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NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of power semiconductor characteristic in Pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverter on the magnetic hysteresis curve in silicon steel is discussed through the measured magnetic hysteresis curves. The magnetic hysteresis curve of PWM inverter-fed silicon steel has a lot of minor loops as closed loops and open loops, which make an influence on the iron loss. Two shapes of minor loops are found to be caused by the voltage shifts and they are derived from the on-voltage of the semiconductors in PWM inverter circuit. Therefore, it is concluded that the power-semiconductor characteristic in PWM inverter makes an influence on the magnetic hysteresis curve in silicon steel.

Fujisaki, Keisuke; Liu, Sungju

2014-05-01

2

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work correlates the magnetic hysteresis curves to the microstructure of the sintered polycrystalline barium hexaferrite discs produced from co-precipitated barium and iron citrates. Citric acid was used as the organic precipitating agent. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were performed on the co-precipitated product in order to guide its calcination into barium hexaferrite crystals, which was confirmed by means of the X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. After that, the hexaferrite powder was pressed in a steel die and submitted to firing in air at various temperatures. The final ceramic pieces were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy and magnetic hysteresis grapher. The obtained results indicate a strong effect of the firing temperature on the microstructure, which in turn affected the magnetic hysteresis curve.

Ogasawara, T.; Oliveira, M. A. S.

2000-07-01

3

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a study of detecting the hysteresis effect in strain-stress curve of carbon fiber reinforced materials by Fiber Bragg Grating technology. By calculating the dissipative energy density contoured by hysteresis loops, this method can be further applied in detecting the cracks and fatigue of carbon fiber reinforced laminates. In contrast to the traditional sensors, such FBG sensors have numerous merits, such as small size, immunity to Electromagnetic Interference and easy installation into the carbon fiber reinforced laminates. This method can also be extended into monitoring other materials which also exhibit hysteresis effects in their strain-stress curves.

Zhang, Hongtao; Ghandehari, Masoud; Sidelev, Alexey; Bazhanski, Ruslan; Wang, Pengfei; Xie, Jing; Zou, Jilin; Lui, Engui; Li, David; Fang, Fang; Cui, Hong-Liang; Wang, Xingwei

2011-05-01

4

Hysteresis curves for ferroelectric crystals in a varying external field. Relaxation model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a description of switching in ferroelectric crystals using the equations of relaxation processes taking into account the action of a varying external electric field. Exact analytic solutions to these equations are obtained for an arbitrary dependence of the relaxation time on the external field and an arbitrary time dependence of the external field. The resultant solution forms the basis of numerical analysis of coupling between the frequency of the sinusoidal external field and the shape of the hysteresis curves. The results of calculations are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

Zakharov, A. Yu.; Bichurin, M. I.; Yan, Y.; Priya, S.

2014-08-01

5

Hydrophobic/superhydrophobic oxidized metal surfaces showing negligible contact angle hysteresis.

Dynamic wettability of oxidized metal (aluminum and titanium) surfaces could be tuned by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)(H)). This facile CVD method produces not only monomeric layers but also particulate films by changing the CVD temperature, resulting in a marked difference in the final wetting properties. In the samples prepared at 80°C for ~3 days, D(4)(H) layers with thicknesses of ~0.5 nm were formed on the surfaces without discernible change in surface morphology, as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. After this D(4)(H) monomeric layer formation, the hydrophilic oxidized aluminum and titanium surfaces became hydrophobic (advancing/receding water contact angles (?(A)/?(R))=102-104°/99-102°) showing essentially negligible contact angle hysteresis. Performing CVD of D(4)(H) at 180°C for ~1 day produced opaque film with particulate morphologies with diameters in the range of 500 nm to 4 ?m observed on the surfaces. This geometric morphology enhanced the surface hydrophobicity (?(A)/?(R)=163°/160-161°). Droplets on these negligible-hysteresis surfaces moved very easily without "pinning". PMID:20970808

Hozumi, Atsushi; Cheng, Dalton F; Yagihashi, Makoto

2011-01-15

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1. FACADE OF THE CLUB MODERNE, SHOWING THE ORIGINAL CURVED ...

1. FACADE OF THE CLUB MODERNE, SHOWING THE ORIGINAL CURVED CORNER PROFILE AND TRI-COLOR CARRERE GLASS FACADE - Anaconda Historic District, Club Moderne, 801 East Park Avenue, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

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FACADE OF THE CLUB MODERNE, SHOWING THE ORIGINAL CURVED CORNER ...

FACADE OF THE CLUB MODERNE, SHOWING THE ORIGINAL CURVED CORNER PROFILE AND TRI-COLOR CARRERE GLASS FACADE. - Anaconda Historic District, Club Moderne, 801 East Park Avenue, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

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Introducing Hysteresis in Snow Depletion Curves to Improve the Water Budget of a Land Surface Model), a distributed land surface model (LSM) with a multilayer, physically based snow model, has been applied of the accu- mulation and ablation of the snow cover using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

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14. VIEW FROM TUNDRA CURVES (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) SHOWING ...

14. VIEW FROM TUNDRA CURVES (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) SHOWING FALL RIVER ROAD RISING FROM BENEATH CHAPIN PASS (AT EXTREME RIGHT) TO FALL RIVER PASS (FAR LEFT). - Fall River Road, Between Estes Park & Fall River Pass, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

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Thermohaline circulation hysteresis: A model intercomparison

We present results from an intercomparison of 11 different climate models of intermediate complexity, in which the North Atlantic Ocean was subjected to slowly varying changes in freshwater input. All models show a characteristic hysteresis response of the thermohaline circulation to the freshwater forcing; which can be explained by Stommel's salt advection feedback. The width of the hysteresis curves varies

Stefan Rahmstorf; Michel Crucifix; Andrey Ganopolski; Hugues Goosse; Igor Kamenkovich; Reto Knutti; Gerrit Lohmann; Robert Marsh; Lawrence A. Mysak; Zhaomin Wang; Andrew J. Weaver

2005-01-01

11

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can choose from three values for disorder of the system and select a goal for the external magnetic field by clicking in a "control bar" area. Output graphs show qualitative information, but no numbers. A brief explanation of the physics of hysteresis is provided and the java source code can be downloaded.

Houle, Paul

12

Preisach Polarization-Electric Field Hysteresis Model with Iteration Method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we introduce an iteration method for obtaining the distribution function of the Preisach polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis model for piezoelectric actuators. In a previously proposed method, numerous experimental hysteresis curves were indispensable for this function. On the other hand, by using the iteration method, only one major-loop experiment is sufficient. From this distribution function, any minor-loop hysteresis can be simulated by the Preisach distribution function F(i,j) with high resolution. First, we measured a hysteresis property of the polarization P versus input voltage V of the ferroelectric material. On the basis of this one hysteresis curve, the distribution function was obtained using the iteration method. Using this function, we could simulate the minor loops, and the simulation results showed good agreement with experimental data.

Ikeda, Hideyuki; Kadota, Yoichi; Morita, Takeshi

2012-09-01

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Abstract: Present ferroelectric (FE) capacitor models mostly rely on continuous hysteresis loop-model. The model mainly consists of two nonlinear capacitors, corresponding to the two different polarization states of an FE capacitor. I. INTRODUCTION Ferroelectric (FE) capacitors have long been recognized

Gulak, P. Glenn

14

Abstract: Present ferroelectric (FE) capacitor models mostly rely on continuous hysteresis loopÂmodel. The model mainly consists of two nonlinear capacitors, corresponding to the two different polarization states of an FE capacitor. I. INTRODUCTION Ferroelectric (FE) capacitors have long been recognized

Sheikholeslami, Ali

15

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The central star of the HR 8799 system is a ? Doradus-type pulsator. The system harbours four planetary-mass companions detected by direct imaging, and is a good solar system analogue. The masses of the companions are not accurately known because the estimation depends greatly on the age of the system, which is also not known with sufficient accuracy. Asteroseismic studies of the star might help to better constrain the age of HR 8799. We organized an extensive photometric and multi-site spectroscopic observing campaign to study the pulsations of the central star. Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the pulsation properties of HR 8799 in detail via the ultra-precise 47 d nearly continuous photometry obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations in STars (MOST) space telescope, and to find as many independent pulsation modes as possible, which is the prerequisite for an asteroseismic age determination. Methods: We carried out Fourier analysis of the wide-band photometric time series. Results: We find that resonance and sudden amplitude changes characterize the pulsation of HR 8799. The dominant frequency is always at f1 = 1.978 d-1.Many multiples of one-ninth of the dominant frequency appear in the Fourier spectrum of the MOST data: n/9 f1, where n = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,13,14,17,18}. Our analysis also reveals that many of these peaks show strong amplitude decrease and phase variations even on the 47 d time scale. The dependencies between the pulsation frequencies of HR 8799 make the planned subsequent asteroseismic analysis rather difficult. We point out some resemblance between the light curve of HR 8799 and the modulated pulsation light curves of Blazhko RR Lyrae stars. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna.

Sódor, Á.; Chené, A.-N.; De Cat, P.; Bognár, Zs.; Wright, D. J.; Marois, C.; Walker, G. A. H.; Matthews, J. M.; Kallinger, T.; Rowe, J. F.; Kuschnig, R.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

2014-08-01

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Plant thermal hysteresis proteins.

Proteins which produce a thermal hysteresis (i.e. lower the freezing point of water below the melting point) are common antifreezes in cold adapted poikilothermic animals, especially fishes from ice-laden seas and terrestrial arthropods. However, these proteins have not been previously identified in plants. 16 species of plants collected from northern Indiana in autumn and winter had low levels of thermal hysteresis activity, but activity was absent in summer. This suggests that thermal hysteresis proteins may be a fairly common winter adaptation in angiosperms. Winter stem fluid from the bittersweet nightshade, Solanum dulcamara L., also showed the recrystallization inhibition activity characteristic of the animal thermal hysteresis proteins (THPs), suggesting a possible function for the THPs in this freeze tolerant species. Other potential functions are discussed. Antibodies to an insect THP cross reacted on immunoelectroblots with proteins in S. dulcamara stem fluid, indicating common epitopes in the insect and plant THPs. PMID:1599942

Urrutia, M E; Duman, J G; Knight, C A

1992-05-22

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Photosystem II complexes of higher plants are structurally and functionally heterogeneous. While the only clearly defined structural difference is that Photosystem II reaction centers are served by two distinct antenna sizes, several types of functional heterogeneity have been demonstrated. Among these is the observation that in dark-adapted leaves of spinach and pea, over 30% of the Photosystem II reaction centers are unable to reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol at physiologically meaningful rates. Several lines of evidence show that the impaired reaction centers are effectively inactive, because the rate of oxidation of the primary quinone acceptor, QA, is 1000 times slower than in normally active reaction centers. However, there are conflicting opinions and data over whether inactive Photosystem II complexes are capable of oxidizing water in the presence of certain artificial electron acceptors. In the present study we investigated whether inactive Photosystem II complexes have a functional water oxidizing system in spinach thylakoid membranes by measuring the flash yield of water oxidation products as a function of flash intensity. At low flash energies (less that 10% saturation), selected to minimize double turnovers of reaction centers, we found that in the presence of the artificial quinone acceptor, dichlorobenzoquinone (DCBQ), the yield of proton release was enhanced 20±2% over that observed in the presence of dimethylbenzoquinone (DMBQ). We argue that the extra proton release is from the normally inactive Photosystem II reaction centers that have been activated in the presence of DCBQ, demonstrating their capacity to oxidize water in repetitive flashes, as concluded by Graan and Ort (Biochim Biophys Acta (1986) 852: 320-330). The light saturation curves indicate that the effective antenna size of inactive reaction centers is 55±12% the size of active Photosystem II centers. Comparison of the light saturation dependence of steady state oxygen evolution in the presence of DCBQ or DMBQ support the conclusion that inactive Photosystem II complexes have a functional water oxidation system. PMID:24415257

Nedbal, L; Gibas, C; Whitmarsh, J

1991-12-01

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NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Passive Aerodynamically Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite (PAMS) will be deployed from the Space Shuttle and used as a target for a Shuttle-mounted laser. It will be a cylindrical satellite with several corner cube reflectors on the ends. The center of mass of the cylinder will be near one end, and aerodynamic torques will tend to align the axis of the cylinder with the spacecraft velocity vector. Magnetic hysteresis rods will be used to provide passive despin and oscillation-damping torques on the cylinder. The behavior of the hysteresis rods depends critically on the 'B/H' curves for the combination of materials and rod length-to-diameter ratio ('l-over-d'). These curves are qualitatively described in most Physics textbooks in terms of major and minor 'hysteresis loops'. Mathematical modeling of the functional relationship between B and H is very difficult. In this paper, the physics involved is not addressed, but an algorithm is developed which provides a close approximation to empirically determined data with a few simple equations suitable for use in computer simulations.

Flatley, Thomas W.; Henretty, Debra A.

1995-01-01

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Classical and hyperbolic approximation of hysteresis loops

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytical approximation of symmetrical and unsymmetrical hysteresis loops is based on the general description of magnetization consisting of the slow reversible process and more violent irreversible process. The coercivity term in the irreversible component generates symmetrical hysteresis loops, which are used for the approximation of first-order reversal curves and their distribution. Model has been applied to materials with typical S-shaped and rectangular hysteresis loops.

W?odarski, Zdzis?aw

2007-02-01

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A thermodynamically consistent model for magnetic hysteresis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phenomenological constitutive model is presented to describe the magnetization curve within the context of thermodynamics. Due to the phenomenological analogy between the magnetic hysteresis and the stress hysteresis, the basic structure of the proposed model comes from rate-dependent plasticity in continuum mechanics, namely viscoplasticity. The total magnetic flux density is assumed to be the sum of reversible and irreversible parts. The model introduces the evolution laws of two internal state variables to incorporate the effect of the ever-changing internal microstructure on the current state. The conception originated from viscoplasticity enables the frequency dependence of the hysteresis curve to be modeled.

Ho, Kwangsoo

2014-05-01

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The magnetization process: Hysteresis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetization process, hysteresis (the difference in the path of magnetization for an increasing and decreasing magnetic field), hysteresis loops, and hard magnetic materials are discussed. The fabrication of classroom projects for demonstrating hysteresis and the hysteresis of common magnetic materials is described in detail.

Balsamel, Richard

1990-01-01

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Pulsed I -V measurement method to obtain hysteresis-free characteristics of graphene FETs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) are measured by the dc, fast I-V (FIV), and pulsed I-V (PIV) methods and analyzed. The hysteresis and conductance in the dc measurement are affected by the sweeping bias range and direction. The I-V curves measured by the FIV method show reduced hysteresis and enhanced conductance at a faster sweeping rate, but are still affected by the sweeping bias range. By applying the PIV method, the hysteresis can be suppressed significantly while the conductance is improved by controlling turn-on, turn-off times (t on and t off) and the gate bias during t off (V base) regardless of the sweeping bias range. With short t on, long t off, and V base of 0 V, the hysteresis-free characteristics of GFETs are obtained.

Park, Jun-Mo; Lee, Dongho; Shim, Jeoyoung; Jeon, Taehan; Eom, Kunsun; Park, Byung-Gook; Lee, Jong-Ho

2014-09-01

23

Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Understanding the ways in which ET changes with meteorological factors is central to a better understanding of ecological and hydrological processes. In this study, we used eddy covariance measurements of ET from a typical alpine shrubland meadow ecosystem in China to investigate the hysteresis response of ET to environmental variables including air temperature (Ta), vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and net radiation (Rn) at a diel timescale. Meanwhile, the simulated ET by Priestly-Taylor equation was used to interpret the measured ET under well-watered conditions. Pronounced hysteresis was observed in both Ta and VPD response curves of ET. At a similar Ta and VPD, ET was always significantly depressed in the afternoon compared with the morning. But the hysteresis response of ET to Rn was not evident. Similar hysteresis patterns were also observed in the Ta/VPD response curves of simulated ET. The magnitudes of the measured and simulated hysteresis loops showed similar seasonal variation, with relatively smaller values occurring from May to September, which agreed well with the lifetime of plants and the period of rainy season at this site. About 62% and 23% of changes in the strength of measured ET-Ta and ET-VPD loops could be explained by the changes in the strength of simulated loops, respectively. Thus, the time lag between Rn and Ta/VPD is the most important factor generating and modulating the ET-Ta/VPD hysteresis, but plants and water status also contribute to the hysteresis response of ET. Our research confirmed the different hysteresis in the responses of ET to meteorological factors and proved the vital role of Rn in driving the diel course of ET. PMID:24896829

Zheng, Han; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhu, Xianjin; Li, Yingnian; Yu, Guirui

2014-01-01

24

A simple model of hysteresis behavior using spreadsheet analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hysteresis loops occur in many scientific and technical problems, especially as field dependent magnetization of ferromagnetic materials, but also as stress-strain-curves of materials measured by tensile tests including thermal effects, liquid-solid phase transitions, in cell biology or economics. While several mathematical models exist which aim to calculate hysteresis energies and other parameters, here we offer a simple model for a general hysteretic system, showing different hysteresis loops depending on the defined parameters. The calculation which is based on basic spreadsheet analysis plus an easy macro code can be used by students to understand how these systems work and how the parameters influence the reactions of the system on an external field. Importantly, in the step-by-step mode, each change of the system state, compared to the last step, becomes visible. The simple program can be developed further by several changes and additions, enabling the building of a tool which is capable of answering real physical questions in the broad field of magnetism as well as in other scientific areas, in which similar hysteresis loops occur.

Ehrmann, A.; Blachowicz, T.

2015-01-01

25

Magnetoimpedance hysteresis in amorphous microwires induced by core-shell interaction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on magneto-impedance (MI) hysteresis at MHz and GHz frequencies in amorphous microwires subject to a sufficiently high applied axial magnetic field HE. We show that this hysteresis originates from the magnetic hysteresis of the inner core which biases the outer shell causing a shift of the MI curve along the HE axis. Combined experiments (longitudinal and off-diagonal MI Z(HE), hysteresis loops M(HE) by vibrating sample magnetometer, and induction method) reveal the details of the magnetization reversal process in these microwires: Partial field dependencies Z(HE) and M(HE) are shown to be practically anhysteretic but shifted to the left or to the right about the origin by a residual magnetic field of the inner core HC. This shift can vary in the range from -35 to +35 A/m, depending on the magnetic history of the sample. We demonstrate that the hysteresis can be suppressed by application of a high enough axial magnetic field that saturates the magnetization of the inner core. A potential application of this hysteresis for memory devices is also proposed.

Ipatov, M.; Zhukova, V.; Gonzalez, J.; Zhukov, A.

