduction and electro-myography studies, lumbar puncture and MRI of the brain and spine with contrast. Results: a cerebrospinal fluid collection was identified in the ventral cervical spinal cord causing mass effect associated with cord atrophy and there were signs of spontaneous intracranial hypotension on the MRI brain including subdural cere-brospinal fluid collections, meningeal enhancement and slumped posterior fossa. Conclusions: this is the first description of a spontaneous spinal fluid collection causing direct compression and cord sig-nal change, manifest as a motor deficit, with intracranial signs of spontaneous hypotension. Spinal imaging is recom-mended in cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and cerebrospinal fluid collections in the spine may rarely be a cause of radiculopathy in such cases.

Zakaria, Rasheed; Wilby, Martin; Fletcher, Nicholas A

2013-01-01

277

Gender Differences in Clinical Presentation and Outcomes of Epidemic Kaposi Sarcoma in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Introduction The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has increased dramatically among women in sub-Saharan Africa since the onset of the HIV pandemic, but data on KS disease in women are limited. To identify gender-related differences in KS presentation and outcomes, we evaluated the clinical manifestations and response in men and women with AIDS-associated KS in Uganda. Methods and Findings HIV-infected adults with KS attending the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) and Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) in Kampala, Uganda between 2004 and 2006 were included in a retrospective cohort. Evaluation of KS presentation was based on the clinical features described at the initial KS visit. Response was evaluated as the time to “improvement”, as defined by any decrease in lesion size, lesion number, or edema. The cohort consisted of 197 adults with HIV and KS: 55% (108/197) were women. At presentation, the median CD4 T-cell count was significantly lower in women (58 cells/mm3; IQR 11–156 cells/mm3) than men (124 cells/mm3; IQR 22–254 cells/mm3) (p?=?0.02). Women were more likely than men to present with lesions of the face (OR 2.8, 95% CI, 1.4, 5.7; p?=?0.005) and hard palate (OR 2.0, 95% CI, 1.1, 3.7; p?=?0.02), and were less likely than men to have lower extremity lesions (OR 0.54, 95% CI, 0.3, 0.99; p?=?0.05). Women were less likely than men to demonstrate clinical improvement (HR?=?0.52, CI 0.31, 0.88; p?=?0.01) in multivariate analysis. Conclusions The clinical presentation and response of KS differs between men and women in Uganda. These data suggest that gender affects the pathophysiology of KS, which may have implications for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of KS in both men and women. Prospective studies are needed to identify predictors of response and evaluate efficacy of treatment in women with KS, particularly in Africa where the disease burden is greatest.

Phipps, Warren; Ssewankambo, Fred; Nguyen, Huong; Saracino, Misty; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Orem, Jackson; Kambugu, Andrew; Casper, Corey

2010-01-01

278

Clinical challenges in drug induced pancreatitis: Presentation of two cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION A wide variety of drugs have been reported to cause pancreatitis. Although the incidence of drug induced acute pancreatitis is low, the disease is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, which makes timely identification of the causative agent important. PRESENTATION OF CASE Herein, we report two patients with clinical, biochemical, and radiological evidence of acute pancreatitis. There were no etiologic factors except their prescribed drugs. DISCUSSION The majority of patients with acute pancreatitis recover uneventfully, but there remains an uncontrollable risk of mortality. It is prudent to withdraw a medication with a known association with acute pancreatitis. Necessity of multi-drug regimens especially in oncological patients however, presents a challenge. CONCLUSION Corticosteroid pulse therapy was easily detectable as the causative agent in our first case, but combined anti-neoplastic drug therapy and additional multi-drug regimen presented great difficulties in identifying single causative agent in our second patient.

Yanar, Fatih; Agcaoglu, Orhan; Sarici, Inanc S.; Ozcinar, Beyza; Gok, Ali F.K.; Gunay, Kay?han; Ertekin, Cemalettin

2013-01-01

279

Intrinsic multipotential mesenchymal stromal cell activity in gelatinous Heberden's nodes in osteoarthritis at clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gelatinous Heberden’s nodes (HNs), also termed synovial cysts, are a common form of generalized osteoarthritis (OA). We sought to determine whether HN cases at clinical presentation contained multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) and to explore whether such cells were more closely related to bone marrow (BM) or synovial fluid (SF) MSCs by transcriptional analysis. Methods At clinical presentation, gelatinous material was extracted/extruded from the distal phalangeal joint of OA patients with HNs. From this, plastic adherent cells were culture-expanded for phenotypic and functional characterization and comparison with BM- and SF-MSCs. Mesenchymal related gene expression was studied by using a custom-designed TaqMan Low Density Array to determine transcriptional similarities between different MSC groups and skin fibroblasts. Results In all cases, HN material produced MSC-like colonies. Adherent cultures displayed an MSC phenotype (CD29+, CD44+, CD73+, CD81+, and CD90+ and CD14- CD19-, CD31-, CD34-, CD45-, and HLADR-) and exhibited osteogenic, chondrogenic lineage differentiation but weak adipogenesis. Gene cluster analysis showed that HN-MSCs were more closely related to SF- than normal or OA BM-MSCs with significantly higher expression of synovium-related gene markers such as bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1A (BMPR1A), protein/leucine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP), secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4), and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) (P <0.05). Conclusions Gelatinous HNs derived from hand OA at clinical presentation contain a population of MSCs that share transcriptional similarities with SF-derived MSCs. Their aberrant entrapment within the synovial cysts may impact on their normal role in joint homeostasis.

2014-01-01

280

A novel ATP1A3 mutation with unique clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Mutations in the ATP1A3 gene are associated with rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) and alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) as well as RDP/AHC intermediate presentations. Phenotypic diversity is being recognized. In order to identify ATP1A3-related phenotypes not meeting the classical criteria for RDP or AHC we lowered the threshold for mutation analysis in clinical presentations resembling AHC or RDP. A novel heterozygous ATP1A3 missense mutation c.2600G>A (p.Gly867Asp, G867D) was detected in a 15-year-old girl. Her clinical phenotype is partially consistent with an intermediate presentation between alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism and comprises additional yet unreported features. With onset at 4½years of age recurrent paroxysmal flaccid hemiplegia alternating in laterality was triggered by watching television or playing computer games. Occlusion of both eyes reliably stopped the plegic attacks with the patient remaining awake. Our observation further widens the phenotypic spectrum associated with ATP1A3 mutations. PMID:24713507

Rosewich, Hendrik; Baethmann, Martina; Ohlenbusch, Andreas; Gärtner, Jutta; Brockmann, Knut

2014-06-15

281

Thoracic empyema in children: Clinical presentation, microbiology analysis and therapeutic options.  

PubMed

Thoracic empyema is an accumulation of purulent fluid in the pleural space presenting as a complication of bacterial pneumonia. The aims of the study were to present the incidence, demographic results, clinical presentation, laboratory and microbiology results, imaging and the therapeutic options. From January 1992 until December 2009 we collected data of children hospitalized with empyema in our medical center in north of Israel. Empyema was found in 53 pediatric patients. The median age of the patients was 3 years and 31 (58%) were male. Forty one (77%) of the cases were diagnosed in the last nine years. Fever, cough and respiratory distress were the most frequent clinical signs. In 29 (55%) patients pleural effusion was found at admission. Chest ultrasound was performed in 44 (83%) of the patients. Causative organisms were confirmed by culture in 35 patients. Positive culture was found in 17 (32%) patients in the pleural fluid. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the leading pathogen. The drugs the patients received at admission were penicillin in 21 cases, cefuroxime in19 cases and ceftriaxone in 11 cases. During hospitalization a change of antibiotic therapy was required, using mainly ceftriaxone and clindamycin. The pleural purulent fluid was drained by video assisted thoracoscopy surgery in 34 (64%) patients. All the children recovered. The incidence of empyema as a complication of community acquired pneumonia had increased in the last decade in our region. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen. Third generation cephalosprins and clindamycin can be suggested as a good empiric treatment. PMID:24486171

Sakran, Waheeb; Ababseh, Zahr El Din; Miron, Dan; Koren, Ariel

2014-04-01

282

Red flags in patients presenting with headache: clinical indications for neuroimaging.  

PubMed

Headache is a very common patient complaint but secondary causes for headache are unusual. Neuroimaging is both expensive and has a low yield in this group. Most patients with intracranial pathology have clinical features that would raise a "red flag". Appropriate selection of patients with headache for neuroimaging to look for secondary causes is very important. Red flags act as screening tools to help in identifying those patients presenting with headache who would benefit from prompt neuroimaging, and may increase the yield. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical features in patients with headache using neuroimaging as a screening tool for intracranial pathology. 20 red flags were defined. A retrospective study of 111 patients was performed and the outcomes were divided into positive and negative. Abnormal neuroimaging was present in 39 patients. Results were analysed using the Logistic Regression model. Sensitivity and specificity of red flags were analysed to establish the cut-off point to predict abnormal neuroimaging and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve plotted to show the sensitivity of the diagnostic test. Three red flag features proved to be statistically significant with the p-value of less than 0.05 on both univariate and multivariate analysis. These were: paralysis; papilloedema; and "drowsiness, confusion, memory impairment and loss of consciousness". In addition, if three or more red flags from the list were present, this showed strong indication of abnormal neuroimaging, from cut-off point of ROC curve (area under the curve =0.76). PMID:12893694

M, Sobri; Lamont, A C; Alias, N A; Win, M N

2003-08-01

283

Clinical and biochemical patterns of presentation in monolateral and bilateral calcium nephrolithiasis.  

PubMed

To investigate patterns of monolateral and bilateral nephrolithiasis, we enrolled 196 patients with idiopathic calcium stone disease (ICaSD) and 36 with proven primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). Monolateral disease occurred in 45 subjects with ICaSD and 3 with PHP. All had had three or more stone events. They were studied for a number of clinical and biochemical parameters. The expected prevalence of monolateral stone disease was calculated according to the binomial distribution of random events. Whereas the observed and expected prevalence of monolateral nephrolithiasis did not differ in PHP, the distribution did not follow a chance pattern in ICaSD, since monolateral disease was still frequent among patient with more than 6 episodes. To find out whether monolateral and bilateral ICaSD had distinct pathogenic mechanisms the two groups were compared for clinical and biochemical patterns: no differences emerged concerning metabolic derangements, urine saturation and diet-related biochemistries. Bilateral stone-formers had a higher recurrence rate, but a similar number of stone-operations or ESWL. In 81 of 151 bilateral idiopathic stone-formers in which we were able to assess the exact number of stone events in left and right kidney, the distribution of stones between kidneys did not differ from the binomial distribution. In conclusion, while PHP-associated nephrolithiasis presents predictable patterns, ICaSD comprises a subset in which the disease occurs monolaterally. These forms cannot be distinguished from bilateral forms with common clinical features or routine biochemistries. PMID:9021237

Vitale, C; Marangella, M; Cosseddu, D; Tricerri, A; Linari, F

1997-01-01

284

A changing picture of shigellosis in southern Vietnam: shifting species dominance, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Background Shigellosis remains considerable public health problem in some developing countries. The nature of Shigellae suggests that they are highly adaptable when placed under selective pressure in a human population. This is demonstrated by variation and fluctuations in serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profile of organisms circulating in differing setting in endemic locations. Antimicrobial resistance in the genus Shigella is a constant threat, with reports of organisms in Asia being resistant to multiple antimicrobials and new generation therapies. Methods Here we compare microbiological, clinical and epidemiological data from patients with shigellosis over three different periods in southern Vietnam spanning14 years. Results Our data demonstrates a shift in dominant infecting species (S. flexneri to S. sonnei) and resistance profile of the organisms circulating in southern Vietnam. We find that there was no significant variation in the syndromes associated with either S. sonnei or S. flexneri, yet the clinical features of the disease are more severe in later observations. Conclusions Our findings show a change in clinical presentation of shigellosis in this setting, as the disease may be now more pronounced, this is concurrent with a change in antimicrobial resistance profile. These data highlight the socio-economic development of southern Vietnam and should guide future vaccine development and deployment strategies. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN55945881

2009-01-01

285

Frequency, Clinical Presentation, and Outcomes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury after Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is increasingly recognized as a common cause of acute hepatitis. The clinical impact of DILI following liver transplantation (LT) is not known. Aims To describe the frequency, clinical presentation, and outcomes of DILI among LT recipients. Methods LT recipients with possible DILI were identified using electronic pathology and clinical note database retrieval tools. Diagnostic criteria were applied to identify cases of DILI. Results Among 1689 LT recipients, 29 individuals with DILI (1.7%) were identified. Mean age was 52 years with 52 % women. Major indications for LT were primary sclerosing cholangitis (28%), cholangiocarcinoma (14%), and hepatocellular carcinoma (14%). Severity of DILI was mild or moderate in 92% of cases. Nausea or diarrhea (31%), jaundice (24%), and pruritus (10%) were the most common symptoms at diagnosis. Mean ALT was 204±263 U/L, AST 108 ± 237 U/L, ALP 469 ± 689 U/L, and TB 1.9±10.3 mg/dL. Median duration of medication use until DILI diagnosis was 57 days, and major classes of agents were antibiotics (48%), immunosuppressive agents (14%), and antihyperlipidemic drugs (7%), Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was the most common single implicated agent (n=11). Serum liver enzymes improved within a median time of 34 days (range, 5-246 days) after drug withdrawal. Hepatic re-transplantation or death did not occur. Among 50 cases with possible DILI explained by other causes, 13 (26%) individuals had no alternate diagnosis despite histology compatible with DILI. Conclusions DILI is a rare yet under-recognized event among LT recipients. The majority of cases are not clinically severe, and resolve following drug cessation without hepatic retransplantation or death.

Sembera, Stepan; Lammert, Craig; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Sanderson, Schuyler O.; Poterucha, John J.; Hay, J. Eileen; Wiesner, Russell H.; Gores, Gregory J.; Rosen, Charles B.; Heimbach, Julie K.; Charlton, Michael R.

2012-01-01

286

Microvascular Coronary Artery Spasm Presents Distinctive Clinical Features With Endothelial Dysfunction as Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Angina without significant stenosis, or nonobstructive coronary artery disease, attracts clinical attention. Microvascular coronary artery spasm (microvascular CAS) can cause nonobstructive coronary artery disease. We investigated the clinical features of microvascular CAS and the therapeutic efficacy of calcium channel blockers. Methods and Results Three hundred seventy consecutive, stable patients with suspected angina presenting nonobstructive coronary arteries (<50% diameter) in coronary angiography were investigated with the intracoronary acetylcholine provocation test, with simultaneous measurements of transcardiac lactate production and of changes in the quantitative coronary blood flow. We diagnosed microvascular CAS according to lactate production and a decrease in coronary blood flow without epicardial vasospasm during the acetylcholine provocation test. We prospectively followed up the patients with calcium channel blockers for microvascular coronary artery disease. We identified 50 patients with microvascular CAS who demonstrated significant impairment of the endothelium-dependent vascular response, which was assessed by coronary blood flow during the acetylcholine provocation test. Administration of isosorbide dinitrate normalized the abnormal coronary flow pattern in the patients with microvascular CAS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that female sex, a lower body mass index, minor–borderline ischemic electrocardiogram findings at rest, limited–baseline diastolic-to-systolic velocity ratio, and attenuated adenosine triphosphate–induced coronary flow reserve were independently correlated with the presence of microvascular CAS. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis revealed that the aforementioned 5-variable model showed good correlation with the presence of microvascular CAS (area under the curve: 0.820). No patients with microvascular CAS treated with calcium channel blockers developed cardiovascular events over 47.8±27.5 months. Conclusions Microvascular CAS causes distinctive clinical features and endothelial dysfunction that are important to recognize as nonobstructive coronary artery disease so that optimal care with calcium channel blockers can be provided. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.umin.ac.jp/ctr. Unique identifier: UMIN000003839.

Ohba, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Seigo; Sumida, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Maeda, Hirofumi; Sugamura, Koichi; Nagayoshi, Yasuhiro; Morihisa, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kenji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamamuro, Megumi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Tayama, Shinji; Hokimoto, Seiji; Matsui, Kunihiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Hisao

2012-01-01

287

Mechanisms of orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia in patients with pheochromocytoma.  

PubMed

We have explored the pathophysiological mechanisms of orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic tachycardia, found to be present in 83% and 61% respectively of 18 patients with subsequently proven pheochromocytoma. Orthostatic increases in plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were significantly greater in the patients than in normal control subjects. Intravenous infusions of NE at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 micrograms/min induced similar increases in plasma NE levels but smaller increments in systolic and diastolic BP in the pheochromocytoma patients than in normal control subjects. This was reflected by a significantly greater increment in plasma NE concentration required to raise systolic BP by 15 mm Hg and diastolic BP by 7 mm Hg in the pheochromocytoma patients than in the normal subjects (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). Measurements of venous contractile responses to locally infused NE by the dorsal hand vein (LVDT) technique revealed significantly reduced slopes of the regressions of log NE infusion rate on change in venous diameter in the pheochromocytoma patients compared with normal subjects. The results indicate reduced responsiveness of the vasculature to NE in patients with pheochromocytoma, probably due to down-regulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors resulting from persistent elevation of the physiological agonist NE. This was shown by other authors to be present in circulating platelets. The pathophysiological importance of the subnormal venous responses to the orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia in the patients were supported by the finding that the orthostatic changes were corrected by lower body compression to 45 mm Hg with a MAST pressure suit. PMID:8862222

Streeten, D H; Anderson, G H

1996-08-01

288

Angiosarcoma of Small Bowel Presenting with Obstruction: Novel Observations on a Rare Diagnostic Entity with Unique Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

We present a case of angiosarcoma in small bowel, presenting with partial small bowel obstruction in a 79-year-old man with no history of radiation, chemotherapy, toxin exposure, or previous operative intervention. Angiosarcoma of small bowel is a rare entity which may present with nausea, abdominal pain, recurrent bleeding, and usually a history of prior radiation or exposure to specific toxins (polyvinyl chloride). Angiosarcoma of small bowel tends to spread rapidly and has a poor prognosis. We review the surgical and oncologic challenges. We report unique macroscopic findings of raised hyperemic margins, which are suggestive of a vasogenic lesion and the histologic feature of a partially retiform pattern with dense basement membrane material in an otherwise poorly differentiated lesion.

Siderits, Richard; Poblete, Frederick; Saraiya, Biren; Rimmer, Cheryl; Hazra, Anup; Aye, Le

2012-01-01

289

Rat renal papillary release of hypotensive substances in vitro.  

