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1

[The present state of hypotension (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The study was made of the recent literature on controlled hypotension and its place in modern anaesthetic practice. The effects of the different techniques and drugs are outlined in this paper. The results of investigation revealed that the circulation of heart, brain, liver, and kidneys is able to tolerate a wide range of deviation of blood pressure. Hypotension induced by high doses of halothane alone, which used to be considered as an adequate measure, has recently been shown to cause such serious side-effects that it can no longer be recommended. Halothane lowers blood pressure almost exclusively by means of a reduction of the contractility of the heart muscle. Ganglionic blocking agents alone should not be used either because of their depressing effect on the heart; moreover their hypotensive effects are hard to control. The sole exception is trimetaphan but it produces other severe side-effects such as liberation of histamine. On the other hand ganglionic blocking agents combined with halothane can be recommended. The combined administration of these drugs allow an easy control of hypotension and the side effects are minimal. Only sodium-nitroprusside meets all the requirements of a hypotensive drug. It operates selectively in a peripheral vasoplegic manner without effecting the cerebral centres. Regarding the heart, no side-effect is known apart from tachycardia; cardiac output is not altered. The metabolism of sodium-nitroprusside requires precaution in dosage, as degradation takes place via the toxic compounds of cyanide. Therefore liver disease and disturbances in vitamin B12 utilisation are regarded as contraindications for the use of nitroprusside. That is also the reason why a maximum allowable dose of 10-15 gamma/kg body weight and minute should not be exceeded. Prophylactic administration of vitamin B 12a (hydroxocobalamin) should be considered in every case when nitroprusside is used. PMID:18069

Marcus, C; Kalff, G

1977-05-01

2

Orthostatic Hypotension  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Orthostatic Hypotension Information Page Synonym(s): Postural Hypotension, Bradbury-Eggleston Syndrome Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Orthostatic Hypotension? Orthostatic hypotension is a sudden fall in ...

3

Orthostatic hypotension of prolonged weightlessness: Clinical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orthostatic intolerance on return from space is a widely known consequence of space travel. Development of countermeasures against this problem is a major priority of the field of space physiology and medicine. The bedrest model is widely used in the investigation of this phenomenon, and has provided important data, but questions remain. In this article, we suggest that the disorders that produce chronic orthostatic hypotension have significant potential as models of microgravity-induced orthostatic intolerance. Understanding the pathophysiology of these syndromes may be useful to those involved in improving the operational aspects of manned space flight; four such syndromes and their possible relevance to space flight are described.

Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Mosqueda-Garcia, Rogelio; Robertson, Rose Marie

4

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension presenting as a reversible dorsal midbrain syndrome.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old woman with postural headache, episodic stupor, and vertical gaze palsy had brain imaging findings consistent with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH), including severe descent of the mesodiencephalic structures and diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. The source of the cerebrospinal fluid leakage was a ruptured dorsal perineural cyst. Clinical symptoms improved after a targeted epidural blood patch was performed. Dorsal midbrain syndrome has not been reported previously as a manifestation of SIH. Perhaps distortion of structures in this brain region can occur in SIH as it does in obstructive hydrocephalus. PMID:19145127

Fedi, Marco; Cantello, Roberto; Shuey, Neil H; Mitchell, L Anne; Comi, Cristoforo; Monaco, Francesco; Versino, Maurizio

2008-12-01

5

A 90-year-old patient presenting with postoperative hypotension and a new murmur: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hospitalists are frequently consulted on postoperative patients with hypotension. Postoperative hypotension is common and can be due to variety of causes. Systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leading to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is a rare cause of postoperative hypotension and can occur without prior structural heart disease. A high index of suspicion can lead to early recognition of this unique condition. Case presentation A 90-year-old Caucasian woman with no known structural heart abnormality was admitted to the intensive care unit with hypotension after a left hip arthroplasty revision. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction as the likely cause of her hypotension. Our patient was treated with fluid resuscitation and phenylephrine with improvement in blood pressure. A repeat echocardiogram on postoperative day 5 showed resolution of the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Intraoperative vasodilatation and volume loss that caused underfilling of the left ventricle likely led to dynamic outflow tract obstruction in our patient. Conclusions Hospitalists should be aware of systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve as a rare peri-operative complication in patients with or without underlying cardiac pathology as it is treated differently than other causes of peri-operative hypotension. Clinical suspicion, early recognition, and prompt treatment can improve clinical outcomes in these patients. PMID:25384414

2014-01-01

6

The patient with supine hypertension and orthostatic hypotension: a clinical dilemma  

PubMed Central

Coexistent supine hypertension and orthostatic hypotension (SH?OH) pose a particular therapeutic dilemma, as treatment of one aspect of the condition may worsen the other. Studies of SH?OH are to be found by and large on patients with autonomic nervous disorders as well as patients with chronic arterial hypertension. In medical practice, however, the aetiologies and clinical presentation of the syndrome seem to be more varied. In the most typical cases the diagnosis is straightforward and the responsible mechanism evident. In those patients with mild or non?specific symptoms, the diagnosis is more demanding and the investigation may benefit from results of the tilt test, bedside autonomic tests as well as haemodynamic assessment. Discrete patterns of SH?OH may be recognisable. This review focuses on the management of the patient with coexistent SH?OH. PMID:16597811

Naschitz, J E; Slobodin, G; Elias, N; Rosner, I

2006-01-01

7

[Intracranial hypotension].  

PubMed

In this review article the clinical manifestations, imaging findings, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for intracranial hypotension are described. The typical manifestation, orthostatic headache, may sometimes be masked by atypical manifestations including coma, frontotemporal dementia and symptoms associated with leptomeningeal hemosiderosis. Spinal and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are not always unequivocal and the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are controversially discussed: Searching for the underlying spinal leak(s) of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is considered to be unnecessary or done with different modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) myelography, gadolinium-enhanced myelography and digital subtraction myelography. Various treatment approaches including conservative therapy, blind, fluoroscopy-guided and CT-guided epidural blood patches, CT-guided fibrin injection and surgery exist. PMID:25069435

Urbach, H

2014-08-01

8

Listeriosis: clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes is an uncommon cause of illness in the general population. However, this bacterium is an important cause of severe infections in neonates, pregnant women, the elderly, transplant recipients and other patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Various clinical syndromes due to L. monocytogenes have been described such as sepsis, central nervous system infections, endocarditis, gastroenteritis and localized infections. A

Mehmet Doganay

2003-01-01

9

Orthostatic hypotension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following a brief physiopathological review, orthostatic hypotension is classified into three groups: organic, functional and medication-dependent. The importance of etiological diagnosis, the use of objective tests and appropriate therapy, especially concerning the organic forms, is stressed.

Grimm, J. J.

1980-01-01

10

Clinical presentation of cerebral aneurysms.  

PubMed

Presentation of a cerebral aneurysm can be incidental, discovered at imaging obtained for unrelated causes, can occur in the occasion of imaging obtained for symptoms possibly or likely related to the presence of an unruptured aneurysm, or can occur with signs and symptoms at the time of aneurismal rupture. Most unruptured intracranial aneurysms are thought to be asymptomatic, or present with vague or non-specific symptoms like headache or dizziness. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsies, however, may typically indicate the presence of a posterior circulation aneurysm. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are by far the most common cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and represent a neurological emergency with potentially devastating consequences. Subarachnoid hemorrhage may be easily suspected in the presence of sudden and severe headache, vomiting, meningism signs, and/or altered mental status. However, failure to recognize milder and more ambiguous clinical pictures may result in a delayed or missed diagnosis. In this paper we will describe the clinical spectrum of unruptured and ruptured intracranial aneurysms by discussing both typical and uncommon clinical features emerging from the literature review. We will additionally provide the reader with descriptions of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, and main diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:23238357

Cianfoni, Alessandro; Pravatà, Emanuele; De Blasi, Roberto; Tschuor, Costa Silvia; Bonaldi, Giuseppe

2013-10-01

11

Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case reports We present here three patients with proven severe dimethoate poisoning. Clinically, all had inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation and profound hypotension on presentation, which progressed despite treatment with atropine, i.v. fluids, pralidoxime chloride, and inotropes. All died 2.5–32 h post-admission. Continuous cardiac monitoring and quantification of troponin T provided little evidence for a primary cardiotoxic effect of dimethoate. Conclusion Severe dimethoate self-poisoning causes a syndrome characterized by marked hypotension with progression to distributive shock and death despite standard treatments. A lack of cardiotoxicity until just before death suggests that the mechanism is of OP-induced low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Further invasive studies of cardiac function and SVR, and post-mortem histology, are required to better describe this syndrome and to establish the role of vasopressors and high-dose atropine in therapy. PMID:19003596

Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

2008-01-01

12

Clinical trials: present and future.  

PubMed

The past decade has seen a major expansion of clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the perfectly-designed ALS trial remains elusive. Attempts to track the progression of the disease are affected by continual improvements in the care of patients. Comparing the effectiveness of different drugs is difficult because different primary endpoints are used in different studies. We also need to decide how much benefit we are aiming to achieve when studying a new treatment. The interpretation of animal models has also proved problematic, with results not being replicated in human studies. Moreover, promising phase I/II trial results have often not been confirmed by phase III studies. Our patients, meanwhile, are anxious to try any medication that may help. The ALS research community has learned a great deal from past trials and this will be greatly beneficial when evaluating the novel and combination therapies currently being developed. Effort must also be directed towards the search for objective markers for ALS. PMID:11465917

Mitsumoto, H

2001-03-01

13

Inclusion Body Myositis: Atypical Clinical Presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion body myositis affects primarily the proximal muscles but distal limb muscles are involved too in this chronic myopathy. Characteristic histopathologic findings include ‘rimmed vacuoles’, inflammation and typical cytoplasmic and nuclear filamentous inclusions. The patients are usually unresponsive to steroids. We present four inclusion body myositis patients with atypical clinical presentations: one with scapuloperoneal syndrome, one with post-polio-like syndrome and

I. Schlesinger; D. Soffer; A. Lossos; Z. Meiner; Z. Argov

1996-01-01

14

Clinical presentation of chronic traumatic encephalopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the clinical presentation of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in neuropathologically confirmed cases. Methods: Thirty-six adult male subjects were selected from all cases of neuropathologically confirmed CTE at the Boston University Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy brain bank. Subjects were all athletes, had no comorbid neurodegenerative or motor neuron disease, and had next-of-kin informants to provide retrospective reports of the subjects' histories and clinical presentations. These interviews were conducted blind to the subjects' neuropathologic findings. Results: A triad of cognitive, behavioral, and mood impairments was common overall, with cognitive deficits reported for almost all subjects. Three subjects were asymptomatic at the time of death. Consistent with earlier case reports of boxers, 2 relatively distinct clinical presentations emerged, with one group whose initial features developed at a younger age and involved behavioral and/or mood disturbance (n = 22), and another group whose initial presentation developed at an older age and involved cognitive impairment (n = 11). Conclusions: This suggests there are 2 major clinical presentations of CTE, one a behavior/mood variant and the other a cognitive variant. PMID:23966253

Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Baugh, Christine M.; Seichepine, Daniel R.; Montenigro, Philip H.; Riley, David O.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Stamm, Julie M.; Robbins, Clifford A.; McHale, Lisa; Simkin, Irene; Stein, Thor D.; Alvarez, Victor E.; Goldstein, Lee E.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Cantu, Robert C.; McKee, Ann C.

2013-01-01

15

Orthostatic hypotension: framework of the syndrome  

PubMed Central

According to the 1996 consensus definition, orthostatic hypotension (OH) is diagnosed when a fall in systolic blood pressure of at least 20?mm?Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure of at least 10?mm?Hg within 3?min of standing is recorded. The elements of orthostatic blood pressure drop that are relevant to the definition of OH include magnitude of the drop, time to reach the blood pressure difference defined as OH, and reproducibility of the orthostatic blood pressure drop. In each of these elements, there exist issues that argue for modification of the presently accepted criteria of OH. Additional questions need to be addressed. Should one standard orthostatic test be applied to different patient populations or should tests be tailored to the patients' clinical circumstances? Are different OH thresholds relevant to various clinical settings, aetiologies of OH and comorbidity? Which test has the best predictive power of morbidity and mortality? PMID:17823222

Naschitz, Jochanan E; Rosner, Itzhak

2007-01-01

16

An unusual clinical presentation of gingival melanoacanthoma  

PubMed Central

Gingival melanoacanthoma is a rare, benign pigmented lesion characterized clinically by sudden onset and rapid growth of a macular brown black lesion and histologically by acanthosis of superficial epithelium and proliferation of dendritic melanocytes. This article reports a previously undescribed case of pigmented unilateral diffuse gingival enlargement, which on histopathological examination proved to be melanoacanthoma. Intraoral examination revealed pigmented unilateral diffuse gingival enlargement in relation to second and third quadrants buccally, palatally/lingually. Based on these clinical findings, gingivectomy was performed and the excised tissue was sent for biopsy. Microscopic examination revealed acanthotic and parakeratotic surface epithelium with dendritic melanocytes distributed in basal and suprabasal layers of the epithelium. 1 year follow-up recall revealed no recurrence of lesion at the surgical sites. Our patient exhibits an unusual clinical presentation of melanoacanthoma of gingiva. Pigmented gingival overgrowth of recent origin and without any etiologic factors warrants histopathologic examination. PMID:24174763

Babu, S. P. K. Kennedy; Agila, S.; Sivaranjani, P.; Kashyap, Vineet

2013-01-01

17

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Hypotension?  

MedlinePLUS

... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Hypotension? Orthostatic Hypotension and Neurally Mediated Hypotension The signs and symptoms of orthostatic hypotension and neurally mediated hypotension (NMH) are similar. ...

18

Iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid leak and intracranial hypotension after gynecological surgery.  

PubMed

Perineural cysts are common lesions of the sacral spine. They have rarely been reported in a presacral location, leading to their misdiagnosis as a gynecological lesion. The authors report the second such case, in a patient undergoing fenestration of what was presumed to be a benign pelvic cyst, and the resultant high-flow CSF leak that occurred. They describe the clinical presentation and manifestations of intracranial hypotension, as well as the pertinent investigations. They also review the literature for the best management options for this condition. Although they are uncommon, large perineural cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis when examining patients with a pelvic lesion. Appropriate imaging investigations should be performed to rule out a perineural cyst. The CSF leak that occurs from iatrogenic cyst fenestration may not respond to traditional first-line treatments for intracranial hypotension and may require early surgical intervention. The authors would recommend neurosurgical involvement prior to definitive treatment. PMID:24905389

Tu, Albert; Creedon, Kerry; Sahjpaul, Ramesh

2014-09-01

19

Vertigo secondary to hypotension: the relationship between therapeutic effects and hearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency tend to develop transient, repeated vertigo. However, diagnostic criteria by which to definitively diagnose circulatory disturbance of the vertebrobasilar system have yet to be established. Thus, in order to determine such criteria the relationship between the therapeutic effects on clinical symptoms and hearing in 40 patients with vertigo secondary to hypotension were investigated in the present

Fumihide Ito; Kiyoshi Tanaka; Hideo Kamada

1998-01-01

20

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension: report of four cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an unusual syndrome of postural headache and low cerebrospinal fluid pressure without\\u000a an established cause. We present four cases, analyze those previously reported in the literature, examine the MRI, CT, angiographic\\u000a and cisternographic finding and discuss the clinical picture, proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms and potential treatment.

G. A. Christoforidis; B. A. Mehta; J. L. Landi; E. J. Czarnecki; R. A. Piaskowski

1998-01-01

21

Gastric Sarcoidosis: A Rare Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal (GI) sarcoidosis is a very rare disease, which clinically presents along with systemic disease or as an isolated finding. Gastric sarcoidosis is the most common form of GI sarcoidosis. Symptomatic gastric sarcoidosis is rare and only few case reports have been described in the literature with well-documented histological evidence of noncaseating granulomas. We present an interesting case of gastric sarcoidosis in a 39-year-old Caucasian man with symptoms of epigastric pain and profound weight loss. His endoscopic gastric mucosal biopsies revealed noncaseating granulomas consistent with gastric sarcoidosis. Treatment with oral steroids alleviated his symptoms with no recurrence in 2 years. Gastric sarcoidosis should be considered in patients with history of sarcoidosis and GI symptoms. PMID:24368949

Tokala, Hemasri; Polsani, Karthik; Kalavakunta, Jagadeesh K.

2013-01-01

22

Orthostatic hypotension in older adults with dementia.  

PubMed

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) in older adults with dementia is associated with increased confusion, dizziness, syncope, and falls. These problems may result in a negative, downward spiral accompanied by high morbidity and mortality. The literature supports that nonpharmacological interventions are effective in the reduction of symptoms and prevention of orthostasis. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to increase staff knowledge and skill in the assessment, documentation, and care of residents with OH in dementia care units within a continuing care retirement community. An in-service program using a protocol based on clinical practice guidelines was presented to RNs, licensed practical nurses, therapists, and unlicensed caregivers. Assessments, documentation of assessments, and interventions for residents with OH increased following the in-service program. As staff continue to apply their knowledge in care routines, it is expected that this evidence-based practice will reduce symptoms of OH and increase safety and quality of life within this specific population. PMID:24779368

Momeyer, Mary Alice

2014-06-01

23

Clinical Presentation and Evaluation of Dermatomyositis  

PubMed Central

Dermatomyositis (DM) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin and muscles. Evidence supports that DM is an immune-mediated disease and 50–70% of patients have circulating myositis-specific auto-antibodies. Gene expression microarrays have demonstrated upregulation of interferon signaling in the muscle, blood, and skin of DM patients. Patients with classic DM typically present with symmetric, proximal muscle weakness, and skin lesions that demonstrate interface dermatitis on histopathology. Evaluation for muscle inflammation can include muscle enzymes, electromyogram, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or muscle biopsy. Classic skin manifestations of DM include the heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, Gottron's sign, the V-sign, and shawl sign. Additional cutaneous lesions frequently observed in DM patients include periungual telangiectasias, cuticular overgrowth, “mechanic's hands”, palmar papules overlying joint creases, poikiloderma, and calcinosis. Clinically amyopathic DM is a term used to describe patients who have classic cutaneous manifestations for more than 6 months, but no muscle weakness or elevation in muscle enzymes. Interstitial lung disease can affect 35–40% of patients with inflammatory myopathies and is often associated with the presence of an antisynthetase antibody. Other clinical manifestations that can occur in patients with DM include dysphagia, dysphonia, myalgias, Raynaud phenomenon, fevers, weight loss, fatigue, and a nonerosive inflammatory polyarthritis. Patients with DM have a three to eight times increased risk for developing an associated malignancy compared with the general population, and therefore all patients with DM should be evaluated at the time of diagnosis for the presence of an associated malignancy. This review summarizes the immunopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and evaluation of patients with DM. PMID:23112358

Marvi, Umaima; Chung, Lorinda; Fiorentino, David F

2012-01-01

24

Clinical presentations and classification of rosacea.  

PubMed

Rosacea is a chronic skin disease affecting up to 10% of the population in some European countries. Rosacea manifests as various combinations of characteristic signs and symptoms in a centrofacial distribution. At present, there is no consensus about the definition or classification of the clinical patterns of rosacea. Initially, four stages were differentiated (pre-rosacea then stages I through III), with several variants (e.g., persistent erythema and edema, rosacea conglobata, and rosacea fulminans). The National Rosacea Society (NRS) in the USA has classified rosacea into four subtypes (erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular) and one variant (lupoid or granulomatous rosacea). This classification scheme does not mention progression from one type to another and makes no reference to pathophysiological considerations. It uses major and minor diagnostic criteria based on the physical findings and symptoms. The NRS has also developed criteria for grading disease severity. The classification of rosacea into stages or subtypes, without considering the possibility of progression from one to another, will probably remain controversial until additional knowledge on the pathophysiology of rosacea is obtained. PMID:22183098

Jansen, T

2011-11-01

25

A Reversible Cause of Skin Hyperpigmentation and Postural Hypotension  

PubMed Central

Vitamin B12 deficiency results in neuropsychiatric, hematologic, gynecologic, cardiovascular, and cutaneous manifestations. It is seen most commonly in the elderly, malabsorption diseases??(>60% of all cases), vegans, and vegetarians. Manifestations of pernicious anemia may be similar to Addison disease and may lead to a misdiagnosis. Herein, we report two cases of vitamin B12 deficiency in which clinical features shared many similarities with Addison disease. Both patients presented with progressive darkening of hands and postural hypotension that reversed with replenishment of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in patients presenting with skin lesions especially with other coexisting autoimmune diseases. PMID:23840983

Husain, Mehreen; Madduri, Sujay; Okolie, Pamela; Nunlee-Bland, Gail; Williams, James

2013-01-01

26

Hypotension Associated with Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Hypotension is an extremely rare manifestation of Hodgkin lymphoma. We report the case of a patient who presented with new onset hypotension and was diagnosed with urosepsis and septic shock requiring pressor support for maintaining his blood pressure. computed tomography (CT) scan of abdomen showed liver lesions, which were new on comparison with a CT abdomen done 3 weeks back. Biopsy of the liver lesions and subsequently a bone marrow biopsy showed large atypical Reed-Sternberg cells, positive for CD15 and CD 30 and negative for CD45, CD3 and CD20 on immuno-histochemical staining, hence establishing the diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma. The mechanism involved in Hodgkin lymphoma causing hypotension remains anecdotal, but since it is mostly seen in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, it is hypothetically related to a complex interaction between cytokines and mediators of vasodilatation. Here we review relevant literature pertaining to presentation and pathogenesis of this elusive and rare association. PMID:25317321

Dang, Geetanjali; Hamad, Hussein; Mohajer, Roozbeh; Catchatourian, Rosalind; Kovarik, Paula

2014-01-01

27

Intrathecal Clonidine and Severe Hypotension After Cardiopulmonary Bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of intrathecal clonidine as an adjunct for the management of chronic pain, intra- and postoperative analgesia is gaining an increase in popularity. How- ever, antinociceptive doses of intrathecal clonidine may produce pronounced hemodynamic side effects, in- cluding hypotension and bradycardia. In this report, we present a case of severe hypotension after cardiopul- monary bypass in a patient with

Ferenc Puskas; Enrico M. Camporesi; Michael Hauser; Fadi V. Nasrallah

2003-01-01

28

A man with small vessel vasculitis presenting with brachial diplegia, multiple cranial mononeuropathies and severe orthostatic hypotension in diabetes mellitus: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We report a rare case of fulminant vasculitic mononeuropathy resulting in brachial diplegia, with suspected brainstem and autonomic nervous system involvement in a patient with diabetes mellitus. Case presentation A 58-year-old Hispanic Caucasian man with diabetes mellitus presented with a 1-year history of progressive bilateral upper extremity weakness, orthostatic intolerance and progressive memory decline. Diagnostic evaluation including laboratory tests for progressive encephalopathies, systemic inflammatory and non-inflammatory neuropathies, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, electrodiagnostic studies, and nerve biopsy were performed. Clinical examination revealed moderate cognitive deficits on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale, bilateral facial weakness and weakness of bilateral shoulder girdle and intrinsic hand muscles. Cerebrospinal fluid analyses revealed elevated protein and an elevated immunoglobulin G synthesis rate, suggesting an immune-mediated process. Further laboratory work up was non-diagnostic. Electrodiagnostic studies demonstrated chronic asymmetric axonal mononeuropathies with ongoing denervation. A superficial radial nerve biopsy showed a chronic vasculitic neuropathy. Glucocorticosteroid treatment, symptomatic pharmacologic and supportive non-pharmacologic therapies resulted in improved clinical outcomes despite challenges with glycemic control. Conclusions This case report emphasizes the importance of a thorough evaluation of atypical or uncommon neuromuscular presentations in diabetic patients without etiological presumptions. This is necessary in order to promptly establish a diagnosis, initiate appropriate therapies and prevent irreversible nerve injury. PMID:24083508

2013-01-01

29

Sheehan's syndrome presenting as psychosis: a rare clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Sheehan's syndrome (SS) refers to the occurrence of varying degree of hypopituitarism after parturition (1). It is a rare cause of hypopituitarism in developed countries owing to advances in obstetric care and its frequency is decreasing worldwide. However, it is still frequent in underdeveloped and developing countries. Sheehan's syndrome is often diagnosed late as it evolves slowly (2,3). Reports of psychoses in patients with Sheehan's syndrome are rare. Herein, a case report of psychosis in a 31 year old woman who developed Sheehan's syndrome preceded by postpartum haemorrhage is presented. Treatment with thyroxine and glucocorticoids resulted in complete remission after attaining euthyroid and eucortisolemic state. PMID:23483784

Shoib, Sheikh; Dar, Mohamand Maqbool; Arif, Tasleem; Bashir, Haamid; Bhat, Mohammad Hayat; Ahmed, Javid

2013-02-01

30

N sup G -methyl-L-arginine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced hypotension: Implications for the involvement of nitric oxide  

SciTech Connect

Clinical assessment of the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) against human cancer has been limited by a dose-dependent cardiovascular toxicity, most frequently hypotension. TNF is also thought to mediate the vascular collapse resulting from bacterial endotoxin. The present studies address the mechanism by which TNF causes hypotension and provide evidence for elevated production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator initially characterized as endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nitric oxide is synthesized by several cell types, including endothelial cells and macrophages, from the guanidino nitrogen of L-arginine; the enzymatic pathway is competitively inhibited by N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. The authors found that hypotension induced in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs by TNF was completely reversed within 2 min following administration of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine. In contrast, N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine failed to reverse the hypotensive response to an equivalent depressor dose of nitroglycerin, a compound that acts by forming nitric oxide by a monenzymatic, arginine-independent mechanism. The effect of N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine on TNF-induced hypotension was antagonized, and the hypotension restored, by administration of excess L-arginine findings suggest that excessive nitric oxide production mediates the hypotensive effect of TNF.

Kilbourn, R.G.; Adams, J. (Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA)); Gross, S.S.; Griffith, O.W.; Levi, R. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (USA)); Jubran, A.; Lodato, R.F. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston (USA))

1990-05-01

31

Postural tremor as a manifestation of spontaneous intracranial hypotension.  

PubMed

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a syndrome caused by low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure due to leakage of CSF. Clinically, orthostatic headache, neck pain, nausea, emesis, interscapular pain, diplopia, dizziness, changes in hearing, visual blurring and radicular upper extremity symptoms are most frequently observed. We describe a 57-year-old man with SIH who presented with postural tremor. CSF leakage was revealed by cranial MRI. Lumbar puncture identified low CSF pressure and intrathecal gadolinium enhanced MR cisternography showed diffuse CSF leakage in the thoracolumbar region. The patient underwent epidural blood patching, which resulted in complete resolution of postural tremor within 2 months. PMID:20036551

Turgut, Nilda; Unlü, Ercüment; Hamamcio?lu, Mustafa Kemal; Güldiken, Babürhan; Albayram, Sait

2010-02-01

32

Intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Although most patients with intracranial hypotension typically present with headaches, the rest of the clinical spectrum is characteristically non-specific and often quite variable. In a patient with concurrent pathologies that can produce a similar clinical picture, a high index of suspicion must be maintained to achieve the correct diagnosis. The authors report a patient with intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 63-year-old woman with a family history of ruptured intracranial aneurysms presented after a sudden thunderclap headache and was found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Imaging revealed anterior communicating and superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms. Following the uneventful clipping of both aneurysms, the patient experienced a delayed return to her neurological baseline. After it was noted that the patient had an improved neurological examination when she was placed supine, further investigation confirmed intracranial hypotension from perineural cyst rupture. The patient improved and returned to her neurological baseline after undergoing a high-volume blood patch and remained neurologically intact at postoperative follow-up. Although intracranial hypotension is known to be commonly associated with cerebrospinal fluid leak, its causal and temporal relationship with subarachnoid hemorrhage has yet to be elucidated. PMID:24314847

Sivakumar, Walavan; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cutler, Aaron; Couldwell, William T

2014-06-01

33

Clinical xenotransplantation: past, present and future.  

PubMed Central

The ability to use animal organs, such as from the pig, for the purposes of transplantation in humans, would clearly overcome the major shortage of human organs that greatly restricts transplantation programmes worldwide. Recent experimental advances have raised the possibility of renewed attempts at organ xenotransplantation in humans within the near future. Previous clinical experience, dating back to 1906, is briefly reviewed. The problems that still require resolution include the immunological barrier, the risk of transferring infectious agents with the transplanted organ, and uncertainty as to whether the transplanted animal organ will function satisfactorily in the human environment. Ironically, the answers to some of these problems may only be provided when clinical xenotransplantation is undertaken. PMID:9038490

Taniguchi, S.; Cooper, D. K.

1997-01-01

34

Endophthalmitis: Pathogenesis, clinical presentation, management, and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Endophthalmitis is a rare but sight-threatening complication that can occur after ocular surgery or trauma or as a consequence of systemic infection. To optimize visual outcome, early diagnosis and treatment are essential. Over recent decades, advances in hygienic standards, improved microbiologic and surgical techniques, development of powerful antimicrobial drugs, and the introduction of intravitreal antibiotic therapy have led to a decreased incidence and improved management of endophthalmitis. However, endophthalmitis still represents a serious clinical problem. This review focuses on current principles and techniques for evaluation and treatment of endophthalmitis. In addition, it addresses recent developments regarding antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis of infectious endophthalmitis. PMID:20390032

Kernt, M; Kampik, A

2010-01-01

35

Clinical oncology in Malaysia: 1914 to present  

PubMed Central

A narration of the development of staff, infrastructure and buildings in the various parts of the country is given in this paper. The role of universities and other institutions of learning, public health, palliative care, nuclear medicine and cancer registries is described together with the networking that has been developed between the government, non-governmental organisations and private hospitals. The training of skilled manpower and the commencement of the Master of Clinical Oncology in the University of Malaya is highlighted. Efforts taken to improve the various aspects of cancer control which includes prevention of cancer, early detection, treatment and palliative care are covered. It is vital to ensure that cancer care services must be accessible and affordable throughout the entire health system, from the primary care level up to the centres for tertiary care, throughout the whole country. PMID:21614216

2006-01-01

36

Intracranial Hypotension Causing Headache and Neck Pain: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to discuss the presentation, examination, diagnosis, and treatment of a case of intracranial hypotension presenting to a chiropractic office as acute severe headache and neck pain.

Gary A. Knutson

2006-01-01

37

Causes of chronic orthostatic hypotension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of various causes of orthostatic hypotension. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: One hundred patients with moderate to severe orthostatic hypotension. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the patients had primary autonomic failure, 35% had secondary autonomic failure, and 38% had hypotension without evidence of generalized autonomic degeneration. CONCLUSIONS: In a tertiary referral center, only a minority of patients with severe orthostatic hypotension will have Shy-Drager syndrome or Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome as their primary disease. Occasional patients who initially appear to have Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome ultimately prove to have Shy-Drager syndrome or paraneoplastic autonomic failure. Antidepressant drugs, even in low doses, remain a major overlooked cause of orthostatic hypotension.

Robertson, D.; Robertson, R. M.

1994-01-01

38

Interstitial cystitis: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, can present with lower abdominal pain/discomfort and dyspareunia, and pain in any distribution of lower spinal nerves. Patients with this condition experience some additional symptoms referable to the bladder, such as frequency, urgency, or nocturia. It can occur across all age groups, although the specific additional symptoms can vary in prevalence depending on patient age. It should be considered in patients who have other chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, irritable bowel, and vulvodynia. The cause is still largely not understood, although there are several postulated mechanisms. PMID:25155120

McLennan, Mary T

2014-09-01

39

Lobomycosis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options.  

PubMed

Lobomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis of chronic evolution caused by the Lacazia loboi fungus. Its distribution is almost exclusive in the Americas, and it has a particularly high prevalence in the Amazon basin. Cases of lobomycosis have been reported only in dolphins and humans. Its prevalence is higher among men who are active in the forest, such as rubber tappers, bushmen, miners, and Indian men. It is recognized that the traumatic implantation of the fungus on the skin is the route by which humans acquire this infection. The lesions affect mainly exposed areas such as the auricles and upper and lower limbs and are typically presented as keloid-like lesions. Currently, surgical removal is the therapeutic procedure of choice in initial cases. Despite the existing data and studies to date, the active immune mechanisms in this infection and its involvement in the control or development of lacaziosis have not been fully clarified. In recent years, little progress has been made in the appraisal of the epidemiologic aspects of the disease. So far, we have neither a population-based study nor any evaluation directed to the forest workers. PMID:25328400

Francesconi, Valeska Albuquerque; Klein, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana Paula Botelho Gualda; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Francesconi, Fábio

2014-01-01

40

The clinical presentation of prosthetic joint infection.  

PubMed

Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) complicates ?1% of arthroplasties but accounts for considerable morbidity. Both the timing and features of PJI can vary widely. Patients may present with early (?3 months post-operatively), delayed (3-24 months) or late disease (>24 months). They may be acutely unwell with systemic signs of sepsis or describe only a chronically painful joint with or without sinus formation. Diagnostic criteria as proposed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Musculoskeletal Infection Society highlight the importance of joint sampling to obtain histological and robust microbiological evidence. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci account for >50% of infections. Early infections are likely to have been acquired intra- or peri-operatively, whereas late infection is usually haematogenous in origin. Acute joint inflammation suggests the presence of intra-articular free-living bacteria, whereas chronic infections are associated with the formation of biofilm at the bone-cement or bone-prosthesis interface. The most significant risk factors predisposing to PJI are previous operation on the index joint, previous arthroplasty at a different site, American Society of Anesthesiologists' grade 2, 3 or 4, body mass index >25, malignancy and procedure duration <2 or >4 h. PMID:25135085

Barrett, Lucinda; Atkins, Bridget

2014-09-01

41

Lobomycosis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options  

PubMed Central

Lobomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis of chronic evolution caused by the Lacazia loboi fungus. Its distribution is almost exclusive in the Americas, and it has a particularly high prevalence in the Amazon basin. Cases of lobomycosis have been reported only in dolphins and humans. Its prevalence is higher among men who are active in the forest, such as rubber tappers, bushmen, miners, and Indian men. It is recognized that the traumatic implantation of the fungus on the skin is the route by which humans acquire this infection. The lesions affect mainly exposed areas such as the auricles and upper and lower limbs and are typically presented as keloid-like lesions. Currently, surgical removal is the therapeutic procedure of choice in initial cases. Despite the existing data and studies to date, the active immune mechanisms in this infection and its involvement in the control or development of lacaziosis have not been fully clarified. In recent years, little progress has been made in the appraisal of the epidemiologic aspects of the disease. So far, we have neither a population-based study nor any evaluation directed to the forest workers. PMID:25328400

Francesconi, Valeska Albuquerque; Klein, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana Paula Botelho Gualda; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Francesconi, Fabio

2014-01-01

42

The effects of hypotension and norepinephrine on microvascular flap perfusion.  

PubMed

Microvascular flap surgery is a common technique in reconstructive surgery. The wide indications and variable patients provide challenge also for anesthesiologist. Both hypotension and hypoperfusion can be harmful to the flap. Hypotensive patients are treated with fluid resuscitation and vasopressors (e.g., norepinephrine), if needed. As vasoconstrictors, vasopressors might impair microvascular flap perfusion. In this experimental pig model we studied the effect of sevoflurane-induced hypotension on the perfusion of microvascular and superiorly pedicled rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps. In addition, we evaluated the effect of norepinephrine on flap perfusion when it was used for correction of hypotension. Microdialysis (MD) was used to detect metabolic changes, as it is a sensitive method to detect early changes of tissue metabolism and ischemia in different tissue components of soft tissue flaps. The main finding of this study was that moderate degree of normovolemic hypotension or the use of norepinephrine for the correction of this hypotension did not affect flap perfusion as assessed by MD. More studies are clearly needed to confirm the safety of norepinephrine in clinical use in microsurgery. PMID:21717396

Hiltunen, Pamela; Palve, Johanna; Setälä, Leena; Mustonen, Paula K; Berg, Leena; Ruokonen, Esko; Uusaro, Ari

2011-09-01

43

Insights into the clinical management of the syndrome of supine hypertension - orthostatic hypotension (SH-OH): The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA)  

PubMed Central

Background Our previously proposed morphological classification of orthostatic hypotension (MOH) is an approach to the definition of three typical orthostatic hemodynamic patterns using non-invasive beat-to-beat monitoring. In particular, the MOH pattern of large drop/non-recovery (MOH-3) resembles the syndrome of supine hypertension–orthostatic hypotension (SH-OH), which is a treatment challenge for clinicians. The aim of this study was to characterise MOH-3 in the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing (TILDA), with particular attention to concurrent symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI), prescribed medications and association with history of faints and blackouts. Methods The study included all TILDA wave 1 participants who had a Finometer® active stand. Automatic data signal checks were carried out to ensure that active stand data were of sufficient quality. Characterisation variables included demographics, cardiovascular and neurological medications (WHO-ATC), and self-reported information on comorbidities and disability. Multivariable statistics consisted of logistic regression models. Results Of the 4,467 cases, 1,456 (33%) were assigned to MOH-1 (small drop, overshoot), 2,230 (50%) to MOH-2 (medium drop, slower but full recovery), and 781 (18%) to MOH-3 (large drop, non-recovery). In the logistic regression model to predict MOH-3, statistically significant factors included being on antidepressants (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.50 – 2.64, P < 0.001) and beta blockers (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.26 – 2.04, P < 0.001). MOH-3 was an independent predictor of OI after full adjustment (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.25 – 1.73, P < 0.001), together with being on hypnotics or sedatives (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.31 – 2.54, P < 0.001). In addition, OI was an independent predictor of history of falls/blackouts after full adjustment (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09 – 1.48, P = 0.003). Conclusions Antidepressants and beta blockers were independently associated with MOH-3, and should be used judiciously in older patients with SH-OH. Hypnotics and sedatives may add to the OI effect of MOH-3. Several trials have demonstrated the benefits of treating older hypertensive patients with cardiovascular medications that were not associated with adverse outcomes in our study. Therefore, the evidence of benefit does not necessarily have to conflict with the evidence of potential harm. PMID:23855394

2013-01-01

44

Overdose of drugs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: clinical presentation, mechanisms of toxicity, and management.  

PubMed

The prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the USA is estimated at approximately 4-9% in children and 4% in adults. It is estimated that prescriptions for ADHD medications are written for more than 2.7 million children per year. In 2010, US poison centers reported 17,000 human exposures to ADHD medications, with 80% occurring in children <19 years old and 20% in adults. The drugs used for the treatment of ADHD are diverse but can be roughly separated into two groups: the stimulants such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, and modafinil; and the non-stimulants such as atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine. This review focuses on mechanisms of toxicity after overdose with ADHD medications, clinical effects from overdose, and management. Amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methylphenidate act as substrates for the cellular monoamine transporter, especially the dopamine transporter (DAT) and less so the norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin transporter. The mechanism of toxicity is primarily related to excessive extracellular dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The primary clinical syndrome involves prominent neurological and cardiovascular effects, but secondary complications can involve renal, muscle, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal (GI) effects. In overdose, the patient may present with mydriasis, tremor, agitation, hyperreflexia, combative behavior, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, anxiety, paranoia, movement disorders, and seizures. The management of amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methylphenidate overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on interruption of the sympathomimetic syndrome with judicious use of benzodiazepines. In cases where agitation, delirium, and movement disorders are unresponsive to benzodiazepines, second-line therapies include antipsychotics such as ziprasidone or haloperidol, central alpha-adrenoreceptor agonists such as dexmedetomidine, or propofol. Modafinil is not US FDA approved for treatment of ADHD; however, it has been shown to improve ADHD signs and symptoms and has been used as an off-label pharmaceutical for this diagnosis in both adults and children. The mechanism of action of modafinil is complex and not fully understood. It is known to cause an increase in extracellular concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the neocortex. Overdose with modafinil is generally of moderate severity, with reported ingestions of doses up to 8 g. The most common neurological effects include increased anxiety, agitation, headache, dizziness, insomnia, tremors, and dystonia. The management of modafinil overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on sedation, and control of dyskinesias and blood pressure. Atomoxetine is a selective presynaptic norepinephrine transporter inhibitor. The clinical presentation after overdose with atomoxetine has generally been mild. The primary effects have been drowsiness, agitation, hyperactivity, GI upset, tremor, hyperreflexia, tachycardia hypertension, and seizure. The management of atomoxetine overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on sedation, and control of dyskinesias and seizures. Clonidine is a synthetic imidazole derivative with both central and peripheral alpha-adrenergic agonist actions. The primary clinical syndrome involves prominent neurological and cardiovascular effects, with the most commonly reported features of depressed sensorium, bradycardia, and hypotension. While clonidine is an anti-hypertensive medication, a paradoxical hypertension may occur early with overdose. The clinical syndrome after overdose of guanfacine may be mixed depending on central or peripheral alpha-adrenoreceptor effects. Initial clinical effects may be drowsiness, lethargy, dry mouth, and diaphoresis. Cardiovascular effects may depend on time post-ingestion and may present as hypotension or hypertension. The management of guanfacine overdose is largely supportive, with a focus on support of blood pressure. Overdose with ADHD medications can produce major morbidity, with many cases requiring intensive care medicine an

Spiller, Henry A; Hays, Hannah L; Aleguas, Alfred

2013-07-01

45

Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Secondary to Lumbar Disc Herniation  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is often idiopathic. We report on a patient presenting with symptomatic intracranial hypotension and pain radiating to the right leg caused by a transdural lumbar disc herniation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain revealed classic signs of intracranial hypotension, and an additional spinal MR confirmed a lumbar transdural herniated disc as the cause. The patient was treated with a partial hemilaminectomy and discectomy. We were able to find the source of cerebrospinal fluid leak, and packed it with epidural glue and gelfoam. Postoperatively, the patient's headache and log radiating pain resolved and there was no neurological deficit. Thus, in this case, lumbar disc herniation may have been a cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. PMID:20157378

Kim, Kyoung-Tae

2010-01-01

46

[A case of primary orthostatic hypotension of the Bradbury-Eggleston type].  

PubMed

A patient with idiopathic orthostatic hypotension not accompanied by other neurologic disorders was examined. Pulmonary function tests demonstrated the failure of the autonomic innervation of airways. A syndrome of chronic primary alveolar hypoventilation was present, with the vocal cord paralysis. The symptoms of neurogenic bladder were also present. While recumbent, the patient had low levels of plasma norepinephrine, that failed to increase after standing and exercising. During Kaplan-Silah test the patient was proved to be supersensitive to intravenously administered norepinephrine and angiotensin. The finding was consistent with the view of peripheral denervation. The syndrome of orthostatic hypotension and other symptoms referable to peripheral autonomic dysfunction, without evidence of central nervous system involvement appears to represent a clinical entity distinct from the Shy-Drager syndrome. It can be defined Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome. PMID:7219793

Bartoli, V; Morandini, G

1981-04-01

47

STANFORD HOSPITAL & CLINICS PRESENTS Annual Breakthroughs in Neurologic  

E-print Network

-based information on the treatment of patients with Neurologic disorders. These clinical updates will be providedSTANFORD HOSPITAL & CLINICS PRESENTS 2nd Annual Breakthroughs in Neurologic Therapies: Restoring in Neurologic Therapies: Restoring Function to the Nervous System OCTOBER 7-8, 2011 Tell a colleague

Li, Fei-Fei

48

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Classification, Clinical Presentation and Current Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The term juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) describes a clinically heterogeneous group of arthritides. The onset in all subgroups is before 16 years of age, but each group presents with different clinical signs and symptoms. The cause of the disease is unknown, but both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved. Management of the disease has greatly improved

Günther E. Dannecker; Pierre Quartier

2009-01-01

49

Clinical Presentation and Outcome of Brown Recluse Spider Bite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To examine the clinical presentation and outcome of patients treated in the ED or toxicology clinic for suspected brown recluse spider bites. Methods: We assembled a retrospective case series of patients at a southeastern US university hospital. Our study group comprised 111 patients with suspected brown recluse spider bites treated during a 30-month period. Our main outcome measures

Seth W Wright; Keith D Wrenn; Lindsay Murray; Donna Seger

1997-01-01

50

Head Turning-Induced Hypotension in Elderly People  

PubMed Central

Carotid sinus hypersensitivity has a high prevalence in the elderly and is a possible cause of falls. In carotid sinus hypersensitivity, external triggers cause sudden reductions in blood pressure, leading to dizziness or syncope, resulting in falls. Turning of the head is considered an important example of such an external trigger in everyday life, wherein rotation of the neck is thought to manipulate the hypersensitive carotid sinus. However, direct evidence for this is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of head turning in elderly with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. We performed a prospective, observational study in 105 elderly patients who visited a geriatric falls clinic in a university teaching hospital and in 25 community dwelling healthy elderly subjects. Continuous measurements of blood pressure and heart rate (Finapres) were performed before, during, and after head turning. Head turning-induced hypotension was defined as a drop in systolic blood pressure of at least 20 mmHg during head turning. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity was examined with carotid sinus massage. We also tested for two other common geriatric hypotensive syndromes, orthostatic hypotension and post prandial hypotension, using active standing and a meal test. All three hypotensive syndromes were defined using consensus definitions. Head turning resulted in hypotension in 39% of patients (mean systolic blood pressure drop 36 mm Hg) and in 44% of the healthy elderly, irrespective of the direction of the head movement. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity was associated with head-turning induced hypotension (OR= 3.5, 95% CI= 1.48 to 8.35). We conclude that head turning is indeed an important cause of sudden drops in blood pressure in elderly with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. PMID:23977361

Schoon, Yvonne; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G. M.; Rongen, Sara; Lagro, Joep; Schalk, Bianca; Claassen, Jurgen A. H. R.

2013-01-01

51

[4-aminobutyrophenones with hypotensive activity].  

PubMed

A series of new butyrophenones was synthesized, the aim being to reduce neuroleptic activity and enhance the hypotensive effects of this class of drugs. The compounds were screened for toxicity according to the Irwin scheme and tested in anaesthetized cats for their effects on systemic arterial pressure. The most interesting compound, i.e. 1-(4'-fluorobenzoyl)-3-pyrrolidinyl-propane, was tested also in anaesthetized rabbits, cats, and dogs and in concious dogs. Moreover its central nervous system effects were tested in rats and mice. The compound proved practically devoid of neurological effects and showed interesting hypotensive activity. PMID:945189

Cascio, G; Manghisi, E; Erba, R; Magistretti, M J

1976-06-01

52

[Atypical presentation of a clinical case of giant cell arteritis].  

PubMed

We present a very unusual clinical case of giant cell arteritis with uterus involvement, in a women of 66 years old, that began clinical features of pain and functional limitation of shoulders and hip 3 mouth before been operated of uterus prolapse with hysterectomy. Biopsy of uterus found affected arterial vesels with wall sclerosis and granulomatous inflamation with giant cells, without necrosis, involving media and perivascular portions suggesting giant cell arteritis. In a previous reports review, we only found ten similar clinical cases. In that cases, clinical features were no suggestif of the disease. Although the well known tendency of arteritis to involve some specific vascular areas, the case we present is an example of the systemic course of the disease and his difficulty to diagnose. PMID:17067222

Rosselló Aubach, L L; Torres Cortada, G; Cabau Rúbies, J; Aragón Sanz, M A; Oncins Torres, R

2006-06-01

53

Plants and hypotensive, antiatheromatous and coronarodilatating action.  

PubMed

However great the success in the therapy of hypertension, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease has been gained today by recent efficient drugs, the definite healing of patients is not yet attained. The late discovery of reserpine, such an efficient drug of plant origin against hypertension, convinced so far reluctant scientists to consider the chemical compounds of the plant world. With respect to this traditional medical knowledge, it seems necessary to define more accurately the specificity of these healings-sometimes recommended unspecifically for a whole branch of medicine. This experimental verification should not use inconsiderately the present-day classification of diseases; there should be an awareness that conventional experimental methods in pharmacology are often unsuitable for revealing the real biological activity of one or another medicinal plant. The interest in the millennial empirical field of health care is acknowledged by the World Health Organization which promotes research and development of traditional medicine, along with investigations into its psychosocial and ethnographic aspects. These studies cover a number of plants growing in Bulgaria that have a healing effect in hypertension, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease according to the data of traditional medicine. Using screening methods, extracts and chemically pure substances were investigated; extraction was done with solvents such as water, ether, chloroform, dichloretan, ethanol, methanol, and acetone. Most of the experiments were carried out on anesthetized cats, rabbits and dogs. The substances tested were applied mainly intravenously, and in some experiments orally. Chronic experiments were also carried out on wakeful dogs with induced hypertension, on animals fed on an atherogenic diet, and on animals with induced arrhythmia and coronary spasm. Data are presented of clinical examination of some plants or of active substances isolated from them. Major results of these studies are presented for the following plants: Garlic, Geranium; Hellebore; Mistletoe; Olive; Valerian; Hawthorn; Pseucedanum arenarium; Periwinkle; Fumitory. For another 50 plants growing in Bulgaria and in other countries the author presents his and other investigators' experimental and clinical data about hypotensive, antiatheromatous and coronarodilatating action. PMID:574353

Petkov, V

1979-01-01

54

Student Research Day Award Winners, 2012 Clinical Research Oral Presentations  

E-print Network

Research- Poster Presentations 1st Place Dr. Humaid Al-shamsi, Medical Oncology resident, supervised by DrStudent Research Day Award Winners, 2012 Clinical Research ­ Oral Presentations 1st Place Dr. Angela Lin, Radiation Oncology resident, supervised by Dr. Do-Hoon Kim, for her project "Cardiac sparing

Thompson, Michael

55

Personality functioning and clinical presentation in early adolescence. II.  

PubMed

This study describes the presentation of early adolescents on clinical examination and its relation to personality function competence. As part of a longitudinal study 63 non-clinical subjects at age 13 underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview. On the basis of their responses their phenomenology, attitudes, defence mechanisms and degree of relatedness to significant others were assessed independently and blindly by two psychiatrists. Our findings show that a significant minority of early adolescents have a definite personality function disturbance and that these adolescents differ from their more competent peers on a number of characteristics identifiable in a clinical interview. Such a relationship was observed in boys as well as girls, with girls presenting no greater amount of turmoil than boys. These results indicate that adolescents cannot be adequately described as a homogeneous group. Differences in individual personality functioning result in differences in the presentation and internal experience of the early adolescent. PMID:3489514

Stein, B A; Golombek, H; Marton, P; Korenblum, M

1986-08-01

56

Varied clinical presentation of os odontoideum: a case report  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present a case of an os odontoideum and to provide insight into the varied clinical presentations. Clinical Features: A 54 year old man presented with chronic neck pain without headache. A clinical examination was performed and the chiropractor viewed his AP and lateral radiographs. Previous flexion/ extension radiographs and MRI imaging from 2009 were requested for review. The patient was diagnosed with grade II mechanical neck pain. Treatment was rendered that day which included spinal manipulation/ mobilization. Several days later the requested imaging reports were received and described the presence of an os odontoideum. Conclusion: In the presence of os odontoideum, familiarity with the signs and symptoms of potential cervical instability is imperative. Health care providers must remain diligent in their patient histories, physical exams, and imaging. This case highlights the importance of following up on imaging studies to rule out diagnoses that would involve treatment contraindications thus ensuring safe and effective treatment.

Chrobak, Karen; Larson, Ryan; Stern, Paula J.