2014-09-01

26

Efficient Computational Model of Hysteresis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recently developed mathematical model of the output (displacement) versus the input (applied voltage) of a piezoelectric transducer accounts for hysteresis. For the sake of computational speed, the model is kept simple by neglecting the dynamic behavior of the transducer. Hence, the model applies to static and quasistatic displacements only. A piezoelectric transducer of the type to which the model applies is used as an actuator in a computer-based control system to effect fine position adjustments. Because the response time of the rest of such a system is usually much greater than that of a piezoelectric transducer, the model remains an acceptably close approximation for the purpose of control computations, even though the dynamics are neglected. The model (see Figure 1) represents an electrically parallel, mechanically series combination of backlash elements, each having a unique deadband width and output gain. The zeroth element in the parallel combination has zero deadband width and, hence, represents a linear component of the input/output relationship. The other elements, which have nonzero deadband widths, are used to model the nonlinear components of the hysteresis loop. The deadband widths and output gains of the elements are computed from experimental displacement-versus-voltage data. The hysteresis curve calculated by use of this model is piecewise linear beyond deadband limits.

Shields, Joel

2005-01-01

27

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a reproducible process where the irreversibility can be readily evaluated and provides a thermodynamic description of the important phenomenon of hysteresis. A metal hydride is used because hysteresis is observed during the formation and decomposition of the hydride phase. (RH)

Flanagan, Ted B., And Others

1987-01-01

28

Mathematical models of hysteresis

A new approach to Preisach's hysteresis model, which emphasizes its phenomenological nature and mathematical generality, is briefly described. Then the theorem which gives the necessary and sufficient conditions for the representation of actual hysteresis nonlinearities by Preisach's model is proven. The significance of this theorem is that it establishes the limits of applicability of this model.

I. Mayergoyz

1986-01-01

29

A new approach to the characterization of reverse osmosis membrane by dynamic hysteresis

Physical aspects of dynamic hysteresis for characterizing reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have been investigated. Dynamic hysteresis was used as a parameter of showing physical surface characteristics of RO membranes. Automated microbalance was utilized to determine dynamic hysteresis based on the Wilhelmy plate method. Dynamic hysteresis determined with non-polar liquid was related to physical surface characteristics including surface roughness and heterogeneity

Eunsu Lee; Sangyoup Lee; Seungkwan Hong

2010-01-01

30

Corneal hysteresis and its relevance to glaucoma

Purpose of review Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. It is estimated that roughly 60.5 million people had glaucoma in 2010 and that this number is increasing. Many patients continue to lose vision despite apparent disease control according to traditional risk factors. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent findings with regard to corneal hysteresis, a variable that is thought to be associated with the risk and progression of glaucoma. Recent findings Low corneal hysteresis is associated with optic nerve and visual field damage in glaucoma and the risk of structural and functional glaucoma progression. In addition, hysteresis may enhance intraocular pressure (IOP) interpretation: low corneal hysteresis is associated with a larger magnitude of IOP reduction following various glaucoma therapies. Corneal hysteresis is dynamic and may increase in eyes after IOP-lowering interventions are implemented. Summary It is widely accepted that central corneal thickness is a predictive factor for the risk of glaucoma progression. Recent evidence shows that corneal hysteresis also provides valuable information for several aspects of glaucoma management. In fact, corneal hysteresis may be more strongly associated with glaucoma presence, risk of progression, and effectiveness of glaucoma treatments than central corneal thickness. PMID:25611166

Deol, Madhvi; Taylor, David A.; Radcliffe, Nathan M.

2015-01-01

31

Element-specific magnetic hysteresis measurements on heteromagnetic materials have been achieved by using circularly polarized soft-x- rays. Dramatically different Fe and Co hysteresis curves of Fe/Cu/Co trilayers were obtained by recording the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) at their respective L{sub 3} white lines as a function of applied magnetic field. The data resolve the complicated hysteresis curves, observed by conventional magnetometry, and determine the individual magnetic moments for the Fe and Co layers. Fine hysteresis features, imperceptible in the conventional curves, were also observed, demonstrating a new application of circularly polarized soft-x-rays in the investigation of magnetic systems.

Lin, H.J.; Chen, C.T.; Meigs, G. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Idzerda, Y.U.; Chaiken, A.; Prinz, G.A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Ho, G.H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1993-09-07

32

Kinetic Hysteresis in Collagen Folding

Abstract The triple helix of collagen shows a steep unfolding transition upon heating, whereas less steep and more gradual refolding is observed upon cooling. The shape of the hysteresis loop depends on the rate of temperature change as well as the peptide concentration. Experimental heating and cooling rates are usually much faster than rates of unfolding and refolding. In this work, collagen model peptides were used to study hysteresis quantitatively. Their unfolding and refolding profiles were recorded at different heating and cooling rates, and at different peptide concentrations. Data were fitted assuming kinetic mechanisms in which three chains combine to a helix with or without an intermediate that acts as a nucleus. A quantitative fit was achieved with the same kinetic model for the forward and backward reactions. Transitions of exogenously trimerized collagen models were also analyzed with a simplified kinetic mechanism. It follows that true equilibrium transitions can only be measured at high concentrations of polypeptide chains with slow scanning rates, for example, 0.1°C/h at 0.25 mM peptide concentration of (Gly-Pro-Pro)10. (Gly-Pro-4(R)Hyp)10 folds ?2000 times faster than (Gly-Pro-Pro)10. This was explained by a more stable nucleus, whereas the rate of propagation was almost equal. The analysis presented here can be used to derive kinetic and thermodynamic data for collagenous and other systems with kinetically controlled hysteresis. PMID:20550913

Mizuno, Kazunori; Boudko, Sergei P.; Engel, Jürgen; Bächinger, Hans Peter

2010-01-01

33

Transport, hysteresis and avalanches in artificial spin ice systems

We examine the hopping dynamics of an artificial spin ice system constructed from colloids on a kagome optical trap array where each trap has two possible states. By applying an external drive from an electric field which is analogous to a biasing applied magnetic field for real spin systems, we can create polarized states that obey the spin-ice rules of two spins in and one spin out at each vertex. We demonstrate that when we sweep the external drive and measure the fraction of the system that has been polarized, we can generate a hysteresis loop analogous to the hysteretic magnetization versus external magnetic field curves for real spin systems. The disorder in our system can be readily controlled by changing the barrier that must be overcome before a colloid can hop from one side of a trap to the other. For systems with no disorder, the effective spins all flip simultaneously as the biasing field is changed, while for strong disorder the hysteresis curves show a series of discontinuous jumps or avalanches similar to Barkhausen noise.

Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, A [BABES-BOLYAI UNIV.

2010-01-01

34

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP Hysteresis program is a Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional Ising model demonstrating that the magnetization does not immediately change when the external magnetic field is changed. The default is a lattice of linear dimension L=32 (for a total of N=L^2 spins), a temperature T=1.8 and an external field that changes from H=1 to H=-1 and then returns to its original value. STP Hysteresis is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the stp_Hysteresis.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2009-03-13

35

The extrinsic hysteresis behavior of dilute binary ferrofluids.

We report on the magnetization behavior of dilute binary ferrofluids based on ?-Fe(2)O(3)/Ni(2)O(3) composite nanoparticles (A particles), with diameter about 11 nm, and ferrihydrite (Fe(5)O(7)(OH) ?4H2O) nanoparticles (B particles), with diameter about 6 nm. The results show that for the binary ferrofluids with A-particle volume fraction ?(A) = 0.2% and B-particle volume fractions ?(B) = 0.1% and ?(B) = 0.6%, the magnetization curves exhibit quasi-magnetic hysteresis behavior. The demagnetizing curves coincide with the magnetizing curves at high fields. However, for single ?-Fe(2)O(3)/Ni(2)O(3) ferrofluids with ?(A) = 0.2% and binary ferrofluids with ?(A) = 0.2% and ?(B) = 1.0%, the magnetization curves do not behave in this way. Additionally, at high field (750 kA/m), the binary ferrofluid with ?(B) = 1.0% has the smallest magnetization. From the model-of-chain theory, the extrinsic hysteresis behavior of these samples is attributed to the field-induced effects of pre-existing A particle chains, which involve both Brownian rotation of the chains'moments and a Néel rotation of the particles' moments in the chains. The loss of magnetization for the ferrofluids with ?(B) = 1.0% is attributed to pre-existing ring-like A-particle aggregates. These magnetization behaviors of the dilute binary ferrofluids not only depend on features of the strongly magnetic A-particle system, but also modifications of the weaker magnetic B-particle system. PMID:25365919

Lin, Lihua; Li, Jian; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Longlong; Li, Junming; Li, Decai

2014-10-01

36

Dynamical Hysteresis without Static Hysteresis: Scaling Laws and Asymptotic Expansions

Abstract. We study dynamical,hysteresis in a simple class of nonlinear ordinary dierential equations, namely rst-order equations subject to sinusoidal forcing. The assumed nonlinearities are such that the area of the hysteresis loop vanishes as the forcing frequency tends to zero; in other words, there is no static hysteresis. Using regular and singular perturbation techniques, we derive the rst term in

Guillermo H. Goldsztein; Fernando Broner; Steven H. Strogatz

1997-01-01

37

Hysteresis, thermomagnetic, and low-temperature magnetic properties of Southwestern U.S. obsidians

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical signatures of Southwestern U.S. obsidians have been intensively studied, in part to use as a provenance method for archaeological obsidians (Shackley, 2005). We reported (Sternberg et al. 2010) examined magnetic properties of 50 unoriented samples from 10 geologic obsidian sources in Arizona, Nevada, and New Mexico; here we provide additional results measured at the Institute for Rock magnetism. Room-temperature hysteresis curves were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer on 58 specimens from all 50 samples. The Quantum Designs Magnetic Properties Measurement System was used to measure low temperature cycling of the natural remanence and/or of a room-temperature saturation isothermal remanence for 10 specimens, and frequency dependence of susceptibility for 7 specimens. A Princeton VSM was used to measure hysteresis curves and thermomagnetic curves for 19 specimens from 17 samples. Eleven of the thermomagnetic curves show Curie temperatures close to that for magnetite, and most of them are almost perfectly reversible. Many of the specimens also show a less well-defined Curie point around 150-200°C; for a few specimens the thermomagnetic behavior is dominated by paramagnetic iron and no ferromagnetic phases can be identified. The low-temperature remanence and susceptibility measurements show the magnetite Verwey transition in almost all specimens, and a significant superparamagnetic presence in only a few cases. Hysteresis parameters plot mainly in the lower half of the PSD domain on a Day plot, and saturation magnetization values indicate magnetite concentrations of about 0.2% to 0.5% for most specimens. The coercivity of remanence decreased considerably for one specimen after surface cleaning, although for 5 other comparisons there was no change.

Sternberg, R. S.; Jackson, M. J.; Shackley, M. S.

2011-12-01

38

Numerical Analysis of Hysteresis and Eddy Current Losses in Solid Cylindrical Rods of No. 1010 Steel

A procedure is given which utilizes the digital computer to solve eddy current loss and hysteresis loss problems. The relationship between flux density and magnetic intensity is taken from the actual magnetization curve and major hysteresis loop, thus eliminating the approximations employed in most previous investigations. The nonlinear partial differential equations are replaced by finite difference equations and solved by

Marshall Abrams; Donald Gillott

1967-01-01

39

The significance of observed rotational magnetic hysteresis in lunar samples

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotational magnetic hysteresis curves for lunar soils 10084, 12070, and 14259, and rock 14053 have been published. There is no adequate explanation to date for the observed large hysteresis at high fields. Lunar rock magnetism researchers consider fine particle iron to be the primary source of stable magnetic remanence in lunar samples. Iron has cubic anisotropy with added shape anisotropy for extreme particle shapes. The observed high-field hysteresis must have its source in uniaxial or unidirectional anisotropy. This implies the existence of minerals with uniaxial anisotropy or exchange-coupled spin states. Therefore, the source of this observed high-field hysteresis must be identified and understood before serious paleointensity studies are made. It is probable that the exchange-coupled spin states and/or the source of uniaxial anisotropy responsible for the high-field hysteresis might be influenced by the lunar surface diurnal temperature cycling. The possible sources of high-field hysteresis in lunar samples are presented and considered.

Wasilewski, P.

1974-01-01

40

Modeling hysteresis in piezoceramic actuators

A major deficiency of piezoceramic actuators is that their open-loop control accuracy is seriously limited by hysteresis. This paper discusses the adaptation of the Preisach model to describe the nonlinear hysteresis behavior of these actuators. The adapted model is used to predict the response of a piezoceramic actuator to a sinusoidal input and a triangular input. The predictions are compared

Ping Ge; Musa Jouaneh

1995-01-01

41

Extreme environments present a wealth of biochemical adaptations. Thermal hysteresis proteins (THPs) have been found in vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, bacteria and fungi and are able to depress the freezing point of water (in the presence of ice crystals) in a non-colligative manner by binding to the surface of nascent ice crystals. The THPs comprise a disparate group of proteins with a variety of tertiary structures and often no common sequence similarities or structural motifs. Different THPs bind to different faces of the ice crystal, and no single mechanism has been proposed to account for THP ice binding affinity and specificity. Experimentally THPs have been used in the cryopreservation of tissues and cells and to induce cold tolerance in freeze susceptible organisms. THPs represent a remarkable example of parallel and convergent evolution with different proteins being adapted for an anti-freeze role. PMID:11240367

Barrett, J

2001-02-01

42

Thermal hysteresis proteins (THPs), which depress the freezing point of water below the melting point (producing a characteristic thermal hysteresis), are well known for their antifreeze activity in both fish and terrestrial arthropods, but have only recently been identified in plants. This study describes the purification of a THP from winter-collected bittersweet nightshade, Solanum dulcamara, using ion exchange and preparative 'free flow' isoelectric focusing. The THP has a molecular mass of 67 kDa (considerably larger than those of animal THPs), and an unusually high glycine component (23.7 mol%). Treatments of the THP with periodate or borate caused inactivation, suggesting the presence of carbohydrate. More specific treatments directed at galactose (beta-galactosidase or Abrus precatorius lectin) also resulted in inactivation, indicating that galactose is present. A thermal hysteresis activity versus THP concentration curve showed that the specific activity of the S. dulcamara THP is lower than that of any known animal THP. The functional significance of this low activity is discussed. PMID:8186242

Duman, J G

1994-05-18

43

Hysteresis modeling in ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

Theoretical models are adapted to describe the hysteresis effects seen in the electrical characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. The ballistic transport model describes the contributions of conduction energy sub-bands over carbon nanotube field-effect transistor drain current as a function of drain-source and gate-source voltages as well as other physical parameters of the device. The limiting-loop proximity model, originally developed to understand magnetic hysteresis, is also utilized in this work. The curves obtained from our developed model corroborate well with the experimentally derived hysteretic behavior of the transistors. Modeling the hysteresis behavior will enable designers to reliably use these effects in both analog and memory applications. PMID:25187698

Liu, Yian; Moura, Mateus S; Costa, Ademir J; de Almeida, Luiz Alberto L; Paranjape, Makarand; Fontana, Marcio

2014-01-01

44

Hysteresis losses in soft magnetic composite materials

Purpose – To analyze the Jiles and Atherton hysteresis model used for hysteresis losses estimation in soft magnetic composite (SMC) material. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Jiles and Atherton hysteresis model parameters are optimized with genetic algorithms (GAs) according to measured symmetric hysteresis loop of soft magnetic composite material. To overcome the uncertainty, finding the best-optimized parameters in a wide predefined searching

Bogomir Zidari?; Mykhaylo Zagirnyak; Konrad Lenasi; Damijan Miljavec

2006-01-01

45

Dynamic Hysteresis in Compacted Magnetic Nanoparticles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency and temperature dependent magnetic response of a bulk soft magnetic nanocomposite made by compacting Fe10Co 90 nanoparticles was measured and modeled. Electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the size, composition, and structure of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. Polyol synthesis was used to produce 200 nm particles with average grain size 20 nm and large superparamagnetic fraction. The nanoparticles were consolidated to 90% theoretical density by plasma pressure compaction. The compacted nanoparticles retained the 20 nm average grain size and large superparamagnetic fraction. The nanocomposite resistivity was more than three times that of the bulk alloy. Vibrating sample and SQUID-MPMS magnetometers were used for low frequency magnetic measurements of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. Compaction reduced the coercivity from 175 Oe to 8 Oe and the effective anisotropy from 124 x 10 3 ergs/cc to 7.9 x 103 ergs/cc. These reductions were caused by increased exchange coupling between surface nanograins, consistent with predictions from the Random Anisotropy model. Varying degrees of exchange coupling existed within the nanocomposite, contributing to a distribution of energy barriers. A permeameter was used for frequency dependent magnetic measurements on a toroid cut from the nanocomposite. Complex permeability, coercivity, and power loss were extracted from dynamic minor hysteresis loops measured over a range of temperatures (77 K - 873 K) and frequencies (0.1 kHz - 100 kHz). The real and imaginary parts of the complex permeability spectrum showed asymmetries consistent with a distribution of energy barriers and high damping. When the complex permeability, power loss, and coercivity were scaled relative to the peak frequency of the imaginary permeability, all fell on universal curves. Various microscopic and macroscopic models for the complex permeability were investigated. The complex permeability was successfully fit by modifying the Cole-Davidson model with a scaling factor that extended the model to higher damping. The additional damping was consistent with the damping from eddy current modeling, showing that the nanocomposite's complex permeability could be explained by combining microscopic effects (the distribution of energy barriers represented by the Cole-Davidson model) with macroscopic effects (damping due to eddy currents).

Chowdary, Krishna M.

46

Perceptual hysteresis in the judgment of auditory pitch shift.

Perceptual hysteresis can be defined as the enduring influence of the recent past on current perception. Here, hysteresis was investigated in a basic auditory task: pitch comparisons between successive tones. On each trial, listeners were presented with pairs of tones and asked to report the direction of subjective pitch shift, as either "up" or "down." All tones were complexes known as Shepard tones (Shepard, 1964), which comprise several frequency components at octave multiples of a base frequency. The results showed that perceptual judgments were determined both by stimulus-related factors (the interval ratio between the base frequencies within a pair) and by recent context (the intervals in the two previous trials). When tones were presented in ordered sequences, for which the frequency interval between tones was varied in a progressive manner, strong hysteresis was found. In particular, ambiguous stimuli that led to equal probabilities of "up" and "down" responses within a randomized context were almost fully determined within an ordered context. Moreover, hysteresis did not act on the direction of the reported pitch shift, but rather on the perceptual representation of each tone. Thus, hysteresis could be observed within sequences in which listeners varied between "up" and "down" responses, enabling us to largely rule out confounds related to response bias. The strength of the perceptual hysteresis observed suggests that the ongoing context may have a substantial influence on fundamental aspects of auditory perception, such as how we perceive the changes in pitch between successive sounds. PMID:24874257

Chambers, Claire; Pressnitzer, Daniel

2014-07-01

47

Hysteresis in acoustical media with relaxational nonlinearity and viscosity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loading and unloading waves in nonlinear relaxational and dissipative medium of type compacted ground are studied. Suggested by J. Stokes method and new asymptotic small-distance approach are used for construction of solution. We obtain explicit approximation solutions for different values of relaxation and viscous parameters. It is described influence of type of medium on form of hysteresis curves and on value of residual deformation.