PubMed

Platelet activating factor (PAF) is produced by the rat renal papilla from a neutral lipid, alkylacetylglycerol. Renal release of another neutral lipid, antihypertensive neutral renomedullary lipid, and PAF might account for normalization of blood pressure after unclipping in Goldblatt hypertensive rats. We studied the potential storage and release of hypotensive substances by the rat renal papilla in vitro. Rat kidneys were snap-frozen in liquid N2-cooled freon immediately after removal and the total lipids were extracted from pooled dissected papillae and partially separated by thin layer chromatography on silica gel with a hexane: ether: acetic acid (40:60:1) solvent system. Lipids eluted from four, contiguous silica gel zones were assayed in anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats. No hypotensive activity was found in the thin layer chromatography lipid fraction co-migrating with palmitylacetylglycerol or in any other neutral lipid fraction. In contrast, the Krebs medium obtained after 30-min incubation of freshly minced papillary tissue induced dose-related hypotension and bradycardia. The hypotensive activity was equivalent to 48 +/- 9 ng prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)/mg wet papilla. Bradycardia induced by the incubation medium was correlated with decrements in blood pressure. In the same assays, nitroprusside caused tachycardia which was correlated with hypotension, and the bradycardia associated with PGE2-induced hypotension was significantly less than that induced by the incubation medium. The dose-related effects of the incubation medium were dramatically attenuated by indomethacin treatment of the papilla, suggesting that the hypotensive activity is dependent upon papillary cyclooxygenase activity. However, PGI2 elicited hypotension concomitant with tachycardia rather than bradycardia and PGE2 did not mimic the incubation medium-induced bradycardia. Therefore, the effects of the papillary incubation medium may be mediated by other cyclooxygenase metabolites. Production/release of hypotensive material by indomethacin-treated papillary tissue was potentiated by co-incubation with non-hypotensive quantities of PGE2, suggesting a potential role for PGE2 in the renal antihypertensive function. Increasing pressure on the papilla from 6 to 20 mmHg during incubation did not increase release of non-prostanoid hypotensive substance(s). These results suggest that the formation and release of cyclooxygenase metabolites accounts primarily for the hypotensive activity released from rat renal papillae in vitro, and that prostaglandins might play a permissive role in the release of other renomedullary hypotensive substances. PMID:1655886

Ma, Y H; Dunham, E W

1991-08-01

290

The prevalence and clinical presentation of antenatal depression in rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Although the prevalence of depression is similar in pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant women, the onset of new depression is higher during the perinatal period. Women of low-income, and those living in low and middle income countries, are known to be at particularly high risk. Early identification and treatment of antenatal depression may improve pregnancy outcomes and could serve as an early indicator of postnatal depression. Culturally sensitive and accurate diagnostic tools are urgently needed. Methods A consecutive series of 109 pregnant women were recruited in the third trimester at a primary health clinic, in a rural part of South Africa, with a high HIV prevalence. A cross sectional assessment of depression was completed using a structured clinical interview method and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Qualitative data on women's descriptions of depressive symptoms was also collected. The aim was to examine the prevalence of depression and to better understand the presentation of depressive symptomatology in this population. Results Prevalence of depression was high, 51/109 (47%), with over half of the depressed women 34/51(67%) reporting episode duration greater than two months. 8/51 reported a prior history of depression. Women used psychological language to describe symptoms and, as a result, standardised diagnostic tools were culturally sensitive. Somatic pregnancy symptoms were frequently reported, but did not overestimate depression. Both HIV positive (27/51) and HIV negative (24/51) women were at risk of being depressed. Limitations The study is limited by the small sample size and possible attrition biases. Conclusion Antenatal depression is high and clinical presentation is similar to high income countries. Standardised diagnostic tools are culturally sensitive and adequate for early detection.

Rochat, Tamsen Jean; Tomlinson, Mark; Barnighausen, Till; Newell, Marie-Louise; Stein, Alan

2011-01-01

291

Impact of Isoniazid Resistance-Conferring Mutations on the Clinical Presentation of Isoniazid Monoresistant Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background Specific isoniazid (INH) resistance conferring mutations have been shown to impact the likelihood of tuberculosis (TB) transmission. However, their role in the clinical presentation and outcomes of TB has not been evaluated. Methods We included all cases of culture-confirmed, INH monoresistant tuberculosis reported to the San Francisco Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Control Section from October 1992 through October 2005. For cases with stored culture isolates, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and gene sequencing to identify INH resistance-conferring mutations, and compared genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Results Among 101 consecutive cases of INH monoresistant TB in San Francisco 19 (19%) had isolates with a katG mutation other than S315T; 38 (38%) had isolates with the katG S315T mutation, 29 (29%) had isolates with a inhA-15;c-t promoter mutation, and 15 (15%) had isolates with other mutations. The katG S315T mutation was independently associated with high-level INH resistance (risk ratio [RR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–2.27), and the inhA-15;c-t promoter mutation was inversely associated with high-level INH resistance (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21–0.89). However, specific INH resistance-conferring mutations were not associated with the clinical severity or outcomes of INH monoresistant TB cases. Conclusion These data suggest that INH resistance-conferring mutations do not impact the clinical presentation of TB.

Dantes, Raymund; Metcalfe, John; Kim, Elizabeth; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Hopewell, Philip C.; Kawamura, Masae; Nahid, Payam; Cattamanchi, Adithya

2012-01-01

292

Association between genotype, clinical presentation, and severity of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a review.  

PubMed

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) applies to a family of inherited disorders of steroidogenesis caused by an abnormality in one of the five enzymatic steps necessary in the conversion of cholesterol to cortisol. The enzyme defects are transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. Patients with a "classical" form of CAH usually present during the neonatal and early infancy period with adrenal insufficiency, which could be associated with a salt- losing pathology. Females usually have genital ambiguity. Approximately 67% of classical CAH patients are classified as "salt-losing", while 33% have "non-salt-losing" or the "simple-virilizing" form, reflecting the degree of aldosterone deficiency. Non-classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC 21-OHD) refers to the condition in which partial deficiencies of 21-hydroxylation produce less extreme hyperandrogenemia and milder symptoms. Females do not demonstrate genital ambiguity at birth. The gene for adrenal 21-hydroxylase, CYP21, is located on chromosome 6p in the area of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Specific mutations may be associated with a certain degree of enzymatic compromise and the clinical form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). NC 21-OHD patients are predicted to have mild mutations on both alleles and one severe or one mild mutation of the 21-OH locus (compound heterozygote). This review aims to describe the association between the genotype and clinical presentations and severity of CAH. PMID:23692712

Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E; Ocheltree, Ali H; Al-Tamimi, Masha'el D

2012-01-01

293

Clinical Presentation and Course of Acute Hepatitis C Infection in HIV-Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a significant source of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. However, little is known about the clinical presentation and course of acute HCV infection in this population. This study reports the outcomes of acute HCV infection in 9 HIV-infected men. Sex with men was the only reported risk factor for HCV infection in 6 of the subjects. Clinical presentation of acute HCV ranged from incidentally discovered elevated transaminases to severe liver dysfunction requiring hospitalization. At the time of HCV diagnosis, 8 of 9 patients had CD4+ counts >250 cells/mm3, and 6 had HIV viral loads of ?5000 copies/mL. Eight patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Outcome of these acute HCV infections varied. Five patients experienced virologic clearance, 2 in whom virus cleared spontaneously and 3 who were treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Four patients developed chronic infection, one of whom had a relapse during HCV treatment and 3 of whom were untreated. All 4 patients to whom HCV therapy was administered experienced significant anemia or neutropenia, necessitating dose reduction or support with growth factors. Prompt recognition of acute HCV infection may minimize antiretroviral treatment interruption and will allow early treatment, which may improve virologic clearance. Unexplained transaminase elevations in HIV-infected patients, including men who have sex with men, should trigger an evaluation for acute HCV infection.

Luetkemeyer, Annie; Hare, Bradley; Stansell, John; Tien, Phyllis C.; Charlesbois, Edwin; Lum, Paula; Havlir, Diane; Peters, Marion

2014-01-01

294

Twenty-four cases of the EEC syndrome: clinical presentation and management.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-four cases of EEC syndrome were identified as part of a nationwide study. Ectodermal dysplasia, by study definition, was present in all cases and hair and teeth were universally affected. Nail dysplasia was present in 19 subjects (79%) and the skin was affected in 21 (87%). The presence of hypohidrosis was not noted as a predominant feature in the syndrome and its occurrence appeared to depend on the presence of all other features. Distal limb defects from simple syndactyly to tetramelic cleft hand and foot were identified, including preaxial anomalies. Orofacial clefting was identified in 14 cases (58%) and lacrimal duct anomaly in 21 (87%). Significant clinical problems encountered were chiefly cosmetic or ophthalmological, but conductive deafness and genitourinary problems in some cases required surgical intervention. Altered self-image was also noted in some cases. Multidisciplinary management is necessary with the early involvement of the clinical geneticist. Developmentally, the EEC syndrome and related disorders represent disorders of ectodermal/mesodermal interaction. Candidate regions include 7q21.3, the "ectrodactyly" locus; other candidates include developmental genes implicated in the ectodermal/mesodermal interactive process. Images

Buss, P W; Hughes, H E; Clarke, A

1995-01-01

295

A longitudinal study of a harlequin infant presenting clinically as non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma.  

PubMed

Over the past 8 years, we have followed a child born as a harlequin baby, who survived due to treatment with retinoids. His condition evolved clinically towards the erythrodermic form of lamellar ichthyosis (non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, NBCIE). According to ultrastructural and biochemical criteria, our patient originally presented with type II harlequin ichthyosis. Investigations showed an abnormal keratinosome structure and extrusion, a keratin pattern characteristic for epidermal hyperproliferation, and an absence of conversion of profilaggrin to filaggrin. Persisting keratinocyte hyperproliferation, associated with the presence of a dermal infiltrate, is in agreement with the present clinical picture of severe NBCIE. However, abnormal lamellar body production and defective filaggrin processing, which is not one of the diagnostic criteria of NBCIE, persist in the patient's skin. Further studies of the epidermal lipid composition, and of possible mutations of the keratinocyte transglutaminase gene performed on epidermal cell cultures of harlequin ichthyosis, will be necessary before type II harlequin ichthyosis can be accepted as an extremely severe form of NBCIE. PMID:8949442

Haftek, M; Cambazard, F; Dhouailly, D; Réano, A; Simon, M; Lachaux, A; Serre, G; Claudy, A; Schmitt, D

1996-09-01

296

Purpura of the Face and Neck: An Atypical Clinical Presentation Revealing a Hepatosplenic T Cell Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma (HSTL) is a rare but very aggressive peripheral T cell lymphoma whose initial silent clinical presentation unfortunately delays the diagnosis and worsens the prognosis of patient survival. Efforts should be aimed at early recognition and treatment. Methods We describe a case of a 62-year-old woman who presented at our clinic with a non-palpable purpuric eruption of the face. Investigations revealed thrombocytopenia with hepatosplenomegaly, which showed rapid progression together with accentuation of the purpura. Two months later, a bone marrow biopsy revealed the diagnosis of a HSTL. Results The patient received six cycles of CHOP chemotherapy (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, methylprednisolone) followed by a well-tolerated autologous bone marrow graft. Normalization of the platelet count resulted in regression of the purpuric rash. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of a facial thrombocytopenic purpura as the inaugural symptom of HSTL. It emphasizes the privileged position of the dermatologist for early recognition of potentially lethal HSTL.

Kuonen, Francois; Bucher, Maya; de Leval, Laurence; Vernez, Maxime; Gilliet, Michel; Conrad, Curdin; Feldmeyer, Laurence

2014-01-01

297

Dynamic data during hypotensive episode improves mortality predictions among patients with sepsis and hypotension  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if a prediction rule for hospital mortality using dynamic variables in response to treatment of hypotension in patients with sepsis performs better than current models Design Retrospective cohort study Setting All intensive care units at a tertiary care hospital Patients Adult patients admitted to intensive care units between 2001 and 2007 of whom 2,113 met inclusion criteria and had sufficient data Interventions None Measurements and Main Results We developed a prediction algorithm for hospital mortality in patients with sepsis and hypotension requiring medical intervention using data from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II database). We extracted 189 candidate variables, including treatments, physiologic variables and laboratory values collected before, during and after a hypotensive episode. Thirty predictors were identified using a genetic algorithm on a training set (n=1500), and validated with a logistic regression model on an independent validation set (n=613). The final prediction algorithm used included dynamic information and had good discrimination (AUC = 82.0%) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow C statistic = 10.43, p=0.06). This model was compared to APACHE IV using reclassification indices and was found to be superior with a NRI of 0.19 (p<0.001) and an IDI of 0.09 (p<0.001). Conclusions Hospital mortality predictions based on dynamic variables surrounding a hypotensive event is a new approach to predicting prognosis. A model using these variables has good discrimination and calibration, and offers additional predictive prognostic information beyond established ones.

Mayaud, Louis; Lai, Peggy S.; Clifford, Gari D.; Tarassenko, Lionel; Celi, Leo Anthony G.; Annane, Djillali

2012-01-01

298

In vivo pharmacodynamic interactions between two drugs used in orthostatic hypotension--midodrine and dihydroergotamine.  

PubMed

A combination of midodrine and dihydroergotamine (DHE) is frequently used clinically in patients suffering from severe orthostatic hypotension (OH). Whereas midodrine acts as a selective, peripheral alpha1-receptor agonist, DHE displays complex pharmacology and can behave as an alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist or antagonist. Surprisingly, the consequences of such a combination on blood pressure have never been investigated. The present study was performed in order to evaluate the pressor effects induced by the administration of both midodrine and DHE in old conscious dogs (n = 6) in experimental condition reproducing autonomic failure-related baroreflex dysfunction (atropine 0.1 mg/kg). For this purpose, we first studied the relative potency and intrinsic activity of each agonist and noradrenaline (NA) for the alpha1-adrenergic receptor. The orders of potency obtained in our study were 0.35, 11 and 400 microg/kg for NA, DHE and midodrine, and intrinsic activity: NA > midodrine > DHE. These results strongly suggest that DHE really acts in vivo as an alpha1-adrenoceptor partial agonist. Afterwards, the pressor effects of coadministration of midodrine (0.4 mg/kg) and DHE (15 microg/kg) were investigated: in one setting, midodrine was first administered, followed by DHE; in another, DHE was first administered, followed by midodrine. Our results show that in conscious dogs, the combination of midodrine and DHE leads to near-complete abolition of the pressor effect induced by the first administered drug. This in vivo proof of such antagonistic effects on blood pressure could explain clinical observations of worsening of OH in humans administered midodrine plus DHE. Although in vivo results obtained in conscious healthy dogs need to be experimentally and clinically confirmed in humans suffering from OH, these results strongly suggest that a midodrine-DHE combined treatment should be avoided in clinical practice. PMID:17227444

Jourdan, Géraldine; Verwaerde, Patrick; Pathak, Atul; Tran, Marie-Antoinette; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Senard, Jean-Michel

2007-02-01

299

Presentations from the SNM NCI Workshop: Use of PET CT in the Clinic and Clinical Trials: Quantitation for Change Analysis  

Cancer.gov

The session was aimed at physicians and physicists with an interest in the use of PET CT and other imaging modalities in clinical trials and clinical medicine. A basic understanding of PET imaging principles is useful as a background for viewing this material.

300

Evaluation and treatment of orthostatic hypotension.  

PubMed

This paper provides recommendations on the treatment of orthostatic hypotension (OH) as reviewed by the American Society of Hypertension. It focuses on recent reports on the evaluation and management of OH and provides practical advice for clinicians on how to screen, diagnose, and treat patients using behavioral, nonpharmacologic, and pharmacologic strategies. The authors also provide a stepwise approach on how to apply new findings to successfully control OH and reduce the risk of syncope and falls in these patients. Treatment of OH is also discussed in special situations such as in hypertensive and hospitalized patients. It should be noted, however, that research in this area is mostly limited to studies in small numbers of patients. Unfortunately, the trials of the type needed to develop evidence-based guidelines are not available for this condition. PMID:23721882

Shibao, Cyndya; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Biaggioni, Italo

2013-01-01

301

Evaluation and treatment of orthostatic hypotension  

PubMed Central

This paper provides recommendations on the treatment of orthostatic hypotension (OH) as reviewed by the American Society of Hypertension. It focuses on recent reports on the evaluation and management of OH and provides practical advice for clinicians on how to screen, diagnose, and treat patients using behavioral, nonpharmacologic, and pharmacologic strategies. The authors also provide a stepwise approach on how to apply new findings to successfully control OH and reduce the risk of syncope and falls in these patients. Treatment of OH is also discussed in special situations such as in hypertensive and hospitalized patients. It should be noted, however, that research in this area is mostly limited to studies in small numbers of patients. Unfortunately, the trials of the type needed to develop evidence-based guidelines are not available for this condition.

Shibao, Cyndya; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Biaggioni, Italo

2013-01-01

302

Clinical Management of Patients Presenting with Non-Adjustable Gastric Band (NAGB) Complications  

PubMed Central

Background: A number of bariatric surgical procedures have been developed to manage morbid obesity and related co-morbidities. The non-adjustable gastric band (NAGB) was one such procedure that created restriction to food intake by gastric segmentation. Benefits of the procedure included a low risk of perioperative complications and substantial early weight loss. Unfortunately, the long term results of NAGB include a high incidence of complications and failure to maintain weight loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the presentation, workup, and treatment of patients presenting with complications following NAGB placement. Methods: A retrospective review of the diagnosis and management of 11 patients who presented with complications related to NAGB placement. Results: All patients presented with some degree of proximal gastric outlet obstruction. The majority of patients (8/11) presented with vomiting as the main complaint. Other complaints included intolerance to solids, liquids, and reflux. Only 2/11 patients presented with weight loss since undergoing NAGB placement, while the remainder had weight regain to their pre-NAGB level and above. Depending on clinical presentation, desire for additional weight loss and co-morbid conditions, patients underwent a variety of treatments. This included NAGB removal (endoscopic, laparo-endoscopic, and laparoscopic) as well as conversion to another bariatric procedure (sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass). Conclusion: Patients with NAGB complications present with symptoms related to a proximal gastric outlet obstruction, related to constriction imposed by the band. This may result in severe food and liquid intolerance and subsequent weight loss, but more likely results in maladaptive eating and subsequent weight gain. Optimal therapy involves removal of the NAGB. Laparoscopic conversion to another bariatric procedure, optimally a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, is warranted to treat morbid obesity and associated co-morbidities.

Balogh, Julius; Vizhul, Andrey; Dunkin, Brian J.; Tariq, Nabil; Sherman, Vadim

2014-01-01

303

Early- versus late-onset systemic sclerosis: differences in clinical presentation and outcome in 1037 patients.  