2014-01-01

57

Possible fatal acetaminophen intoxication with atypical clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Acetaminophen or paracetamol, a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic, is known to elicit severe adverse reactions when taken in overdose, chronically at therapeutic dosage or, sporadically, following single assumptions of a therapeutic dose. Damage patterns including liver damage and, rarely, acute tubular necrosis or a fixed drug exanthema. We present a case of fatal acetaminophen toxicity with postmortem blood concentration 78 ?g/mL and unusual clinical features, including a visually striking and massive epidermolysis and rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and myocardial ischemia. This case is compared with the most similar previous reports in terms of organ damage, clinical presentation, and cause of death. We conclude that a number of severe patterns of adverse effects to acetaminophen are emerging that were previously greatly underestimated, thus questioning the adequacy of the clinical spectrum traditionally associated with acetaminophen intoxication and leading to the need to review this spectrum and the associated diagnostic criteria. PMID:23822653

De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lodise, Maria; Chiarotti, Marcello; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Carbone, Arnaldo; Valerio, Luca

2013-09-01

58

Hypothalamic Hamartoma: Comparison of Clinical Presentation and Magnetic Resonance Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is one of the most frequent causes of organic central precocious puberty (CPP). We compared the clinical presentation and the magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 19 patients with HH aged 5.7 ± 4.1 (SD) years at the first endocrine evaluation. They had isolated CPP (group 1, n = 9), CPP plus gelastic seizures (group 2, n

C. Debeneix; M. Bourgeois; C. Trivin; C. Sainte-Rose; R. Brauner; E. Strehl; S. Venturoli; R. Paradisi; E. Porcu; R. Mühlenberg; C. Kim; S. Wüller; R. Pfäffle; G. Heimann; M. Mauri; R. Alfayate; M. L. Graells; C. Miralles; M. Tanaka; S. Nakaya; M. Watanabe; T. Tateishi; H. Shimizu; S. Kobayashi

2001-01-01

59

Correlation of Angiographic Morphology and Clinical Presentation in Unstable Angina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to correlate angiographically detected complex lesions and intracoronary thrombus with the severity of clinical presentation in unstable angina (UA).Background. Unstable angina is usually related to acute thrombosis superimposed on a disrupted plaque. Complex and thrombotic lesions are more prevalent in UA and have been associated with a worse prognosis. The highest levels of the Braunwald classification

George Dangas; Roxana Mehran; Sylvan Wallenstein; Nikolaos A Courcoutsakis; Venu Kakarala; Jacqueline Hollywood; John A Ambrose

1997-01-01

60

Orthostatic hypotension in patients, bed rest subjects, and astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic hypotension after even short space flights has affected a significant number of astronauts. Given the need for astronauts to function at a high level of efficiency during and after their return from space, the application of pharmacologic and other treatments is strongly indicated. This report addresses the clinical problem of orthostatic hypotension and its treatments to ascertain whether pharmacologic or physiologic treatment may be useful in the prevention of orthostatic hypotension associated with space flight. Treatment of orthostatic hypotension in patients now includes increasing intravascular volume with high sodium intake and mineralocorticoids, or increasing vascular resistance through the use of drugs to stimulate alpha or block beta vascular receptors. Earlier treatment used oral sympathomimetic ephedrine hydrochloride alone or with "head-up" bed rest. Then long-acting adrenocortical steroid desoxycorticosterone preparations with high-salt diets were used to expand volume. Fludrocortisone was shown to prevent the orthostatic drop in blood pressure. The combination of the sympathomimetic amine hydroxyamphetamine and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine has been used, as has indomethacin alone. Davies et al. used mineralocorticoids at low doses concomitantly with alpha-agonists to increase vasoconstrictor action. Schirger et al used tranylcypromine and methylphenidate with or without a Jobst elastic leotard garment or the alpha-adrenergic agonist midodrine (which stimulates both arterial and venous systems without direct central nervous system or cardiac effects). Vernikos et al established that the combination of fludrocortisone, dextroamphetamine, and atropine exhibited a beneficial effect on orthostatic hypotension induced by 7-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest (a model used to simulate the weightlessness of space flight). Thus, there are numerous drugs that, in combination with mechanical techniques, including lower body negative pressure to elevate transmural pressure, could be studied to treat orthostatic hypotension after space flight.

Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.

1994-01-01

61

An introduction to eating disorders: clinical presentation, epidemiology, and prognosis.  

PubMed

The spectrum of eating disorders varies widely, ranging from mildly abnormal eating habits to life-threatening chronic disease. Given the many different cultural food norms and individual preferences, along with the fact that dieting behavior is extremely common, it can be challenging to differentiate unusual eating behaviors from clinically significant eating disorders. In this article, the authors provide an introduction to eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified, focusing on the clinical presentation, epidemiology, and prognosis. PMID:20413691

Miller, Catherine A; Golden, Neville H

2010-04-01

62

Inflammation and clinical presentation in neurodegenerative disease: a volatile relationship  

PubMed Central

A proposed immune mechanism that potentially modifies or exacerbates neurodegenerative disease presentation in older adults has received considerable attention in the past decade, with recent studies demonstrating a strong link between pro-inflammatory markers and neurodegeneration. The overarching aim of the following review is to synthesize recent research that supports a possible relationship between inflammation and clinical features of neurodegenerative diseases, including risk of development, cognitive and clinical correlates, and progression of the specified diseases. Specific emphasis is placed on providing a temporal context for the association between inflammation and neurodegeneration. PMID:22515699

Bettcher, Brianne Magouirk; Kramer, Joel H.

2013-01-01

63

Efficacy of atomoxetine versus midodrine for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension in autonomic failure.  

PubMed

The clinical presentation of autonomic failure is orthostatic hypotension. Severely affected patients require pharmacological treatment to prevent presyncopal symptoms or frank syncope. We previously reported in a proof of concept study that pediatric doses of the norepinephrine transporter blockade, atomoxetine, increases blood pressure in autonomic failure patients with residual sympathetic activity compared with placebo. Given that the sympathetic nervous system is maximally activated in the upright position, we hypothesized that atomoxetine would be superior to midodrine, a direct vasoconstrictor, in improving upright blood pressure and orthostatic hypotension-related symptoms. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effect of acute atomoxetine versus midodrine on upright systolic blood pressure and orthostatic symptom scores in 65 patients with severe autonomic failure. There were no differences in seated systolic blood pressure (means difference=0.3 mm Hg; 95% confidence [CI], -7.3 to 7.9; P=0.94). In contrast, atomoxetine produced a greater pressor response in upright systolic blood pressure (means difference=7.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.6 to 15; P=0.03) compared with midodrine. Furthermore, atomoxetine (means difference=0.4; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.8; P=0.02), but not midodrine (means difference=0.5; 95% CI, -0.1 to 1.0; P=0.08), improved orthostatic hypotension-related symptoms as compared with placebo. The results of our study suggest that atomoxetine could be a superior therapeutic option than midodrine for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension in autonomic failure. PMID:25185131

Ramirez, Claudia E; Okamoto, Luis E; Arnold, Amy C; Gamboa, Alfredo; Diedrich, André; Choi, Leena; Raj, Satish R; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Shibao, Cyndya A

2014-12-01

64

Multibacillary leprosy: erythema as the only clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which primarily affects the skin and peripheral nerves. In this article, we present a 45-year-old man and a 39-year-old women who suffered from asymptomatic irregular erythemas on their trunk and extremities. Since both patients denied the history of exposure to leprosy patients and were absent clinical signs of superficial sensation dysfunction and enlarged peripheral nerves, they were diagnosed of mycosis fungoides and livedo reticularis clinically. Nevertheless the biopsies of erythemas showed perineural and periadnexal foamy-cell granulomas in the dermis and Fite staining revealed a large number of acid-fast bacilli. A diagnosis of multibacillary leprosy was made finally. These cases revealed that since leprosy is still epidemic in some remote area in China and in other developing countries and its clinical manifestations may be very weird sometimes, the dermatologists should be alert of it and skin biopsy could confirm the diagnosis. PMID:22490424

Wen, Peng-Fei; Wang, Lin

2012-02-01

65

Swallow Syncope: Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic Criteria, and Therapeutic Options  

PubMed Central

We recently encountered three patients with episodes of syncope associated with food ingestion. A 31-year-old woman had an episode of syncope in the hospital while drinking soda. Transient asystole was noted on the telemonitor, confirming the diagnosis of swallow syncope. The other two patients were 78- and 80 year old gentlemen, respectively, who presented with recurrent and transient episodes of dizziness during deglutition. Extensive work-up of syncope was negative in both cases and a diagnosis of swallow syncope was made by clinical criteria. These cases illustrate the challenging problem of swallow syncope. The diagnosis can be suspected on the basis of clinical presentation and confirmed with the demonstration of transient brady-arrhythmia during deglutition. Medical management includes avoiding trigger foods, use of anticholinergics, and/or placement of a permanent cardiac pacemaker. PMID:25038205

Garg, Shashank; Girotra, Mohit; Glasser, Stephen; Dutta, Sudhir K.

2014-01-01

66

Review of Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA  

PubMed Central

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) was described in 1929 by Luis Morquio from Uruguay and James Brailsford from England, and was later found as an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. MPS IVA is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme, N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Reduced GALNS activity results in impaired catabolism of two glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS). Clinical presentations of MPS IVA reflect a spectrum of progression from a severe ”classical” phenotype to a mild “attenuated” phenotype. More than 180 different mutations have been identified in the GALNS gene, which likely explains the phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder. Accumulation of C6S and KS manifests predominantly as short stature and skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex), including atlantoaxial instability and cervical cord compression. However, abnormalities in the visual, auditory, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems can also affect individuals with MPS IVA. Diagnosis is typically based on clinical examination, skeletal radiographs, urinary GAG, and enzymatic activity of GALNS in blood cells or fibroblasts. Deficiency of GALNS activity is a common assessment for the laboratory diagnosis of MPS IVA; however, with recently increased availability, gene sequencing for MPS IVA is often used to confirm enzyme results. As multiple clinical presentations are observed, diagnosis of MPS IVA may require multi-system considerations. This review provides a history of defining MPS IVA and how the understanding of the disease manifestations has changed over time. A summary of the accumulated knowledge is presented, including information from the International Morquio Registry. The classical phenotype is contrasted with attenuated cases, which are now being recognized and diagnosed more frequently. Laboratory based diagnoses of MPS IVA are also discussed. PMID:23665161

Hendriksz, C.J.; Harmatz, P.; Beck, M.; Jones, S.; Wood, T.; Lachman, R.; Gravance, C.G.

2013-01-01

67

Subacute Thyroiditis: Clinical Presentation and Long Term Outcome  

PubMed Central

Few studies have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA) to describe the clinical presentation and long term outcomes of subacute thyroiditis (SAT). Our aim was to review the demographic, anthropometric, clinical presentation, laboratory results, treatment, and disease outcome in Riyadh region and to compare those with results from different regions of the Kingdom and different parts of the world. We reviewed the medical files of patients who underwent thyroid uptake scan during an 8-year period in King Khalid University Hospital. Only 25 patients had confirmed diagnosis of thyroiditis. Age and gender distribution were similar to other studies. Most patients presented with palpitation, goiter, and weight change. Elevated thyroid hormones, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and elevated ESR were reported. Among those, 7 cases of SAT were recorded. ?-Blockers were prescribed to 57% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to 29% of SAT. Long follow-up demonstrated that 85.7% of SAT cases recovered, while 14.3% developed permanent hypothyroidism. In conclusion, SAT is uncommon in the central region of SA. Compared to the western region, corticosteroid is not commonly prescribed, and permanent hypothyroidism is not uncommon. A nation-wide epidemiological study to explain these interprovincial differences is warranted. PMID:24803929

Alfadda, Assim A.; Sallam, Reem M.; Elawad, Ghadi E.; AlDhukair, Hisham; Alyahya, Mossaed M.

2014-01-01

68

[Case report: unusual clinical presentation of a follicular lymphoma].  

PubMed

Follicular lymphoma is an indolent B-cell lymphoma. Fluctuant asymptomatic lymphadenopathies are their usual clinical manifestation. B-cell neoplasms can sometimes involve the skin. In this case, it is important to distinguish a systemic B-cell lymphoma with secondary skin involvement from primary cutaneous lymphoma. Immunohistochemical stainings and staging usually allow to make the difference. Here we report the first case of a systemic follicular lymphoma with secondary cutaneous involvement presented with papular lesions on the face mimicking a rosacea. PMID:24772807

Sahil, M; Prins, C; Kaya, G; Poffet, F; Boehncke, W-H; Cortés, B

2014-04-01

69

Stroke and Pregnancy: Clinical Presentation, Evaluation, Treatment and Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a neurological emergency that carries a risk of morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that the incidence of stroke, while rare, is increasing in pregnant females. In this review, stroke and other vasculopathies in the pregnant and post-partum female are examined. A discussion of the symptoms and clinical presentation of stroke is provided, as well as the current guideline for treatment of stroke in pregnancy. Finally, the data illustrating the recent increases in stroke incidence is outlined. PMID:23632643

Grear, Karrie E; Bushnell, Cheryl D

2013-01-01

70

Hypotension  

MedlinePLUS

... them. In other people, certain conditions or factors cause abnormally low blood pressure. As a result, less blood and oxygen flow ... lead to shock . Outlook In a healthy person, low blood pressure ... and needs no treatment. If it causes signs or symptoms, your doctor will try to ...

71

The clinical presentation of celiac disease: experiences from northeastern iran.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore demographic characteristics and clinical presentations of celiac disease (CD) in Northeastern Iran. METHODS This was a cross-sectional retrospective study of 193 adults with CD who presented to Mashhad University Gastroenterology Clinic between 2008 and 2013. Patient data that included mode of presentation and the presence of any concomitant illnesses were collected. Intestinal biopsy and serum anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) were used for diagnosis. Mucosal lesions were classified according to modified Marsh classification. RESULTS Overall, 132 females and 61 males, with a mean age at diagnosis of 32.6 ± 13.2 years were included. The patient's chief complaints in order of decreasing frequency were dyspepsia (24.6%), diarrhea (20%), anemia (12.8%), and flatulence (7.2%). Bone disease was seen (osteopenia, osteoporosis) in 30% of patients. A positive family history of CD was found in 17.9% of cases. There were 64% who had serum anti-tTG >200 units/ml and 78% had a Marsh classification grade 3 on duodenal biopsy. The histology grade (Marsh) did not show any correlation with anti-tTG serum levels, age, body mass index (BMI) or hemoglobin levels. CONCLUSION In Northeastern Iran, CD was seen more commonly in females and with non-diarrheal presentations. Abdominal discomfort, anemia and bone disease were most common primary presentations in this area. Histology grade showed no significant correlation with level of anti-tTG, BMI or hemoglobin levels. We suggest screening for CD in unexplained abdominal discomfort, bone disease and anemia. PMID:24872868

Ganji, Azita; Esmaielzadeh, Abbas; Aafzal Aghayee, Mehdi; Goshayeshi, Ladan; Ghaffarzadegan, Kamran

2014-04-01

72

The Clinical Presentation of Celiac Disease: Experiences from Northeastern Iran  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore demographic characteristics and clinical presentations of celiac disease (CD) in Northeastern Iran. METHODS This was a cross-sectional retrospective study of 193 adults with CD who presented to Mashhad University Gastroenterology Clinic between 2008 and 2013. Patient data that included mode of presentation and the presence of any concomitant illnesses were collected. Intestinal biopsy and serum anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) were used for diagnosis. Mucosal lesions were classified according to modified Marsh classification. RESULTS Overall, 132 females and 61 males, with a mean age at diagnosis of 32.6 ± 13.2 years were included. The patient’s chief complaints in order of decreasing frequency were dyspepsia (24.6%), diarrhea (20%), anemia (12.8%), and flatulence (7.2%). Bone disease was seen (osteopenia, osteoporosis) in 30% of patients. A positive family history of CD was found in 17.9% of cases. There were 64% who had serum anti-tTG >200 units/ml and 78% had a Marsh classification grade 3 on duodenal biopsy. The histology grade (Marsh) did not show any correlation with anti-tTG serum levels, age, body mass index (BMI) or hemoglobin levels. CONCLUSION In Northeastern Iran, CD was seen more commonly in females and with non-diarrheal presentations. Abdominal discomfort, anemia and bone disease were most common primary presentations in this area. Histology grade showed no significant correlation with level of anti-tTG, BMI or hemoglobin levels. We suggest screening for CD in unexplained abdominal discomfort, bone disease and anemia. PMID:24872868

Ganji, Azita; Esmaielzadeh, Abbas; Aafzal Aghayee, Mehdi; Goshayeshi, Ladan; Ghaffarzadegan, Kamran

2014-01-01

73

Portal vein thrombosis; risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is increasingly frequently being diagnosed, but systematic descriptions of the natural history and clinical handling of the condition are sparse. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe risk factors, clinical presentation, complications and treatment of portal vein thrombosis in a single-centre. Methods Sixty-seven patients were identified in the electronic records from 1992 to 2005. All data were obtained from the patient records. Results One or more risk factors (e.g. prothrombotic disorder or abdominal inflammation) were present in 87%. Symptoms were abdominalia, splenomegaly, fever, ascites, haematemesis, and weight loss. Abdominalia and fever occurred more frequently in patients with acute PVT. Frequent complications were splenomegaly, oesophageal- and gastric varices with or without bleeding, portal hypertensive gastropathy and ascites. Varices and bleeding were more frequent in patients with chronic PVT. Patients who received anticoagulant therapy more frequently achieved partial/complete recanalization. Patients with varices who were treated endoscopically in combination with ?-blockade had regression of the varices. The overall mortality was 13% in one year, and was dependent on underlying causes. Conclusion Most patients had a combination of local and systemic risk factors for PVT. We observed that partial/complete recanalization was more frequent in patients treated with anticoagulation therapy, and that regression of varices was more pronounced in patients who where treated with active endoscopy combined with pharmacological treatment. PMID:17697371

Sogaard, Kirstine K; Astrup, Lone B; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Gronbaek, Henning

2007-01-01

74

X linked adrenoleukodystrophy: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapy  

PubMed Central

X linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited disorder of peroxisomal metabolism, biochemically characterised by accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids. Accumulation of these fatty acids is associated with cerebral demyelination, peripheral nerve abnormalities, and adrenocortical and testicular insufficiency. The lowest estimated birth incidence is one per 100 000. At least six phenotypes can be distinguished, of which the two most frequent are childhood cerebral ALD and adrenomyeloneuropathy. The X-ALD gene has been identified, but thus far no relation between genotype and phenotype has been found. Diagnosis is relatively easy and can be confirmed reliably, and prenatal testing is possible in affected families. Several therapeutic options, some with promising perspectives, are available. Neurologists and other physicians seem not to be familiar with the many facets of X-ALD. In this review, the clinical presentation, the relative frequencies of the different phenotypes, and the diagnostic and therapeutic options are presented.?? PMID:9221959

van Geel, B. M; Assies, J.; Wanders, R.; Barth, P.

1997-01-01

75

Nonspecific dizziness: frequency of supine hypertension associated with hypotensive reactions on head-up tilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical syndrome of supine hypertension associated with orthostatic hypotension (OH) in given individuals is recognized by specialists, but is underdiagnosed in the community. The objective of this study was to assess supine hypertension associated with hypotensive reactions on head-up tilt (SH-HRT) among patients evaluated for nonspecific dizziness. Consecutive patients with nonspecific dizziness were studied with a 10-min supine 30-min

J E Naschitz; R Mussafia-Priselac; Y Kovalev; N Zaigraykina; G Slobodin; N Elias; S Storch; I Rosner

2006-01-01

76

Clinical Presentation of Hypertensive Crises in Emergency Medical Services  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the incidence and clinical presentation of hypertensive crises in the Emergency medical services of the Community Health Centre “Dr. Mustafa Šehovi?” Tuzla in relation to age, sex, duration and severity of hypertension, as well as the prevalence of accompanying symptoms and clinical manifestations. Methods: The study was conducted between November 2009 and April 2010 and included 180 subjects of both sexes, aged 30-80 with a diagnosis of arterial hypertension. All subjects were divided into two groups: a control group, which consisted of subjects without hypertensive crisis (95 subjects) and an experimental group that consisted of subjects with hypertensive crisis (85 subjects). Results: The study results indicate that female subjects were significantly over- represented compared to men (60% vs. 40 %, p=0.007). The average age of the male subjects was 55.83±11.06 years, while the female subjects’ average age was 59.41±11.97 years. The incidence of hypertensive crisis was 47.22%, with hypertensive urgency significantly more represented than emergency (16.47% vs. 83.53%, p<0.0001). The majority of subjects in the experimental group (28.23%) belonged to the age group of 60-69 years of age: 26.76% urgency and 35.71% emergency. The most common accompanying symptoms in hypertensive subjects were headache (75%), chest pain (48.33%), vertigo (44.44%), shortness of breath (38.88%) and nausea (33.89%). The most common symptoms in subjects with hypertensive crisis were headache (74.11%), chest pain and shortness of breath (62.35%), vertigo (49.41%), and nausea and vomiting (41.17%). Conclusions: Chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting were significantly over-represented in subjects with hypertensive crisis (p<0.005). Clinical manifestations of hypertensive emergencies in almost all subjects included acute coronary syndrome, and only one subject had acute pulmonary edema. PMID:24757394

Salkic, Sabina; Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Ljuca, Farid; Brkic, Selmira

2014-01-01

77

Sciatica presenting as post-amputation neuroma: presentation and clinical findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design  Case report, level-5 evidence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To highlight the clinical challenges associated with lumbar disc disease in an amputee.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Summary of background  Radicular compression in a patient with lower limb amputation may present as phantom limb pain. Furthermore, nerve root tension\\u000a signs as a diagnostic sign of nerve root compression may be meaningless on the amputated side due to the absence of

Ali Mofidi; Amit Kotecha; Robin Banerjee; Chandra M. Rao; J. M. Trivedi

2010-01-01

78

Clinical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Eighty-three children presented at Goroka Base Hospital in the Eastern Highlands Province (EHP) of Papua New Guinea over a period of 3 years and 9 months between February 1997 and November 2000 were confirmed to have subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Confirmation of the diagnosis was based on the demonstration of high titres of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid and/or serum in association with clinical features supportive of SSPE, including characteristic electroencephalographic changes and amplification of measles virus genome by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in some cases. The mean cerebrospinal fluid and serum enzyme immunoassay antibody levels among the SSPE patients were 38 250 and 860 580, respectively. The mean age of onset of SSPE was 7.9 +/- 2.6 years and ranged between 2 and 14 years. The overall male to female ratio was 1.2:1 and 1.4:1 for EHP. PMID:12631311

Mgone, Charles S; Mgone, Joyce M; Takasu, Toshiaki; Miki, Kenji; Kawanishi, Ryuta; Asuo, Peter G; Kono, Jacinta; Komase, Katsuhiro; Alpers, Michael P

2003-03-01

79

Key Diagnostic Finding in a Condition with Variable Clinical Presentations  

PubMed Central

This is an interesting case series on a very common genetic condition which are often diagnosed late as clinical signs are inconspicuous. We would like to highlight the principal clinical examination finding which led to diagnosis. PMID:23984150

Sukumaran, Anju; Buchlis, John

2013-01-01

80

Coccidioidal meningitis: clinical presentation and management in the fluconazole era.  

PubMed

Despite the advent of new antifungal agents, coccidioidal meningitis (CM) remains a difficult-to-treat condition with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study we directly compare the clinical presentation and management of patients with Coccidioides immitis meningitis in the azole era (after 1980) to that of a cohort of patients from the pre-azole era. We reviewed 30 CM cases seen at 3 Los Angeles hospitals between the years 1993 to 2008 ("2008 cohort") and compared them to 31 patients ("1980 cohort") described by Bouza et al in a previous study. The demographics and clinical presentation of patients in the 2008 cohort were similar to those of the 1980 cohort except for a higher incidence of Hispanic patients (2008: 53% vs. 1980: 6%) and a greater percentage of patients with underlying, predisposing clinical conditions (2008: 66% vs. 1980: 32%). Ten patients in the 2008 cohort had human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), a condition not reported in the earlier study. Laboratory findings were similar between the 2 groups except for a lower incidence of peripheral leukocytosis and eosinophilia in the 2008 group.There were marked differences in drug treatment between the 2 eras. In the 2008 cohort, 29 patients received fluconazole therapy: 13 were treated with fluconazole monotherapy, and 16 received a combination of fluconazole and intravenous amphotericin B. Although almost all patients (29/31) in the 1980 cohort received intrathecal amphotericin B, only 3 patients in the 2008 study received amphotericin B via this route. With respect to complications of CM, a similar percentage of patients in each cohort developed complications such as stroke and hydrocephalus. The 2008 cohort (40%) had similar mortality compared to patients in the 1980 study (39%); survivors in both groups experienced significant impairment of activities of daily living. Although recommended as first-line therapy for CM, azole-based therapies are not curative and do not necessarily prevent complications associated with the disease.CM remains a serious illness with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Immunocompromised individuals, especially those with HIV/AIDS, are at special risk for CM and represent a greater share of the overall population with this condition. Despite the clear advantages of azole treatment in CM, new therapeutic approaches are needed to provide definitive cure and to reduce the need for long-term suppressive therapy. PMID:20827104

Mathisen, Glenn; Shelub, Aaron; Truong, Jonathan; Wigen, Christine

2010-09-01

81

Left-sided gallbladder: Its clinical significance and imaging presentations  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the importance of preoperative diagnosis and presentation of left-sided gallbladder using ultrasound (US), CT and angiography. METHODS: Retrospective review of 1482 patients who underwent enhanced CT scanning was performed. Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed if a right-sided ligamentum teres was present. The image presentations on US, CT and angiography were also reviewed. RESULTS: Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed in nine patients. The associated abnormalities on CT imaging included portal vein anomalies, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe of the liver, club-shaped portal vein in the right lobe of the liver, and difficulty in identifying segment IV. Angiography in six of nine patients demonstrated abnormal portal venous system (trifurcation type in four of six patients). The main hepatic arteries followed the portal veins in all six patients. The segment IV artery was identified in four of six patients using angiography, although segment IV was difficult to define on CT imaging. Hepatectomy was performed in three patients with concomitant liver tumor and the diagnosis of left-sided gallbladder was confirmed intraoperatively. CONCLUSION: Left-sided gallbladder is an important clinical entity in hepatectomy due to its associated portal venous and biliary anomalies. It should be considered in US, CT and angiography images that demonstrate no definite segment IV, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe, and club-shaped right anterior portal vein. PMID:18081230

Hsu, Sheng-Lung; Chen, Tai-Yi; Huang, Tung-Liang; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Concejero, Allan M; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Cheng, Yu-Fan

2007-01-01

82

[Concept and clinical presentation of mild cognitive impairment].  

PubMed

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to be a transition state between normal cognition and dementia. The subtype of MCI are highly heterogeneous in terms of etiology, presentation, and prognosis. Patients with the amnestic subtype of MCI are at a high risk of progression to Alzheimer disease (AD); this subtype may represent the prodromal stage of AD. In contrast, patients with the non-amnestic subtype may be at a high risk of progression to a non-AD dementia, including dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Most patients with amnestic MCI exhibit pathologic abnormalities in the mesial temporal lobe structures; several other concomitant pathologic abnormalities, including argyrophilic grain disease, neurofibrillary tangles, hippocampal sclerosis, and vascular lesions are also observed. Patients with MCI often exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as depression and apathy, and instrumental ADL are minimally restricted. Moreover, patients with MCI who are not aware of their memory deficits and in whom practice effects are not observed exhibit parietotemporal hypoperfusion on single photon emission CT, indicating that these findings are predictors of progression to AD. In this review, I have discussed the most current aspects related to the concept and clinical presentation of MCI, with emphasis possible risk factors for conversion to dementia. PMID:20675876

Hanyu, Haruo

2010-07-01

83

Postural Hypotension Associated with Nonelastic Pantyhose during Lymphedema Treatment  

PubMed Central

The case of a 72-year-old female patient with elephantiasis is reported. The patient was submitted to two surgeries to remove the edema. After surgery, the leg again evolved to elephantiasis and eventually she was referred to the Clinica Godoy for clinical treatment. Intensive treatment was carried out (6 to 8 hours per day) and the patient lost more than 70% of the limb volume within one week. After this loss, the volume was maintained using grosgrain compression pantyhose for 24 hours per day. During the return appointment, the patient suffered from systemic hypotension (a drop of more than 30?mmHg within three minutes) while she was standing after removing the stocking. A further investigation showed that the symptoms only appeared when the stocking was worn for 24 hours. Thus, the patient was advised to use the stocking only during the day thereby avoiding the symptoms of hypotension. PMID:25105033

Pereira de Godoy, Jose Maria; Guerreiro Godoy, Maria de Fatima

2014-01-01

84

Clinical Presentation, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita  

PubMed Central

Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a chronic mucocutaneous autoimmune skin blistering disease. The pathogenic relevance of autoantibodies targeting type VII collagen (COL7) has been well-documented. Therefore, EBA is a prototypical autoimmune disease with a well-characterized pathogenic relevance of autoantibody binding to the target antigen. EBA is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.2 new cases per million and per year. The current treatment of EBA relies on general immunosuppressive therapy, which does not lead to remission in all cases. Therefore, there is a high, so far unmet medical need for the development of novel therapeutic options. During the last 10 years, several novel in vitro and in vivo models of EBA have been established. These models demonstrated a critical role of the genetic background, T cells, and cytokines for mediating the loss of tolerance towards COL7. Neutrophils, complement activation, Fc gamma receptor engagement, cytokines, several molecules involved in cell signaling, release of reactive oxygen species, and matrix metalloproteinases are crucial for autoantibody-induced tissue injury in EBA. Based on this growing understanding of the diseases' pathogenesis, several potential novel therapeutic targets have emerged. In this review, the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment options for EBA are discussed in detail. PMID:23956869

Ludwig, Ralf J.

2013-01-01

85

The response to methylene blue in patients with severe hypotension during liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Methylene blue is a useful therapy for catecholamine-resistant vasoplegic shock. Three cases of methylene blue administration for the treatment of catecholamine-resistant hypotension during orthotopic liver transplantation are presented. PMID:22608589

Cheng, Sara S; Berman, Gregory W; Merritt, Glenn R; Hendrickse, Adrian; Fiegel, Matthew J; Teitelbaum, Isaac; Campsen, Jeffrey; Wachs, Michael; Zimmerman, Michael; Mandell, M Susan

2012-06-01

86

Clinical presentation of tuberculoid leprosy in an epidermodysplasia verruciformis patient.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is triggered by a variety of mechanisms that at least partly include genetic background. We present a Brazilian man with a 30-year history of flat, wart-like lesions with clinical, histopathological, and evolutive aspects consistent with papillomavirus (HPV)-associated EV. Histological analysis of the wart lesions showed epidermis with hyperkeratosis, regular acanthosis, hypergranulosis, and cells with abundant basophilic cytoplasm. Moreover, a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate was found in the superficial dermis, consistent with a viral wart. Type-2-HPV DNA was detected in various fragments of skin-wart lesions using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two years after the EV diagnosis, the patient presented with an anesthetic well-demarcated, erythematous and mildly scaly plaque on his right forearm. A histopathological analysis of this lesion demonstrated the presence of a compact tuberculoid granuloma. Ziehl-Neelsen staining demonstrated the presence of rare acid-fast bacilli and confirmed the tuberculoid leprosy diagnosis. The patient's Mitsuda Intradermal Reaction was positive. To elucidate the possible mechanism involved in this case of EV, we genotyped the HLA genes of this patient. DQB genotyping showed the polymorphic HLA alleles DQB1*0301 and 0501. The patient was treated with a paucibacillary multi-drug therapy scheme, and the disease was cured in six months. This report describes an EV patient with an M. leprae infection, confirming that tuberculoid leprosy patients possess a relatively specific and efficient cell-mediated immunity against the bacillus and, therefore, localized forms of the disease. Moreover, we show the possible involvement of the polymorphic HLA alleles DQB1*0301 and 0501 in EV induction mechanisms. PMID:22711134

Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; Silva, Márcia G; Cristofano, Carlos; Crivelin, Luciana Leite; Calabreta, Carmela Beatriz Ramos; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto; Morgado de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez

2012-06-01

87

Senile Systemic Amyloidosis: Clinical Features at Presentation and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac amyloidosis is a fatal disease whose prognosis and treatment rely on identification of the amyloid type. In our aging population transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is common and must be differentiated from other amyloid types. We report the clinical presentation, natural history, and prognostic features of ATTRwt compared with cardiac?isolated AL amyloidosis and calculate the probability of disease diagnosis of ATTRwt from baseline factors. Methods and Results All patients with biopsy?proven ATTRwt (102 cases) and isolated cardiac AL (36 cases) seen from 2002 to 2011 at the UK National Amyloidosis Center were included. Median survival from the onset of symptoms was 6.07 years in the ATTRwt group and 1.7 years in the AL group. Positive troponin, a pacemaker, and increasing New York Heart Association (NYHA) class were associated with worse survival in ATTRwt patients on univariate analysis. All patients with isolated cardiac AL and 24.1% of patients with ATTRwt had evidence of a plasma cell dyscrasia. Older age and lower N?terminal pro?B?type natriuretic peptide (NT pro?BNP) were factors significantly associated with ATTRwt. Patients aged 70 years and younger with an NT pro?BNP <183 pmol/L were more likely to have ATTRwt, as were patients older than 70 years with an NT pro?BNP <1420 pmol/L. Conclusions Factors at baseline associated with a worse outcome in ATTRwt are positive troponin T, a pacemaker, and NYHA class IV symptoms. The age of the patient at diagnosis and NT pro?BNP level can aid in distinguishing ATTRwt from AL amyloidosis. PMID:23608605

Pinney, Jennifer H.; Whelan, Carol J.; Petrie, Aviva; Dungu, Jason; Banypersad, Sanjay M.; Sattianayagam, Prayman; Wechalekar, Ashutosh; Gibbs, Simon D. J.; Venner, Christopher P.; Wassef, Nancy; McCarthy, Carolyn A.; Gilbertson, Janet A.; Rowczenio, Dorota; Hawkins, Philip N.; Gillmore, Julian D.; Lachmann, Helen J.

2013-01-01

88

Sympathoinhibition and hypotension in carotid sinus hypersensitivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity is a known cause of syncope in humans. The condition is characterized by cardioinhibition and vasodepression, each to varying degrees. The extent and importance of sympathoinhibition has not been determined in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. This study reports on the extent of sympathoinhibition measured directly directly during carotid massage with and without atrioventricular sequential pacing, in a patient with symptomatic carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity. Carotid massage elicited asystole, hypotension and complete inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Carotid massage during atrioventricular pacing produced similar sympathoinhibition, but with minimal hypotension. Therefore, sympathoinhibition did not contribute importantly to the hypotension during carotid massage in the supine position in this patient. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relation of sympathoinhibition to hypotension in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity in the upright position.

Smith, M. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

1992-01-01

89

Hyoscine-N-Butyl-Bromide-Induced Hypotension and Myocardial Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Hyoscine N-butyl bromide, also known as scopolamine, is a type of antimuscarinic agent. This drug is associated with numerous common side effects, including abdominal fullness, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision, skin flushing, tachycardia, decreased sweating, and salivation. The most unfavorable side effect is hemodynamic instability. In the present case, hypotension and acute myocardial infarction developed after intravenous hyoscine injection as a premedication therapy for colonoscopy. It was difficult to differentiate the cause-effect relationship between myocardial infarction and hypotension. Because both conditions were present under drug effects, we considered 2 possible diagnoses. One was coronary spasm with cardiogenic shock, and the other was myocardial ischemic sequela due to shock status. The latter diagnosis was confirmed after a series of examinations. PMID:24829823

Hsu, Wen-Hsiu

2013-01-01

90

Alpha-interferon-induced arthritis: clinical presentation, treatment, and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The therapeutic applications of alpha-interferon (IFN) have expandedgreatly to include chronic viral hepatitis and malignant disorders. Autoimmune phenomena occur frequently with IFN therapy, but arthritis is uncommon. We describe the clinical features and treatment of IFN-induced arthritis.

Gideon Nesher; Rosa Ruchlemer

1998-01-01

91

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome in a patient with marfan syndrome and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Intracranial hypotension is typically manifested by orthostatic headache. The most frequent underlying factor is cerebrospinal fluid leakage. It has been suggested that dural structural weakness in some connective tissue diseases may be responsible for dural tears and diverticula and consequently leakage. We present a case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension associated with Marfan syndrome and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. The patient was treated successfully with epidural autologous blood patch. Dural involvements of these hereditary connective tissue diseases are also discussed. PMID:18194297

Albayram, Sait; Ba?, Ahmet; Ozer, Harun; Dikici, Suleyman; Gulertan, Serap Yavuz; Yuksel, Adnan

2008-04-01

92

Tamsulosin-induced severe hypotension during general anesthesia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tamsulosin, a selective ?1-adrenergic receptor (?1-AR) antagonist, is a widely prescribed first-line agent for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Its interaction with anesthetic agents has not been described. Case presentation We report the case of 54-year-old Asian man undergoing elective left thyroid lobectomy. The only medication the patient was taking was tamsulosin 0.4 mg for the past year for BPH. He developed persistent hypotension during the maintenance phase of anesthesia while receiving oxygen, nitrous oxide and 1% isoflurane. The hypotension could have been attributable to a possible interaction between inhalational anesthetic and tamsulosin. Conclusion Vigilance for unexpected hypotension is important in surgical patients who are treated with selective ?1-AR blockers. If hypotension occurs, vasopressors that act directly on adrenergic receptors could be more effective. PMID:21083875

2010-01-01

93

Mindfulness: The Present Moment in Clinical Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness-based psychotherapies are increasingly found in the evidence-based practice realm of clinical social work. This\\u000a paper provides an understanding of the concept of mindfulness as well as the research into the neurological and behavioral\\u000a benefits of mindfulness skills training. Mindfulness skills training is explored as both the foundation of specific therapy\\u000a protocols and as a method to foster clinician attention,

Kielty Turner

2009-01-01

94

Case report: Profound hypotension associated with labetalol therapy in a patient with cerebral aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Labetalol is an effective antihypertensive medication frequently used to treat systemic hypertension in acute care settings,\\u000a including the management of hypertension associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We present a case of profound hypotension,\\u000a refractory to inotropic and vasopressor therapy following an iv infusion of labetalol.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical features  Initiation of aniv labetalol infusion resulted in good blood pressure control in a patient

Sana Jivraj; C. David Mazer; Andrew J. Baker; Mabel Choi; Gregory M. T. Hare

2006-01-01

95

Bluish vomiting: a rare clinical presentation of poisoning.  

PubMed

Bluish vomiting is a symptom of poisoning that is rarely seen in Western emergency departments. Consequently, physicians are not aware of the diagnosis, complications, and treatment of this unusual form of intoxication. In this article, we report a case of bluish vomiting that occurred after an accidental ingestion of copper sulphate. In the discussion, we review three life-threatening causes of bluish vomiting (copper sulphate, boric acid, and paraquat ingestion), and we discuss their respective clinical manifestations, specificities, complications, and management therapies. PMID:24846181

Higny, J; Vanpee, D; Boulouffe, C

2014-08-01

96

Clinical presentation of Churg-Strauss syndrome in children  

PubMed Central

Churg–Strauss syndrome is an uncommon multisystem disorder characterized by asthma, eosinophilia and vasculitis. We report on a 12-year-old boy with asthma and deterioration of his general condition, who was eventually diagnosed with an ANCA-negative Churg–Strauss syndrome. The propositus included, 50 cases of childhood Churg–Strauss syndrome have been reported. The patient characteristics and clinical characteristics of these children are summarized. The respiratory tract is most frequently involved with pulmonary infiltrates, asthma and sinusitis. Early recognition of childhood Churg–Strauss syndrome is important as delayed diagnosis can lead to severe organ involvement, and possible fatal outcome.

Razenberg, Femke G.E.M.; Heynens, Jan W.C.M.; Jan de Vries, Geeuwke; Duijts, Liesbeth; de Jongste, Johan C.; de Blic, Jacques; Rosias, Philippe P.R.

2012-01-01

97

Cellular characterization of MPZ mutations presenting with diverse clinical phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in MPZ, which encodes myelin protein zero (P0), may lead to different subtypes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). The aim of this study was to characterize the cellular\\u000a manifestations of various MPZ mutations associated with CMT1, Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) and CMT2, and to correlate their cellular and clinical phenotypes.\\u000a Nine P0 mutants associated with CMT1 (P0S63F, R98H, R277S, and S233fs),

Yi-Chung Lee; Kon-Ping Lin; Ming-Hong Chang; Yi-Chu Liao; Ching-Piao Tsai; Kwong-Kum Liao; Bing-Wen Soong

2010-01-01

98

[Vaginal prolapse of the small intestine. A rare clinical presentation].  

PubMed

A spontaneous transvaginal evisceration is a rare clinical event. The case of a 61-year-old woman is described. It is often associated with previous vaginal surgery as well as postmenopausal hypoestrogenism and therefore atrophy of the vaginal vault. The primary treatment is characterized by laparotomy and reposition of the prolapsed bowel. After assessing the viability resection of compromised segments is indicated. However, the main surgical problem is the prophylaxis of recurrence. Beside the repair of the vaginal disruption a colpocleisis, colpectomy, sacropexia or obliteration of the Douglas cavity is necessary. PMID:11143514

Simanowski, J H; Grotz, M; Kauffels, W

2000-01-01

99

Clinical presentation of pertussis in fully immunized children in Lithuania  

PubMed Central

Background In Lithuania, the vaccination coverage against pertussis is high. Nevertheless, there is a significant increase in pertussis cases in fully immunized children. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of classical symptoms of laboratory confirmed pertussis and describe its epidemiology in children fully vaccinated against pertussis. Methods From May to December 2001, 70 children aged 1 month to 15 years, suffering from prolonged cough were investigated in the Centre of Paediatrics, Vilnius University Children's Hospital. The collected information included personal data, vaccination history, clinical symptoms of the current illness, and treatment before hospitalization. At the admission to the hospital blood samples were taken from all studied children for Bordetella pertussis IgM and IgA. Results A total of 53 (75.7%) of the 70 recruited patients with prolonged cough showed laboratory evidence of pertussis. 32 of them were fully vaccinated with whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTP). The age of fully vaccinated patients varied from 4 to 15 years (average 10.9 ± 3.1; median 11). The time period between the last vaccination dose (fourth) and the clinical manifestation of pertussis was 2.6–13 years (average 8.9 ± 3.0; median 9). More than half of the children before the beginning of pertussis were in contact with persons suffering from long lasting cough illness in the family, school or day-care center. The mean duration from onset of pertussis symptoms until hospitalization was 61.4 ± 68.3 days (range, 7 to 270 days; median 30). For 11 patients who had had two episodes (waves) of coughing, the median duration of cough was 90 days, and for 21 with one episode 30 days (p < 0.0002). Most of the children (84.4%) had paroxysmal cough, 31.3% had post-tussive vomiting, 28.1% typical whoop, and 3.1% apnea. Only 15.6% children had atypical symptoms of pertussis. Conclusion Fully vaccinated children fell ill with pertussis at the median of 11 years old, 9 years following pertussis vaccination. More than half of the children could catch pertussis at home, at school or day-care center. Clinical picture of pertussis in previously immunized children is usually characterized by such classical symptoms as prolonged and paroxysmal cough, rarely by whopping and post-tussive vomiting, and very rarely by apnea. PMID:15918913

Narkeviciute, Irena; Kavaliunaite, Ema; Bernatoniene, Genovaite; Eidukevicius, Rimantas

2005-01-01

100

Pedunculated poroma on forearm: A rare clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Eccrine poroma (EP) is an adnexal tumor that commonly occurs on soles as a soft sessile flesh colored nodule. We report here a case of 54-year-old man who presented with a pedunculated red colored nodule on the right forearm. Histopathological examination was consistent with EP. This presentation of EP on the forearm as a pedunculated nodule is rare. PMID:25396131

Mantri, Meeta D; Dandale, Ameet; Dhurat, Rachita S; Ghate, Smita

2014-10-01

101

Clinical Focus Presentations: Can You Talk the Talk?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When students are asked to do a class presentation about a disease affecting the human body, they often end up simply relaying facts and basic knowledge. This activity has very little relevancy to the actual tasks they would be completing in the medical field. This learning activity was designed to allow students to practice two different modes of real world communication: 1. Professional communication among colleagues 2. Bedside communication with patients. Students work in pairs to develop oral presentations that address these two very different set of skills. This resource includes guidelines for the activity, a rubric to assess student performance, and a suggested list of topics for the presentations.

PhD Cynthia J Miller (University of Louisville Physiology & Biophysics)

2011-01-01

102

Correlation between clinical presentation and urodynamic findings in women attending urogynecology clinic  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Urodynamic studies objectively observe lower urinary tract function and dysfunction so that an appropriate treatment can be planned. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the role of urodynamic studies in the final diagnosis and management plan in patients attending an urogynecology clinic. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in an urogynecology clinic. 202 women were included. After detailed history, pelvic examination and introital sonography these women were subjected to urodynamic study. During the filling cystometry detrusor activity, first desire to void and bladder capacity was recorded. This was followed by urethral pressure measurements, when functional urethral length, maximum urethral closure pressure and stress urethral pressure profile was recorded. Results: Most prevalent complaint was mixed urinary incontinence (33.17%), followed by stress incontinence (31.68%) and urge incontinence (13.37%). According to the standard urodynamic definition 66.33% were normal in the population studied. None of the urodynamic parameters individually or in combination were found to be very useful for establishing a diagnosis. Conclusion: Establishment of the final diagnosis of urinary incontinence and planning of management should be based on detailed history, physical examination, bladder diaries, and careful interpretation of urodynamic data. Urodynamic study; however, doesn’t seem to be imperative to establish a diagnosis in uncomplicated cases where symptoms and signs are reliable and correlating. PMID:24672187

Pandey, Deeksha; Anna, Gasser; Hana, Ottenschlaeger; Christian, Fuenfgeld

2013-01-01

103

Glaucoma in southwest Nigeria: clinical presentation, family history and perceptions.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the presentation pattern of glaucoma helps in providing more understanding of the disease, leading to better control. The aim of this study was to determine the presentation pattern among newly diagnosed glaucoma patients in Lagos, Nigeria. This was a multicenter cross-sectional survey of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients, recruited over a four-week period. Socio-demographic characteristics, presenting history, awareness and perception on glaucoma, and basic examination findings were obtained. A total of 208 patients, including 90 (43.2 %) females with a mean age of 53.9 years were recruited. One hundred and forty-three (68.7 %) were self-referred patients with a mean duration of symptoms of 2.6 years. Fifty-five (26.4 %) patients gave a history of glaucoma in at least one family member. Ninety-five patients (45.7 %) were aware that glaucoma can cause visual loss, but 69 (72.6 %) out of these believed the visual loss is reversible. Seventy (33.7 %) patients had been previously diagnosed with glaucoma elsewhere. From the 208 patients, 35.5 % had visual impairment (presenting visual acuity [VA] of <6/18 in the better eye), while 15.5 % were blind (presenting VA in better eye <3/60). Lack of glaucoma awareness, positive family history and illiteracy were associated with late presentation of glaucoma. Late presentation is still a major concern among glaucoma patients in Southwest Nigeria, and there is a need to intensify present efforts aimed at increasing public awareness, emphasising the irreversible nature of the disease, as well as encouraging at-risk groups such as first-degree relatives to go for screening. PMID:24442760

Adekoya, Bola J; Shah, Shaheen P; Onakoya, Adeola O; Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir A

2014-10-01

104

Clinical studies in lysosomal storage diseases: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are made of over 40 diseases. Costly treatments have been developed. In this review, we consider the regulatory context in which LSDs studies are performed, and highlight design specificities and operational aspects. Orphan drug legislations in Europe and US were effective to stimulate LSDs drug development. However the flexibility of regulators to facilitate approval is inconsistent leading to worldwide differences in access to LSD treatments. Study designs are impacted because only few patients can be studied. This implies LSDs treatments need to demonstrate a large efficacy effect. Otherwise the level of evidence is difficult to demonstrate. While biomarkers could accelerate approvals, in LSDs none have been accepted as primary outcome of efficacy. Enrichment of study population can increase the chance of success, especially with clinical outcome. Adaptive designs are challenging. Innovative methods of analysis can be used, notably using a patient as his/her own control and responder analysis. Other characteristics include extension phases and patient registries to further data collection. Few patients are available per centers and more centers need to be initiated in multiple countries. This impacts time-lines and budget. For LSDs, development program should be individualized. Regulators flexibility will be essential to provide patients access to innovative treatments. PMID:24380125

Boudes, Pol F

2013-11-01

105

Amphetamine, past and present--a pharmacological and clinical perspective.  

PubMed

Amphetamine was discovered over 100 years ago. Since then, it has transformed from a drug that was freely available without prescription as a panacea for a broad range of disorders into a highly restricted Controlled Drug with therapeutic applications restricted to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. This review describes the relationship between chemical structure and pharmacology of amphetamine and its congeners. Amphetamine's diverse pharmacological actions translate not only into therapeutic efficacy, but also into the production of adverse events and liability for recreational abuse. Accordingly, the balance of benefit/risk is the key challenge for its clinical use. The review charts advances in pharmaceutical development from the introduction of once-daily formulations of amphetamine through to lisdexamfetamine, which is the first d-amphetamine prodrug approved for the management of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The unusual metabolic route for lisdexamfetamine to deliver d-amphetamine makes an important contribution to its pharmacology. How lisdexamfetamine's distinctive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile translates into sustained efficacy as a treatment for ADHD and its reduced potential for recreational abuse is also discussed. PMID:23539642

Heal, David J; Smith, Sharon L; Gosden, Jane; Nutt, David J

2013-06-01

106

Current Concepts in Orthostatic Hypotension Management  

PubMed Central

Orthostatic hypotension is a condition commonly affecting the elderly and is often accompanied by disabling presyncopal symptoms, syncope and impaired quality of life. The pathophysiology of orthostatic hypotension is linked to abnormal blood pressure regulatory mechanisms and autonomic insufficiency. As part of its diagnostic evaluation, a comprehensive history and medical examination focused on detecting symptoms and physical findings of autonomic neuropathy should be performed. In individuals with substantial falls in blood pressure upon standing, autonomic function tests are recommended to detect impairment of autonomic reflexes. Treatment should always follow a stepwise approach with initial use of nonpharmacologic interventions including avoidance of hypotensive medications, high-salt diet and physical counter maneuvers. If these measures are not sufficient, medications such as fludrocortisone and midodrine can be added. The goals of treatment are to improve symptoms and to make the patient as ambulatory as possible instead of targeting arbitrary blood pressure values. PMID:23832761

Arnold, Amy C.; Shibao, Cyndya

2013-01-01

107

Parotid lymphoma: a review of clinical presentation and management.  

PubMed

Lymphoma of the parotid gland is a relatively rare occurrence among head and neck tumors. Presentation is indistinguishable from other swellings of the parotid gland; therefore, it is important to consider lymphoma in the differential diagnosis when examining parotid swellings. Parotid lymphomas are most likely to be B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of 1 of 3 types, which include follicular, marginal zone, and diffuse large B cell, although other histologic patterns have been described. We present a review of 3 patients with parotid lymphoma who presented to the University of Maryland Medical Center's Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with facial swelling. Two patients were diagnosed with follicular lymphoma, whereas the third was diagnosed with marginal zone lymphoma. PMID:24405648

Shum, Jonathan W; Emmerling, Max; Lubek, Joshua E; Ord, Robert A

2014-07-01

108

Pertussis in young infants: clinical presentation, course and prevention.  