Molotkov, I. A.

2008-06-01

48

The hysteresis phenomena and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a series combination of two identical negative differential resistance (NDR) devices are analyzed. In this study, two different cases are discussed. The analysis shows that hysteresis phenomena in the combined I-V characteristics depend upon the electrical parameters of the series-connected NDR devices. The relationships between the hysteresis voltage and electrical parameters are

Kwang-Jow Gan

2001-01-01

49

HYSTERESIS ANALYSIS BASED ON INTEGRAL QUADRATIC CONSTRAINTS

It is shown how the framework of Integral Quadratic Constraints can be applied to analyze systems with hysteresis, in spite of the fact that hysteresis operators are unbounded and that not all system variable can be expected to approach zero.

A. Rantzer; A. Megretski

50

Magnetic hysteresis of cerium doped bismuth ferrite thin films

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of Cerium doping on the structural and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 thin films have been investigated. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data and successive de-convolution of Raman scattering spectra of Bi1-xCexFeO3 (BCFO) thin films with x=0-0.20 reflect the single phase rhombohedral (R3c) formation for x<0.08, whereas concentration-driven gradual structural phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to partial tetragonal (P4mm) phase follows for x?0.08. All low wavenumber Raman modes (<300 cm-1) showed a noticeable shift towards higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration, except Raman E-1 mode (71 cm-1), shows a minor shift. Sudden evolution of Raman mode at 668 cm-1, manifested as A1-tetragonal mode, accompanied by the shift to higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration (x) affirm partial structural phase transition. Anomalous wasp waist shaped (M-H) hysteresis curves with improved saturation magnetization (Ms) for BCFO thin films is attributed to antiferromagnetic interaction/hybridization between Ce 4f and Fe 3d electronic states. The contribution of both hard and soft phase to the total coercivity is calculated. Polycrystalline Bi0.88Ce0.12FeO3 thin film found to exhibit better magnetic properties with Ms=15.9 emu/g without any impure phase.

Gupta, Surbhi; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

2015-03-01

51

Double hysteresis loop induced by defect dipoles in ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.8Ti0.2)O3 thin films

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pb(Zr0.8Ti0.2)O3 (PZT80/20) thin films were deposited on the Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Mainly perovskite crystalline phase with highly (202)-preferred orientation, determined by x-ray diffraction, was formed in the lead zirconate titanate (PZT)(80/20) thin films. Polarization measurements of the unannealed and aged films showed a clear double hysteresis loop. However, the double hysteresis loop phenomenon was greatly suppressed in the PZT thin films annealed under pure oxygen, and thus they exhibited larger remnant polarization (Pr = 6.3 ?C/cm2). The related mechanism for the appearance of constricted and double hysteresis loops was investigated to be associated with the realignment and disassociation of defect dipoles via oxygen octahedral rotations or oxygen vacancy diffusion. The butterfly-shaped C-V characteristic curve with a valley gave further evidence for double hysteresis loop characteristic in the unannealed and aged PZT thin films.

Pu, Yunti; Zhu, Jiliang; Zhu, Xiaohong; Luo, Yuansheng; Wang, Mingsong; Li, Xuhai; Liu, Jing; Zhu, Jianguo; Xiao, Dingquan

2011-02-01

52

Pb(Zr{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2})O{sub 3} (PZT80/20) thin films were deposited on the Pt(111)/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Mainly perovskite crystalline phase with highly (202)-preferred orientation, determined by x-ray diffraction, was formed in the lead zirconate titanate (PZT)(80/20) thin films. Polarization measurements of the unannealed and aged films showed a clear double hysteresis loop. However, the double hysteresis loop phenomenon was greatly suppressed in the PZT thin films annealed under pure oxygen, and thus they exhibited larger remnant polarization (P{sub r} = 6.3 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}). The related mechanism for the appearance of constricted and double hysteresis loops was investigated to be associated with the realignment and disassociation of defect dipoles via oxygen octahedral rotations or oxygen vacancy diffusion. The butterfly-shaped C-V characteristic curve with a valley gave further evidence for double hysteresis loop characteristic in the unannealed and aged PZT thin films.

Pu Yunti; Zhu Jiliang; Zhu Xiaohong; Luo Yuansheng; Wang Mingsong; Li Xuhai; Liu Jing; Zhu Jianguo; Xiao Dingquan [Department of Materials Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

2011-02-15

53

An investigation on the hysteresis characteristics of an automotive air spring

Hysteresis is one of major properties of air spring during its compression and rebounding sequences. This study shows hysteresis property of air spring theoretically and experimentally. At first, the theoretical model of the air spring was developed, considering the factor of heat exchange. And then experiments of force responses with displacement excitation signal of various frequencies were implemented. The simulations

H. Liu; J. C. Lee

2007-01-01

54

Persistent hysteresis in graphene-mica van der Waals heterostructures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the study of electronic transport in graphene-mica van der Waals heterostructures. We have designed various graphene field-effect devices in which mica is utilized as a substrate and/or gate dielectric. When mica is used as a gate dielectric we observe a very strong positive gate voltage hysteresis of the resistance, which persists in samples that were prepared in a controlled atmosphere down to even millikelvin temperatures. In a double-gated mica-graphene-hBN van der Waals heterostructure, we found that while a strong hysteresis occurred when mica was used as a substrate/gate dielectric, the same graphene sheet on mica substrate no longer showed hysteresis when the charge carrier density was tuned through a second gate with the hBN dielectric. While this hysteretic behavior could be useful for memory devices, our findings confirm that the environment during sample preparation has to be controlled strictly.

Mohrmann, Jens; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Danneau, Romain

2015-01-01

55

Improved charge amplifier using hybrid hysteresis compensation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel charge amplifier, with a robust feedback circuit and a method for compensating piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis at low frequencies. The amplifier uses a modified feedback circuit which improves robustness to the addition of series load impedance such as in cabling. We also describe a hybrid hysteresis compensation method for enabling the charge amplifier to reduce hysteresis at low frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate the utility of the new amplifier design.

Amin-Shahidi, Darya; Trumper, David L.

2013-08-01

56

Semiempirical model of soil water hysteresis

In order to represent hysteretic soil water retention curves accurately using as few measurements as possible, a new semiempirical model has been developed. It has two postulates related to physical characteristics of the medium, and two parameters, each with a definite physical interpretation, whose values are determined empirically for a given porous medium. Tests of the model show that it provides high-quality optimized fits to measured water content vs. matric pressure wetting curves for a wide variety of media. A practical use of this model is to provide a complete simulated main wetting curve for a medium where only a main drying curve and two points on the wetting curve have been measured. -from Author

Nimmo, J.R.

1992-01-01

57

This report presents the first quantitative data establishing the details of hysteresis whose existence in dynamical behavior was reported by Sterling and Zukoski. The new idea was demonstrated that the presence of dynamical hysteresis provides opportunity for a novel strategy of active nonlinear control of unsteady motions in combustors. A figure shows the hysteresis exhibited for the amplitude of pressure oscillations as a function of equivalence ratio in a combustor having a recirculation zone, in this case a dump combustor.

Knoop, P.; Culick, F.E.C.; Zukoski, E.E.

1996-07-01

58

Direct hysteresis measurements on ferroelectret films by means of a modified Sawyer-Tower circuit

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferro- and piezo-electrets are non-polar polymer foams or film systems with internally charged cavities. Since their invention more than two decades ago, ferroelectrets have become a welcome addition to the range of piezo-, pyro-, and ferro-electric materials available for device applications. A polarization-versus-electric-field hysteresis is an essential feature of a ferroelectric material and may also be used for determining some of its main properties. Here, a modified Sawyer-Tower circuit and a combination of unipolar and bipolar voltage waveforms are employed to record hysteresis curves on cellular-foam polypropylene ferroelectret films and on tubular-channel fluoroethylenepropylene copolymer ferroelectret film systems. Internal dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) are required for depositing the internal charges in ferroelectrets. The true amount of charge transferred during the internal DBDs is obtained from voltage measurements on a standard capacitor connected in series with the sample, but with a much larger capacitance than the sample. Another standard capacitor with a much smaller capacitance—which is, however, still considerably larger than the sample capacitance—is also connected in series as a high-voltage divider protecting the electrometer against destructive breakdown. It is shown how the DBDs inside the polymer cavities lead to phenomenological hysteresis curves that cannot be distinguished from the hysteresis loops found on other ferroic materials. The physical mechanisms behind the hysteresis behavior are described and discussed.

Qiu, Xunlin; Holländer, Lars; Wirges, Werner; Gerhard, Reimund; Cury Basso, Heitor

2013-06-01

59

Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ?S. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ?S. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ? _S^2 ln ? _S. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ?S, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ?S ? 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ? _S^2. Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ?S ? 0.2.

Dubov, Alexander L.; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I.

2014-08-01

60

Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes.

We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ?S. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ?S. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ?S(2)ln?S. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ?S, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ?S ? 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ?S(2). Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ?S ? 0.2. PMID:25149809

Dubov, Alexander L; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I

2014-08-21

61

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SMA pseudo-elastic hysteresis with tension-compression asymmetry at finite deformation may be simulated by finite elastoplastic J 2-flow models with nonlinear combined hardening, in a direct, explicit sense with no reference to any phase variables. To this goal, a novel method of treating tension-compression asymmetry is proposed, and the hardening moduli are determined directly from any two given pairs of single-variable functions shaping non-symmetric hysteresis loops in uniaxial tension and compression so that the combined hardening model thus established can automatically exactly give rise to any given shapes of non-symmetric hysteresis loops. Numerical examples show good agreement with test data.

Wang, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Zhao-Ling; Xiao, Heng

2014-11-01

62

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart actuators are the key components in a variety of nanopositioning applications, such as scanning probe microscopes and atomic force microscopes. Piezoelectric actuators are the most common smart actuators due to their high resolution, low power consumption, and wide operating frequency but they suffer hysteresis which affects linearity. In this paper, an innovative digital charge amplifier is presented to reduce hysteresis in piezoelectric stack actuators. Compared to traditional analog charge drives, experimental results show that the piezoelectric stack actuator driven by the digital charge amplifier has less hysteresis. It is also shown that the voltage drop of the digital charge amplifier is significantly less than the voltage drop of conventional analog charge amplifiers.

Bazghaleh, Mohsen; Grainger, Steven; Cazzolato, Ben; Lu, Tien-Fu; Oskouei, Reza

2014-04-01

63

Smart actuators are the key components in a variety of nanopositioning applications, such as scanning probe microscopes and atomic force microscopes. Piezoelectric actuators are the most common smart actuators due to their high resolution, low power consumption, and wide operating frequency but they suffer hysteresis which affects linearity. In this paper, an innovative digital charge amplifier is presented to reduce hysteresis in piezoelectric stack actuators. Compared to traditional analog charge drives, experimental results show that the piezoelectric stack actuator driven by the digital charge amplifier has less hysteresis. It is also shown that the voltage drop of the digital charge amplifier is significantly less than the voltage drop of conventional analog charge amplifiers.

Bazghaleh, Mohsen, E-mail: mohsen.bazghaleh@adelaide.edu.au; Grainger, Steven; Cazzolato, Ben; Lu, Tien-Fu [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, South Australia 5005 (Australia)] [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Oskouei, Reza [School of Computer Science, Engineering and Mathematics, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042 (Australia)] [School of Computer Science, Engineering and Mathematics, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042 (Australia)

2014-04-15

64

Special hysteresis effects in N{sub 2}-sorption and mercury-porosimetry measurements

Model pore structures were prepared from dispersions of submicron monodispersed silica particles by a sedimentation process. Ordered dense sphere packing structures were observed with scanning electron microscopy. Nitrogen sorption- as well as Hg-porosimetry measurements confirmed the calculated values of the pore openings in those structures. In Hg-porosimetry measurements a two step extrusion curve was observed, when the pore system was only partially filled during the intrusion process. This two step curve was not observed in case the pore system was filled with mercury to more than 95% during the intrusion run. The mercury porosimetry results can be interpreted in terms of the coexistence of octahedral and tetrahedral voids (pores) in the examined sphere packing structure and their special arrangement within the structure (connectivity). Two models will be described to explain the general occurrence of hysteresis in Hg-porosimetry. The actual pore geometry is shown to have a profound influence on the hysteresis shape as well as a change in the contact angle (constant within each measurement) can result in totally different hysteresis curves. Nitrogen adsorption and desorption measurements on the same powders did not reveal any fine structure within the hysteresis range.

Giesche, H. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States). New York State Coll. of Ceramics

1996-12-31

65

Hysteresis Characteristics of Flux-lock Type SFCL with Series Connection of Two Coils

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the saturation of the iron core comprising the flux-lock type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with series connection of two coils can prevent its effective fault current limiting operation immediately after a fault accident, the flux-lock type SFCL's design considering the hysteresis characteristics is essential. For the analysis on the hysteresis characteristics of the SFCL during the fault period, its equivalent circuit for the transformer with the nonlinear exciting branch was drawn. Through the analysis on the SFCL's hysteresis curves, which were obtained from the SFCL's fault current limiting experiments based on its equivalent circuit, the winding direction of two coils, one of the design conditions, to suppress the saturation of the iron core comprising the flux-lock type SFCL with series connection of two coils was discussed.

Lim, S. H.; Ko, S. C.; Han, T. H.

66

A calorimetric study of thermal hysteresis effects in ganglioside micelles

Light, X-ray and neutron scattering measurements clearly showed strong temperature-related variations in micellar mean aggregation\\u000a number, accompanied by dramatic thermal hysteresis effects, for a variety of micelle-forming gangliosides. Gangliosides, sialic-acid-containing\\u000a glycosphingolipids, are amphiphilic molecules of biological origin with a ceramide (a double-tailed hydrophobic part, like\\u000a phospholipids) and an oligosaccharide chain as the headgroup. When temperature is varied in the range

L. Cantù; M. Corti; E. Del Favero; E. Muller; A. Raudino; S. Sonnino

67

Analysis of hunting in Synchronous Hysteresis Motor

The Synchronous Hysteresis Motor has an inherent instability when it is used to drive a gyroscope wheel. The motor ideally should spin at a constant angular velocity, but it instead sporadically oscillates about synchronous ...

Truong, Cang Kim, 1979-

2004-01-01

68

Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

2009-08-31

69

Spatial versus time hysteresis in damping mechanisms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of continuing investigations on the task of estimating internal damping mechanisms in flexible structures. Specifically, two models for internal damping in Euler-Bernoulli beams are considered: spatial hysteresis and time hysteresis. A theoretically sound computational algorithm for estimation is described, and experimental results are discussed. It is concluded that both models perform well in the sense that they accurately predict response for the experiments conducted.

Banks, H. T.; Fabiano, R. H.; Wang, Y.; Inman, D. J.; Cudney, H., Jr.

1988-01-01

70

Material Data Representation of Hysteresis Loops for Hastelloy X Using Artificial Neural Networks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The artificial neural network (ANN) model proposed by Rumelhart, Hinton, and Williams is applied to develop a functional approximation of material data in the form of hysteresis loops from a nickel-base superalloy, Hastelloy X. Several different ANN configurations are used to model hysteresis loops at different cycles for this alloy. The ANN models were successful in reproducing the hysteresis loops used for its training. However, because of sharp bends at the two ends of hysteresis loops, a drift occurs at the corners of the loops where loading changes to unloading and vice versa (the sharp bends occurred when the stress-strain curves were reproduced by adding stress increments to the preceding values of the stresses). Therefore, it is possible only to reproduce half of the loading path. The generalization capability of the network was tested by using additional data for two other hysteresis loops at different cycles. The results were in good agreement. Also, the use of ANN led to a data compression ratio of approximately 22:1.

Alam, Javed; Berke, Laszlo; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

1993-01-01

71

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a discussion of ogive curves, logistic regression curves, and architecture. Nice photographs of architectural applications are included. The classic Birthday Problems is included as an example of an ogive curve.

2008-01-01

72

Hysteresis Behaviors of Poly (Naphthalene Quinone) Radical Electrorheological Fluid

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a potential electrorheological(ER) material, poly(naphthalene quinone) radical (PNQR) ER fluid was prepared, and its rheological behavior and hysteresis phenomenon were investigated. PNQR was synthesized by Friedel-Crafts acylation between naphthalene and phthalic anhydride, using zinc chloride as a catalyst at 256°C. A Physica rheometer equipped with a high voltage generator was used to measure the rheological properties of the ER fluids, which were prepared by dispersing PNQR in silicone oil at several particle concentrations. Shear stresses were observed to decrease as shear rate increased in the region of slow deformation rate. It was further found that ER fluid showed different hysteresis behaviors according to the shear rate ranges; thixotropy was observed in the low shear rate region (0.007-0.51/s) and anti-thixotropy in the high shear rate region (0.5-10001/s). Controlled shear stress mode was also applied to observe similar behaviors.

Choi, Hyoung J.; Cho, Min S.; Jhon, Myung S.

73

A new ferromagnetic hysteresis model for soft magnetic composite materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ferromagnetic hysteresis model for soft magnetic composite materials based on their specific properties is presented. The model relies on definition of new anhysteretic magnetization based on the Cauchy-Lorentz distribution describing the maximum energy state of magnetic moments in material. Specific properties of soft magnetic composite materials (SMC) such as the presence of the bonding material, different sizes and shapes of the Fe particles, level of homogeneity of the Fe particles at the end of the SMC product treatment, and achieved overall material density during compression, are incorporated in both the anhysteretic differential magnetization susceptibility and the irreversible differential magnetization susceptibility. Together they form the total differential magnetization susceptibility that defines the new ferromagnetic hysteresis model. Genetic algorithms are used to determine the optimal values of the proposed model parameters. The simulated results show good agreement with the measured results.