PubMed

Peak age at onset of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is between 20 and 50 years, although SSc is also described in both young and elderly patients. We conducted the present study to determine if age at disease onset modulates the clinical characteristics and outcome of SSc patients. The Spanish Scleroderma Study Group recruited 1037 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 6.8 years. Based on the mean ± 1 standard deviation (SD) of age at disease onset (45 ± 15 yr) of the whole series, patients were classified into 3 groups: age ? 30 years (early onset), age between 31 and 59 years (standard onset), and age ? 60 years (late onset). We compared initial and cumulative manifestations, immunologic features, and death rates. The early-onset group included 195 patients; standard-onset group, 651; and late-onset, 191 patients. The early-onset group had a higher prevalence of esophageal involvement (72% in early-onset compared with 67% in standard-onset and 56% in late-onset; p = 0.004), and myositis (11%, 7.2%, and 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.009), but a lower prevalence of centromere antibodies (33%, 46%, and 47%, respectively; p = 0.007). In contrast, late-onset SSc was characterized by a lower prevalence of digital ulcers (54%, 41%, and 34%, respectively; p < 0.001) but higher rates of heart conduction system abnormalities (9%, 13%, and 21%, respectively; p = 0.004). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 25% of elderly patients and in 12% of the youngest patients (p = 0.010). After correction for the population effects of age and sex, standardized mortality ratio was shown to be higher in younger patients. The results of the present study confirm that age at disease onset is associated with differences in clinical presentation and outcome in SSc patients. PMID:24646463

Alba, Marco A; Velasco, César; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Fonollosa, Vicent; Trapiella, Luis; Egurbide, María Victoria; Sáez, Luis; Castillo, María Jesús; Callejas, José Luis; Camps, María Teresa; Tolosa, Carles; Ríos, Juan José; Freire, Mayka; Vargas, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard

2014-03-01

304

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity: Biochemical, metabolic and clinical presentations  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world. Presentation of the disease ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome that includes central abdominal obesity along with other components. Up to 80% of patients with NAFLD are obese, defined as a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2. However, the distribution of fat tissue plays a greater role in insulin resistance than the BMI. The large amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) individuals contributes to a high prevalence of NAFLD. Free fatty acids derived from VAT tissue, as well as from dietary sources and de novo lipogenesis, are released to the portal venous system. Excess free fatty acids and chronic low-grade inflammation from VAT are considered to be two of the most important factors contributing to liver injury progression in NAFLD. In addition, secretion of adipokines from VAT as well as lipid accumulation in the liver further promotes inflammation through nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways, which are also activated by free fatty acids, and contribute to insulin resistance. Most NAFLD patients are asymptomatic on clinical presentation, even though some may present with fatigue, dyspepsia, dull pain in the liver and hepatosplenomegaly. Treatment for NAFLD and NASH involves weight reduction through lifestyle modifications, anti-obesity medication and bariatric surgery. This article reviews the available information on the biochemical and metabolic phenotypes associated with obesity and fatty liver disease. The relative contribution of visceral and liver fat to insulin resistance is discussed, and recommendations for clinical evaluation of affected individuals is provided.

Milic, Sandra; Lulic, Davorka; Stimac, Davor

2014-01-01

305

Migraine and Tension-Type Headache in Children and Adolescents Presenting to Neurology Clinics  

PubMed Central

Objective Headache is one of the most common neurologic problems in children and adolescents. Primary headache including migraine and tension-type headache comprises the vast majority of headaches and are associated with marked incidence, prevalence, and individual and social cost. We aimed to assess demographic characteristics and to compare some factors related to primary headaches in children/ adolescents presented to neurology clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods Children from 4 to 15 years of age with the diagnosis of primary headache (migraine or tension-type headaches) who presented to the neurology clinics affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran from March 2009 to October 2011 are included in this cross-sectional study. Data regarding the type of headache, history of atopy, peripartum asphyxia, and breast feeding, family history of headache and the socioeconomic status of the family were collected. The diagnosis was based on the international headache society diagnostic criteria for the primary headache disorders. Findings One hundred ninety children (107 females) with primary headache (88 patients with migraine and 102 patients with tension type headache) enrolled in the study. Peripartum asphyxia, history of atopy, family history of headache and low socioeconomic status (SES) were more common in patients with migraine (P-values: 0.007, 0.01, 0.001, 0.003; respectively). Conclusion Physicians need to extent their knowledge regarding the primary headaches. Peripartum asphyxia, history of atopy, headache in parents and low SES have been shown in the present study to be more prevalent in patients with migraine as compared to tension-type headache.

Tavasoli, Azita; Aghamohammadpoor, Mehran; Taghibeigi, Meygol

2013-01-01

306

Effect of Age on the Clinical Presentation of Incident Symptomatic Urolithiasis in the General Population  

PubMed Central

Purpose We characterized variation in the clinical presentation between older and younger first time symptomatic stone formers in the general population. Materials and Methods We studied a random sample of Olmsted County, Minnesota residents with their first diagnostic code for urolithiasis between 1984 and 2003. Chart validated symptomatic stone formers had a confirmed stone by imaging or stone passage. Clinical presentation characteristics were compared between age groups. Results Among the 3,473 charts reviewed there were 1,590 validated incident symptomatic stone formers (mean age 43 years, range 18 to 96). Older individuals were more likely to present with atypical or no pain, fever, diarrhea, pyuria, urinary tract infections and bacteremia (p <0.001). Stone size and location did not differ by patient age. Calcium phosphate stone disease was associated with younger age, while uric acid stone and atypical stone composition was associated with older age (p <0.001). Older individuals were less likely to pass the stone spontaneously and were more likely to require surgical intervention (p <0.001). Surgical intervention was required in 516 (32.5%) individuals. Younger individuals were more likely to undergo ureteroscopy while older individuals were more likely to undergo shock wave lithotripsy, temporizing stent placement and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Conclusions The detection of stone disease in older individuals can be challenging due to atypical pain or absence of pain, as well as the presence of other comorbid conditions such as urinary tract infections and diarrhea. A higher index of suspicion for urolithiasis may be needed in the elderly for a more timely diagnosis and intervention to prevent morbidity.

Krambeck, Amy E.; Lieske, John C.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Rule, Andrew D.

2013-01-01

307

Foot Small Muscle Atrophy is present before the detection of Clinical Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To characterize structural changes and the metabolic profile in the foot muscles and correlate them with diabetic neuropathy measurements using a phosphorus-31 (31P) rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) MRI method. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve control subjects, nine non-neuropathic and 12 neuropathic diabetic patients were studied using 31P RARE and proton (1H) MRI at 3 Tesla. The ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the foot to that of the muscle tissue was calculated from trans-axial 1H and 31P images. The average 31P concentration across the metatarsal head region was measured from the 31P images. RESULTS The muscle/total-area ratio was different among all three groups: 0.55 ± 0.04 (means ± SD); 0.44 ± 0.05; and 0.06 ± 0.06 for controls, non-neuropathic and neuropathic subjects respectively, (p <0.0001). The average 31P concentration was also different among all groups: 27.7 ± 3.8 mM; 21.7 ± 4.8; and 7.9 ± 8.8 for controls, non-neuropathic and neuropathic subjects respectively, (p <0.0001). The muscle/total-area ratios strongly correlated with clinical measurements: Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS) (r = ?0.83, p <0.0001), Vibration Perception Threshold (VPT) (r= ?0.79, p <0.0001) and Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments (SWM) (r = ?0.87, p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Small muscle atrophy is present in diabetes before clinical peripheral neuropathy can be detected using standard techniques available in clinical practice. The 31P RARE MRI method evaluates the severity of muscle atrophy, even in the early stages when neuropathy is absent. This technique may prove a useful diagnostic tool that can identify early stage diabetic foot problems.

Greenman, Robert L; Khaodhiar, Lalita; Lima, Christina; Dinh, Thanh; Giurini, John M; Veves, Aristidis

2005-01-01

308

Comparison between shoulder computed tomography and clinical findings in 89 dogs presented for thoracic limb lameness.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) is an established technique for detecting shoulder lesions in dogs, however the clinical significance of shoulder CT lesions often remains uncertain. The purposes of this retrospective study were to describe the prevalence of CT lesions in both shoulder joints for 89 dogs presenting with thoracic limb lameness and to compare CT lesions with clinical characteristics. For all included dogs, results of a full orthopedic examination, other diagnostic tests, and signalment data were available in medical records. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression was used to test clinical significance of the most prevalent CT lesions and determine factors associated with their presence. Computed tomographic lesions were detected in one or both shoulder joints for 51/89 dogs (57.3%). Mineralization of one or more surrounding peri-articular soft-tissue structures was identified in 31.5% of dogs, with supraspinatus muscle/tendon mineralization being the most frequently identified (24.7%). The prevalence of humeral head osteochondrosis was 9 and 21.3% of dogs had shoulder osteoarthritis. Border collies (odds ratio [OR] 9.3; 95% CI 1.39-62.1, P = 0.02) and dogs with shoulder pain (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.08-17.1, P = 0.04) had increased risk of osteochondrosis lesions. Border collies (OR 8.4; 95% CI 1.27-55.6; P = 0.03) and older animals (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.1, P < 0.001) had increased risk of osteoarthritis lesions. Female entire dogs had an increased risk of supraspinatus mineralization lesions (OR 6.8; 95% CI 1.55-29.5, P = 0.01). Findings indicated that shoulder CT lesions are common in dogs with thoracic limb lameness, and that some CT lesions are not associated with shoulder pain. PMID:23594097

Maddox, Thomas W; May, Chris; Keeley, Benjamin J; McConnell, J Fraser

2013-01-01

309

Relationship between initial clinical presentation and the molecular cytogenetic classification of myeloma.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma (MM) consists of several distinct cytogenetic subtypes, and we hypothesized that each subtype may have a unique mode of initial presentation and end-organ damage. We studied 484 patients with newly diagnosed MM to determine the relationship between specific myeloma-defining event (MDE) and the cytogenetic subtype. Patients were divided into four non-overlapping groups based on the MDE at diagnosis: isolated renal failure, isolated anemia, isolated lytic bone disease or a combination (mixed). MM with translocations without trisomies accounted for 30% of all patients, but accounted for 50% of patients with renal failure. Specifically, the t(14;16) translocation accounted for only 5% of all MM patients, but was present in 13.5% of patients with renal failure as MDE. Among patients with t(14;16), 25% presented with renal failure only as MDE. Patients with isolated renal failure as MDE had significantly poorer survival compared with all other groups, whereas patients with bone disease as MDE had the best outcome (P<0.001). Our findings support the hypothesis that in addition to prognostic differences, there is significant heterogeneity in clinical presentation associated with the cytogenetic subtype, suggesting that MM encompasses a group of cytogenetically and phenotypically distinct disorders rather than a single entity. PMID:24005246

Greenberg, A J; Rajkumar, S V; Therneau, T M; Singh, P P; Dispenzieri, A; Kumar, S K

2014-02-01

310

Clinical features and presentation of posterior scleritis: a report of 31 cases.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To describe clinical features, ocular complications, and visual outcomes of patients with posterior scleritis. Methods: Clinical characteristics of a subset of 31 patients with posterior scleritis were studied and compared with 469 patients with anterior scleritis. Results: Of 500 patients, 31 (6.2%) had posterior scleritis. Most patients presented with subacute (80.6%), unilateral (61.3%) scleral inflammation. Pain was moderate to severe in 54.8% of patients. Concomitant anterior scleritis was observed during follow-up in 77.4% of patients and in all patients with moderate to severe pain. Patients with posterior scleritis were significantly younger (43.6 vs. 54.4 years, p?

Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis Alonso; Molina-Prat, Nicolas; Doctor, Priyanka; Tauber, Joseph; Sainz de la Maza, Maite; Foster, C Stephen

2014-06-01

311

Seasonal trend and clinical presentation of Bacillus cereus bloodstream infection: association with summer and indwelling catheter.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus, an opportunistic pathogen, can cause fatal infection. However, B. cereus bloodstream infections (BSIs) have not been well characterised. From 2008 to 2013, B. cereus isolates from all of the specimens and patients with B. cereus BSIs were identified. Environmental samples were collected to detect B. cereus contamination. We also characterised the clinical presentation of B. cereus BSI through analyses of risk factors for BSI and mortality. A total of 217 clinical B. cereus isolates was detected. Fifty-one patients with nosocomial infections were diagnosed as B. cereus BSI, and 37 had contaminated blood cultures. The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI patients was significantly greater from June to September than from January to April (4.9 vs. 1.5 per month and 1.2 vs. 0.2, respectively). All BSIs were nosocomial and related to central or peripheral vascular catheter. Urinary catheter [odds ratio (OR) 6.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.40-20.0] was the independent risk factor associated with BSI patients when compared to patients regarded as contaminated. In-hospital mortality among BSI patients was 20 % and was associated with urinary catheter (OR 34.7, 95 % CI 1.89-63.6) and higher Charlson index (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.26-3.12). The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI increased during summer. Inpatients with indwelling vascular or urinary catheters should be carefully monitored for potential B. cereus BSIs. PMID:24584718

Kato, K; Matsumura, Y; Yamamoto, M; Nagao, M; Ito, Y; Takakura, S; Ichiyama, S

2014-08-01

312

[Salla disease (sialuria, Finnish type). New clinical presentation in the 1st Argentine report].  

PubMed

Studies in three sibs from an Argentine family, aged 29, 18 and 9 years, suffering from a severe neurological disease, revealed in the two older brothers (the third died), ultrastructural changes in cellular vacuolization in diverse peripheral tissues (conjunctival, gum and skin biopsies) and in blood lymphocytes. These data were suggestive of mucopolysaccharidosis, mucolipidosis or glycoproteinosis. However, the activity of lysosomal enzymes, the excretion of mucopolysaccharides and oligosaccharides reactive to orcinol, as well as the search for aspartylglucosaminuria gave normal values. The main biochemical finding was the detection of a substantial urinary increase of a unique resorcinol-positive compound, which by thin-layer chromatography was identified as N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA-Free) and when quantified by the thiobarbituric acid method previously passed through a gel filtration column (Sephadex G-15) or through ion exchange resins, showed a NANA-Free concentration about 15 times higher than in controls of similar age (Table 2). The ultrastructural findings (Figs. 3-5), the hypersialuria and the present clinical state of these patients (Table 1, Figs. 1, 2) were compatible with Salla disease, a rare lysosomal storage disease originally observed in Finland. The precocity and severity of the neurological damage in our patients were evident since birth and without maturing accomplishments in their first years, contrary to the progressive neurological regression described for the classical syndrome. Based on these facts we suggest that the Argentine patients would constitute a new clinical form of Salla disease. PMID:2101844

Dodelson de Kremer, R; Depetris de Boldini, C; Paschini de Capra, A; Hliba, E

1990-01-01

313

Severe Orthostatic Hypotension due to Unilateral Carotid Artery Dissection  

PubMed Central

A 46-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with mild right-sided hemiparesis and orthostatic hypotension. Magnetic resonance angiography of the neck showed stenosis of the left distal carotid sinus surrounded by intraluminal hyperintensities on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, representing a periluminal hematoma secondary to carotid artery dissection. The dissection hyper-extended the carotid artery wall and stimulated baroreceptors in the carotid sinus. The stimulated baroreceptors induced carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which may have been related to her orthostatic hypotension. Post-stroke orthostatic hypotension should prompt consideration of carotid artery dissection.

Ishii, Nobuyuki; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Taniguchi, Akitoshi; Shiomi, Kazutaka; Nakazato, Masamitsu

2014-01-01

314

The ESPEN clinical practice Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: present status and perspectives for future research.  

PubMed

The ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition (PN) reflect current scientific knowledge in the field of clinical nutrition in adults. They summarize the indications for PN and its anticipated outcomes in respect of the underlying disease, nutritional status and quality of life. They are companion documents to the ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition and follow the same general format. They address the influence of the underlying disease on the patient's nutritional status, and that of malnutrition on the outcome of the disease. Contraindications to and complications of PN are considered, together with comparative analyses of the roles of the parenteral and enteral routes in different illness states. The quality and strength of the supporting literature has been graded according to the criteria of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Hence, meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials (level of evidence Ia) or at least one randomised clinical trial (level of evidence Ib) translate to a Grade A recommendation. Levels of evidence IIa, IIb and III are attributed respectively to: at least one well-designed controlled trial without randomisation; at least one other type of well-designed, quasi-experimental study; or well-designed non-experimental descriptive studies such as comparative studies, correlation studies, case-control studies; each of these sustains a Grade B recommendation. Grade C recommendations reflect expert opinion and/or the clinical experience of respected authorities (level of evidence IV). Each of the 11 sets of PN Guidelines was devised by an international working group, the total faculty comprising no fewer than 87 experts from 16 European/Mediterranean countries, each group's contributions being co-ordinated by a designated chairman. Once each guideline had been approved by all the members of the relevant working group, this version was reviewed by at least two independent external reviewers (one selected from ESPEN's Education and Clinical Practice Committee, and at least one from outside the ESPEN committee structure). Following this review each guideline was hosted in draft form on the public pages of the ESPEN website for at least one month to permit the receipt of comments or suggestions from any interested party. At this point the Guidelines were reviewed and revised again by the original working group chairman and submitted to the Clinical Nutrition editorial process. At least 3 further reviewers were selected by the Journal's editorial office for each guideline, in line with the normal selection process. Final revisions were performed by the Chairmen of the working groups, and by ourselves as commissioning editors of the whole project. More than 300 evidence-based recommendations are now presented. Fewer than one sixth of the recommendations are Grade A, and disappointingly, but unsurprisingly, more than 50% are Grade C. The need for more and better controlled trials in the field remains apparent. PMID:19523723

Bozzetti, Federico; Forbes, Alastair

2009-08-01

315

Impact of HIV on clinical presentation and outcomes of tuberculosis treatment at primary care level.  

PubMed

Little is known on how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection impacts pediatric tuberculosis (TB) in primary care. We compared TB type, HIV care and case fatality rates between 5685 adults and 830 children with TB treated at primary care clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Children represented a substantial burden (13%) of TB, and presented predominantly with difficult to diagnose smear-negative TB and extra-pulmonary TB. The HIV co-infection rate was lower in children than in adults, and fewer children than adults received antiretroviral therapy during anti-tuberculosis treatment. Case fatality was four times higher in HIV-infected than non-infected children. Child-friendly point-of-care TB diagnostics and decentralized pediatric TB-HIV care should receive greater attention. PMID:24125443

Henegar, C; Behets, F; Vanden Driessche, K; Tabala, M; Van Rie, A

2013-11-01

316

Clinical presentation of dengue by serotype and year of epidemic in martinique.  

PubMed

During the last decade Martinique experienced four dengue epidemics, each characterized by the predominance of 1 or 2 serotypes. In this retrospective database analysis, we investigated the relationship between dengue serotype and disease severity. Data on dengue were collected from 715 patients (male/female ratio 0.87), 14 to 91 years of age (median 35 years) examined in the adult emergency department between 2005 and 2010. In this series, DENV-4 infections more frequently had a milder clinical presentation. The DENV-2 infections were most often secondary infections admitted at the critical phase of dengue illness with signs of plasma leakage. The DENV-1 infections were disabling, particularly in females, and most often led to disease of intermediate severity, without overt plasma leakage. These data were consistent with there being differences in virulence between serotypes, regardless of the host's immune status. However, secondary DENV-2 infections showed an increased risk of plasma leakage. PMID:24865681

Thomas, Laurent; Najioullah, Fatiha; Besnier, François; Valentino, Ruddy; Césaire, Jacques Rosine Raymond; Cabié, André

2014-07-01

317

Late onset postpartum eclampsia without pre-eclamptic prodromi: clinical and neuroradiological presentation in two patients  

PubMed Central

In two patients eclampsia started 9 days postpartum. Headache and visual disturbances preceded seizures but none of the classic pre-eclamptic signs oedema, proteinuria, and hypertension were present until shortly before seizure onset. Brain herniation (patient 1) and status epilepticus (patient 2) necessitated neurointensive care management. Brain MRI initially showed only frontal sulcal effacement in one patient but later showed white matter hyperintensities on T2 weighted images and a previously undescribed pattern of cortical-subcortical postgadolinium enhancement on T1 weighted images in both. Neurological deficits and MRI findings were reversed with therapy in both patients. It is concluded that late postpartum eclampsia can manifest without classic prodromi and that characteristic MRI findings may lag behind clinical manifestation.??