PubMed

Pertussis is a highly contagious disease caused by the Gram negative aerobic coccobacillus, Bordetella pertussis. It may present with severe symptoms and complications in infants and can pose a diagnostic challenge. This is a vaccine preventable illness covered by the Irish Childhood Immunisation Schedule. In 2011, a retrospective review was conducted of the records of infants, under six months, with a confirmed diagnosis of pertussis, presenting to Temple Street Children's University Hospital (TSCUH). A summery of notifications of pertussis nationally, from 2001 to 2012, was also examined as part of the study. This found that the rate of reported cases of pertussis has been increasing in Ireland. This national increase corresponds with a rising number of cases identified at TSCUH. Patients commonly presented severely ill with cyanosis and apnoea, on a background of prolonged cough. We found that pertussis was diagnosed rapidly in most cases however in all cases there was a delay to commencement of appropriate macrolide therapy. PMID:25226721

O'Riordan, A; Cleary, J; Cunney, R; Nicholson, A J

2014-01-01

109

Unusual Clinical Presentations of Cervical or Lumbar Dorsal Ramus Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective Patients with cervical (CDRS) or lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome (LDRS) are characterized by neck or low back pain with referred pain to upper or lower extremities. However, we experienced some CDRS or LDRS patients with unusual motor or bladder symptoms. We analyzed and reviewed literatures on the unusual symptoms identified in patients with CDRS or LDRS. Methods This study included patients with unusual symptoms and no disorders of spine and central nervous system, a total of 206 CDRS/LDRS patients over the past 3 years. We diagnosed by using double diagnostic blocks for medial branches of dorsal rami of cervical or lumbar spine with 1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine for each block with an interval of more than 1 week between the blocks. Greater than 80% reduction of the symptoms, including unusual symptoms, was considered as a positive response. The patients with a positive response were treated with radiofrequencyneurotomy. Results The number of patients diagnosed with CDRS and LDRS was 86 and 120, respectively. Nine patients (10.5%) in the CDRS group had unusual symptoms, including 4 patients with motor weakness of the arm, 3 patients with tremors, and rotatory torticollis in 2 patients. Ten patients (8.3%) in the LDRS group showed unusual symptoms, including 7 patients with motor weakness of leg, 2 patients with leg tremor, and urinary incontinence in 1 patient. All the unusual symptoms combined with CDRS or LDRS were resolved after treatment. Conclusion It seems that the clinical presentationssuch as motor weakness, tremor, urinary incontinence without any other etiologic origin need to be checked for unusual symptoms of CDRS or LDRS. PMID:25110484

Kim, Shin Jae; Ko, Myeong Jin; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Young Baeg; Chung, Chan

2014-01-01

110

The watermelon stomach: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The watermelon stomach syndrome is an increasingly recognized cause of persistent acute or occult gastrointestinal bleeding, typically in elderly women. This disorder often presents with severe iron deficiency anemia, and a variety of associated conditions including autoimmune disease, cirrhosis, achlorhydria, and hypochlorhydria. Diagnosis is made by the characteristic endoscopic appearance of visible linear watermelon-like vascular stripes in the antrum. Histology

Jeffrey E. Gretz; Sami R. Achem

1998-01-01

111

Spinal intramedullary cavernoma: clinical presentation and surgical outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object. Improved neuroimaging techniques have led to an increase in the reported cases of intramedullary caver- nomas. The purpose of this study was to define the spectrum of presenting signs and symptoms in patients with spinal intramedullary cavernomas and to analyze the role of surgery as a treatment for these lesions. Methods. The authors reviewed the charts of 16 patients

Harel Deutsch; George I. Jallo; Alina Faktorovich; Fred Epstein

2000-01-01

112

Triage and case presentations in a chiropractic pediatric clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe use of triage in a chiropractic practice is to determine whether or not a patient who has presented to an office is in need of a referral to another health care provider. The objective of this article is to illustrate the use of triage skills in a primary care, chiropractic pediatric practice. This is examined both in the new

Drew Rubin

2007-01-01

113

Radionuclide cisternography in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.  

PubMed

We report a case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) that was investigated using cranial MRI and radionuclide cisternography. Radionuclide imaging was remarkable, showing direct signs of diffuse asymmetric leakage and indirect signs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypotension consisting of slow CSF circulation to the convexity and rapid appearance of urinary bladder activity. The MRI appearance was also suggestive of SIH, with diffuse meningeal enhancement. Treatment with autologous blood injection at the level of the radionuclide spinal leakage was useful, resulting in disappearance of SIH symptoms. PMID:9509927

Benamor, M; Tainturier, C; Graveleau, P; Pierot, L

1998-03-01

114

Genetics and molecular biology of hypotension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major strides in the molecular biology of essential hypertension are currently underway. This has tended to obscure the fact that a number of inherited disorders associated with low blood pressure exist and that these diseases may have milder and underrecognized phenotypes that contribute importantly to blood pressure variation in the general population. This review highlights some of the gene products that, if abnormal, could cause hypotension in some individuals. Diseases due to abnormalities in the catecholamine enzymes are discussed in detail. It is likely that genetic abnormalities with hypotensive phenotypes will be as interesting and diverse as those that give rise to hypertensive disorders.

Robertson, D.

1994-01-01

115

Cowden Syndrome Presenting as Breast Cancer: Imaging and Clinical Features  

PubMed Central

Cowden syndrome is an uncommon, autosomal dominant disease which is characterized by multiple hamartomas of the skin, mucous membrane, brain, breast, thyroid, and gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of Cowden syndrome implicates an increased risk of developing breast cancer. We report a case of a 22-year-old woman with Cowden syndrome that presented as breast cancer with concomitant bilateral exuberant benign masses in both breasts. PMID:25246819

Seo, Mirinae; Ahn, Hye Shin; Moon, Hyeong-Gon

2014-01-01

116

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: clinical presentation with varied forms of lesions.  

PubMed

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare inherited skin disorder spread by HPV, with cases linked to chromosome X. It is characterized by hypo- or hyper-pigmented macular lesions, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and an early tendency to develop skin malignancies. We present a case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis with a variety of lesions such as multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and aggressive squamous cell carcinoma on the face. PMID:22068772

Sá, Naiana Bittencourt de; Guerini, Marina Besen; Barbato, Mariana Tremel; Di Giunta, Gabriella; Nunes, Daniel Holthausen

2011-01-01

117

Plasmablastic lymphoma clinically presenting in the urinary tract.  

PubMed

Plasmablastic lymphoma is a high-grade B-cell lymphoma that poses major diagnostic problems and carries an extremely poor prognosis. This tumor was first described in the oral cavity of HIV+ patients but has since been identified in other sites and in seronegative patients. We describe 2 cases of plasmablastic lymphoma of the urinary tract that both presented with hydronephrosis. One occurred in an HIV+ patient and harbored a MYC translocation; the other, in an HIV- patient with no translocation detected. PMID:21531157

Tille, Jean-Christophe; Pelte, Marie-Françoise; Schwartz, Julien; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; McKee, Thomas A

2012-06-01

118

Multiple Autoimmune Syndromes Associated with Psoriasis: A Rare Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune diseases are known to have association with each other but it is very rare to see multiple autoimmune diseases in one patient. The combination of at least three autoimmune diseases in the same patient is referred to as multiple autoimmune syndrome. The case we are reporting features multiple autoimmune syndrome with five different conditions. The patient had type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, systemic lupus erythematosus, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Psoriasis has rarely been reported previously under the spectrum of autoimmune syndrome. Although the relationship of autoimmune conditions with each other has been explored in the past, this case adds yet another dimension to the unique evolution of autoimmune pathologies. The patient presented with a combination of five autoimmune diseases, which makes it consistent type three multiple autoimmune syndromes with the addition of psoriasis. The current case is unique in this aspect that the combination of these five autoimmune disorders has never been reported in the past. PMID:24715941

Masood, Sadia; Sajid, Sara; Jafferani, Asif; Tabassum, Saadia; Ansar, Sobia

2014-01-01

119

The watermelon stomach: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed

The watermelon stomach syndrome is an increasingly recognized cause of persistent acute or occult gastrointestinal bleeding, typically in elderly women. This disorder often presents with severe iron deficiency anemia, and a variety of associated conditions including autoimmune disease, cirrhosis, achlorhydria, and hypochlorhydria. Diagnosis is made by the characteristic endoscopic appearance of visible linear watermelon-like vascular stripes in the antrum. Histology confirms the vascular nature of this disorder, showing dilated and thrombosed capillaries in the lamina propria, associated with reactive fibromuscular hyperplasia. The optimum treatment of choice is not known. Several treatment options, including surgical antrectomy, and endoscopic photocoagulation with Nd:Yag laser, heater probe therapy, and bipolar electrocautery, have yielded excellent results. Pharmacological agents have also been used to treat selected numbers of patients, most of which comprise a small number of case reports. PMID:9647013

Gretz, J E; Achem, S R

1998-06-01

120

Dermatitis herpetiformis: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment*  

PubMed Central

Researches on DH have shown that it is not just a bullous skin disease, but a cutaneous-intestinal disorder caused by hypersensitivity to gluten. Exposure to gluten is the starting point of an inflammatory cascade capable of forming autoantibodies that are brought to the skin, where they are deposited, culminating in the formation of skin lesions. These lesions are vesico-bullous, pruritic, and localized especially on elbows, knees and buttocks, although atypical presentations can occur. Immunofluorescence of perilesional area is considered the gold standard for diagnosis, but serological tests help in cases where it is negative. Patients who follow glutenfree diets have better control of symptoms on the skin and intestine, as well as lower risks of progression to lymphoma. Dapsone remains the main drug for treatment, but it requires monitoring of possible side effects, some potentially lethal. PMID:25387490

Clarindo, Marcos Vinicius; Possebon, Adriana Tomazzoni; Soligo, Emylle Marlene; Uyeda, Hirofumi; Ruaro, Roseli Terezinha; Empinotti, Julio Cesar

2014-01-01

121

Masses of the pineal region: clinical presentation and radiographic features.  

PubMed

The pineal gland is important in structure, function and in the pathology that can affect it. The significance of the pathology of the gland and its adjacent structures is twofold: anatomical location, and biological behaviour of many of the lesions. The gland is in a critical anatomic location, and as the dorsal portions of the midbrain are compressed, patients may present with obstructive hydrocephalus, and/or with focal neurology. Masses and tumours of the pineal region range widely in behaviour, from the completely benign (eg, pineal cyst) to highly malignant (eg, pineoblastoma). Masses in the pineal region may be benign cysts (most common mass), tumours of various sources as well as rare vascular malformations that result in mass effect. Tumours of the pineal region represent a variety of histologies. Germ cell tumours are the most common: germinomas (50%), teratoma (15%), and choricocarcinoma (5%). Primary tumours of the pineal region make up 15% of all pineal tumours and represent a spectrum of aggressiveness. Other less common tumours also occur in the pineal region including metastatic spread and direct invasion from tumours arising in adjacent structures. Accurate diagnosis is essential to plan appropriate management, and early referral for medical imaging is a necessary first step. Although there is significant overlap in the imaging characteristics of some pineal masses, a distinction between aggressive and benign lesions is usually possible, and invaluable preoperative information is obtained in patients who require histological diagnosis. PMID:20971711

Gaillard, Frank; Jones, Jeremy

2010-10-01

122

External manifestations of Gardner's syndrome as the presenting clinical entity.  

PubMed

Gardner's syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease characterised by the presence of colonic polyposis, osteomas and a multitude of soft tissue tumours. Pathological features such as osteomas of the mandible, skull and facial skeleton are unaesthetic as well as incapacitating. We present the case of a 22-year-old man with pain and discharge from the left eye and a firm swelling in the left infraorbital region leading to proptosis of the left eye. A detailed examination of the patient led to the presence of a large osteoma in the left orbital region, multiple cystic lesion, corneal opacity and parapapillary atrophy in the left eye. Radiography revealed the presence of multiple unerupted supernumerary teeth and osteomas. Colonoscopic findings showed the presence of multiple polyps. Thus, external manifestations of the patient's facial region led to the establishment of the diagnosis of Gardner's syndrome. The importance of our case highlights the necessity of maintaining a high vigilance with regard to the occurrence of such an entity. PMID:25139912

Agrawal, Deepak; Newaskar, Vilas; Shrivastava, Sanket; Nayak, Prathibha Anand

2014-01-01

123

Orthostatic Hypotension in Older Nursing Home Residents Who Fall: Are They Dizzy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) and dizziness have been linked to older adult falls. As a treatable condition, the detection of OH is of clinical importance to falls prevention. Gaps in the literature about symptoms associated with OH among older adult fallers, such as dizziness led to this secondary analysis of blood pressure data and reported symptoms. Of the 194 Registered Nurse

Deanna Gray-Miceli; Sarah J. Ratcliffe; Sizhu Liu; Dean Wantland; Jerry Johnson

2012-01-01

124

Potential causes and mechanisms of postexercise hypotension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis consists of five studies, conducted with the objective of advancing our understanding of post exercise hypotension (PEH) and its mechanisms. Studies 1, 2 and 3 examined the effects of exercise intensity (30 min of cycle ergometry at 50 and 75% V O2 Peak ), exercise duration (10, 15, 30 and 45 min of cycle ergometry at 70% V

Jay R. MacDonald

2000-01-01

125

Hypotension and Environmental Noise: A Replication Study  

PubMed Central

Up to now, traffic noise effect studies focused on hypertension as health outcome. Hypotension has not been considered as a potential health outcome although in experiments some people also responded to noise with decreases of blood pressure. Currently, the characteristics of these persons are not known and whether this down regulation of blood pressure is an experimental artifact, selection, or can also be observed in population studies is unanswered. In a cross-sectional replication study, we randomly sampled participants (age 20–75, N = 807) from circular areas (radius = 500 m) around 31 noise measurement sites from four noise exposure strata (35–44, 45–54, 55–64, >64 Leq, dBA). Repeated blood pressure measurements were available for a smaller sample (N = 570). Standardized information on socio-demographics, housing, life style and health was obtained by door to door visits including anthropometric measurements. Noise and air pollution exposure was assigned by GIS based on both calculation and measurements. Reported hypotension or hypotension medication past year was the main outcome studied. Exposure-effect relationships were modeled with multiple non-linear logistic regression techniques using separate noise estimations for total, highway and rail exposure. Reported hypotension was significantly associated with rail and total noise exposure and strongly modified by weather sensitivity. Reported hypotension medication showed associations of similar size with rail and total noise exposure without effect modification by weather sensitivity. The size of the associations in the smaller sample with BMI as additional covariate was similar. Other important cofactors (sex, age, BMI, health) and moderators (weather sensitivity, adjacent main roads and associated annoyance) need to be considered as indispensible part of the observed relationship. This study confirms a potential new noise effect pathway and discusses potential patho-physiological routes of actions. PMID:25162707

Lercher, Peter; Widmann, Ulrich; Thudium, Jurg

2014-01-01

126

Hypotension and environmental noise: a replication study.  

PubMed

Up to now, traffic noise effect studies focused on hypertension as health outcome. Hypotension has not been considered as a potential health outcome although in experiments some people also responded to noise with decreases of blood pressure. Currently, the characteristics of these persons are not known and whether this down regulation of blood pressure is an experimental artifact, selection, or can also be observed in population studies is unanswered. In a cross-sectional replication study, we randomly sampled participants (age 20-75, N = 807) from circular areas (radius = 500 m) around 31 noise measurement sites from four noise exposure strata (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, >64 Leq, dBA). Repeated blood pressure measurements were available for a smaller sample (N = 570). Standardized information on socio-demographics, housing, life style and health was obtained by door to door visits including anthropometric measurements. Noise and air pollution exposure was assigned by GIS based on both calculation and measurements. Reported hypotension or hypotension medication past year was the main outcome studied. Exposure-effect relationships were modeled with multiple non-linear logistic regression techniques using separate noise estimations for total, highway and rail exposure. Reported hypotension was significantly associated with rail and total noise exposure and strongly modified by weather sensitivity. Reported hypotension medication showed associations of similar size with rail and total noise exposure without effect modification by weather sensitivity. The size of the associations in the smaller sample with BMI as additional covariate was similar. Other important cofactors (sex, age, BMI, health) and moderators (weather sensitivity, adjacent main roads and associated annoyance) need to be considered as indispensible part of the observed relationship. This study confirms a potential new noise effect pathway and discusses potential patho-physiological routes of actions. PMID:25162707

Lercher, Peter; Widmann, Ulrich; Thudium, Jürg

2014-01-01

127

Pathophysiological basis of orthostatic hypotension in autonomic failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In patients with autonomic failure orthostatic hypotension results from an impaired capacity to increase vascular resistance during standing. This fundamental defect leads to increased downward pooling of venous blood and a consequent reduction in stroke volume and cardiac output that exaggerates the orthostatic fall in blood pressure. The location of excessive venous blood pooling has not been established so far, but present data suggest that the abdominal compartment and perhaps leg skin vasculature are the most likely candidates. To improve the orthostatic tolerance in patients with autonomic failure, protective measures that reduce excessive orthostatic blood pooling have been developed and evaluated. These measures include physical counter-manoeuvres and abdominal compression.

Smit, A. A.; Halliwill, J. R.; Low, P. A.; Wieling, W.

1999-01-01

128

Does Age at Observation Time Affect the Clinical Presentation of Mild Cognitive Impairment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To date, there are no published data investigating the role of age in the clinical and neuropsychological presentation of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of the study was to evaluate whether age at the time of evaluation modulates clinical, functional or cognitive profiles in MCI subjects. Methods: A total of 167 outpatients with a clinical diagnosis of MCI

Barbara Vicini-Chilovi; Maddalena Riva; Marta Conti; Marina Zanetti; Salvatore Caratozzolo; Gulia Mombelli; Erik Bertoletti; Luca Rozzini; Alessandro Padovani

2010-01-01

129

Insight in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Associations with clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insight has emerged as a significant treatment outcome predictor in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), with some suggesting that OCD with poor insight represents a distinct clinical subtype. Despite its clinical relevance, limited data exist on insight in pediatric OCD patients. The present study investigated the relation between poor insight and clinical characteristics among children and adolescents with OCD (N=78, ages

Vanessa A. Milsom; Lisa J. Merlo; Michael Larson; Gary R. Geffken; Marni L. Jacob; Tanya K. Murphy; Wayne K. Goodman

2008-01-01

130

Potential causes and mechanisms of postexercise hypotension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis consists of five studies, conducted with the objective of advancing our understanding of post exercise hypotension (PEH) and its mechanisms. Studies 1, 2 and 3 examined the effects of exercise intensity (30 min of cycle ergometry at 50 and 75% V˙O2 Peak), exercise duration (10, 15, 30 and 45 min of cycle ergometry at 70% V˙O2 Peak) and

Jay Robert MacDonald

2000-01-01

131

Adaptation of Baroreflexes and Orthostatic Hypotension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The footward shift of blood volume and compensatory autonomic reflex responses initiated during the assumption of the upright posture in terrestrial gravity is a common feature in humans. When regular exposure to upright posture is removed, the headward redistribution of blood induces numerous physiological adaptations which compromise this normal response and the development of low blood pressure upon standing (orthostatic hypotension) can ensue. Such microgravity conditions can be produced by prolonged exposure to spaceflight or prolonged bed rest. Since the reduction of blood and plasma volume during exposure to microgravity has been associated with orthostatic instability following spaceflight and bed rest, it has been a reasonable assumption that hypovolemia may be a primary contributing factor to the development of orthostatic hypotension. This view was supported by the observation that the attempt to restore vascular volume in astronauts by drinking saline solutions just prior to re-entry had proven effective in reducing orthostatic instability after spaceflights of short duration. However, as the duration of spaceflight lengthens, orthostatic instability persists despite fluid loading procedures, suggesting that mechanisms other than hypovolemia may contribute to orthostatic hypotension following prolonged exposure to microgravity conditions. Recent evidence has been generated from spaceflight and groundbase experiments that supports the notion that changes in autonomic baroreflexes that control cardiac and vascular responses during orthostatic challenges may be affected by longer periods of microgravity exposure and can contribute to postflight orthostatic instability.

Convertino, Victor A.

1993-01-01

132

Clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of congenital myasthenic syndromes presenting in early infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) constitute a group of genetic disorders, which affect neuromuscular transmission, presenting usually within the first years of life and with a clinical spectrum ranging from mild muscle weakness to severe disability with life-threatening episodes. We present clinical and neurophysiological data of 11 patients (four males, seven females) with CMS diagnosed during the last 5 years.

Dimitrios I. Zafeiriou; Matthew Pitt; Carlos de Sousa

2004-01-01

133

Ischemic Posterior Circulation Stroke: A Review of Anatomy, Clinical Presentations, Diagnosis, and Current Management  

PubMed Central

Posterior circulation strokes represent approximately 20% of all ischemic strokes (1, 2). In contrast to the anterior circulation, several differences in presenting symptoms, clinical evaluation, diagnostic testing, and management strategy exist presenting a challenge to the treating physician. This review will discuss the anatomical, etiological, and clinical classification of PC strokes, identify diagnostic pitfalls, and overview current therapeutic regimens. PMID:24778625

Nouh, Amre; Remke, Jessica; Ruland, Sean

2014-01-01

134

A Clinic to Teach Good Programming Practices Abstract We present an approach to emphasizing good  

E-print Network

A Clinic to Teach Good Programming Practices Abstract ­ We present an approach to emphasizing good writing. We present our model for a good programming practices clinic, and discuss our experiences and security, are overlooked by necessity. The reasons are complex. One key reason is the amount of material

Bishop, Matt

135

The benefits of using Guyton's model in a hypotensive control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the intraoperative applications, this paper presents the advantages of using Guyton's model in hypotensive control system development. In this system, the mean arterial pressure is decreased and maintained at a low level during anaesthesia by controlling sodium nitroprusside infusion rate. The key of the study is to develop a physiological model of cardiovascular dynamics to present

Chi-ngon Nguyen; Olaf Simanski; Ralf Kähler; Agnes Schubert; Matthias Janda; Jörn Bajorat; Bernhard Lampe

2008-01-01

136

Clinical Implications of Pneumococcal Serotypes: Invasive Disease Potential, Clinical Presentations, and Antibiotic Resistance  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae can asymptomatically colonize the nasopharynx and cause a diverse range of illnesses. This clinical spectrum from colonization to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) appears to depend on the pneumococcal capsular serotype rather than the genetic background. According to a literature review, serotypes 1, 4, 5, 7F, 8, 12F, 14, 18C, and 19A are more likely to cause IPD. Although serotypes 1 and 19A are the predominant causes of invasive pneumococcal pneumonia, serotype 14 remains one of the most common etiologic agents of non-bacteremic pneumonia in adults, even after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction. Serotypes 1, 3, and 19A pneumococci are likely to cause empyema and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Serotype 1 pneumococcal meningitis is prevalent in the African meningitis belt, with a high fatality rate. In contrast to the capsule type, genotype is more closely associated with antibiotic resistance. CC320/271 strains expressing serotype 19A are multidrug-resistant (MDR) and prevalent worldwide in the era of PCV7. Several clones of MDR serotype 6C pneumococci emerged, and a MDR 6D clone (ST282) has been identified in Korea. Since the pneumococcal epidemiology of capsule types varies geographically and temporally, a nationwide serosurveillance system is vital to establishing appropriate vaccination strategies for each country. PMID:23341706

Nahm, Moon H.; Moseley, M. Allen

2013-01-01

137

Clinical Presentation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) in Asian-Americans Versus Non-Asian-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of HCC is rising worldwide. Studies on ethnicity-based clinical presentation of HCC remain limited. The aim\\u000a is to compare the clinical presentation and stage of HCC between Asian-Americans and non-Asian-Americans. This retrospective\\u000a study assessed ethnicity-based differences in HCC presentation, including demographics, laboratory results, diagnosis of underlying\\u000a liver disease, and stage of HCC. Of 276 patients, 162 were Asian-Americans

Philip Y. WongVictor; Victor Xia; David K. Imagawa; John Hoefs; Ke-Qin Hu

138

Noninvasive diagnosis and management of spontaneous intracranial hypotension in patients with marfan syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an uncommon clinical entity. Heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTD), such as Marfan syndrome, are frequently implicated as an underlying cause, due to dural structural weaknesses that predispose patients to spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Due to the high prevalence of multi-system disease in HCTD, diagnosis and treatment are often complicated. Case Description: We present a 58-year-old female with Marfan syndrome on anticoagulation for a mechanical aortic valve replacement who came to medical attention with severe, acute-onset headache following a straining episode. Noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) myelography confirmed thoracic CSF extravasations and multiple lumbar diverticula. The patient was treated conservatively and her symptoms resolved. Conclusion: We discuss the common presentation, diagnostic tools, and treatment options for spontaneous CSF leaks in patients with Marfan syndrome or related HCTD with an emphasis on noninvasive modalities and a review of the major radiographic criteria used to diagnose dural abnormalities, such as dural ectasia. PMID:24575323

Bassani, Luigi; Graffeo, Christopher S.; Behrooz, Navid; Tyagi, Vineet; Wilson, Taylor; Penaranda, Saul; Zagzag, David; Rifkin, Daniel B; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Fatterpekar, Girish; Placantonakis, Dimitris

2014-01-01

139

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Genetic markers in clinical subtypes of juvenile  

E-print Network

, France. 23-25 November 2011 Introduction Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common children in clinical subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9(Suppl 2):P61POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Genetic markers in clinical subtypes of juvenile idiopathic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

NCI Spanish-Language Presentations on Clinical Trials | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

These three PowerPoint presentations, which are in Spanish, provide a basic overview of clinical trials. They can be used by community leaders, advocates and health care providers when discussing clinical trials with Spanish-speaking audiences who are not familiar with the topic.

141

Prophylactic ephedrine and hypotension associated with spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypotension commonly accompanies induction of spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. To determine whether intravenous ephedrine prophylaxis would benefit prehydrated obstetrical patients presenting for elective cesarean section, we studied 30 patients randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups. All patients were preloaded with crystalloid (15 ml\\/kg), given spinal anesthesia and positioned with left uterine displacement (LUD). During induction, all patients

S. W. King; M. A. Rosen

1998-01-01

142

A prospective study of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: presentation, management, and clinical outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was performed to evaluate the presentation, therapeutic management, and clinical outcome of nonfunctioning\\u000a pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). In most of 385 consecutive patients, NFPAs were macroadenomas. The mean follow-up duration was\\u000a 5.5 ± 1.4 years. Presentation was dominated by headache, visual disturbance, and hypopituitarism. Pituitary apoplexy (clinical\\u000a and subclinical) was observed in 88 patients. Appropriate steroids replacement was given before surgery.

Lukui Chen; William L. White; Robert F. Spetzler; Bainan Xu

2011-01-01

143

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension due to intradural thoracic osteophyte with superimposed disc herniation: report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a clinical syndrome in which absolute or relative hypovolemia of the cerebrospinal\\u000a fluid (CSF) results in various neurological symptoms. The etiology of spontaneous CSF leaks often remains unknown. However,\\u000a it is believed that the most common cause is the fragility of spinal meninges at the level of radicular nerve root sleeve.\\u000a These tears can be

Zehra Isik Hasiloglu; Bashar Abuzayed; Ahmet Esat Imal; Emin Cagil; Sait Albayram

144

Spontaneous CSF Collection in the Cervical Spine may Cause Neurological Deficit and Intra-cranial Hypotension  

PubMed Central

Objective: a case is described of a spontaneously occurring cerebrospinal fluid collection in the ventral cervical spine which caused radiculopathy and spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Case: a sixty eight year old Caucasian man presented with a 2 year history of proximal upper limb weakness with a his-tory of trivial cervical trauma many years previously. Methods: the patient was investigated with blood tests for causes of peripheral neuropathy, nerve conduction and electro-myography studies, lumbar puncture and MRI of the brain and spine with contrast. Results: a cerebrospinal fluid collection was identified in the ventral cervical spinal cord causing mass effect associated with cord atrophy and there were signs of spontaneous intracranial hypotension on the MRI brain including subdural cere-brospinal fluid collections, meningeal enhancement and slumped posterior fossa. Conclusions: this is the first description of a spontaneous spinal fluid collection causing direct compression and cord sig-nal change, manifest as a motor deficit, with intracranial signs of spontaneous hypotension. Spinal imaging is recom-mended in cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and cerebrospinal fluid collections in the spine may rarely be a cause of radiculopathy in such cases. PMID:23407592

Zakaria, Rasheed; Wilby, Martin; Fletcher, Nicholas A

2013-01-01

145

Hotline update of clinical trials and registries presented at the American College of Cardiology Congress 2014.  

PubMed

This article provides information and commentaries on trials which were presented at the Hotline and Clinical Trial Update Sessions during the Late Breaking Clinical Trial Sessions at the 63rd annual meeting of the American College of Cardiology in Washington, USA, from 29th to 31st March 2014. This article gives an overview on a number of novel clinical trials in the field of cardiovascular medicine, which were presented. Comprehensive summaries have been generated from the oral presentation and the webcasts of the American College of Cardiology, similar to as previously reported and should provide the readers with the most comprehensive information of relevant publications. The discussed studies are US CoreValve, Choice, Symplcity-HTN-3, GRS, ZEUS, GIPS-III, HEAT-PPCI, COPR-2, MSC-HF, POISE-2, SIRS. The data were presented by leading experts in the field. PMID:24915955

Westermann, Dirk; Kreutz, Reinhold; Jacobshagen, Claudius

2014-08-01

146

Neurosarcoidosis: clinical review of a disorder with challenging inpatient presentations and diagnostic considerations.  

PubMed

Neurosarcoidosis is frequently on the differential diagnosis for neurohospitalists. The diagnosis can be challenging due to the wide variety of clinical presentations as well as the limitations of noninvasive diagnostic testing. This article briefly touches on systemic features that may herald suspicion of this disorder and then expands in depth on the neurological clinical presentations. Common patterns of neurological presentations are reviewed and unusual presentations are also included. A discussion of noninvasive testing is undertaken, exploring dilemmas that may be encountered with sensitivity and specificity. Drawing from a broad range of clinical clues and diagnostic data, a systematic approach of pursuing a potential tissue diagnosis is then highlighted. Correctly diagnosing neurosarcoidosis is critical, as treatment with appropriate immunosuppression protocols can then be initiated. Additionally, treatment of refractory disease, the trend toward exploring targeted immunomodulation options, and other therapeutic issues are discussed. PMID:24707339

Hoyle, J Chad; Jablonski, Courtney; Newton, Herbert B

2014-04-01

147

Severe and isolated headache associated with hypertension as unique clinical presentation of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a potentially reversible clinicoradiologic syndrome characterized by headache, mental confusion, visual disturbances and seizures associated with posterior cerebral lesions on radiological imaging. Prompt treatment of this condition is mandatory to avoid severe irreversible complications. Case presentation We report a 9-year-old boy with arterial hypertension and headache as unique clinical presentation of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Conclusions Severe and isolated headache associated with arterial hypertension can be the unique clinical presentation of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. This syndrome must be considered even in absence of all typical symptoms to prevent the progression of a potentially life threatening condition. PMID:25062701

2014-01-01

148

Clinical and Genetic Characteristics of Japanese Burkitt Lymphomas with or without Leukemic Presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the clinical and genetic features of Burkitt lymphoma with or without leukemic presentation, we have conducted\\u000a clinical, cytogenetic, and genetic studies. Of 40 Japanese patients with Burkitt lymphoma examined by cytogenetic and\\/or fluorescence\\u000a in situ hybridization analysis or Southern blot analysis usingMYC probes, 35 patients had t(8;14) translocations, and 5 had t(8;22). Breakpoints were located far upstream ofMYC

Takeshi Namiki; Akiko Sakashita; Hirofumi Kobayashi; Nobuo Maseki; Toshiyuki Izumo; Yoshihiro Komada; Shoichi Koizumi; Takaaki Shikano; Atsushi Kikuta; Arata Watanabe; Junji Suzumiya; Masahiro Kikuchi; Yasuhiko Kaneko

2003-01-01

149

Role of clinical presentation in diagnosing reflux-related non-cardiac chest pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

clinical presentation, gastroesophageal reflux disease, GERD, NCCP, omeprazole test. Introduction: Non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) presents as a frequent diagnostic chal- lenge, with patients tending to use a disproportionate level of health-care resources. Accepted for publication 5 December 2005. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most frequent cause of NCCP. Thus the typical symptoms of reflux, such as heartburn and regurgitation,

Shahrokh Mousavi; Jahfar Tosi; Rahime Eskandarian; Mehrdad Zahmatkesh

2007-01-01

150

Presentations  

Cancer.gov

Presentations Name Position Presentation (ppt) Sudhir Srivastava, PhD, MPH Chief, Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Metabolomics: An Untapped Frontier (ppt, 161kb) John Milner, PhD Chief, Nutritional Sciences research Group Can Metabolomics

151

Dynamic data during hypotensive episode improves mortality predictions among patients with sepsis and hypotension  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if a prediction rule for hospital mortality using dynamic variables in response to treatment of hypotension in patients with sepsis performs better than current models Design Retrospective cohort study Setting All intensive care units at a tertiary care hospital Patients Adult patients admitted to intensive care units between 2001 and 2007 of whom 2,113 met inclusion criteria and had sufficient data Interventions None Measurements and Main Results We developed a prediction algorithm for hospital mortality in patients with sepsis and hypotension requiring medical intervention using data from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II database). We extracted 189 candidate variables, including treatments, physiologic variables and laboratory values collected before, during and after a hypotensive episode. Thirty predictors were identified using a genetic algorithm on a training set (n=1500), and validated with a logistic regression model on an independent validation set (n=613). The final prediction algorithm used included dynamic information and had good discrimination (AUC = 82.0%) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow C statistic = 10.43, p=0.06). This model was compared to APACHE IV using reclassification indices and was found to be superior with a NRI of 0.19 (p<0.001) and an IDI of 0.09 (p<0.001). Conclusions Hospital mortality predictions based on dynamic variables surrounding a hypotensive event is a new approach to predicting prognosis. A model using these variables has good discrimination and calibration, and offers additional predictive prognostic information beyond established ones. PMID:23385106

Mayaud, Louis; Lai, Peggy S.; Clifford, Gari D.; Tarassenko, Lionel; Celi, Leo Anthony G.; Annane, Djillali

2012-01-01

152

Hangman’s fracture presenting to chiropractic clinic as benign neck pain: a case report  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study is to report a patient who presented to a chiropractic clinic with benign neck and upper back pain; however, the patient also had a recent hangman’s fracture due to a drunken fall. Clinical features A 40-year-old established patient with neck and upper back pain presented to a chiropractic clinic for care. When questioned about the character and etiology of his pain, he reported that it was no different compared to past presentations, saying “it’s the same as always.” The patient was not questioned about recent trauma and did not report his fall while intoxicated several days prior. After history and examination, the working diagnosis was a low-grade cervical sprain strain with imaging considerations if improvement did not occur quickly as was observed with similar previous presentations. Treatment included chiropractic mobilization of the cervical spine. The following day, the patient reported no improvement. Upon additional questioning, a history of trauma was revealed; and plain radiographic imaging showed a C2 vertebral body fracture. Intervention and outcome Immediate referral and evaluation at a local emergency center revealed not only an unstable C2 fracture but a coronal fracture of the left frontal bone extending into the left temporal bone with an associated right subdural hemorrhage along the right hemisphere and tentorium. The patient was placed in a sterno-occipital-mandibular immobilizer brace and discharged 2 days later. Conclusion Historical experience with similar clinical presentations in established patients can influence health care providers to assume a benign causation of symptoms. Conscious effort must be exerted to treat established patients with typical presentations with the same diligence as those of new patients to a chiropractic clinic. This case illustrates that an unstable fracture and hematoma can present to a chiropractic clinic as a seemingly benign problem. PMID:24396322

Fogeltanz, Kay A.; Ditty, Marc D.; Pursel, Kevin J.

2013-01-01

153

Evaluation and treatment of orthostatic hypotension  

PubMed Central

This paper provides recommendations on the treatment of orthostatic hypotension (OH) as reviewed by the American Society of Hypertension. It focuses on recent reports on the evaluation and management of OH and provides practical advice for clinicians on how to screen, diagnose, and treat patients using behavioral, nonpharmacologic, and pharmacologic strategies. The authors also provide a stepwise approach on how to apply new findings to successfully control OH and reduce the risk of syncope and falls in these patients. Treatment of OH is also discussed in special situations such as in hypertensive and hospitalized patients. It should be noted, however, that research in this area is mostly limited to studies in small numbers of patients. Unfortunately, the trials of the type needed to develop evidence-based guidelines are not available for this condition. PMID:23721882

Shibao, Cyndya; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Biaggioni, Italo

2013-01-01

154

Adrenocortical Tumors and Hyperplasias in Childhood - Etiology, Genetics, Clinical Presentation and Therapy  

PubMed Central

Adrenocortical tumors are rare in children and are associated with a poor prognosis when malignant. The fund of knowledge regarding etiology, presentation and clinical outcomes remains limited. Evaluation of genetic disorders associated with the development of adrenocortical disorders has allowed researchers to identify a number of mutations that may be involved in tumorigenesis, including alterations in the GNAS1, PRKAR1A, TP53 and IGF2 genes. Clinical presentation in children is associated most commonly with young age, female gender and symptoms of virilization. Most children have localized disease at presentation which may be associated with a better prognosis when compared to adults. Surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment and mitotane, the most frequently used chemotherapeutic agent, has a poor response rate and is highly toxic. Broader participation in multi-center research, such as the International Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumor Registry, is needed to collect sufficient data to better guide our clinical management. PMID:17021581

Sutter, Jennifer A.; Grimberg, Adda

2007-01-01

155

Cauda equina syndrome as the initial presenting clinical feature of medulloblastoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Medulloblastoma is one of the most common pediatric brain malignancies. The usual presenting clinical features are related to posterior fossa syndrome or/and hydrocephalus. Cauda equina syndrome is a very rare presentation for this disease. Case presentation We describe the case of a three-year-old boy with cauda equina syndrome as the initial presenting clinical feature for medulloblastoma. He was initially diagnosed as having a spinal tumor by magnetic resonance imaging scan. Subsequently, a cranial magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a posterior fossa tumor with features of dissemination. He had substantial improvement after treatment. This case report is complemented by a literature review related to this unusual presentation. Conclusions Medulloblastoma primarily presenting with cauda equina syndrome is very rare. However, spinal drop metastasis should be considered in the pediatric age group to avoid suboptimal management. PMID:22620685

2012-01-01

156

Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPP), I: Terminology, clinical presentation, and prevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain has puzzled medicine for a long time. The present systematic review focuses on terminology, clinical presentation, and prevalence. Numerous terms are used, as if they indicated one and the same entity. We propose “pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPP)”, and “pregnancy-related low back pain (PLBP)”, present evidence that the two add up to “lumbopelvic pain”, and show that

W. H. Wu; O. G. Meijer; K. Uegaki; J. M. A. Mens; J. H. van Dieën; P. I. J. M. Wuisman; H. C. Östgaard

2004-01-01

157

Primary spinal cord tumors of childhood: effects of clinical presentation, radiographic features, and pathology on survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the relationship between clinical presentation, radiographic features, pathology, and treatment on overall survival\\u000a of newly diagnosed pediatric primary spinal cord tumors (PSCT). Retrospective analysis of all previously healthy children\\u000a with newly diagnosed PSCT at a single institution from 1995 to present was performed. Twenty-five pediatric patients (15 boys,\\u000a average 7.9 years) were diagnosed with PSCT. Presenting symptoms ranged from

John R. Crawford; Alejandra Zaninovic; Mariarita Santi; Elisabeth J. Rushing; Cara H. Olsen; Robert F. Keating; Gilbert Vezina; Nadja Kadom; Roger J. Packer

2009-01-01

158

Clinical presentation, biochemical parameters and localization of catecholamine-secreting tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000a \\u000a The diagnosis of these catecholamine-secreting tumors requires clinical awareness of the various presentations and syndromes\\u000a in which these tumors are found. Any suspicion of a pheochromocytoma warrants aggressive diagnostic intervention. The aim\\u000a of the present paper is to describe clinical manifestations, biochemical work-up and localization of pheochromocytoma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Basic diagnostic method is urinary catecholamines and\\/or their metabolites. For confirmation,

Janice L. Pasieka; S. Gröndal; B. Hamberger

1993-01-01

159

Pharmacological Evidence of ?2-Adrenergic Receptors in the Hypotensive Effect of Platonia insignis Mart.  

PubMed

Abstract Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae) is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Amazon region. The present study evaluated the biological potential of the ethanol extract (Pi-EtOH) and ethyl acetate fraction (Pi-EtOAc) of the P. insignis fruit shells on the cardiovascular system of rats. Pi-EtOH or Pi-EtOAc (12.5, 25, and 50?mg/kg) was administered intravenously in normotensive rats (260-300?g), and the mean arterial pressure and the heart rate were monitored. The Pi-EtOH induced hypotension (-11.56±0.89, -7.43±0.85, and -17.56±1.97 mmHg) followed by bradycardia in two highest doses (-8.89±3.62 and -15.79±1.83 beats/min) and Pi-EtOAc, at the same doses, induced hypotension (-11.2±1.03, -14.48±1.13, -29.89±2.67 mmHg) more intensively, followed by tachycardia at the dose 12.5 and 25?mg/kg (15.64±2.06, 19.31±1.92 beats/min) and bradycardia at a dose of 50?mg/kg (-9.98±7.33 beats/min). The hypotensive response from Pi-EtOAc was not attenuated when used in the pretreatment with L-NAME, verapamil, propranolol, and hexamethonium. However, when using yohimbine, the hypotensive effect was inhibited (-4.42±1.28 (P<.05), -3.29±0.99 (P<.05), 2.06±1.18 mmHg (P<.05); Student's t-test). Hence, the Pi-EtOAc seems to act similarly to the ?2-adrenergic agonist in this hypotensive effect. PMID:25055183

Mendes, Marcelo Bezerra; da Silva-Filho, José Couras; Sabino, Carla Kelly Barroso; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Sousa, Cleyton Marcos Melo; Costa, Isabella Cristhina Gonçalves; Chaves, Mariana Helena; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; Oliveira, Aldeídia P

2014-10-01

160

Unusual presentation of hairy cell leukemia: a case series of four clinically unsuspected cases.  

PubMed

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is characterized by pancytopenia and usually associated with massive splenomegaly, however the same may not be true in the clinical settings. Here we report four cases of HCL and all of them were without the classical clinical feature of splenomegaly. This is an observational study conducted between January 2013 to March 2014 where we could diagnose ten cases of HCL in Department of Hematology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Of these, four cases attracted attention because of absence of classical clinical features of HCL. Of the four cases, three presented with weakness/fatigability while fourth patient presented with recurrent respiratory tract infection. Surprising finding in these cases was absence of splenomegaly, both clinically and on imaging which demerit the suspicion of HCL clinically. All four had bi/pancytopenia and bone marrow examination coupled with immunophenotypic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of HCL. Three patients received chemotherapy with cladribine and achieved complete hematological remission. One patient did not receive chemotherapy due to poor general condition and was subsequently lost to follow up. To conclude, HCL can and do present without splenomegaly and this should not restrain one from suspecting HCL based on histomorphology which needs to be further confirmed by ancillary techniques. This finding in our series could be because these cases were picked early in their natural course of the disease. A high index of suspicion is essential for diagnosing and appropriately managing such cases. PMID:25332634

Venkatesan, S; Purohit, Abhishek; Aggarwal, Mukul; Manivannan, Prabhu; Tyagi, Seema; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Pati, Hara P; Saxena, Renu

2014-09-01

161

Combined methylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria, cblC type. I. Clinical presentations, diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Combined methylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria, cblC type, is an inborn error of intracellular cobalamin metabolism with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that is stated to be the most common inherited disorder of cobalamin metabolism. This metabolic disease is caused by mutations in the MMACHC gene and results in impaired intracellular synthesis of adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin, cofactors for the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase enzymes. Elevated methylmalonic acid and homocysteine with decreased methionine production are the biochemical hallmarks of this disorder. Awareness of the diverse clinical presentations associated with cblC disease is necessary to provide a timely diagnosis, to guide management of affected individuals and to establish a framework for the future treatment of individuals detected through expanded newborn screening. This article reviews the biochemistry, clinical presentations, genotype-phenotype correlations, diagnosis and management of cblC disease. PMID:21748409

Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Chandler, Randy J; Venditti, Charles P

2012-01-01

162

Combined methylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria, cblC type. I. Clinical presentations, diagnosis and management  

PubMed Central

Combined methylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria, cblC type, is an inborn error of intracellular cobalamin metabolism with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that is stated to be the most common inherited disorder of cobalamin metabolism. This metabolic disease is caused by mutations in the MMACHC gene and results in impaired intracellular synthesis of adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin, cofactors for the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase enzymes. Elevated methylmalonic acid and homocysteine with decreased methionine production are the biochemical hallmarks of this disorder. Awareness of the diverse clinical presentations associated with cblC disease is necessary to provide a timely diagnosis, to guide management of affected individuals and to establish a framework for the future treatment of individuals detected through expanded newborn screening. This article reviews the biochemistry, clinical presentations, genotype-phenotype correlations, diagnosis and management of cblC disease. PMID:21748409

Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Chandler, Randy J.

2014-01-01

163

[Mucosecretor adenocarcinoma of the lung with pleural involvement presenting as a pneumothorax. Presentation of a clinical case].  

PubMed

The combination of a pneumothorax and lung cancer is rare and diagnosis is complex. Clinical suspicion of cancer must be based on radiological findings and the existence of risk factors. We discuss the mechanisms involved in the development of pneumothorax in patients with lung cancer, as well as the clinical significance, the recommended diagnostic approach, and therapeutic guidelines. PMID:24095167

Hermida Pérez, J A; Hernández Guerra, J S; Bermejo Hernandez, Á; Sobenes Gutierrez, R J

2013-10-01

164

Mild Clinical Presentation of Acute Fatty Liver in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

We report a case of 29 years old woman who was diagnosed with acute fatty liver of pregnancy at 23 weeks of gestation with unusual evolution (pregnancy prolonged until 36 weeks of gestation) to draw attention on the possibility of occurrence of this pathology in the second trimester of pregnancy even with a milder clinical presentation and course. PMID:22567507

Yassin, Alaeddine; Denguezli, Walid; Fessi, Anissa; Njim, Leila; Falah, Raja; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Sakouhi, Mohamed

2011-01-01

165

Clinical hyperthermia of prostate cancer using magnetic nanoparticles: Presentation of a new interstitial technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the technique of magnetic fluid hyperthermia can be used for minimally invasive treatment of prostate cancer. This paper presents the first clinical appli- cation of interstitial hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles in locally recurrent prostate cancer. Treatment planning was carried out using computerized tomography (CT) of the prostate. Based on the

M. Johannsen; U. Gneveckow; L. Eckelt; A. Feussner; N. WaldÖFner; R. Scholz; S. Deger; P. Wust; S. A. Loening; A. Jordan

2005-01-01

166

Mayo Clinic urologists present findings at American Urological Association annual meeting  

Cancer.gov

Mayo Clinic researchers presented findings on prostate cancer risk, screening, treatment and other urological research at the annual meeting of the American Urological Association May 19–23 in Atlanta. In one study, of adjuvant hormonal therapy following radical prostatectomy, researchers found no adverse impact in overall survival of patients even when other health factors, specifically cardiovascular disease, were taken into account.

167

Extracorporeal Ultrasound-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound: Implications from the Present Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Extracorporeal ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been clinically used for 15 years, and over 36000 cases have been reported. However, there yet lacked a consensus in the clinical values, suggesting the necessity of checking clinical findings. Clinical trials were searched and data reevaluated. HIFU was hardly performed alone; almost all present anticancer means have been applied during an HIFU treatment, and a specific regimen varied between trials; there were heterogeneity and disagreement between trials. The complexity made it difficult to distinguish the effect of HIFU. Based upon evaluable data, the efficacy of HIFU was similar to that of radio frequency, chemoembolization, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or hormone therapy; a combined therapy did not improve the efficacy. The survival rate of HIFU plus radiotherapy was lower than that of radical surgery in liver cancers. Adverse events had no downtrend in the past years. HIFU was not a standardized procedure where the intensity and insonation mode were modified constantly throughout a treatment, limiting an evaluation from the perspective of ultrasonics. These implied that HIFU should be applied as an alternative at most occasions. The present clinical trials had defects making against the understating of HIFU. PMID:24982965

Yu, Tinghe; Fu, Xiao

2014-01-01

168

Hyperornithinemia–hyperammonemia–homocitrullinuria syndrome with stroke-like imaging presentation: Clinical, biochemical and molecular analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperornithinemia–hyperammonemia–homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in ORNT1 gene that encodes a mitochondrial ornithine transporter. It has variable clinical presentations with episodic hyperammonemia, liver dysfunction, and chronic neurological manifestations. In this work, we report the findings of HHH syndrome in 3 Saudi siblings. The 4-year-old proband presented with recurrent Reye-like episodes, hypotonia, and multiple stroke-like

Zuhair N. Al-Hassnan; Mohamed S. Rashed; Osama Y. Al-Dirbashi; Zoltan Patay; Zuhair Rahbeeni; Khaled K. Abu-Amero

2008-01-01

169

Cranio-maxillofacial non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: Clinical and histological presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma represents about 5% of all malignant lesions of the head and neck. In this study we retrospectively evaluated clinical presentation, histological subtype and long-term prognosis of 42 patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma involving the craniofacial area. The mean age at diagnosis was 64years. More than half of the patients presented with disseminated disease at multiple sites (55%, n=23). In

Sebastian Scherfler; Kolja Freier; Robin Seeberger; Claire Bacon; Jürgen Hoffmann; Oliver C. Thiele

170

Bed Rest and Orthostatic-Hypotensive Intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic tolerance may be defined as the ability of humans to maintain cerebral perfusion and consciousness upon movement from a supine or sitting position to the upright posture; for example, subjects can stand suddenly or be tilted to the head-up body position. Similar but not identical physiological responses can be induced by positive G(sub Z) (head to foot) acceleration or exposure to lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The objective is to suddenly shift blood to the lower body to determine how effectively cardiovascular and neural-hormonal compensatory responses react to maintain blood pressure. In the most precise method for measuring tolerance, individuals would be stressed until they faint (syncope). However, the potential consequences and discomforts of such a test usually prohibit such a procedure so that few investigators actually induce syncope. In a more common approach, subjects are exposed to a given level of stress, for example, head-up tilt for 15 min, and any increases in heart rate or decreases in blood pressure are interpreted as indicators of progress toward syncope. Presumably, the greater the perturbation of heart rate and blood pressure, the closer to "tolerance," i.e., point of unconsciousness. Another more appropriate approach is to induce a progressively increasing hypotensive stress until pre-determined physiological responses or pre-syncopal symptoms appear. The physiological criteria may include a sudden drop in systolic blood pressure (greater than 25 mm/min), a sudden drop in heart rate (greater than 15 beats/min), or a systolic blood pressure less than 70 mmHg. The most common pre-syncopal symptoms include lightheadedness, stomach awareness or distress, feelings of warmth, tingly skin, and light to profuse sweating. Usually a combination of physiological responses and symptoms occurs such that, on different days, the tolerance time to the same orthostatic protocol is reproducible for a given individual. The assumption is that by taking subjects to near fainting, one can determine their tolerance. This latter pre-syncopal approach is better for estimating orthostatic or hypotensive tolerance than the former measurement of heart rate and blood pressure responses to a given stress. There is considerable variability in individual responses to orthostasis. For example, some subjects are "heart-rate responders" and have a pronounced cardiovascular response similar to that when performing moderately hard aerobic exercise, whereas others may experience pre-syncopal symptoms with very little increase in heart rate. Some individuals have a slow, gradual fall in blood pressure to orthostasis, and others have little change in blood pressure until a sudden precipitous fall in pressure occurs just prior to fainting. With both tilt and LBNP tests there is a low correlation between heart-rate or blood-pressure responses to a sub-tolerance stress as a measure of pre-syncopal limited orthostatic-hypotensive tolerance.

Schneider, Suzanne M.

2000-01-01

171

Systemic Arthritis in Children: A Review of Clinical Presentation and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) constitutes a small part of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), yet has a disproportionally higher rate of mortality. Despite being grouped under JIA, it is considered to be a multifactorial autoinflammatory disease. The objective of this paper is to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetics, clinical manifestations, complications, therapy, prognosis, and outcome of sJIA. The presentation and clinical manifestations of sJIA have not changed much in the past several decades, but the collective understanding of the pathogenesis and the development of new targeted therapies (particularly the biologic agents) have transformed and improved the disease outcome for children with sJIA. PMID:22235382

Gurion, R.; Lehman, T. J. A.; Moorthy, L. N.

2012-01-01

172

Risk factors and clinical presentation of craniocervical arterial dissection: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Craniocervical arterial dissection is a major cause of ischaemic stroke in young adults. The pathogenesis is not fully understood but is thought to be related to a combination of an intrinsic weakness in the arterial wall and an external trigger. Intrinsic susceptibility is thought to be a generalised arteriopathy, vascular anomaly or genetic predisposition. Proposed extrinsic factors include recent viral infection and minor mechanical trauma to the neck, including neck manipulation, which has raised concerns amongst manual practitioners in particular as to the appropriate screening of patients and avoidance of more vigorous therapeutic techniques. The presenting features of dissection may mimic a musculoskeletal presentation, creating a diagnostic dilemma for primary care practitioners. Early recognition is critical so that appropriate management can be commenced. The aims of this study are to prospectively investigate young patients ?55?years admitted to hospital with radiologically diagnosed craniocervical arterial dissection compared to matched controls with stroke but not dissection, to identify risk factors and early presenting clinical features, so these may be more readily identified by primary care practitioners. Methods Patients ? 55?years presenting to hospital with craniocervical arterial dissection and controls will have their medical records reviewed and be interviewed and questioned about possible risk factors, preceding events to admission such as recent neck trauma, and presenting clinical features including any preceding transient ischaemic features. Clinical assessment will include a connective tissue screening examination to identify subclinical connective tissue disorders. Radiology and blood screening will be reviewed for typical features and inflammatory markers. Functional outcome will be reviewed to determine the burden of the stroke. Discussion This study will provide descriptive and comparative data on intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for craniocervical arterial dissection and outline the typical clinical presentation, including the nature of early presenting features which might assist practitioners to identify those patients for whom vigorous manual therapy of the neck is inappropriate and alert them to those for whom immediate urgent medical care should be sought. PMID:22937796

2012-01-01

173

The effects of chronic maternal hypotension during pregnancy.  