Zidari?, Bogomir; Miljavec, Damijan

2011-01-01

74

A curve is called nondegenerate if it can be modeled by a Laurent polynomial\\u000athat is nondegenerate with respect to its Newton polytope. We show that up to\\u000agenus 4, every curve is nondegenerate. We also prove that the locus of\\u000anondegenerate curves inside the moduli space of curves of fixed genus g > 1 is\\u000amin(2g+1,3g-3)-dimensional, except in case

Wouter Castryck; John Voight

2009-01-01

75

complex and often conflicting demands for water among different uses and users in a river basinSPECIAL FEATURE Social hysteresis and ecological hysteresis Maja SchluÂ¨ ter Ã? Heather Leslie Ã? Simon Levin Managing water-use trade-offs in a semi-arid river delta to sustain multiple ecosystem

Leslie, Heather

76

Titration and hysteresis in epigenetic chromatin silencing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epigenetic mechanisms of silencing via heritable chromatin modifications play a major role in gene regulation and cell fate specification. We consider a model of epigenetic chromatin silencing in budding yeast and study the bifurcation diagram and characterize the bistable and the monostable regimes. The main focus of this paper is to examine how the perturbations altering the activity of histone modifying enzymes affect the epigenetic states. We analyze the implications of having the total number of silencing proteins, given by the sum of proteins bound to the nucleosomes and the ones available in the ambient, to be constant. This constraint couples different regions of chromatin through the shared reservoir of ambient silencing proteins. We show that the response of the system to perturbations depends dramatically on the titration effect caused by the above constraint. In particular, for a certain range of overall abundance of silencing proteins, the hysteresis loop changes qualitatively with certain jump replaced by continuous merger of different states. In addition, we find a nonmonotonic dependence of gene expression on the rate of histone deacetylation activity of Sir2. We discuss how these qualitative predictions of our model could be compared with experimental studies of the yeast system under anti-silencing drugs.

Dayarian, Adel; Sengupta, Anirvan M.

2013-06-01

77

Hysteresis in the Central African Rainforest

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past climate change caused severe disturbances of the Central African rainforest belt, with forest fragmentation and re-expansion due to drier and wetter climate conditions. Besides climate, human induced forest degradation affected biodiversity, structure and carbon storage of Congo basin rainforests. Information on climatically stable, mature rainforest, unaffected by human induced disturbances, provides means of assessing the impact of forest degradation and may serve as benchmarks of carbon carrying capacity over regions with similar site and climate conditions. BioGeoChemical (BGC) ecosystem models explicitly consider the impacts of site and climate conditions and may assess benchmark levels over regions devoid of undisturbed conditions. We will present a BGC-model validation for the Western Congolian Lowland Rainforest (WCLRF) using field data from a recently confirmed forest refuge, show model - data comparisons for disturbed und undisturbed forests under different site and climate conditions as well as for sites with repeated assessment of biodiversity and standing biomass during recovery from intensive exploitation. We will present climatic thresholds for WCLRF stability, analyse the relationship between resilience, standing C-stocks and change in climate and finally provide evidence of hysteresis.

Pietsch, Stephan Alexander; Elias Bednar, Johannes; Gautam, Sishir; Petritsch, Richard; Schier, Franziska; Stanzl, Patrick

2014-05-01

78

Hysteresis and Wavenumber Vacillation in Unstable Baroclinic Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hysteresis and wavenumber vacillation are studied numerically in a weakly stratified quasigeostrophic model. In general, the amplitude of the most unstable wave increases, as the flow becomes more unstable. When the wave becomes saturated, the next longer wave will grow at the expanse of the most unstable wave and becomes the dominant wave. However, once the longwave state is established, it may remain in that regime even as the instability is decreased beyond the threshold where it first developed, thus constituting a hysteresis loop. In a highly unstable case, the flow may not show a preference for any single wave. Instead, the dominant wave aperiodically varies among several long waves. This phenomenon is known as wavenumber vacillation. Hysteresis is further examined in terms of eddy heat flux. It is shown that total eddy heat flux increases as the flow becomes more unstable, but displays a sharp drop when transition to a longer wave occurs. However, in a longwave state, the heat flux always decreases with decreasing instability even pass the threshold when wave transition first occurs.

Chou, Shih-Hung; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

79

Modeling and inverse feedforward control for conducting polymer actuators with hysteresis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conducting polymer actuators are biocompatible with a small footprint, and operate in air or liquid media under low actuation voltages. This makes them excellent actuators for macro- and micro-manipulation devices, however, their positioning ability or accuracy is adversely affected by their hysteresis non-linearity under open-loop control strategies. In this paper, we establish a hysteresis model for conducting polymer actuators, based on a rate-independent hysteresis model known as the Duhem model. The hysteresis model is experimentally identified and integrated with the linear dynamics of the actuator. This combined model is inverted to control the displacement of the tri-layer actuators considered in this study, without using any external feedback. The inversion requires an inverse hysteresis model which was experimentally identified using an inverse neural network model. Experimental results show that the position tracking errors are reduced by more than 50% when the hysteresis inverse model is incorporated into an inversion-based feedforward controller, indicating the potential of the proposed method in enabling wider use of such smart actuators.

Wang, Xiangjiang; Alici, Gursel; Tan, Xiaobo

2014-02-01

80

Power losses in thick steel laminations with hysteresis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic power losses have been experimentally investigated and theoretically predicted over a range of frequencies (direct current—1.5 kHz) and peak inductions (0.5-1.5 T) in 1-mm-thick FeSi 2 wt. % laminations. The direct current hysteresis properties of the system are described by the Preisach model, with the Preisach distribution function reconstructed from the measurement of the recoil magnetization curve (Bp=1.7 T). On this basis, the time behavior of the magnetic induction vs frequency at different lamination depths is calculated by a finite element method numerical solution of Maxwell equations, which takes explicitly into account the Preisach model hysteretic B(H) relationship. The computed loop shapes are, in general, in good agreement with the measured ones. The power loss dependence on frequency is predicted and experimentally found to change from a ˜f3/2 to a ˜f2 law with increasing peak induction.

Appino, C.; Bertotti, G.; Bottauscio, O.; Fiorillo, F.; Tiberto, P.; Binesti, D.; Ducreux, J. P.; Chiampi, M.; Repetto, M.

1996-04-01

81

Influence of hydraulic hysteresis on the mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils and interfaces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsaturated soils are commonly widespread around the world, especially at shallow depths from the surface. The mechanical behavior of this near surface soil is influenced by the seasonal variations such as rainfall or drought, which in turn may have a detrimental effect on many structures (e.g. retaining walls, shallow foundations, mechanically stabilized earth walls, soil slopes, and pavements) in contact with it. Thus, in order to better understand this behavior, it is crucial to study the complex relationship between soil moisture content and matric suction (a stress state variable defined as pore air pressure minus pore water pressure) known as the Soil Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC). In addition, the influence of hydraulic hysteresis on the behavior of unsaturated soils, soil-structure interaction (i.e. rough and smooth steel interfaces, soil-geotextile interfaces) and pavement subgrade (depicted herein mainly by resilient modulus, Mr) was also studied. To this end, suction-controlled direct shear tests were performed on soils, rough and smooth steel interfaces and geotextile interface under drying (D) and wetting after drying (DW). The shearing behavior is examined in terms of the two stress state variables, matric suction and net normal stress. Results along the D and DW paths indicated that peak shear strength increased with suction and net normal stress; while in general, the post peak shear strength was not influenced by suction for rough interfaces and no consistent trend was observed for soils and soil-geotextiles interfaces. Contrary to saturated soils, results during shearing at higher suction values (i.e. 25 kPa and above) showed a decrease in water content eventhough the sample exhibited dilation. A behavior postulated to be related to disruption of menisci and/or non-uniformity of pore size which results in an increase in localized pore water pressures. Interestingly, wetting after drying (DW) test results showed higher peak and post peak shear strength than that of the drying (D) tests. This is believed to be the result of many factors such as: (1) cyclic suction stress loading, (2) water content (less on wetting than drying), and (3) type of soil. The cyclic suction loading may have induced irrecoverable plastic strains, resulting in stiffer samples for wetting tests as compared to drying. Additionally, water may be acting as a lubricant and thus resulting in lower shear strength for test samples D with higher water contents than DW samples. Furthermore, various shear strength models were investigated for their applicability to the experimental data. Models were proposed for the prediction of shear strength with suction based on the SWCC. The models are able to predict the shear strength of unsaturated soil and interfaces due to drying and wetting (i.e. hydraulic hysteresis) by relating directly to the SWCC. The proposed models were used and partly validated by predicting different test results from the literature. In addition, an existing elastoplastic constitutive model was investigated and validated by comparing the predicted and experimental (stress-displacement, volume change behavior) results obtained from rough and geotextile interface tests. This study also explores the effect of hydraulic hysteresis on the resilient modulus (Mr) of subgrade soils. Suction-controlled Mr tests were performed on compacted samples along the primary drying, wetting, secondary drying and wetting paths. Two test types were performed to check the effect of cyclic deviatoric stress loading on the results. First, M r tests were performed on the same sample at each suction (i.e. 25, 50, 75, 100 kPa) value along all the paths (drying, wetting etc.). A relationship between resilient modulus (Mr) and matric suction was obtained and identified as the resilient modulus characteristic curve (MRCC). MRCC results indicated that Mr increased with suction along the drying curve. On the other hand, results on the primary wetting indicated higher Mr than that of the primary drying and the secondary drying. The second type of test

Khoury, Charbel N.

82

Investigations of magnetic hysteresis of barium ferrite using the torsion pendulum method

The magnetic stiffness is measured by the torsion pendulum method as a function of the applied field. Measurements are performed on random assemblies of chemically coprecipitated barium ferrite powders. The magnetic stiffness for both minor and major loops of the hysteresis cycle is measured and compared with calculated curves based on the model of coherent rotation. The discrepancies between theory and experiment are partly due to the effect of magnetic interaction.

Richter, H.J.; Hempel, K.A.

1988-11-15

83

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of shallow trench isolation (STI) mechanical stress on the hysteresis effect in the output characteristics is measured in partially depleted (PD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). We develop ID hysteresis, which is defined as the difference between ID versus VD forward sweep and reverse sweep. The fabricated devices show positive and negative peaks in ID hysteresis. The experimental results show that ID hysteresis declined as the STI mechanical stress increases. We also elaborate on the impact of STI mechanical stress on the ID hysteresis of PD SOI n-type MOSFETs.

Luo, Jie-Xin; Chen, Jing; Chai, Zhan; Lü, Kai; He, Wei-Wei; Yang, Yan; Wang, Xi

2014-12-01

84

Estimating hysteresis in the soil water retention function from cone permeameter experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data obtained from modified cone penetrometer experiments were used to estimate the hysteretic soil hydraulic properties with a parameter estimation technique which combined a numerical solution of the Richards equation with Marquardt-Levenberg optimization. The modified cone penetrometer was designed to inject water into a soil through a cylindrical screen, measure the infiltration rate with time, and track the movement of the wetting front using two tensiometer rings positioned above the screen. After reaching relatively stable tensiometer readings during the experiments, the source of water was cut off and pressure head readings measured while water in the soil profile redistributed. Cumulative inflow and pressure head readings for two experiments with different supply pressures were analyzed to obtain estimates of the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions. Analysis of flow responses obtained during the infiltration period, and of those obtained during the combined infiltration and redistribution phases, demonstrated the importance of hysteresis of the soil hydraulic functions. We found that the redistribution phase could not be described accurately when hysteresis was neglected. Hysteresis in the soil hydraulic functions was modeled using a relatively simple empirical model in which wetting scanning curves are scaled from the main wetting curve and drying scanning curves are scaled from the main drying curve. This model was deemed adequate for our examples. Optimization results for various combinations of unknown soil hydraulic parameters were compared to results of standard laboratory and in situ methods. Estimates of the saturated hydraulic conductivity were well within the range of in situ measurements. The estimated main hysteretic loops of the soil water retention curve were for the most part situated between the wetting and drying curves obtained with standard methods.

Šim?nek, Ji?í; Kodešová, Radka; Gribb, Molly M.; van Genuchten, Martinus T.

85

Magnetic hysteresis in integrated low T sub c SQUID gradiometers

We have measured the magnetic hysteresis of thin-film superconducting gradiometers. The fractional hysteresis error {ital h} was found to be about 10{sup {minus}9}--10{sup {minus}11} in several devices.

Koch, R.H.; Ketchen, M.B.; Gallagher, W.J.; Sandstrom, R.L.; Kleinsasser, A.W. (IBM Research Division, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (USA)); Gambrel, D.R.; Field, T.H. (IBM Federal Sector Division, Manassas, Virginia 22110 (USA)); Matz, H. (University Karlsruhe, D-7500 Karlsruhe 21, (Germany))

1991-04-22

86

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity will be used before discussing curved mirrors in class. Students will discover how curved mirrors act and how the size and the orientation of the image are related to the distance from the mirror. Ray diagrams for curved mirrors are

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

87

Design of hysteresis circuits using differential amplifiers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design equations for hysteresis circuit are based on the following assumptions: amplifier input impedance is larger than source impedance; amplifier output impedance is less than load impedance; and amplifier switches state when differential input voltage is approximately zero. Circuits are designed to any given specifications.

Cooke, W. A.

1971-01-01

88

Circuit increases capability of hysteresis synchronous motor

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frequency and phase detector circuit enables a hysteresis synchronous motor to drive a load of given torque value at a precise speed determined by a stable reference. This technique permits driving larger torque loads with smaller motors and lower power drain.

Markowitz, I. N.

1967-01-01

89

Flexible pivot mount eliminates friction and hysteresis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible steel pivot mount, suspended by flat vertical beryllium copper springs, is capable of rotation, free of hysteresis and starting friction. Mount requires no lubrication, is made in varying sizes, and is driven with either dc torque motor or mechanical linkage.

Highman, C. O.

1970-01-01

90

Managing Hysteresis: Three Cornerstones to Fiscal Stability

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the Great Recession of 2007-2009 continue to challenge school business officials (SBOs) and other education leaders as they strive to prepare students for the global workforce. Economists have borrowed a word from chemistry to describe this state of affairs: hysteresis--the lingering effects of the past on the present. Today's SBOs…

Weeks, Richard

2012-01-01

91

Role of hysteresis in stomatal aperture dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stomata are pores responsible for gas exchange in leaves. Several experiments indicate that stomata synchronize into clusters or patches. The patches’ coordination may produce oscillations in stomatal conductance. Previous studies claim to reproduce some experimental results. However, none was able to explain the variety of behavior observed in the stomatal dynamics. Recently, Ferraz and Prado suggested a realistic geometry of vein distribution. Although it reproduces the patches, no oscillation was observed and the patches remain static. Without exploring significant details, the authors stated that hysteresis in stomatal aperture could explain several experimental features. In this paper, the hysteresis hypothesis is further explored through the concept of hysteretic operators. We have shown that the hysteresis assumption is sufficient to obtain dynamical patches and oscillations in stomatal conductance. The robustness of this hypothesis is tested by using different hysteresis operators. The model analysis reveals a dependence between the period of oscillation in stomatal conductance and the water deficit between the leaf and the environment. This underlying feature of the model might inspire further experiments to test this hypothesis.

Ramos, Antônio M. T.; Prado, Carmen P. C.

2013-01-01

92

Torque meter aids study of hysteresis motor rings

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Torque meter, simulating hysteresis motor operation, allows rotor ring performance characteristics to be analyzed. The meter determines hysteresis motor torque and actual stresses of the ring due to its mechanical situation and rotation, aids in the study of asymmetries or defects in motor rings, and measures rotational hysteresis.

Cole, M.

1967-01-01

93

Modeling rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators

Hysteresis of a piezoelectric actuator is rate dependent. Most hysteresis models are based on elementary rate independent operators and are not suitable for modeling actuator behavior across a wide frequency band. This work proposes a rate dependent modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) operator to account for the hysteresis of a piezoelectric actuator at varying frequency. We have shown experimentally that the relationship

Francisco Alija Garmón; Pradeep K. Khosla; Cameron N. Riviere

2003-01-01

94

Hysteresis and anisotropy in ultrathin Fe/Si(001) films

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is challenging to investigate the magnetic anisotropy of Fe/Si(001) film in the case a limited magnetic field strength, when both coherent rotation and domain wall displacement coexist in the magnetization reversal process. Owing to the domain wall displacement, the magnetization reversal switching field is far lower than the magnetic anisotropy field, and, consequently, only the magnetization reversal process near easy axis can be treated as coherent rotation. Here, we record the slope of the magnetic torque curve of an iron film grown on a Si(001) substrate measured near the easy axis by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) to separate the coherent rotation of magnetization reversal process from domain wall displacement. Furthermore, the magnitudes of various magnetic anisotropy constants were derived from the magnetic torque curves. Our work suggests that the AMR at low fields can clearly separate the detailed contributions of various magnetic anisotropies when domain wall displacement existed in Fe(001) ultrathin film. We also report on the hysteresis behavior of such films as measured by magneto-optic Kerr effect.

Ye, Jun; He, Wei; Wu, Qiong; Hu, Bo; Tang, Jin; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Chen, Zi-Yu; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

2014-09-01

95

Comparison of contact angle hysteresis of different probe liquids on the same solid surface.

Advancing and receding contact angles of water, formamide and diiodomethane were measured on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) layers deposited on three different solid supports-glass, mica and poly(methyl methacrylate). Up to five statistical monolayers were deposited on the surfaces by spreading DPPC solution. It was found that even on five statistical DPPC monolayers, the hysteresis of a given liquid depends on the kind of solid support. Also on the same solid support the contact angle hysteresis is different for each probe liquid used. The AFM images show that the heights of roughness of the DPPC films cannot be the primary cause of the observed hysteresis because the heights are too small to cause the observed hystereses. It is believed that the hysteresis is due to the liquid film present right behind the three-phase solid surface/liquid drop/gas (vapour) contact line and the presence of Derjaguin pressure. The value of contact angle hysteresis depends on both the solid surface and liquid properties as well as on intermolecular interactions between them. PMID:23335833

Chibowski, Emil; Jurak, Malgorzata

2013-02-01

96

Wetting Hysteresis at the Molecular Scale

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The motion of a fluid-fluid-solid contact line on a rough surface is well known to display hysteresis in the contact angle vs. velocity relationship. In order to understand the phenomenon at a fundamental microscopic level, we have conducted molecular dynamics computer simulations of a Wilhelmy plate experiment in which a solid surface is dipped into a liquid bath, and the force-velocity characteristics are measured. We directly observe a systematic variation of force and contact angle with velocity, which is single-valued for the case of an atomically smooth solid surface. In the microscopically rough case, however, we find (as intuitively expected) an open hysteresis loop. Further characterization of the interface dynamics is in progress.