Veltkamp, R; Kupsch, A; Polasek, J; Yousry, T; Pfister, H

2000-01-01

318

Clinical presentation, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy indicate neurofibromatosis type 2-associated gliomas to be spinal ependymomas.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a hereditary tumor syndrome. The hallmark of NF2 is bilateral vestibular schwannoma. In addition, glioma is one of the diagnostic criteria of NF2. In this retrospective study the clinical presentation and histopathological features of 12 spinal gliomas from NF2 patients were assessed. Ten tumors were previously diagnosed as ependymomas and two as astrocytomas. However, upon re-evaluation both astrocytomas expressed epithelial membrane antigen in a dot-like fashion and in one case it was possible to perform electron microscopy revealing junctional complexes and cilia typical for ependymoma. The findings suggest that NF2-associated spinal gliomas are ependymomas. Based on the fact that NF2-associated gliomas are almost exclusively spinal and that no NF2 mutations have been found in sporadic cerebral gliomas, we suggest that "glioma" in the current diagnostic criteria for NF2 should be specified as "spinal ependymoma". PMID:22394059

Hagel, Christian; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Bornemann, Antje; Schuhmann, Martin; Nagel, Christoph; Huson, Susan; Evans, D Gareth; Plotkin, Scott; Matthies, Cordula; Kluwe, Lan; Mautner, Victor-Felix

2012-12-01

319

Sex differences in stroke: epidemiology, clinical presentation, medical care, and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Stroke has a greater effect on women than men because women have more events and are less likely to recover. Age-specific stroke rates are higher in men, but, because of their longer life expectancy and much higher incidence at older ages, women have more stroke events than men. With the exception of subarachnoid haemorrhage, there is little evidence of sex differences in stroke subtype or severity. Although several reports found that women are less likely to receive some in-hospital interventions, most differences disappear after age and comorbidities are accounted for. However, sex disparities persist in the use of thrombolytic treatment (with alteplase) and lipid testing. Functional outcomes and quality of life after stroke are consistently poorer in women, despite adjustment for baseline differences in age, prestroke function, and comorbidities. Here, we comprehensively review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, medical care, and outcomes of stroke in women.

Reeves, Mathew J; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Howard, George; Gargano, Julia Warner; Duncan, Pamela W; Lynch, Gwen; Khatiwoda, Arya; Lisabeth, Lynda

2009-01-01

320

Teaching neuroImages: A dangerous complication of spontaneous intracranial hypotension.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old man presented with a nontraumatic orthostatic headache, spatial disorientation, and visual hallucinations ("colored flames"). General and neurologic examination were normal. Turbo spin echo T2-weighted MRI showed bilateral subdural fluid collection and venous sinus engorgement (figure, A), suggesting spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Two subdural hematomas were also found, the biggest (2.5 cm) with mass effect in the left hemisphere (figure, B). Spine MRI identified a small radicular cyst emerging from the left T1-T2 foramen as the putative cause of CSF leakage (figure, C and D). The patient underwent drainage of the largest hematoma with benefit. Though initially planned, epidural blood patch and surgical treatment of the radicular cyst were not performed because clinical and radiologic findings improved with hematoma drainage, bed rest, and hydration. At a 3-month follow-up, MRI documented complete resolution of the subdural collection and dimensional stability of the radicular cyst. SIH is often considered benign and treated conservatively,(1)but it can rarely manifest with serious complications requiring rapid surgical evaluation.(2). PMID:24638221

Tana, Claudio; Caulo, Massimo; Tafuri, Emmanuele; Di Vincenzo, Angelo; Tana, Marco; De Angelis, Maria Vittoria; Mezzetti, Andrea; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

2014-03-18

321

Evaluation of awareness of risk factors for kidney cancer among patients presenting to a urology clinic.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. This study aimed to evaluate awareness of risk factors for kidney cancer among patients presenting to a urology clinic. Smoking, obesity and hypertension are widely accepted as risk factors for kidney cancer; however, there are limited data regarding awareness of these risk factors. Material and methods. The researchers prospectively identified 172 patients presenting to a urology clinic between 1 May 2009 and 31 August 2009. Each patient completed a questionnaire that requested responses to whether certain lifestyle factors increased the risk of a variety of cancers. Information on demographics and other covariates was collected via questionnaires and medical chart abstraction. To estimate and compare risk factor awareness levels for different cancers, 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were constructed and Fisher's exact tests performed. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate covariates associated with risk factor awareness. Results. The percentage reporting that smoking increases the risk of kidney cancer (36%, 95% CI 29-44%) was lower than for lung cancer (96%, 95% CI 92-99%). Similarly, the percentage reporting that obesity increases the risk of kidney cancer (32%, 95% CI 25-40%) was lower than for colon cancer (45%, 95% CI 37-53% CI). Only 18% (95% CI 13-25%) identified hypertension as a risk factor for kidney cancer. Female gender and younger age were associated with increased levels of awareness of the association with smoking and obesity, respectively. Conclusion. The data support a low level of awareness of kidney cancer risk factors and underscore an opportunity for urologists to engage in education efforts. PMID:24328689

Parker, Alexander S; Arnold, Michelle L; Diehl, Nancy D; Hassan, Lauren; Thiel, David D

2014-06-01

322

Clinical Presentation of Mycoplasma genitalium Infection versus Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection among Women with Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) often present with a spectrum of symptoms. The characteristics of nongonococcal, nonchlamydial PID have not been well described. Our objective was to examine the characteristics of Mycoplasma genitalium infection among women with clinically suspected PID. Methods We evaluated 722 women who were enrolled in the PID Evaluation and Clinical Health study. Women with M. genitalium monoinfection were compared with women with Neisseria gonorrhoeae monoinfection or Chlamydia trachomatis monoinfection. Results Compared with women with gonococcal PID, women with M. genitalium infection were less likely to have elevated systemic inflammatory markers, including an erythrocyte sedimentation rate >15 mm/h (5 [22.7%] of 22 patients vs. 45 [60.8%] of 74 patients; P = .002), a white blood cell count >10,000 cells/mL (4 [28.6%] of 14 patients vs. 42 [64.6%] of 65 patients; P = .018), and an oral temperature ?38.3°C (0 [0.0%] of 22 patients vs. 10 [13.9%] of 72 patients; P = .085). In addition, they were less likely to present with mucopurulent cervicitis (9 [47.4%] of 19 patients vs. 60 [83.3%] of 72 patients; P = .001), elevated vaginal pH (P = .018), and high pelvic pain score (P = .014). In contrast, women with chlamydial PID had signs and symptoms that were similar to those in women with M. genitalium infection. Conclusions Because symptoms might be mild, women with M. genitalium infection might not seek PID treatment. Further studies are needed to assess the potential reproductive tract sequelae of M. genitalium infection of the upper genital tract.

Short, Vanessa L.; Totten, Patricia A.; Ness, Roberta B.; Astete, Sabina G.; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Haggerty, Catherine L.

2009-01-01

323

A survey on clinical presentation and nutritional status of infants with suspected cow' milk allergy  

PubMed Central

Background Cow's milk is the most common food allergen in infants and the diagnosis of cow's milk allergy is difficult, even with the use of several diagnostic tests. Therefore, elimination diets and challenge tests are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. The aim of this study is to report the clinical presentation and nutritional status of children evaluated by pediatric gastroenterologists for the assessment of symptoms suggestive of cow's milk allergy. Methods An observational cross-sectional study was performed among 9,478 patients evaluated by 30 pediatric gastroenterologists for 40 days in 5 different geographical regions in Brazil. Clinical data were collected from patients with symptoms suggestive of cow's milk allergy. The nutritional status of infants (age ? 24 months) seen for the first time was evaluated according to z-scores for weight-for-age, weight-for-height, and height-for-age. Epi-Info (CDC-NCHS, 2000) software was used to calculate z-scores. Results The prevalence of suspected cow's milk allergy in the study population was 5.4% (513/9,478), and the incidence was 2.2% (211/9,478). Among 159 infants seen at first evaluation, 15.1% presented with a low weight-for-age z score (< -2.0 standard deviation - SD), 8.7% with a low weight-for-height z score (< -2.0 SD), and 23.9% with a low height-for-age z score (< -2.0 SD). Conclusion The high prevalence of nutritional deficits among infants with symptoms suggestive of cow's milk allergy indicates that effective elimination diets should be prescribed to control allergy symptoms and to prevent or treat malnutrition.

2010-01-01

324

Effects of secondary amyloidosis on arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula outcomes and intradialytic hypotension: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Amyloid fibrils can affect vascular structure through deposition and by causing nitric oxide depletion and increase of asymmetric dimethyl arginine. Patients with amyloidosis are prone to development of hypotension. Hypotension may also affect the maturation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and may set the stage for formation of thrombosis and fistula failure. Thus, we aimed to evaluate effects of secondary amyloidosis on AVF outcomes and intradialytic hypotension. This is a case-control study which included 20 hemodialysis patients with amyloidosis and 20 hemodialysis patients without amyloidosis as control group. All patients underwent Doppler ultrasound of AVF. A thorough fistula history and baseline laboratory values along with episodes of intradialytic hypotension and blood pressure measurements were recorded. There was no difference between the groups regarding age, gender, body mass index, presence of comorbidities, hypertension, and drug use. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were similar (119?±?28/75?±?17 and 120?±?14/75?±?10?mmHg for patients with and without amyloidosis, respectively). Intradialytic hypotension episodes were also similar. Patients with amyloidosis had significantly lower serum albumin and higher C-reactive protein values compared to control hemodialysis patients. AVF sites and total number of created fistulas were similar in both groups. Flow rates of current functional AVFs were not different between the groups (1084?±?875 and 845?±?466?mL/minute for patients with and without amyloidosis, respectively, p:0.67). Patency duration of first AVF was not different between the groups. Clinical fistula outcomes and rate of intradialytic hypotension episodes were not significantly different between patients with and without secondary systemic amyloidosis. PMID:22360544

Solak, Yalcin; Caymaz, Memduh; Tonbul, Halil Zeki; Ozbek, Orhan; Turkmen, Kultigin; Gormus, Niyazi

2012-07-01

325

Clinical Pharmacokinetic Service and Research--Present Status and Future Goals at SUNY-Buffalo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two Clinical Pharmacokinetics Laboratories at Buffalo are described: one at the Millard Fillmore Hospital and the other at the Buffalo Children's Hospital. Their research efforts are reviewed and their scientific contributions to clinical therapeutics and pharmaceutical research are noted. (LBH)

Koup, Jeffrey R.

1976-01-01

326

Bilateral blindness following Russell's viper bite - a rare clinical presentation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii) is one of the most common medically important snakes reported in Sri Lanka. Its envenomation leads to significant mortality and morbidity with local, hematological, neurological and renal complications. Here we report the case of a patient who presented with bilateral blindness secondary to a bilateral posterior circulation ischemic stroke instead of the usual neurological manifestations of Russell’s viper envenomation. There were no reported cases of cortical blindness following a Russell’s viper bite. Only a few reported cases of ischemic strokes following a Russell’s viper bite were found in the literature. Case presentation A 54-year-old Sri Lankan woman developed bilateral blindness due to a posterior circulation infarct following Russell’s viper envenomation. Conclusion Ischemic stroke following a Russell’s viper bite is very rare and cortical blindness is not reported as the clinical presentation. Also, we emphasize the importance of considering the possibility of ischemic stroke in patients who develop unusual neurological manifestations following Russell’s viper envenomation.

2014-01-01

327

Clinical Presentation and Etiologic Factors of Hirsutism in Premenopausal Iranian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hirsutism is a common clinical condition with different etiologies. Many of these patients have frank or subclinical abnormalities in the adrenal and ovarian steroidogenesis. The disease may be associated with other clinical signs of hyperandrogenism. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical features of hirsutism and its etiologic factors in premenopausal Iranian women. Methods: In a

Habib Ansarin; Mir-Hadi Aziz-Jalali; Abbas Rasi; Razieh Soltani-Arabshahi

328

Cerebral infection complicating systemic aspergillosis in acute leukemia: clinical and radiographic presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral fungal infection is becoming an increasingly recognized entity in immunocompromised patients on post-mortem examination. In order to determine the frequency of clinically significant cerebral fungal infection and define its clinical characteristics in a cohort of immunocompromised patients at high risk of fungal infection, the records of 118 patients with acute leukemia were examined for 57 clinical and laboratory features.

Joseph A. Sparano; Rasim Gucalp; Josefina F. Llena; Franklin G. Moser; Peter H. Wiernik

1992-01-01

329

The Movement Disorders task force review of dysautonomia rating scales in Parkinson's disease with regard to symptoms of orthostatic hypotension.  

PubMed

Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a blood pressure fall of > 20 mm Hg systolic and/or 10 mm Hg diastolic within 3 minutes of an upright position. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned a task force to assess existing clinical rating scales addressing symptoms of orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease. Seven neurologists and a clinimetrician assessed each scale's previous use and critiqued its clinimetric properties. A scale was "recommended" if it had been applied to populations of patients with Parkinson's disease, with data on its use in studies beyond the group that developed the scale, and was found to be clinimetrically valid. A scale was considered "suggested" if it had been applied to Parkinson's disease, but only 1 of the other criteria was applied. A scale was "listed" if it met only 1 criterion. Symptoms of orthostatic hypotension are generally assessed in scales on wider autonomic or nonmotor symptoms. Some scales designed to detect orthostatic hypotension-related symptoms provide information on their severity: the AUTonomic SCale for Outcomes in PArkinson's Disease and the COMPosite Autonomic Symptom Scale met criteria for recommended with some limitations; the Novel Non-Motor Symptoms Scale and the Orthostatic Grading Scale were classified as suggested. The Self-completed Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire for Parkinson's Disease was classified as suggested as a tool for screening orthostatic symptoms. However, these and the listed scales need further validation and application before they can be recommended for clinical use in patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:21547951

Pavy-Le Traon, Anne; Amarenco, Gerard; Duerr, Susanne; Kaufmann, Horacio; Lahrmann, Heinz; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Tison, François; Wenning, Gregor K; Goetz, Christopher G; Poewe, Werner; Sampaio, Cristina; Schrag, Anette; Stebbins, Glenn T; Rascol, Olivier

2011-09-01

330

24-hour blood pressure monitoring in the evaluation of supine hypertension and orthostatic hypotension.  

PubMed

The presence of orthostatic hypotension has been shown to be a significant, independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Systolic and diastolic orthostatic hypotension, reversal of the circadian pattern, and postprandial hypotension are some of the hemodynamic factors that may contribute to the increased mortality seen in patients with orthostatic hypotension. The high variability of blood pressure in orthostatic hypotension cannot usually be adequately assessed by a one-time measurement. In this group of patients, 24-hour ambulatory. PMID:18046101

Ejaz, A Ahsan; Kazory, Amir; Heinig, Marcelo E

2007-12-01

331

[Orthostatic hypotension: implications for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Several cardiovascular drugs may induce or worsen orthostatic hypotension especially in patients treated for hypertension, coronary artery disease and heart failure. Orthostatic hypotension is more frequent in polymedicated elderly patients with co-morbidities (prevalence 23%). In hypertensive elderly patients, the combination of three antihypertensive agents including a beta-blocker induces more frequently orthostatic hypotension. Supplementation in water and especially salt is generally not recommended in case of hypertension and heart failure. Education of patient to preventive counter-pressure maneuvers and muscle training of the lower limbs must be part of treatment. Midodrine causes supine hypertension in almost 25% of patients precluding to take this medication at the end of the afternoon. In severe heart failure, midodrine seems to be helpful to optimize drug treatment in patients suffering from hypotension. PMID:22819184

Mansourati, Jacques

2012-11-01

332

Multiple System Atrophy with Orthostatic Hypotension (Shy-Drager Syndrome)  

MedlinePLUS

... Orthostatic Hypotension Information Page Synonym(s): Shy-Drager Syndrome Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What ... disease such as slow movement, stiff muscles, and tremor; the cerebellar-type , which causes problems with coordination ...

333

Hypotension and Lacticacidemia in Sepsis Following Combat Trauma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concurrent metabolic and hemodynamic observations recorded at times when patients were hypotensive, and when their arterial blood lactates were elevated, were analyzed in combat casualties who, following therapy, developed systemic sepsis. Elevations of t...

E. F. Hirsch J. R. Fletcher S. Lucas

1972-01-01

334

Feline sporotrichosis: histopathological profile of cutaneous lesions and their correlation with clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Cutaneous lesions of feline sporotrichosis show high fungal load and are associated with severe disease and elevated zoonotic potential. The present study describes the histopathology and fungal load of the lesions in different clinical presentations of feline sporotrichosis. Cats with sporotrichosis were separated into groups L1, L2 and L3 (lesions in one, two and three or more locations, respectively) and subjected to skin biopsies for histopathology. Eighty-six cats were included in the study. Lesions were suppurative granulomatous in 84 cases and poorly formed granulomas were predominant. The well-formed granulomas were associated with group L1. The high fungal load was predominant in group L3 and in poorly formed granuloma cases and did not occur in well-formed granulomas cases. The good general condition was associated with low fungal load. These findings suggest that the fungal load control in animals with more localized lesions and well-organized response is linked with the improvement in the outcome of infected cats. PMID:23623733

Miranda, Luisa H M; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Quintella, Leonardo P; Kuraiem, Bianca P; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

2013-07-01

335

Additional diverse findings expand the clinical presentation of DOCK8 deficiency.  

PubMed

We describe seven Turkish children with DOCK8 deficiency who have not been previously reported. Three patients presented with typical features of recurrent or severe cutaneous viral infections, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections. However, four patients presented with other features. Patient 1-1 featured sclerosing cholangitis and colitis; patient 2-1, granulomatous soft tissue lesion and central nervous system involvement, with primary central nervous system lymphoma found on follow-up; patient 3-1, a fatal metastatic leiomyosarcoma; and patient 4-2 showed no other symptoms initially besides atopic dermatitis. Similar to other previously reported Turkish patients, but in contrast to patients of non-Turkish ethnicity, the patients' lymphopenia was primarily restricted to CD4(+) T cells. Patients had homozygous mutations in DOCK8 that altered splicing, introduced premature terminations, destabilized protein, or involved large deletions within the gene. Genotyping of remaining family members showed that DOCK8 deficiency is a fully penetrant, autosomal recessive disease. In our patients, bone marrow transplantation resulted in rapid improvement followed by disappearance of viral skin lesions, including lesions resembling epidermodysplasia verruciformis, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent infections. Particularly for patients who feature unusual clinical manifestations, immunological testing, in conjunction with genetic testing, can prove invaluable in diagnosing DOCK8 deficiency and providing potentially curative treatment. PMID:22476911

Sanal, Ozden; Jing, Huie; Ozgur, Tuba; Ayvaz, Deniz; Strauss-Albee, Dara M; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Tezcan, Ilhan; Turkkani, Gulten; Matthews, Helen F; Haliloglu, Goknur; Yuce, Aysel; Yalcin, Bilgehan; Gokoz, Ozay; Oguz, Kader K; Su, Helen C

2012-08-01

336

Additional diverse findings expand the clinical presentation of DOCK8 deficiency  

PubMed Central

We describe seven Turkish children with DOCK8 deficiency who have not been previously reported. Three patients presented with typical features of recurrent or severe cutaneous viral infections, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections. However, four patients presented with other features. Patient 1-1 featured sclerosing cholangitis and colitis; patient 2-1, granulomatous soft tissue lesion and central nervous system involvement, with primary central nervous system lymphoma found on follow-up; patient 3-1, a fatal metastatic leiomyosarcoma; and patient 4-2 showed no other symptoms initially besides atopic dermatitis. Similar to other previously reported Turkish patients, but in contrast to patients of non-Turkish ethnicity, the patients’ lymphopenia was primarily restricted to CD4+ T cells. Patients had homozygous mutations in DOCK8 that altered splicing, introduced premature terminations, destabilized protein, or involved large deletions within the gene. Genotyping of remaining family members showed that DOCK8 deficiency is a fully penetrant, autosomal recessive disease. In our patients, bone marrow transplantation resulted in rapid improvement followed by disappearance of viral skin lesions, including lesions resembling epidermodysplasia verruciformis, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent infections. Particularly for patients who feature unusual clinical manifestations, immunological testing, in conjunction with genetic testing, can prove invaluable in diagnosing DOCK8 deficiency and providing potentially curative treatment.