PubMed

The relationship between chronic maternal hypotension and obstetric outcome was examined retrospectively in a group of 134 pregnant women and compared with a normotensive control group. The hypotensive women had significantly increased risks of delivery before the 38th week of gestation, lower birth-weight of babies for gestational age, and postpartum complications. In addition, the rates of preterm delivery before 37 weeks' gestation, birth-weight less than 2,500 g and significant meconium-staining of the amniotic fluid were higher in the hypotensive group, although these results did not reach statistical significance. These data support the need for a prospective study of the effects of chronic hypotension during pregnancy. PMID:1586326

Ng, P H; Walters, W A

1992-02-01

174

Glucocorticoid Therapy for Hypotension in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, it has been our practice to treat persistent hypotension in the cardiac intensive care unit with glucocorticoids.\\u000a We undertook a retrospective review in an attempt to identify predictors of a hemodynamic response to steroids and of survival\\u000a in these patients. Patients who had received glucocorticoids for hypotension over a 2-year period were identified retrospectively.\\u000a Summary measures of

K. J. Millar; R. R. Thiagarajan; P. C. Laussen

2007-01-01

175

Clinical Presentation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important and common comorbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have addressed how OSA presents in this patient population and whether it is clinically apparent. Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine if the prevalence and severity of sleep related symptoms distinguished CKD patients with OSA from those without apnea, and whether the clinical presentation of OSA in CKD patients differed from the general OSA population. Methods: One hundred nineteen patients were recruited from outpatient nephrology clinics. All patients completed a sleep history questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (daytime sleepiness, ESS > 10), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (poor sleep quality, PSQI > 5), and underwent overnight cardiopulmonary monitoring for determination of sleep apnea (respiratory disturbance index ? 15). CKD patients with OSA (n = 46) were compared to (1) CKD patients without OSA (n = 73) and (2) OSA patients without CKD (n = 230) who were referred to the sleep centre. Results: The prevalence of OSA symptoms and PSQI scores did not differ between CKD patients with OSA and CKD patients without apnea. Although the prevalence of daytime sleepiness was higher in CKD patients with OSA compared to CKD patients without apnea (39% vs. 19%, p = 0.033), both daytime sleepiness and other symptoms of sleep apnea were considerably less frequent than in OSA patients without a history of kidney disease. Conclusions: The presence of OSA in patients with CKD is unlikely to be clinically apparent. Consequently, objective cardiopulmonary monitoring during sleep is required to reliably identify this comorbidity. Citation: Nicholl DDM; Ahmed SB; Loewen AHS; Hemmelgarn BR; Sola DY; Beecroft JM; Turin TC; Hanly PJ. Clinical presentation of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(4):381-387. PMID:22893768

Nicholl, David D. M.; Ahmed, Sofia B.; Loewen, Andrea H. S.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Sola, Darlene Y.; Beecroft, Jaime M.; Turin, Tanvir C.; Hanly, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

176

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overview: epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been a major public health problem during the 20th century, and will remain a challenge for the foreseeable future. Worldwide, COPD is in the spotlight, because its high prevalence, morbidity, and mortality create formidable challenges for healthcare systems. However, there remain many ongoing, contentious issues in COPD, including the definition and staging of COPD itself. Similarly, it appears that there is no consensus as yet on how, when, and where spirometry and other tools (symptoms assessment, imaging, biomarkers, and so on) should be conducted and implemented to screen, label, and treat for COPD, if any. Our current knowledge on the epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical presentation of COPD has been reasonably well documented in several previous reviews. We aim to summarize new developments surrounding the epidemiology of COPD, both at the population and at the clinical level, in comparison with other major burden contributors, while debating old and novel risk factors. Cigarette smoking is the principal causal factor, but other factors play a role in causing and triggering COPD. Likely, the clinical presentation of COPD and its contributing phenotypes within the remainder of the 21st century will be different than the "blue bloaters" and "pink puffers" observed one or two generations ago. Hopefully, the COPD clinical course will shift to better outcomes and prognosis than in the past. PMID:21816993

Soriano, Joan B; Rodríguez-Roisin, Roberto

2011-08-01

177

Severe Rift Valley Fever May Present with a Characteristic Clinical Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an emerging pathogen that is transmitted in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Egypt, and the Arabian peninsula. Outbreaks of RVF, like other diseases caused by hemorrhagic fever viruses, typically present in locations with very limited health resources, where initial diagnosis must be based only on history and physical examination. Although general signs and symptoms of human RVF have been documented, a specific clinical syndrome has not been described. In 2007, a Kenyan outbreak of RVF provided opportunity to assess acutely ill RVF patients and better delineate its presentation and clinical course. Our data reveal an identifiable clinical syndrome suggestive of severe RVF, characterized by fever, large-joint arthralgia, and gastrointestinal complaints and later followed by jaundice, right upper-quadrant pain, and delirium, often coinciding with hemorrhagic manifestations. Further characterization of a distinct RVF clinical syndrome will aid earlier detection of RVF outbreaks and should allow more rapid implementation of control. PMID:20207858

Kahlon, Summerpal S.; Peters, Clarence J.; LeDuc, James; Muchiri, Eric M.; Muiruri, Samuel; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Breiman, Robert F.; Clinton White, A.; King, Charles H.

2010-01-01

178

Public and patient research priorities for orthostatic hypotension.  

PubMed

With a rapidly expanding older population and increased survival of older people with chronic disease, we can expect to see increasing numbers of people with orthostatic hypotension (OH). Unfortunately the evidence base for people with OH, with particular relevance to older people, has not kept up and has resulted in a real lack of progress and little good evidence. There are several areas of research that could potentially benefit patients but establishing which ones are priority areas requires public and patient involvement (PPI). This process includes people/patients in the research team to maximise the relevance, success and translation of the research. This brief report describes the early involvement of older people in prioritising the research question, methods to improve adherence during a trial and the preferred methods to disseminate research output. The individuals' priority was to research non-pharmacological treatment strategies and to improve the education of patients about their condition. Education was felt to be the best strategy to promote adherence during a trial, with change in symptoms and quality of life felt to be the most important outcome measures as opposed to blood pressure. This report offers guidance for academics that are undertaking OH-related research and how they can improve its relevance and increase its translation into clinical practice. PMID:25146411

Frith, James; Bashir, Ayat S; Elliott, Chris S; Newton, Julia L

2014-11-01

179

Clinical Presentations and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Perinatal Stroke in Preterm and Term Neonates: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Perinatal stroke in neonates can lead to disability in later life. However, its etiology and prognosis are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to describe clinical presentations and neurodevelopmental outcomes of our case series of perinatal stroke in Korea. Thirteen term and preterm neonates who were diagnosed with perinatal stroke in two university hospitals from March 2003 to March 2007 were enrolled. Seven term and 6 preterm neonates were diagnosed with perinatal stroke, based on the brain MRI findings. Perinatal stroke presented with seizure (4/13), perinatal distress (3/13) in term neonates, whereas stroke in preterm neonates did not present with noticeable clinical symptoms. Only one neonate had positive thrombophilic test (homozygous C677T polymorphism for MTHFR). Ten neonates had infarctions in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), and 3 neonates had borderzone infarctions between the anterior cerebral artery and MCA. Neurodevelopmental outcome was abnormal in 4 neonates. Infarction in MCA main branch or posterior limb of internal capsule showed an abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. Our study is the first systematic study of perinatal stroke in Korea, and shows its clinical presentations and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The population-based study on incidence and prognosis of perinatal stroke in Korea is required in the future. PMID:20514310

Lee, Hyun Ju; Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Hong, Joon-Seok; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Kim, Han-Suk; Kim, Beyong Il; Choi, Jung-Hwan

2010-01-01

180

Case of acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau following psoriasis with atypical clinical presentation.  

PubMed

We present a 63-year-old Japanese woman who had clinically unique symmetrical skin rashes on her lower face, inframammary area, back and extremities, with some pustules on the cheeks. Skin biopsy specimens showed typical findings of psoriasis, and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score was 5.9. After the skin lesions were treated successfully with vitamin D3 ointment, pustules developed on the tips of the fingers and toes, with paronychial and subungual involvement. The pathology of the nail matrix was consistent with pustular psoriasis, and the patient was diagnosed with acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH) following psoriasis with an unusual clinical presentation. ACH was well controlled with a low dose of cyclosporin. Our patient is a rare case chronologically affected by two diseases in the same category. We confirmed that ACH is a variant of pustular psoriasis, and believe that the patient could provide another clue to determining the entity of ACH. PMID:25346303

Iijima, Shigeruko; Okazaki, Yukiko; Watanabe, Shinya; Maruyama, Yoko

2014-11-01

181

Sustained, progressive, nonresolving abdominal pain: a previously undescribed clinical presentation of familial Mediterranean fever.  

PubMed

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a genetic disorder characterized by sporadic, acute attacks of fever and serosal inflammation. Typical manifestations are recurrent febrile episodes of acute instauration for brief duration (1 to 4 days) that is associated with severe pain due to serositis at one or more sites. Abdominal crisis occurs in 95% of the patients. Treatment with colchicine is highly effective as preventive treatment, but it is considered to be ineffective for the treatment of established acute attacks. As mentioned, untreated crisis resolves spontaneously in 1 to 4 days. Prolonged, nonresolving crisis of abdominal pain refractory to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids, with fever and elevation of acute phase reactants that resolves after the administration of colchicine, is a clinical presentation undescribed hitherto. The aim of this paper is to report a patient with this distinctively unusual clinical presentation of FMF. PMID:16328089

Radisic, Marcelo; Santamarina, Joaquin; Froment, Roberto

2006-11-01

182

Lead intoxication: A summary of the clinical presentation among Thai patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead is an important toxic metal found in industrial communities. Due to the industrialization in the recent decade in Thailand,\\u000a lead intoxication as a toxicant-related disorder becomes a new public health problem. A retrospective study on clinical presentation\\u000a of hospitalized patients with diagnosis of lead intoxication during year 1990–1999 in King Chulalongkorn Memorial hospital,\\u000a the largest Thai Red Cross Society

Viroj Wiwanitkit; Jamsai Suwansaksri

2006-01-01

183

Primary Laryngeal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma - A Rare Entity with Deviant Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare neoplasms. WHO classifies them under five categories of which, the moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma is synonymous with atypical or malignant carcinoid tumour. We report a rare case of primary laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma with an unusual and misleading clinical presentation. The initial cytological diagnosis of secondary neuroendocrine carcinoma in the cervical lymph node led to the suspicion of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma in the larynx. PMID:25386445

K, Anoosha; K, Amita; Shankar S, Vijay; Geeta K, Avadhani

2014-01-01

184

Clinical Presentation and Treatment of Wilson’s Disease: A Single-Centre Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty patients with Wilson’s disease (WD) were observed at a movement disorder clinic between 1970 and 2000. Disease onset was at the mean age (SD) of 14.5 (±5.9) years. Presentation with hepatic disease occurred in 12 of 30 patients and with neurologic disease in 15. Three patients were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. The mean (SD) delay to diagnosis

M. T. Pellecchia; C. Criscuolo; K. Longo; G. Campanella; A. Filla; P. Barone

2003-01-01

185

Restenosis after carotid surgery: the importance of clinical presentation and preoperative timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) of stable atherosclerotic plaques is associated with an increased\\u000arisk for restenosis. Patients with transient ischemic attack and patients with and stroke have relatively unstable\\u000aatherosclerotic plaques. However, carotid plaques stabilize over time after a cerebrovascular event due to plaque repair\\u000aafter rupture. These findings raised 2 questions: (1) Is preoperative clinical presentation related to

G. W. van Lammeren; W. Peeters; D. P. V. de Kleijn; G. J. de Borst; G. Pasterkamp; F. L. Moll

2011-01-01

186

Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Neuroblastoma Presenting Genomic Amplification of Loci Other than MYCN  

PubMed Central

Background Somatically acquired genomic alterations with MYCN amplification (MNA) are key features of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extra-cranial malignant tumour of childhood. Little is known about the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of NBs harbouring genomic amplification(s) distinct from MYCN. Methods Genomic profiles of 1100 NBs from French centres studied by array-CGH were re-examined specifically to identify regional amplifications. Patients were included if amplifications distinct from the MYCN locus were seen. A subset of NBs treated at Institut Curie and harbouring MNA as determined by array-CGH without other amplification was also studied. Clinical and histology data were retrospectively collected. Results In total, 56 patients were included and categorised into 3 groups. Group 1 (n?=?8) presented regional amplification(s) without MNA. Locus 12q13-14 was a recurrent amplified region (4/8 cases). This group was heterogeneous in terms of INSS stages, primary localisations and histology, with atypical clinical features. Group 2 (n?=?26) had MNA as well as other regional amplifications. These patients shared clinical features of those of a group of NBs MYCN amplified (Group 3, n?=?22). Overall survival for group 1 was better than that of groups 2 and 3 (5 year OS: 87.5%±11% vs 34.9%±7%, log-rank p<0.05). Conclusion NBs harbouring regional amplification(s) without MNA are rare and seem to show atypical features in clinical presentation and genomic profile. Further high resolution genetic explorations are justified in this heterogeneous group, especially when considering these alterations as predictive markers for targeted therapy. PMID:25013904

Guimier, Anne; Ferrand, Sandrine; Pierron, Gaelle; Couturier, Jerome; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Combaret, Valerie; Mosseri, Veronique; Thebaud, Estelle; Gambart, Marion; Plantaz, Dominique; Marabelle, Aurelien; Coze, Carole; Rialland, Xavier; Fasola, Sylvie; Lapouble, Eve; Freneaux, Paul; Peuchmaur, Michel; Michon, Jean; Delattre, Olivier; Schleiermacher, Gudrun

2014-01-01

187

Clinical presentation and physiotherapy treatment of 4 patients with low back pain and isthmic spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Objective Spondylolisthesis is a pathological condition characterized by the slipping of a vertebral body, compared with the underlying one, following structural and/or degenerative changes of the spine. The purpose of this case series is to describe clinical presentations and the conservative physiotherapy management of 4 patients with low back pain and lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis. Clinical Features Four patients aged 25, 43, 36, and 50 years presented with low back pain of various duration. Radiographs confirmed the presence of lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis. Outcome measures included numerical rating scale, disability outcome measure (Oswestry Disability Index), spinal instability tests (Prone Instability Test, Passive Lumbar Extension test), and muscle function tests (Aberrant Movement Patterns, Active Straight Leg Raising, Prone and Supine Bridge Tests). Intervention and Outcomes Treatment consisted of postural reeducation, stretching, and strengthening exercises. Over the course of individualized treatment, ranging from 8 to 10 treatment visits, outcomes improved for all 4 patients. Conclusion This report describes varying clinical presentations and treatment of 4 patients with isthmic spondylolisthesis, suggesting that different pain generators could be managed by different conservative approaches. PMID:23204952

Ferrari, Silvano; Vanti, Carla; O'Reilly, Caroline

2012-01-01

188

San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang reduces lipopolysaccharides-induced hypotension and inflammatory mediators  

Microsoft Academic Search

San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXT) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula containing Coptidis rhizoma, Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma. The present study aimed to determine the preventive effects of standardized SHXT on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced arterial hypotension, protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytokines formation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. LPS-induced activation of iNOS has been recognized to increase

Yi-Ching Lo; Pei-Ling Tsai; Yaw-Bin Huang; Kuo-Pyng Shen; Yi-Hung Tsai; Yang-Chang Wu; Yung-Hsiung Lai; Ing-Jun Chen

2005-01-01

189

Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis presenting to a chiropractic clinic: a description of 2 cases  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe the presentation of 2 patients who presented to a chiropractic teaching clinic with Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS) and to discuss the potential role for conservative therapy in the management of symptoms. Clinical Features Two patients presented with a vascular and muscular findings suggesting activity-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. One patient presented with recent onset of symptoms (pain in the neck with a “pinched nerve sensation” in the left upper trapezius); and the other presented with chronic, low-grade neck pain of 1 year's duration. Intervention and Outcome The initial treatment approach for the patient with acute symptoms included soft tissue therapy. During the second appointment, he was immediately referred for medical evaluation and management because of worsening symptoms. He was diagnosed with thrombus in the left brachial vein, started immediately on a thrombolytic agent, and referred to a thrombosis clinic. Treatment for the second patient with chronic symptoms included soft tissue therapy, spinal manipulative therapy, and active care. Two months after 3 treatments, she reported improved symptoms. She remains under supportive care and has reported continued relief of her symptoms. Conclusion Although a rare condition, PSS has the potential to result in significant morbidity and potentially fatal complications; thus, it is critical that practitioners recognize the signs and symptoms to facilitate appropriate and timely referrals. Clinicians should be aware of the presentation and proposed pathogenesis of PSS, and consider this diagnosis in patients with unilateral upper limb and/or neck pain. PMID:23843762

Stainsby, Brynne E.; Muir, Bradley J.; Miners, Andrew L.

2012-01-01

190

The Morel-Lavallée lesion: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment options.  

PubMed

Morel-Lavallée lesions are posttraumatic hemolymphatic collections related to shearing injury and disruption of interfascial planes between subcutaneous soft tissue and muscle. We review the pathophysiology of Morel-Lavallée lesions, clinical presentation, and potential sites of involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for characterization. We present the MRI classification and highlight the key imaging features that distinguish the different types, focusing on the three most common: seroma, subacute hematoma, and chronic organizing hematoma. Potential mimics of Morel-Lavallée lesions, such as soft tissue sarcoma and hemorrhagic prepatellar bursitis, are compared and contrasted. Treatment options and a management algorithm are also briefly discussed. PMID:23949106

Bonilla-Yoon, Iris; Masih, Sulabha; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Levine, Benjamin D; Chow, Kira; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Matcuk, George R

2014-02-01

191

Are vector-borne pathogen co-infections complicating the clinical presentation in dogs?  

PubMed Central

Background Infection by two or more canine vector-borne disease (CVBD)-causing pathogens is common in subtropical and tropical regions where vectors are plentiful. Co-infections may potentiate disease pathogenesis, thereby altering clinical manifestations typically associated with singular infections. These factors complicate diagnosis, treatment and can adversely influence prognosis if the practitioner fails to suspect, document, and treat each concurrent infection. The spectrum of pathogens co-infecting dogs may change over time in a given practice location due to the rapid expansion of arthropods and their associated vectored agents, and international transit among pets and wild animals. This applies, for example, to Dirofilaria immitis and Leishmania infantum, the distributions of which have expanded from northern to southern Italy, and vice versa, respectively. Indeed, mixed infections by D. immitis and L. infantum have only been reported once in Italy, probably due to the fact that competent vectors for these infections do not usually occur in the same geographical areas. Thus, information that would help practitioners to identify clinical presentations in dogs co-infected by D. immitis and L. infantum and other CVBD-causing pathogens is scant. Findings This manuscript describes the clinical history and physical examination of findings for 7 CVBD co-infected dogs that were examined because of a spectrum of clinical signs. Five dogs were co-infected with L. infantum and Ehrlichia canis, one dog with L. infantum, E. canis and D. immitis and the remaining dog with L. infantum and D. immitis. Conclusions The clinical signs and haematological abnormalities associated with the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of these dogs is discussed. Also, the usefulness of bone marrow specimens for the molecular diagnosis of CVBDs and for the enhanced monitoring of treatment response is emphasized. PMID:23587324

2013-01-01

192

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26:H11-Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Bacteriology and Clinical Presentation.  

PubMed

Infection by enterohemorrhagic ESCHERICHIA COLI (EHEC) is the most frequent cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in childhood. During a 6-year period, all patients with the clinical diagnosis of HUS were registered in a prospective multicenter study in Austria and Germany. EHEC O26:H11 was the second most frequent detected serotype, accounting for 15.4% of all EHEC isolates. The presence of EHEC O26:H11 was significantly associated with young age at the disease onset ( P?clinical presentation than those infected with other serotypes. This study underlines the importance of EHEC serotypes other than O157 in the etiology of HUS and emphasizes the importance of implementation of appropriate diagnostic methods to identify the whole spectrum of EHEC associated with HUS. PMID:20865635

Zimmerhackl, Lothar-Bernd; Rosales, Alejandra; Hofer, Johannes; Riedl, Magdalena; Jungraithmayr, Therese; Mellmann, Alexander; Bielaszewska, Martina; Karch, Helge

2010-09-01

193

Tuberculous Otitis with Proteus mirabilis Co-Infection: An Unsuspected Presentation Encountered in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis, a contagious bacterial disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily involves the lungs.Though Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is the commonest clinical presentation, there is a need for alertness towards uncommon presentations which involve other organs. Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is one such rare presentation seen in paediatric practice. It is characterized by painless otorrhoea which fails to respond to the routine antibacterial treatment. TOM usually occurs secondary to PTB. Here is a case of tuberculous otitis media with Proteus mirabilis co-infection, with no evidence of PTB. In the sample of ear discharge obtained from the patient, acid fast bacilli were demonstrated on direct microscopy after Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Culture done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium demonstrated slow-growing Mycobacterium. Bacteriological culture and identification helped in isolating Proteus mirabilis. PCR, followed by Line- Probe Assay for early identification and susceptibility testing to primary drugs, was done. Further, patient tested negative for the Mantoux test. Patient was enrolled in National Tuberculosis programme- RNTCP. This case emphasizes on one of the less common presentations of a common disease. A high clinical suspicion and laboratory confirmation are required for appropriate patient management. PMID:24995225

Sardar, Moumita; Jadhav, Savita Vivek; Vyawahare, Chanda; Misra, Rabindranath

2014-01-01

194

Towards the simulation of clinical cognition. Taking a present illness by computer.  

PubMed

Remarkably little is known about the cognitive processes which are employed in the solution of clinical problems. This paucity of information is probably accounted for in large part by the lack of suitable analytic tools for the study of the physician's thought processes. Here we report on the use of the computer as a laboratory for the study of clinical cognition. Our experimental approach has consisted of several elements. First, cognitive insights gained from the study of clinicians' behavior were used to develop a computer program designed to take the present illness of a patient with edema. The program was then tested with a series of prototypical cases, and the present illnesses generated by the computer were compared to those taken by the clinicians in our group. Discrepant behavior on the part of the program was taken as a stimulus for further refinement of the evolving cognitive theory of the present illness. Corresponding refinements were made in the program, and the process of testing and revision was continued until the program's behavior closely resembled that of the clinicians. The advances in computer science that made this effort possible include "goal-directed" programming, pattern-matching and a large associative memory, all of which are products of research in the field known as "artificial intelligence". The information used by the program is organized in a highly connected set of associations which is used to guide such activities as checking the validity of facts, generating and testing hypotheses, and constructing a coherent picture of the patient. As the program pursues its interrelated goals of information gathering and diagnosis, it uses knowledge of diseases and pathophysiology, as well as "common sense", to dynamically assemble many small problem-solving strategies into an integrated history-taking process. We suggest that the present experimental approach will facilitate accomplishment of the long-term goal of disseminating clinical expertise via the computer. PMID:779466

Pauker, S G; Gorry, G A; Kassirer, J P; Schwartz, W B

1976-06-01

195

Patterns of clinical presentation of adult coeliac disease in a rural setting  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years there has been increasing recognition that the pattern of presentation of coeliac disease may be changing. The classic sprue syndrome with diarrhoea and weight loss may be less common than the more subtle presentations of coeliac disease such as an isolated iron deficiency anaemia. As a result, the diagnosis of this treatable condition is often delayed or missed. Recent serologic screening tests allow non-invasive screening to identify most patients with the disease and can be applied in patients with even subtle symptoms indicative of coeliac disease. Both benign and malignant complications of coeliac disease can be avoided by early diagnosis and a strict compliance with a gluten free diet. Aim The aim of this study is to evaluate the trends in clinical presentation of patients diagnosed with adult coeliac disease. In addition, we studied the biochemical and serological features and the prevalence of associated conditions in patients with adult coeliac disease. Methods This is an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional review of the medical notes of 32 adult patients attending the specialist coeliac clinic in a district general hospital. Results Anaemia was the most common mode of presentation accounting for 66% of patients. Less than half of the patients had any of the classical symptoms of coeliac disease and 25% had none of the classical symptoms at presentation. Anti-gliadin antibodies, anti-endomysial antibody and anti-tissue transglutaminase showed 75%, 68% and 90% sensitivity respectively. In combination, serology results were 100% sensitive as screening tests for adult coeliac disease. Fifty nine percent patients had either osteoporosis or osteopenia. There were no malignant complications observed during the follow up of our patients. Conclusion Most adults with coeliac disease have a sub clinical form of the disease and iron deficiency anaemia may be its sole presenting symptom. Only a minority of adult coeliac disease patients present with classical mal-absorption symptoms of diarrhoea and weight loss. Patients with atypical form of disease often present initially to hospital specialists other than a gastro-enterologist. An awareness of the broad spectrum of presentations of adult coeliac disease, among doctors both in primary care and by the various hospital specialists in secondary care, is necessary to avoid delays in diagnosis. It is important to include serological screening tests for coeliac disease systematically in the evaluation of adult patients with unexplained iron deficiency anaemia or unexplained gastro-intestinal symptoms and in those who are considered to be at increased risk for coeliac disease. PMID:16972991

Jones, Sian; D'Souza, Charles; Haboubi, Nadim Y

2006-01-01

196

Clinical Presentation of Paget's Disease: Evaluation of a Contemporary Cohort and Systematic Review.  

PubMed

Paget's disease of bone (PDB) has become less common over recent decades but it is unclear if this has impacted on clinical presentation. Here we evaluated the presenting features of PDB in a contemporary cohort of UK patients and conducted a systematic review of studies in which the presenting features had been reported. The case series comprised 88 patients referred to a specialist clinic between 2005 and 2013. Bone pain was the most common presenting feature occurring in 73.8 % of patients. Others included bone deformity (18.1 %), deafness (7.9 %) and pathological fracture (5.7 %). The disease was asymptomatic in 22 % of cases. Antiresorptive treatment was given for pain in 34 cases and 61.7 % of patients responded. Patients with a shorter disease duration were more likely to respond (p = 0.047). In the systematic review, bone pain was the most common presenting feature (52.2 % of cases) followed by deformity (21.5 %), deafness (8.9 %) and fracture (8.5 %). Time trend analysis in subjects of European descent showed that fracture was less common in studies performed during the past 25 years as compared with older studies (5.5 vs. 10.8 % p < 0.001) whereas pain was more common (54.3 vs. 48.3 %, p = 0.003). While changes in the mode of presentation of PDB have occurred over recent years, many patients present with complications such as fracture and deformity. Further research is required to determine if early detection and therapeutic intervention might be of value in preventing the morbidity associated with this common disease. PMID:25160936

Tan, Adrian; Ralston, Stuart H

2014-11-01

197

Changes in clinical & biochemical presentations of primary hyperparathyroidism in India over a period of 20 years  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: With the advent of serum chemistry autoanalyzer and routine estimation of serum calcium as a part of annual physical examination, there has been a dramatic change in the presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) from symptomatic to asymptomatic disease in the United States. However, such trend has not been documented from India. We carried out this retrospective study to analyse the changes in clinical presentations of PHPT patients over a period of two decades in a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods: This retrospective study included patients with PHPT treated at a single centre of north India between March1990 and October 2010. Two decades were divided into four different time periods, i.e. 1990 to 1994, 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2004 and 2005 to 2010. Clinical presentations, biochemical parameters and surgical outcomes were compared between different time periods using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Data of 202 patients with PHPT with male: female ratio of 3:7 were analyzed. There was a rise in the number of cases of PHPT diagnosed in the last decade compared to the previous decade (28 cases vs 174 cases, P<0.001). Change in the mean age, male: female ratio, lag time for the diagnosis of PHPT and clinical presentations of PHPT (predominance of bone and stone symptoms) did not differ across different time periods. Non-significant decrease in serum calcium levels at the time of diagnosis of PHPT and a significant, decline in the serum alkaline phosphatase levels (P<0.01) were found in the last decade, however, iPTH levels were higher in the last decade (P<0.05). There was no change in the site and size of parathyroid adenoma in the two decades, however, postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia was less frequent in the last decade. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this retrospective analysis show that the PHPT still remains symptomatic disease with increasing awareness over the last two decades in our center. There was not much change in the clinical presentation, in the past two decades. PMID:25027078

Shah, Viral N.; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar; Bhansali, Anil; Behera, Arnanshu; Mittal, B.R.

2014-01-01

198

Intrinsic multipotential mesenchymal stromal cell activity in gelatinous Heberden's nodes in osteoarthritis at clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gelatinous Heberden’s nodes (HNs), also termed synovial cysts, are a common form of generalized osteoarthritis (OA). We sought to determine whether HN cases at clinical presentation contained multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) and to explore whether such cells were more closely related to bone marrow (BM) or synovial fluid (SF) MSCs by transcriptional analysis. Methods At clinical presentation, gelatinous material was extracted/extruded from the distal phalangeal joint of OA patients with HNs. From this, plastic adherent cells were culture-expanded for phenotypic and functional characterization and comparison with BM- and SF-MSCs. Mesenchymal related gene expression was studied by using a custom-designed TaqMan Low Density Array to determine transcriptional similarities between different MSC groups and skin fibroblasts. Results In all cases, HN material produced MSC-like colonies. Adherent cultures displayed an MSC phenotype (CD29+, CD44+, CD73+, CD81+, and CD90+ and CD14- CD19-, CD31-, CD34-, CD45-, and HLADR-) and exhibited osteogenic, chondrogenic lineage differentiation but weak adipogenesis. Gene cluster analysis showed that HN-MSCs were more closely related to SF- than normal or OA BM-MSCs with significantly higher expression of synovium-related gene markers such as bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1A (BMPR1A), protein/leucine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP), secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4), and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) (P <0.05). Conclusions Gelatinous HNs derived from hand OA at clinical presentation contain a population of MSCs that share transcriptional similarities with SF-derived MSCs. Their aberrant entrapment within the synovial cysts may impact on their normal role in joint homeostasis. PMID:24894724

2014-01-01

199

Seizures as the clinical presenting symptom in children with brain tumors.  

PubMed

This study summarizes our clinical and surgical experience with pediatric brain tumors that were initially presented with seizures. The records of 367 consecutive children, treated for brain tumors between the years 1996 and 2007, were retrospectively analyzed, focusing on the clinical manifestations, diagnostic gap, and postoperative seizure follow-up that lasted at least 2 years. Seizures, mainly focal, were the clinical manifestation of brain tumor in 57 of 367 children. Normal neurologic examination and electroencephalography (EEG) were in 77.8% and 37.5%, respectively. Diagnostic gap correlated with low-grade and temporal lobe tumors. Postoperative follow-up revealed freedom of seizure in 77.6%. Favorable seizure outcome correlated with low preoperative seizures frequency, preoperative response to antiepileptic drugs, and hemispheric tumor location. We conclude that response to antiepileptic drugs, generalized seizures, normal EEG, and normal neurologic examination should not exclude tumor etiology. Moreover, broader indications for imaging should be employed while evaluating a child with a seizure. PMID:22628219

Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Nissan, Noam; Kramer, Uri; Constantini, Shlomi

2013-03-01

200

Terrestrial Snakebites in the South East of the Arabian Peninsula: Patient Characteristics, Clinical Presentations, and Management  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the characteristics, clinical presentations, management and complications of snakebites in the border region between Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Buraimi, Sultanate of Oman. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a retrospective review of medical records to study snakebite cases over four-year duration at three tertiary hospitals. Overall, 64 snakebite cases were studied with median hospitalization of 2 (interquartile range [IQR] 1–4) days. The majority of cases were male (87.5%), and most (61%) of the incidents occurred during summer months. The bite sites were predominantly (95%) to the feet and hands. Main clinical features included pain, local swelling, and coagulopathy, blistering and skin peeling. Overall, there were no deaths, but few major complications occurred; extensive skin peeling (n?=?5, 8%), multi-organ failure (n?=?1, 1.5%), and compartment syndrome (n?=?1, 1.5%). Polyvalent anti snake venom (ASV), analgesia, tetanus toxoid, intravenous fluids, and antibiotics such as ampicillin, cloxacillin, and cephalosporins were commonly instituted as part of treatment protocols in the three hospitals. Conclusion The overwhelming majority of bites occurred during summer months, and envenomations were more common in, relatively, young male farmers, but with no serious clinical complications. Prevention and treatment strategies should include increasing public awareness, developing management guidelines, and manufacturing specific ASV for a wide spectrum of the local venomous snakes. PMID:21931788

Alkaabi, Juma M.; Al Neyadi, Mariam; Al Darei, Fakhra; Al Mazrooei, Mariam; Al Yazedi, Jawaher; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.

2011-01-01

201

A novel ATP1A3 mutation with unique clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Mutations in the ATP1A3 gene are associated with rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) and alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) as well as RDP/AHC intermediate presentations. Phenotypic diversity is being recognized. In order to identify ATP1A3-related phenotypes not meeting the classical criteria for RDP or AHC we lowered the threshold for mutation analysis in clinical presentations resembling AHC or RDP. A novel heterozygous ATP1A3 missense mutation c.2600G>A (p.Gly867Asp, G867D) was detected in a 15-year-old girl. Her clinical phenotype is partially consistent with an intermediate presentation between alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism and comprises additional yet unreported features. With onset at 4½ years of age recurrent paroxysmal flaccid hemiplegia alternating in laterality was triggered by watching television or playing computer games. Occlusion of both eyes reliably stopped the plegic attacks with the patient remaining awake. Our observation further widens the phenotypic spectrum associated with ATP1A3 mutations. PMID:24713507

Rosewich, Hendrik; Baethmann, Martina; Ohlenbusch, Andreas; Gärtner, Jutta; Brockmann, Knut

2014-06-15

202

Present status of PACS at Kyoto University Hospital: image workstation for clinical education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PAC system: KIDS (Kyoto University Hospital Image Database and Communication System) has been expanded to include several major digital imaging modalities such as X-ray CT, MRI, DSA and CR. The fiber optic high-speed local area network and the workstation with quick image handling are newly designed. The system (new KIDS) is intended to achieve a film-less environment in the department of radiology and to evaluate the feasibility of a hospital-wide PAC system. The present status of the system at the end of 1989 including a image workstation installed in a lecture hall for clinical education is described.

Minato, Kotaro; Komori, Masaru; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Okajima, Kaoru; Kimura, Ishu; Takahashi, Takashi; Konishi, Junji; Abe, Mituyuki; Gotoh, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kazuhiro

1990-08-01

203

Poland’s Syndrome: Different Clinical Presentations and Surgical Reconstructions in 18 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The literature reports many variations of Poland’s syndrome. This article describes 18 cases of Poland’s syndrome in different\\u000a stages of treatment, with variable clinical presentations and reconstructive techniques.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study evaluated 15 females and 3 males, ages 2 to 43 years, for breast deformity, nipple–areolar complex position, pectoralis\\u000a muscle malformation, thoracic deformities, and the presence of brachysyndactyly. Surgical treatment was

Renato da Silva Freitas; André Ricardo Dall’Oglio Tolazzi; Vanessa Dello Mônaco Martins; Breno Albuquerque Knop; Ruth Maria Graf; Gilvani Azor de Oliveira e Cruz

2007-01-01

204

Frequency, Clinical Presentation, and Outcomes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury after Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is increasingly recognized as a common cause of acute hepatitis. The clinical impact of DILI following liver transplantation (LT) is not known. Aims To describe the frequency, clinical presentation, and outcomes of DILI among LT recipients. Methods LT recipients with possible DILI were identified using electronic pathology and clinical note database retrieval tools. Diagnostic criteria were applied to identify cases of DILI. Results Among 1689 LT recipients, 29 individuals with DILI (1.7%) were identified. Mean age was 52 years with 52 % women. Major indications for LT were primary sclerosing cholangitis (28%), cholangiocarcinoma (14%), and hepatocellular carcinoma (14%). Severity of DILI was mild or moderate in 92% of cases. Nausea or diarrhea (31%), jaundice (24%), and pruritus (10%) were the most common symptoms at diagnosis. Mean ALT was 204±263 U/L, AST 108 ± 237 U/L, ALP 469 ± 689 U/L, and TB 1.9±10.3 mg/dL. Median duration of medication use until DILI diagnosis was 57 days, and major classes of agents were antibiotics (48%), immunosuppressive agents (14%), and antihyperlipidemic drugs (7%), Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was the most common single implicated agent (n=11). Serum liver enzymes improved within a median time of 34 days (range, 5-246 days) after drug withdrawal. Hepatic re-transplantation or death did not occur. Among 50 cases with possible DILI explained by other causes, 13 (26%) individuals had no alternate diagnosis despite histology compatible with DILI. Conclusions DILI is a rare yet under-recognized event among LT recipients. The majority of cases are not clinically severe, and resolve following drug cessation without hepatic retransplantation or death. PMID:22389256

Sembera, Stepan; Lammert, Craig; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Sanderson, Schuyler O.; Poterucha, John J.; Hay, J. Eileen; Wiesner, Russell H.; Gores, Gregory J.; Rosen, Charles B.; Heimbach, Julie K.; Charlton, Michael R.

2012-01-01

205

Microvascular Coronary Artery Spasm Presents Distinctive Clinical Features With Endothelial Dysfunction as Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Angina without significant stenosis, or nonobstructive coronary artery disease, attracts clinical attention. Microvascular coronary artery spasm (microvascular CAS) can cause nonobstructive coronary artery disease. We investigated the clinical features of microvascular CAS and the therapeutic efficacy of calcium channel blockers. Methods and Results Three hundred seventy consecutive, stable patients with suspected angina presenting nonobstructive coronary arteries (<50% diameter) in coronary angiography were investigated with the intracoronary acetylcholine provocation test, with simultaneous measurements of transcardiac lactate production and of changes in the quantitative coronary blood flow. We diagnosed microvascular CAS according to lactate production and a decrease in coronary blood flow without epicardial vasospasm during the acetylcholine provocation test. We prospectively followed up the patients with calcium channel blockers for microvascular coronary artery disease. We identified 50 patients with microvascular CAS who demonstrated significant impairment of the endothelium-dependent vascular response, which was assessed by coronary blood flow during the acetylcholine provocation test. Administration of isosorbide dinitrate normalized the abnormal coronary flow pattern in the patients with microvascular CAS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that female sex, a lower body mass index, minor–borderline ischemic electrocardiogram findings at rest, limited–baseline diastolic-to-systolic velocity ratio, and attenuated adenosine triphosphate–induced coronary flow reserve were independently correlated with the presence of microvascular CAS. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis revealed that the aforementioned 5-variable model showed good correlation with the presence of microvascular CAS (area under the curve: 0.820). No patients with microvascular CAS treated with calcium channel blockers developed cardiovascular events over 47.8±27.5 months. Conclusions Microvascular CAS causes distinctive clinical features and endothelial dysfunction that are important to recognize as nonobstructive coronary artery disease so that optimal care with calcium channel blockers can be provided. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.umin.ac.jp/ctr. Unique identifier: UMIN000003839. PMID:23316292

Ohba, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Seigo; Sumida, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Maeda, Hirofumi; Sugamura, Koichi; Nagayoshi, Yasuhiro; Morihisa, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kenji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamamuro, Megumi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Tayama, Shinji; Hokimoto, Seiji; Matsui, Kunihiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Hisao

2012-01-01

206

San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang reduces lipopolysaccharides-induced hypotension and inflammatory mediators.  

PubMed

San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXT) is a traditional Chinese medicinal formula containing Coptidis rhizoma, Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizoma. The present study aimed to determine the preventive effects of standardized SHXT on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced arterial hypotension, protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytokines formation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. LPS-induced activation of iNOS has been recognized to increase cytokines and nitric oxide, some of them play predominant roles in sepsis. Intravenous injection of LPS (10 mg/kg) caused a marked decrease of the mean arterial pressure in normotensive rats. However, the LPS-induced arterial hypotension was inhibited by SHXT (0.01 and 0.03 g/kg), when it was given 30 min before LPS. Moreover, plasma level of cytokines and PGE2 were lowered by SHXT. In RAW 264.7 cells, SHXT (20-200 microg/ml) dose-dependently inhibited LPS (1 microg/ml)-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression, and it also significantly decreased LPS-induced cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our data suggest that SHXT prevented LPS-induced arterial hypotension, which might be mediated through its inhibition activities on the expression of iNOS and COX-2, cytokines formation and PGE2 production. Therefore, its protection activity against LPS-induced arterial hypotension and inflammatory mediators release might be beneficial in the treatment of endotoxin shock and/or associated inflammation. PMID:15588656

Lo, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Pei-Ling; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Shen, Kuo-Pyng; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Lai, Yung-Hsiung; Chen, Ing-Jun

2005-01-01

207

Intracranial hypotension as a complication of lumbar puncture prior to elective aneurysm clipping  

PubMed Central

Background: Lumbar dural defects are an uncommon but important cause of persistent intracranial hypotension in the neurosurgical population. We present a case of intracranial hypotension after elective craniotomy due to a lumbar puncture performed 3 weeks earlier. Case Description: A 55-year-old female underwent uneventful craniotomy for clipping of an unruptured left middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm. Postoperatively, the patient showed a gaze deviation and failed to wake up. Computed tomography demonstrated significant postoperative pneumocephalus. Family members indicated that the patient underwent a lumbar puncture 3 weeks prior to surgery to rule out a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The excessive pneumocephalus was initially interpreted as a result of spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak, and the patient was placed in the Trendelenburg position. This positioning resulted in some improvement in her mental status, although she was unable to tolerate any subsequent elevation in the head of her bed. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of her spinal axis did not demonstrate any evidence of cerebrospinal fluid leak, but a subsequent lumbar blood patch resulted in rapid and dramatic improvement in the patient's status. She was subsequently discharged after an uneventful hospital stay. Conclusion: Although uncommon, persistent intracranial hypotension caused by lumbar dural defects must be considered in patients who have recently undergone procedures that compromise the lumbar dura because prompt intervention can significantly improve the patient's condition. PMID:25324976

Guan, Jian; Couldwell, William T.; Taussky, Philipp

2014-01-01

208

Medial prefrontal cortex acetylcholine injection-induced hypotension: the role of hindlimb vasodilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The injection of acetylcholine (ACh) into the cingulate region of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) causes a marked fall in arterial blood pressure which is not accompanied by changes in heart rate. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hemodynamic basis for this stimulus-induced hypotension in Sprague-Dawley rats. The study was designed to determine whether a change in the vascular resistance of hindlimb, renal or mesenteric vascular beds contributes to the fall in arterial pressure in response to ACh injection into the cingulate cortex. Miniature pulsed-Doppler flow probes were used to measure changes in regional blood flow and vascular resistance. The results indicated that the hypotensive response was largely due to a consistent and marked vasodilation in the hindlimb vascular bed. On this basis, an additional experiment was then undertaken to determine the mechanisms that contribute to hindlimb vasodilation. The effect of interrupting the autonomic innervation of one leg on the hindlimb vasodilator response was tested. Unilateral transection of the lumbar sympathetic chain attenuated the cingulate ACh-induced vasodilation in the ipsilateral, but not in the contralateral hindlimb. These results suggest that the hypotensive response to cingulate cortex-ACh injection is caused by skeletal muscle vasodilation mediated by a sympathetic chain-related vasodilator system.

Crippa, G. E.; Lewis, S. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Correa, F. M.

2000-01-01

209

Multiple opioid receptors mediate the hypotensive response induced by central 5-HT(3) receptor stimulation.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to investigate the role of brain ?, ? and ? opioid receptors in the central serotonergic mechanisms regulating blood pressure in rats. The data obtained show that: (1) pharmacological activation of central 5-HT(3) receptors yields a significant decrease in blood pressure; (2) the blockade of those receptors by a selective antagonist induces an acute hypertensive response; (3) the pharmacological blockade of central opioid receptors by three different opioid antagonists exhibiting variable degrees of selectivity to ?, ? and ? opioid receptors always suppressed the hypotensive response induced by central 5-HT(3) receptor stimulation; (4) the blockade of opioid receptors by the same opioid antagonists that impaired the hypotensive effect of central 5-HT(3) receptor stimulation failed to modify blood pressure in animals not submitted to pharmacological manipulations of central 5-HT(3) receptor function. It is shown that a 5-HT(3) receptor-dependent mechanism seems to be part of the brain serotonergic system that contributes to cardiovascular regulation since the hypertensive response observed after ondansetron administration indicates that central 5-HT(3) receptors exert a tonic inhibitory drive on blood pressure. Furthermore, the data obtained here clearly indicate that the hypotensive response observed after pharmacological stimulation of central 5-HT(3) receptors depends on the functional integrity of brain ?, ? and ? opioid receptors, suggesting that a functional interaction between serotonergic and opiatergic pathways in the brain is part of the complex, multifactorial system that regulates blood pressure in the central nervous system. PMID:21514668

Fregoneze, J B; Oliveira, E F; Ribeiro, V F; Ferreira, H S; De Castro E Silva, E

2011-06-01

210

2-bromoethylamine, a suicide inhibitor of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase, increases hydralazine hypotension in rats.  

PubMed

Previous work has shown that inhibitors of the predominantly vascular enzyme semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) potentiate the hypotensive response to hydralazine, itself a SSAO inhibitor, in anesthetized rats. The present study was carried out to determine whether the recently described suicide SSAO inhibitor 2-bromoethylamine shares this effect. Hypotensive responses to hydralazine, 0.1 mg/kg IV, were obtained in chloralose-urethane-anesthetized rats, either unpretreated or receiving bromoethylamine at different doses and pretreatment intervals. Parallel experiments were run with semicarbazide, the prototypical hydrazine SSAO inhibitor. Both inhibitors potentiated hydralazine hypotension, bromoethylamine having a longer latency and a shorter duration of action than semicarbazide. High doses of bromoethylamine did not produce potentiation, a phenomenon attributed to SSAO inactivation by excess substrate and decreased formation by the enzyme of the inhibitor product. Experiments with combined administration of both inhibitors were also carried out. When semicarbazide was administered before bromoethylamine, potentiaton was prevented, apparently by a mechanism similar to the above; when it was given after the amine, potentiation was increased. This was attributed to enzyme inhibition by interaction with 2 different active sites. The charactertistics of hydralazine potentiation by bromoethylamine were considered compatible with the mechanism of SSAO inhibition by the amine. PMID:16116337

Vidrio, Horacio; Medina, Martha

2005-09-01

211

Presentations from the SNM NCI Workshop: Use of PET CT in the Clinic and Clinical Trials: Quantitation for Change Analysis  

Cancer.gov

The session was aimed at physicians and physicists with an interest in the use of PET CT and other imaging modalities in clinical trials and clinical medicine. A basic understanding of PET imaging principles is useful as a background for viewing this material.

212

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the scalp: A rare differential with a dramatic clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) a pleomorphic sarcoma of uncertain origin was first described by O’Brien and Stout in 1964. It is the most common primary soft tissue sarcoma of late adult life; its occurrence is rare in the pediatric population. MFHs are commonly known to arise in the extremities and the trunk although it can occur almost anywhere in the body. MFH of the scalp is extremely rare; moreover, there is paucity of literature with regards to prevalence of scalp and skull neoplasms. We present an unusual case of a primary MFH involving the scalp of a 5-year-old child and discuss its unusual clinical presentation, histology with immunohistochemistry correlation and its management. Reviewing the literature of primary MFH of the scalp, our patient to the best of our knowledge, is probably the youngest case reported so far. PMID:25336806

Krishnamurthy, Arvind

2014-01-01

213

Renal failure: unusual clinical presentation of an isolated intrarenal hydatid cyst.  