Jin, Wei; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

1996-01-01

97

Hysteresis and bristle stiffening effects of conventional brush seals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive testing of conventional brush seals has identified the phenomena of bristle 'hysteresis' and 'stiffening' with pressure as their two major drawbacks. Subsequent to any differential movement of the runner into the bristle pack due to its radial excursions or centrifugal/thermal growths, the displaced bristles do not recover against the frictional forces between them and the backing plate. As a result, a significant leakage increase is observed following any runner movement. Furthermore, the bristle pack exhibits a considerable stiffening effect with the application of pressure. This phenomenon adversely affects the life of the seal and the runner due to a highly increased mechanical contact pressure at the sliding interface. In comparison with these conventional design seals, the characteristics of an improved design, known as the 'low hysteresis' design, are presented here. This design shows a substantially lower degree of the detrimental effects mentioned above. This type of seal can maintain its reduced leakage characteristics throughout the running cycle with runner excursions and growths. The bristles also do not show any stiffening, up to a certain pressure threshold. Therefore, this seal also has a potential for a longer life than a brush seal of conventional design.

Basu, P.; Datta, A.; Johnson, R.; Loewenthal, R.; Short, J.

1993-06-01

98

Rheological Hysteresis in Soft Glassy Materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear rheology of a soft glassy material is captured by its constitutive relation, shear stress versus shear rate, which is most generally obtained by sweeping up or down the shear rate over a finite temporal window. For a huge amount of complex fluids, the up and down sweeps do not superimpose and define a rheological hysteresis loop. By means of extensive rheometry coupled to time-resolved velocimetry, we unravel the local scenario involved in rheological hysteresis for various types of well-studied soft materials. We introduce two observables that quantify the hysteresis in macroscopic rheology and local velocimetry, respectively, as a function of the sweep rate ?t-1. Strikingly, both observables present a robust maximum with ?t, which defines a single material-dependent time scale that grows continuously from vanishingly small values in simple yield stress fluids to large values for strongly time-dependent materials. In line with recent theoretical arguments, these experimental results hint at a universal time scale-based framework for soft glassy materials, where inhomogeneous flows characterized by shear bands and/or pluglike flow play a central role.

Divoux, Thibaut; Grenard, Vincent; Manneville, Sébastien

2013-01-01

99

Re-examination of the Steinmetz law for unsymmetrical magnetic hysteresis loops

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have re-examined the Steinmetz law for unsymmetrical flux-density(B)-field(H) loops in an arbitrary magnetized state for cold rolled steels from the viewpoint of magnetization mechanism. Under the criterion of B-H loops with |B|<˜ 1.1 T, a relation between the hysteresis loss and flux density change was found to fall almost the same curve as that for symmetrical loops obtained conventionally. In the intermediate B regime, the relation follows the usual Steinmetz law with a power-law exponent of 1.6, whose coefficient increases with defect density. These observations demonstrate that the hysteresis loss is only the function of the flux density change and the Steinmetz law always holds true in an arbitrary magnetized state if the pinning mechanism of irreversible Bloch wall motion prevails.

Kobayashi, Satoru; Ishibashi, Yusuke; Baba, Ryo

2013-03-01

100

Smart actuators are the key components in a variety of nanopositioning applications, such as scanning probe microscopes and atomic force microscopes. Piezoelectric actuators are the most common smart actuators due to their high resolution, low power consumption, and wide operating frequency but they suffer hysteresis which affects linearity. In this paper, an innovative digital charge amplifier is presented to reduce hysteresis in piezoelectric stack actuators. Compared to traditional analog charge drives, experimental results show that the piezoelectric stack actuator driven by the digital charge amplifier has less hysteresis. It is also shown that the voltage drop of the digital charge amplifier is significantly less than the voltage drop of conventional analog charge amplifiers. PMID:24784651

Bazghaleh, Mohsen; Grainger, Steven; Cazzolato, Ben; Lu, Tien-Fu; Oskouei, Reza

2014-04-01

101

S-Shaped Discontinuous Shear Thickening Flow Curve in Granular Suspensions

We study the rheological behavior of concentrated granular suspensions of simple spherical particles that show discontinuous shear thickening. Under controlled stress, the system exhibits an S-shaped flow curve (stress vs. shear rate) in which the low-viscosity Newtonian regime is connected to the shear thickening regime through a line with negative slope. Under controlled shear rate, a discontinuous transition between the two states is observed. We observe hysteresis in the negative slope section of the flow curve. This hysteresis is sensitive to the rate at which data is taken: by changing the shear rate rapidly, the Newtonian branch can be "overheated" and the shear thickened branch can be "undercooled". Experiments with a novel fluorescent viscosity probe show that the system remains homogeneous if a stress is imposed that is intermediate between the high-and low-viscosity branches, which indicates the continuous formation of a force network due to the frictional forces between particles if the stress is increased towards shear thickening.

Zhongcheng Pan; Henri de Cagny; Bart Weber; Daniel Bonn

2014-12-17

102

Perceptual hysteresis as a marker of perceptual inflexibility in schizophrenia.

People with schizophrenia are known to exhibit difficulties in the updating of their current belief states even in the light of disconfirmatory evidence. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that people with schizophrenia could also manifest perceptual inflexibility, or difficulties in the updating of their current sensory states. The presence of perceptual inflexibility might contribute both to the patients' altered perception of reality and the formation of some delusions as well as to their social cognition deficits. Here, we addressed this issue with a protocol of auditory hysteresis, a direct measure of sensory persistence, on a population of stabilized antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia patients and a sample of control subjects. Trials consisted of emotional signals (i.e., screams) and neutral signals (i.e., spectrally-rotated versions of the emotional stimuli) progressively emerging from white noise - Ascending Sequences - or progressively fading away in white noise - Descending Sequences. Results showed that patients presented significantly stronger hysteresis effects than control subjects, as evidenced by a higher rate of perceptual reports in Descending Sequences. The present study thus provides direct evidence of perceptual inflexibility in schizophrenia. PMID:25147080

Martin, Jean-Rémy; Dezecache, Guillaume; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Nuss, Philippe; Dokic, Jérôme; Bruno, Nicolas; Pacherie, Elisabeth; Franck, Nicolas

2014-11-01

103

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a game about light curves that will test your ability to figure out things about an asteroid from just a graph of its brightness. Astronomers use telescopes to collect light curves - measurements of the brightness of distant asteroids over time. It is part of the Killer Asteroids Web Site. The site also features a background overview of the differences between asteroids and comets, information on different types of asteroids (rubble piles vs monoliths), a discussion of how at risk Earth really is to an asteroid or comet impact, and background information on light curves.

104

Extension of hysteresis operators of Preisach-type to real, Lebesgue measurable functions

Functions in Llocp[0,?) where 1?p?? can be considered as inputs to linear systems. However, hysteresis operators of Preisach type have only been defined on much smaller space of regulated (or Baire) functions. In this paper, we re-define Play operators so that they are well defined for real valued measurable functions. We show that this definition coincides with the older definition

R. Iyer; D. Ekanayake

2008-01-01

105

Optical bistability and hysteresis of a hybrid metal-semiconductor nanodimer

Optical response of an artificial composite nanodimer comprising a semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanosphere is analyzed theoretically. We show that internal degrees of freedom of the system can manifest bistability and optical hysteresis as functions of the incident field intensity. We argue that these effects can be observed for real-world systems, such as a CdSe quantum dot and

A. V. Malyshev; V. A. Malyshev

2011-01-01

106

Adsorption kinetics in the solution of a thermal hysteresis protein

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the properties of the interactions between the thermal hysteresis proteins (THPs) and an ice crystal surface in the THP solution, we present a kinetic theory of the adsorption of thermal hysteresis proteins on the ice crystal surface. The thermal hysteresis activities of the THP solutions are given. The cooperative properties in the adsorption process of the THPs on the ice crystal surface are discussed.

Li, Qianzhong; Luo, Liaofu

2000-04-01

107

Conformational electroresistance and hysteresis in nanoclusters.

The existence of multiple thermodynamically stable isomer states is one of the most fundamental properties of small clusters. This work shows that the conformational dependence of the Coulomb charging energy of a nanocluster leads to a giant electroresistance, where charging induced conformational distortion changes the blockade voltage. The intricate interplay between charging and conformation change is demonstrated in a nanocluster Zn3O4 by combining a first-principles calculation with a temperature-dependent transport model. The predicted hysteretic Coulomb blockade staircase in the current-voltage curve adds another dimension to the rich phenomena of tunneling electroresistance. The new mechanism provides a better controlled and repeatable platform to study conformational electroresistance. PMID:24987929

Li, Xiang-Guo; Zhang, X-G; Cheng, Hai-Ping

2014-08-13

108

There and (slowly) back again: entropy-driven hysteresis in a model of DNA overstretching.

When pulled along its axis, double-stranded DNA elongates abruptly at a force of approximately 65 pN. Two physical pictures have been developed to describe this overstretched state. The first proposes that strong forces induce a phase transition to a molten state consisting of unhybridized single strands. The second picture introduces an elongated hybridized phase called S-DNA. Little thermodynamic evidence exists to discriminate directly between these competing pictures. Here we show that within a microscopic model of DNA we can distinguish between the dynamics associated with each. In experiment, considerable hysteresis in a cycle of stretching and shortening develops as temperature is increased. Since there are few possible causes of hysteresis in a system whose extent is appreciable in only one dimension, such behavior offers a discriminating test of the two pictures of overstretching. Most experiments are performed upon nicked DNA, permitting the detachment (unpeeling) of strands. We show that the long-wavelength progression of the unpeeled front generates hysteresis, the character of which agrees with experiment only if we assume the existence of S-DNA. We also show that internal melting can generate hysteresis, the degree of which depends upon the nonextensive loop entropy of single-stranded DNA. PMID:17981894

Whitelam, Stephen; Pronk, Sander; Geissler, Phillip L

2008-04-01

109

There and (Slowly) Back Again: Entropy-Driven Hysteresis in a Model of DNA Overstretching

When pulled along its axis, double-stranded DNA elongates abruptly at a force of ?65 pN. Two physical pictures have been developed to describe this overstretched state. The first proposes that strong forces induce a phase transition to a molten state consisting of unhybridized single strands. The second picture introduces an elongated hybridized phase called S-DNA. Little thermodynamic evidence exists to discriminate directly between these competing pictures. Here we show that within a microscopic model of DNA we can distinguish between the dynamics associated with each. In experiment, considerable hysteresis in a cycle of stretching and shortening develops as temperature is increased. Since there are few possible causes of hysteresis in a system whose extent is appreciable in only one dimension, such behavior offers a discriminating test of the two pictures of overstretching. Most experiments are performed upon nicked DNA, permitting the detachment (unpeeling) of strands. We show that the long-wavelength progression of the unpeeled front generates hysteresis, the character of which agrees with experiment only if we assume the existence of S-DNA. We also show that internal melting can generate hysteresis, the degree of which depends upon the nonextensive loop entropy of single-stranded DNA. PMID:17981894

Whitelam, Stephen; Pronk, Sander; Geissler, Phillip L.

2008-01-01

110

Hysteresis prediction inside magnetic shields and application

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a simple model that is able to describe and predict hysteresis behavior inside Mumetal magnetic shields, when the shields are submitted to ultra-low frequency (<0.01 Hz) magnetic perturbations with amplitudes lower than 60 ?T. This predictive model has been implemented in a software to perform an active compensation system. With this compensation the attenuation of longitudinal magnetic fields is increased by two orders of magnitude. The system is now integrated in the cold atom space clock called PHARAO. The clock will fly onboard the International Space Station in the frame of the ACES space mission.

Mori?, Igor; De Graeve, Charles-Marie; Grosjean, Olivier; Laurent, Philippe

2014-07-01

111

Hysteresis prediction inside magnetic shields and application.

We have developed a simple model that is able to describe and predict hysteresis behavior inside Mumetal magnetic shields, when the shields are submitted to ultra-low frequency (<0.01 Hz) magnetic perturbations with amplitudes lower than 60??T. This predictive model has been implemented in a software to perform an active compensation system. With this compensation the attenuation of longitudinal magnetic fields is increased by two orders of magnitude. The system is now integrated in the cold atom space clock called PHARAO. The clock will fly onboard the International Space Station in the frame of the ACES space mission. PMID:25085183

Mori?, Igor; De Graeve, Charles-Marie; Grosjean, Olivier; Laurent, Philippe

2014-07-01

112

State transitions, hysteresis, and control parameters on DIII-D

The theory of turbulence decorrelation by ExB velocity shear is the leading candidate to explain the changes in turbulence and transport that are seen at the plasma edge at the L to H transition. Based on this, a key question is: What are the conditions or control parameters needed to begin the formation of the E{sub r} shear layer and thus trigger the L to H transition? On the DIII-D tokamak, the authors are attacking this question both through direct tests of the various theories and by trying to gain insight into the fundamental physics by investigating the control parameters which have a major effect on the power threshold. In this paper the authors describe results of studies on oscillating discharges where the plasma transitions continuously between L and H states. By following the dynamics of the plasma state through the forward and back transitions, they can represent the evolution of various control parameter candidates as a trajectory in various parametric spaces. The shape of these control curves can illustrate the specific nonlinearities governing the L-H transition problem, and under the proper conditions may be interpreted in the context of various phase-transition based models. In particular, the hysteresis exhibited in the various curves may help to clarify causality (what are the critical parameters) and may serve as tests of the models, given sufficient experimental accuracy. At present they are looking at T{sub e}, E{sub r} and ballooning/diamagnetic parameters as possible control parameter candidates.

Thomas, D.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Osborne, T.H.; Petrie, T.W.

1998-07-01

113

Friction and Adhesion Hysteresis between Surfactant Monolayers in Water

Friction and Adhesion Hysteresis between Surfactant Monolayers in Water Wuge H. Briscoe Physical friction between two surfaces in adhesive contact with the loadingÂunloading adhesion hysteresis between them. We then examine in light of this model the observed low friction between two mica surfaces coated

Klein, Jacob

114

Potbellies, wasp-waists, and superparamagnetism in magnetic hysteresis

Because the response of a magnetic substance to an applied field depends strongly on the physical properties of the material, much can be learned by monitoring that response through what is known as a ``magnetic hysteresis loop.'' The measurements are rapid and quickly becoming part of the standard set of tools supporting paleomagnetic research. Yet the interpretation of hysteresis loops

L. Tauxe; T. A. T. Mullender; T. Pick

1996-01-01

115

Circuit measures hysteresis loop areas at 30 Hz

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analog circuit measures hysteresis loop areas as a function of time during fatigue testing of specimens subjected to sinusoidal tension-compression stresses at a frequency of Hz. When the sinusoidal stress signal is multiplied by the strain signal, the dc signal is proportional to hysteresis loop area.

Hoffman, C.; Spilo, D.

1967-01-01

116

Magnetic hysteresis under compressive stress at high applied field

n Abstract-The magnetic properties of material are sensitive to applied stress. The aim of this paper is to designed and fabricated a hysteresis imaging apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of stress concentration in ferromagnetic material. It has been applied successfully to measure the hysteresis loops of Q235 steel under various fixed compressive stress. The remanence Br derived from the loops is

Dongyan Huang; Bing Han; Zonggang Wang; Tao Zhang

2011-01-01

117

Scaling Laws for Dynamical Hysteresis in a Multidimensional Laser System

We examine scaling laws for dynamical hysteresis in an optically bistable semiconductor laser. An analytic derivation of these laws from multidimensional laser equations is outlined and they are expected to be universal for systems that exhibit a cusp catastrophe. The scaling laws for the hysteresis loop area or width are numerically verified and experimentally measured for operation of the bistable

Angela Hohl; Rajarshi Roy; Guillermo Goldsztein; Fernando Broner; Steven H. Strogatz

1995-01-01

118

The origin of hysteresis in the flag instability

The flapping flag instability occurs when a flexible cantilevered plate is immersed in a uniform airflow. To this day, the nonlinear aspects of this aeroelastic instability are largely unknown. In particular, experiments in the literature all report a large hysteresis loop, while the bifurcation in numerical simulations is either supercritical or subcritical with a small hysteresis loop. In this paper,

Christophe Eloy; Nicolas Kofman; Lionel Schouveiler

2011-01-01

119

Generalized preisach model for hysteresis nonlinearity of piezoceramic actuators

This paper presents a new approach for modeling the hysteresis nonlinearity of a piezoceramic actuator using a modified generalized Preisach model, and the use of this model in a linearizing control scheme. The developed generalized Preisach model relaxes the congruency requirement on the hysteresis loops of a piezoceramic actuator, which must be satisfied when using the classical Preisach model. The

Ping Ge; Musa Jouaneh

1997-01-01

120

A Domain Wall Theory for Ferroelectric Hysteresis Ralph C. Smith

A Domain Wall Theory for Ferroelectric Hysteresis Ralph C. Smith Center for Research in Scientific.hom@lmco.com Abstract This paper addresses the modeling of hysteresis in ferroelectric materials through consideration comparison with experimental data from a PMNÂPTÂBT actuator operating at a temperature within

121

A Domain Wall Theory for Ferroelectric Hysteresis Ralph C. Smith

A Domain Wall Theory for Ferroelectric Hysteresis Ralph C. Smith Center for Research in Scienti c.hom@lmco.com Abstract This paper addresses the modeling of hysteresis in ferroelectric materials through consideration comparison with experimental data from a PMN-PT-BT actuator operating at a temperature within

122

The field and temperature dependence of hysteresis loops in P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer films

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ferroelectric hysteresis loops of poly(vinylidene fluoride/trifluoethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer films are investigated as a function of external field and temperature. Starting from a plateau at the low frequency side the coercive field increases with increasing frequency. It exhibits a maximum in the kHz-range and decreases then. The remanent polarization is almost constant at low frequencies and decreases above the kHz-range. For a constant frequency, the coercive field increases with increasing the amplitude of the external field. Furthermore, the hysteresis loops at different temperatures at a given frequency and amplitude exhibit a linear decrease of coercive field with increasing temperature. A double hysteresis loop is observed close to the Curie point and a sharp jump of the remanent polarization is obtained in samples as thick as 600 nm indicating a first order phase transition. For samples as thin as 90 nm, the double hysteresis loop of the polarization is absent and the change of remanent polarization dependent on temperature is smoother. The above experimental results can be explained and simulated in the Weiss mean field model. The simulation results are compared with the experiments and show a good consistency.

Mai, Manfang; Leschhorn, Andreas; Kliem, Herbert

2015-01-01

123

Ultra-precise tracking control of piezoelectric actuators via a fuzzy hysteresis model.