Sanal, Ozden; Jing, Huie; Ozgur, Tuba; Ayvaz, Deniz; Strauss-Albee, Dara M.; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Tezcan, Ilhan; Turkkani, Gulten; Matthews, Helen F.; Haliloglu, Goknur; Yuce, Aysel; Yalcin, Bilgehan; Gokoz, Ozay; Oguz, Kader K.; Su, Helen C.

2013-01-01

337

Leukemia Cutis Presenting Clinically as Disseminated Herpes Zoster in a Patient with Unrecognized Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

A 46-year-old man presented with a two-week history of fatigue, fevers, and multiple nonhealing ulcers on his abdomen and back. He also had several dermatomal plaques clinically consistent with multifocal herpes zoster. Biopsy revealed large atypical myeloid cells dissecting through the dermis as well as marked papillary edema reminiscent of Sweet's syndrome. Blood work revealed an elevated white count (35-109 cells/L) with 11 percent blasts. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated a t(15;17) rearrangement diagnostic of M3 acute nonlymphocytic leukemia/acute promyelocytic leukemia. Chemotherapy was initiated, but the patient became septic and expired within two weeks. Acute promyelocytic leukemia cutis is exceedingly rare with only 24 previously reported cases, all of which occurred following treatment with all-trans retinoic acid, which is thought to induce the dermal tropism. The authors believe this is the first reported case of acute promyelocytic leukemia initially presenting with cutaneous involvement. The case is also notable for the Sweet's-like features of the infiltrate.

Pandey, Shaily; Mercer, Stephen E.; Goldenberg, Gary

2012-01-01

338

Bed Rest and Orthostatic-Hypotensive Intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic tolerance may be defined as the ability of humans to maintain cerebral perfusion and consciousness upon movement from a supine or sitting position to the upright posture; for example, subjects can stand suddenly or be tilted to the head-up body position. Similar but not identical physiological responses can be induced by positive G(sub Z) (head to foot) acceleration or exposure to lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The objective is to suddenly shift blood to the lower body to determine how effectively cardiovascular and neural-hormonal compensatory responses react to maintain blood pressure. In the most precise method for measuring tolerance, individuals would be stressed until they faint (syncope). However, the potential consequences and discomforts of such a test usually prohibit such a procedure so that few investigators actually induce syncope. In a more common approach, subjects are exposed to a given level of stress, for example, head-up tilt for 15 min, and any increases in heart rate or decreases in blood pressure are interpreted as indicators of progress toward syncope. Presumably, the greater the perturbation of heart rate and blood pressure, the closer to "tolerance," i.e., point of unconsciousness. Another more appropriate approach is to induce a progressively increasing hypotensive stress until pre-determined physiological responses or pre-syncopal symptoms appear. The physiological criteria may include a sudden drop in systolic blood pressure (greater than 25 mm/min), a sudden drop in heart rate (greater than 15 beats/min), or a systolic blood pressure less than 70 mmHg. The most common pre-syncopal symptoms include lightheadedness, stomach awareness or distress, feelings of warmth, tingly skin, and light to profuse sweating. Usually a combination of physiological responses and symptoms occurs such that, on different days, the tolerance time to the same orthostatic protocol is reproducible for a given individual. The assumption is that by taking subjects to near fainting, one can determine their tolerance. This latter pre-syncopal approach is better for estimating orthostatic or hypotensive tolerance than the former measurement of heart rate and blood pressure responses to a given stress. There is considerable variability in individual responses to orthostasis. For example, some subjects are "heart-rate responders" and have a pronounced cardiovascular response similar to that when performing moderately hard aerobic exercise, whereas others may experience pre-syncopal symptoms with very little increase in heart rate. Some individuals have a slow, gradual fall in blood pressure to orthostasis, and others have little change in blood pressure until a sudden precipitous fall in pressure occurs just prior to fainting. With both tilt and LBNP tests there is a low correlation between heart-rate or blood-pressure responses to a sub-tolerance stress as a measure of pre-syncopal limited orthostatic-hypotensive tolerance.

Schneider, Suzanne M.

2000-01-01

339

Hypotensive effect of chemical constituents from Aloe barbadensis.  

PubMed

Hypotensive effects of aloeemodin, aloin A, elgonica dimer A and bisbenzopyran from Aloe barbadensis have been studied. Aloeemodin has emerged as a potent hypotensive agent in current pharmacological investigations and caused 26 %, 52 %, and 79 % falls in mean arterial blood pressure at the corresponding doses of 0.5, 1, and 3 mg/kg in rats. The paper also describes the absolute configuration of elgonica dimer A (1). PMID:11731923

Saleem, R; Faizi, S; Siddiqui, B S; Ahmed, M; Hussain, S A; Qazi, A; Dar, A; Ahmad, S I; Qazi, M H; Akhtar, S; Hasnain, S N

2001-11-01

340

Is neurally mediated hypotension an unrecognised cause of chronic fatigue?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurally mediated hypotension is now recognised as a common cause of otherwise unexplained recurrent syncope, but has not been reported in association with chronic fatigue. We describe seven consecutive non-syncopal adolescents with chronic post-exertional fatigue, four of whom satisfied strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome. Upright tilt-table testing induced significant hypotension in all seven (median systolic blood pressure 65 mm

P. C Rowe; I Bou-Holaigah; J. S Kan; H Calkins

1995-01-01

341

Histamine release and hypotensive reactions in dogs by solubilizing agents and fatty acids: Analysis of various components in cremophor El and development of a compound with reduced toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaphylactoid reactions in man following administration of drugs solubilized with cremophor El® (polyethylenglycolglycerol riconoleate) are a considerable clinical problem. Since these reactions occur in dogs on first exposure and in pigs on second exposure, the ‘dog model’ was used in this communication to analyse components and chemical modifications of cremophor El and its components for their clinical effects, their hypotensive

W. Lorenz; A. Schmal; H. Schult; S. Lang; Ch. Ohmann; D. Weber; B. Kapp; L. Lüben; A. Doenicke

1982-01-01

342

Late presentation of hyperandrogenism in pregnancy: clinical features and differential diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Hyperandrogenic states in pregnancy are rare but arise most commonly due to new-onset ovarian pathology in pregnancy. We describe the case of a young woman who presented in the latter half of her pregnancy with features of hyperandrogenism. We review the biochemical and imaging findings and discuss the differential diagnosis. Case presentation A 26-year-old woman presented in the later part of her pregnancy with widespread hirsutism. Biochemical testing confirmed hyperandrogenism (testosterone, 13.7?nmol/l and second-trimester pregnancy range, 0.9–4.9?nmol/l), although she had no history of menstrual disturbance, hirsutism or acne prior to conception. Radiological evaluation (ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging) revealed multiple cystic lesions in both ovaries, leading to a presumptive diagnosis of hyperreactio luteinalis (HL). The implications of maternal hyperandrogenism on foetal virilisation were considered and the patient was counselled appropriately. She delivered a healthy baby boy uneventfully. Androgen levels, hirsutism and acne normalised within a few weeks of delivery. Conclusion HL can occur at any stage of pregnancy and is an important differential diagnosis in pregnant patients with features of androgen excess. Most cases regress spontaneously after delivery and major interventions are usually not needed. Learning points Hyperandrogenism in pregnancy is rare.Clinical features are similar to the non-pregnant state in the mother but virilisation in the foetus can have profound consequences.HL and pregnancy luteoma are the most common ovarian pathologies leading to hyperandrogenism in pregnancy.Spontaneous regression occurs in the post-partum period in the vast majority of cases and surgery is only required for local complications.

Das, Gautam; Eligar, Vinay S; Govindan, Jyothish; Rees, D Aled

2013-01-01

343

Clinical Presentation of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) in Hospitalized Children  

PubMed Central

Objective Human pandemic influenza H1N1 virus as the cause of febrile respiratory infection ranging from self-limited to severe illness has spread globally during 2009. Signs and symptoms of upper and lower respiratory tract involvement, fever, sore throat, rhinitis, myalgia, malaise, headache, chills and fatigue are common. In this article we report the clinical presentation of Influenza A (H1N1) in our hospitalized children. Methods Between September and October 2009, all children requiring hospitalization for suspected H1N1 infection were transferred to Pediatric Infectious Diseases ward. For all patients the throat swab was taken for PCR testing to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of H1N1 Influenza A. Case patients consisted of H1N1-positive patients. Age, sex, symptoms, signs, laboratory data, CXR changes, details of therapy, duration of admission and patient outcome were documented. Findings Twenty patients were H1N1 positive. Mean age of the patients was 65.50±9.8 months. Fever and coughs were with 55% the most commonly reported symptoms. Other presentations included vomiting (55%), abdominal pain (25%), cyanosis and dyspnea (5%), body ache (40%), rhinorrhea (80%), sore throat (35%), head stiffness (5%) and loss of conciousness (5%). The median temperature of the patients was 38.5°C. Chest X-Ray changes were noted in 13 out of 20 patients (65%). Mean leukocyte and platelet was 6475 and 169000 respectively. Seventeen (85%) patients were treated with Oseltamivir, 3 patients received adjuvant antibiotics. The mean duration of admission was 3 days. Three patients required intensive care support and all of them expired due to superinfection. Conclusion Our data confirm that the presentation of influenza in children is variable and 2009 H1N1 influenza may cause leucopenia and thrombocytopenia.

Soleimani, Gholamreza; Akbarpour, Marzieh

2011-01-01

344

Orthostatic hypotension and subjective sleep quality in older people.  

PubMed

Poor sleep quality and orthostatic hypotension are common complaints in an older population, and both are related to factors such as polypharmacy and depression. However, it is not known whether there is a direct association between the two. Our objective is to investigate a potential association between orthostatic blood pressure response and subjective sleep quality in older people. A within-subjects, cross-sectional design embedded in a larger longitudinal study design. Participants were recruited from the community to visit the TRIL clinic at St James's Hospital, where they underwent a structured medical and psychosocial assessment. A total of 505 community dwelling adults aged 60+ (321 females, mean age 72.44) were participated in this study. Orthostatic blood pressure responses were recorded during an active stand using Finometer equipment, and health-related factors such as pain ratings, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, timed up and go, Mini-Mental State Examination score, body mass index, as well as depression, anxiety, age and gender, were also recorded. Self-reported sleep quality was also assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The results showed that timed up and go, polypharmacy, depression, anxiety, gender and delayed recovery of blood pressure at orthostasis were associated with subjective poor sleep quality. There is an association between subjective sleep quality and delayed recovery of blood pressure at orthostasis, independent of mental health or polypharmacy effects, in older adults. This link may have implications for the management of sleep disorders in older people. PMID:22612427

McHugh, Joanna E; Fan, Chie W; Kenny, Rose Ann; Lawlor, Brian A

2012-01-01

345

Age and clinical outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes?  

PubMed Central

Context Elderly patients have more cardiovascular risk factors and a greater burden of ischemic disease than younger patients. Aims To examine the impact of age on clinical presentation and outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods and material Collected data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2), which is a prospective multicenter study from six adjacent Arab Middle Eastern Gulf countries. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their age: ?50 years, 51–70 years and >70 years and their clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. Mortality was assessed at one and 12 months. Statistical analysis used One-way ANOVA test for continuous variables, Pearson chi-square (X2) test for categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis for predictors were performed. Results Among 7930 consecutive ACS patients; 2755 (35%) were ?50 years, 4110 (52%) were 51–70 years and 1065 (13%) >70 years old. The proportion of women increased with increasing age (13% among patients ?50 years to 31% among patients > 70 years). The risk factor pattern varied with age; younger patients were more often obese, smokers and had a positive family history of CAD, whereas older patients more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Advancing age was associated with under-treatment evidence-based therapies. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for relevant covariates showed that old age was independent predictors for re-ischemia (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03–1.60), heart failure (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.17–3.52) and major bleeding (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.37–11.77) and in-hospital mortality (age 51–70: OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.86–3.85, and age >70: OR 4.71; 95% CI 3.11–7.14). Conclusion Despite being higher risk group, elderly are less likely to receive evidence-based therapies and had worse outcomes. Guidelines adherence is highly recommended in elderly.

Ahmed, Emad; AlHabib, Khalid F.; El-Menyar, Ayman; Asaad, Nidal; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Hersi, Ahmad; Almahmeed, Wael; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Amin, Haitham; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Al Saif, Shukri; Singh, Rajvir; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

2013-01-01

346

Antipsychotic pharmacotherapy and orthostatic hypotension: identification and management.  

PubMed

Orthostatic hypotension is a common adverse effect of antipsychotics that may delay or prevent titration to a dose necessary to control psychotic symptoms. Complications of orthostatic hypotension include syncope, transient ischaemic attack, stroke, myocardial infarction and death. The risk of orthostatic hypotension associated with antipsychotic therapy is increased in patients with disorders of the autonomic nervous system, fluid imbalance and those taking concomitant drug therapy that affects haemodynamic tone. Prospective monitoring for changes in postural blood pressure is important because patients with psychotic disorders often do not articulate symptoms of orthostasis and the subjective report of dizziness does not correlate well with orthostatic blood pressure changes. Nonpharmacological strategies and patient education, most notably, slowly rising from the supine position, are crucial first steps in the prevention and treatment of both symptomatic and asymptomatic orthostatic hypotension. Pharmacological treatment is only recommended when symptomatic orthostatic hypotension persists despite proper nonpharmacological therapy and there is a compelling indication for antipsychotic treatment. Fludrocortisone is a reasonable first choice for symptomatic orthostatic hypotension. Other agents including desmopressin and midodrine may be considered in patients who do not respond favourably to a trial of fludrocortisone, but safety concerns and lack of evidence limit the utility of these agents. PMID:21790209

Gugger, James J

2011-08-01

347

Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI) as a Predictor of Intradialytic Hypotension (IDH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In haemodialysis treatment the clearance and volume control by the kidneys of a patient are partially replaced by intermittent haemodialysis. Because this artificial process is performed on a limited time scale, unphysiological imbalances in the fluid compartments of the body occur, that can lead to intradialytic hypotensions (IDH). An IDH endangers the efficacy of the haemodialysis session and is associated with dismal clinical endpoints, including mortality. A diagnostic method that predicts the occurrence of these drops in blood pressure could facilitate timely measures for the prevention of IDH. The present study investigates whether the Initial Systolic Time Interval (ISTI) can provide such a diagnostic method. The ISTI is defined as the time difference between the R-peak in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the C-wave in the impedance cardiogram (ICG) and is considered to be a non-invasive assessment of the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This time delay has previously been found to depend on autonomic nervous function as well as preload of the heart. Therefore, it can be expected that ISTI may predict an imminent IDH caused by a low circulating blood volume. This ongoing observational clinical study investigates the relationship between changes in ISTI and subsequent drops in blood pressure during haemodialysis. A registration of a complicated dialysis showed a significant correlation between a drop in blood pressure, a decrease in relative blood volume and a substantial increase in ISTI. An uncomplicated dialysis, in which also a considerable amount of fluid was removed, showed no correlations. Both, blood pressure and ISTI remained stable. In conclusion, the preliminary results of the present study show a substantial response of ISTI to haemodynamic instability, indicating an application in optimization and individualisation of the dialysis process.

Biesheuvel, J. D.; Vervloet, M. G.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Meijer, J. H.

2013-04-01

348

Balling gun-induced trauma in cattle: clinical presentation, diagnosis and prevention.  

PubMed

Pharyngeal trauma in cattle can occur during the administration of oral medication using a balling gun. The number of cases of severe complications due to bolus application that have been referred to our hospital has increased from nil between 1996 and 2008 to three or four per year. In our experience, reports by bovine veterinarians of patients with severe and often fatal pharyngeal trauma, which were not referred to the clinic, have become more common in recent years as well. The incidence of this complication is likely to be higher than this number of referrals suggests. Diagnosis without the help of imaging techniques, such as radiography and endoscopy, may be difficult, especially in cases where exploration of the pharynx cannot be carried out, or is unable to confirm the absence or presence of a lesion. Prognosis is often poor in cases where perforation has been confirmed. Boluses are increasingly administered by the owners or farm personnel without the supervision of a veterinarian. In order to prevent losses due to balling gun-induced injuries, the veterinarian plays a crucial role in giving advice to his clients. Five cases of cattle suffering from varying degrees of balling gun-induced trauma are presented, and consideration is given to incorrect application techniques. PMID:23677645

Mann, S; Nuss, K A; Feist, M; Weber, B K; Zoller, D K; Metzner, M

2013-06-29

349

A Descriptive Analysis of Patients Presenting to Psychosexual Clinic at a Tertiary Care Center  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychosexual problems are very common presentation, be it with psychiatric or physical illness but there are very few studies available on psychosexual disorders especially in the Indian context. Indian society is deeply ingrained in customs and several misconceptions, myths, prejudices, and social taboos are attached to sex which makes it further very difficult to tackle. Objectives: The aim of this current study was to descriptively analyze the nature of sexual disorders in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: The current retrospective chart review included 698 consecutive subjects seeking treatment for their psychosexual problems at the Sexual Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, Dr. Ram Manohar Hospital, New Delhi (between 2006 and 2010). Results: This study observed erectile dysfunction (ED) (29.5%), Premature ejaculation (PME) (24.6%), Dhat syndrome (DS) (18.1%), and ED with PME (17.5%) as the common sexual dysfunctions leading to treatment seeking. DS was the major complaint among younger and unmarried individuals. We observed more married individuals seeking treatment for sexual disorders. Conclusions: These findings provide important information on a relatively under-researched area.

Verma, Rohit; Mina, Shaily; Ul-Hassan, Shiraz; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

2013-01-01

350

Gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas. An update in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Gelastic seizures are epileptic events characterized by bouts of laughter. Laughter-like vocalization is usually combined with facial contraction in the form of a smile. Autonomic features such as flushing, tachycardia, and altered respiration are widely recognized. Conscious state may not be impaired, although this is often difficult to asses particularly in young children. Gelastic seizures have been associated classically to hypothalamic hamartomas, although different extrahypothalamic localizations have been described. Hypothalamic hamartomas are rare congenital lesions presenting with the classic triad of gelastic epilepsy, precocious puberty and developmental delay. The clinical course of patients with gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas is progressive, commencing with gelastic seizures in infancy, deteriorating into more complex seizure disorder resulting in intractable epilepsy. Electrophysiological, radiological, and pathophysiological studies have confirmed the intrinsic epileptogenicity of the hypothalamic hamartoma. Currently the most effective surgical approach is the trancallosal anterior interforniceal approach, however newer approaches including the endoscopic and other treatment such as radiosurgery and gamma knife have been used with success. This review focuses on the syndrome of gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas, but it also reviews other concepts such as status gelasticus and some aspects of gelastic seizures in other locations.