PubMed

Cystic echinococcosis or hydatid disease is a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by larval stage of cestode Echinococcus spp. Humans are an accidental intermediate host and present with the involvement of different organs, the liver being the most common while kidney is the rarest site. Here, authors are reporting a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with renal failure and was found to have a right-sided intrarenal hydatid cyst, diagnosed and treated with nephroscopy without sacrificing the kidney. She had an uneventful postoperative course and her renal function improved dramatically. She is now on oral albendazole therapy and doing well on follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, renal failure has never been reported in the literature as clinical manifestation of intrarenal hydatid cyst in adult population. PMID:24243503

Nadeem, Mehwash; Biyabani, Syed Raziuddin; Pervez, Shahid

2013-01-01

214

Tako-tsubo-like syndrome with atypical clinical presentation: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

A 78-year-old woman presented herself at emergency for the appearance of severe dyspnea. An electrocardiogram showed signs of inferior and anterior necrosis, and laboratory tests showed a small increase of myocardial cytonecrosis enzymes. An echocardiogram detected a reduction of global systolic function (ejection fraction [EF] approximately 40%) as well as akinesia of the apex, interventricular septum middle segments, and anterior and anterolateral walls, with basal segments showing compensatory hyperkinesia. The coronarography showed a coronary tree substantially free from significant lesions. The patient was transferred to the cardiology unit of our hospital. Based on the contained increase of the cardiac enzymes, the absence of coronary lesions, and the presence of typical echocardiography alterations, we suspected a Tako-tsubo-like syndrome. On deeper anamnestic investigation, an event of strong emotional stress emerged preceding the hospital admission that confirmed the pathology, even though it is atypical to see clinical presentation a long time after a stressful event. PMID:18388052

Ripa, Chiara; Olivieri, Fabiola; Antonicelli, Roberto

2009-01-01

215

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the scalp: A rare differential with a dramatic clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) a pleomorphic sarcoma of uncertain origin was first described by O'Brien and Stout in 1964. It is the most common primary soft tissue sarcoma of late adult life; its occurrence is rare in the pediatric population. MFHs are commonly known to arise in the extremities and the trunk although it can occur almost anywhere in the body. MFH of the scalp is extremely rare; moreover, there is paucity of literature with regards to prevalence of scalp and skull neoplasms. We present an unusual case of a primary MFH involving the scalp of a 5-year-old child and discuss its unusual clinical presentation, histology with immunohistochemistry correlation and its management. Reviewing the literature of primary MFH of the scalp, our patient to the best of our knowledge, is probably the youngest case reported so far. PMID:25336806

Krishnamurthy, Arvind

2014-10-01

216

Clinical presentation and prognostic factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis according to the focus of infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We conducted a nationwide study in Denmark to identify clinical features and prognostic factors in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae according to the focus of infection. METHODS: Based on a nationwide registration, clinical information's was prospectively collected from all reported cases of pneumococcal meningitis during a 2-year period (1999–2000). Clinical and laboratory findings at admission, clinical course and outcome of

Christian Østergaard; Helle Bossen Konradsen; Susanne Samuelsson

2005-01-01

217

Biliary tract infection and bacteraemia: presentation, structural abnormalities, causative organisms and clinical outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Biliary tract infection is a common cause of bacteraemia and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Few papers describe blood culture isolates, underlying structural abnormalities and clinical outcomes in patients with bacteraemia. Aims To determine the proportion of bacteraemias caused by biliary tract infection and to describe patient demographics, underlying structural abnormalities and clinical outcomes in patients with bacteraemia. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Biliary tract infection that caused bacteraemia was defined as a compatible clinical syndrome and a blood culture isolate consistent with ascending cholangitis. Patients aged 16 years and over were included in the study. From June 2003 to May 2005, demographic and clinical data were collected prospectively on all adult patients with bacteraemia. Radiological and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography findings were collected retrospectively. Results In 49 patients, the biliary tract was the site of infection for 39/592 (6.6%) community?acquired and 19/466 (4.1%) hospital?acquired episodes of bacteraemia. Three patients had mixed bacteraemias, and four had recurrent bacteraemia. The proportion of patients presenting with a structural abnormality was 34/49 (69%), and, of these structural abnormalities, 18/34 (53%) were pre?existing or newly diagnosed malignancies. Gram?negative organisms caused 55/58 (95%) episodes of bacteraemia. The most common Gram?negative organisms were Escherichia coli (34/55; 62%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (14/55; 26%). Of the E coli isolates, 6/34 (18%) were extended spectrum ??lactamase producers or multiply drug resistant. Thirty?day mortality was 7/49 (14%). There was no difference in time taken to administer an effective antibiotic to survivors and non?survivors (0.86 vs 1.05 days, respectively, p?=?0.92). Of the seven who died, four died from septic shock within 48?h of admission caused by “susceptible” Gram?negative organisms. Two others died from disseminated malignancy. Conclusions The proportion of bacteraemias caused by biliary tract infection was 5.5%. The most common infecting organisms were E coli and K pneumoniae. There was a strong association with choledocholithiasis and malignancies, both pre?existing and newly diagnosed. Death was uncommon but when it occurred was often caused by septic shock within 48?h of presentation. PMID:18057178

Melzer, M; Toner, R; Lacey, S; Bettany, E

2007-01-01

218

Multimorbidity of chronic diseases among adult patients presenting to an inner-city clinic in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Very little is known about multimorbidity and chronic diseases in low and middle income countries, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, and more information is needed to guide the process of adapting the health systems in these countries to respond adequately to the increasing burden of chronic diseases. We conducted a hospital-based survey in an urban setting in Ghana to determine the prevalence of multimorbidity and its associated risk factors among adult patients presenting to an inner city clinic. Methods Between May and June 2012, we interviewed adult patients (aged 18 years and above) attending a routine outpatient clinic at an inner-city hospital in Accra using a structured questionnaire. We supplemented the information obtained from the interviews with information obtained from respondents’ health records. We used logistic regression analyses to explore the risk factors for multimorbidity. Results We interviewed 1,527 patients and retrieved matching medical records for 1,399 (91.6%). The median age of participants was 52.1 years (37–64 years). While the prevalence of multimorbidity was 38.8%, around half (48.6%) of the patients with multimorbidity were aged between 18–59 years old. The most common combination of conditions was hypertension and diabetes mellitus (36.6%), hypertension and musculoskeletal conditions (19.9%), and hypertension and other cardiovascular conditions (11.4%). Compared with patients aged 18–39 years, those aged 40–49 years (OR 4.68, 95% CI: 2.98–7.34), 50–59 years (OR 12.48, 95% CI: 8.23–18.92) and 60 years or older (OR 15.80, 95% CI: 10.66–23.42) were increasingly likely to present with multimorbidity. While men were less likely to present with multimorbidity, (OR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.45–0.94, p?=?0.015), having a family history of any chronic disease was predictive of multimorbidity (OR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.03–1.68, p?=?0.027). Conclusions Multimorbidity is a significant problem in this population. By identifying the risk factors for multimorbidity, the results of the present study provide further evidence for informing future policies aimed at improving clinical case management, health education and medical training in Ghana. PMID:24279827

2013-01-01

219

Midodrine as a Countermeasure for Post-Spaceflight Orthostatic Hypotension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One possible mechanism for post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension, which affects approximately 30% of astronauts after short duration shuttle missions, is inadequate norepinephrine release during upright posture. We performed a two phased study to determine the effectiveness of an alpha1-adrenergic agonist, midodrine, as a countermeasure to post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension. The first phase of the study examined the landing day orthostatic responses of six veteran astronauts after oral midodrine (10 mg) administered on the ground within approximately two hours of wheel stop. One female crewmember exhibited orthostatic hypotension in a previous flight but not after midodrine. Five male crewmembers, who did not exhibit orthostatic hypotension during previous flights, also did not show signs of orthostatic hypotension after midodrine. Additionally, phase one showed that midodrine did not cause hypertension in these crewmembers. In the second phase of this study, midodrine is ingested inflight (near time of ignition, TIG) and orthostatic responses are determined immediately upon landing via an 80 degree head-up tilt test performed on the crew transport vehicle (CTV). Four of ten crewmembers have completed phase two of this study. Two crewmembers completed the landing day tilt tests, while two tests were ended early due to presyncopal symptoms. All subjects had decreased landing day stroke volumes and increased heart rates compared to preflight. Midodrine appears to have increased total peripheral resistance in one crewmember who was able to complete the landing day tilt test. The effectiveness of midodrine as a countermeasure to immediate post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension has yet to be determined; interpretation is made more difficult due to low subject number and the lack of control subjects on the CTV.

Stenger, Michael B.; Stein, Sydney P.; Meck, Janice V.; Platts, Steven H.

2008-01-01

220

Foot Small Muscle Atrophy is present before the detection of Clinical Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To characterize structural changes and the metabolic profile in the foot muscles and correlate them with diabetic neuropathy measurements using a phosphorus-31 (31P) rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) MRI method. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve control subjects, nine non-neuropathic and 12 neuropathic diabetic patients were studied using 31P RARE and proton (1H) MRI at 3 Tesla. The ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the foot to that of the muscle tissue was calculated from trans-axial 1H and 31P images. The average 31P concentration across the metatarsal head region was measured from the 31P images. RESULTS The muscle/total-area ratio was different among all three groups: 0.55 ± 0.04 (means ± SD); 0.44 ± 0.05; and 0.06 ± 0.06 for controls, non-neuropathic and neuropathic subjects respectively, (p <0.0001). The average 31P concentration was also different among all groups: 27.7 ± 3.8 mM; 21.7 ± 4.8; and 7.9 ± 8.8 for controls, non-neuropathic and neuropathic subjects respectively, (p <0.0001). The muscle/total-area ratios strongly correlated with clinical measurements: Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS) (r = ?0.83, p <0.0001), Vibration Perception Threshold (VPT) (r= ?0.79, p <0.0001) and Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments (SWM) (r = ?0.87, p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Small muscle atrophy is present in diabetes before clinical peripheral neuropathy can be detected using standard techniques available in clinical practice. The 31P RARE MRI method evaluates the severity of muscle atrophy, even in the early stages when neuropathy is absent. This technique may prove a useful diagnostic tool that can identify early stage diabetic foot problems. PMID:15920063

Greenman, Robert L; Khaodhiar, Lalita; Lima, Christina; Dinh, Thanh; Giurini, John M; Veves, Aristidis

2005-01-01

221

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity: Biochemical, metabolic and clinical presentations  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world. Presentation of the disease ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome that includes central abdominal obesity along with other components. Up to 80% of patients with NAFLD are obese, defined as a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2. However, the distribution of fat tissue plays a greater role in insulin resistance than the BMI. The large amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) individuals contributes to a high prevalence of NAFLD. Free fatty acids derived from VAT tissue, as well as from dietary sources and de novo lipogenesis, are released to the portal venous system. Excess free fatty acids and chronic low-grade inflammation from VAT are considered to be two of the most important factors contributing to liver injury progression in NAFLD. In addition, secretion of adipokines from VAT as well as lipid accumulation in the liver further promotes inflammation through nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways, which are also activated by free fatty acids, and contribute to insulin resistance. Most NAFLD patients are asymptomatic on clinical presentation, even though some may present with fatigue, dyspepsia, dull pain in the liver and hepatosplenomegaly. Treatment for NAFLD and NASH involves weight reduction through lifestyle modifications, anti-obesity medication and bariatric surgery. This article reviews the available information on the biochemical and metabolic phenotypes associated with obesity and fatty liver disease. The relative contribution of visceral and liver fat to insulin resistance is discussed, and recommendations for clinical evaluation of affected individuals is provided. PMID:25071327

Milic, Sandra; Lulic, Davorka; Stimac, Davor

2014-01-01

222

Early- versus late-onset systemic sclerosis: differences in clinical presentation and outcome in 1037 patients.  

PubMed

Peak age at onset of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is between 20 and 50 years, although SSc is also described in both young and elderly patients. We conducted the present study to determine if age at disease onset modulates the clinical characteristics and outcome of SSc patients. The Spanish Scleroderma Study Group recruited 1037 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 6.8 years. Based on the mean ± 1 standard deviation (SD) of age at disease onset (45 ± 15 yr) of the whole series, patients were classified into 3 groups: age ? 30 years (early onset), age between 31 and 59 years (standard onset), and age ? 60 years (late onset). We compared initial and cumulative manifestations, immunologic features, and death rates. The early-onset group included 195 patients; standard-onset group, 651; and late-onset, 191 patients. The early-onset group had a higher prevalence of esophageal involvement (72% in early-onset compared with 67% in standard-onset and 56% in late-onset; p = 0.004), and myositis (11%, 7.2%, and 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.009), but a lower prevalence of centromere antibodies (33%, 46%, and 47%, respectively; p = 0.007). In contrast, late-onset SSc was characterized by a lower prevalence of digital ulcers (54%, 41%, and 34%, respectively; p < 0.001) but higher rates of heart conduction system abnormalities (9%, 13%, and 21%, respectively; p = 0.004). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 25% of elderly patients and in 12% of the youngest patients (p = 0.010). After correction for the population effects of age and sex, standardized mortality ratio was shown to be higher in younger patients. The results of the present study confirm that age at disease onset is associated with differences in clinical presentation and outcome in SSc patients. PMID:24646463

Alba, Marco A; Velasco, César; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Fonollosa, Vicent; Trapiella, Luis; Egurbide, María Victoria; Sáez, Luis; Castillo, María Jesús; Callejas, José Luis; Camps, María Teresa; Tolosa, Carles; Ríos, Juan José; Freire, Mayka; Vargas, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard

2014-03-01

223

Recent advances in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic hypotension is a fall in blood pressure on standing that causes symptoms of dizziness, visual changes, and discomfort in the head and neck. The goal of treatment is the improvement of the patient's functional capacity, rather than a target blood pressure. For treatment to be successful, it must be individualized. Non-pharmalogic interventions include carefully managed exercise, scheduled activities, and monitoring of the environmental temperature. Agents such as fludrocortisone, midodrine, and epoetin alfa offer successful pharmacologic interventions. Although these measures ease the symptoms of orthostatic hypotension, current approaches neither reverse nor stabilize the disease process in autonomic disorders.

Robertson, D.; Davis, T. L.

1995-01-01

224

Hypotensive resuscitation of multiple hemorrhages using crystalloid and colloids.  

PubMed

Hypotensive resuscitation has been advocated as a better means to perform field resuscitation of penetrating trauma. Our hypothesis is that hypotensive resuscitation using either crystalloid or colloid provides equivalent or improved metabolic function while reducing the overall fluid requirement for resuscitation of hemorrhage. We compared hypotensive and normotensive resuscitation of hemorrhage using lactated Ringer's (LR) with hypotensive resuscitation using Hextend (Hex), 6% hetastarch in isotonic buffered saline. Instrumented conscious sheep were hemorrhaged in three separate bleeds, 25 mL/kg at T0 and 5 mL/kg at both T50 and T70. Resuscitation was started at T30 and continued until T180. Hypotensive resuscitation to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 65 mmHg was performed with LR or Hex using a closed-loop resuscitation (CLR) system for a LR-65 and Hex-65 treatment protocol. A control treatment protocol was resuscitation with LR to a MAP target of 90 mmHg, LR-90. All treatment protocols were successfully resuscitated to near target levels. Two animals in the hypotensive treatment protocols died during the second and third bleedings, one in the LR-65 and one in the Hex-65 treatment protocol. Mean infused volumes were 61.4 +/- 11.3, 18.0 +/- 5.9, and 11.6 +/- 1.9 mL/kg in the LR-90, LR-65, and Hex-65 treatments, respectively (*P < 0.05 versus LR-90). Mean minimum base excess (BE) values were +1.9 +/- 1.4, -5.8 +/- 4.3, and -5.9 +/- 4.0 mEq/L in the LR-90, LR-65, and Hex-65 treatments, respectively. Hypotensive resuscitation with LR greatly reduced volume requirements as compared with normotensive resuscitation, and Hex achieved additional volume sparing. However, trends toward lower BE values and the occurrence of deaths only in the hypotensive treatment protocols suggest that resuscitation to a target MAP of 65 mmHg may be too low for optimal outcomes. PMID:15316397

Rafie, Abraham D; Rath, Paul A; Michell, Michael W; Kirschner, Robert A; Deyo, Donald J; Prough, Donald S; Grady, James J; Kramer, George C

2004-09-01

225

Pathological gambling, co-occurring disorders, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes at a university-based counseling clinic.  

PubMed

It is the intent of this study to examine the relationship between the number of co-occurring disorders in a sample of pathological gamblers and variables associated with clinical presentation and treatment outcomes. Participants were given screening tools for four common psychological disorders: the hands depression screen, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Carroll-Davidson generalized anxiety disorder screen, and the Sprint-4 PTSD Screen. The number of co-occurring disorders, as indicated by the results of these screening instruments, was compared to severity of gambling problems at outset of treatment, as measured by the NORC diagnostic screen for gambling problems-self administered. The number of co-occurring disorders was also compared to psychosocial functioning at the outset of treatment, as well as level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through treatment. Psychosocial functioning was measured using the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ-45). The number of co-occurring disorders was compared to participant satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship as measured by the working alliance inventory-short form. Results suggest that co-occurring disorders are commonplace among treatment seeking pathological gamblers. Over 86 % of the sample screened positively for at least one of the four targeted psychological disorders. Furthermore, the number of co-occurring disorders was found to be positively related to severity of gambling problems at outset of treatment and negatively related to level of psychosocial functioning at outset of treatment. However, the number of co-occurring disorders was not found to be significantly related to level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through treatment. Overall, those that attended at least six sessions reported significantly improved psychosocial functioning by the end of their sixth session. Finally, the number of co-occurring disorders was not found to be significantly related to participants' reported level of satisfaction with the therapeutic relationship. PMID:23297170

Soberay, Adam; Faragher, J Michael; Barbash, Melissa; Brookover, Amanda; Grimsley, Paul

2014-03-01

226

First-choice therapy for dogs presenting with diarrhoea in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Computerised referral histories were reviewed for dogs admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital between January 2000 and December 2008 with diarrhoea among the clinical signs. A total of 371 cases presenting to the referring veterinary surgeon were included in the study, and information was compiled regarding signalment, clinical signs and treatment given at the initial consultation. Various breeds, ages and sexes were represented. Antibacterials were used in 263 (71 per cent) cases, steroids in 71 (19 per cent) cases and miscellaneous antidiarrhoeal products (including probiotics, prebiotics, adsorbents and antimotility drugs) in 98 (26 per cent) cases. Other drugs used included antiemetics (48 of 371 [13 per cent] cases), gastric protectants (37 of 371 [10 per cent] cases) and sulfasalazine (26 of 371 [7 per cent] cases). Antibacterial administration was positively associated with hyperthermia (odds ratio [OR]=2.97, P=0.012) and anorexia (OR=2.17, P=0.0075), but negatively associated with both weight loss (OR=0.55, P=0.036) and tenesmus (OR=0.43, P=0.035). In contrast, use of antidiarrhoeal products was positively associated with the presence of faecal mucus (OR=1.77, P=0.043), and negatively associated with vomiting (OR=0.57, P=0.025) and weight loss (OR=0.52, P=0.033). PMID:21262629

German, A J; Halladay, L J; Noble, P-J M

2010-11-20

227

Seasonal trend and clinical presentation of Bacillus cereus bloodstream infection: association with summer and indwelling catheter.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus, an opportunistic pathogen, can cause fatal infection. However, B. cereus bloodstream infections (BSIs) have not been well characterised. From 2008 to 2013, B. cereus isolates from all of the specimens and patients with B. cereus BSIs were identified. Environmental samples were collected to detect B. cereus contamination. We also characterised the clinical presentation of B. cereus BSI through analyses of risk factors for BSI and mortality. A total of 217 clinical B. cereus isolates was detected. Fifty-one patients with nosocomial infections were diagnosed as B. cereus BSI, and 37 had contaminated blood cultures. The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI patients was significantly greater from June to September than from January to April (4.9 vs. 1.5 per month and 1.2 vs. 0.2, respectively). All BSIs were nosocomial and related to central or peripheral vascular catheter. Urinary catheter [odds ratio (OR) 6.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.40-20.0] was the independent risk factor associated with BSI patients when compared to patients regarded as contaminated. In-hospital mortality among BSI patients was 20% and was associated with urinary catheter (OR 34.7, 95 % CI 1.89-63.6) and higher Charlson index (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.26-3.12). The number of B. cereus isolates and BSI increased during summer. Inpatients with indwelling vascular or urinary catheters should be carefully monitored for potential B. cereus BSIs. PMID:24584718

Kato, K; Matsumura, Y; Yamamoto, M; Nagao, M; Ito, Y; Takakura, S; Ichiyama, S

2014-08-01

228

The ESPEN clinical practice Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: present status and perspectives for future research.  

PubMed

The ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition (PN) reflect current scientific knowledge in the field of clinical nutrition in adults. They summarize the indications for PN and its anticipated outcomes in respect of the underlying disease, nutritional status and quality of life. They are companion documents to the ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition and follow the same general format. They address the influence of the underlying disease on the patient's nutritional status, and that of malnutrition on the outcome of the disease. Contraindications to and complications of PN are considered, together with comparative analyses of the roles of the parenteral and enteral routes in different illness states. The quality and strength of the supporting literature has been graded according to the criteria of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Hence, meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials (level of evidence Ia) or at least one randomised clinical trial (level of evidence Ib) translate to a Grade A recommendation. Levels of evidence IIa, IIb and III are attributed respectively to: at least one well-designed controlled trial without randomisation; at least one other type of well-designed, quasi-experimental study; or well-designed non-experimental descriptive studies such as comparative studies, correlation studies, case-control studies; each of these sustains a Grade B recommendation. Grade C recommendations reflect expert opinion and/or the clinical experience of respected authorities (level of evidence IV). Each of the 11 sets of PN Guidelines was devised by an international working group, the total faculty comprising no fewer than 87 experts from 16 European/Mediterranean countries, each group's contributions being co-ordinated by a designated chairman. Once each guideline had been approved by all the members of the relevant working group, this version was reviewed by at least two independent external reviewers (one selected from ESPEN's Education and Clinical Practice Committee, and at least one from outside the ESPEN committee structure). Following this review each guideline was hosted in draft form on the public pages of the ESPEN website for at least one month to permit the receipt of comments or suggestions from any interested party. At this point the Guidelines were reviewed and revised again by the original working group chairman and submitted to the Clinical Nutrition editorial process. At least 3 further reviewers were selected by the Journal's editorial office for each guideline, in line with the normal selection process. Final revisions were performed by the Chairmen of the working groups, and by ourselves as commissioning editors of the whole project. More than 300 evidence-based recommendations are now presented. Fewer than one sixth of the recommendations are Grade A, and disappointingly, but unsurprisingly, more than 50% are Grade C. The need for more and better controlled trials in the field remains apparent. PMID:19523723

Bozzetti, Federico; Forbes, Alastair

2009-08-01

229

When the Heart is Stopped for Good: Hypotension-Bradycardia Paradox Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Critical examination of the pathophysiological mechanism and significance of the hypotension-bradycardia paradox unique to the occurrence of bradycardia/asystole in the wake of hypotension in vasovagal syncope

Dr. E. Sankaranarayanan Prakash (Asian Institute of Medicine, Science, and Technology School of Medicine Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences); Dr. Madanmohan (Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER))

2005-03-01

230

Sex differences in stroke: epidemiology, clinical presentation, medical care, and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Stroke has a greater effect on women than men because women have more events and are less likely to recover. Age-specific stroke rates are higher in men, but, because of their longer life expectancy and much higher incidence at older ages, women have more stroke events than men. With the exception of subarachnoid haemorrhage, there is little evidence of sex differences in stroke subtype or severity. Although several reports found that women are less likely to receive some in-hospital interventions, most differences disappear after age and comorbidities are accounted for. However, sex disparities persist in the use of thrombolytic treatment (with alteplase) and lipid testing. Functional outcomes and quality of life after stroke are consistently poorer in women, despite adjustment for baseline differences in age, prestroke function, and comorbidities. Here, we comprehensively review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, medical care, and outcomes of stroke in women. PMID:18722812

Reeves, Mathew J; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Howard, George; Gargano, Julia Warner; Duncan, Pamela W; Lynch, Gwen; Khatiwoda, Arya; Lisabeth, Lynda

2009-01-01

231

Presenting phenotype and clinical evaluation in a cohort of 22 Williams-Beuren syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS) is a rare multi-system genomic disorder, caused by 7q11.23 microdeletion with a prevalence of 1/7500-1/20,000 live births. Clinical phenotype includes typical facial dysmorphism (elfin face), mental retardation associated with a peculiar neuropsychological profile and congenital heart defects. We investigated 22 WS patients (mean age of 9.7 years, range 1 day to 39 years) with a multi-specialist follow-up protocol comprehensive of neuropsychological, cardiologic, nephrologic, ophthalmologic, endocrinologic, gastroenterologic, odontostomatologic and orthopaedic evaluations. The mean age at diagnosis was 5.38 years, being 1.02 years when genetic evaluation was requested for congenital heart defects (CHD) and 10.68 years in case of mental retardation and/or abnormal neuropsychological profile without an evident CHD. All patients showed facial dysmorphisms, with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) as the most common cardiovascular anomaly (12/22), followed by peripheral pulmonary stenosis (9/22); interestingly, in one patient we detected a total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR), confirming the possible association of this rare CHD with WS. Hypertension was detected by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 7/22 cases. A cognitive assessment was performed in 13 patients older than 6 years, showing various degrees of mental retardation in 12 and a normal intelligence quotient (IQ) in a single patient; evaluation of developmental milestones revealed various grades of developmental delay in all the patients younger than 6 years. Chiari malformation type 1 was found in 3 patients. Our study underlines a remarkable diagnostic delay in patients who present to genetic evaluation because of mental retardation and/or peculiar neuropsychological profile lacking an evident cardiopathy and confirms the multi-systemic nature of WS leading to a high clinical presentation's variability and complex follow-up strategies. PMID:17625998

Ferrero, Giovanni Battista; Biamino, Elisa; Sorasio, Lorena; Banaudi, Elena; Peruzzi, Licia; Forzano, Serena; di Cantogno, Ludovica Verdun; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo

2007-01-01

232

Bilateral blindness following Russell's viper bite - a rare clinical presentation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii) is one of the most common medically important snakes reported in Sri Lanka. Its envenomation leads to significant mortality and morbidity with local, hematological, neurological and renal complications. Here we report the case of a patient who presented with bilateral blindness secondary to a bilateral posterior circulation ischemic stroke instead of the usual neurological manifestations of Russell’s viper envenomation. There were no reported cases of cortical blindness following a Russell’s viper bite. Only a few reported cases of ischemic strokes following a Russell’s viper bite were found in the literature. Case presentation A 54-year-old Sri Lankan woman developed bilateral blindness due to a posterior circulation infarct following Russell’s viper envenomation. Conclusion Ischemic stroke following a Russell’s viper bite is very rare and cortical blindness is not reported as the clinical presentation. Also, we emphasize the importance of considering the possibility of ischemic stroke in patients who develop unusual neurological manifestations following Russell’s viper envenomation. PMID:24661603

2014-01-01

233

Pseudozoster clinical presentation of Demodex infestation after prolonged topical steroid use.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old man presented with a plaque lesion on the upper right half of the face, which had developed after ophthalmic varicella zoster infection about 2 years previously. The lesion, which was burning and itchy, included a few tiny erythematous pustules, and was slightly squamous and infiltrated. The lesion covered the upper two-thirds of the right trigeminal nerve dermatome, involving half of the face with the forehead, the periorbital area, upper part of the cheek and the nose. The lesion became more marked after continuous topical anaesthetic and corticosteroid use. A standardized skin-surface biopsy was taken, and revealed a large number of Demodex folliculorum (38/cm(2)) in the lesion area. The lesions completely abated after topical 5% permethrin treatment, and no recurrence was observed during follow-up. Demodicosis may have atypical clinical presentations, other than the well-known classic forms. To our knowledge, this is the first unilateral trigeminal, pseudozoster presentation in the literature. PMID:18684117

Karincaoglu, Y; Tepe, B; Kalayci, B; Seyhan, M

2008-11-01

234

Delayed presentation of splenic rupture following colonoscopy: clinical and CT findings.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical and CT findings in patients with symptomatic colonoscopy-induced splenic rupture, and to assess for common features among this cohort. Multi-center search yielded 11 adults with symptomatic splenic injury related to colonoscopy. Workup included abdominal CT in 10 (91%) cases and abdominal radiography in two patients (one patient had both). Colonoscopy findings, post-procedural course, and CT findings were systematically reviewed. Mean patient age was 62.2 years (range, 51-84 years); 8 (73%) of 11 were female. The majority (64%) of colonoscopies were for screening. No immediate complications were reported at optical colonoscopy; tortuosity/redundancy was noted in five cases. Except for a small (8 mm) polyp in one case and a large (10 mm) polyp in another, the remaining nine patients had either diminutive or no polyps. Only one patient presented with hemodynamic instability during post-colonoscopy recovery; the other ten had a delayed presentation ranging from 8 h to 8 days (mean, 2.1 days). All 11 patients presented with abdominal pain. CT was diagnostic for splenic injury with subcaspular and/or perisplenic hematoma in all ten CT cases. Hemoperitoneum was present in eight, visible splenic laceration in three cases, and splenic artery pseudoaneurysm in one case. Five patients underwent splenectomy (four emergent) and six patients were treated conservatively. Average hospital stay was 5.5 days (range, 3-10 days). Colonoscopy-induced splenic rupture characteristically presents as a delayed and often serious complication. In cases of apparent non-traumatic splenic hematoma or rupture at CT, eliciting a history of recent colonoscopy may identify the etiology. PMID:21887533

Fishback, Shelby J; Pickhardt, Perry J; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Menias, Christine O; Congdon, Robert G; Macari, Michael

2011-12-01

235

Temazepam, but not zolpidem, causes orthostatic hypotension in astronauts after spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insomnia is a common symptom, not only in the adult population but also in many astronauts. Hypnotics, such as temazepam (a benzodiazepine) and zolpidem (an imidazopyridine), are often taken to relieve insomnia. Temazepam has been shown clinically to have hemodynamic side effects, particularly in the elderly; however, the mechanism is not clear. Zolpidem does not cause hemodynamic side effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of different hypnotics during spaceflight might contribute significantly to the high incidence of postflight orthostatic hypotension, and to compare the findings in astronauts with clinical research. Astronauts were separated into three groups: control (n = 40), temazepam (15 or 30 mg; n = 9), and zolpidem (5 or 10 mg; n = 8). In this study, temazepam and zolpidem were only taken the night before landing. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates of the astronauts were measured during stand tests before spaceflight and on landing day. On landing day, systolic pressure decreased significantly and heart rate increased significantly in the temazepam group, but not in the control group or in the zolpidem group. Temazepam may aggravate orthostatic hypotension after spaceflight when astronauts are hemodynamically compromised. Temazepam should not be the initial choice as a sleeping aid for astronauts. These results in astronauts may help to explain the hemodynamic side effects in the elderly who are also compromised. Zolpidem may be a better choice as a sleeping aid in these populations.

Shi, Shang-Jin; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Meck, Janice V.

2003-01-01

236

Left-Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction as a Risk Factor for Dialytic Hypotension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Intradialytic hypotension may adversely affect the outcome of chronic hemodialysis and thus reduce the patients’ life expectancy. The aim of this study was to assess the link between left-ventricular diastolic dysfunction and dialytic hypotension. Methods: We performed a prospective cross-sectional study of 72 hemodialysis patients with a low dialysis vintage, 36 of whom had dialysis hypotension, based on echocardiography

Guy Rostoker; Mireille Griuncelli; Christelle Loridon; Abbès Benmaadi; Eric Illouz

2009-01-01

237

Premonitory Pain Preceding Swelling: A Distinctive Clinical Presentation of Synovial Sarcoma which may Prompt Early Detection  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to document the unusual presentation of long-standing pain at the tumour site before development of a swelling in patients with synovial sarcoma. Patients/methods and results: The clinical presentation of 53 patients with synovial sarcoma was compared with 56 randomly selected patients with other sarcomas of the trunk and extremities. The two groups were similar with regard to age (P = 0.980), sex (P = 0.784) duration of symptoms (P = 0.697), size (P = 0.931) and site of tumour (P = 0.288). Sixteen (30.2%) patients with synovial sarcoma had pain before development of a swelling compared to two (3.6%) patients with other sarcomas (P < 0.001, odds ratio = 11.68, 95% confidence interval 2.53, 53.83). The mean duration of such pain was 37 months (median 24, range 6–120 months). The nature of the pain was variable. Eight patients had sharply localised tenderness. Calcification seen in the X-rays of four patients was initially misdiagnosed as benign lesions. A swelling was ultimately detected by MRI, CT, ultrasound or at physical examination. The mean duration from first presentation with pain till diagnosis of synovial sarcoma was 20 months. In three patients, at explorative surgery there was friable, vascular or necrotic tissue in the absence of a well-defined tumour mass. Discussion: The occurrence of long-standing pain at the tumour site prior to development of a swelling is significantly more common with synovial sarcomas than with other sarcomas. Awareness of this unusual presentation and appropriate investigation may enable detection of synovial sarcoma at a prognostically favourable early stage. PMID:18521377

De Silva, M. V. Chandu; Barrett, Ann

2003-01-01

238

Niemann-Pick disease type B: an unusual clinical presentation with multiple vertebral fractures.  

PubMed

We report here a unique case of a 55-year-old woman presenting with a clinical picture of Parkinson disease, severe back pain, splenomegaly, and pronounced dyspnea. Radiographic examination of the spine showed multiple vertebral fractures. Niemann-Pick disease type B was diagnosed by findings of lipid-loaded histiocytes and a strongly reduced sphingomyelinase enzyme activity. She was homozygous for the deletion of codon 608 (delR608), which encodes an arginine residue in the Acid Sphingomyelinase gene. To investigate the cause of the unusual vertebral fractures, we screened for polymorphisms previously described as possibly associated with increased risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Our patient was heterozygous for the polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene, the estrogen receptor gene, and the collagen 1A1gene. Increased physical activity after Parkinson treatment, a genetic predisposition, together with worsening disease due to interfering medications could explain the dramatic presentation of this patient. She was treated with cholesterol lowering drugs such as statins to decrease sphingomyelin synthesis, avoidance of drugs that inhibit sphingomyelinase, and bisphosphonates. No new fractures have occurred, but the interstitial lung disease has progressed. PMID:11932991

Volders, P; Van Hove, J; Lories, R J U; Vandekerckhove, Ph; Matthijs, G; De Vos, R; Vanier, M T; Vincent, M F; Westhovens, R; Luyten, F P

2002-04-15

239

Additional diverse findings expand the clinical presentation of DOCK8 deficiency.  

PubMed

We describe seven Turkish children with DOCK8 deficiency who have not been previously reported. Three patients presented with typical features of recurrent or severe cutaneous viral infections, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections. However, four patients presented with other features. Patient 1-1 featured sclerosing cholangitis and colitis; patient 2-1, granulomatous soft tissue lesion and central nervous system involvement, with primary central nervous system lymphoma found on follow-up; patient 3-1, a fatal metastatic leiomyosarcoma; and patient 4-2 showed no other symptoms initially besides atopic dermatitis. Similar to other previously reported Turkish patients, but in contrast to patients of non-Turkish ethnicity, the patients' lymphopenia was primarily restricted to CD4(+) T cells. Patients had homozygous mutations in DOCK8 that altered splicing, introduced premature terminations, destabilized protein, or involved large deletions within the gene. Genotyping of remaining family members showed that DOCK8 deficiency is a fully penetrant, autosomal recessive disease. In our patients, bone marrow transplantation resulted in rapid improvement followed by disappearance of viral skin lesions, including lesions resembling epidermodysplasia verruciformis, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent infections. Particularly for patients who feature unusual clinical manifestations, immunological testing, in conjunction with genetic testing, can prove invaluable in diagnosing DOCK8 deficiency and providing potentially curative treatment. PMID:22476911

Sanal, Ozden; Jing, Huie; Ozgur, Tuba; Ayvaz, Deniz; Strauss-Albee, Dara M; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Tezcan, Ilhan; Turkkani, Gulten; Matthews, Helen F; Haliloglu, Goknur; Yuce, Aysel; Yalcin, Bilgehan; Gokoz, Ozay; Oguz, Kader K; Su, Helen C

2012-08-01

240

Clinical and Histological Presentation of Helicobacter pylori and Gluten Related Gastroenteropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Celiac disease has been reported to be associated with gastric abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the prevalence of celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori infection in an Iranian population of 250 patients. Methods Biopsies were taken from the gastric antrum and duodenum. Morphology and histology were evaluated using the updated Sydney system and modified Marsh criteria, respectively. To simplify the interpretation of gastric lesions we classified gastritis in macroscopic and microscopic stages. Serology for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody was performed to determine the presence of celiac disease. Results Among 250 patients, 232 (93%) had histological evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Histological abnormalities (Marsh I to IIIc) were present in 24 (10%). Of 24 patients, 20 (83%) with histological abnormalities were infected with Helicobacter pylori. Of 250 patients, 25 (10%) had a positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody. Of 25 anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody positive patients, 9 (3.6%) had microscopic and macroscopic enteritis (Marsh I to IIIc). Conclusions Clinical presentation of celiac disease was not distinguishable from cases infected with Helicobacter pylori. Histology, even in patients with positive serology, was non-specific and unhelpful. We found a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic gastritis, but neither was associated with celiac disease, in agreement with studies in Western populations. PMID:21361718

Nejad, Mohammad Rostami; Rostami, Kamran; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mashayekhi, Reza; Molaei, Mahsa; Dabiri, Hossein; Al Dulaimi, David; Mirsattari, Dariush; Zojaji, Homayoun; Norouzinia, Mohsen; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2011-01-01

241

Orthostatic Hypotension Occurs Frequently in the First Hour After Anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms of orthostatic intolerance are common af- ter general anesthesia and are associated with an in- creased risk of postoperative morbidity. The contri- bution of orthostatic hypotension (OH) has not been well defined. We conducted a head-up tilt test on pa- tients after general anesthesia for minor surgery to assess the incidence of and risk factors for OH after general

Dean A. Cowie; J. Kevin Shoemaker; Adrian W. Gelb

2004-01-01

242

Midodrine as a Countermeasure for Post-spaceflight Orthostatic Hypotension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Up to 30 % of astronauts exhibit post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension due to inadequate norepinephrine release during upright posture following short duration spaceflight. We hypothesize that the (alpha)1-adrenergic agonist midodrine will be an effective countermeasure. This study is being conducted in 2 phases. The first phase is complete and consisted testing six short duration crew members. All of these subjects participated in preflight and postflight tilt testing on a control flight as well as on the test flights, where midodrine was administered after landing, 1 hour before testing. Hemodynamic variables were compared between the 2 flights. Midodrine improved stroke volume, cardiac output, systolic pressure and heart rate, without increasing vascular resistance. None of these subjects experienced orthostatic hypotension on landing day. Phase II is similar to phase I, except that midodrine is ingested in flight (near TIG) and the tilt test is performed immediately after landing on the CTV. One crewmember has completed phase II testing. This crewmember had no evidence of orthostatic hypotension or presyncope, four additional crewmembers have volunteered for this study. To date, midodrine has been shown to be a safe and effective countermeasure to post-spaceflight orthostatic hypotension.

Platts, Steven H.; Ziegler, Michael G.; Waters, Wendy W.; Meck, Janice V.

2007-01-01

243

Atrial natriuretic peptide blocks renin response to renal hypotension  

SciTech Connect

The authors have reported that the renin response to systemic hypotension is inhibited in the presence of elevated atrial pressure and that elevations in atrial pressure of similar or larger magnitude cause graded increases in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Therefore they tested the hypothesis that comparable increments in plasma ANP can inhibit renal hypotension-induced increases in plasma renin activity (PRA) in conscious dogs. Renal perfusion pressure was controlled using cuffs implanted around the abdominal aorta just above the renal arteries. Reducing renal perfusion pressure by 10 or 30% of control caused graded increases in PRA. Infusion of 1-28 rat ANP, which increased plasma ANP by 34.8 +/- 7.5 (SE) pg/ml, eliminated increases in PRA in response to a 10% reduction in renal perfusion pressure and markedly inhibited the response to a 30% pressure reduction. ANP and PRA were measured by radioimmunoassay. These results indicate that increments in plasma ANP which reproduce endogenous release inhibit renal hypotension-induced stimulation of PRA. Furthermore, the results provide an explanation for the inhibition of the renin response to renal hypotension during elevate atrial pressure.

Scheuer, D.A.; Thrasher, T.N.; Quillen, E.W. Jr.; Metzler, C.H.; Ramsay, D.J.

1987-02-01

244

Pulmonary embolism, part I: Epidemiology, risk factors and risk stratification, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary embolism is an important clinical entity with considerable mortality despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. In the present article, the authors offer a comprehensive review focused mainly on epidemiology, risk factors, risk stratification, pathophysiological considerations and clinical presentation. Diagnosis based on assessment of clinical likelihood, electrocardiography, chest x-ray, D-dimer levels, markers of myocardial injury and overload, and blood gases is discussed in detail. Special attention is devoted to the clinical use of computed tomography, pulmonary angiography and echocardiography in the setting of pulmonary embolism. PMID:23940438

Belohlavek, Jan; Dytrych, Vladimir; Linhart, Ales

2013-01-01

245

Functional characterization of novel telomerase RNA (TERC) mutations in patients with diverse clinical and pathological presentations  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Functional characterization of heterozygous TERC (telomerase RNA component) and TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) mutations found in autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita (DC) and aplastic anemia (AA) shows that telomerase function is defective and that this is associated with short telomeres. This leads to reduced cell longevity with maximal impact on tissues with high proliferate potential. The aim of this study was to establish the role of TERC in the pathophysiology of uncharacterized patients with AA with some features of DC. Design and Methods The TERC gene was screened for mutations by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography. To determine the functional significance of TERC mutations telomerase activity was assessed in an in vitro (TRAP) assay and telomere length of patients’ samples was determined using Southern blot analysis. Results This study led to the identification of four novel TERC mutations (G178A, C180T, ?52-86 and G2C) and a recurrent TERC mutation (?110-113GACT). Interpretation and Conclusions Two of the de novo TERC mutations (G178A and C180T) found uniquely produce a clinical phenotype in the first generation, differing from previously published cases in which individuals in the first generation are usually asymptomatic. Curiously these mutations are located near the triple-helix domain of TERC. We also observed that the recurrent ?110-113GACT can present with AA, myelodysplasia or leukemia. The ?52-86 is associated with varied phenotypes including pulmonary disease (pulmonary fibrosis) as the first presentation. In summary, this study reports the functional characterization of several novel TERC mutations associated with varied hematologic and extra-hematologic presentations. PMID:17640862

Marrone, Anna; Sokhal, Priya; Walne, Amanda; Beswick, Richard; Kirwan, Michael; Killick, Sally; Williams, Mike; Marsh, Judith; Vulliamy, Tom; Dokal, Inderjeet

2010-01-01

246

Clinical presentation and molecular basis of congenital antithrombin deficiency in children: a cohort study.  

PubMed

In this study we report the largest descriptive cohort of congenital antithrombin (AT) deficiency in children, its clinical presentation, molecular basis and genotype-phenotype correlation. Paediatric patients diagnosed with AT deficiency at two tertiary care children's hospitals over a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. SERPINC1 gene sequencing was offered to subjects who did not already have the test performed. Molecular modelling and stability simulations were performed for the novel mutations identified. Twenty-nine subjects from 18 pedigrees were identified. Mean age (± standard deviation) at diagnosis and mean duration of follow-up were 8.4 (± 6.6 years and 6.6 (± 5.7 years respectively. Most recent mean AT activity and AT antigen levels (n = 20) were 0.5 (± 0.0) iu/ml and 0.6 (± 0.1) iu/ml respectively. Ten subjects were diagnosed secondary to low AT activity measured following venous thrombo-embolism (VTE). All 10 subjects had additional risk factors at the time of VTE. None of the 19 subjects diagnosed with AT deficiency in the setting of positive family history have had VTE with 7.4 (± 5.8) years follow-up. Mutation analysis has been completed on 19 subjects from 16 pedigrees. Nine unique mutations, including 4 novel mutations were identified. PMID:24684277

Kumar, Riten; Chan, Anthony K C; Dawson, Jennifer E; Forman-Kay, Julie D; Kahr, Walter H A; Williams, Suzan

2014-07-01

247

Prognostic features and clinical presentation of acute idiopathic enterocolitis in horses.  

PubMed

Clinical and hematological changes observed on presentation of 47 horses referred to the Ontario Veterinary College with acute idiopathic colitis were analyzed for their prognostic features. Cases of acute enterocolitis were characterized by fever, dehydration, abnormalities of serum electrolyte concentrations, azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and increased serum concentrations of muscle enzymes. Severely dehydrated horses were seven times more likely to die or be euthanized than those that were not dehydrated. Other factors associated with failure to survive included the following: increased hematocrit, increased number of band neutrophils, increased serum creatinine and urea concentrations, and decreased blood pH and increasingly negative base excess. The results of multivariate variable analysis (stepwise logistic regression) suggested that, among the variables tested, base excess was the best predictor of death or survival. Twenty of 47 horses died or were euthanized. Reasons for death or euthanasia included: severe disseminated intravascular coagulation, unresponsiveness of severe metabolic acidosis and hypoproteinemia to treatments, and severity of colonic lesions on exploratory laparotomy. Of the surviving horses, three developed chronic laminitis (two were destroyed) and five developed jugular vein thrombosis. Fourteen of 16 horses for which subsequent histories were available returned to normal function.Early recognition of the disease, combined with early and aggressive correction of dehydration and of acid-base imbalance, may be important determinants of survival in horses with acute idiopathic colitis. PMID:17423769

Staempfli, H R; Townsend, H G; Prescott, J F

1991-04-01

248

Clinical Presentation and Microarray Analysis of Peruvian Children with Atypical Development and/or Aberrant Behavior  

PubMed Central

We report our experience with high resolution microarray analysis in infants and young children with developmental disability and/or aberrant behavior enrolled at the Centro Ann Sullivan del Peru in Lima, Peru, a low income country. Buccal cells were collected with cotton swabs from 233 participants for later DNA isolation and identification of copy number variation (deletions/duplications) and regions of homozygosity (ROH) for estimating consanguinity status in 15 infants and young children (12 males, 3 females; mean age ± SD = 28.1?m ± ?7.9?m; age range 14?m–41?m) randomly selected for microarray analysis. An adequate DNA yield was found in about one-half of the enrolled participants. Ten participants showed deletions or duplications containing candidate genes reported to impact behavior or cognitive development. Five children had ROHs which could have harbored recessive gene alleles contributing to their clinical presentation. The coefficient of inbreeding was calculated and three participants showed first-second cousin relationships, indicating consanguinity. Our preliminary study showed that DNA isolated from buccal cells using cotton swabs was suboptimal, but yet in a subset of participants the yield was adequate for high resolution microarray analysis and several genes were found that impact development and behavior and ROHs identified to determine consanguinity status.

Butler, Merlin G.; Usrey, Kelly; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

2014-01-01

249

Chronic hepatitis in the English springer spaniel: clinical presentation, histological description and outcome  

PubMed Central

Medical records and liver histology of 68 English springer spaniels (ESS) with a histological diagnosis of CH were reviewed retrospectively. PCR was performed on liver tissue for canine adenovirus-1 (CAV-1), canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus and pathogenic Leptospira species. Follow-up information was obtained to calculate survival times. Median age at presentation was three years seven months (range, seven months to eight years five months) and there were 48 female and 20 male dogs. Clinical signs were non-specific and five dogs were asymptomatic. All dogs had an increase in serum activity of one or more hepatobiliary enzymes. Histopathology demonstrated hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis with varying amounts of fibrosis. A predominantly lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate throughout the hepatic parenchyma was found in all 68 dogs, but 45 of these dogs also had a neutrophilic component to the inflammatory infiltrate. There was no significant copper accumulation and no aetiological agent was identified by PCR. The median survival time was 189 days (range, 1 to 1211 days), 38 dogs died within three months and 12 dogs survived more than a year following diagnosis. PMID:21852307

Bexfield, N. H.; Andres-Abdo, C.; Scase, T. J.; Constantino-Casas, F.; Watson, P. J.

2011-01-01

250

Chronic hepatitis in the English springer spaniel: clinical presentation, histological description and outcome.  

PubMed

Medical records and liver histology of 68 English springer spaniels (ESS) with a histological diagnosis of CH were reviewed retrospectively. PCR was performed on liver tissue for canine adenovirus-1 (CAV-1), canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus and pathogenic Leptospira species. Follow-up information was obtained to calculate survival times. Median age at presentation was three years seven months (range, seven months to eight years five months) and there were 48 female and 20 male dogs. Clinical signs were non-specific and five dogs were asymptomatic. All dogs had an increase in serum activity of one or more hepatobiliary enzymes. Histopathology demonstrated hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis with varying amounts of fibrosis. A predominantly lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate throughout the hepatic parenchyma was found in all 68 dogs, but 45 of these dogs also had a neutrophilic component to the inflammatory infiltrate. There was no significant copper accumulation and no aetiological agent was identified by PCR. The median survival time was 189 days (range, 1 to 1211 days), 38 dogs died within three months and 12 dogs survived more than a year following diagnosis. PMID:21852307

Bexfield, N H; Andres-Abdo, C; Scase, T J; Constantino-Casas, F; Watson, P J

2011-10-15

251

Literature Review and Clinical Presentation of Cervical Spondylitis Due to Salmonella Enteritidis in Immunocompetent  

PubMed Central

A 48-year-old woman was presented to our clinic with some fever and neck pains for about one month. Based on the symptoms and results of image, an empirical diagnosis of tuberculous cervical spondylitis was made. The pain was not significantly decreased after anti-tuberculosis therapy. And, 3 weeks later, she was re-admitted to our hospital for the unbearable pain. An exploration of the C4/5 by the anterior medial approach was recommended to evaluate the germ and debridement. Bacteriological tests showed that the pathogen was Salmonella Enteritidis. The pain was relieved significantly after operation and sensitive antibiotic treatments. Infections with Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Paratyphi have been well-documented, while there are few reports of cervical spondylitis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis. We reported a case of a healthy woman with whom pyogenic cervical spondylitis of Salmonella Enteritidis was corroborated and treated and reviewed according to previous reports about spondylitis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis in the literature. PMID:24761205

Feng, Zhi-Yun; Guo, Fang

2014-01-01

252

Gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas. An update in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Gelastic seizures are epileptic events characterized by bouts of laughter. Laughter-like vocalization is usually combined with facial contraction in the form of a smile. Autonomic features such as flushing, tachycardia, and altered respiration are widely recognized. Conscious state may not be impaired, although this is often difficult to asses particularly in young children. Gelastic seizures have been associated classically to hypothalamic hamartomas, although different extrahypothalamic localizations have been described. Hypothalamic hamartomas are rare congenital lesions presenting with the classic triad of gelastic epilepsy, precocious puberty and developmental delay. The clinical course of patients with gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas is progressive, commencing with gelastic seizures in infancy, deteriorating into more complex seizure disorder resulting in intractable epilepsy. Electrophysiological, radiological, and pathophysiological studies have confirmed the intrinsic epileptogenicity of the hypothalamic hamartoma. Currently the most effective surgical approach is the trancallosal anterior interforniceal approach, however newer approaches including the endoscopic and other treatment such as radiosurgery and gamma knife have been used with success. This review focuses on the syndrome of gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas, but it also reviews other concepts such as status gelasticus and some aspects of gelastic seizures in other locations. PMID:19337448

Téllez-Zenteno, José F; Serrano-Almeida, Cesar; Moien-Afshari, Farzad

2008-01-01

253

Gender-related variation in the clinical presentation and outcomes of critical limb ischemia  

PubMed Central

Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a major cause of limb loss and mortality among patients with advanced peripheral artery disease. Our objective was to evaluate the gender-specific differences in patient characteristics and clinical outcomes among patients with CLI. We performed a retrospective analysis of 97 women and 122 men presenting with CLI who underwent angiography from 2006 to 2010. Baseline demographics, procedural details, and lesion characteristics were assessed for each patient. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to assess long-term patient and lesion-level outcomes. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between gender and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Compared to men, women were less likely to have a history of coronary artery disease (39% vs 54%, p = 0.02) or diabetes (57% vs 70%, p = 0.05) but had similar baseline medical therapy. At angiography, women were more likely to have significant femoropopliteal (77% vs 67%, p = 0.02) and multi-level infrainguinal disease (63% vs 51%, p = 0.02). Women were also more likely to undergo multi-vessel percutaneous intervention (69% vs 55%, p = 0.05), but had similar rates of limb salvage after percutaneous intervention or surgical bypass (HR 0.94 [95% CI 0.45–1.94], p = 0.9). During follow-up, women had higher rates of subsequent major adverse cardiovascular events (HR 1.63 [95% CI 1.01–2.63], p = 0.04). In conclusion, women with CLI are more likely to present with femoropopliteal and multi-level infrainguinal disease. Despite similar rates of limb salvage, women with CLI have an increased rate of subsequent major adverse cardiovascular events. PMID:23439776

McCoach, Caroline E; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Singh, Satinder; Javed, Usman; Anderson, David; Yeo, Khung Keong; Westin, Gregory G; Hedayati, Nasim; Amsterdam, Ezra A; Laird, John R

2013-01-01

254

Clinical presentation of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in the central nervous system  

PubMed Central

The majority of primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas are diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of T-cell tumor that is rare in the CNS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical presentation and standard therapy of ALCLs by investigating reported cases. Additionally, a case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive ALCL in a 20-year-old man who exhibited no recurrence for >5 years following high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) treatment was described. Twenty-six immunocompetent patients with ALCL of the CNS that were previously reported and 1 case of ALCL of the CNS treated at our hospital were investigated. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed in relation to survival factors such as age, ALK status and the treatment regimen. The male:female ratio of the patients was 19:8. Of the 27 patients, 13 (48.1%) were ALK-positive, 9 (33.3%) were ALK-negative and the ALK status was not determined in the remaining 5 patients (18.5%). ALK-positive ALCL occurred at a younger age (median age, 17 years) and exhibited a favorable course (5-year OS, 75.0%), whereas ALK-negative ALCL presented at an older age (median age, 65 years) and resulted in fatal outcomes (5-year OS, <12.5%). Similar to the findings for systemic ALCL, ALK positivity, age <40 years and chemotherapy are associated with long-term survival for ALCL of the CNS. Chemoradiotherapy including methotrexate is recommended for ALCL and the possibility of treatment with chemotherapy alone for ALK-positive ALCL is currently under consideration. PMID:24649224

NOMURA, MASASHI; NARITA, YOSHITAKA; MIYAKITA, YASUJI; OHNO, MAKOTO; FUKUSHIMA, SHINTARO; MARUYAMA, TAKASHI; MURAGAKI, YOSHIHIRO; SHIBUI, SOICHIRO

2013-01-01

255

Hodgkin's disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: frequency, presentation and clinical outcome.  