In this paper, a novel Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy system based model is proposed for hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. The antecedent and consequent structures of the fuzzy hysteresis model (FHM) can be, respectively, identified on-line through uniform partition approach and recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. With respect to controller design, the inverse of FHM is used to develop a feedforward controller to cancel out the hysteresis effect. Then a hybrid controller is designed for high-performance tracking. It combines the feedforward controller with a proportional integral differential (PID) controller favourable for stabilization and disturbance compensation. To achieve nanometer-scale tracking precision, the enhanced adaptive hybrid controller is further developed. It uses real-time input and output data to update FHM, thus changing the feedforward controller to suit the on-site hysteresis character of the piezoelectric actuator. Finally, as to 3 cases of 50 Hz sinusoidal, multiple frequency sinusoidal and 50 Hz triangular trajectories tracking, experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controllers. Especially, being only 0.35% of the maximum desired displacement, the maximum error of 50 Hz sinusoidal tracking is greatly reduced to 5.8 nm, which clearly shows the ultra-precise nanometer-scale tracking performance of the developed adaptive hybrid controller. PMID:22938339

Li, Pengzhi; Yan, Feng; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Mingchao

2012-08-01

124

Ultra-precise tracking control of piezoelectric actuators via a fuzzy hysteresis model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy system based model is proposed for hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. The antecedent and consequent structures of the fuzzy hysteresis model (FHM) can be, respectively, identified on-line through uniform partition approach and recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. With respect to controller design, the inverse of FHM is used to develop a feedforward controller to cancel out the hysteresis effect. Then a hybrid controller is designed for high-performance tracking. It combines the feedforward controller with a proportional integral differential (PID) controller favourable for stabilization and disturbance compensation. To achieve nanometer-scale tracking precision, the enhanced adaptive hybrid controller is further developed. It uses real-time input and output data to update FHM, thus changing the feedforward controller to suit the on-site hysteresis character of the piezoelectric actuator. Finally, as to 3 cases of 50 Hz sinusoidal, multiple frequency sinusoidal and 50 Hz triangular trajectories tracking, experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controllers. Especially, being only 0.35% of the maximum desired displacement, the maximum error of 50 Hz sinusoidal tracking is greatly reduced to 5.8 nm, which clearly shows the ultra-precise nanometer-scale tracking performance of the developed adaptive hybrid controller.

Li, Pengzhi; Yan, Feng; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Mingchao

2012-08-01

125

A new neural networks dynamic hysteresis model for piezoceramic actuator is proposed by combining the Preisach model with diagonal recurrent neural networks. The Preisach model is based on elementary rate-independent operators and is not suitable for modeling piezoceramic actuator across a wide frequency band because of the rate-dependent hysteresis characteristic of the piezoceramic actuator. The structure of the developed model

Xuanju Dang; Yonghong Tan

2005-01-01

126

Hysteresis and precession of a swirling jet normal to a wall

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction of a swirling jet with a no-slip surface has striking features of fundamental and practical interest. Different flow states and transitions among them occur at the same conditions in combustors, vortex tubes, and tornadoes. The jet axis can undergo precession and bending in combustors; this precession enhances large-scale mixing and reduces emissions of NOx. To explore the mechanisms of these phenomena, we address conically similar swirling jets normal to a wall. In addition to the Serrin model of tornadolike flows, a new model is developed where the flow is singularity free on the axis. New analytical and numerical solutions of the Navier Stokes equations explain occurrence of multiple states and show that hysteresis is a common feature of wall-normal vortices or swirling jets no matter where sources of motion are located. Then we study the jet stability with the aid of a new approach accounting for deceleration and nonparallelism of the base flow. An appropriate transformation of variables reduces the stability problem for this strongly nonparallel flow to a set of ordinary differential equations. A particular flow whose stability is studied in detail is a half-line vortex normal to a rigid plane—a model of a tornado and of a swirling jet issuing from a nozzle in a combustor. Helical counter-rotating disturbances appear to be first growing as Reynolds number increases. Disturbance frequency changes its sign along the neutral curve while the wave number remains positive. Short disturbance waves propagate downstream and long waves propagate upstream. This helical instability causes bending of the vortex axis and its precession—the effects observed in technological flows and in tornadoes.

Shtern, V.; Mi, J.

2004-01-01

127

A Hysteresis Model for Piezoceramic Materials

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses the modeling of nonlinear constitutive relations and hysteresis inherent to piezoceramic materials at moderate to high drive levels. Such models are, necessary to realize the, full potential of the materials in high performance control applications, and a necessary prerequisite is the development of techniques which permit control implementation. The approach employed here is based on the qualification of reversible and irreversible domain wall motion in response to applied electric fields. A comparison with experimental data illustrates that because the resulting ODE model is physics-based, it can be employed for both characterization and prediction of polarization levels throughout the range of actuator operation. Finally, the ODE formulation is amenable to inversion which facilitates the development of an inverse compensator for linear control design.

Smith, Ralph C.; Ounaies, Zoubeida

1999-01-01

128

Hysteresis in forced oscillations of pendant drops

A hysteresis phenomenon has been revealed through experiments conducted with large-amplitude forced oscillations of pendant drops in air. Under strong excitation, the frequency response of a drop forced at constant amplitude exhibits jump behavior; a larger peak response amplitude {epsilon}{sub {down_arrow}} appears at a lower frequency {omega}{sub {down_arrow}} during a downward ({down_arrow}) variation of forcing frequency than during an upward ({up_arrow}) variation, viz. {epsilon}{sub {down_arrow}}{gt}{epsilon}{sub {up_arrow}} and {omega}{sub {down_arrow}}{lt}{omega}{sub {up_arrow}}. Similar results are obtained when forcing amplitude is varied at constant frequency. This behavior is characteristic of a system with a soft nonlinearity. These findings indicate that oscillating pendant drops constitute a convenient system for studying nonlinear dynamics.

DePaoli, D.W.; Feng, J.Q.; Basaran, O.A.; Scott, T.C. [Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6224 (United States)] [Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6224 (United States)

1995-06-01

129

Pore-scale mechanisms for hysteresis in capillary-dominated drainage and imbibition (Invited)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the flow of two immiscible fluid phases through the pore space of rocks and soils is a complex problem involving fluid dynamics, surface science and geometry. Invariably one fluid, usually water, preferentially coats the solid surface. Of major interest, and a significant challenge for multiphase fluid modelling, is the fact that the flow displays hysteresis: the measured difference in pressure between fluids (the capillary pressure) is higher when the water is draining out than when it is imbibing back in. One consequence of this hysteresis include capillary trapping, of relevance to waterflooding oil recovery and geosequestration of CO¬2. While several models have attempted with mixed success to capture this hysteresis at the macro-scale, no consensus yet exists on its pore-scale causes. The current work makes use of X-ray micro-tomography (MCT) data to help identify resolve this question. We first enumerate the different mechanisms that have been proposed in the literature for this hysteresis. We break these mechanisms into two categories: local mechanisms that may occur inside a single geometric feature (such as a pore or throat) and those that may only be observed within some sort of labyrinth. Local mechanisms include contact angle hysteresis (induced by surface, chemistry surface roughness and/or interface pinning), the ink-bottle effect and geometric bistability associated with the stability of both main terminal menisci and arc menisci in a constrictive pore space element. The nonlocal mechanisms are fluid trapping (possible for both wetting and nonwetting fluids) and structure hysteresis arising from heterogeneity in the pore system. Our results arise from the analysis of imaging experiments in which water was successively imbibed into and drained from small samples of Bentheimer sandstone and unconsolidated grain packs. The experiment were conducted at both synchrotron and laboratory X-ray MCT facilities, with both imaging setups having sufficient resolution to show the distribution of the two fluid phases throughout the material while also capturing fluid menisci in individual pores. We apply a range of topological and geometric analyses to these images, most notably the calculation of Betti numbers, interfacial area and interfacial curvature, to quantify the differences in fluid configurations during imbibition and drainage. While our results suggest that geometric bistability may be the primary cause for hysteresis in these particular experiments, we discuss the significance of our results and suggest that far more work is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn.

Sheppard, A.; Wildenschild, D.; Andersson, L.; Herring, A. L.

2013-12-01

130

Understanding the Hysteresis Loop Conundrum in Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Relationships

Hysteresis loops are phenomena that sometimes are encountered in the analysis of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships spanning from pre-clinical to clinical studies. When hysteresis occurs it provides insight into the complexity of drug action and disposition that can be encountered. Hysteresis loops suggest that the relationship between drug concentration and the effect being measured is not a simple direct relationship, but may have an inherent time delay and disequilibrium, which may be the result of metabolites, the consequence of changes in pharmacodynamics or the use of a non-specific assay or may involve an indirect relationship. Counter-clockwise hysteresis has been generally defined as the process in which effect can increase with time for a given drug concentration, while in the case of clockwise hysteresis the measured effect decreases with time for a given drug concentration. Hysteresis loops can occur as a consequence of a number of different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms including tolerance, distributional delay, feedback regulation, input and output rate changes, agonistic or antagonistic active metabolites, uptake into active site, slow receptor kinetics, delayed or modified activity, time-dependent protein binding and the use of racemic drugs among other factors. In this review, each of these various causes of hysteresis loops are discussed, with incorporation of relevant examples of drugs demonstrating these relationships for illustrative purposes. Furthermore, the effect that pharmaceutical formulation has on the occurrence and potential change in direction of the hysteresis loop, and the major pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamic modeling approaches utilized to collapse and model hysteresis are detailed. PMID:24735761

Louizos, Christopher; Yáñez, Jaime A.; Forrest, Laird; Davies, Neal M.

2015-01-01

131

Curved Space or Curved Vacuum?

While the simple picture of a spatially flat, matter plus cosmological constant universe fits current observation of the accelerated expansion, strong consideration has also been given to models with dynamical vacuum energy. We examine the tradeoff of ``curving'' the vacuum but retaining spatial flatness, vs. curving space but retaining the cosmological constant. These different breakdowns in the simple picture could readily be distinguished by combined high accuracy supernovae and cosmic microwave background distance measurements. If we allow the uneasy situation of both breakdowns, the curvature can still be measured to 1%, but at the price of degrading estimation of the equation of state time variation by 60% or more, unless additional information (such as weak lensing data or a tight matter density prior) is included.

Eric V. Linder

2005-08-15

132

Highly curved microchannel plates

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

1990-01-01

133

Constricted hysteresis loops in Fe and Ni single crystals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic hysteresis loops reflect the variety of magnetic domain structures and have been considered to have normal rectangular or leaf-like shapes in standard ferromagnets such as Fe and Ni metals. We report on observations of constricted hysteresis loops in Fe and Ni single crystals with very low defect densities. The constricted loops were observed below T=150 K and in a medium temperature range from 150 to 430 K in Fe and Ni single crystals, respectively. These constricted loops disappear by weak plastic deformation for both single crystals. The origin of constricted hysteresis loops was explained by eddy current effects under less domain wall pinning due to dislocations.

Takahashi, Seiki; Kobayashi, Satoru; Shishido, Toetsu

2010-11-01

134

Static measurements of slender delta wing rolling moment hysteresis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slender delta wing planforms are susceptible to self-induced roll oscillations due to aerodynamic hysteresis during the limit cycle roll oscillation. Test results are presented which clearly establish that the static rolling moment hysteresis has a damping character; hysteresis tends to be greater when, due to either wing roll or side slip, the vortex burst moves back and forth over the wing trailing edge. These data are an indirect indication of the damping role of the vortex burst during limit cycle roll oscillations.

Katz, Joseph; Levin, Daniel

1991-01-01

135

A constitutive model for the frequency dependence of magnetic hysteresis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic properties of materials are characterized by the variation of flux density with magnetic field. The hysteresis loop is generally dependent on the frequency of excitation. It is well known that the dependence is attributed to the effects of eddy current loss and anomalous (excess) loss. The present work deals with a new approaching method to model the frequency dependence of magnetic hysteresis within the framework of internal state variable theory, the fundamental structure of which is originally based on viscoplasticity theory in continuum mechanics. The hysteresis equations are formulated to be consistent with the general principles of irreversible thermodynamics with internal variables.

Ho, Kwangsoo

2014-10-01

136

Adaptive feed-forward hysteresis compensation for piezoelectric actuators

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric actuators are often employed for high-resolution positioning tasks. Hysteresis and creep nonlinearities inherent in such actuators deteriorate positioning accuracy. An online adaptive nonlinear hysteresis compensation scheme for the case of symmetric hysteretic responses and certain periodic reference trajectories is presented. The method has low complexity and is well suited for real-time implementation. Experimental results are presented in order to verify the method, and it is seen that the error due to hysteresis is reduced by more than 90% compared to when assuming a linear response.

Eielsen, Arnfinn Aas; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy; Pettersen, Kristin Y.

2012-08-01

137

Optical bistability and hysteresis of hybrid metal-semiconductor nano-dimer

Optical response of an artificial composite nano-dimer comprising a semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanosphere is analyzed theoretically. We show that internal degrees of freedom of the system can manifest bistability and optical hysteresis as functions of the incident field intensity. We argue that these effects can be observed for the real world systems, such as a CdSe quantum dot and an Au nanoparticle hybrids. These properties can be revealed by measuring the optical hysteresis of the Rayleigh scattering. We show also that the total dipole moment of the system can be switched abruptly between its two stable states by small changes in the excitation intensity. The latter promises various applications in the field of all-optical processing at nanoscale, the most underlying of them being the volatile optical memory.

Malyshev, A V

2011-01-01

138

Optical bistability and hysteresis of a hybrid metal-semiconductor nanodimer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical response of an artificial composite nanodimer comprising a semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanosphere is analyzed theoretically. We show that internal degrees of freedom of the system can manifest bistability and optical hysteresis as functions of the incident field intensity. We argue that these effects can be observed for real-world systems, such as a CdSe quantum dot and an Au nanoparticle hybrid. These properties can be revealed by measuring the optical hysteresis of Rayleigh scattering. We also show that the total dipole moment of the system can be switched abruptly between its two stable states by small changes in the excitation intensity. The latter promises various applications in the field of all-optical processing at the nanoscale, the most basic of them being the volatile optical memory.

Malyshev, A. V.; Malyshev, V. A.

2011-07-01

139

In this article, an inversion-based iterative control (IIC) approach is used to compensate for both the hysteresis and the vibrational dynamics effects of piezo actuators during high-speed, large-range tracking. We use the Hammerstein model to capture the piezo's input-output behavior and to show the convergence of the iterative control algorithm. The IIC approach is illustrated by applying it to a

Ying Wu; Qingze Zou

2006-01-01

140

Lithium insertion and extraction for high-capacity disordered carbons with large hysteresis

Disordered carbons heat-treated from 550 to 1000 °C containing hydrogen atoms showed high specific capacities with large hysteresis in the potential when used as anodes in lithium-ion cells. The lithium storage mechanism in the disordered carbons has been investigated by the charge-discharge test, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid-state 7Li NMR measurements. Variation of the layer spacing of the disordered carbon

Norio Takami; Asako Satoh; Takahisa Ohsaki; Motoya Kanda

1997-01-01

141

The hysteresis motor-advances whick permit economical fractional horsepower ratings

The theory of the development of torque in a hysteresis motor is analyzed from both the hysteresis lag angle and total loop energy points of view. A new development, comprising the use of a closed slot stator in co-operation with a hysteresis rotor, which permits building hysteresis motors of high power output at high efficiency is explained qualitatively and supplemented

Herbert C. Roters

1947-01-01

142

Low-Hysteresis Flow-Through Wind-Tunnel Balance

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved flow-through wind-tunnel balance includes features minimizing both spurious force readings caused by internal pressurized flow and mechanical hysteresis. Symmetrical forces caused by internal flow cancelled.

Kunz, N.; Luna, P. M.; Roberts, A. C.; Smith, R. C.; Horne, W. L.; Smith, K. M.

1992-01-01

143

On the question of hysteresis in Hall magnetohydrodynamic reconnection

Controversy has been raised regarding the cause of hysteresis, or bistability, of solutions to the equations that govern the geometry of the reconnection region in Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems. This brief communication presents a comparison of the frameworks within which this controversy has arisen and illustrates that the Hall MHD hysteresis originally discovered numerically by Cassak et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235002 (2005)] is a different phenomenon from that recently reported by Zocco et al. [Phys. Plasmas 16, 110703 (2009)] on the basis of analysis and simulations in electron MHD with finite electron inertia. We demonstrate that the analytic prediction of hysteresis in EMHD does not describe or explain the hysteresis originally reported in Hall MHD, which is shown to persist even in the absence of electron inertia.

Sullivan, Brian P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang Yimin [Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence, University of New Hampshire, Space Science Center, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)

2010-11-15

144

A high-speed hysteresis drive with pulsed overdrive

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulsed overdrive (Delektorskii and Tarasov, 1974) is a special magnetization mode of a hysteresis motor. Consideration is given here to a drive with pulsed overdrive in which field extinction is used to improve the energy characteristics of the motor.

Pozdnykhov, S. F.; Tarasov, V. N.

145

Hysteresis as an implicit prior in tactile spatial decision making.

Perceptual decisions not only depend on the incoming information from sensory systems but constitute a combination of current sensory evidence and internally accumulated information from past encounters. Although recent evidence emphasizes the fundamental role of prior knowledge for perceptual decision making, only few studies have quantified the relevance of such priors on perceptual decisions and examined their interplay with other decision-relevant factors, such as the stimulus properties. In the present study we asked whether hysteresis, describing the stability of a percept despite a change in stimulus property and known to occur at perceptual thresholds, also acts as a form of an implicit prior in tactile spatial decision making, supporting the stability of a decision across successively presented random stimuli (i.e., decision hysteresis). We applied a variant of the classical 2-point discrimination task and found that hysteresis influenced perceptual decision making: Participants were more likely to decide 'same' rather than 'different' on successively presented pin distances. In a direct comparison between the influence of applied pin distances (explicit stimulus property) and hysteresis, we found that on average, stimulus property explained significantly more variance of participants' decisions than hysteresis. However, when focusing on pin distances at threshold, we found a trend for hysteresis to explain more variance. Furthermore, the less variance was explained by the pin distance on a given decision, the more variance was explained by hysteresis, and vice versa. Our findings suggest that hysteresis acts as an implicit prior in tactile spatial decision making that becomes increasingly important when explicit stimulus properties provide decreasing evidence. PMID:24587045

Thiel, Sabrina D; Bitzer, Sebastian; Nierhaus, Till; Kalberlah, Christian; Preusser, Sven; Neumann, Jane; Nikulin, Vadim V; van der Meer, Elke; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

2014-01-01

146

Stabilization of supercooled fluids by thermal hysteresis proteins.