Tellez-Zenteno, Jose F; Serrano-Almeida, Cesar; Moien-Afshari, Farzad

2008-01-01

351

Clinical presentation and molecular basis of congenital antithrombin deficiency in children: a cohort study.  

PubMed

In this study we report the largest descriptive cohort of congenital antithrombin (AT) deficiency in children, its clinical presentation, molecular basis and genotype-phenotype correlation. Paediatric patients diagnosed with AT deficiency at two tertiary care children's hospitals over a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. SERPINC1 gene sequencing was offered to subjects who did not already have the test performed. Molecular modelling and stability simulations were performed for the novel mutations identified. Twenty-nine subjects from 18 pedigrees were identified. Mean age (± standard deviation) at diagnosis and mean duration of follow-up were 8·4 (± 6·6) years and 6·6 (± 5·7) years respectively. Most recent mean AT activity and AT antigen levels (n = 20) were 0·53 (± 0·09) iu/ml and 0·60 (± 0·17) iu/ml respectively. Ten subjects were diagnosed secondary to low AT activity measured following venous thrombo-embolism (VTE). All 10 subjects had additional risk factors at the time of VTE. None of the 19 subjects diagnosed with AT deficiency in the setting of positive family history have had VTE with 7·4 (± 5·8) years follow-up. Mutation analysis has been completed on 19 subjects from 16 pedigrees. Nine unique mutations, including 4 novel mutations were identified. PMID:24684277

Kumar, Riten; Chan, Anthony K C; Dawson, Jennifer E; Forman-Kay, Julie D; Kahr, Walter H A; Williams, Suzan

2014-07-01

352

Immune-mediated and autoimmune myocarditis: clinical presentation, diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

According to the current WHO classification of cardiomyopathies, myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium and is diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy using established histological, immunological and immunohistochemical criteria; it may be idiopathic, infectious or autoimmune and may heal or lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). DCM is characterized by dilatation and impaired contraction of the left or both ventricles; it may be idiopathic, familial/genetic, viral and/or immune. The diagnosis of DCM requires exclusion of known, specific causes of heart failure, including coronary artery disease. On endomyocardial biopsy, there is myocyte loss, compensatory hypertrophy, fibrous tissue and immunohistochemical findings consistent with chronic inflammation (myocarditis) in 30-40 % of cases. In a patient subset, myocarditis and DCM represent the acute and chronic stages of an inflammatory disease of the myocardium, which can be viral, post-infectious immune or primarily organ-specific autoimmune. Here, we review the clinical presentation, etiopathogenetic diagnostic criteria, and management of immune-mediated and autoimmune myocarditis. PMID:23114995

Caforio, Alida L P; Marcolongo, Renzo; Jahns, Roland; Fu, Michael; Felix, Stephan B; Iliceto, S

2013-11-01

353

Understanding pathogenetic aspects and clinical presentation of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) through its derived cell lines  

PubMed Central

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a very rare subgroup of B-cell lymphomas presenting as pleural, peritoneal and pericardial neoplastic effusions in the absence of a solid tumor mass or recognizable nodal involvement. There is strong evidence that Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a causal agent of PEL. PEL tumor cells are latently infected by KSHV with consistent expression of several viral proteins and microRNAs that can affect cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. The most relevant data on pathogenesis and biology of KSHV have been provided by studies on PEL derived cell lines. Fourteen continuous cell lines have been established from the malignant effusions of patients with AIDS-and non-AIDS-associated PEL. These KSHV+ EBV+/? cell lines are wellcharacterized, authenticated and mostly available from public biological ressource centers. The PEL cell lines display unique features and are clearly distinct from other lymphoma cell lines. PEL cell lines represent an indispensable tool for the understanding of KSHV biology and its impact on the clinical manifestation of PEL. Studies on PEL cell lines have shown that a number of viral genes, expressed during latency or lytic life cycle, have effects on cell binding, proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammation. Also PEL cell lines are important model systems for the study of the pathology of PEL including the lack of invasive or destructive growth patterns and the peculiar propensity of PEL to involve body cavity surfaces.

Carbone, Antonino; Cesarman, Ethel; Gloghini, Annunziata; Drexler, Hans G.

2013-01-01

354

Literature Review and Clinical Presentation of Cervical Spondylitis Due to Salmonella Enteritidis in Immunocompetent  

PubMed Central

A 48-year-old woman was presented to our clinic with some fever and neck pains for about one month. Based on the symptoms and results of image, an empirical diagnosis of tuberculous cervical spondylitis was made. The pain was not significantly decreased after anti-tuberculosis therapy. And, 3 weeks later, she was re-admitted to our hospital for the unbearable pain. An exploration of the C4/5 by the anterior medial approach was recommended to evaluate the germ and debridement. Bacteriological tests showed that the pathogen was Salmonella Enteritidis. The pain was relieved significantly after operation and sensitive antibiotic treatments. Infections with Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Paratyphi have been well-documented, while there are few reports of cervical spondylitis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis. We reported a case of a healthy woman with whom pyogenic cervical spondylitis of Salmonella Enteritidis was corroborated and treated and reviewed according to previous reports about spondylitis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis in the literature.

Feng, Zhi-Yun; Guo, Fang

2014-01-01

355

Understanding pathogenetic aspects and clinical presentation of primary effusion lymphoma through its derived cell lines.  

PubMed

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a very rare subgroup of B-cell lymphomas presenting as pleural, peritoneal and pericardial neoplastic effusions in the absence of a solid tumor mass or recognizable nodal involvement. There is strong evidence that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a causal agent of PEL. PEL tumor cells are latently infected by KSHV with consistent expression of several viral proteins and microRNAs that can affect cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. The most relevant data on pathogenesis and biology of KSHV have been provided by studies on PEL-derived cell lines. Fourteen continuous cell lines have been established from the malignant effusions of patients with AIDS-associated and non-AIDS-associated PEL. These KSHV+ EBV+/- cell lines are well characterized, authenticated and mostly available from public biological resource centers. The PEL cell lines display unique features and are clearly distinct from other lymphoma cell lines. PEL cell lines represent an indispensable tool for the understanding of KSHV biology and its impact on the clinical manifestation of PEL. Studies on PEL cell lines have shown that a number of viral genes, expressed during latency or lytic life cycle, have effects on cell binding, proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammation. Also, PEL cell lines are important model systems for the study of the disorder of PEL including the lack of invasive or destructive growth patterns and the peculiar propensity of PEL to involve body cavity surfaces. PMID:20051807

Carbone, Antonino; Cesarman, Ethel; Gloghini, Annunziata; Drexler, Hans G

2010-02-20

356

Clinical and radiological aspects of cerebellopontine neurinoma presenting with recurrent spontaneous bleedings  

PubMed Central

Background: Neurinomas are benign, usually encapsulated, tumors growing in peripheral nerve sheath with a high incidence in the cerebellopontine angle. Case Description: We report a case of vestibular neurinoma (VN) with a “biphasic” pattern of intratumoral hemorrhage presenting with cephalalgia along with progressive ipsilateral mild impairment of both VII and VIII cranial nerves. A thorough preoperative magnetic resonance imaging study better characterized the patchy pattern of the round shaped lesion, resulting in three different intensity signals, due to the peculiar characteristics of the tumoral mass and the recurrent bleedings, respectively. Postoperatively, histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of neurinoma. Conclusion: Hemorrhagic VN are rare tumors; from the first case described in 1974 only 43 more have been reported in the literature so far. Noteworthy, “biphasic” bleedings are even rarer. From an accurate review of the literature we collected and thus emphasized the radiological and clinical features of this rare entity. Eventually, we suggest that the early surgical removal of clots and tumor is essential to provide the best chance of neurological improvement.

Giuseppe, Maimone; Mario, Ganau; Nicola, Nicassio; Mauro, Cambria

2013-01-01

357

Topical Oxygen Therapy Induces VEGF Expression and Improves Closure of Clinically Presented Chronic Wounds  

PubMed Central

Chronic wounds, especially in diabetics, represent a serious threat to human health.Correcting a compromised state of tissue oxygenation by the administration of supplemental O2 is known to benefit wound healing. Beyond its role as a nutrient and antibiotic, O2 supports wound healing by driving redox-signaling.HBO (hyperbaric oxygen) therapy is widely used and approved by CMS to treat specific ulcerations. The current literature supports that approaches to topically oxygenate wounds may be productive.Here, we present the results of two simultaneous studies testing the effects of HBO and portable topical oxygen (TO) therapies. These two therapeutic approaches have several contrasting features.A total of 1854 patients were screened in outpatient wound clinics for non-randomized enrollments into the HBO (n=32, 31% diabetic) and TO (n=25, 52% diabetic) studies.Under the conditions of the current study, HBO treatment seemed to benefit some wounds while not benefiting the others. Overall, HBO did not result in statistically significant improvements in wound size in the given population over the time monitored in this study.TO significantly improved wound size. Among the three (VEGF, TGF?1 and COL1A1) O2-sensitive genes studied in wound-edge tissue biopsies, TO treatment was associated with higher VEGF165 expression in healing wounds. Expression of the other genes mentioned was not affected by TO. All of the genes studied did not significantly change in expression in patients of the HBO study. This work establishes a link between VEGF gene expression and healing outcome for TO therapy.Taken together, this report presents evidence demonstrating that TO treatment benefits wound healing in patients suffering from chronic wounds. TO treatment is associated with induction in VEGF expression in the wound edge tissue and improvement in wound size.

Gordillo, Gayle M; Roy, Sashwati; Khanna, Savita; Schlanger, Richard; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Phillips, Gary; Sen, Chandan K.

2008-01-01

358

Association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and clinical presentation and prognosis of sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) concentration is considered a marker of sarcoidosis activity. This concentration is influenced by an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene, such that SACE levels follow the pattern DD>ID>II. The aim of our work was to study the relationship between I/D polymorphism and susceptibility to sarcoidosis, as well as the relation between this polymorphism and the clinical presentation and evolution of the disease in 177 sarcoidosis patients. A group of 104 individuals without sarcoidosis was included as control. Genotyping was done by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, and SACE concentration at diagnosis was determined by a kinetic method. No differences were observed in genotype or allele distributions between patients and controls, nor between patients considering the type of presentation (Löfgren versus non-Löfgren) and evolution of the disease (acute versus chronic). As reported for healthy populations, SACE concentrations followed the pattern DD>ID>II in sarcoidosis patients, but significant differences between genotypes existed only in the Löfgren group (p = 0.003) and in acute patients (p = 0.02). SACE concentrations at diagnosis were lower in acute patients (p = 0.05) and in Löfgren's syndrome (p = 0.04), but this seemed to occur only in ID individuals (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). No relation was thus found between I/D polymorphism and susceptibility to sarcoidosis, but ACE I/D genotyping may improve the assessment of disease activity, both at diagnosis and during the follow-up of treated and untreated patients. PMID:16319043

Alía, P; Mañá, J; Capdevila, O; Alvarez, A; Navarro, M A

2005-01-01

359

Bloodstream Infection among Children Presenting to a General Hospital Outpatient Clinic in Urban Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited data on the etiology and characteristics of bloodstream infections in children presenting in hospital outpatient settings in South Asia. Previous studies in Nepal have highlighted the importance of murine typhus as a cause of febrile illness in adults and enteric fever as a leading bacterial cause of fever among children admitted to hospital. Methods We prospectively studied a total of 1084 febrile children aged between 2 months and 14 years presenting to a general hospital outpatient department in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, over two study periods (summer and winter). Blood from all patients was tested by conventional culture and by real-time PCR for Rickettsia typhi. Results Putative etiological agents for fever were identified in 164 (15%) patients. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) was identified in 107 (10%), S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi) in 30 (3%), Streptococcus pneumoniae in 6 (0.6%), S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in 2 (0.2%), Haemophilus influenzae type b in 1 (0.1%), and Escherichia coli in 1 (0.1%) patient. S. Typhi was the most common organism isolated from blood during both summer and winter. Twenty-two (2%) patients were PCR positive for R. typhi. No significant demographic, clinical and laboratory features distinguished culture positive enteric fever and murine typhus. Conclusions Salmonella infections are the leading cause of bloodstream infection among pediatric outpatients with fever in Kathmandu Valley. Extension of immunization programs against invasive bacterial disease to include the agents of enteric fever and pneumococcus could improve the health of children in Nepal.

Pradhan, Rahul; Shrestha, Umesh; Gautam, Samir C.; Thorson, Stephen; Shrestha, Kabindra; Yadav, Bharat K.; Kelly, Dominic F.; Adhikari, Neelam; Pollard, Andrew J.; Murdoch, David R.

2012-01-01

360

Demographic, epidemiologic and clinical profile of snake bite cases, presented to Emergency Medicine department, Ahmedabad, Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Aim: Snake bite is a common medical emergency faced mainly by the rural populations in tropical and subtropical countries with heavy rainfall and humid climate. Although India is a single largest contributor of snake bite cases, reporting is very poor. There is hardly any publication of the same from Gujarat state that is developing at a good pace. Hence, we aimed to study the snake bite cases with particular attention to demography, epidemiology, and clinical profile. Settings and Design: The present descriptive, observational study was carried out at the Emergency Medicine Department of a tertiary care center in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. This department is one if the firsts to get recognized by the Medical Council of India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional single-center study. Cases were entered into the prescribed form, and detailed information regarding demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical parameters was entered. Statistical Method: Data were analyzed using Epi2000. Means and frequencies for each variable were calculated. Results: Majority (67.4%) of the snake bite victims were in the age group between 15 and 45 years. Majority were male victims (74.2%). 71% victims of snake bite lived in rural areas. Farmers and laborers were the main victims. 61.2% incidents took place at night time or early morning (before 6 a.m.). 64% patients had bite mark on the lower limb. 40% victims had seen the snake. Eight patients had snake bite, but were asymptomatic. 52% had neuroparalytic manifestation, 34% were asymptomatic, and 9.6% had hemorrhagic manifestation. 14% cases received treatment within 1 h of the bite and 64.84% within 1-6 h after the bite. First aid given was in the form of application of tourniquet (16.2%), local application of lime, chillies, herbal medicine, etc., (1%). 2.20% cases were sensitive to anti-snake venom. Only three patients died. Conclusion: In this region (Gujarat), neuroparalytic manifestation of snake bite is more prevalent. Cobra and krait are the commonest types of poisonous snakes. The time of seeking treatment has reduced because of awareness about snake bite treatment and better transport and ambulance facility. Mortality is very less in well-equipped hospitals due to early initiation of treatment with anti-snake venom.

Jarwani, Bhavesh; Jadav, Pradeep; Madaiya, Malhar

2013-01-01

361

Identification and management of orthostatic hypotension in older and medically complex patients.  

PubMed

Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a drop in systolic blood pressure (BP) of at least 20 mmHg or of diastolic BP of at least 10 mmHg within 3 min of standing. It is uncommon in the healthy elderly. However, it occurs in 30-50% of elderly persons with known risk factors and is another example of a multifactorial geriatric syndrome similar to falls and delirium. Most patients with orthostatic hypotension either have no symptoms or atypical symptoms, and therefore, screening BPs should be taken in all patients with risk factors. The treatment approach is not standardized but a stepped-care algorithm is presented that is likely to be successful for many patients. Future studies need to focus on the potential benefits of screening and treating patients with this disorder. PMID:22390810

Mader, Scott L

2012-03-01

362

Clinical Policy: Critical Issues in the Management of Adult Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This clinical policy focuses on critical issues concerning the management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute symptomatic carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The subcommittee reviewed the medical literature relevant to the questions posed. The critical questions are: Should hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy be used for the treatment of patients with acute CO poisoning; and Can clinical

Stephen J. Wolf; Eric J. Lavonas; Edward P. Sloan; Andy S. Jagoda

2008-01-01

363

Plurihormone secreting pituitary macroadenoma masquerading as thyrotoxicosis: Clinical presentation and diagnostic challenges  

PubMed Central

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting adenomas are the rarest type of pituitary adenomas (1:1000000 in the population; 0.2- 2.8% of adenomas). Plurihormonal thyrotropic adenomas are even rarer usually having cosecretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. We report perhaps for the first time, TSH, GH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and gonadotropins secreting pituitary macroadenoma diagnosed in a 40 year lady presenting with features of thyrotoxicosis for 5 months, amenorrhea for 3 months and newly diagnosed diabetes and hypertension for 2 months along with headache, nausea, and vomiting, who had acromegaloid habitus, grade-II goitre, increased uptake on Technitium-99 pertechnate thyroid scan (4.1%; normal: 0.24-3.34%), with increased T3 (5.98 pg/ ml; 1.5-4.1), increased T4 (2.34 ng/dl; 0.9-1.8), inappropriately high TSH (2.32 ?IU/ml; 0.4-4.2), insulin like growth factor-1 (711 ng/ ml; 109-264), non-suppressed post-glucose GH (15.9 ng/ml; <1 ng/ml), normal estradiol (52 pg/ml; 21-251), inappropriately high luteinizing hormone (53.5 mIU/ml; 1.1-11.6), inappropriately high follicle stimulating hormone (59 mIU/ml; 3-14.4), non-suppressed overnight dexamethasone cortisol (5.8 mcg/dl; <2), elevated ACTH (58 pg/ml 5-15), withdrawal bleed on progestrogen challenge, bitemporal hemianopia on automated perimetry and pituitary macroadenoma on MRI imaging of sella. Thyroid hormone resistance was ruled out by documenting normal sex hormone binding globulin and ferritin levels. Her clinical and biochemical phenotype was not suggestive of multiple hormone resistance seen in pseudohypoparathyroidism. This report intends to highlight the challenges in the diagnosis of plurihormonal thyrotropic adenoma.

Maisnam, Indira; Dutta, Deep; Jain, Rajesh; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

2012-01-01

364

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis may present during adulthood: clinical and genetic features of a small series.  