PubMed

We report the frequency, presenting characteristics, progression-free survival, event-free survival, overall survival and AIDS-free survival of patients with previously untreated Hodgkin's disease (HD) in the setting of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To accomplish this we retrospectively reviewed all untreated patients presenting to the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center between July 1985 and August 1999 with HD and HIV infection. All available records were reviewed to determine presentation, clinical characteristics, treatment outcome, progression-free survival and overall survival. We identified 887 patients with HD and 3,500 with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL). The ratio of NHL to HD in HIV-negative versus HIV-positive patients was 3.9 versus 6.9, respectively. There were 14 HIV-positive patients with HD and 97 with NHL. The median age of the HIV-positive HD patients was 33 years, and 13 were male. Three patients had Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the time of HD diagnosis, and seven had B-symptoms. Ann Arbor stage was I in one, II in three, III in four and IV in six patients. Mixed cellularity histology was seen in eight, bone marrow involvement in five and extranodal disease in seven patients. Four patients had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase, three low serum albumin, and nine elevated serum beta2-microglobulin, The median CD4 count was 160/microl. Eleven patients received ABVD or equivalent regimens, followed by radiotherapy in five. One patient was treated with COPP and radiotherapy, one with NOVP and radiotherapy and one only with radiotherapy. All patients received some antiretroviral therapy, but it was variable over the years. With a median follow-up of 64 months for survivors, the projected 5-year progression-free survival was 64%, event-free survival 45%, overall survival 54% and AIDS-free survival 45%. Six patients died of complications arising from HIV infection, including one patient who had preexisting AIDS at HD presentation. Two patients died of HD, without developing other conditions diagnostic of AIDS. We conclude that in our referral patient population HIV infection is associated with preferential development of NHL rather than HD, which appears curable with standard treatment regimens. Since HIV-related deaths exceed those caused by HD, future investigation should focus on integration of chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:11378571

Tsimberidou, A M; Sarris, A H; Medeiros, L J; Mesina, O; Rodriguez, M A; Hagemeister, F B; Romaguera, J; Pro, B; McLaughlin, P; Dang, N; Cabanillas, F

2001-05-01

256

Demographic, epidemiologic and clinical profile of snake bite cases, presented to Emergency Medicine department, Ahmedabad, Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Aim: Snake bite is a common medical emergency faced mainly by the rural populations in tropical and subtropical countries with heavy rainfall and humid climate. Although India is a single largest contributor of snake bite cases, reporting is very poor. There is hardly any publication of the same from Gujarat state that is developing at a good pace. Hence, we aimed to study the snake bite cases with particular attention to demography, epidemiology, and clinical profile. Settings and Design: The present descriptive, observational study was carried out at the Emergency Medicine Department of a tertiary care center in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. This department is one if the firsts to get recognized by the Medical Council of India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional single-center study. Cases were entered into the prescribed form, and detailed information regarding demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical parameters was entered. Statistical Method: Data were analyzed using Epi2000. Means and frequencies for each variable were calculated. Results: Majority (67.4%) of the snake bite victims were in the age group between 15 and 45 years. Majority were male victims (74.2%). 71% victims of snake bite lived in rural areas. Farmers and laborers were the main victims. 61.2% incidents took place at night time or early morning (before 6 a.m.). 64% patients had bite mark on the lower limb. 40% victims had seen the snake. Eight patients had snake bite, but were asymptomatic. 52% had neuroparalytic manifestation, 34% were asymptomatic, and 9.6% had hemorrhagic manifestation. 14% cases received treatment within 1 h of the bite and 64.84% within 1-6 h after the bite. First aid given was in the form of application of tourniquet (16.2%), local application of lime, chillies, herbal medicine, etc., (1%). 2.20% cases were sensitive to anti-snake venom. Only three patients died. Conclusion: In this region (Gujarat), neuroparalytic manifestation of snake bite is more prevalent. Cobra and krait are the commonest types of poisonous snakes. The time of seeking treatment has reduced because of awareness about snake bite treatment and better transport and ambulance facility. Mortality is very less in well-equipped hospitals due to early initiation of treatment with anti-snake venom. PMID:23960378

Jarwani, Bhavesh; Jadav, Pradeep; Madaiya, Malhar

2013-01-01

257

Intraluminal versus infiltrating gallbladder carcinoma: Clinical presentation, ultrasound and computed tomography  

PubMed Central

AIM: To compare clinical presentation and ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) sensitivity between intraluminal and infiltrating gallbladder carcinoma (GBCA). METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 65 cases of GBCA that were categorized morphologically into the intraluminal-GBCA (n = 37) and infiltrating-GBCA (n = 28) groups. The clinical and laboratory findings, presence of gallstones, gallbladder size, T-staging, nodal status, sensitivity of preoperative US and CT studies, and outcome were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to female predominance, presence of abdominal pain, serum aminotransferases level, T2-T4 staging, and regional metastatic nodes. Compared with the patients with intraluminal-GBCA, those with infiltrating-GBCA were significantly older (65.49 ± 1.51 years vs 73.07 ± 1.90 years), had a higher frequency of jaundice (3/37 patients vs 13/28 patients) and fever (3/37 patients vs 10/28 patients), higher alkaline phosphatase (119.36 ± 87.80 IU/L vs 220.68 ± 164.84 IU/L) and total bilirubin (1.74 ± 2.87 mg/L vs 3.50 ± 3.51 mg/L) levels, higher frequency of gallstones (12/37 patients vs 22/28 patients), smaller gallbladder size (length, 7.47 ± 1.70 cm vs 6.47 ± 1.83 cm; width, 4.21 ± 1.43 cm vs 2.67 ± 0.93 cm), and greater proportion of patients with < 12 mo survival (16/37 patients vs 18/28 patients). The sensitivity for diagnosing intraluminal-GBCA with and without gallstones was 63.6% and 91.3% by US, and 80% and 100% by CT, respectively. The sensitivity for diagnosing infiltrating-GBCA with and without gallstones was 12.5% and 25% by US, and 71.4% and 75% by CT, respectively. CONCLUSION: In elderly women exhibiting small gallbladder and gallstones on US, especially those with jaundice, fever, high alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels, CT may reveal concurrent infiltrating-GBCA. PMID:19960562

Lee, Tze-Yu; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Huang, Chung-Cheng; Ng, Shu-Hang; Liang, Jiun-Lung; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Chen, Min-Chi; Sheen-Chen, Shyr-Ming

2009-01-01

258

Systemic bacteraemia in children presenting with clinical pneumonia and the impact of non-typhoid salmonella (NTS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment of pneumonia in African children in the absence of diagnostic means such as x-ray facilities or microbiological laboratories relies primarily on clinical symptoms presented by the patients. In order to assess the spectrum of bacterial pathogens, blood cultures were performed in children fulfilling the clinical criteria of pneumonia. METHODS: In total, 1032 blood cultures

Norbert G Schwarz; Nimako Sarpong; Frank Hünger; Florian Marks; Samuel EK Acquah; Alex Agyekum; Bernard Nkrumah; Wibke Loag; Ralf M Hagen; Jennifer A Evans; Denise Dekker; Julius N Fobil; Christian G Meyer; Jürgen May; Yaw Adu-Sarkodie

2010-01-01

259

Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis May Present during Adulthood: Clinical and Genetic Features of a Small Series  

PubMed Central

Familial Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare immune deficiency with defective cytotoxic function. The age at onset is usually young and the natural course is rapidly fatal if untreated. A later onset of the disease has been sporadically reported even in adolescents and adults. We report the results of our retrospective data collection of all cases diagnosed with FHL at an age of 18 years or older and enrolled in the Italian Registry of HLH. All cases were diagnosed with FHL based on evidence of genetic defect in one FHL-related gene. A total of 11 patients were diagnosed with FHL. They were 9 males and 2 females, from 10 unrelated families; their age ranged between 18 and 43 years (median, 23 years). Family history was unremarkable in eight families at the time of the diagnosis. Their genetic diagnoses are: FHL2 (n?=?6), FHL3 (n?=?2), FHL5 (n?=?1), XLP1 (n?=?2). Clinical, molecular and functional data are described. These data confirm that FHL may present beyond the pediatric age and up to the fifth decade. FHL2 due to perforin defect is the most frequently reported subtype. Adult specialists should consider FHL in the differential diagnosis of patients with cytopenia and liver or central nervous system disorders, especially when a lymphoproliferative disease is suspected but eventually not confirmed. FHL may turn to be fatal within a short time course even in adults. This risk, together with the continuous improvement in the transplant technique, especially in the area of transplant from matched unrelated donor, resulting in reduced treatment related mortality, might suggest a wider use of SCT in this population. Current diagnostic approach allows prompt identification of patients by flow-cytometry screening, then confirmed by the genetic study, and treatment with chemo-immunotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation. PMID:22970278

Piccin, Andrea; Gherlinzoni, Filippo; Sasso, Ferdinando Carlo; Rabusin, Marco; Attard, Luciano; Bosi, Alberto; Pende, Daniela; Moretta, Lorenzo; Arico, Maurizio

2012-01-01

260

Different clinical courses of central precocious girls according to their age at presentation and treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose The progressivity of central precocious puberty (CPP) seems to depend on the age at presentation. We evaluated the clinical courses of CPP girls according to their age at initiation of treatment. Methods One hundred thirty five girls with CPP diagnosed between Jan. 2003 and Dec. 2009 and regularly followed for more than one year were included. They were treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) every four weeks. Subjects were divided into two groups based on whether they were treated before (Group I, N=20) or after seven years of age (Group II, N=115). We compared the anthropometric parameters, the predicted adult height (PAH), predicted treatment periods, and the laboratory findings of the two groups every six months. Results Out of 135 CPP patients, 123 were idiopathic and twelve had neurogenic problems. At the baseline, patients' average bone age (BA) was significantly older than chronologic age (CA) and PAH was significantly shorter than target height (TH). BA and CA were significantly older in group II, but the BA/CA ratio was significantly greater in group I. The average treatment period required to overcome the CA-BA difference was 4.64 yr (group I vs II; 7.98 yr vs 4.24 yr, P < 0.01), and the period needed to overcome PAH-TH difference was 2.49 yr (group I vs II; 4.37 yr vs 2.32 yr, P < 0.01). Conclusion Among the girls with CPP, the younger age group had more advanced BA than CA, and needed significantly longer treatment periods to overcome the BA-CA gap and PAH-TH gaps. PMID:24904846

Yoon, Shin-Ae; Kim, Heon; Yun, Sung-Cheol

2013-01-01

261

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB may predominantly present with an attenuated clinical phenotype.  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB, Sanfilippo syndrome type B) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAGLU). Information on the natural course of MPS IIIB is scarce but much needed in view of emerging therapies. To improve knowledge on the natural course, data on all 52 MPS IIIB patients ever identified by enzymatic studies in the Netherlands were gathered. Clinical data on 44 patients could be retrieved. Only a small number (n = 9; 21%) presented with a classical MPS III phenotype; all other patients showed a much more attenuated course of the disease characterized by a significantly slower regression of intellectual and motor abilities. The majority of patients lived well into adulthood. First signs of the disease, usually mild developmental delay, were observed at a median age of 4 years. Subsequently, patients showed a slowing and eventually a stagnation of development. Patients with the attenuated phenotype had a stable intellectual disability for many years. Molecular analysis was performed in 24 index patients. The missense changes p.R643C, p.S612G, p.E634K, and p.L497V were exclusively found in patients with the attenuated phenotype. MPS IIIB comprises a remarkably wide spectrum of disease severity, and an unselected cohort including all Dutch patients showed a large proportion (79%) with an attenuated phenotype. MPS IIIB must be considered in patients with a developmental delay, even in the absence of a progressive decline in intellectual abilities. A key feature, necessitating metabolic studies, is the coexistence of behavioral problems. PMID:20852935

Valstar, Marlies J; Bruggenwirth, Hennie T; Olmer, Renske; Wevers, Ron A; Verheijen, Frans W; Poorthuis, Ben J; Halley, Dicky J; Wijburg, Frits A

2010-12-01

262

Plurihormone secreting pituitary macroadenoma masquerading as thyrotoxicosis: Clinical presentation and diagnostic challenges.  

PubMed

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting adenomas are the rarest type of pituitary adenomas (1:1000000 in the population; 0.2- 2.8% of adenomas). Plurihormonal thyrotropic adenomas are even rarer usually having cosecretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. We report perhaps for the first time, TSH, GH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and gonadotropins secreting pituitary macroadenoma diagnosed in a 40 year lady presenting with features of thyrotoxicosis for 5 months, amenorrhea for 3 months and newly diagnosed diabetes and hypertension for 2 months along with headache, nausea, and vomiting, who had acromegaloid habitus, grade-II goitre, increased uptake on Technitium-99 pertechnate thyroid scan (4.1%; normal: 0.24-3.34%), with increased T3 (5.98 pg/ ml; 1.5-4.1), increased T4 (2.34 ng/dl; 0.9-1.8), inappropriately high TSH (2.32 ?IU/ml; 0.4-4.2), insulin like growth factor-1 (711 ng/ ml; 109-264), non-suppressed post-glucose GH (15.9 ng/ml; <1 ng/ml), normal estradiol (52 pg/ml; 21-251), inappropriately high luteinizing hormone (53.5 mIU/ml; 1.1-11.6), inappropriately high follicle stimulating hormone (59 mIU/ml; 3-14.4), non-suppressed overnight dexamethasone cortisol (5.8 mcg/dl; <2), elevated ACTH (58 pg/ml 5-15), withdrawal bleed on progestrogen challenge, bitemporal hemianopia on automated perimetry and pituitary macroadenoma on MRI imaging of sella. Thyroid hormone resistance was ruled out by documenting normal sex hormone binding globulin and ferritin levels. Her clinical and biochemical phenotype was not suggestive of multiple hormone resistance seen in pseudohypoparathyroidism. This report intends to highlight the challenges in the diagnosis of plurihormonal thyrotropic adenoma. PMID:23565411

Maisnam, Indira; Dutta, Deep; Jain, Rajesh; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

2012-12-01

263

Clinical and radiologic features of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma including initial presentation, local recurrence, and metastases  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and imaging features of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) including initial presentation, recurrence, and metastases. Patients and methods. In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, imaging features of 13 patients with pathologically proven EMC seen from August 1995 to December 2011 were analyzed. The group included 3 women and 10 men and the mean age was 54 years (range 29–73 years). Imaging studies were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. Location, size, and imaging features of primary tumors were recorded as well as the presence of recurrent disease and location of metastases. Results Among 13 patients, 3 died during the timeframe of this study. Nine patients had primary tumor in the lower extremity, and average tumor size was 9.3 cm (range 3.3–18 cm). On MRI, primary tumors were hyperintense on T2, isointense to muscle on T1, and demonstrated peripheral/septal enhancement. Three patients had local recurrence and 12 had metastatic disease, with lung involvement being the most common. Tumor density on contrast enhanced CT ranged from 8.2 to 82.9 Hounsfield unit (HU). FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed in 3 patients. One patient had no FDG avid disease and 2 patients had metastatic disease with standard uptake values (SUV) of 2.8 and 7.4. The patient with intense FDG uptake demonstrated more solid appearing tumor burden and had the shortest survival. Conclusions EMC is a rare tumor that often occurs in the lower extremities and frequently metastasizes to the lungs. Increased tumor density and increased FDG uptake may be related to more aggressive disease. PMID:25177237

Kapoor, Neena; Shinagare, Atul B.; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Shah, Shaan H.; Krajewski, Katherine M.; Hornick, Jason L.; Ramaiya, Nikhil H.

2014-01-01

264

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: clinical presentation, molecular mechanisms, and therapeutic perspectives.  

PubMed

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by cerebellar dysfunction associated with slow saccades, early hyporeflexia, severe tremor of postural or action type, peripheral neuropathy, cognitive disorders, and other multisystemic features. SCA2, one of the most common ataxias worldwide, is caused by the expansion of a CAG triplet repeat located in the N-terminal coding region of the ATXN2 gene, which results in the incorporation of a segment of polyglutamines in the mutant protein, being longer expansions associated with earlier onset and more sever disease in subsequent generations. In this review, we offer a detailed description of the clinical manifestations of SCA2 and compile the experimental evidence showing the participation of ataxin-2 in crucial cellular processes, including messenger RNA maturation and translation, and endocytosis. In addition, we discuss in the light of present data the potential molecular mechanisms underlying SCA2 pathogenesis. The mutant protein exhibits a toxic gain of function that is mainly attributed to the generation of neuronal inclusions of phosphorylated and/or proteolytic cleaved mutant ataxin-2, which might alter normal ataxin-2 function, leading to cell dysfunction and death of target cells. In the final part of this review, we discuss the perspectives of development of therapeutic strategies for SCA2. Based on previous experience with other polyglutamine disorders and considering the molecular basis of SCA2 pathogenesis, a nuclei-acid-based strategy focused on the specific silencing of the dominant disease allele that preserves the expression of the wild-type allele is highly desirable and might prevent toxic neurodegenerative sequelae. PMID:22996397

Magaña, J J; Velázquez-Pérez, L; Cisneros, B

2013-02-01

265

21 CFR 50.54 - Clinical investigations not otherwise approvable that present an opportunity to understand...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children; (ii) The clinical investigation will be conducted in accordance...Adequate provisions are made for soliciting the assent of children and the permission of their parents or guardians as...

2012-04-01

266

21 CFR 50.54 - Clinical investigations not otherwise approvable that present an opportunity to understand...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children; (ii) The clinical investigation will be conducted in accordance...Adequate provisions are made for soliciting the assent of children and the permission of their parents or guardians as...

2013-04-01

267

21 CFR 50.54 - Clinical investigations not otherwise approvable that present an opportunity to understand...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children; (ii) The clinical investigation will be conducted in accordance...Adequate provisions are made for soliciting the assent of children and the permission of their parents or guardians as...

2010-04-01

268

21 CFR 50.54 - Clinical investigations not otherwise approvable that present an opportunity to understand...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children; (ii) The clinical investigation will be conducted in accordance...Adequate provisions are made for soliciting the assent of children and the permission of their parents or guardians as...

2011-04-01

269

Follow up of patients presenting with fatigue to an infectious diseases clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To determine the symptomatic and functional status during follow up of patients referred to hospital with unexplained fatigue and to identify patient variables associated with persistent functional impairment. DESIGN--Follow up by postal questionnaire six weeks to four years (median 1 year) after initial clinical assessment of patients referred to hospital during 1984-8. SETTING--Infectious diseases outpatient clinic in a teaching hospital.

M. Sharpe; K. Hawton; V. Seagroatt; G. Pasvol

1992-01-01

270

Patient characteristics upon initial presentation to chiropractic teaching clinics: A descriptive study conducted at one university  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to compare demographics and chief complaints of the new patient population at our institution's fee-for-service clinics to the patient population of practicing chiropractors in the United States. We also compared the prevalence of obesity and hypertension to reference standards for the adult population. Methods Patient data were obtained from the electronic health records. All records identified as new patients during October 2013 were included. Variables of interest were clinic site, patient demographics, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), chief complaint, and ICD-9 codes. Descriptive statistics were computed and compared to reference standards from previous reports. Results During October 2013, there were 224 new patients that entered the clinics. The average patient was a 31- to 50-year-old white male. Our clinic patients differed from those seen by US chiropractors in the distribution of all demographic variables. For adult patients, 31.4% were overweight, 29% were obese, and 8% stage 1 or 2 hypertension. Conclusion New patients in the fee-for-service teaching clinics appear to be dissimilar to those of US practicing chiropractors in several important demographics, characteristics, and types of complaints. The new patients had lower levels of overweight, obesity, and hypertension compared to US reference standards. PMID:25162982

Kaeser, Martha A.; Hawk, Cheryl; Anderson, Michelle

2014-01-01

271

Patient characteristics upon initial presentation to chiropractic teaching clinics: A descriptive study conducted at one university.  

PubMed

Objective : The purpose of this study was to compare demographics and chief complaints of the new patient population at our institution's fee-for-service clinics to the patient population of practicing chiropractors in the United States. We also compared the prevalence of obesity and hypertension to reference standards for the adult population. Methods : Patient data were obtained from the electronic health records. All records identified as new patients during October 2013 were included. Variables of interest were clinic site, patient demographics, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), chief complaint, and ICD-9 codes. Descriptive statistics were computed and compared to reference standards from previous reports. Results : During October 2013, there were 224 new patients that entered the clinics. The average patient was a 31- to 50-year-old white male. Our clinic patients differed from those seen by US chiropractors in the distribution of all demographic variables. For adult patients, 31.4% were overweight, 29% were obese, and 8% stage 1 or 2 hypertension. Conclusion : New patients in the fee-for-service teaching clinics appear to be dissimilar to those of US practicing chiropractors in several important demographics, characteristics, and types of complaints. The new patients had lower levels of overweight, obesity, and hypertension compared to US reference standards. PMID:25162982

Kaeser, Martha A; Hawk, Cheryl; Anderson, Michelle

2014-10-01

272

Clinical presentations of gastric small gastrointestinal stromal tumors mimics functional dyspepsia symptoms  

PubMed Central

AIM: To explore whether clinical presentations of gastric small gastrointestinal tumors (GISTs) mimics gastrointestinal dyspepsia symptoms. METHODS: The endosonographic data of 167 patients who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection at the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, China between 2009 and 2011 were analyzed. GISTs and leiomyomas had a similar intragastric distribution and similar locations within the gastric wall. Therefore, patients with GISTs were chosen as the study group and those with leiomyomas were chosen as the control group. Dyspepsia symptom questionnaires were used to investigate and compare the gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with GISTs and those with gastric leiomyomas before and after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The questionnaires evaluated symptoms such as epigastric pain, heartburn, regurgitation, epigastric discomfort, nausea and vomiting, abdominal bloating, and eructation. Symptoms were assessed using a four-point scoring scale. RESULTS: GISTs were the most common gastric submucosal lesion (67 cases, 40.12%), followed by leiomyomas (38 cases, 22.75%). Both groups were similar in terms of gender distribution (P = 0.49), intragastric location (P = 0.525), and originating layer within the gastric wall (P = 0.449), but leiomyomas were more commonly found in the proximal fundus (P < 0.05). Overall, 94.2% of the patients with small GISTs and 93.5% of those with gastric leiomyomas experienced some dyspepsia; however, total symptom scores were significantly lower in the GIST group than in the leiomyoma group (1.34 ± 1.27 vs 2.20 ± 1.70, P < 0.05). Each component of the symptom score demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in the GIST patients after ESD (P < 0.05), including epigastric pain (0.80 ± 0.90 vs 0.13 ± 0.46), heartburn (0.63 ± 1.08 vs 0.13 ± 0.41), regurgitation (0.55 ± 0.87 vs 0.22 ± 0.57), epigastric discomfort (0.70 ± 0.98 vs 0.32 ± 0.47), nausea and vomiting (0.27 ± 0.62 vs 0.05 ± 0.21), abdominal bloating (0.70 ± 0.90 vs 0.27 ± 0.49), and eructation (0.36 ± 0.61 vs 0.21 ± 0.46). For leiomyoma patients, symptoms such as heartburn, nausea, vomiting, and eructation improved after treatment; however, these improvements were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Thus, the pathophysiology of dyspepsia symptoms may be different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Symptoms of gastric small GISTs may mimic those of functional dyspepsia. An alternative diagnosis should be considered in patients with functional dyspepsia and treatment failure.

Yu, Qing-Xiang; He, Zhan-Kun; Wang, Jiang; Sun, Chao; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Bang-Mao

2014-01-01

273

Muscle metaboreflex activation speeds the recovery of arterial blood pressure following acute hypotension in humans.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the arterial baroreflex and muscle metaboreflex are both activated during heavy exercise and that they interact to modulate primary cardiovascular reflex responses. This proposed interaction and its consequences are not fully understood, however. The purpose of present study was to test our hypothesis that dynamic arterial baroreflex-mediated cardiovascular responses to acute systemic hypotension in humans are augmented when the muscle metaboreflex is active and that this results in a faster recovery of arterial blood pressure. Acute hypotension was induced nonpharmacologically in 12 healthy subjects by releasing bilateral thigh cuffs after 9 min of suprasystolic resting ischemia, with and without muscle metaboreflex activation via postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) after 1 min of isometric handgrip exercise at 50% maximum voluntary contraction. The thigh-cuff release evoked rapid reductions in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increases in heart rate, cardiac output (Doppler), and total vascular conductance (TVC) under control conditions and during PEMI. The reductions in MAP from baseline were greater and the increases in TVC were smaller during PEMI than control. In addition, arterial baroreflex-mediated peripheral vasoconstriction was augmented during PEMI, as evidenced by a near doubling of the rate of recovery of MAP and TVC. These results show that when the muscle metaboreflex is activated in humans, arterial baroreflex-mediated peripheral vasoconstriction elicited in response to acute hypotension is augmented, which halves the time needed for MAP recovery. Such modulation of baroreflex function would be advantageous for maintaining an elevated arterial blood pressure during activation of the muscle metaboreflex. PMID:23542922

Ichinose, Masashi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Fujii, Naoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

2013-06-01

274

Is the clinical presentation different between men and women admitting to the sleep laboratory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Sleep and sleep disorders are different in several important ways between men and women. We aimed to investigate gender differences\\u000a in initial symptoms and associating medical diseases of patients admitting to our sleep clinic.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Ninety-one patients, 20 women (22%) and 71 men (78%), admitting consecutively to the sleep clinic were studied. A detailed\\u000a sleep and medical history of the patients

Nese Dursunoglu; Sibel Ozkurt; Serdar Sar?kaya

2009-01-01

275

Implications of a Vasodilatory Human Monoclonal Autoantibody in Postural Hypotension*  

PubMed Central

Functional autoantibodies to the autonomic receptors are increasingly recognized in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. To date, no human activating monoclonal autoantibodies to these receptors have been available. In this study, we describe for the first time a ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR)-activating monoclonal autoantibody (C5F2) produced from the lymphocytes of a patient with idiopathic postural hypotension. C5F2, an IgG3 isotype, recognizes an epitope in the N terminus of the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of ?2AR. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed high binding affinity for the ?2AR ECL2 peptide. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence demonstrated specific binding to ?2AR in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, CHO cells expressing human ?2AR, and rat aorta. C5F2 stimulated cyclic AMP production in ?2AR-transfected CHO cells and induced potent dilation of isolated rat cremaster arterioles, both of which were specifically blocked by the ?2AR-selective antagonist ICI-118551 and by the ?2AR ECL2 peptide. This monoclonal antibody demonstrated sufficient activity to produce postural hypotension in its host. Its availability provides a unique opportunity to identify previously unrecognized causes and new pharmacological management of postural hypotension and other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24043632

Li, Hongliang; Zuccolo, Jonathan; Kem, David C.; Zillner, Caitlin; Lee, Jiyeon; Smith, Kenneth; James, Judith A.; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Yu, Xichun

2013-01-01

276

Hypotensive action of Nangapiry, a Paraguayan natural medicine, in rodents.  

PubMed

Hypotensive action mechanism of a cation exchange resin adsorbate (IR-120A) separated from a Paraguayan Natural Medicine, Nangapiry, was investigated. Blood pressures of normal and pithed rats and contractions of isolated thoracic aorta and atria of mice were measured. The blood pressure on normal rats was reduced by an intravenous injection of IR-120A (5 mg/kg). The hypotensive effect on the pithed rat appeared more lasting than that on normal rats by IR-120A. The IR-120A (100 microg-3 mg/ml) concentration-dependently depressed prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha (10 microM)- or KCl (40 mM)-induced aortic contractions and electrically-evoked contraction of left atria, and at a lesser extent spontaneous beating rate of right atria. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for the PGF2alpha- and KCl-induced aortic contractions were 713 and 828 microg/ml, respectively, and the IC50 values for the muscle contraction and the beating rate were 1.04 and >3 mg/ml, respectively. These results suggest that the hypotensive action of IR-120A are peripherally elicited by the dilatation of artery and the depression of heart contraction, but not the reduction of heart rate. PMID:10839211

Morioka, K; Nojima, H; Kurosaki, E; Arisawa, M; Kuraishi, Y; Momose, Y

2000-04-01

277

Hemofiltration and Hemodiafiltration Reduce Intradialytic Hypotension in ESRD  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic intradialytic hypotension is a common complication of hemodialysis (HD). The application of convective therapies to the outpatient setting may improve outcomes, including intradialytic hypotension. In this multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled study, we randomly assigned 146 long-term dialysis patients to HD (n = 70), online predilution hemofiltration (HF; n = 36), or online predilution hemodiafiltration (HDF; n = 40). The primary end point was the frequency of intradialytic symptomatic hypotension (ISH). Compared with the run-in period, the frequency of sessions with ISH during the evaluation period increased for HD (7.1 to 7.9%) and decreased for both HF (9.8 to 8.0%) and HDF (10.6 to 5.2%) (P < 0.001). Mean predialysis systolic BP increased by 4.2 mmHg among those who were assigned to HDF compared with decreases of 0.6 and 1.8 mmHg among those who were assigned to HD and HF, respectively (P = 0.038). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated significant risk reductions in ISH for both HF (odds ratio 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.92) and HDF (odds ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.63). There was a trend toward higher dropout for those who were assigned to HF (P = 0.107). In conclusion, compared with conventional HD, convective therapies (HDF and HF) reduce ISH in long-term dialysis patients. PMID:20813866

Altieri, Paolo; Andrulli, Simeone; Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Sau, Giovanna; Pedrini, Luciano A.; Basile, Carlo; David, Salvatore; Feriani, Mariano; Montagna, Giovanni; Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele; Memoli, Bruno; Cravero, Raffaella; Battaglia, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine

2010-01-01

278

Clinical Presentation of Inhalational Anthrax Following Bioterrorism Exposure Report of 2 Surviving Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of anthrax as a weapon of biological terrorism has moved from theory to reality in recent weeks. Following processing of a letter containing anthrax spores that had been mailed to a US senator, 5 cases of inhalational anthrax have occurred among postal workers employed at a major postal facility in Wash- ington, DC. This report details the clinical

Thom A. Mayer; Susan Bersoff-Matcha; Cecele Murphy; James Earls; Scott Harper; Denis Pauze; Michael Nguyen; Jonathan Rosenthal; Donald Cerva; Glenn Druckenbrod; Dan Hanfling; Naaz Fatteh; Anthony Napoli; Ashna Nayyar; Elise L. Berman

279

Congenital curved nail of the fourth toe--three different clinical presentations.  

PubMed

A congenital curved nail of the fourth toe (NIM 219070) is a rare nail deformity with no other associated abnormalities. Three patients with this congenital anomaly are reported here. Radiologic examination in all three revealed distal symphalangism of the fourth toes bilaterally. The clinical manifestations in these patients included white discoloration of the proximal nails and hyperkeratotic tylosis. PMID:17845160

Lin, Yang-Chih; Wu, Yu-Hung; Scher, Richard K

2007-01-01

280

Racquet sports--patterns of injury presenting to a sports injury clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an 8-year retrospective study, 631 injuries due to the racquet sports of squash (59%), tennis (21%) and badminton (20%) were seen in a sports injury clinic, males predominating (58 to 66%). The proportion of squash injuries was higher than expected and probably relates to higher physical stress and risk of contact in this sport. Also they occurred mainly in

M D Chard; S M Lachmann

1987-01-01

281

Cerebral infarction in the term newborn: Clinical presentation and long-term outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We evaluated the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of cranial computed tomography (CT)–documented cerebral infarction in term neonates to ascertain factors that would help to predict the risk of subsequent neurodevelopmental sequelae in early childhood. Study design: From 1983 to 1997, all surviving neonates from two level III neonatal intensive care units were prospectively identified and subsequently assessed in childhood. Clinical

Con Sreenan; Ravi Bhargava; Charlene M. T. Robertson

2000-01-01

282

Aetiology and Clinical Presentation of Mild Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was initiated to analyse the bacterial aetiology and clinical picture of mild community-acquired pneumonia in Slovenia using the previously described Pneumonia Severity Index. Radiographically confirmed cases of pneumonia in patients treated with oral antibiotics in seven study centres were included. An aetiological diagnosis was attempted using culture of blood and sputum, urinary antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae

B. Bona?; D. Keše; T. Avši?-Županc; S. Kreft; G. Lesni?ar; J. Gorišek-Reberšek; L. Rezar; S. Letonja

2003-01-01

283

Genomic imbalances in patients with a clinical presentation in the spectrum of Cornelia de Lange syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder characterised by facial dysmorphism, growth and psychomotor developmental delay and skeletal defects. To date, causative mutations in the NIPBL (cohesin regulator) and SMC1A (cohesin structural subunit) genes account for > 50% and 6% of cases, respectively. Methods We recruited 50 patients with a CdLS clinical diagnosis or with features that overlap with CdLS, who were negative for mutations at NIPBL and SMC1A at molecular screening. Chromosomal rearrangements accounting for the clinical diagnosis were screened for using array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (aCGH). Results Four patients were shown to carry imbalances considered to be candidates for having pathogenic roles in their clinical phenotypes: patient 1 had a 4.2 Mb de novo deletion at chromosome 20q11.2-q12; patient 2 had a 4.8 Mb deletion at chromosome 1p36.23-36.22; patient 3 carried an unbalanced translocation, t(7;17), with a 14 Mb duplication of chromosome 17q24.2-25.3 and a 769 Kb deletion at chromosome 7p22.3; patient 4 had an 880 Kb duplication of chromosome 19p13.3, for which his mother, who had a mild phenotype, was also shown to be a mosaic. Conclusions Notwithstanding the variability in size and gene content of the rearrangements comprising the four different imbalances, they all map to regions containing genes encoding factors involved in cell cycle progression or genome stability. These functional similarities, also exhibited by the known CdLS genes, may explain the phenotypic overlap between the patients included in this study and CdLS. Our findings point to the complexity of the clinical diagnosis of CdLS and confirm the existence of phenocopies, caused by imbalances affecting multiple genomic regions, comprising 8% of patients included in this study, who did not have mutations at NIPBL and SMC1A. Our results suggests that analysis by aCGH should be recommended for CdLS spectrum cases with an unexplained clinical phenotype and included in the flow chart for diagnosis of cases with a clinical evaluation in the CdLS spectrum. PMID:23551878

2013-01-01

284

Variation in Clinical Presentation and Genotype of Causative Leishmania major Strain in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North and South Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

A different clinical picture and therapeutic response were observed when data from Leishmania major-infected Dutch military personnel stationed in southern (N = 8) and northern (N = 169) Afghanistan were analyzed. Clinical presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in personnel in the south was milder and seemed to respond better to antileishmanial treatment; molecular analyses of parasite isolates seem to indicate that these differences may be genetic. PMID:21734125

van Thiel, Pieter-Paul A. M.; van Gool, Tom; Faber, William R.; Leenstra, Tjalling; Kager, Piet A.; Bart, Aldert

2011-01-01

285

Variation in clinical presentation and genotype of causative Leishmania major strain in cutaneous leishmaniasis in north and south Afghanistan.  

PubMed

A different clinical picture and therapeutic response were observed when data from Leishmania major-infected Dutch military personnel stationed in southern (N = 8) and northern (N = 169) Afghanistan were analyzed. Clinical presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in personnel in the south was milder and seemed to respond better to antileishmanial treatment; molecular analyses of parasite isolates seem to indicate that these differences may be genetic. PMID:21734125

van Thiel, Pieter-Paul A M; van Gool, Tom; Faber, William R; Leenstra, Tjalling; Kager, Piet A; Bart, Aldert

2011-07-01

286

Cancer immunotherapy in clinical practice--the past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Considerable progress has been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy in recent years. This has been made possible in large part by the identification of new immune-based cellular targets and the development of novel approaches aimed at stimulating the immune system. The role played by the immunosuppressive microenvironment in the development of tumors has been established. The success of checkpoint-inhibiting antibodies and cancer vaccines has marked the beginning of a new era in cancer treatment. This review highlights the clinically relevant principles of cancer immunology and various immunotherapeutic approaches that have either already entered mainstream oncologic practice or are currently in the process of being evaluated in clinical trials. Furthermore, the current barriers to the development of effective immunotherapies and the potential strategies of overcoming them are also discussed. PMID:25189717

Goel, Gaurav; Sun, Weijing

2014-01-01

287

A review of central retinal artery occlusion: clinical presentation and management  

PubMed Central

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ophthalmic emergency and the ocular analogue of cerebral stroke. Best evidence reflects that over three-quarters of patients suffer profound acute visual loss with a visual acuity of 20/400 or worse. This results in a reduced functional capacity and quality of life. There is also an increased risk of subsequent cerebral stroke and ischaemic heart disease. There are no current guideline-endorsed therapies, although the use of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been investigated in two randomized controlled trials. This review will describe the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of CRAO, and discuss current and future treatments, including the use of tPA in further clinical trials. PMID:23470793

Varma, D D; Cugati, S; Lee, A W; Chen, C S

2013-01-01

288

Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia in a Multiethnic Urban Outpatient Clinic: Initial Presentation and Treatment Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies examine the effectiveness of panic control treatment across diverse ethnic groups. In this paper we present data on 40 patients (African American, n = 24; Caucasian, n = 16) with panic disorder and comorbid agoraphobia who presented at an anxiety disorder clinic in an inner-city area. On initial assessment both groups were similar on…

Friedman, Steven; Braunstein, Jeffrey W.; Halpern, Beth

2006-01-01

289

Identification of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever cases at presentation in outpatient clinics in Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In Jakarta, Indonesia, over 80% of patients with typhoid fever or paraty- phoid fever are treated in outpatient settings. In a community-based prospec- tive passive surveillance study, we identified 59 typhoid, 23 paratyphoid fever and 259 non-enteric fever outpatients, all blood culture-confirmed. We compared their symptoms with the aim of developing a clinical prediction rule that may help direct

Albert M. Vollaard; Soegianto Ali; Suwandhi Widjaja; Henri A. G. H. van Asten; Leo G. Visser; Charles Surjadi; Jaap T. van Dissel

2005-01-01

290

Presenting phenotype and clinical evaluation in a cohort of 22 Williams–Beuren syndrome patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams–Beuren syndrome (WS) is a rare multi-system genomic disorder, caused by 7q11.23 microdeletion with a prevalence of 1\\/7500–1\\/20,000 live births. Clinical phenotype includes typical facial dysmorphism (elfin face), mental retardation associated with a peculiar neuropsychological profile and congenital heart defects. We investigated 22 WS patients (mean age of 9.7years, range 1day to 39years) with a multi-specialist follow-up protocol comprehensive of

Giovanni Battista Ferrero; Elisa Biamino; Lorena Sorasio; Elena Banaudi; Licia Peruzzi; Serena Forzano; Ludovica Verdun di Cantogno; Margherita Cirillo Silengo

2007-01-01

291

Clinical presentation of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Recent reports indicate an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (TD2M) in children and adolescents around the world in all ethnicities, possibly due to increasing prevalence of obesity. Therefore, it is essential that clinicians are aware of the clinical features of T2DM in these age groups.METHODS:All published cases of T2DM in children and adolescents were evaluated and the different

T Reinehr

2005-01-01

292

EBM Metadata Based on Dublin Core Better Presenting Validity of Clinical Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help clinicians find better evidence, a metadata schema for Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is developed. Dublin Core metadata\\u000a standard (DC) was adopted to help build a metadata schema. An experimental system was developed to test the validity of the\\u000a metadata and full text papers of clinical therapy on stomach ulcer extracted using PubMed. An EBM metadata schema was developed.

Wei Xu; Mihoko Okada

2007-01-01

293

Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension: Recent data (eleven cases) and review of the literature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight cases of Shy-Drager syndrome and three of Bradbury-Eggleston idiopathic orthostatic hypotension were examined. In all cases, examination of circulatory reflexes showed major dysfunction of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor system. Anomalies in the vagal cardiomoderator system were less constant. Normal urinary elimination of catecholamines was recorded daily. Characteristically, no elevation of blood or urine norepinephrine levels were found in orthostatism. Insulin hypoglycemia normally raised urinary adrenalin elimination in three of ten patients. Plasma dopa-beta-hydroxylase activity was normal. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system showed variable activity at basal state but usually rose during orthostatism. On the average, very low homovanillic acid levels were found in cerebrospinal fluid before and after probenecid; hydroxyindolacetic acid was normal. Cerebral autoregulation had deteriorated in two of four cases. Physiopathologically the two clinical types are indistinguishable with or without central neurological signs.

Ninet, J.; Annat, G.; Boisson, D.; Holzhapfel, L.; Vincent, M.; Peyrin, L.; Michel, D.; Schott, B.; Devic, M.; Levrat, R.

1981-01-01

294

Case Presentation Format and Clinical Reasoning: A Strategy for Teaching Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a strategy for clinicians (residents, attending physicians, and preceptors) to teach medical students how to present and reason out a patient case. Case presentation and teaching principles to facilitate learning the three phases are included. (Author/RH)

Edwards, Janine C.; And Others

1987-01-01

295

Expression of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin mRNA among Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Associates with Specific Clinical Presentations  

PubMed Central

Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL; gene designation lukF/S-PV) is likely an important virulence factor for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), as qualitative expression of the protein correlates with severity for specific clinical presentations, including skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Development of genetic approaches for risk-assessment of patients with S. aureus infections may prove clinically useful, and whether lukF/S-PV gene expression correlates with specific clinical presentations for S. aureus has been largely unexplored. In the present study, we quantified lukS-PV mRNA among 96 S. aureus isolates to determine whether expression levels correlated with specific clinical presentations in adults and children. Expression level of lukS-PV mRNA among isolates from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) was significantly greater than among isolates from blood stream infection (BSIs), and expression level of lukS-PV mRNA among BSI isolates from children was significantly greater than for BSI isolates among adults. Moreover, expression level of lukS-PV mRNA among community-acquired (CA) isolates was significantly greater than for hospital-acquired (HA) isolates. These data justify additional studies to determine the potential clinical utility for lukS-PV mRNA quantification as a predictive tool for severity of S. aureus infection. PMID:24349495

Yu, Fangyou; Liu, Ying; Xu, Yuanyuan; Shang, Yongpeng; Lou, Danping; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Zhou, Wu; Huang, Xiaoying; Li, Yuping; Hu, Longhua; Wang, Liangxing

2013-01-01

296

Biochemical characterization of mutant phenylalanine hydroxylase enzymes and correlation with clinical presentation in hyperphenylalaninaemic patients.  

PubMed

The biochemical properties of mutant phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) enzymes and clinical characteristics of hyperphenylalaninaemic patients who bear these mutant enzymes were investigated. Biochemical characterization of mutant PAH enzymes p.D143G, p.R155H, p.L348V, p.R408W and p.P416Q included determination of specific activity, substrate activation, V(max), K(m) for (6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), K (d) for BH(4), and protein stabilization by BH(4). Clinical data from 22 patients either homozygous, functionally hemizygous, or compound heterozygous for the mutant enzymes of interest were correlated with biochemical parameters of the mutant enzymes. The p.L348V and p.P416Q enzymes retain significant catalytic activity yet were observed in classic and moderate PKU patients. Biochemical studies demonstrated that BH(4) rectified the stability defects in p.L348V and p.P416Q; additionally, patients with these variants responded to BH(4) therapy. The p.R155H mutant displayed low PAH activity and decreased apparent affinity for L-Phe yet was observed in mild hyperphenylalaninaemia. The p.R155H mutant does not display kinetic instability, as it is stabilized by BH(4) similarly to wild-type PAH; thus the residual activity is available under physiological conditions. The p.R408W enzyme is dysfunctional in nearly all biochemical parameters, as evidenced by disease severity in homozygous and hemizygous patients. Biochemical assessment of mutant PAH proteins, especially parameters involving interaction with BH(4) that impact protein folding, appear useful in clinical correlation. As additional patients and mutant proteins are assessed, the utility of this approach will become apparent. PMID:18937047

Dobrowolski, S F; Pey, A L; Koch, R; Levy, H; Ellingson, C C; Naylor, E W; Martinez, A

2009-02-01

297

Pseudoaneurysm after total knee arthroplasty: a rare complication with different possible clinical presentations.  

PubMed

We report three cases of false aneurysm involving the popliteal artery or one of its branches following total knee replacement. Two of them developed after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and the third one after a revision TKA. False aneurysm is a rare complication of TKA. The main symptom is generally a painful pulsatile mass which develops postoperatively but our cases occurred with three distinct clinical manifestations. Doppler ultrasonographic and angio-CT investigations were used to achieve the correct diagnosis. Two patients were treated by percutaneous embolization; the third patient required a mini-open surgery with an endovascular prosthesis. No complications were encountered. PMID:23547509

Boutchichi, Ali; Ciornohac, Jean; Daubresse, François

2013-02-01

298

Investigating presentations and outcomes of a joint HIV-renal clinic  

PubMed Central

Introduction HIV patients are at risk of renal dysfunction directly from HIV, indirectly from chronic inflammation as well as from antiretroviral drug toxicity. In particular, tenofovir (TDF) has been associated with proximal renal tubular dysfunction. A joint HIV–renal clinic was set up in 2009 to facilitate a timely review and minimize additional follow-up appointments. Brighton has a cohort of 2,150 HIV patients, 90% are on ARVs with 910/1,935 (47.0%) on regimens including TDF. This study aims to investigate the utility of this clinic and describe renal disease in this cohort. Materials and Methods Notes of patients scheduled for assessment at the clinic between 2012 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographics, HIV history, number of visits, reason for referral and outcome information were collected. Results Sixty-five patients, median age 51 years (28–88) and median duration of HIV 163 months (20–335), were reviewed. Forty-two were taking TDF for a mean of 55.8 months (9–122). Forty-two patients were reviewed once with a median number of visits of 1 (1–4). Of those on TDF with proteinuria, 5 (13.2%) had TDF toxicity diagnosed and were discontinued at once, 27 continued with close monitoring with a further 7 subsequently discontinuing; total discontinued were 12 (32%). Overall, blood pressure control was the commonest intervention, 23/65 (35.4%), with 8/12 (66.7%) in the non-TDF proteinuria group. Four (6%) patients underwent renal biopsy (2 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, 1 IgA nephropathy and 1 glomerulonephritis and granuloma). In 4 (6%) creatinine rise was attributed to NSAIDs, creatine or protein supplements usage. Conclusions TDF toxicity was the commonest reason for referral but only a minority (13.2%) needed to discontinue immediately. Optimizing BP control was the most frequent outcome suggesting this is an underappreciated cause for renal dysfunction amongst HIV physicians, as were other causes such as creatine and protein supplement usage. Running a “one-stop-shop” clinic supports continuation of tenofovir in patients with proteinuria, and supports the diagnosis and management of poorly controlled hypertension and streamlines the management of these patients.

Scott, Jake; Williams, Deborah

2014-01-01

299

Clinical Significance of Conditions Presenting with ECG Changes Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the primary tool in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, other clinical conditions, both cardiac and noncardiac originated pathologies, may result in ECG tracing of AMI. This may lead to an incorrect diagnosis, exposing the patients to unnecessary tests and potentially harmful therapeutic procedures. The aim of this report is to increase the still insufficient awareness of clinicians from multiple disciplines, regarding the different clinical syndromes, both cardiac and noncardiac, associated with ECG abnormalities mimicking AMI, to avoid unjustified thrombolytic therapy or intervention procedures. During a 9-year period, the data from six patients (five females, one male; mean age, 50 years [range, 18 to 78 years]) who were admitted to cardiac care unit (CCU) with transient ECG changes resembling AMI were recorded retrospectively. During this 9-year period, 5,400 patients were hospitalized in CCU: 1,350 patients were diagnosed as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 4,050 patients were diagnosed as non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Only two out of six patients had chest pain with ECG changes criteria suspicious of AMI. STEMI was suspected in four out of six patients. All patients, but one, had normal left ventricular (LV) function. One patient had transient LV dysfunction. All patients, but one, with perimyocarditis, had normal serum cardiac markers. In four out of six patients, who underwent coronary arteries imaging during hospitalization (by angiography or by CT scan), normal coronary arteries were documented. Two patients who underwent ambulatory cardiac CT scan imaging after being discharged from hospital documented patent coronary arteries (case no. 3), or some insignificant irregularities (case no. 4). The discharge diagnoses from CCU were as follows: postictal syndrome, pericarditis, hypothermia, stress-induced (“tako-tsubo”) cardiomyopathy, anaphylactic reaction, and status of postchemotherapy. All patients experienced full recovery with normal ECG tracing. During the 5-year follow-up, all patients were alive, and cardiac morbidity was not reported. We conclude that both cardiac and noncardiac clinical syndromes may mimic AMI. Comprehensive clinical examination and profound medical history are crucial for making the correct diagnosis in conditions with ECG changes mimicking AMI. PMID:24436595

Yahalom, Malka; Roguin, Nathan; Suleiman, Khaled; Turgeman, Yoav

2013-01-01

300

Gastric leakage after sleeve gastrectomy—clinical presentation and therapeutic options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To analyze gastric leakage following sleeve gastrectomy depending on its point of detection and localization in order to evaluate\\u000a therapeutic strategies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  From Dec 2006 until June 2010, data of all patients undergoing bariatric surgery were entered into a prospectively documented\\u000a database. Evaluation contained patient?s gender, age, body mass index (BMI), type of surgery, clinical symptoms, diagnostics,\\u000a onset and localization of

Christian Jurowich; Andreas Thalheimer; Florian Seyfried; Martin Fein; Gwendolyn Bender; Christoph-Thomas Germer; Christian Wichelmann

301

Between clinical medicine and the laboratory: medical research funding in France from 1945 to the present.  

PubMed

By focusing on funding methods, this paper considers the way in which medical research eventually led to the science-based medicine that is prevalent in France today. This process seems to have taken place in three stages during the second half of the twentieth century. In the 1940s and 1950s, two major events occurred. The first was the creation of a national health insurance fund in France, which opened up new reasons for, and ways of, funding medical research. The second was the development of antibiotics, which triggered a revival of clinical medicine. In the 1960s and 1970s, a proactive government science policy allowed the life sciences and medical research to come together in the wake of a burgeoning new science: molecular biology. Thus, in 1964, the creation of the National Health and Medical Research Institute (Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale or INSERM), destined to "molecularize" medical research, was seen as the fulfillment of the government's ambitious research policy. Today, with medicine irreversibly embedded in scientific and technical rationality, health has become a major issue in modern societies. This paper therefore touches on some of the key features of biomedical research, including the revival of funding systems for clinical research and the development of a system of research grants that was made possible by patient organizations and the creation of new funding agencies. PMID:21037320

Esterle, Laurence; Picard, Jean-François

2011-10-01

302

Mediators of the hypotensive response to increased renal perfusion in rabbits.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that increasing the renal perfusion pressure by using an extracorporeal circuit in anesthetized rabbits resulted in a progressive fall in systemic arterial pressure. Prior ablation of the renal medulla with 2-bromoethylamine abolished the hypotensive response. In the present study, we investigated whether vasodilator prostanoids or platelet activating factor (PAF), both known to be produced in the renal medulla, were responsible for the hypotensive response to increased renal perfusion pressure. Anesthetized animals were treated with indomethacin (5 mg/kg + 0.5 mg/kg per hour), the PAF antagonist WEB 2086 (0.5 mg/kg + 0.5 mg/kg per hour), enalaprilat (2 mg/kg + 10 micrograms/kg per hour), or all three agents. In response to acute elevation of renal artery pressure to 170 mm Hg, systemic mean arterial pressure fell at 0.76 +/- 0.17, 0.59 +/- 0.08, and 0.76 +/- 0.17 mm Hg/min in the indomethacin, WEB 2086, and enalapril groups, respectively. These responses were not significantly different from the rate of 1.00 +/- 0.21 mm Hg/min in a control group that received vehicle infusion alone. Renal blood flow and the diuretic and natriuretic responses were also similar in all groups. Thus, increased renal perfusion pressure resulted in a progressive fall in systemic arterial pressure that was not mediated by PAF, prostaglandins, or suppression of renin release and angiotensin II production. PMID:8381391

Christy, I J; Woods, R L; Anderson, W P

1993-02-01

303

Carcinoma of the cervix: aspects of clinical presentation and management in Benin City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoma of the cervix is the most common gynecological cancer in Benin City. Late presentation, poverty and grand multiparity featured prominently. Multiplicity of sexual partners was rather uncommon.