It has been reported that thermal hysteresis proteins found in many cold-hardy, freeze-avoiding arthropods stabilize their supercooled body fluids. We give evidence that fish antifreeze proteins, which also produce thermal hysteresis, bind to and reduce the efficiency of heterogenous nucleation sites, rather than binding to embryonic ice nuclei. We discuss both possible mechanisms for stabilization of supercooled body fluids and also describe a new method for measuring and defining the supercooling point of small volumes of liquid. PMID:7612853

Wilson, P W; Leader, J P

1995-05-01

147

Asymmetric Hysteresis Loops and the Pyroelectric Effect in Triglycine Sulfate

Dynamic pyroelectric techniques have been used to study single crystal triglycine sulfate hysteresis loops at room temperature. An apparent polarization bias is observed and is similar to that reported earlier for BaTiO3. The apparent polarization bias can be shifted with the application of a dc electric field. When precautions are taken to eliminate electrode-edge effects, the pyroelectric hysteresis loops are

Albert Savage; Robert C. Miller

1959-01-01

148

A MHO-based magnetic hysteresis model for amorphous materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetic hysteretic operator (MHO) is proposed in this paper. Based on the constructed MHO, the input space of neural networks is expanded from one-dimension to two-dimension using the expanded space method so that the one-to-multiple mapping of magnetic hysteresis is transformed into one-to-one mapping. Based on the expanded input space, a neural network is employed to identify magnetic hysteresis. The result of an experimental example suggests the proposed approach is effective.

Ma, Lianwei; Shen, Yu; Li, Jinrong; Zhao, Xinlong

2014-12-01

149

Aileron roll hysteresis effects on entry of space shuttle orbiter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six-degree-of-freedom simulations of the space shuttle orbiter entry with control hysteresis were conducted on the NASA Langley Research Center interactive simulator known as the automatic reentry flight dynamics simulator. These simulations revealed that the vehicle can tolerate control hysteresis producing a + or - 50 percent change in the nominal aileron roll characteristics and an offset in the nominal characteristics equivalent to a + or - 5 deg aileron deflection with little increase in the reaction control system's fuel consumption.

Powell, R. W.

1977-01-01

150

A new model of hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators

Piezoelectric actuators (PEAs) are widely used in micromanipulations for their high-accuracy positioning, fast response, and high mechanical stiffness. However, dynamic nonlinearity introduced by hysteresis phenomena causes system instability and positioning errors. In this paper, a new simple physical model is proposed to characterize the symmetric and asymmetric rate-dependent hysteresis. A nonlinear spring (or capacitor) element is incorporated into a second-order

Issam M. Bahadur; James K. Mills

2011-01-01

151

Modeling and control of hysteresis in magnetostrictive actuators

Abstract A novel dynamic model is proposed for the hysteresis in magnetostrictive actuators by coupling a Preisach operator to an ordinary di0erential equation, and a parameter identi2cation method is described. An e3cient inversion algorithm for a class of Preisach operators with piecewise uniform density functions is then introduced, based upon which an inverse control scheme for the dynamic hysteresis model

Xiaobo Tan; John S. Baras

2004-01-01

152

The influence of hysteresis on the determination of the magnetocaloric effect in Gd5Si2Ge2

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a non-equilibrium Preisach-type hysteresis model based on the first order magnetocaloric material Gd5Si2Ge2. The model is developed from isofield magnetization measurements and first order reversal curves, both of which constitute a new and detailed approach to characterizing and modelling magnetocaloric materials. It is shown that the model reproduces the magnetization data, directly measured adiabatic temperature changes and provides a good description of the material behavior under application conditions. We find that the material settles in an area of metastability under continuous magnetization cycles, which effectively limits the adiabatic temperature change by the amount of thermal hysteresis present. We suggest a straightforward method for realistic estimation of the magnetocaloric effect from indirect measurements.

von Moos, L.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Nielsen, K. K.; Engelbrecht, K.

2015-01-01

153

Magnetic hysteresis of p(+) and He-3(2+) irradiated melt-textured YBa2Cu3O(7-delta)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have measured the magnetic hysteresis loops and temperature dependent trapped fields in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) samples before and after p(+) and He-3(2+) irradiation using a Hall effect magnetometer (HEM) as well as a commercial vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). For proper He-3(2+) fluence, the critical current density may be enhanced by a factor of 10. Calculations based on various critical state models show that before the irradiation, the hysteresis loops can be well accounted for by a critical current density of a modified power law field dependence. After the irradiation, the best fit has been achieved by using an exponential form. Jc and its field dependence deduced from HEM hysteresis loops are in good agreement with those deduced from the VSM loops, suggesting that the Hall effect magnetometer can be conveniently used to characterize bulk high Tc oxide superconductors.

Song, S. N.; Liu, J.; Chen, I. G.; Weinstein, Roy

1992-01-01

154

To use e-textiles as a strain-resistance sensor they need to be both elastic and conductive. Three kinds of elastic-conductive webbings, including flat, tubular, and belt webbings, made of Lycra fiber and carbon coated polyamide fiber, were used in this study. The strain-resistance properties of the webbings were evaluated in stretch-recovery tests and measured within 30% strain. It was found that tensile hysteresis and contact resistance significantly influence the tensile elasticity and the resistance sensitivity of the webbings. The results showed that the webbing structure definitely contributes to the tensile hysteresis and contact resistance. The smaller the friction is among the yarns in the belt webbing, the smaller the tensile hysteresis loss. However the close proximity of the conductive yarns in flat and tubular webbings results in a lower contact resistance. PMID:22319376

Shyr, Tien-Wei; Shie, Jing-Wen; Jhuang, Yan-Er

2011-01-01

155

Adhesion hysteresis and friction at nanometer and micrometer lengths

Comparisons between adhesion hysteresis and friction at nanometer and micrometer length scales were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Nanoscale adhesion hysteresis was measured using the ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM) on mica, calcite, and a few metallic samples (Pt, Au, Cu, Zn, Ti, and Fe). Obtained adhesion hysteresis ranged between 4x10{sup -19} and 4x10{sup -18} J. At the microscale a similar setup with a nanoindenter was used and the same samples were investigated. Adhesion hysteresis measured at the microscale ranged between 8x10{sup -17} and 14x10{sup -17} J. Friction was investigated via lateral force microscopy, as well as by scratch tests done with the nanoindenter. Numerical simulations based on the UFM model as well as established theories of contact mechanics studied qualitative dependencies of adhesion hysteresis on experimental parameters. Quantitative relations between adhesion hysteresis and friction were obtained through an analytic model relying on elastic and adhesive properties of the contact. The model agreed with measurements and simulations.

Szoszkiewicz, Robert; Bhushan, Bharat; Huey, Bryan D.; Kulik, Andrzej J.; Gremaud, Gerard [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Physics, 837 State Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS (NLIM), Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Institute of Material Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2006-01-01

156

Ferroelectric hysteresis (Polarization P vs. electric

, USA Thin-film ferroelectric oxides for photovoltaic energy production The new ferroelectric oxide [KNb-Tower method. Characterization of the photovoltaic IV curve will be measured using a filtered Xenon arc lamp of physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA 2SISOM thin films LLC., Orlando, FL 32805

Peale, Robert E.

157

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermi transport is useful for describing the behaviour of spins or gyroscopes following non-geodesic, timelike worldlines. However, Fermi transport breaks down for null worldlines. We introduce a transport law for polarization vectors along non-geodesic null curves. We show how this law emerges naturally from the geometry of null directions by comparing polarization vectors associated with two distinct null directions. We then give a spinorial treatment of this topic and make contact with the geometric phase of quantum mechanics. There are two significant differences between the null and timelike cases. In the null case (a) the transport law does not approach a unique smooth limit as the null curve approaches a null geodesic and (b) the transport law for vectors is integrable, i.e. the result depends only on the local properties of the curve and not on the entire path taken. However, the transport of spinors is not integrable: there is a global sign of topological origin.

Samuel, Joseph; Nityananda, Rajaram

2000-04-01

158

Polarization-dependent asymmetric hysteresis behavior in ZnCrO layers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ZnCrO layer grown on a Pt (111)/Al2O3 (0001) substrate exhibits a lattice displacement-induced ferroelectric behavior due to a modulation in the lattice translation symmetry. The top-to-bottom Pt/ZnCrO/Pt structure shows asymmetric hysteresis loops in positive and negative voltage bias regions. This is attributed to a change in the Schottky emission rate due to the nonlinear polarization of the ZnCrO barrier. The characteristics of the hysteresis loops depend on the film-textures of ZnCrO, which vary with the oxygen partial pressure during the growth stage of the ZnCrO layers. The results suggest that ZnCrO has efficacy characteristics for applications in the non-volatile resistive-switching systems.

Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Deuk Young; Lee, Sejoon; Fu, Dejun

2012-06-01

159

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic method has been used to evaluate the volume percentage of ?' martensitic phase in austenitic stainless steels by measuring saturation magnetization, and it is said to be a candidate NDE method. However, nondestructive detection of saturation magnetization without high magnetic field is difficult. In the current work, we present a NDE method for evaluating the magnetic properties of strain induced ?' martensitic phase. Low field hysteresis loops of an austenitic stainless steels type SUS 304 after cold rolling were measured by using a yoke sensor. The results show that the initial permeability ?i and the relative coercive field Hcl calculated by low field hysteresis loop analysis keep monotonic relation with saturation magnetization and coercive force measured by VSM, respectively. By this method, it is possible to characterize the volume content and particle properties of ?' martensitic phase in stainless steels.

Zhang, Lefu; Takahashi, Seiki; Kamada, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Hiroaki; Mumtaz, Khalid; Ara, Katsuyuki; Sato, Masaya

2005-04-01

160

Soft x-ray magneto-optic Kerr rotation and element-specific hysteresis measurement

Soft x-ray magneto-optic Kerr rotation has been measured using a continuously tunable multilayer linear polarizer in the beam reflected form samples in applied magnetic fields. Like magnetic circular dichroism, Kerr rotation in the soft x-ray can be element - specific and much larger than in the visible spectral range when the photon energy is tuned near atomic core resonances. Thus sensitive element-specific hysteresis measurements are possible with this technique. Examples showing large Kerr rotation from an Fe film and element-specific hysteresis loops of the Fe and Cr in an Fe/Cr multilayer demonstrate these new capabilities. Some consequences of the strong anomalous dispersion near the FeL{sub 2,3} edges to the Kerr rotation are discussed.

Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.

1996-03-01

161

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inverse controller is proposed for a magnetorheological (MR) damper that consists of a hysteresis model and a voltage controller. The force characteristics of the MR damper caused by excitation signals are represented by a feedforward neural network (FNN) with an elementary hysteresis model (EHM). The voltage controller is constructed using another FNN to calculate a suitable input signal that will allow the MR damper to produce the desired damping force. The performance of the proposed EHM-based FNN controller is experimentally compared to existing control methodologies, such as clipped-optimal control, signum function control, conventional FNN, and recurrent neural network with displacement or velocity inputs. The results show that the proposed controller, which does not require force feedback to implement, provides excellent accuracy, fast response time, and lower energy consumption.

Ekkachai, Kittipong; Tungpimolrut, Kanokvate; Nilkhamhang, Itthisek

2013-11-01

162

Rational Curves 598 CHAPTER 22. RATIONAL CURVES

Chapter 22 Rational Curves 597 #12;598 CHAPTER 22. RATIONAL CURVES 22.1 Rational Curves and Multiprojective Maps In this chapter, rational curves are investigated. After a quick review of the traditional parametric definition in terms of homogeneous polynomials, we explore the possibility of defining rational

Gallier, Jean

163

Models of dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) are used to explain anomalous aquifer transport behavior such as the slow release of contamination and solute tracer tailing. Traditional tracer experiments to characterize DDMT are performed at the flow path scale (meters), which inherently incorporates heterogeneous exchange processes; hence, estimated “effective” parameters are sensitive to experimental design (i.e., duration and injection velocity). Recently, electrical geophysical methods have been used to aid in the inference of DDMT parameters because, unlike traditional fluid sampling, electrical methods can directly sense less-mobile solute dynamics and can target specific points along subsurface flow paths. Here we propose an analytical framework for graphical parameter inference based on a simple petrophysical model explaining the hysteretic relation between measurements of bulk and fluid conductivity arising in the presence of DDMT at the local scale. Analysis is graphical and involves visual inspection of hysteresis patterns to (1) determine the size of paired mobile and less-mobile porosities and (2) identify the exchange rate coefficient through simple curve fitting. We demonstrate the approach using laboratory column experimental data, synthetic streambed experimental data, and field tracer-test data. Results from the analytical approach compare favorably with results from calibration of numerical models and also independent measurements of mobile and less-mobile porosity. We show that localized electrical hysteresis patterns resulting from diffusive exchange are independent of injection velocity, indicating that repeatable parameters can be extracted under varied experimental designs, and these parameters represent the true intrinsic properties of specific volumes of porous media of aquifers and hyporheic zones.

Briggs, Martin; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Ong, John B.; Harvey, Judson W.; Lane, John W.

2014-01-01

164

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) are used to explain anomalous aquifer transport behavior such as the slow release of contamination and solute tracer tailing. Traditional tracer experiments to characterize DDMT are performed at the flow path scale (meters), which inherently incorporates heterogeneous exchange processes; hence, estimated "effective" parameters are sensitive to experimental design (i.e., duration and injection velocity). Recently, electrical geophysical methods have been used to aid in the inference of DDMT parameters because, unlike traditional fluid sampling, electrical methods can directly sense less-mobile solute dynamics and can target specific points along subsurface flow paths. Here we propose an analytical framework for graphical parameter inference based on a simple petrophysical model explaining the hysteretic relation between measurements of bulk and fluid conductivity arising in the presence of DDMT at the local scale. Analysis is graphical and involves visual inspection of hysteresis patterns to (1) determine the size of paired mobile and less-mobile porosities and (2) identify the exchange rate coefficient through simple curve fitting. We demonstrate the approach using laboratory column experimental data, synthetic streambed experimental data, and field tracer-test data. Results from the analytical approach compare favorably with results from calibration of numerical models and also independent measurements of mobile and less-mobile porosity. We show that localized electrical hysteresis patterns resulting from diffusive exchange are independent of injection velocity, indicating that repeatable parameters can be extracted under varied experimental designs, and these parameters represent the true intrinsic properties of specific volumes of porous media of aquifers and hyporheic zones.

Briggs, Martin A.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Ong, John B.; Harvey, Judson W.; Lane, John W.

2014-10-01

165

In this paper, we present measurements of haemolymph osmolality for individuals from 17 species of arthropods on Marion Island, including a mite, a spider, Collembola, Psocoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera. This is the largest such survey for a Southern Hemisphere habitat. We also screened these species for thermal hysteresis activity, and show that the lepidopteran Embryonopsis halticella has a haemolymph

Brent J. Sinclair; Steven L. Chown

2002-01-01

166

Force chains and hysteresis in a 2D granular piston

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present photoelastic studies of force distributions and propagation in a 2D granular piston.footnote E. Kolb, et. al. Europhys. J. B. 8, 483-491 (1999). The particles, ~ 1/2 cm disks, are confined by rigid sidewalls and pushed against gravity by a piston at constant velocity in the range 10-150 ? m/s. Friction prevents the free rotation and displacement of particles within the bulk of the material and leads to the buildup of stress chains resisting motion. The local and global stress within the granular material can be extracted by placing the experiment between complimentary circular polarizers. We find that the initial preparation (where the particles rain down in bulk) gives a stress minimum in the middle and edges, while the stress is polarized and maximal along each sidewall. The 2D pressure saturates at a depth ~ 1/2 width, and uniform compressive loads show hysteresis within the bulk. Under shear, we present evidence of stick-slip dynamics and large-scale convection when the particles can mobilize after dilation.

Hartley, R. R.; Behringer, R. P.; Kolb, E.; Ovarlez, G.; Clement, E.

2001-11-01

167

Hysteresis of ligand binding in CNGA2 ion channels

Tetrameric cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels mediate receptor potentials in olfaction and vision. The channels are activated by the binding of cyclic nucleotides to a binding domain embedded in the C terminus of each subunit. Here using a fluorescent cGMP derivative (fcGMP), we show for homotetrameric CNGA2 channels that ligand unbinding is ~50 times faster at saturating than at subsaturating fcGMP. Analysis with complex Markovian models reveals two pathways for ligand unbinding; the partially liganded open channel unbinds its ligands from closed states only, whereas the fully liganded channel reaches a different open state from which it unbinds all four ligands rapidly. Consequently, the transition pathways for ligand binding and activation of a fully liganded CNGA2 channel differ from that of ligand unbinding and deactivation, resulting in pronounced hysteresis of the gating mechanism. This concentration-dependent gating mechanism allows the channels to respond to changes in the cyclic nucleotide concentration with different kinetics. PMID:24287615

Nache, Vasilica; Eick, Thomas; Schulz, Eckhard; Schmauder, Ralf; Benndorf, Klaus

2013-01-01

168

Hysteresis properties of ordinary chondrites and implications for their thermal history

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a large dataset of magnetic hysteresis properties of ordinary chondrite falls. We show that hysteresis properties are distinctive of individual meteorites while homogeneous among meteorite subsamples. Except for the most primitive chondrites, these properties can be explained by a mixture of multidomain kamacite and tetrataenite (both in the cloudy zone and as larger grains in plessite and in the rim of zoned taenite). Kamacite dominates the induced magnetism whereas tetrataenite dominates the remanent magnetism, in agreement with previous microscopic magnetic observations. Type 5 and 6 chondrites have higher tetrataenite content than type 4 chondrites, suggesting they have lower cooling rates at least in the 650-450 °C interval, consistent with an onion-shell model. In equilibrated chondrites, shock-related transient heating events above ~500 °C result in the disordering of tetrataenite and associated drastic change in magnetic properties. As a good indicator of the amount of tetrataenite, hysteresis properties are a very sensitive proxy of the thermal history of ordinary chondrites, revealing low cooling rates during thermal metamorphism, and high cooling rates following shock reheating or excavation after thermal metamorphism.

Gattacceca, J.; Suavet, C. R.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Winklhofer, M.; Uehara, M.; Friedrich, J. M.

2013-12-01

169

Observations of hysteresis in solar cycle variations among seven solar activity indicators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show that smoothed time series of 7 indices of solar activity exhibit significant solar cycle dependent differences in their relative variations during the past 20 years. In some cases these observed hysteresis patterns start to repeat over more than one solar cycle, giving evidence that this is a normal feature of solar variability. Among the indices we study, we find that the hysteresis effects are approximately simple phase shifts, and we quantify these phase shifts in terms of lag times behind the leading index, the International Sunspot Number. Our measured lag times range from less than one month to greater than four months and can be much larger than lag times estimated from short-term variations of these same activity indices during the emergence and decay of major active regions. We argue that hysteresis represents a real delay in the onset and decline of solar activity and is an important clue in the search for physical processes responsible for changing solar emission at various wavelengths.