PubMed

Familial Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare immune deficiency with defective cytotoxic function. The age at onset is usually young and the natural course is rapidly fatal if untreated. A later onset of the disease has been sporadically reported even in adolescents and adults. We report the results of our retrospective data collection of all cases diagnosed with FHL at an age of 18 years or older and enrolled in the Italian Registry of HLH. All cases were diagnosed with FHL based on evidence of genetic defect in one FHL-related gene. A total of 11 patients were diagnosed with FHL. They were 9 males and 2 females, from 10 unrelated families; their age ranged between 18 and 43 years (median, 23 years). Family history was unremarkable in eight families at the time of the diagnosis. Their genetic diagnoses are: FHL2 (n = 6), FHL3 (n = 2), FHL5 (n = 1), XLP1 (n = 2). Clinical, molecular and functional data are described. These data confirm that FHL may present beyond the pediatric age and up to the fifth decade. FHL2 due to perforin defect is the most frequently reported subtype. Adult specialists should consider FHL in the differential diagnosis of patients with cytopenia and liver or central nervous system disorders, especially when a lymphoproliferative disease is suspected but eventually not confirmed. FHL may turn to be fatal within a short time course even in adults. This risk, together with the continuous improvement in the transplant technique, especially in the area of transplant from matched unrelated donor, resulting in reduced treatment related mortality, might suggest a wider use of SCT in this population. Current diagnostic approach allows prompt identification of patients by flow-cytometry screening, then confirmed by the genetic study, and treatment with chemo-immunotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation. PMID:22970278

Sieni, Elena; Cetica, Valentina; Piccin, Andrea; Gherlinzoni, Filippo; Sasso, Ferdinando Carlo; Rabusin, Marco; Attard, Luciano; Bosi, Alberto; Pende, Daniela; Moretta, Lorenzo; Aricò, Maurizio

2012-01-01

365

Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis May Present during Adulthood: Clinical and Genetic Features of a Small Series  

PubMed Central

Familial Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare immune deficiency with defective cytotoxic function. The age at onset is usually young and the natural course is rapidly fatal if untreated. A later onset of the disease has been sporadically reported even in adolescents and adults. We report the results of our retrospective data collection of all cases diagnosed with FHL at an age of 18 years or older and enrolled in the Italian Registry of HLH. All cases were diagnosed with FHL based on evidence of genetic defect in one FHL-related gene. A total of 11 patients were diagnosed with FHL. They were 9 males and 2 females, from 10 unrelated families; their age ranged between 18 and 43 years (median, 23 years). Family history was unremarkable in eight families at the time of the diagnosis. Their genetic diagnoses are: FHL2 (n?=?6), FHL3 (n?=?2), FHL5 (n?=?1), XLP1 (n?=?2). Clinical, molecular and functional data are described. These data confirm that FHL may present beyond the pediatric age and up to the fifth decade. FHL2 due to perforin defect is the most frequently reported subtype. Adult specialists should consider FHL in the differential diagnosis of patients with cytopenia and liver or central nervous system disorders, especially when a lymphoproliferative disease is suspected but eventually not confirmed. FHL may turn to be fatal within a short time course even in adults. This risk, together with the continuous improvement in the transplant technique, especially in the area of transplant from matched unrelated donor, resulting in reduced treatment related mortality, might suggest a wider use of SCT in this population. Current diagnostic approach allows prompt identification of patients by flow-cytometry screening, then confirmed by the genetic study, and treatment with chemo-immunotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation.

Piccin, Andrea; Gherlinzoni, Filippo; Sasso, Ferdinando Carlo; Rabusin, Marco; Attard, Luciano; Bosi, Alberto; Pende, Daniela; Moretta, Lorenzo; Arico, Maurizio

2012-01-01

366

[An autopsied case of Fabry's disease presenting with parkinsonism and cardiomegaly as a cardinal clinical manifestation].  

PubMed

A 68-year-old male had been followed up under a clinical diagnosis of parkinsonism for 5 years. He was admitted to the Kanto Teishin Hospital with a chief complaint of difficulty in swallowing. Physical findings were almost normal. Neurological examination showed parkinsonism including mask-like face, positive Myerson's sign, mild rigidity, marche à petit pas, and retropulsion, and pyramidal signs including mild right hemiparesis, generalized hyperreflexia and positive Babinski's sign on both sides. Routine blood analysis was normal, except for elevated LDH level. He was found to have cardiac enlargement (CTR 58.7%) in chest roentogenogram, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), right bundle branch block and myocardial ischemia in electrocardiogram, as well as LVH, asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, mild MR and AR in echocardiogram. A T2 weighted brain MRI disclosed multiple high signal intensities in the basal ganglia and deep white matter regions which suggest parkinsonism resulting from multiple cerebral infarctions. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination revealed esophageal and gastric carcinomas. He died of ventricular fibrillation 14 days after an operation of these carcinomas. Autopsy showed severe cardiomegaly (800 g) and vacuolar change of myocardium with lamellar body on electron microscopic examination. A definite biochemical diagnosis of Fabry's disease was made by demonstration of deposition of a large amount of trihexosylceramide in the myocardium, kidney, and liver. This case presented parkinsonism and cardiomegaly without typical signs of Fabry's disease. Therefore, Fabry's disease should be considered as one of possible underlying diseases, when a patient has cardiomegaly or ischemic cerebrovascular disease without risk factors, even if he has no typical signs of Fabry's disease. PMID:7834942

Orimo, S; Iwasaki, T; Yoshino, H; Arai, M; Hiyamuta, E

1994-10-01

367

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: clinical presentation, molecular mechanisms, and therapeutic perspectives.  

PubMed

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by cerebellar dysfunction associated with slow saccades, early hyporeflexia, severe tremor of postural or action type, peripheral neuropathy, cognitive disorders, and other multisystemic features. SCA2, one of the most common ataxias worldwide, is caused by the expansion of a CAG triplet repeat located in the N-terminal coding region of the ATXN2 gene, which results in the incorporation of a segment of polyglutamines in the mutant protein, being longer expansions associated with earlier onset and more sever disease in subsequent generations. In this review, we offer a detailed description of the clinical manifestations of SCA2 and compile the experimental evidence showing the participation of ataxin-2 in crucial cellular processes, including messenger RNA maturation and translation, and endocytosis. In addition, we discuss in the light of present data the potential molecular mechanisms underlying SCA2 pathogenesis. The mutant protein exhibits a toxic gain of function that is mainly attributed to the generation of neuronal inclusions of phosphorylated and/or proteolytic cleaved mutant ataxin-2, which might alter normal ataxin-2 function, leading to cell dysfunction and death of target cells. In the final part of this review, we discuss the perspectives of development of therapeutic strategies for SCA2. Based on previous experience with other polyglutamine disorders and considering the molecular basis of SCA2 pathogenesis, a nuclei-acid-based strategy focused on the specific silencing of the dominant disease allele that preserves the expression of the wild-type allele is highly desirable and might prevent toxic neurodegenerative sequelae. PMID:22996397

Magaña, J J; Velázquez-Pérez, L; Cisneros, B

2013-02-01

368

Different clinical courses of central precocious girls according to their age at presentation and treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose The progressivity of central precocious puberty (CPP) seems to depend on the age at presentation. We evaluated the clinical courses of CPP girls according to their age at initiation of treatment. Methods One hundred thirty five girls with CPP diagnosed between Jan. 2003 and Dec. 2009 and regularly followed for more than one year were included. They were treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) every four weeks. Subjects were divided into two groups based on whether they were treated before (Group I, N=20) or after seven years of age (Group II, N=115). We compared the anthropometric parameters, the predicted adult height (PAH), predicted treatment periods, and the laboratory findings of the two groups every six months. Results Out of 135 CPP patients, 123 were idiopathic and twelve had neurogenic problems. At the baseline, patients' average bone age (BA) was significantly older than chronologic age (CA) and PAH was significantly shorter than target height (TH). BA and CA were significantly older in group II, but the BA/CA ratio was significantly greater in group I. The average treatment period required to overcome the CA-BA difference was 4.64 yr (group I vs II; 7.98 yr vs 4.24 yr, P < 0.01), and the period needed to overcome PAH-TH difference was 2.49 yr (group I vs II; 4.37 yr vs 2.32 yr, P < 0.01). Conclusion Among the girls with CPP, the younger age group had more advanced BA than CA, and needed significantly longer treatment periods to overcome the BA-CA gap and PAH-TH gaps.

Yoon, Shin-Ae; Kim, Heon; Yun, Sung-Cheol

2013-01-01

369

Intracranial hypotension masquerading as nonconvulsive status epilepticus: report of 3 cases.  

PubMed

Intracranial hypotension (IH) has been a known entity in neurocritical care since 1938. Even though many cases are spontaneous, the incidence of intracranial hypotension in the neurocritical care setting is increasing by virtue of the increased number of neurosurgical interventions. Whether spontaneous or secondary in etiology, diagnosis of IH usually requires the presence of orthostatic symptoms, including headaches and nausea with low opening CSF pressure. However, typical clinical features in the appropriate clinical context and imaging, even with normal CSF pressure, can indicate IH. In the neurocritical care setting, challenges for accurate semiology include altered sensorium and reduced levels of responsiveness for which many etiologies may exist, including metabolic dysfunction, traumatic brain injury, IH, or nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). The authors describe 3 patients whose clinical picture and electroencephalography (EEG) findings initially suggested NCSE but who did not respond to treatment with antiepileptic drugs alone. Neuroimaging suggested IH, and subsequent treatment of IH successfully improved the patient's clinical status. To the authors' knowledge this paper is the first in the literature that reports a correlation of IH with electrographic findings similar to NCSE as cause and effect. The authors' hypothesis is that thalamocortical dysfunction causes EEG findings that appear to be similar to those in NCSE but that these conditions do not coexist. The EEG activity is not epileptogenic, and IH results in blocking network pathways producing thalamocortical dysfunction. The authors discuss the hypothesis and pathophysiology of these epileptiform changes in relation to IH. PMID:23971956

Hedna, Vishnumurthy Shushrutha; Kumar, Abhay; Miller, Bayard; Bidari, Sharathchandra; Salardini, Arash; Waters, Michael F; Hella, Maria; Valenstein, Edward; Eisenschenk, Stephan

2014-03-01

370

[A man in his fifties with syncope and hypotension].  

PubMed

A man in his fifties was admitted to our hospital because of syncope and hypotension. In the emergency room he reported abdominal pain, but focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) was negative. His systolic blood pressure varied between 60 and 90 mmHg and an arterial blood gas revealed lactic acidosis with normal haemoglobin, which still might indicate acute bleeding. An ECG did not indicate myocardial infarction. In the absence of an obvious bleeding focus, the patient was urgently transported to a CT lab nearby, to identify possible bleeding and rule out other causes of circulatory shock, such as cardiac tamponade. Before radiologic scanning was initiated, the patient lost consciousness and displayed pulseless electrical activity. Resuscitation was initiated and pericardiocentesis was resultless. On vital indication and clinical suspicion of cardiac tamponade, an emergency median sternotomy was performed and a haematoma was evacuated from the pericardial space. The patient was stabilised and immediately taken to the operation theatre where a ruptured ascending aortic aneurysm was identified. The operation was successful, but following serious hypoperfusion, the patient suffered acute kidney failure requiring dialysis for several months, gram-negative septicaemia caused by a central venous catheter, cerebral infarction leading to hemiparesis and impaired vision, ventilator-associated pneumonia/acute lung injury and acalculous cholecystitis. This case report describes the findings on admission, the diagnostic process including surgical resuscitation and a complicated course of multi-organ failure. After almost 5 months, the patient was discharged from our hospital to another institution for further rehabilitation. He now has minimal sequelae and lives at home. Our take-home message is that seriously ill patients require fast, resolute and broad examination; they may need immediate surgical treatment including emergency intervention; and a good clinical outcome may be achieved in spite of serious complications. PMID:22511095

Mordal, Geir Christian Enli; Hov, Karen Roksund; Bjørnstad, Johannes Lagethon; Meidell, Nina Knutrud

2012-04-17

371

Topoisomerase I inhibitors: the relevance of prolonged exposure for present clinical development.  

PubMed Central

Topoisomerase I inhibitors constitute a new class of anti-cancer agents. Recently, topotecan and irinotecan were registered for clinical use in ovarian cancer and colorectal cancer respectively. Cytotoxicity of topoisomerase I inhibitors is S-phase specific, and in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that, for efficacy, prolonged exposure might be more important than short-term exposure to high concentration. Clinical development of those topoisomerase I inhibitors that have reached this stage is also focused on schedules aiming to achieve prolonged exposure. In this review, we summarize all published preclinical studies on this topic for topoisomerase I inhibitors in clinical development, namely 20-S-camptothecin, 9-nitro-camptothecin, 9-amino-camptothecin, topotecan, irinotecan and GI147211. In addition, preliminary data on clinical studies concerning this topic are also reviewed. The data suggest that prolonged exposure may indeed be relevant for anti-tumour activity. However, the optimal schedule is yet to be determined. Finally, clinical data are yet too immature to draw definitive conclusions.

Gerrits, C. J.; de Jonge, M. J.; Schellens, J. H.; Stoter, G.; Verweij, J.

1997-01-01

372

Pharmacokinetics of formation and excretion of some metabolites of hydralazine and their hypotensive effect in rats.  

PubMed

To evaluate the hypotensive effect and pharmacokinetic properties of some metabolites of hydralazine (HP), blood pressure and plasma concentrations after the i.v. or i.p. administration of HP pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate and acetone hydrazones and 3-methyl-s-triazolo[3,4a]phthalazine were estimated in normotensive rats, in addition to in vitro kinetic studies of the formation and decomposition. All the hydrazones studied had an effective hypotensive effect after a high dosing (10 mg/kg); however, their potency was much smaller than that of HP, when plasma-free concentration-response curves were compared. 3-methyl-s-triazolo[3,4a]phthalazine had no hypotensive effect at the same dose. Virtually no effective quantities of HP were generated in plasma after i.v. injection of these hydrazones (10 mg/kg) except for HP acetone hydrazone although a specific and sensitive analytical method for HP was used. The metabolites had larger elimination rate constants and smaller apparent distribution volumes than those of HP. Hydrazones in vitro were formed according to a second-order rate kinetics from HP and various keto acids or ketone at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, and these compounds were partly decomposed under the same conditions. Of the metabolites HP pyruvic acid hydrazone was the most readily formed and relatively stable hydrazone, whereas HP acetone hydrazone was unstable. The present results indicate that the contribution of the hydrazones to the vasodepressor properties of HP is only partial or negligible and that the hypotensive effect after dosing of HP is related mainly to its free concentration. PMID:3999031

Ogiso, T; Iwaki, M; Ohtsuki, N

1985-05-01

373

Effects of yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, on experimental neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.  

PubMed

Yohimbine has been proposed for the treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension; however, no controlled trial has been performed in experimental models of orthostatic hypotension or in patients with autonomic failure. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of yohimbine (0.05 mg/kg, intravenously [i.v.]) and placebo (saline) in a new model of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension obtained by sinoaortic denervation (SAD) in chloralose-anaesthetized dogs. Blood pressure, heart rate, noradrenaline plasma levels and systolic blood pressure and heart rate short-term variabilities (calculated on low frequency [40-50 MHz] and high frequency [390-490 MHz] bands) were measured in supine position and after a 10 min 80 degrees head-up tilting. The drugs were administered in a double-blind cross-over randomized fashion. The head-up tilting performed in normal animals increased diastolic blood pressure (+12 +/- 4 mmHg), heart rate (+39 +/- 12 beats per minute [bpm]), the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure and noradrenaline plasma level, without changing systolic blood pressure or heart rate variability. In SAD dogs, a marked fall in systolic (-80 +/- 11 mmHg) and diastolic (-43 +/- 4 mmHg) blood pressures was observed within 1 min after placebo, without modification in heart rate, systolic blood pressure and heart rate short-term variabilities and noradrenaline plasma levels. In SAD dogs, yohimbine (0.05 mg/kg, i.v.) delayed the blood pressure fall elicited by head-up tilting, but failed to modify its magnitude. These results show that, in the model of orthostatic hypotension obtained by SAD, yohimbine, at an alpha 2-adrenoceptor selective dose (0.05 mg/kg), delays the fall in blood pressure elicited by head-up tilting. The effect of yohimbine can be explained by an increase in sympathetic tone. PMID:9444525

Verwaerde, P; Tran, M A; Montastruc, J L; Senard, J M; Portolan, G

1997-01-01

374

CARBON MONOXIDE CONTRIBUTES TO HYPOTENSION-INDUCED CEREBROVASCULAR VASODILATION IN PIGLETS  

PubMed Central

The gaseous compound carbon monoxide (CO) has been identified as an important endogenous biological messenger in the brain and is a major component in regulation of cerebrovascular circulation in newborns. CO is produced endogenously by catabolism of heme to CO, free iron, and biliverdin during enzymatic degradation of heme by heme oxygenase (HO). The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that endogenously produced CO contributes to hypotension-induced vasodilation of cerebral arterioles. Experiments used anesthetized piglets with implanted, closed cranial windows. Topical application of the HO substrate, heme-L-lysinate (HLL), caused dilation of pial arterioles that was blocked by a metal porphyrin inhibitor of HO, chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP). In normotensive piglets (arterial pressure 64±4 mm Hg), CrMP did not cause vasoconstriction of pial arterioles but rather a transient dilation. Hypotension (50% of basal blood pressure) increased cerebral CO production and dilated pial arterioles from 66±2?m to 92±7?m. In hypotensive piglets, topical CrMP or i.v. SnPP decreased cerebral CO production and produced pial arteriolar constriction to normotensive diameters. In additional experiments, since prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO) are also key dilators that can contribute to cerebrovascular dilation, we held their levels constant. NO/prostacyclin clamp was accomplished with continuous, simultaneous application of indomethacin, N?-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), and minimal dilatory concentrations of iloprost and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). With constant NO and prostacyclin, the transient dilator and prolonged constrictor responses to CrMP of normotensive and hypotensive piglets, respectively, were the same as when NO and prostaglandins were not held constant. These data suggest that endogenously produced CO contributes to cerebrovascular dilation in response to reduced perfusion pressure.

Kanu, Alie; Whitfield, John; Leffler, Charles W.

2006-01-01

375

Medial prefrontal cortex acetylcholine injection-induced hypotension: the role of hindlimb vasodilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The injection of acetylcholine (ACh) into the cingulate region of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) causes a marked fall in arterial blood pressure which is not accompanied by changes in heart rate. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hemodynamic basis for this stimulus-induced hypotension in Sprague-Dawley rats. The study was designed to determine whether a change in the vascular resistance of hindlimb, renal or mesenteric vascular beds contributes to the fall in arterial pressure in response to ACh injection into the cingulate cortex. Miniature pulsed-Doppler flow probes were used to measure changes in regional blood flow and vascular resistance. The results indicated that the hypotensive response was largely due to a consistent and marked vasodilation in the hindlimb vascular bed. On this basis, an additional experiment was then undertaken to determine the mechanisms that contribute to hindlimb vasodilation. The effect of interrupting the autonomic innervation of one leg on the hindlimb vasodilator response was tested. Unilateral transection of the lumbar sympathetic chain attenuated the cingulate ACh-induced vasodilation in the ipsilateral, but not in the contralateral hindlimb. These results suggest that the hypotensive response to cingulate cortex-ACh injection is caused by skeletal muscle vasodilation mediated by a sympathetic chain-related vasodilator system.

Crippa, G. E.; Lewis, S. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Correa, F. M.

2000-01-01

376

Clinical presentation and short-term outcome of acute coronary syndrome in native young Saudi population  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the young Saudi population in Aseer Region, southwestern Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed our database between January 2006 and May 2009, 924 patients were diagnosed to have ACS. Among them 107 patients (11.6%) met our definition of young [66 (61.7%) male < 45 years, and 41 (38.3%) female < 55 years]. We compared this study population to a control group of 50 elderly patients consecutively enrolled in a contemporary period. Results The overall age was 42.3 ± 7.9 and 68.7 ± 10.1 years in the study population and control respectively. 100% of the population and 92% of the control group presented with chest pain. Diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence was 46.7% in the study population (63.4% in females), and 62% in the control group. Hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia and overweight/obesity were reported in 31.8%, 25.2%, 21.5% and 44.9% of the study population and 58%, 6%, 26% and 42% of the control group, respectively. Past history of coronary artery disease was documented in 16.8% of the study population and 38% of the control group. The discharge diagnoses were ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 41 (38.3%) (representing 4.4% of the whole ACS population) and 11 (22%) patients of the study population and control group respectively, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in 36 (33.6%) and 23 (46%) patients of the study population and control group, respectively, and unstable angina in 30 (28.0%) and 15 (30%) patients of the study population and control group, respectively. Coronary angiography was performed in 86 (80.4%) and 41 (82%) patients in the study population and control group respectively. In hospital, one young patient had acute ischemic stroke and one elderly patient died, 22.4% of the study population and 32% of control group were discharged with clinical diagnosis of heart failure or in need for diuretics. Conclusion In our study, the young Saudi population with ACS had chest pain as the leading symptom. STEMI was the major final diagnosis and among one of the highest reported worldwide. There is a high prevalence of DM; however, they have favorable in hospital and short-term outcome.