E. P. Gharoro; H. O. Abedi; E. E. Okpere

1999-01-01

304

Similar early clinical presentations in familial and non-familial frontotemporal dementia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the clinical features of FTD cases who have tau gene mutations with those of cases with a family history of FTD but no tau gene mutation, and with sporadic cases with neither feature. Methods and results: Comparisons of the behavioural, cognitive, and motor features in 32 FTD patients (five positive for tau gene mutations, nine familial but tau negative, and 18 tau negative sporadic) showed that age of onset and duration to diagnosis did not differ between the groups. Apathy was not observed in tau mutation positive cases, and dysexecutive signs were more frequent in familial tau mutation negative cases. Memory deficits and behavioural changes were common in all groups. Conclusions: In comparison with other neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, neither tau gene mutations nor strong familial associations confer earlier disease susceptibility. PMID:15548495

Piguet, O; Brooks, W; Halliday, G; Schofield, P; Stanford, P; Kwok, J; Spillantini, M; Yancopoulou, D; Nestor, P; Broe, G; Hodges, J

2004-01-01

305

Patterns of clinical presentation of adult coeliac disease in a rural setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In recent years there has been increasing recognition that the pattern of presentation of coeliac disease may be changing. The classic sprue syndrome with diarrhoea and weight loss may be less common than the more subtle presentations of coeliac disease such as an isolated iron deficiency anaemia. As a result, the diagnosis of this treatable condition is often delayed

Sián Jones; Charles D'Souza; Nadim Y Haboubi

2006-01-01

306

The Many Faces of Celiac Disease: Clinical Presentation of Celiac Disease in the Adult Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major modes of presentation of patients with celiac disease are the classic diarrhea-predominant form and silent celiac disease. Those with silent celiac disease lack diarrhea, although they may present with manifestations of celiac disease that include an irritable bowel syndrome, anemia, osteoporosis, neurologic diseases, or malignancy. A significant proportion of patients are diagnosed through screening at-risk groups including relatives

PETER H. R. GREEN

2005-01-01

307

Unilateral Labial Mass in a Neonate: A Rare Clinical Presentation of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia  

PubMed Central

A full-term female baby presented at birth with a swollen left labia and atrophic lesions affecting the sacrum and left buttocks. A diagnosis of focal dermal hypoplasia was made from the histopathology of the labial lesion. Patient presented at the age of 2 years with urinary incontinence and constipation and imaging of the neuro-spinal axis showed lipomyelomeningocele with tethered cord.

Chandran, Suresh; Madayi, Anitha; Pillay, Haroon Manadath

2014-01-01

308

The Value of Clinical Presentation in Diagnosis of Reflux in Noncardiac Chest Pain Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) presents as a frequent diagnostic challenge, with patients tending to use a disproportionate level of health care resources. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most frequent cause of NCCP. Thus the typical symptoms of reflux like Heartburn and regurgitation, when present as predominant symptoms are quite specific for diagnosing GERD patients but in patients with

Tosi J

2005-01-01

309

Plain X-ray diagnosis of the acute abdomen: A surgical handbook with notes on clinical presentation and differential diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Taken in conjunction with a history and clinical examination, the plain X-ray film may provide invaluable help in reaching or confirming a diagnosis in the patient with an acute abdomen. Designed for the casualty officer or trainee surgeon, this clinical handbook is a practical guide to the interpretation of the plain abdominal X-ray. The format of the first edition has been retained, providing typical examples of X-rays of the conditions which present as abdominal emergencies. Each X-ray is accompanied by a legend in four sections: the characteristic radiological signs demonstrated in the film; the differential diagnosis suggested by the X-ray; the presenting signs and symptoms of the condition under discussion; and a list of possible clinical differential diagnoses.

Gough, M.H.; Gear, M.W.; Daar, A.S.

1985-01-01

310

New developments in the management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.  

PubMed

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is defined as a sustained reduction of ?20 mmHg systolic blood pressure or ?10 mmHg diastolic blood pressure upon standing for ?3 min. Orthostatic hypotension is commonly associated with hypertension, and its prevalence is highest in those with uncontrolled hypertension compared to those with controlled hypertension or normotensive community elderly subjects. Orthostatic hypotension can cause significant disability, with patients experiencing dizziness, lightheadedness or syncope, and other problems that potentially have a profound negative impact on activities of daily living that require standing or walking. Furthermore, OH increases the risk of falls and, importantly, is an independent risk factor of mortality. Despite its importance, there is a paucity of treatment options for this condition. Most of the advances in treatment options have relied on small studies of repurposed drugs done in patients with severe OH due to rare neurodegenerative conditions. Midodrine, an oral prodrug converted to the selective ?1-adrenoceptor agonist desglymidodrine, was approved by the FDA for the treatment of OH in 1996. For almost two decades, no other pharmacotherapy was developed specifically for the treatment of OH until 2014, when droxidopa was approved by the FDA for the treatment of neurogenic OH associated with primary autonomic neuropathies including Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure. These are neurodegenerative diseases ultimately characterized by failure of the autonomic nervous system to generate norepinephrine responses appropriate to postural challenge. Droxidopa is a synthetic amino acid that is converted to norepinephrine by dopa-decarboxylase, the same enzyme that converts levodopa into dopamine in the treatment of Parkinson disease. We will review this and other advances in the treatment of OH in an attempt to provide a practical guide to its management. PMID:25303896

Biaggioni, Italo

2014-11-01

311

Application of controlled hypotension combined with autotransfusion in spinal orthomorphia  

PubMed Central

Background: Idiopathic scoliosis is a common spinal deformity in teenagers, which is managed mainly by orthomorphia. However, due to great trauma, long operative duration and large blood loss, a great amount of blood transfusion is needed during the surgery. Allogeneic blood transfusion should be reduced in order to release blood insufficient, decline blood transfusion expense, as well as avoid transfusion diseases. Objective: The objective of the following study is to investigate the value of controlled hypotension combined with autotransfusion in idiopathic scoliosis orthomorphia and in order to reduce surgical bleeding and reduction in blood transfusion. Subjects and Methods: Intra-operative controlled hypotension was performed during posterior orthomorphia surgery on all the 46 cases of idiopathic scoliosis, 17 cases in which were served as the control group, who underwent allogeneic blood transfusion without autotransfusion, whereas the other 29 cases were served as the experimental group, who underwent autotransfusion that including reinfusion of pre-operative deposited autologous blood and intra-operative salvaged autologous blood. The blood loss volume and transfusion status in two groups were observed. Results and Conclusion: Blood loss volume in the control group was 400-1000 (835.3 ± 167.5) mL and that in the experimental group was 350-1400 (812.1 ± 152.7) mL, there was no marked difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The volume of allogeneic blood transfusion in the control group was 500-1800 (855.9 ± 321.1) mL, which was greater than that in the experimental group ((0-1300 (337.9 ± 258.3) mL) (P < 0.01). The results suggested that controlled hypotension reduces intraoperative bleeding and post-operative autotransfusion minimizes the need of allogeneic blood transfusion.

Zhou, Li-Wen; Li, Ming-Qiang; Wang, Xue-Song; Wu, Youyang; Ye, Fan; Ye, Xihong

2014-01-01

312

Carcinoma of the cervix: aspects of clinical presentation and management in Benin City.  

PubMed

Carcinoma of the cervix is the most common gynecological cancer in Benin City. Late presentation, poverty and grand multiparity featured prominently. Multiplicity of sexual partners was rather uncommon. PMID:10576242

Gharoro, E P; Abedi, H O; Okpere, E E

1999-10-01

313

Primary squamous cell of the thyroid-an abbreviated clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Background Lacking any squamous epithelium, thyroid gland with primary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) proves to be an etiopathophysiological quandary. Two major theories do exist, though few cases have been documented to support either. We present a case that supports the “metaplasia” theory, which serves to enhance our understanding of a disease that carries with it a very poor prognosis. Case presentation We present a case of an extremely advanced, primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid with distant metastases in a thirty-six year-old male. Dying of airway compromise seventeen days following his admission, this is the shortest median survival of all documented cases. Conclusion In addition to being the most abbreviated time period between presentation and death of all documented thyroid primary squamous cell carcinomas, we share the fifth case of thyroid PSCC in the setting of lymphocytic thyroiditis. This case should build awareness of the aggressivity of the disease and the lack of established diagnostic criteria. PMID:24942336

2014-01-01

314

Nasal Foreign Bodies: A Review of Management Strategies and a Clinical Scenario Presentation  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a toothbrush head lodged into the nasal cavity, which required an external rhinoplasty for retrieval. A review of the literature on management strategies in case of nasal foreign bodies is presented. PMID:22379507

Patil, Pavan M.; Anand, Rajeev

2011-01-01

315

Stromal prostatic sarcoma: a rare tumor with rare clinical and imaging presentation  

PubMed Central

Adult prostatic stromal sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor. The main presenting symptom is urinary retention secondary to bladder outlet obstruction. Prostatic Specific Antigen level can be normal. Imaging features show a prostate mass with or without pelvic organ invasion depending on the aggressiveness of the tumor. We present a patient with prostatic stromal sarcoma who debuted with urinary obstruction, leukocytosis and neutrophilia, prostate enlargement, and hypodense prostate areas on CT images, simulating prostatitis with abscess formation. PMID:24421945

Rojas-Jimenez, Anamaria; Otero-Garcia, Milagros; Mateos-Martin, Alejandro

2013-01-01

316

The Incidence Risk, Clustering, and Clinical Presentation of La Crosse Virus Infections in the Eastern United States, 2003-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough La Crosse virus (LACV) is one of the most common causes of pediatric arboviral infections in the United States, little has been done to assess its geographic distribution, identify areas of higher risk of disease, and to provide a national picture of its clinical presentation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the geographic distribution of LACV

Andrew D. Haddow; Agricola Odoi; Laurent Rénia

2009-01-01

317

Clinical Presentation and Course of Depression in Youth: Does Onset in Childhood Differ from Onset in Adolescence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To simultaneously and prospectively compare the clinical presentation, course, and parental psychiatric history between children and adolescents with major depressive disorder. Method: A group of prepubertal children (n = 46) and postpubertal adolescents (n = 22) were assessed with structured interviews for psychopathology and parental…

Birmaher, Boris; Williamson, Douglas E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Kaufman, Joan; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.

2004-01-01

318

Clinical presentation and outcome of Tuberculosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected children on anti-retroviral therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics are poorly controlled in sub-Saharan Africa, where highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has become more freely available. Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of TB in HIV-infected children on HAART. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive file review of all children who commenced HAART at Tygerberg Children's Hospital

Elisabetta Walters; Mark F Cotton; Helena Rabie; H Simon Schaaf; Lourens O Walters; Ben J Marais

2008-01-01

319

Vascular leiomyoma of the oral cavity. Clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Presentation of five cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leiomyoma, a benign neoplasia arising from smooth muscle is an uncommon neoplasia of the oral cavity. The most common histological subtype in the oral cavity is the vascular one. To supplement information on vascular leiomyoma of the oral cavity (VLOC), we present cases of VLOC describing their clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Case reports. Five cases of VLOC (3 females;

Luis Alberto Gaitan Cepeda; Daniel Quezada River; Fernando Tenorio Rocha; Elba Rosa; Leyva Huerta; Edgar Ramiro; Mendez Sánchez

320

Temporary elimination of orthostatic hypotension by norepinephrine infusion  

PubMed Central

A cardinal manifestation of chronic autonomic failure is neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (OH), which often is associated with supine hypertension, posing a therapeutic dilemma. We report here success in a first step toward development of a “prosthetic baroreceptor system” to maintain blood pressure during orthostasis without worsening supine hypertension. In all of four patients with neurogenic OH, titrated i.v. NE infusion kept directly recorded intra-arterial pressure at or above baseline during progressive head-up tilt. We conclude that titrated i.v. NE infusion temporarily eliminates OH. PMID:22983778

Sewell, LaToya; Holmes, Courtney; Pechnik, Sandra; Diedrich, Andre; Robertson, David

2014-01-01

321

Five unusual serum protein presentations found by capillary electrophoresis in the clinical laboratory.  

PubMed

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been used in our teaching hospital clinical laboratory to assay approximately 13 000 specimens for serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) in 4 1/2 years. During that period we have found several unusual samples, five of which are discussed here. These samples are from separate patients with IgD myeloma, IgG heavy chain disease, a triple IgG(Kappa) monoclonal band, a rapidly changing abnormal/monoclonal band and a mixed type-11 cryoglobulinaemia. Albumin has been used to calibrate the 50-microm fused silica capillary, the quantity of the monoclonal bands being calculated by the software of either the Applied Biosystems 270A-HT or BioFocus instrument. We have found CE for the initial SPE to be a robust, labour-saving, cost effective technique, which is able to determine less than 1 g/l of monoclonal protein. However, because of the expense and time required for immunosubtraction, we prefer isoelectric focusing (IEF) for typing of paraproteins. The only samples which need care in handling are serum containing large amounts of cryoglobulin protein. PMID:10512037

Jenkins, M A; Ratnaike, S

1999-08-30

322

Collagenous colitis: a retrospective study of clinical presentation and treatment in 163 patients.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Data on collagenous colitis have been based on a limited number of patients. AIMS: To obtain more information on this disease from a register set up at Orebro Medical Center Hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty five Swedish hospitals have contributed to this patient register, which comprises 163 histopathologically verified cases. Clinical data were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: Collagenous colitis followed a chronic intermittent course in most cases (85%) with a sudden onset in 42%. Symptoms were chronic watery diarrhoea, often nocturnal (27%), abdominal pain (41%), and weight loss (42%). Sixty six patients (40%) had one or more associated diseases. Routine laboratory data were mostly normal. The median age at diagnosis was 55 (range 16-86) years, but 25% of the patients were younger than 45 years. Seven patients died of unrelated diseases. The response rate for sulphasalazine was 59%, and 50% and 40% for mesalazine and olsalazine. Prednisolone was most effective with a response rate of 82%, but the required dose was often high and the effect was not sustained after withdrawal. Antibiotics were efficient in 63%. Cholestyramine and loperamide had response rates of 59% and 71% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Collagenous colitis follows a chronic continuous course. Symptoms can be socially disabling, but the disease does not seem to have a malignant potential. A plan for the treatment of a newly diagnosed patient with collagenous colitis is proposed. PMID:9038667

Bohr, J; Tysk, C; Eriksson, S; Abrahamsson, H; Jarnerot, G

1996-01-01

323

Anti-inflammatory properties of local anesthetics and their present and potential clinical implications.  

PubMed

Development of new local anesthetic agents has been focused on the potency of their nerve-blocking effects, duration of action and safety and has resulted in a substantial number of agents in clinical use. It is well established and well documented that the nerve blocking effects of local anesthetics are secondary to their interaction with the Na+ channels thereby blocking nerve membrane excitability and the generation of action potentials. Accumulating data suggest however that local anesthetics also possess a wide range of anti-inflammatory actions through their effects on cells of the immune system, as well as on other cells, e.g. microorganisms, thrombocytes and erythrocytes. The potent anti-inflammatory properties of local anesthetics, superior in several aspects to traditional anti-inflammatory agents of the NSAID and steroid groups and with fewer side-effects, has prompted clinicians to introduce them in the treatment of various inflammation-related conditions and diseases. They have proved successful in the treatment of burn injuries, interstitial cystitis, ulcerative proctitis, arthritis and herpes simplex infections. The detailed mechanisms of action are not fully understood but seem to involve a reversible interaction with membrane proteins and lipids thus regulating cell metabolic activity, migration, exocytosis and phagocytosis. PMID:16480459

Cassuto, J; Sinclair, R; Bonderovic, M

2006-03-01

324

Quality assurance in radiation therapy: European experience - present and future clinical efforts  

SciTech Connect

A high standard of radiotherapeutic practice must be sought in all phases of management of a patient with malignant disease. Radiation therapy must be appropriately chosen and integrated with surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and all other modes of treatment. The most suitable technique with a dose, fractionation and time regime must devised and executed with technical and personal care. Follow-up to truly assess tumor control and morbidity is essential so as to guide the management of future patients. To achieve this in Europe great reliance is placed upon the training and qualification of the therapist and staff. High standards are applied to the professional qualifications for radiation physicists, nurses and technical staff. In the countries belonging to the European economic union, a new Diploma in Radiation Therapy has been established to be a standard for consultant practice through all the countries included. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer has recently initiated a quality control study in some of the centers included in the Radiotherapy Group. A preliminary report has just appeared on the results of the clinical and dosimetric studies in 8 centers placed in 5 European countries.

Dische, S.

1984-06-01

325

Clinical application of Electrical Impedance Tomography in the Present Health Scenario of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of Breast Cancer is currently emerging as a big clinical entity requiring a non invasive, radiation less, harmless, cost effective diagnostic technique. Survival is improved if detected early. Breast Cancer is the second most common cancer in India. Health corporate system of India is urgently requiring a cost effective, noninvasive novel technique like "Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)" for screening large poor rural population of India for early diagnosis of Breast Cancer. EIT is the technique to visualize spatial distribution of Electro-impedance (or conductivity) inside the object, such as human body. A medical device which allows imaging of the distribution of conductivity in 3D in regions below the skin surface has been developed and tested. Its purpose is to enable early detection and preliminary diagnosis of breast tumors. The system uses a planar array consisting of 256 electrodes and enables obtaining images of the three-dimensional conductivity distribution in regions below the skin's surface up to several centimeters deep. The developed measuring system and image reconstruction algorithm can be used for breast tissue imaging and diagnostic, in particular for malignant tumor detection. Initially ten patients as control and ten patients with breast lesions have been studied with this new technique. It was found that electrical impedance mammograms from different groups has clear visual distinctions and statistically significant difference in breast glands conductivity. The results are quiet encouraging. EIT may emerge as the first line noninvasive imaging method of choice for screening large population for early detection of breast cancer.

Chakraborti, K. L., Dr; Selvamurthy, W., Dr

2010-04-01

326

Involvement of the cholinergic system in the central histamine-induced reversal of critical haemorrhagic hypotension in rats.  

PubMed

Histamine, acting centrally as a neurotransmitter, evokes a reversal of haemorrhagic shock in rats due to the activation of the sympathetic and the renin-angiotensin systems as well as the release of arginine vasopressin and proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides. In the present study, we demonstrate influences of cholinergic receptor antagonists on the central histamine-induced resuscitating action. Experiments were carried out in male anaesthetised Wistar rats subjected to a haemorrhagic hypotension of 20-25 mmHg, resulting in the death of all control animals within 30 min. Histamine (100 nmol) administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) at 5 min of critical hypotension produced a long-lasting pressor effect with increases in heart rate and peripheral blood flows, and a 100% survival at 2 h. Mean arterial pressure and blood flow changes were almost completely blocked by nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (246.3 nmol; icv) and partially inhibited by muscarinic receptor blocker atropine sulphate (14.8 nmol; icv). Cholinergic receptor antagonists given alone in the control saline-treated groups did not affect cardiovascular parameters in the post-bleeding period. In conclusion, there are interactions between the histaminergic and cholinergic systems, with an involvement of both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, in the central cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic hypotension in rats. PMID:19617656

Yalcin, M; Savci, V; Jochem, J

2009-06-01

327

Intuitive presentation of clinical forensic data using anonymous and person-specific 3D reference manikins.  

PubMed

The increasing use of CT/MR devices in forensic analysis motivates the need to present forensic findings from different sources in an intuitive reference visualization, with the aim of combining 3D volumetric images along with digital photographs of external findings into a 3D computer graphics model. This model allows a comprehensive presentation of forensic findings in court and enables comparative evaluation studies correlating data sources. The goal of this work was to investigate different methods to generate anonymous and patient-specific 3D models which may be used as reference visualizations. The issue of registering 3D volumetric as well as 2D photographic data to such 3D models is addressed to provide an intuitive context for injury documentation from arbitrary modalities. We present an image processing and visualization work-flow, discuss the major parts of this work-flow, compare the different investigated reference models, and show a number of cases studies that underline the suitability of the proposed work-flow for presenting forensically relevant information in 3D visualizations. PMID:24952238

Urschler, Martin; Höller, Johannes; Bornik, Alexander; Paul, Tobias; Giretzlehner, Michael; Bischof, Horst; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

2014-08-01

328

Past, Present, and Future Trends in Teaching Clinical Skills through Web-Based Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distance education in social work has grown significantly due to the use of interactive television and computer networks. Given the recent developments in delivering distance education utilizing Web-based technology, this article presents a literature review focused on identifying generational trends in the development of Web-based learning…

Coe Regan, Jo Ann R.; Youn, Eric J.

2008-01-01

329

An unusual clinical presentation of plasma cell gingivitis related to "Acacia" containing herbal toothpaste  

PubMed Central

A 17-year-old female patient presented with unusual enlargement of the gingiva with generalized alveolar bone loss. In spite of periodontal therapy, including plaque control, scaling, root planning and surgical treatment, recurrence with the same degree of the gingival enlargement and further loss of attachment level occurred. Biopsy revealed dense infiltration of normal plasma cells separated by collagenous stroma. Discontinuation of herbal toothpaste resulted in remarkable remission of the gingival enlargement within 2 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of toothpaste components disclosed “Acacia” as an etiologic antigenic agent and confirmed the diagnosis of plasma cell gingivitis (PCG). Usually, PCG is not associated with the loss of attachment. This case report appears to be the first publication to document an atypical presentation of PCG with generalized aggressive periodontitis related to the use of herbal toothpaste containing “Acacia” extract from the tree “Acacia Arabica.” PMID:24174738

Makkar, Anjali; Tewari, Shikha; Kishor, Kamal; Kataria, Santprakash

2013-01-01

330

Clinical trials of antioxidants as cancer prevention agents: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to summarize the most important human clinical trials of antioxidants as cancer prevention agents conducted to date, provide an overview of currently ongoing studies, and discuss future steps needed to advance research in this field. To date there have been several large (at least 7000 participants) trials testing the efficacy of antioxidant supplements in preventing cancer. The specific agents (diet-derived direct antioxidants and essential components of antioxidant enzymes) tested in those trials included ?-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C, selenium, retinol, zinc, riboflavin, and molybdenum. None of the completed trials produced convincing evidence to justify the use of traditional antioxidant-related vitamins or minerals for cancer prevention. Our search of ongoing trials identified six projects at various stages of completion. Five of those six trials use selenium as the intervention of interest delivered either alone or in combination with other agents. The lack of success to date can be explained by a variety of factors that need to be considered in the next generation research. These factors include lack of good biological rationale for selecting specific agents of interest; limited number of agents tested to date; use of pharmacological, rather than dietary, doses; and insufficient duration of intervention and follow-up. The latter consideration underscores the need for alternative endpoints that are associated with increased risk of neoplasia (i.e., biomarkers of risk), but are detectable prior to tumor occurrence. Although dietary antioxidants are a large and diverse group of compounds, only a small proportion of candidate agents have been tested. In summary, the strategy of focusing on large high-budget studies using cancer incidence as the endpoint and testing a relatively limited number of antioxidant agents has been largely unsuccessful. This lack of success in previous trials should not preclude us from seeking novel ways of preventing cancer by modulating oxidative balance. On the contrary, the well demonstrated mechanistic link between excessive oxidative stress and carcinogenesis underscores the need for new studies. It appears that future large-scale projects should be preceded by smaller, shorter, less expensive biomarker-based studies that can serve as a link from mechanistic and observational research to human cancer prevention trials. These relatively inexpensive studies would provide human experimental evidence for the likely efficacy, optimum dose, and long-term safety of the intervention of interest that would then guide the design of safe, more definitive large-scale trials. PMID:21683786

Goodman, Michael; Bostick, Roberd M; Kucuk, Omer; Jones, Dean P

2011-09-01

331

Unusual Clinical Presentation of Cutaneous Angiosarcoma Masquerading as Eczema: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

An unusual case of cutaneous angiosarcoma clinically mimicking eczema is described. A 98-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 6-month history of a flesh-colored, subcutaneous nodule on his left forehead with contralateral facial erythema and scaling that had been previously diagnosed as eczema. Despite treatments with topical steroids and moisturizers, the condition did not resolve. At our clinic, excisional biopsy of the forehead lesion and scouting biopsies from the contralateral cheek were performed which revealed cutaneous angiosarcoma. The described case illustrates that dermatitis-like features should be considered as a rare clinical manifestation of cutaneous angiosarcoma. It also demonstrates that these lesions may respond well to radiotherapy as a single modality. PMID:24222869

Trinh, Nhat Q.; Rashed, Issra; Hutchens, Kelli A.; Melian, Edward; Tung, Rebecca

2013-01-01

332

Clinical and genetic characteristics of mexican patients with juvenile presentation of niemann-pick type C disease.  

PubMed

Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare lysosomal disease with a protean presentation, ranging from a fatal neonatal course with visceromegaly to an adult presentation with only neurological or psychiatric symptomatology. In this report we describe the genetic and clinical characteristics of 3 Mexican patients from different families with juvenile presentation of NPC. Clinical examination, imaging of central nervous and gastrointestinal system, and EEG were performed. Genetic studies include sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 genes. All patients presented with cognitive impairment, ataxia, and supranuclear vertical gaze palsy; one case had gelastic cataplexy. Also they developed epilepsy and cortical atrophy and two patients had thinning of corpus callosum. The 3 patients were compound heterozygotes for NPC1 sequence variants, including 5 missense and 1 nonsense mutations: p.P1007A and p.F1087L in Case 1; p.Q921P and p.G992R in Case 2; and p.R348? and p.V1165M in case 3. Mexican patients with juvenile NPC presented with a variable clinical phenotype and compound heterozygosity. This suggests a relative high frequency of mutation carriers as it is reported for European population. Consequently, clinicians should consider NPC as a diagnosis possibility in any adolescent or young adult patient with juvenile dementia and/or ataxia, even in absence of gelastic cataplexy and supranuclear vertical gaze palsy. PMID:25349751

Piña-Aguilar, Raul E; Vera-Loaiza, Aurea; Chacón-Camacho, Oscar F; Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Nuñez-Orozco, Lilia; Santillán-Hernández, Yuritzi

2014-01-01

333

Clinical and Genetic Characteristics of Mexican Patients with Juvenile Presentation of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease  

PubMed Central

Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare lysosomal disease with a protean presentation, ranging from a fatal neonatal course with visceromegaly to an adult presentation with only neurological or psychiatric symptomatology. In this report we describe the genetic and clinical characteristics of 3 Mexican patients from different families with juvenile presentation of NPC. Clinical examination, imaging of central nervous and gastrointestinal system, and EEG were performed. Genetic studies include sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 genes. All patients presented with cognitive impairment, ataxia, and supranuclear vertical gaze palsy; one case had gelastic cataplexy. Also they developed epilepsy and cortical atrophy and two patients had thinning of corpus callosum. The 3 patients were compound heterozygotes for NPC1 sequence variants, including 5 missense and 1 nonsense mutations: p.P1007A and p.F1087L in Case 1; p.Q921P and p.G992R in Case 2; and p.R348? and p.V1165M in case 3. Mexican patients with juvenile NPC presented with a variable clinical phenotype and compound heterozygosity. This suggests a relative high frequency of mutation carriers as it is reported for European population. Consequently, clinicians should consider NPC as a diagnosis possibility in any adolescent or young adult patient with juvenile dementia and/or ataxia, even in absence of gelastic cataplexy and supranuclear vertical gaze palsy. PMID:25349751

Pina-Aguilar, Raul E.; Vera-Loaiza, Aurea; Chacon-Camacho, Oscar F.; Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Nunez-Orozco, Lilia; Santillan-Hernandez, Yuritzi

2014-01-01

334

Plasmodium knowlesi: clinical presentation and laboratory diagnosis of the first human case in a Scottish traveler.  

PubMed

The first imported case of Plasmodium knowlesi in Scotland is described in a 33-year-old female with a travel history to Borneo. The patient ceased to take antimalarial prophylaxis after 4 days of her 10-day visit and presented with a history of fever, rigor, vomiting, and diarrhea after 13 days on her return to the UK. Malaria antigen detection using the Optimal-IT and Binax-NOW kits was negative. Unusual trophozoite-like structures were observed under microscopic examination and the identification of P. knowlesi performed by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gel-based approach was confirmed by using a PCR-sequencing assay. PMID:24861374

Cordina, Claire J; Culleton, Richard; Jones, Brian L; Smith, Catherine C; MacConnachie, Alisdair A; Coyne, Michael J; Alexander, Claire L

2014-01-01

335

Dysphagia Caused by Spindle Cell Lipoma of Hypopharynx: Presentation of Clinical Case and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Spindle cell lipoma of the hypopharynx is an extremely rare entity. Here, we present the first case of this lesion originated in the cricopharyngeal region, with symptoms of chronic progressive dysphagia, which can be confused with other pathologies; endoscopic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation are the methods of choice for its diagnostic approach. The best therapeutic approach is endoscopic resection with rapid recovery and few complications. Long-term followup is recommended, either endoscopic or imaging, given that it can be confused with an undiagnosed liposarcoma; additionally, its long-term behavior is unknown. PMID:23326743

Pena-Valenzuela, Alberto; Garcia Leon, Nathalia

2012-01-01

336

Literature Review and Clinical Presentation of Bilateral Acetabular Fractures Secondary to Seizure Attacks  

PubMed Central

Central acetabular fracture dislocation is usually caused by high-energy external trauma. However, 26 cases that occurred as a result of a seizure attack appeared in the literature from 1970 to 2007, with the seizure attacks themselves caused by many different factors. In this setting, the central acetabular fracture not caused by direct trauma might initially remain unnoticed leading to a delayed diagnosis. In some cases, this may lead to death as a result of massive blood loss. We here present a case of bilateral central acetabular fracture dislocation as a result of a seizure attack. PMID:23259117

Nehme, Alexandre H.; Matta, Jihad F.; Boughannam, Alaa G.; Jabbour, Fouad C.; Imad, Joseph; Moucharafieh, Ramzi

2012-01-01

337

Arterial blood pressure as a predictor of the response to fluid administration in euvolemic nonhypotensive or hypotensive isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.  

PubMed

Objective-To determine the effects of rapid small-volume fluid administration on arterial blood pressure measurements and associated hemodynamic variables in isoflurane-anesthetized euvolemic dogs with or without experimentally induced hypotension. Design-Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Animals-13 healthy dogs. Procedures-Isoflurane-anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned to conditions of nonhypotension or hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure, 45 to 50 mm Hg) and treatment with lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) or hetastarch (3 or 10 mL/kg [1.4 or 4.5 mL/lb] dose in a 5-minute period or 3 mL/kg dose in a 1-minute period [4 or 5 dogs/treatment; ? 10-day interval between treatments]). Hemodynamic variables were recorded before and for up to 45 minutes after fluid administration. Results-IV administration of 10 mL/kg doses of LRS or hetastarch in a 5-minute period increased right atrial and pulmonary arterial pressures and cardiac output (CO) when dogs were nonhypotensive or hypotensive, compared with findings before fluid administration; durations of these effects were greater after hetastarch administration. Intravenous administration of 3 mL of hetastarch/kg in a 5-minute period resulted in an increase in CO when dogs were nonhypotensive. Intravenous administration of 3 mL/kg doses of LRS or hetastarch in a 1-minute period increased right atrial pressure and CO when dogs were nonhypotensive or hypotensive. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Administration of LRS or hetastarch (3 or 10 mL/kg dose in a 5-minute period or 3 mL/kg dose in a 1-minute period) improved CO in isoflurane-anesthetized euvolemic dogs with or without hypotension. Overall, arterial blood pressure measurements were a poor predictor of the hemodynamic response to fluid administration. PMID:25313813

Muir, William W; Ueyama, Yukie; Pedraza-Toscano, Adriana; Vargas-Pinto, Pedro; Delrio, Carlos L; George, Robert S; Youngblood, Bradley L; Hamlin, Robert L

2014-11-01

338

Post-micturitional hypotension in patients with multiple system atrophy  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) occasionally have episodes of syncope or pre-syncope after micturition. Objective: To clarify the mechanism of these episodes by investigating the haemodynamic changes associated with micturition. Methods: 25 patients with probable MSA and 16 age matched normal controls were studied. Continuous records of blood pressure and heart rate were made during water cystometry, along with the Valsalva manoeuvre, head up tilt testing, measurement of plasma noradrenaline, and calculation of coefficient of variance of RR intervals. Results: Compared with normal controls, MSA patients had a lower baseline blood pressure, smaller blood pressure and heart rate increases during bladder filling, and an abnormal fall in blood pressure for a longer duration after voiding, resulting in significantly lower blood pressure than at baseline (mean systolic blood pressure reduction –15.2 mm Hg), and hypotension compared with control blood pressure (–29.0 mm Hg). The blood pressure fall was greater in patients with micturition syncope/pre-syncope than in those without. It was also greater in patients with abdominal straining resulting from difficulty in voiding. Other cardiovascular indices did not correlate with the fall in blood pressure. Conclusions: Hypotension after voiding in MSA patients may result from generalised autonomic dysfunction and abnormal abdominal straining, resulting in micturition syncope. PMID:15654029

Uchiyama, T; Sakakibara, R; Asahina, M; Yamanishi, T; Hattori, T

2005-01-01

339

Rapid progression of primary cutaneous gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma with an initial indolent clinical presentation.  

PubMed

: Primary cutaneous gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma (CGD-TCL) is a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma characterized by a rapidly progressive clinical course and a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 52-year-old man with a 10-year history of erythematous nodules and a rapid terminal progression diagnosed as CGD-TCL. Biopsies taken at the time of progression showed a dense lymphocytic infiltrate involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue and deep dermis. One of the biopsies displayed much more limited involvement by CGD-TCL that was nearly identical to the biopsies of the erythematous lesions 10 years before. In conclusion, this case demonstrates a case of CGD-TCL presenting as a longstanding indolent disease with a rapid terminal progression. The indolent clinical course and histological heterogeneity make diagnosing this entity during the initial stage extremely challenging. This case underscores a diverse clinical presentations and a need to consider CGD-TCL in patients showing subcutaneous lesions with an indolent clinical course. PMID:25247673

Alexander, Riley E; Webb, Alden R; Abuel-Haija, Mohammad; Czader, Magdalena

2014-10-01

340

Retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation and transverse testicular ectopia: a unique clinical presentation.  

PubMed

This case report presents a fetal patient diagnosed in utero with a retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation by ultrasound and followed through gestation. At birth the child was noted to have a right inguinal hernia with two palpable testicles. Plan for partial resection and hernia repair with postoperative sclerotherapy was made. At the time of hernia repair, transverse testicular ectopia was diagnosed, and subsequent extraperitoneal transposition orchiopexy was performed following partial resection of the lymphatic malformation. Delayed sclerotherapy in combination with partial resection afforded definitive treatment of the residual lymphatic malformation as the patient demonstrates no recurrence over one year later. This is the first reported case to suggest a direct relationship between transverse testicular ectopia and a retroperitoneal lymphatic malformation. PMID:23583159

Morris, Michael W; Cauthen, William; Bofill, James A; Blewett, Christopher J; Liechty, Kenneth W

2013-04-01

341

Traumatic brain injury: an integrated clinical case presentation and literature review. Part I: assessment and initial management.  

PubMed

Holistic nursing care of critically ill patients continues to be a challenge for all levels of critical care clinicians. Patients with multi-system dysfunction in particular, present complicated clinical challenges that demand care based on sound knowledge and understanding of physiological, psychosocial and spiritual needs. Experiential learning through exposure to a range of patient presentations enables incremental development of professional practice and excellence in nursing care. Case study learning enhances understanding through application of theory to practice in complex clinical presentations. This two-part paper outlines the assessment, interventions and outcome of a person who sustained multiple trauma including severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Part I explores assessment and initial management from pre-hospital care through to the Emergency Department (ED) and operating theatre. Part II describes the intensive care period as an integral component of the continuum of care. Key issues in the case are presented sequentially with relevant literature integrated and applied to clinical progress, focussing on the complex physiological, psychosocial, spiritual and environmental needs of the patient and his family. The purpose of the paper is to therefore provide a comprehensive learning resource for critical care nurses, particularly for those beginning their practice. PMID:18387815

Ladanyi, Suzy; Elliott, Doug

2008-05-01

342

Effects of exercise conditioning on semen characteristics from hyper? and hypotensive lines of turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Twenty?one male Broad Breasted White turkeys which had been selected for high or low blood pressure were put on an exercise regimen to determine its effect on semen quality. Eleven were from the hypertensive line and 10 from the hypotensive line.2. Eleven (6 hypertensive and 5 hypotensive) turkeys were placed on an exercise regime of walking (herding) about 1

L. M. Krista; E. E. M. Pierson; G. R. McDaniel; E. C. Mora; J. A. McGuire; S. L. Bolden; L. E. Miller

1985-01-01

343

Delayed hypovolemic hypotension exacerbates the hemodynamic and histopathologic consequences of thromboembolic stroke in rats.  

PubMed

Abnormalities in cerebrovascular reactivity or hemodynamic reserve are risk factors for stroke. The authors determined whether hemodynamic reserve is reduced in an experimental model of thromboembolic stroke. Nonocclusive common carotid artery thrombosis (CCAT) was produced in rats by a rose bengal-mediated photochemical insult, and moderate hypotension (60 mm Hg/30 min) was induced 1 hour later by hemorrhage. Alterations in local cerebral blood flow (ICBF) were assessed immediately after the hypotensive period by 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography, and histopathologic outcome was determined 3 days after CCAT. Compared to normotensive CCAT rats (n = 5), induced hypotension after CCAT (n = 7) led to enlarged regions of severe ischemia (i.e., mean ICBF < 0.24 mL/g/min) in the ipsilateral hemisphere. For example, induced hypotension increased the volume of severely ischemic sites from 16 +/- 4 mm3 (mean +/- SD) to 126 +/- 99 mm3 (P < 0.05). Histopathologic data also showed a larger volume of ischemic damage with secondary hypotension (n = 7) compared to normotension (22 +/- 15 mm3 versus 5 +/- 5 mm3, P < .05). Both hypotension-induced decreases in ICBF and ischemic pathology were commonly detected within cortical anterior and posterior borderzone areas and within the ipsilateral striatum and hippocampus. In contrast to CCAT, mechanical ligation of the common carotid artery plus hypotension (n = 8) did not produce significant histopathologic damage. Nonocclusive CCAT with secondary hypotension therefore predisposes the post-thrombotic brain to hemodynamic stress and structural damage. PMID:10458599

Dietrich, W D; Prado, R; Pravia, C; Zhao, W; Ginsberg, M D; Watson, B D

1999-08-01

344

Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post- resistance exercise hypotension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat- ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten

Juliano Rodrigues Moreno; Gisela Arsa da Cunha; Pedro Luiz Braga; Carmen Silvia; Grubert Campbell; Herbert Gustavo Simões

345

Influence of controlled hypotension versus normotension on amount of blood loss during breast reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Controlled hypotension employed during surgical procedures results in a beneficial reduction in blood loss during the operation. Breast reduction is a common cosmetic surgical procedure. Yet, in the Netherlands, controlled hypotension is not standard during breast reduction procedures, and in fact is only occasionally employed. Our research aimed to establish a set of guidelines which would outline the application

E. C. Kop; P. H. M. Spauwen; P. P. G. M. Kouwenberg; F. J. M. Heymans; H. B. H. van Beem

2009-01-01

346

Cardiac denervation occurs independent of orthostatic hypotension and impaired heart rate variability in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) have impaired sympathetically mediated neurocirculatory innervation. Here we analyzed the correlation between cardiac 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake, orthostatic hypotension and heart rate variability in treated patients with PD. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) as a hallmark of sympathetic neurocirculatory failure was found with a high prevalence in PD. PD is known to affect cardiac innervation, resulting in

C.-A. Haensch; H. Lerch; J. Jörg; S. Isenmann

2009-01-01

347

Papillon-lefevre syndrome: a combined approach from the dermatologist and dentist - a clinical presentation.  

PubMed

Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is a rare disease characterized by skin lesions, which includes palmar-plantar hyperkeratosis and hyperhidrosis with severe periodontal destruction involving both the primary and the permanent dentitions. It is transmitted as an autosomal-recessive condition, and consanguinity of parents is evident in about one-third of the cases. This paper describes a 13-year-old male patient who presented to the department of pedodontics, with rapidly progressing periodontitis. A general physical examination revealed scaling on the hands and feet, which had been medically diagnosed as PLS. The incidence of this rare entity is increasing in the recent times, which is associated with irreparable periodontal destruction at an early age, with not so prominent skin lesions in some cases. In such instances, the dentist has a more important role in diagnosing, treatment planning and preservation of the periodontal tissues and, at the same time, referring for the treatment of the skin lesions. This paper emphasizes the combined effort of the two specialities in order to maintain skin as well as dental conditions in health by early intervention and a synergistic treatment approach. PMID:22345785

Muppa, Radhika; Prameela, B; Duddu, Mahesh; Dandempally, Arthi

2011-11-01

348

Engineering tendon and ligament tissues: present developments towards successful clinical products.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal diseases are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Among them, tendon and ligament injuries represent an important aspect to consider in both athletes and active working people. Tendon and ligament damage is an important cause of joint instability, and progresses into early onset of osteoarthritis, pain, disability and eventually the need for joint replacement surgery. The social and economical burden associated with these medical conditions presents a compelling argument for greater understanding and expanding research on this issue. The particular physiology of tendons and ligaments (avascular, hypocellular and overall structural mechanical features) makes it difficult for currently available treatments to reach a complete and long-term functional repair of the damaged tissue, especially when complete tear occurs. Despite the effort, the treatment modalities for tendon and ligament are suboptimal, which have led to the development of alternative therapies, such as the delivery of growth factors, development of engineered scaffolds or the application of stem cells, which have been approached in this review. PMID:22499564

Rodrigues, Márcia T; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E

2013-09-01

349

A current review of Ebola virus: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and diagnostic assessment.  

PubMed

Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is an acute viral syndrome that presents with fever and an ensuing bleeding diathesis that is marked by high mortality in human and nonhuman primates. Fatality rates are between 50% and 100%. Due to its lethal nature, this filovirus is classified as a biological class 4 pathogen. The natural reservoir of the virus is unknown. As a result, little is understood about how Ebola virus is transmitted or how it replicates in its host. Although the primary source of infection is unknown, the epidemiologic mode of transmission is well defined. A variety of tests have proven to be specific and useful for Ebola virus identification. There is no FDA-approved antiviral treatment for EHF. Incubation ranges from 2 to 21 days. Patients who are able to mount an immune response to the virus will begin to recover in 7 to 10 days and start a period of prolonged convalescence. Supportive management of infected patients is the primary method of treatment, with particular attention to maintenance of hydration, circulatory volume, blood pressure, and the provision of supplemental oxygen. Since there is no specific treatment outside of supportive management and palliative care, containment of this potentially lethal virus is paramount. In almost all outbreaks of EHF, the fatality rate among health care workers with documented infections was higher than that of non-health care workers. PMID:12698919

Casillas, Adrian M; Nyamathi, Adeline M; Sosa, Anthony; Wilder, Cam L; Sands, Heather

2003-04-01

350

Adult-onset reticulohistiocytoma presenting as a solitary asymptomatic red knee nodule: report and review of clinical presentations and immunohistochemistry staining features of reticulohistiocytosis.  

PubMed

Reticulohistiocytomas are benign dermal tumors that usually present as either solitary or multiple, cutaneous nodules. Reticulohistiocytosis can present as solitary or generalized skin tumors or cutaneous lesions with systemic involvement and are potentially associated with internal malignancy. A woman with a solitary red nodule on her knee is described in whom the clinical differential diagnosis included dermatofibroma and amelanotic malignant melanoma. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunoperoxidase studies of the biopsy specimen established the diagnosis of adult-onset reticulohistiocytoma (solitary epithelioid histiocytoma). Reticulohistiocytoma is characterized by mononuclear, and occasionally multinuclear, histiocytes with eosinophilic "glassy" cytoplasm. The immunohistochemical profile of a reticulohistiocytoma demonstrates consistent positive expression for CD68 (a marker that is expressed by histiocytes but can also show positive staining in melanomas and carcinomas), CD163 (a very specific marker for histiocytes), and vimentin. Reticulohistiocytomas show variable positive expression for MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor) and S100 protein, both of which are more commonly used as markers for melanocytes. Recurrence of a reticulohistiocytoma is rare, even for patients with an incompletely removed lesion. However, our patient elected to have her residual tumor completely excised. PMID:24656263

Cohen, Philip R; Lee, Robert A

2014-03-01

351

The formation of cocaethylene and clinical presentation of ED patients testing positive for the use of cocaine and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to document the clinical presentation of emergency department (ED) patients who tested positive for concurrent cocaine (COC) and ethanol (EtOH) use and the incidence of cocaethylene (CE) formation in this study population. Four study groups were evaluated: (1) drug-free, (2) EtOH-only, (3) COC-only, and (4) COC plus EtOH. CE was detected in plasma or

Steven A Signs; Howard I Dickey-White; Vincent W Vanek; Steven Perch; Martin D Schechter; Albert T Kulics

1996-01-01

352

Factor Structure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in OEF\\/OIF Veterans Presenting to a Polytrauma Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A significant number of Operation Iraqi Freedom\\/Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF\\/OIF) veterans are returning from deployment and presenting to Veterans Health Administration (VHA) polytrauma clinics with elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Inherent to the accurate assessment and treatment of this diagnostically complex group of veterans is the assumption that the construct of

Kacey Little Maestas; Jared F. Benge; Nicholas J. Pastorek; Ashley LeMaire; Rachel Darrow

2011-01-01

353

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension from calcified thoracic disc protrusions causing CSF leak successfully treated with targeted epidural blood patch.  

PubMed

Spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are increasingly recognized in patients presenting with orthostatic headache and ultimately diagnosed with intracranial hypotension. While the precise cause of these spontaneous leaks is unknown, it is thought to result from underlying weakness in the spinal meninges and may be associated with meningeal diverticula or Tarlov cysts. Rarely, calcified intervertebral discs or bony osteophytes can result in CSF leakage, which has been described in the surgery literature but not well recognized in the radiology literature. The authors present three cases of patients presenting with CSF leaks from calcified thoracic disc protrusions that were successfully treated with epidural blood patches. PMID:23395554

Allmendinger, Andrew M; Lee, Thomas C

2013-01-01

354

Molecular Profiling and Clinical Outcome of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Presenting with Low- versus High-Volume Ascites  

PubMed Central

Epithelial ovarian cancer consists of multiple histotypes differing in etiology and clinical course. The most prevalent histotype is high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), which often presents at an advanced stage frequently accompanied with high-volume ascites. While some studies suggest that ascites is associated with poor clinical outcome, most reports have not differentiated between histological subtypes or tumor grade. We compared genome-wide gene expression profiles from a discovery cohort of ten patients diagnosed with stages III-IV HGSOC with high-volume ascites and nine patients with low-volume ascites. An upregulation of immune response genes was detected in tumors from patients presenting with low-volume ascites relative to those with high-volume ascites. Immunohistochemical studies performed on tissue microarrays confirmed higher expression of proteins encoded by immune response genes and increased tumorinfiltrating cells in tumors associated with low-volume ascites. Comparison of 149 advanced-stage HGSOC cases with differential ascites volume at time of primary surgery indicated low-volume ascites correlated with better surgical outcome and longer overall survival. These findings suggest that advanced stage HGSOC presenting with low-volume ascites reflects a unique subgroup of HGSOC, which is associated with upregulation of immune related genes, more abundant tumor infiltrating cells and better clinical outcomes. PMID:24982872

Clarke, Blaise; Virtanen, Carl; Plotkin, Anna; Rosen, Barry; Bernardini, Marcus Q.; Brown, Theodore J.; Murphy, K. Joan

2014-01-01

355

Malignant transformation of optic disc melanocytoma? A clinical dilemma at presentation with a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Malignant transformation of optic disc melanocytoma is an uncommon feature, although in the past a few cases have been reported. Though our case, a healthy 30-year-old female, presented with all clinical features of melanocytoma, the triad of moderate visual loss, elevation of the lesion of 5.2 mm and an atypical ultrasonic picture could be an indication of malignant change at presentation. In the event of a moderate visual loss, long-term follow-up with serial fundus photographs and ultrasonic measurements is necessary for further management. PMID:12207136

Sharma, Parul M; Sangal, Kartikeya; Malik, Praveen; Mathur, M B

2002-01-01

356

Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in a clinical presentation of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: a case report with multigene diagnostic approach  

PubMed Central

Background Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) is caused by inflammation of perihepatic capsules associated with pelvic inflammatory disease. In recent years, infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly occurring in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. However, NTM has never been reported in patients with FHCS. We present the first case of a patient with extrapulmonary NTM infection in a clinical presentation of FHCS. Case presentation A 26-year-old Korean woman presented with right upper quadrant and suprapubic pain. She was initially suspected to have FHCS. However, she was refractory to conventional antibiotic therapy. Laparoscopy revealed multiple violin-string adhesions of the parietal peritoneum to the liver and miliary-like nodules on the peritoneal surfaces. Diagnosis of NTM was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction analysis results of biopsy specimens that showed caseating granulomas with positive acid-fast bacilli. Treatment with anti-NTM medications was initiated, and the patient’s symptoms were considerably ameliorated. Conclusions An awareness of NTM as potential pathogens, even in previously healthy adults, and efforts to exclude other confounding diseases are important to establish the diagnosis of NTM disease. NTM infection can cause various clinical manifestations, which in the present case, overlapped with the symptoms of perihepatic inflammation seen in FHCS. PMID:25115526

2014-01-01

357

Clinically suspected acute myopericarditis with cardiac tamponade associated with peripheral blood eosinophilia presenting in early pregnancy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The clinical presentation of eosinophilic myocarditis may vary from asymptomatic to the manifestation of severe symptoms, including cardiac tamponade and arrhythmias. In pregnant patients with this condition, drugs must be used cautiously up to approximately the 4th month of pregnancy because drug use should be limited during the period of fetal organogenesis. Case presentation A 30-year-old Asian woman at 14 weeks of pregnancy with progressive malaise was hospitalized. The electrocardiogram revealed ST elevation and low QRS voltage. Echocardiography revealed massive pericardial effusion and myocardial swelling. A laboratory examination revealed an increase in her white blood cell count, with a predominance of neutrophils. Pericardial drainage was performed for relief of the cardiac tamponade. The pericardial effusion revealed an abundance of eosinophils. Subsequently, the peripheral blood eosinophil count began to rise, and the patient was clinically diagnosed with eosinophilic myopericarditis. The patient’s condition improved rapidly following the initiation of prednisolone treatment, and she finally delivered a full-term normal infant. Conclusions A patient with clinically suspected myopericarditis in the early stage of pregnancy who improved rapidly with pericardial drainage and prednisolone therapy, and successfully delivered a normal full-term infant; the diagnosis was made in the early stage of the disease, based on the detection of an abundance of eosinophils in the pericardial effusion preceding the subsequent development of peripheral blood eosinophilia. PMID:23668918

2013-01-01

358

The RASopathies as an example of RAS/MAPK pathway disturbances - clinical presentation and molecular pathogenesis of selected syndromes.  

PubMed

The RASopathies are a class of developmental syndromes. Each of them exhibits distinctive phenotypic features, although there are numerous overlapping clinical manifestations that include: dysmorphic craniofacial features, congenital cardiac defects, skin abnormalities, varying degrees of intellectual disability and increased risk of malignancies. These disorders include: Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome, LEOPARD syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM), Legius syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The RASopathies are associated with the presence of germline mutation in genes encoding specific proteins of the RAS/mitogen - activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that plays a crucial role in embryonic and postnatal development. In this review, we present the clinical and molecular features of selected syndromes from the RASopathies group. PMID:25182392

Bezniakow, Natalia; Gos, Monika; Obersztyn, Ewa

2014-01-01

359

Craniosynostosis associated with FGFR3 pro250arg mutation results in a range of clinical presentations including unisutural sporadic craniosynostosis.  

PubMed Central

Several mutations involving the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene family have been identified in association with phenotypically distinct forms of craniosynostosis. One such point mutation, resulting in the substitution of proline by arginine in a critical region of the linker region between the first and second immunoglobulin-like domains, is associated with highly specific phenotypic consequences in that mutation at this point in FGFR1 results in Pfeiffer syndrome and analogous mutation in FGFR2 results in Apert syndrome. We now show that a much more variable clinical presentation accompanies analogous mutation in the FGFR3 gene. Specifically, mental retardation, apparently unrelated to the management of the craniosynostosis, appears to be a variable clinical consequence of this FGFR3 mutation. Images PMID:9279753

Reardon, W; Wilkes, D; Rutland, P; Pulleyn, L J; Malcolm, S; Dean, J C; Evans, R D; Jones, B M; Hayward, R; Hall, C M; Nevin, N C; Baraister, M; Winter, R M

1997-01-01

360

Clinical Predictors of Acute Kidney Injury Following Snake Bite Envenomation  

PubMed Central

Background: Snake bite envenomation is a major public health concern in developing countries. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is as important cause of mortality in patients with vasculotoxic snake bite. Aims: This study was to evaluate the clinical profile of snake bite patients and to determine the predictors of developing AKI following snake bite. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and eighty-one patients with snake envenomation were included. Eighty-seven patients developed AKI (Group A) and 194 (Group B) did not. History, examination findings and investigations results were recorded and compared between the two groups. Results: In group A, 61 (70.11%) patients were male and in group B, 117 (60.30%) patients were male. Out of 281 patients, 232 had cellulitis, 113 had bleeding tendencies, 87 had oliguria, 76 had neuroparalysis, and 23 had hypotension at presentation. After multivariate analysis, bite to hospital time (P = 0.016), hypotension (P = 0.000), albuminuria (P = 0.000), bleeding time (P = 0.000), prothrombin time (P = 0.000), hemoglobin (P = 0.000) and total bilirubin (P = 0.010) were significant independent predictors of AKI. Conclusions: AKI developed in 30.96% of patients with snake bite, leading to mortality in 39.08% patients. Factors associated with AKI are bite to hospital time, hypotension, albuminuria, prolonged bleeding time, prolonged prothrombin time, low hemoglobin and a high total bilirubin. PMID:24350071

Dharod, Mrudul V; Patil, Tushar B; Deshpande, Archana S; Gulhane, Ragini V; Patil, Mangesh B; Bansod, Yogendra V

2013-01-01

361

Mycobacterial disease in cats in Great Britain: I. Culture results, geographical distribution and clinical presentation of 339 cases.  

PubMed

This study investigated 339 cases of feline mycobacterial disease from cats with cutaneous lesions or masses found at exploratory laparotomy. Tissue samples were submitted to the Veterinary Laboratories Agency for mycobacterial culture over a 4-year period to December 2008. The study assessed which species of culturable mycobacteria were involved, where the cats lived, and their clinical presentation (physical findings, serum biochemistry, radiography, feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus status). Mycobacterium microti was cultured from 19%, Mycobacterium bovis 15%, Mycobacterium avium 7%, non-M avium non-tuberculous mycobacteria 6%, with no growth in 53% of samples. M microti, M bovis and M avium were found in almost mutually exclusive clusters within Great Britain (GB) (ie, M bovis in South-West England/Wales/Welsh Border, M avium in eastern England and M microti south of London and in South-West Scotland). While differences were seen in the clinical presentation and distribution of lesions caused by the different infections, these were not sufficiently different to be diagnostic. Cats commonly presented with single or multiple cutaneous lesions (74%), which were sometimes ulcerated or discharging, located most frequently on the head (54%). Lymph nodes were usually involved (47%); typically the submandibular nodes. Systemic or pulmonary signs were rarely seen (10-16%). When a cat is suspected of having mycobacteriosis, accurate identification of the species involved helps to determine appropriate action. Our findings show that knowing the cat's geographic location can be helpful, while the nature of the clinical presentation is less useful. Most cases of feline mycobacterial disease in GB are cutaneous. PMID:22079343

Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A; McFarland, Sarah E; Brewer, Jacqueline I; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S; Kovalik, Marcel; Shaw, Darren J

2011-12-01

362

Time-dependent interactions of the hypotensive effects of sildenafil citrate and sublingual glyceryl trinitrate  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate the time course of the hypotensive interaction between sildenafil and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). METHODS Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover studies were performed. Subjects were challenged with sublingual GTN 400 µg at different times after oral sildenafil 100 mg. After each GTN challenge frequent measures of blood pressure (BP) were made. In the first study GTN was given 1–48 h after sildenafil/placebo to 33 healthy men. In the second study GTN was given 1–8 h after sildenafil/placebo to 20 men with stable angina. RESULTS In healthy men there was a greater mean maximum reduction in BP with sildenafil/GTN than with placebo/GTN only at 1 h. In angina patients, there was a greater mean maximum reduction in BP with sildenafil/GTN than with placebo/GTN for up to 8 h. The mean (95% confidence interval) differences in maximum systolic BP reduction (mmHg) at 1, 4, 6 and 8 h were ?16 (?12, ?21), ?12 (?4, ?20), ?6 (1, ?12) and ?9 (?3, ?15), all P < 0.05 except at 6 h (NS). At 6 and 8 h the interaction was not more than additive, and hypotensive symptoms did not occur. CONCLUSIONS In men with angina there is an interaction on BP reduction between sildenafil and GTN for ? 8 h after sildenafil administration, but this is no more than additive from 6 h. These data may be helpful to clinicians who are considering the use of GTN in patients presenting with angina who have received sildenafil within 24 h. PMID:19371313

Oliver, James J; Kerr, Debra M; Webb, David J

2009-01-01

363

Effect of injection rate on hypotension associated with spinal anesthesia for cesarean section.  

PubMed

Maternal hypotension is a common problem during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. We evaluated in a prospective observational study the influence of injection speed on maternal hypotension. Hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg, sufentanil 2 microg and morphine 200 microg (total volume 4 mL) were injected either quickly (<15 s) or slowly (=120 s) in 50 women scheduled for elective cesarean section. Hypotension (systolic arterial pressure (SAP) <100 mmHg or <70% of baseline) was promptly treated with 5 mg ephedrine boluses. Slow injection significantly reduced the incidence of hypotension (68% in the 120 s group and 92% in the other, P =0.03). In addition, onset of hypotension was delayed, had a shorter duration and required less ephedrine for hypotension in the 120 s group (11.6 mg vs. 19.6 mg, P =0.019). Anesthesia was satisfactory for all women. We conclude that a 2 mL/min injection rate may be a simple and effective way to reduce the incidence and severity of hypotension during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. PMID:15321104

Simon, L; Boulay, G; Ziane, A F; Noblesse, E; Mathiot, J L; Toubas, M F; Hamaza, J

2000-01-01

364

Pattern of humoral immune response to Plasmodium falciparum blood stages in individuals presenting different clinical expressions of malaria  

PubMed Central

Background The development of protective immunity against malaria is slow and to be maintained, it requires exposure to multiple antigenic variants of malaria parasites and age-associated maturation of the immune system. Evidence that the protective immunity is associated with different classes and subclasses of antibodies reveals the importance of considering the quality of the response. In this study, we have evaluated the humoral immune response against Plasmodium falciparum blood stages of individuals naturally exposed to malaria who live in endemic areas of Brazil in order to assess the prevalence of different specific isotypes and their association with different malaria clinical expressions. Methods Different isotypes against P. falciparum blood stages, IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM, IgE and IgA, were determined by ELISA. The results were based on the analysis of different clinical expressions of malaria (complicated, uncomplicated and asymptomatic) and factors related to prior malaria exposure such as age and the number of previous clinical malaria attacks. The occurrence of the H131 polymorphism of the Fc?IIA receptor was also investigated in part of the studied population. Results The highest levels of IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 antibodies were observed in individuals with asymptomatic and uncomplicated malaria, while highest levels of IgG4, IgE and IgM antibodies were predominant among individuals with complicated malaria. Individuals reporting more than five previous clinical malaria attacks presented a predominance of IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 antibodies, while IgM, IgA and IgE antibodies predominated among individuals reporting five or less previous clinical malaria attacks. Among individuals with uncomplicated and asymptomatic malaria, there was a predominance of high-avidity IgG, IgG1, IgG2 antibodies and low-avidity IgG3 antibodies. The H131 polymorphism was found in 44.4% of the individuals, and the highest IgG2 levels were observed among asymptomatic individuals with this allele, suggesting the protective role of IgG2 in this population. Conclusion Together, the results suggest a differential regulation in the anti-P. falciparum antibody pattern in different clinical expressions of malaria and showed that even in unstable transmission areas, protective immunity against malaria can be observed, when the appropriated antibodies are produced. PMID:18816374

Leoratti, Fabiana MS; Durlacher, Rui R; Lacerda, Marcus VG; Alecrim, Maria G; Ferreira, Antonio W; Sanchez, Maria CA; Moraes, Sandra L

2008-01-01

365

Peer-Level Patient Presenters Decrease Pharmacy Students' Social Distance From Patients With Schizophrenia and Clinical Depression  

PubMed Central

Objectives To create a doctor of pharmacy curricular experience that will decrease students' social barriers to interaction with and treatment of mentally-ill patients. Design We created a survey instrument to measure 4 aspects of students' conceptions of schizophrenia and clinical depression: (1) understanding of the medical nature of each disease, (2) understanding of patient behavior, (3) belief in the efficacy of treatment, and (4) social distance. We delivered this instrument before and after a neuropsychiatry curriculum including “peer-level patient presenters” in addition to the traditional first-year pharmacy curriculum. Assessment Social-distance scores significantly decreased in first-year pharmacy students who attended peer-level patient presentations, indicating increased willingness to interact with persons with schizophrenia and clinical depression. In addition, students' understanding of the causes of illness, behavior of patients, and most importantly, efficacy of drug counseling for these diseases increased. Conclusions Changes to the curriculum including the addition of peer-level patient presentations can quantitatively decrease pharmacy students' social barriers to the treatment of mentally-ill patients. PMID:19214260

Karimi, Reza M.

2008-01-01

366

Left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the study was to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. The studies included 115 workers (92 men and 23 women) occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement (mean age: 47.83 ± 8.29). Blood samples were taken to determine blood lipid profile, urine was collected to estimate mercury concentration (Hg-U) and echocardiographic examination was performed to evaluate diastolic function of the left ventricle. In the entire group of workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement, Spearman correlations analysis demonstrated the following significant linear relationships: between body mass index (BMI) and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') (r = 0.32, p < 0.05), between serum HDL concentration and E/E' (r = ? 0.22, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and E/E' (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT') (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/maximal late diastolic mitral flow velocity (E/A) (r = ? 0.31, p < 0.05) and between serum HDL concentration and E/A (r = 0.43, p < 0,05). In logistic regression analysis it as shown that independent factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction risk in the study group included a higher urine mercury concentration, a higher value of BMI and a lower serum HDL concentration (OR{sub Hg}-{sub U} = 1.071, OR{sub BMI} = 1.200, OR{sub HDL} = 0.896, p < 0.05). Summing up, occupational exposure to mercury vapour may be linked to impaired left ventricular diastolic function in workers without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. -- Highlights: ? Study aimed at evaluation of LVDD in workers occupationally exposed to Hg. ? There was significant linear relationships between Hg-U and E/E'. ? Independent risk factor of LVDD in study group included higher Hg-U. ? Independent risk factor of LVDD in study group included higher BMI and lower HDL. ? Occupational exposure to Hg may be linked to LVDD.

Por?ba, Rafa?, E-mail: sogood@poczta.onet.pl; Skoczy?ska, Anna; Ga?, Pawe?; Turczyn, Barbara; Wojakowska, Anna

2012-09-15

367

Intracranial hypertension and intracranial hypotension causing headache in the same patient  

PubMed Central

Intracranial hypertension and intracranial hypotension are on the opposite end of the intracranial pressure spectra. It is extremely uncommon for both to cause headache in the same patient within a span of several days. This report describes a young man with intracranial hypertension who developed a severe excruciating headache due to intracranial hypotension after a diagnostic lumbar puncture. It is paradoxical that lumbar puncture, which is supposed to be a treatment option for patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension, leads to headache due to intracranial hypotension. PMID:24982565

Welker, John; Johnston, Robert; Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

2014-01-01

368

Deconstructing Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Avolition-Apathy and Diminished Expression Clusters Predict Clinical Presentation and Functional Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies indicate that negative symptoms reflect a separable domain of pathology from other symptoms of schizophrenia. However, it is currently unclear whether negative symptoms themselves are multi-faceted, and whether sub-groups of patients who display unique negative symptom profiles can be identified. Methods A data-driven approach was used to examine the heterogeneity of negative symptom presentations in two samples: Study 1 included 199 individuals with schizophrenia assessed with a standard measure of negative symptoms and Study 2 included 169 individuals meeting criteria for deficit schizophrenia (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) assessed with a specialized measure of deficit symptoms. Cluster analysis was used to determine whether different groups of patients with distinct negative symptoms profiles could be identified. Results Across both studies, we found evidence for two distinctive negative symptom sub-groups: one group with predominantly Avolition-Apathy (AA) symptoms and another with a predominantly Diminished Expression (DE) profile. Follow-up discriminant function analyses confirmed the validity of these groups. AA and DE negative symptom sub-groups significantly differed on clinically relevant external validators, including measures of functional outcome, premorbid adjustment, clinical course, disorganized symptoms, social cognition, sex, and ethnicity. Conclusions These results suggest that distinct subgroups of patients with elevated AA or DE can be identified within the broader diagnosis of schizophrenia and that these subgroups show clinically meaningful differences in presentation. Additionally, AA tends to be associated with poorer outcomes than DE, suggesting that it may be a more severe aspect of psychopathology. PMID:23453820

Strauss, Gregory P.; Horan, William P.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Fischer, Bernard A.; Keller, William R.; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W.; Green, Michael F.; Carpenter, William T.

2013-01-01

369

Increased incidence of hypotension in elderly patients who underwent emergency airway management: an analysis of a multi-centre prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Although the number of elderly increases disproportionately throughout the industrialised nations and intubation-related cardiovascular compromise is associated with hospital mortality, no emergency medicine literature has reported the direction and magnitude of effect of advanced age on post-intubation hypotension. We seek to determine whether advanced age is associated with an increased rate of hypotension at airway management in emergency departments (EDs). Methods We conducted an analysis of a multi-centre prospective observational study of 13 Japanese EDs from April 2010 to March 2012. Inclusion criteria were all adult non-cardiac-arrest patients who underwent emergency intubation. We excluded patients in whom airway management was performed for shock or status asthmaticus as the principal indication. Patients were divided into two groups defined a priori: age???65 years old (elderly group) and age?hypotension in the ED. Results During the 24-month period, 4,043 subjects required emergency airway management at 13 EDs. Among these, the database recorded 3,872 intubations (capture rate 96%). Of 1,903 eligible patients, 975 patients were age???65 years (51%) and 928 patients were age?hypotension compared with the younger group [3% vs. 1%; unadjusted OR 2.7 (95% CI, 1.3–5.6); P?=?0.005]. In a model controlling for potential confounders (sex, principal indication, method, medication used to intubate, multiple intubation attempts), advanced age had an adjusted OR for post-intubation hypotension of 2.6 (95% CI, 1.3–5.6; P?=?0.01). Conclusions In this large multi-centre study of ED patients who underwent emergent airway management, we found that elderly patients have a significantly higher risk of post-intubation hypotension. These data provide implications for the education and practice of ED airway management that may lead to better clinical outcomes and improved patient safety. PMID:23618100

2013-01-01

370

The hypotensive effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty depending on iridocorneal angle pigmentation in primary open angle glaucoma patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is applied to reduce intraocular pressure in primary open angle glaucoma therapy. It selectively subjects trabecular pigmented cells to a pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The biostimulatory effect on trabecular macrophages was also postulated even in low-pigmented angles. The aim of the study was to assess the hypotensive effectiveness of SLT depending on the degree of iridocorneal angle pigmentation. Material and methods Sixty-three eyes of 53 patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) were included in this study and than divided into three subgroups, dependind of iridocorneal angle pigmentation. All subjects underwent SLT on 270 degrees of the angle. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was assesed at baseline and 6 weeks after the laser procedure. Results Six weeks post-SLT mean IOP reduction was 2.63 mm Hg. The degree of IOP reduction showed a significant correlation with angle pigmentation. Intraocular pressure fell by 2.06 mm Hg, 2.46 mm Hg and 4.75 mm Hg in subgroups with low, marked and high pigmentation, respectively. Conclusions The SLT procedure most effectively reduces IOP only in the subgroup of POAG patients with marked angle pigmentation and it is equal to clinically succesfull hypontesive therapeutic effect, according to European Glaucoma Society guidelines. However, lower hypotensive effect in other study subjects may also be the valuable addition to pharmacological therapy of glaucoma. PMID:24904665

Piekarniak-Wozniak, Anita; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona

2014-01-01

371

Initial clinical presentation of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with-a focus on electrocardiographic changes: A literature review of cases  

PubMed Central

AIM: To review the initial presentation and demonstrate the importance of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. METHODS: A PubMed search using the terms “Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC)” and “apical ballooning syndrome” yielded 211 publications. Only those that were relevant were fully reviewed. The gender, age, precipitating stressor, main complaint at presentation, electrocardiogram (ECG) at admission and serum cardiac markers of patients diagnosed with TC, were extracted as available. The data were organized in tables and graphics, and the incidence of the disorder was calculated and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 250 clinical cases were examined. The predominant gender that was affected was female, with a prevalence of 87.5%. The mean age of presentation was 64 ± 14 years. The cases were divided by age into 10-year intervals. The age interval of 60-69 years showed the highest frequency of TC, accounting for 79 cases. The most common precipitating stressor was physical (50% of cases). Chest pain was the primary complaint at presentation (58.8% of cases) followed by dyspnea (30% of cases). The ST segment changes category was the most common (60%), followed by T wave changes (39.6%). Of the 60% of cases with ST segment changes, 12% had concomitant T wave changes. This means that for 27.6% of the cases, the primary abnormality in the ECG was T wave changes; 87.6% of cases with TC had a change in the ST segment, in the T wave or in both. The percentage of ECGs presenting with changes in the anterior wall was 54.4% (35.6% of ST segment elevation + 1.6% of ST segment depression + 17.2% of T wave inversion). The percentage of patients presenting with changes in the lateral segment of the heart was 46.8%, while the percentage of patients with changes in the inferior heart was 21.6% and the percentage of patients with changes in the apical region was only 16%. The prevalence of elevated creatinine kinase and/or troponin on initial presentation was 89.3%. CONCLUSION: It is essential that every physician consider Takotsubo cardiomyopathy as a possible differential diagnosis when a patient is classified with acute coronary syndrome. To do so, it is necessary to know the clinical presentation of this syndrome in its early stages. PMID:23888192

Sanchez-Jimenez, Erick Francisco

2013-01-01

372

The Incidence Risk, Clustering, and Clinical Presentation of La Crosse Virus Infections in the Eastern United States, 2003-2007  

PubMed Central

Background Although La Crosse virus (LACV) is one of the most common causes of pediatric arboviral infections in the United States, little has been done to assess its geographic distribution, identify areas of higher risk of disease, and to provide a national picture of its clinical presentation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the geographic distribution of LACV infections reported in the United States, to identify hot-spots of infection, and to present its clinical picture. Methods and Findings Descriptive and cluster analyses were performed on probable and confirmed cases of LACV infections reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2003–2007. A total of 282 patients had reported confirmed LACV infections during the study period. Of these cases the majority (81 percent) presented during the summer, occurred in children 15 years and younger (83.3 percent), and were found in male children (64.9 percent). Clinically, the infections presented as meningioencephalitis (56.3 percent), encephalitis (20.7 percent), meningitis (17.2 percent), or uncomplicated fever (5 percent). Deaths occurred in 1.9 percent of confirmed cases, and in 8.6 percent of patients suffering from encephalitis. The majority of these deaths were in patients 15 years and younger. The county-level incidence risk among counties (n?=?136) reporting both probable and confirmed cases for children 15 years and younger (n?=?355) ranged from 0.2 to 228.7 per 100,000 persons. The southern United States experienced a significantly higher (p<0.05) incidence risk during the months of June, July, August, and October then the northern United States. There was significant (p<0.05) clustering of high risk in several geographic regions with three deaths attributed to complications from LAC encephalitis occurring in two of these hot-spots of infections. Conclusions Both the incidence risk and case fatality rates were found to be higher than previously reported. We detected clustering in four geographic regions, a shift from the prior geographic distributions, and developed maps identifying high-risk areas. These findings are useful for raising awareness among health care providers regarding areas at a high risk of infections and for guiding targeted multifaceted interventions by public health officials. PMID:19582158

Haddow, Andrew D.; Odoi, Agricola

2009-01-01

373

Presentation of an 85-Year-Old Woman With Musculoskeletal Pain to a Chiropractic Clinic: A Case of Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case is to describe a patient who had a stroke preceding a chiropractic appointment and was unaware that the cerebrovascular event had occurred. Clinical features An 85-year-old established patient presented for chiropractic treatment of pain in the left side of the neck, hip, and low back associated with known advanced degenerative spinal disease and lumbar stenosis. On the day of presentation, the patient reported morning nausea, double vision, and right-sided vision loss; she related that she had collided into a car while driving to the appointment. Review of her medical history divulged residual neurological deficits related to a previous subdural hematoma, resulting in craniotomy. Examination revealed a right inferior quadrantanopia in the right eye and right nasal hemianopia in the left eye. Nystagmus was present in the left eye with saccadic intrusion on pursuit right to left. Intervention and outcome The patient was transported immediately to an emergency room,where diagnosis of an Acute infarct in the left cerebrum at the junction of the left occipital, parietal and temporal lobes in the watershed area was confirmed. Conclusion Patients with signs and symptoms of stroke in progress may occasionally present for chiropractic care. It is imperative to complete a thorough history and examination prior to care. PMID:24711785

Liebich, Julia M.; Reinke, Tari S.

2014-01-01

374

Juvenile xanthogranuloma presenting as a testicular mass in infancy: a clinical and pathologic study of three cases.  

PubMed

Juvenile xanthogranulomas (JXG) is a histiocytic disorder whose most common clinical presentation is a solitary cutaneous nodule in a child under 5 years of age, but it has come to be recognized that solitary extracutaneous lesions may present in a number of sites, including the soft tissues and various organs. Involvement of the genitourinary tract has been documented in children with multifocal or systemic JXG. The current report describes our experience with 3 cases of JXG presenting as a solitary mass in the testicle of infants between 2.5 and 13 months without manifestations of JXG elsewhere. The masses were intratesticular and had an infiltrative pattern of interstitial growth by mononuclear, histiocyte-like cells with replacement of seminiferous tubules and involvement of the epididymis whose pattern resembled leukemic and lymphomatous involvement of the testis. Because extracutaneous lesions of JXG may have few or no Touton giant cells, immunohistochemistry is an important adjunct to the histopathologic diagnosis. One of the previous 2 cases in the literature of JXG of the testis recurred after partial resection without an orchiectomy. Neither of the 2 youngest patients has experienced a local recurrence of JXG elsewhere in excess of 1 year since the original orchiectomy. The oldest patient, who was treated with partial orchiectomy, remains free of recurrence after 3 months of follow-up. Though uncommon, JXG joins several other distinctive neoplasms presenting in the infantile testis. PMID:19968486

Suson, Kristina; Mathews, Ranjiv; Goldstein, Jeffrey D; Dehner, Louis P

2010-01-01

375

Hypotensive effect of the methanolic extract of Mimusops elengi in normotensive rats.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of Mimusops elengi caused hypotensive activity in anaesthetized rats. On intravenous administration (i.v.) at a dose range of 2-16 mg/kg, it produced about a 7-38% fall in mean arterial blood pressure, in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was independent of adrenergic, muscarinic and histaminergic receptors. The hypotension was also unchanged after autonomic ganglion or angiotensin-converting-enzyme blockade. Administration of calcium channel blockers, however, including nifedipine (0.9 mg/kg) and verapamil (3.9 mg/kg), caused corresponding reductions of 81 and 64% in extract-induced hypotension. These data imply M. elengi might possess calcium-blocking activity which would explain its hypotensive effect. PMID:11962547

Dar, A; Behbahanian, S; Malik, A; Jahan, N

1999-11-01

376

Predicting acute hypotensive episodes: The 10th annual PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge  

E-print Network

This year's PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge aimed to stimulate development of methods for identifying intensive care unit (ICU) patients at imminent risk of acute hypotensive episodes (AHEs), motivated by the ...

Moody, George B.

377

Mechanism of the hypotensive action of methyldopa in normal and immunosympathectomized rats  

PubMed Central

1. The antihypertensive action of methyldopa was investigated in the light of the prevailing false sympathetic neurotransmitter hypothesis of Day & Rand (1963). Immunosympathectomized and normal animals were used for the investigation. 2. Methyldopa in a single injection significantly decreased the blood pressure in control hypertensive, immunosympathectomized normotensive, and normal rats. Guanethidine did not decrease the blood pressure of immunosympathectomized rats; it decreased the blood pressure of control and control hypertensive rats. 3. The hypotensive effect of methyldopa was not antagonized by adrenoceptor and ganglion blocking agents or by the inhibition of dopamine ?-oxidase. 4. High doses of methyldopa produced less hypotension than relatively low doses. This might be due to an antagonism of the hypotensive effect by methylnoradrenaline, which is formed from methyldopa. 5. The antihypertensive action of methyldopa could not be correlated with any change in aortic sodium or potassium. 6. It is concluded that methyldopa does not exert its hypotensive effect by producing a weakly active false sympathetic neurotransmitter. PMID:5492891

Ayitey-Smith, E.; Varma, D. R.

1970-01-01

378

A hypotensive episode predictor for intensive care based on heart rate and blood pressure time series  

E-print Network

In the intensive care unit (ICU), prompt therapeutic intervention to hypotensive episodes (HEs) is a critical task. Advance alerts that can prospectively identify patients at risk of developing an HE in the next few hours ...

Lee, J.

379

The Possible Relationship of Certain Chromatographic Changes to Coagulation Aberrations in Hypotensive Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The phenomena of hyper and hypocoagulability do occur in critically ill hypotensive patients. Increases in phosphoserine, glycerophospho ethanolamine, phosphoethanolamine, and free ethanolamine have been demonstrated in the plasma of patients in shock fro...

A. R. Mansberger, S. Attar, A. Beech, R. A. Cowley

1965-01-01

380

Change in sympathetic activity before, during, and after dialysis-induced hypotension.  

PubMed

During the hemodialyses of eight patients with end-stage renal failure, who often had sudden-onset dialysis-induced hypotension, catecholamine (CA) levels were measured in the ultrafiltrate obtained by a mini-filter placed in series upstream of the dialyzer. The water evaporation rate from the skin (reflecting the perspiration rate) was also monitored. Results showed a temporary elevation in CA levels in the ultrafiltrate before hypotension occurred. This rise did not continue for long, returning to baseline when hypotension actually occurred. The temporary elevation may reflect transient compensation by the sympathetic nervous system for the decrease in vascular wall tension. It was also found that there was considerable water evaporation from the skin during hypotension. Because sweat gland activity is reflexively modulated by the baroreceptor, perspiration after a drop in blood pressure may reflect the normal diminiution in baroreceptor activity. PMID:2252727

Maeda, K; Fujita, Y; Shinzato, T; Vega, B V; Nakane, K; Morita, H; Kobayakawa, H; Inoue, I; Miyazaki, T; Emoto, Y

1990-01-01

381

Hypotension as a risk factor for acute kidney injury in ICU patients  

E-print Network

In the context of critical illness, hypotension may be associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). Using the MIMIC II database, we studied the risk of AKI in ICU patients as a function of both the severity and duration of ...

Lehman, Li-Wei H.

382

Association between Helicobacter pylori, cagA, and vacA Status and Clinical Presentation in Iranian Children  

PubMed Central

Objective Seroprevalence of H. pylori infection in Iran exceeds 65% of pediatric population. In this study, we intended to find association between the virulence genes (cagA and vacA) and clinical presentations. Methods H. pylori isolates were achieved from the gastric mucosa of children. In each case, the gastric biopsy specimens were cultured and the organisms identified. Detection of different genotypes was carried out by PCR method. Findings A total of 106 biopsy specimens were cultured and 33 H. pylori isolates obtained. Among these 33 H. pylori strains 24 (73%) were cagA-positive. Genotypes of vacA s1m2, s1m1, s2m2, and s2m1 were 45.5%, 30.3%, 21.2%, and 3%, respectively. Most female patients were infected with genotype s1m2. The vacA-m1 strains were significantly more common in patients with nodular gastritis. There were no statistical differences between the vacA and cagA genotypes and clinical outcomes. Conclusion The frequency of cagA genotype was high. In this study, nodular gastritis was a common finding and was rather significantly associated with m1 allele of vacA. PMID:24800016

Rafeey, Mandana; Ghotaslou, Reza; Milani, Morteza; Farokhi, Nima; Ghojazadeh, Morteza

2013-01-01

383

Stages of change, clinical presentation, retention, and treatment outcomes in treatment-seeking outpatient problem gambling clients.  

PubMed

Specific stages of change have been associated with clinical variables before and during the course of addiction treatment. However, few studies have specifically focused on these relationships for problem and pathological gamblers. The present study examined the relationships between pretreatment stages of change and clinical treatment variables in a sample of 71 treatment-seeking problem and pathological gamblers. The participants were administered the following instruments: the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA), the NORC DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS), and the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ-45). The researchers hypothesized that there would be a relationship among pretreatment stages of change and (a) severity of gambling problems at onset of treatment, (b) severity of psychosocial problems at onset of treatment, (c) retention in treatment, and (d) level of psychosocial improvement through therapy. The results indicate that (a) precontemplation was negatively related to reported gambling problems at outset of treatment, and contemplation and maintenance were positively related to reported gambling problems at the outset of treatment; (b) action was positively associated with level of psychosocial functioning at outset of treatment; (c) action was negatively associated with retention in treatment; and (d) maintenance was negatively associated with level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through therapy. Implications for treatment of this population include the ability to adjust treatment plans and interventions with increased awareness of potential barriers and obstacles unique to pretreatment stages of change. PMID:24955666

Soberay, Adam David; Grimsley, Paul; Faragher, J Michael; Barbash, Melissa; Berger, Ben

2014-06-01

384

Sensory ataxia as a prominent clinical presentation in three families with mutations in CYP7B1.  

PubMed

Pathogenic mutations in CYP7B1 account for SPG5, an autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia characterized by a complex phenotype including visual problems and cerebellar dysfunction. Sensory ataxia is not usually regarded as a typical clinical feature of SPG5. The purpose of this study was to describe six patients showing features of sensory ataxia as the prominent and/or initial symptoms of SPG5. Six patients from three distinct pedigrees (three women, three men; age 49.5 ± 18.2 years), all presenting gait unsteadiness and frequent falls since childhood, underwent clinical and molecular investigations. All showed marked sensory ataxic gait with positive Romberg's sign, as well as severely impaired position and vibration sense. Comparatively minor signs of pyramidal involvement were also detected. In four of the patients, brain MRI showed white matter hyperintensities on T2-weighted images. An already reported homozygous c.889A>G (p.T297A) mutation in SPG5/CYP7B1 was found in five patients from two families, whereas the remaining case harbored the novel c.250_251delC/p.L84Ffs*6 and c.266A>C/p.Y89S variants. Marked and enduring sensory ataxia can be a pivotal sign in SPG5, and expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in CYP7B1. PMID:24519355

Di Fabio, Roberto; Marcotulli, Christian; Tessa, Alessandra; Leonardi, Luca; Storti, Eugenia; Pierelli, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo M; Casali, Carlo

2014-04-01

385

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and orthostatic hypotension in old people: the Pro.V.A. study.  

PubMed

Interest in the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and blood pressure has increased because recent research showed a close relationship between them, but there is still little information on the possible association between 25OHD and orthostatic hypotension. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of 25OHD levels with any presence of orthostatic hypotension in a large group of older people. This study was part of the Progetto Veneto Anziani (Pro.V.A.), an Italian population-based cohort study involving people aged >65 years. In this cross-sectional work, we considered 2640 (1081 men and 1559 women) with a mean age of 73.8±6.8 years. Orthostatic hypotension was defined as a drop of ?20 mm Hg in systolic or ?10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure <3 minutes of orthostatism. Orthostatic hypotension was identified in 32.2% of the sample. The prevalence of orthostatic hypotension was higher in individuals with 25OHD levels <50 nmol/L, but this trend was not significant (P=0.13). Individuals who had orthostatic hypotension had significantly lower 25OHD levels than those who did not (75.0±51.4 versus 82.6±54.0 nmol/L; P<0.0001). On logistic regression analysis, the greater likelihood of individuals with lower 25OHD levels having orthostatic hypotension was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.51; P=0.67 for people with 25OHD levels ?25 nmol/L; odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.32; P=0.92 for those with 25OHD levels between 25 and 50 nmol/L). In conclusion, vitamin D is not significantly associated with any orthostatic hypotension in older people. PMID:24914191

Veronese, Nicola; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Zambon, Sabina; Corti, Maria-Chiara; Musacchio, Estella; Baggio, Giovannella; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Perissinotto, Egle; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

2014-09-01

386

Delayed Hemorrhagic Hypotension Exacerbates the Hemodynamic and Histopathologic Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in cerebral autoregulation and cerebrovascular reactivity after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may increase the susceptibility of the brain to secondary insults, including arterial hypotension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the consequences of mild hemorrhagic hypotension on hemodynamic and histopathologic outcome after TBI. Intubated, anesthetized male rats were subjected to moderate (1.94 to 2.18 atm) parasagittal fluid–percussion

Yoshitaro Matsushita; Helen M. Bramlett; John W. Kuluz; Ofelia Alonso; W. Dalton Dietrich

2001-01-01

387

[From data entry to data presentation at a clinical workstation--experiences with Anesthesia Information Management Systems (AIMS)].  

PubMed

Anesthesia Information Management Systems (AIMS) are required to supply large amounts of data for various purposes such as performance recording, quality assurance, training, operating room management and research. It was our objective to establish an AIMS that enables every member of the department to independently access queries at his/her work station and at the same time allows the presentation of data in a suitable manner in order to increase the transfer of different information to the clinical workstation. Apple Macintosh Clients (Apple Computer, Inc. Cupertino, California) and the file- and database servers were installed into the already partially existing hospital network. The most important components installed on each computer are the anesthesia documenting software NarkoData (ProLogic GmbH, Erkrath), HIS client software and a HTML browser. More than 250 queries for easy evaluation were formulated with the software Voyant (Brossco Systems, Espoo, Finland). Together with the documentation they are the evaluation module of the AIMS. Today, more than 20,000 anesthesia procedures are recorded each year at 112 decentralised workstations with the AIMS. In 1998, 90.8% of the 20,383 performed anesthetic procedures were recorded online and 9.2% entered postopeatively into the system. With a corresponding user access it is possible to receive all available patient data at each single anesthesiological workstation via HIS (diagnoses, laboratory results) anytime. The available information includes previous anesthesia records, statistics and all data available from the hospitals intranet. This additional information is of great advantage in comparison to previous working conditions. The implementation of an AIMS allowed to greatly enhance the quota but also the quality of documentation and an increased flow of information at the anesthesia workstation. The circuit between data entry and the presentation and evaluation of data, statistics and results directly available at the clinical workstation was put into practice. PMID:11048347

Benson, M; Junger, A; Quinzio, L; Michel, A; Sciuk, G; Fuchs, C; Marquardt, K; Hempelmannn, G

2000-09-01

388

Relation between HLA typing and clinical presentations in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease with diverse clinical presentations due to interaction between genetic and environmental factors. SLE is associated worldwide with polymorphisms at various loci, including the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), although inconsistencies exist among these studies. Aims This study was carried out to investigate, the association of HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, and DQB1 alleles in SLE patients and clinical presentations at Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Methods Fifty one patients with SLE—84.3% of whom had kidney involvement were studied in a case control study for HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, and DQB1. Results It was found that DRB3 is a protective gene among Saudi’s against SLE, HLA DRB3, HLA DRB1*11 frequency was increased in patients with serositis with a p value of (0.004), (0.047) respectively, increased frequency of HLA DQB1*3 among SLE patients with skin manifestations with a p value of (0.041), the frequency of HLA DRB1*15 alleles was increased among SLE patients with nephritis with a p value of (0.029), the frequency of HLA DRB1*11 among those with hematological manifestations with a p value of (0.03) and the frequency DRB1*10 was found to be increased among SLE patients with neurological manifestations with a p value of (0.002) Conclusion In contradistinction to what have been found among other populations DRB3 is a protective gene among Saudi’s against SLE. No evidence for a role of the HLA-DRB1, DRB4, DRB5, DQB1 alleles. There was an increased HLA DRB3 frequency with serositis, DQB1*3 skin manifestations, HLA DRB1*15 with nephritis, DRB1*10 with hematological manifestations and DRB1*11 with neurological manifestations. PMID:25246883

Wadi, Walid; Elhefny, Noor eldeen A.M.; Mahgoub, Essam H.; Almogren, Adel; Hamam, Khaled D.; Al-hamed, Hamad A.; Gasim, Gasim I.

2014-01-01

389

Intracranial hypotension syndrome in a patient due to suboccipital craniectomy secondary to Chiari type malformation.  

PubMed

Intracranial hypotension syndrome (IHS) is a rare disorder characterized by a decrease in cerebrospinal fluid pressure to less than 60 mm H2O. The syndrome is associated with occipital headache radiating to the frontal and temporal zones. The current clinical case describes the manifestation of IHS in a twenty-five year old female with a history of suboccipital craniectomy due to Chiari I malformation nine years earlier. The patient was admitted to the hospital complaining about postural, mainly occipital, headache during the last three months, aggravated by being in an upright position. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed engorgement of the dural venous sinuses, significant enlargement of the pituitary gland and download displacement or sagging of the brain with effacement of the perichiasmatic cisterns and the prepontine cistern, while the spinal T2W MRI revealed a 7 mm × 2.5 mm dural defect with an extradural cerebrospinal fluid collection at the dorsal soft tissues of the cervical spine. The previous imaging did not reveal subdural effusions. PMID:24364025

Dora, Barkoula; Nikolaos, Bontozoglou; Stylianos, Gatzonis; Damianos, Sakas

2013-12-16

390

Relationship between Orthostatic Hypotension and White Matter Hyperintensity Load in Older Patients with Mild Dementia  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives White matter hyperintensities (WMH) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain, and orthostatic hypotension (OH) are both common in older people. We tested the hypothesis that OH is associated with WMH. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Secondary care outpatient clinics in geriatric medicine and old age psychiatry in western Norway. Participants 160 older patients with mild dementia, diagnosed according to standardised criteria. Measurements OH was diagnosed according to the consensus definition, measuring blood pressure (BP) in the supine position and within 3 minutes in the standing position. MRI scans were performed according to a common protocol at three centres, and the volumes of WMH were quantified using an automated method (n?=?82), followed by manual editing. WMH were also quantified using the visual Scheltens scale (n?=?139). Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied, with highest vs. lowest WMH quartile as response. Results There were no significant correlations between WMH volumes and systolic or diastolic orthostatic BP drops, and no significant correlations between Scheltens scores of WMH and systolic or diastolic BP drops. In the multivariate analyses, only APOE?4 status remained a significant predictor for WMH using the automated method (p?=?0.037, OR 0.075 (0.007–0.851)), whereas only age remained a significant predictor for WMH scores (p?=?0.019, OR 1.119 (1.018–1.230)). Conclusion We found no association between OH and WMH load in a sample of older patients with mild dementia. PMID:23284932

Soennesyn, Hogne; Nilsen, Dennis W.; Oppedal, Ketil; Greve, Ole Jacob; Beyer, Mona K.; Aarsland, Dag

2012-01-01

391

Integrating Arden-Syntax-based clinical decision support with extended presentation formats into a commercial patient data management system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to introduce clinical decision support (CDS) that exceeds conventional alerting at tertiary care intensive care units. We investigated physicians' functional CDS requirements in periodic interviews, and analyzed technical interfaces of the existing commercial patient data management system (PDMS). Building on these assessments, we adapted a platform that processes Arden Syntax medical logic modules (MLMs). Clinicians demanded data-driven, user-driven and time-driven execution of MLMs, as well as multiple presentation formats such as tables and graphics. The used PDMS represented a black box insofar as it did not provide standardized interfaces for event notification and external access to patient data; enabling CDS thus required periodically exporting datasets for making them accessible to the invoked Arden engine. A client-server-architecture with a simple browser-based viewer allows users to activate MLM execution and to access CDS results, while an MLM library generates hypertext for diverse presentation targets. The workaround that involves a periodic data replication entails a trade-off between the necessary computational resources and a delay of generated alert messages. Web technologies proved serviceable for reconciling Arden-based CDS functions with alternative presentation formats, including tables, text formatting, graphical outputs, as well as list-based overviews of data from several patients that the native PDMS did not support. PMID:23354988

Kraus, Stefan; Castellanos, Ixchel; Toddenroth, Dennis; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Bürkle, Thomas

2014-10-01

392

Exercise training hypotension - Implications for plasma volume, renin, and vasopressin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relation of changes in plasma volume, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin to changes in resting blood pressure during exercise training is investigated. Resting supine, sitting, and standing systolic and fifth-phase diastolic blood pressures were measured in ten men before and after an eight-day training period on a cycle ergometer in either a hot (39.8 C) or cool (23.8 C) environment, and compared with plasma volume, renin and vasopressin levels, heart rates, maximal oxygen uptakes, rectal temperatures and sweat rates. Following acclimatization, resting supine and sitting diastolic pressures are observed to decrease by 6 and 9 mm Hg, respectively, while no significant changes are found in the diastolic pressures of the control group or the systolic pressures of either group. Resting plasma volume is found to increase by 12.2% in the controls and by 17.6% after acclimatization following the exercise training. Results suggest that the resting hypotension produced is not attributable to changes in resting plasma volume, renin or vasopressin, although heat acclimatization, which leads to large decreases in plasma volume and increases in vasopressin and renin activity, may be useful in the treatment of hypertension.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Sciaraffa, D.; Shvartz, E.; Keil, L. C.; Brock, P. J.

1981-01-01

393

Daily Mean Temperature and Clinical Kidney Stone Presentation in Five U.S. Metropolitan Areas: A Time-Series Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: High ambient temperatures are a risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the precise relationship between temperature and kidney stone presentation is unknown. Objectives: Our objective was to estimate associations between mean daily temperature and kidney stone presentation according to lag time and temperatures. Methods: Using a time-series design and distributed lag nonlinear models, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of kidney stone presentation associated with mean daily temperatures, including cumulative RR for a 20-day period, and RR for individual daily lags through 20 days. Our analysis used data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims database for 60,433 patients who sought medical evaluation or treatment of kidney stones from 2005–2011 in the U.S. cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Results: Associations between mean daily temperature and kidney stone presentation were not monotonic, and there was variation in the exposure–response curve shapes and the strength of associations at different temperatures. However, in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the reference value of 10°C. The cumulative RR for a daily mean temperature of 30°C versus 10°C was 1.38 in Atlanta (95% CI: 1.07, 1.79), 1.37 in Chicago (95% CI: 1.07, 1.76), 1.36 in Dallas (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), 1.11 in Los Angeles (95% CI: 0.73, 1.68), and 1.47 in Philadelphia (95% CI: 1.00, 2.17). Kidney stone presentations also were positively associated with temperatures < 2°C in Atlanta, and < 10°C in Chicago and Philadelphia. In four cities, the strongest association between kidney stone presentation and a daily mean temperature of 30°C versus 10°C was estimated for lags of ? 3 days. Conclusions: In general, kidney stone presentations increased with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days. These findings further support an adverse effect of high temperatures on nephrolithiasis. Citation: Tasian GE, Pulido JE, Gasparrini A, Saigal CS, Horton BP, Landis JR, Madison R, Keren R, for the Urologic Diseases in America Project. 2014. Daily mean temperature and clinical kidney stone presentation in five U.S. metropolitan areas: a time-series analysis. Environ Health Perspect 122:1081–1087;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307703 PMID:25009122

Pulido, Jose E.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Saigal, Christopher S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Landis, J. Richard; Madison, Rodger; Keren, Ron

2014-01-01

394

Assessment of dietary adequacy for important brain micronutrients in patients presenting to a traumatic brain injury clinic for evaluation.  

PubMed

Objective To evaluate dietary adequacy of patients presenting for evaluation at an outpatient traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinic. Methods We identified 14 key micronutrients with defined dietary intake reference ranges that are considered important for brain health. Adult patients completed the Brief NutritionQuest Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to calculate estimated nutrient intake. Medical records were abstracted for diagnoses, body mass index, and neurobehavioral subscale scores. Nutrients were assessed individually and were also summarized into a summary score. Associations between individual nutrients, summary nutrient intake, and neurobehavioral scores were assessed. Results A total of 39 FFQs were completed by subjects, and 25 (64%) had recorded neurobehavioral scores. No subjects met the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for all 14 micronutrients. Ten (26%) met the RDAs for 6 or fewer nutrients, and 10 met the RDAs for 11-12 nutrients. Of 12 nutrients with sufficient sample size for analysis, 11 (92%) were associated with worse mean somatic scores, 9 (75%) were associated with worse cognitive scores, and 8 (67%) were linked with worse affective scores for those with the lowest nutrient intake compared with those who had the highest intake. However, only four nutrients were statistically associated with the somatic mean score: folate (P = 0.010), magnesium (P = 0.082), vitamin C (P = 0.021), and vitamin K (P = 0.024). None were linked with cognitive or affective scores. Discussion Diets failing to meet RDAs for important brain nutrients were common in an outpatient TBI clinic, with the worst mean neurobehavioral scores for those patients not meeting the estimated average requirements. PMID:24074905

Wahls, Terry; Rubenstein, Linda; Hall, Michael; Snetselaar, Linda

2014-11-01

395

The clinical presentation and early outcomes of necrotizing fasciitis in a Ugandan Tertiary Hospital- a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Necrotizing fasciitis is an infectious process characterized by rapidly progressing necrosis of superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue with subsequent necrosis of overlying skin. Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but fatal infection. The worldwide incidence is at 0.4 per 100,000. Mortality is up to 80% with no intervention, and 30-50% with intervention. Delay in intervention is associated with poor outcome. The risk factors for necrotizing fasciitis are diabetes mellitus, HIV, malignancy, illicit drug use, malnutrition among others. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation and early outcomes of necrotizing fasciitis amongst Ugandan patients. Methods A prospective descriptive case series study conducted at Mulago National Referral and Teaching hospital from 5th January to 30th April 2011. Patients with necrotizing fasciitis were consecutively recruited after clinical evaluation, laboratory and microbiological tests were performed. Aggressive debridement was done and broad-spectrum antibiotics administered. Patients were followed up on surgical wards. Ethical approval was obtained. Results Thirty five patients were recruited over a 4 months period. More males were affected with, M: F 3:1. The 20-40 years age group was most affected. Attainment of healthy granulation tissue took 19 days on average. Mortality rate was 14% (5/35). Limbs were the most affected body parts 20/35 (57%), the scrotum and perineum (23%). Among infants the scalp was the most affected. Co-morbidities included HIV 8/35 (17%), and DM (5%) among others. The commonest organisms were gram negative. Split skin grafting was necessary in 74% (26/35) of patients. Conclusion There were a high number of patients with necrotizing fasciitis; it was associated with low mortality but high morbidity (long hospital stay). There was a high preponderance to males and limbs were the more affected body parts. PMID:25069415

2014-01-01

396

Retained Fetal Membranes in C57BL/6NCrl Mice: Description of Clinical Case Presentations and Related Epidemiologic Findings  

PubMed Central

During a triinstitutional study to test whether individually ventilated caging systems impaired welfare and reproduction relative to static housing systems, varying numbers (2 to 7) of discoid-shaped, fleshy structures were found in utero of 17 postpartum female mice on study. Further investigation revealed these structures to be retained fetal membranes (RFM). A point prevalence of 24.3% was calculated based on a total population of 70 postpartum female mice on study. This finding was preceded by 3 typical clinical presentations, which are described here. We designed a case-control matched cross-sectional epidemiologic study to identify associated risk factors and antemortem indicators of RFM. Housing on the bottom shelves and attachment to the rack systems were factors associated with a diagnosis of the condition. In addition, neutrophilia, monocytosis, lymphopenia, and decreasing hematocrit values were associated with the diagnosis of RFM. These results confirmed that a CBC can be a useful antemortem screening test for the identification of affected mice. We conclude that RFM are likely an incidental finding although they may present concurrent with other pregnancy complications. PMID:22330577

Johnson, Jenelle K; Vemulapalli, Tracy H; Van Alstine, William G; Roberts, Christopher S; Garner, Joseph P; Hickman, Debra L

2011-01-01

397

Rare infundibular tumors: clinical presentation, imaging findings, and the role of endoscopic endonasal surgery in their management.  

PubMed

Background?The spectrum of infundibular lesions is broad and distinct from sellar pathologies. In many cases, histology is needed to establish the correct diagnosis and determine the treatment approach. Methods?Medical files of eight patients with distinct infundibular tumors were reviewed. Histopathologically confirmed diagnosis included three pituicytomas, three granular cell tumors, and two pilocytic astrocytomas. Results?Patients shared similar imaging findings and clinical symptoms, including visual impairment (n?=?5), hypopituitarism (n?=?4), and headache (n?=?4); one patient presented with disseminated disease and symptoms from spinal metastases. All the pituicytomas, two granular cell tumors, and one infundibular pilocytic astrocytoma case underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery; gross total resection was achieved in five patients, three developed postoperative diabetes insipidus, and two developed hypopituitarism. No recurrences were observed. One granular cell tumor patient was treated with gamma-knife radiosurgery after stereotactic biopsy; the tumor remained stable in size for over 9 years. The infundibular pilocytic astrocytoma patient who presented with spinal metastases received radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy. The overall mean follow-up period was 25.1 months. Conclusion?Infundibular tumors are rare entities that represent a diagnostic challenge. Histopathological examination is essential for definitive diagnosis. Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy all have a role in the management of these tumors. PMID:24436883

Koutourousiou, Maria; Gardner, Paul A; Kofler, Julia K; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Snyderman, Carl H; Lunsford, L Dade

2013-02-01

398

Rare Infundibular Tumors: Clinical Presentation, Imaging Findings, and the Role of Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery in Their Management  

PubMed Central

Background?The spectrum of infundibular lesions is broad and distinct from sellar pathologies. In many cases, histology is needed to establish the correct diagnosis and determine the treatment approach. Methods?Medical files of eight patients with distinct infundibular tumors were reviewed. Histopathologically confirmed diagnosis included three pituicytomas, three granular cell tumors, and two pilocytic astrocytomas. Results?Patients shared similar imaging findings and clinical symptoms, including visual impairment (n?=?5), hypopituitarism (n?=?4), and headache (n?=?4); one patient presented with disseminated disease and symptoms from spinal metastases. All the pituicytomas, two granular cell tumors, and one infundibular pilocytic astrocytoma case underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery; gross total resection was achieved in five patients, three developed postoperative diabetes insipidus, and two developed hypopituitarism. No recurrences were observed. One granular cell tumor patient was treated with gamma-knife radiosurgery after stereotactic biopsy; the tumor remained stable in size for over 9 years. The infundibular pilocytic astrocytoma patient who presented with spinal metastases received radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy. The overall mean follow-up period was 25.1 months. Conclusion?Infundibular tumors are rare entities that represent a diagnostic challenge. Histopathological examination is essential for definitive diagnosis. Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy all have a role in the management of these tumors. PMID:24436883

Koutourousiou, Maria; Gardner, Paul A.; Kofler, Julia K.; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C.; Snyderman, Carl H.; Lunsford, L. Dade

2012-01-01

399

Intracranial hypotension caused by cisternal irrigation for vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vasospasm is the most common cause of complication after a subarachnoid hemorrhage and tremendous efforts have been made to prevent it. A subarachnoid clot is the cause of the vasospasm and dissolving and washing it out is considered to be the best practice. Cisternal irrigation with urokinase and ascorbic acid has been widely used due to its proven effect. Case presentation A 60-year-old Japanese male presented with a severe headache was diagnosed with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and an immediate surgical obliteration was successfully performed. After clipping the aneurysm, a cisternal drainage tube was placed in the chiasmatic cistern. In order to clear the thick subarachnoid hemorrhage, a cisternal irrigation was performed. However, his consciousness deteriorated and his left pupil became dilated on the next day. A T1 sagittal magnetic resonance imaging scan showed an evidence of marked brain sagging with mild tonsillar descent. We continued intensive hydration and head-down positioning and the brain sagging was shown to have improved in the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scan. Conclusions We present a case in which our patient experienced brain sagging after a cisternal irrigation of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. A subdural hematoma and low intracranial pressure suggested intracranial hypotension. Sagittal magnetic resonance imaging images are useful to evaluate brain sagging and are shown sequentially here in our case report. PMID:25223331

2014-01-01

400

Association between supine hypertension and orthostatic hypotension in autonomic failure.  

PubMed

Supine hypertension occurs commonly in primary chronic autonomic failure. This study explored whether supine hypertension in this setting is associated with orthostatic hypotension (OH), and if so, what mechanisms might underlie this association. Supine and upright blood pressures, hemodynamic responses to the Valsalva maneuver, baroreflex-cardiovagal gain, and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels were measured in pure autonomic failure (PAF), multiple-system atrophy (MSA) with or without OH, and Parkinson's disease (PD) with or without OH. Controls included age-matched, healthy volunteers and patients with essential hypertension or those referred for dysautonomia. Barore