Al-Murayeh, Mushabab A.; Al-Masswary, Adel A.; Dardir, Mohamed D.; Moselhy, Mohamed S.; Youssef, Ali A.

2012-01-01

377

Primary plasma cell leukemia: clinical and laboratory presentation, gene-expression profiling and clinical outcome with Total Therapy protocols.  

PubMed

To determine whether primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL) remains a high-risk multiple myeloma feature in the context of contemporary therapy and gene-expression profiling (GEP), we reviewed records of 1474 patients with myeloma, who were enrolled in Total Therapy protocols or treated identically off protocol. A total of 27 patients (1.8%) were classified as having PPCL. As a group, these patients more often had low hemoglobin, high beta-2-microglobulin, high lactate dehydrogenase, low albumin and cytogenetic abnormalities. Among 866 patients with GEP results, the PPCL group more often had disease that was classified as high risk, and in CD-1 and MF molecular subgroups. Regardless of the therapeutic protocol, patients with PPCL had shorter median overall survival (OS; 1.8 years), progression-free survival (PFS; 0.8 years) and complete response duration (CRD; 1.3 years) than the remainder, whose clinical outcomes had improved markedly with successive protocols. Multivariate analyses of pretreatment parameters showed that PPCL was a highly significant independent adverse feature linked to OS, PFS and CRD. In GEP analyses, 203 gene probes distinguished PPCL from non-PPCL; the identified genes were involved in the LXR/RXR activation, inositol metabolism, hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate-cell activation and lipopolysaccharide/interleukin-1-mediated inhibition of RXR function pathways. Different treatment approaches building on these genomic differences may improve the grave outcome of patients with PPCL. PMID:22508408

Usmani, S Z; Nair, B; Qu, P; Hansen, E; Zhang, Q; Petty, N; Waheed, S; Shaughnessy, J D; Alsayed, Y; Heuck, C J; van Rhee, F; Milner, T; Hoering, A; Szymonifka, J; Sexton, R; Sawyer, J; Singh, Z; Crowley, J; Barlogie, B

2012-11-01

378

Primary plasma cell leukemia: clinical and laboratory presentation, gene-expression profiling, and clinical outcome with Total Therapy protocols  

PubMed Central

To determine whether primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL) remains a high-risk multiple myeloma feature in the context of contemporary therapy and gene expression profiling (GEP), we reviewed records of 1474 patients with myeloma who were enrolled in Total Therapy protocols or treated identically off protocol. 27 patients (1.8%) were classified as having PPCL. As a group, these patients more often had low hemoglobin, high beta-2-microglobulin, high lactate dehydrogenase, low albumin, and cytogenetic abnormalities. Among 866 patients with GEP results, the PPCL group more often had disease that was classified as high risk, and in CD-1 and MF molecular subgroups. Regardless of the therapeutic protocol, patients with PPCL had shorter median overall survival (1.8 years), progression-free survival (0.8 years), and complete response duration (1.3 years) than the remainder whose clinical outcomes had improved markedly with successive protocols. Multivariate analyses of pretreatment parameters showed that PPCL was a highly significant independent adverse feature linked to overall survival, progression-free survival, and complete response duration. In GEP analyses, 203 gene probes distinguished PPCL from non-PPCL; the identified genes were involved the LXR/RXR activation, inositol metabolism, hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate-cell activation, and LPS/IL-1-mediated inhibition of RXR function pathways. Different treatment approaches building on these genomic differences may improve the grave outcome of patients with PPCL.

Usmani, Saad Z; Nair, Bijay; Qu, Pingping; Hansen, Emily; Zhang, Qing; Petty, Nathan; Waheed, Sarah; Shaughnessy, John D; Alsayed, Yazan; Heuck, Christoph J; van Rhee, Frits; Milner, Teresa; Hoering, Antje; Szymonifka, Jackie; Sexton, Rachael; Sawyer, Jeffrey; Singh, Zeba; Crowley, John; Barlogie, Bart

2012-01-01

379

Wegener's Granulomatosis Presenting with Pachymeningitis: Clinical and Imaging Remission by Rituximab  

PubMed Central

A 27-year-old woman was admitted for intractable right-sided neck, ear, and jaw pain with gradual development of tinnitus and hearing loss. A cerebral MRI showed meningo-dural enhancement, and additional diagnostic workup revealed a right pulmonary infiltrate and positive PR-3 ANCA. Biopsies from nasal mucosa and lung showed chronic inflammation with granuloma formation. Based on these findings the patient was diagnosed with Wegener's granulomatosis with pachymeningitis. There was no clinical response to oral Prednisolone and Cyclophosphamide, but complete clinical and imaging remission was achieved by adding Rituximab.

Just, S?ren Andreas; Knudsen, John Bonde; Nielsen, Mie Kiszka; Junker, Peter

2011-01-01

380

Intragenic deletion of RBFOX1 associated with neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorders and possibly other clinical presentations  

PubMed Central

Background RBFOX1 is an important splicing factor regulating developmental and tissue-specific alternative splicing in heart, muscle, and neuronal tissues. Constitutional genetic defects in RBFOX1 are implicated in multiple medical conditions. Results We identified 14 copy number variants (CNV) involving RBFOX1 from 2,124 consecutive pediatric patients referred for chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), including 13 intragenic deletions and a single intragenic duplication. The clinical significances of the intragenic deletions of RBFOX1 were evaluated. Conclusions Our data strongly supports the associations of intragenic deletions of RBFOX1 with a diversity of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, and possibly other clinical features.

2013-01-01

381

Orthostatic hypotension and vasodilatory peptides in bronchial carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

AIM--To determine whether inappropriately secreted vasodilatory peptides have a role in the pathogenesis of orthostatic (postural) hypotension, a recognised paraneoplastic effect of bronchial malignancies usually attributed to immune mediated destruction of autonomic ganglia. METHODS--Serum concentrations of three vasodilatory peptides, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), were measured in 111 patients with bronchial carcinoma and 35 controls prospectively screened for orthostatic hypotension (> 20 mmHg drop in systolic blood pressure on repeated occasions on standing from the supine position) and in whom other causes of this condition were excluded. RESULTS--Twenty two (20%) patients with carcinoma and two (6%) controls had orthostatic hypotension according to the criteria used. Serum concentrations of ANP, VIP and CGRP were elevated above normal in, respectively, 25 (23%), 10 (9%) and eight (7%) patients with carcinoma and in six (18%), zero and three (9%) controls. There was no correlation between orthostatic hypotension and concentrations of any of the vasodilatory peptides. CONCLUSION--Elevated serum concentrations of ANP and CGRP were no more frequent in subjects with bronchial carcinoma than in controls and could not be attributed to the tumour, although there was a possible association for VIP. Orthostatic hypotension was more common in patients with carcinoma, but there was no evidence that the peptides measured played a role in its pathogenesis.

Gosney, M A; Gosney, J R; Lye, M

1995-01-01

382

Cerebrovascular effects of hypocapnia during adenosine-induced arterial hypotension.  

PubMed

Profound arterial hypotension is a commonly used adjunct in surgery for aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Hyperventilation with hypocapnia is also used in these patients to increase brain slackness. Both measures reduce cerebral blood flow (CBF). Of concern is whether CBF is reduced below ischemic thresholds when both techniques are employed together. To determine this, 12 mongrel dogs were anesthetized with morphine, nitrous oxide, and oxygen, and then paralyzed with pancuronium and hyperventilated. Arterial pCO2 was controlled by adding CO2 to the inspired gas mixture. Cerebral blood flow was measured at arterial pCO2 levels of 40 and 20 mm Hg both before and after mean arterial pressure was lowered to 40 mm Hg with adenosine enhanced by dipyridamole. In animals where PaCO2 was reduced to 20 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure was reduced to 40 mm Hg, cardiac index decreased 42% from control and total brain blood flow decreased 45% from control while the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was unchanged. Hypocapnia with hypotension resulted in small but statistically significant reductions in all regional blood flows, most notably in the brain stem. The reported effects of hypocapnia on CBF during arterial hypotension vary depending on the hypotensive agents used. Profound hypotension induced with adenosine does not eliminate CO2 reactivity, nor does it lower blood flow to ischemic levels in this model, even in the presence of severe hypocapnia. PMID:3932610

Boarini, D J; Kassell, N F; Sprowell, J A; Olin, J J; Coester, H C

1985-12-01

383

Risk factors for intraoperative hypotension during thyroid surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Hypotension is a common adverse effect of IV anaesthetics, especially during the induction of anaesthesia. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for intraoperative hypotension (IOH) in thyroid surgery, as well as to determine whether and to what extent IOH affects the occurrence of postoperative hypotension. Material/Methods The study included 1252 euthyroid patients, ASA 2 and ASA 3 status (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification), who had thyroid surgery between 2007 and 2011. IOH was defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure of >20% of baseline values. We studied the influence of demographic characteristics (sex, age, body mass index-BMI), comorbidity, type and duration of surgery, and anaesthesia on the occurrence of IOH. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine predictors of occurrence of IOH. Results IOH was registered in 6.5% of patients. The most common operation was thyroidectomy. Patients with IOH were younger, had lower BMI, and significantly less often had hypertension as a coexisting disease. The multivariate regression model identified BMI and the absence of hypertension as a coexisting disease, and as independent predictors of occurrence of IOH. Significantly more patients with IOH had postoperative hypotension (9.9% vs. 2.4%, p=0.000). Conclusions IOH is common, even during operations of short duration and with minimal bleeding. It is necessary to pay special attention to these patients, given that many of these patients remained hypotensive during the postoperative period.

Kalezic, Nevena; Stojanovic, Marina; Ladjevic, Nebojsa; Markovic, Dejan; Paunovic, Ivan; Palibrk, Ivan; Milicic, Biljana; Sabljak, Vera; Antonijevic, Vesna; Ivanovic, Branislava; Ugrinovic, Djordje; Zivaljevic, Vladan

2013-01-01

384

A Learner-Centered Technique and Clinical Reasoning, Reflection, and Case Presentation Attributes in Athletic Training Students  

PubMed Central

Context: Providing opportunities to develop clinical decision-making skills, including clinical reasoning, is an important aspect of clinical education. The learner-centered technique of summarizing the history and findings, narrowing the differential, analyzing the differential, probing the instructor about uncertainties, plan management, and selecting an issue for self-directed study (SNAPPS) is used in medicine to express clinical reasoning. Objective: To investigate the effects of SNAPPS on the clinical reasoning, reflection, and 4 case presentation attributes (length, conciseness, case summary, and expression of clinical reasoning) in athletic training students. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Three undergraduate programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Patients or Other Participants: We randomly assigned 38 athletic training students (17 men, 21 women; age = 21.53 ± 1.18 years, grade point average = 3.25 ± 0.31) who had completed at least 1 year of clinical education and all orthopaedic evaluation coursework to the SNAPPS group or the usual and customary group using a stratification scheme. Intervention(s): The SNAPPS group completed four 45-minute clinical reasoning and case presentation learning modules led by an investigator to learn the SNAPPS technique, whereas the usual and customary group received no formal instruction. Both groups audio recorded all injury evaluations performed over a 2-week period. Main Outcome Measures: Participants completed the Diagnostic Thinking Inventory and Reflection in Learning Scale twice. Case presentations were analyzed for 4 attributes: length, conciseness, case summary, and expression of clinical reasoning. Results: Case presentations were longer (t18.806 = ?5.862, P < .001) but were more concise (t32 = 11.297, P < .001) for the SNAPPS group than for the usual and customary group. The SNAPPS group performed better on both the case summary subscale (t32 = 2.857, P = .007) and the clinical reasoning subscale (t25.773 = ?14.162, P < .001) than the other group. We found a time effect for Diagnostic Thinking Inventory scores (F1,34 = 6.230, P = .02) but observed no group effects (F1,34 = 0.698, P = .41) or time-by-group interaction (F1,34 = 1.050, P = .31). The Reflection in Learning Scale scores analysis revealed no group-by-time interaction (F1,34 = 1.470, P = .23) and no group (F1,34 = 3.751, P = .06) or time (F1,34 = 0.835, P = .37) effects. Conclusions: The SNAPPS is an effective and feasible clinical education technique for case presentations. This learner-centered technique provides the opportunity for the expression of clinical reasoning skills.

Heinerichs, Scott; Vela, Luzita I.; Drouin, Joshua M.

2013-01-01

385

A method for evaluating postural hypotension in conscious rabbits as a model to predict effects of drugs in man.  

PubMed

Because of the importance of postural hypotension as a side effect of antihypertensive drugs in man, an experimental model has been developed that permits the investigation of blood pressure response to tilting. Conscious rabbits were placed on a tilting table and tilted rapidly from horizontal to vertical position. Blood pressure was recorded continuously throughout the whole period. The individual orthostatic reaction was expressed as an orthostatic index. The experimental data obtained with guancydine, clonidine, guanethidine, prazosin, and dihydralazine were compared with clinical observations with regard to the impairment of orthostatic reaction; dihydralazine did not agree, but there was a good agreement for guancydine, clonidine, guanethidine, and prazosin. Although complete agreement between the experimental data and clinical observations does not exist, the model seems to be sufficient to differentiate between drugs with low or high potential for postural hypotension. PMID:7265985

Sponer, G; Mannesmann, G; Bartsch, W; Dietmann, K

1981-01-01

386

Liposomal Vaccines. Clinical Status and Immunological Presentation for Humoral and Cellular Immunity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Liposomes have been extensively tested and found to be relatively safe as drug carriers for a variety of clinical applications. In contrast to the use of liposomes as drug carriers, in which it is often proposed that large quantities of liposomes should b...

C. R. Alving

1995-01-01

387

Clinical Presentation and Patterns of Slow Transit Constipation Do Not Predict Coexistent Upper Gut Dysmotility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Slow transit constipation (STC) is associated with upper gastrointestinal tract motor abnormalities in a subset of patients.\\u000a This could influence the clinical approach, particularly in those rare cases where surgical management is considered. Aims To identify factors that predict proximal gut dysmotility in patients with STC. Methods Esophageal and small bowel motor function were evaluated in 77 patients with

Natalia Zarate; Charlie H. Knowles; Etsuro Yazaki; Peter J. Lunnis; S. Mark Scott

2009-01-01

388

Clinical Presentation of Inhalational Anthrax Following Bioterrorism Exposure Report of 2 Surviving Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of anthrax as a weapon of biological terrorism has moved from theory to reality in recent weeks. Following processing of a letter containing anthrax spores that had been mailed to a US senator, 5 cases of inhalational anthrax have occurred among postal workers employed at a major postal facility in Wash- ington, DC. This report details the clinical

Thom A. Mayer; Susan Bersoff-Matcha; Cecele Murphy; James Earls; Scott Harper; Denis Pauze; Michael Nguyen; Jonathan Rosenthal; Donald Cerva; Glenn Druckenbrod; Dan Hanfling; Naaz Fatteh; Anthony Napoli; Ashna Nayyar; Elise L. Berman

389

Aetiology and Clinical Presentation of Mild Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was initiated to analyse the bacterial aetiology and clinical picture of mild community-acquired pneumonia in Slovenia using the previously described Pneumonia Severity Index. Radiographically confirmed cases of pneumonia in patients treated with oral antibiotics in seven study centres were included. An aetiological diagnosis was attempted using culture of blood and sputum, urinary antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae

B. Bona?; D. Keše; T. Avši?-Županc; S. Kreft; G. Lesni?ar; J. Gorišek-Reberšek; L. Rezar; S. Letonja

2003-01-01

390

Racquet sports--patterns of injury presenting to a sports injury clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an 8-year retrospective study, 631 injuries due to the racquet sports of squash (59%), tennis (21%) and badminton (20%) were seen in a sports injury clinic, males predominating (58 to 66%). The proportion of squash injuries was higher than expected and probably relates to higher physical stress and risk of contact in this sport. Also they occurred mainly in

M D Chard; S M Lachmann

1987-01-01

391

Clinical Profile of Childhood Onset Depression Presenting to Child Adolescent and Family Services in Northampton  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The clinical profile of depressive disorder in children and young people in Child Adolescent and Family Services (CAFS), Northampton was studied. Methods: Twenty-five patients who had attended the CAFS over a period of 2 years were analysed retrospectively. Results: The age range of subjects was 8 to 19 years. Majority of patients were…

Majumder, Pallab; Hammad, Hala

2006-01-01

392

Post-allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation membranous nephropathy: clinical presentation, outcome and pathogenic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Post-allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) membranous nephropathy (MN), a rare complication of HSCT, remains an ill- defined entity. We describe the clinical and biological characteristics and outcome of five patients with post- HSCT MN, review the previously reported cases and discuss the pathogenic aspects of this nephropathy. Methods. Cases were identified by using a question- naire sent to

Benjamin Terrier; Yahsou Delmas; Aurelie Hummel; Claire Presne; Francois Glowacki; Bertrand Knebelmann; Christian Combe; Philippe Lesavre; Natacha Maillard; Natahlie Patey-Mariaud de Serre; Sylvie Nusbaum; Isabelle Radford; Agnes Buzyn; Fadi Fakhouri

2007-01-01

393

Perspectives in Diabetes Clinical Trials of Diabetic Neuropathy: Past, Present, and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews current knowledge of the etiology of diabetic neuropathy and the outcomes and limitations of previous trials and discusses future directions for the investigation of its prevention and treatment. Proposed mechanisms for the development of diabetic neuropathy have been widely studied. It has been shown that there is improvement of nerve function associated with some short-term clinical trials

Michael A. Pfeifer; Mary P. Schumer

394

Concentric visual field defect related to spontaneous intracranial hypotension.  

PubMed

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a rare syndrome characterized by postural headache associated with a low cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the absence of dural puncture or penetrating trauma. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically shows diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement, subdural fluid collections, prominence of cerebral venous sinuses and brain descent. Visual signs and symptoms have been described infrequently in patients with SIH. These include third or sixth nerve palsy, superior nasal quadrantanopia and temporal hemianopia. We report a 34 year-old woman who presented with a two-year history of orthostatic headache, dizziness and transient visual obscurations. Campimetry showed a bilateral concentric visual field defect. She also described that intermittently a transparent fluid leaked out of her nose. She had no past history of trauma, sinus surgery or intracranial surgery. Cranial MRI was normal. Neuro-ophthalmological examination ruled out any other causes of concentric visual field defects. Lumbar puncture showed a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure of 9 cm H2O. Radioisotope cisternography suggested a dural leak at cribiform plate. The cribiform plate region was repaired endoscopically with improvement of all symptoms. One year later she remains asymptomatic and the visual field defects have improved. PMID:23277208

Pilo-de-la-Fuente, Belen; Gonzalez Martin-Moro, Julio; Navacerrada, Francisco; Plaza-Nieto, Francisco Jose; Jimenez-Jimenez, Felix Javier

2013-10-01