Bachmann, Kurt T.; White, Oran R.

1994-01-01

170

A memory device using an organic field effect transistor (OFET) with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as active material was fabricated and studied. For this purpose, SiO2 dielectric surface was modified with a disordered self assembled monolayer (SAM) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) molecule which was found to induce large disorder in CuPc film thereby generating more traps for charge carriers. Drain current-drain voltage characteristics at zero gate voltage exhibited large hysteresis which was not observed in OFET devices with ordered OTS monolayer modified and unmodified SiO2 dielectrics. The extent of hysteresis and drain current on/off ratio, reading voltage etc. were found to be dependent on the sweep rate/step voltage employed during scanning. Highest hysteresis with on/off ratio of about 240 was obtained for an optimum step voltage of 2 V while it decreased with further reduction in the same. This was attributed to the longer scanning time leading to release of trapped carriers during forward scan itself. The OFET device was found to exhibit excellent memory retention capability where OFF and ON current measured for about 2 hours after stressing the device at write and erase voltages showed good retention of on/off ratio. PMID:24738406

Padma, N; Saxena, Vibha; Sudarsan, V; Rava, Harshil; Sen, Shaswati

2014-06-01

171

Inkjet printing of precisely defined features using contact-angle hysteresis.

Motivated by the process of inkjet printing of electronics, we study experimentally and theoretically the processes limiting the printing of sharply defined, equilibrium corners. Using a non-volatile ionic liquid, we inkjet print squares with rounded corners on a substrate of roughened, display-grade glass. We show experimentally that with increasing roughness, corner radius decreases, allowing more precisely defined features to be printed. To interpret these results in terms of contact-angle hysteresis (difference between the advancing and retreating contact angles ?A and ?R), we implement the following model with the Surface Evolver program. With drop volume fixed, we minimize drop surface energy subject to a prescribed contact line. We identify ?A and ?R as the minimum and maximum contact angles around the drop perimeter. We find that with decreasing corner fidelity, contact-angle hysteresis also decreases. We are thus able to infer ?R from the corner radius of printed features. We conclude that increasing contact-angle hysteresis allows the printing of more precisely defined features. PMID:23570870

Soltman, Dan; Smith, Ben; Morris, S J S; Subramanian, Vivek

2013-06-15

172

PREFACE: International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are interested in singular perturbation problems and hysteresis as common strongly nonlinear phenomena that occur in many industrial, physical and economic systems. The wording `strongly nonlinear' means that linearization will not encapsulate the observed phenomena. Often these two types of phenomena are manifested for different stages of the same or similar processes. A number of fundamental hysteresis models can be considered as limit cases of time relaxation processes, or admit an approximation by a differential equation which is singular with respect to a particular parameter. However, the amount of interaction between practitioners of theories of systems with time relaxation and systems with hysteresis (and between the `relaxation' and `hysteresis' research communities) is still low, and cross-fertilization is small. In recent years Ireland has become a home for a series of prestigious International Workshops in Singular Perturbations and Hysteresis: International Workshop on Multi-rate Processes and Hysteresis (University College Cork, Ireland, 3-8 April 2006). Proceedings are published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, volume 55. See further information at http://euclid.ucc.ie/murphys2008.htm International Workshop on Hysteresis and Multi-scale Asymptotics (University College Cork, Ireland, 17-21 March 2004). Proceedings are published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, volume 22. See further information at http://euclid.ucc.ie/murphys2006.htm International Workshop on Relaxation Oscillations and Hysteresis (University College Cork, Ireland, 1-6 April 2002). The related collection of invited lectures, was published as a volume Singular Perturbations and Hysteresis, SIAM, Philadelphia, 2005. See further information at http://euclid.ucc.ie/hamsa2004.htm International Workshop on Geometrical Methods of Nonlinear Analysis and Semiconductor Laser Dynamics (University College Cork, Ireland, 5-5 April 2001). A collection of invited papers has been published as a special issue of Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences: Nonlinear dynamics of laser and reacting systems, and is available online at http://www.ins.ucc.ie/roh2002.htm. See further information at http://www.ins.ucc.ie/roh2002.htm Among the aims of these workshops were to bring together leading experts in singular perturbations and hysteresis phenomena in applied problems; to discuss important problems in areas such as reacting systems, semiconductor lasers, shock phenomena in economic modelling, fluid mechanics, etc with an emphasis on hysteresis and singular perturbations; to learn and to share modern techniques in areas of common interest. The `International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis' (University College Cork, Ireland, April 3-8, 2006) brought together more than 70 scientists (including more than 10 students), actively researching in the areas of dynamical systems with hysteresis and singular perturbations, to analyze those phenomena that occur in many industrial, physical and economic systems. The countries represented at the Workshop included Czech Republic, England, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia, Scotland, South Africa, Switzerland and USA. All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The Workshop has been sponsored by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI), KE Consulting group, Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA, University College Cork (UCC), Boole Centre for Research in Informatics, UCC, Cork, School of Mathematical Sciences, UCC, Cork, Irish Mathematical Society, Tyndall National Institute, Cork, University of Limerick, Cork Institute of Technology, and Heineken. The supportive affiliation of the European Geophysics Society, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, and Laboratoire Poncelet is grateful

Mortell, Michael P.; O'Malley, Robert E.; Pokrovskii, Alexei; Rachinskii, Dmitrii; Sobolev, Vladimir A.

2008-07-01

173

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for monitoring flows in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Lemont, Illinois, as a part of the Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting overseen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District. Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting is mandated by a U.S. Supreme Court decree in order to monitor, and limit, the State of Illinois’ annual diversion of Great Lakes water through the manmade CSSC. Every 5 years, a technical review committee consisting of practicing engineers and academics reviews USGS streamgaging practices in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois. The sixth technical review committee expressed concern that the index-velocity rating—the method used to estimate mean cross-sectional velocity from a measured index velocity—may be subject to hysteresis at this site because of the unique, unsteady hydraulics of the canal. Hysteresis in index-velocity ratings can occur at sites where the flow distribution in the channel varies significantly between the rising and falling limbs of the hydrograph for the same discharge. Presently, hysteresis in index-velocity ratings has been documented only in tidally affected sites. This report investigates whether hysteresis can occur at this nontidal site, and the conditions under which it is likely to occur, by using both a theoretical approach and a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The theoretical analysis investigated the conditions required for hysteresis in the index-velocity rating, and the modeling analysis focused on the effect of the timing of the inflows from the CSSC and the Cal-Sag Channel on the potential for hysteresis and whether highly resolved simulations of actual high-flow events show any evidence of hysteresis. Based on both a theoretical analysis using observed historical data and an analysis using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, there is no conclusive evidence for the existence of hysteresis in the index-velocity rating at the USGS streamgage on the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois. Although the theoretical analysis indicated the possibility of hysteresis at this site, the hydrodynamic conditions required to generate hysteresis are not present at this site based on historical data. Ongoing streamgaging practices at this site will use the information in this report and include periodic assessment of the index-velocity rating for any signs of hysteresis that might result from future changes to the operation of this manmade canal.

Jackson, P. Ryan; Sinha, Sumit; Dutta, Som; Johnson, Kevin K.; Duncker, James J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

2013-01-01

174

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics is one of the major obstacles to the implementation of organic thin-film transistors in large-area integrated circuits. The hysteresis has been correlated either extrinsically to various charge-trapping/transfer mechanisms arising from gate dielectrics or surrounding ambience or intrinsically to the polaron-bipolaron reaction in low-mobility conjugated polymer thin-film transistors. However, a comprehensive understanding essential for developing viable solutions to eliminate hysteresis is yet to be established. By embedding carbon nanotubes in the polymer-based conduction channel of various lengths, here we show that the bipolaron formation/recombination combined with the H2O/O2 electrochemical reaction is responsible for the hysteresis in organic thin-film transistors. The bipolaron-induced hysteresis is a thermally activated process with an apparent activation energy of 0.29?eV for the bipolaron dissociation. This finding leads to a hysteresis model that is generally valid for thin-film transistors with both band transport and hopping conduction in semiconducting thin films.

Qu, Minni; Li, Hui; Liu, Ran; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

2014-01-01

175

Hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics is one of the major obstacles to the implementation of organic thin-film transistors in large-area integrated circuits. The hysteresis has been correlated either extrinsically to various charge-trapping/transfer mechanisms arising from gate dielectrics or surrounding ambience or intrinsically to the polaron-bipolaron reaction in low-mobility conjugated polymer thin-film transistors. However, a comprehensive understanding essential for developing viable solutions to eliminate hysteresis is yet to be established. By embedding carbon nanotubes in the polymer-based conduction channel of various lengths, here we show that the bipolaron formation/recombination combined with the H2O/O2 electrochemical reaction is responsible for the hysteresis in organic thin-film transistors. The bipolaron-induced hysteresis is a thermally activated process with an apparent activation energy of 0.29?eV for the bipolaron dissociation. This finding leads to a hysteresis model that is generally valid for thin-film transistors with both band transport and hopping conduction in semiconducting thin films. PMID:24463853

Qu, Minni; Li, Hui; Liu, Ran; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

2014-01-01

176

An experimental investigation of the hysteresis during the E (capacitive coupling) and H mode (inductive coupling) transitions at various matching situation in argon inductively coupled plasma is reported. At high pressure, the results show two hysteresis loops involved the plasma density, applied power, and forward power, as well as the electrical parameters in the discharge circuit, when the series capacitance is cycled. The measured electron density versus applied power shows that the hysteresis loop shrinks with the decrease of the matching capacitance, and the same trend is discovered on the input current, voltage, and phase angle. In addition, for the case of small capacitance, the current (or voltage) jumps to a low value when the discharge passes through the E to H mode transition regime. Contrarily, for the case of large capacitance, the current jumps to a high value while the voltage is almost constant. The evolution characteristics of the plasma and circuit parameters observed imply that the nonlinear behavior of the matching situation may be one of the determined factors for hysteresis.

Gao Fei; Zhao Shuxia; Li Xiaosong; Wang Younian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2010-10-15

177

Saturation overshoot and hysteresis for twophase flow in porous media

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturation overshoot and hysteresis for two phase flow in porous media are briefly reviewed. Old and new challenges are discussed. It is widely accepted that the traditional Richards model for twophase flow in porous media does not support non-monotone travelling wave solutions for the saturation profile. As a concequence various extensions and generalizations have been recently discussed. The review highlights different limits within the traditional theory. It emphasizes the relevance of hysteresis in the Buckley-Leverett limit with jump-type hysteresis in the relative permeabilities. Reviewing the situation it emerges that the traditional theory may have been abandoned prematurely because of its inability to predict saturation overshoot in the Richards limit.

Hilfer, R.; Steinle, R.

2014-10-01

178

Sinusoidal input describing function for hysteresis followed by elementary backlash

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author proposes a new sinusoidal input describing function which accounts for the serial combination of hysteresis followed by elementary backlash in a single nonlinear element. The output of the hysteresis element drives the elementary backlash element. Various analytical forms of the describing function are given, depending on the a/A ratio, where a is the half width of the hysteresis band or backlash gap, and A is the amplitude of the assumed input sinusoid, and on the value of the parameter representing the fraction of a attributed to the backlash characteristic. The negative inverse describing function is plotted on a gain-phase plot, and it is seen that a relatively small amount of backlash leads to domination of the backlash character in the describing function. The extent of the region of the gain-phase plane covered by the describing function is such as to guarantee some form of limit cycle behavior in most closed-loop systems.

Ringland, R. F.

1976-01-01

179

Hysteresis and interfacial energies in smooth-walled microfluidic channels

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hysteresis in the capillary pressure-saturation relationship (Pc-Sw) for a porous medium has contributions from the complex geometry of the pore network as well as the physical chemistry of the grain surfaces. To isolate the role of wettability on hysteresis, we fabricated microfluidic cells that contain a single wedge-shaped channel that simulates a single pore throat. Using confocal microscopy of the three-dimensional interfaces under imbibition and drainage, we demonstrate an accurate balance between mechanical work and surface free energy that was evaluated using measured advancing and receding contact angles. The closed-loop mechanical work per surface water molecule is 95 kJ/mol, which is consistent with physisorption. Therefore, the hysteresis in the Pc-Sw relationship for a single pore throat is defined by advancing and receding contact angles that are controlled by dissipative surface adsorption chemistry.

Liu, Yihong; Nolte, D. D.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

2011-01-01

180

Contact Hysteresis and Friction of Alkanethiol SAMs on Au

Nanoindentation has been combhed with nanometer-scale friction measurements to identi~ dissipative mechanisms responsible for friction in hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayer on Au. We have demonstrated that friction is primarily due to viscoelastic relaxations within the films, which give rise to contact hysteresis when deformation rates are within the ranges of 5 and 200 k. We observe that this contact hysteresis increases with exposure to air such that the friction coefficient increases from 0.004 to 0.075 when films are exposed to air for 40 days. Both hysteresis and friction increase with probe speed, and we present a model of friction that characterizes this speed dependence and which also predicts a linear dependence of friction on normal force in thin organic films. Finally, we identify several short-term wear regimes and identify that wear changes dramatically when fdms age.

Houston, J.E.; Kiely, J.D.

1998-10-14

181

Hysteresis Modeling in Magnetostrictive Materials Via Preisach Operators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phenomenological characterization of hysteresis in magnetostrictive materials is presented. Such hysteresis is due to both the driving magnetic fields and stress relations within the material and is significant throughout, most of the drive range of magnetostrictive transducers. An accurate characterization of the hysteresis and material nonlinearities is necessary, to fully utilize the actuator/sensor capabilities of the magnetostrictive materials. Such a characterization is made here in the context of generalized Preisach operators. This yields a framework amenable to proving the well-posedness of structural models that incorporate the magnetostrictive transducers. It also provides a natural setting in which to develop practical approximation techniques. An example illustrating this framework in the context of a Timoshenko beam model is presented.

Smith, R. C.

1997-01-01

182

Dynamic Hysteresis in Cyclic Deformation of Crystalline Solids

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hysteresis or internal friction in the deformation of crystalline solids stressed cyclically is studied from the viewpoint of collective dislocation dynamics. Stress-controlled simulations of a dislocation dynamics model at various loading frequencies and amplitudes are performed to study the stress-strain rate hysteresis. The hysteresis loop areas exhibit a maximum at a characteristic frequency and a power law frequency dependence in the low frequency limit, with the power law exponent exhibiting two regimes, corresponding to the jammed and the yielding or moving phases of the system, respectively. The first of these phases of the system exhibits nontrivial critical-like viscoelastic dynamics, crossing over to intermittent viscoplastic deformation for higher stress amplitudes.

Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J.

2012-10-01

183

Dynamic hysteresis in cyclic deformation of crystalline solids.

The hysteresis or internal friction in the deformation of crystalline solids stressed cyclically is studied from the viewpoint of collective dislocation dynamics. Stress-controlled simulations of a dislocation dynamics model at various loading frequencies and amplitudes are performed to study the stress-strain rate hysteresis. The hysteresis loop areas exhibit a maximum at a characteristic frequency and a power law frequency dependence in the low frequency limit, with the power law exponent exhibiting two regimes, corresponding to the jammed and the yielding or moving phases of the system, respectively. The first of these phases of the system exhibits nontrivial critical-like viscoelastic dynamics, crossing over to intermittent viscoplastic deformation for higher stress amplitudes. PMID:23102332

Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J

2012-10-12

184

Unconventional dynamic hysteresis in a periodic assembly of paramagnetic colloids.

Dynamic hysteresis phenomena are widespread in physical sciences and describe the complex behavior of systems driven out of equilibrium by a periodic forcing. We use here paramagnetic colloids above a stripe-patterned garnet film as the model system to study dynamic hysteresis, the latter induced when the particles are periodically translated by an oscillating magnetic field. In contrast to the expected behavior for a bistable system, we observe that the area of the hysteresis loop decreases by increasing the driving frequency and reduces to zero for frequencies higher than 5-7s(-1). To explain the experimental results, we develop a simple model based on an overdamped Brownian particle driven by a periodic potential with an oscillating amplitude. PMID:23848669

Tierno, Pietro; Johansen, Tom H; Sancho, J M

2013-06-01

185

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed self-consistent modelling of nonlinear electrotransport and electromechanical response of thin films of mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIEC) allowing for steric effects of mobile charged defects (ions, protons, or vacancies), electron degeneration, and Vegard stresses. We establish correlations between the features of the nonlinear space-charge dynamics, current-voltage, and bending-voltage curves for different types of the film electrodes. A pronounced ferroelectric-like hysteresis of the bending-voltage loops and current maxima on the double hysteresis current-voltage loops appear for the electron-transport electrodes. The double hysteresis loop with pronounced humps indicates a memristor-type resistive switching. The switching occurs due to the strong nonlinear coupling between the electronic and ionic subsystems. A sharp meta-stable maximum of the electron density appears near one open electrode and moves to another one during the periodic change of applied voltage. Our results can explain the nonlinear nature and correlation of electrical and mechanical memory effects in thin MIEC films. The analytical expression proving that the electrically induced bending of MIEC films can be detected by interferometric methods is derived.

Morozovska, Anna N.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Varenyk, Olexandr V.; Kim, Yunseok; Strelcov, Evgheni; Tselev, Alexander; Morozovsky, Nicholas V.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

2014-08-01

186

Modeling of Switching and Hysteresis in Molecular Transport

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conventional way of modeling current transport in two and three terminal molecular devices could be inadequate for certain cases involving switching and hysteresis. Here we present an alternate approach. Contrary to the regular way where applied bias directly modulates the conducting energy levels of the molecule, our method introduces a nonlinear potential energy surface varying with the applied bias as a control parameter. A time-dynamics is also introduced properly accounting for switching and hysteresis behavior. Although the model is phenomenological at this stage, we believe any detailed model would contain similar descriptions at its core.

Samanta, Manoj P.; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

187

Large-scale separation and hysteresis in cascades

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach using a two-dimensional thin aerofoil, allied with the theory of viscous bluff-body separation, is used to study the initial cross-over from massive separation to an attached flow in a single-row unstaggered cascade. Analytic solutions are developed for the limit of small cascade-spacing. From the analytic solutions several interesting features of the cascade are examined, including multiple-solution branches and multiple regions of hysteresis. In addition, numerical results are presented for several selected aerofoils. Some of the aerofoils are found to contain markedly enlarged regions of hysteresis for certain critical cascade spacings.

Rothmayer, A. P.; Smith, F. T.

1985-01-01

188

Rotating cylindrical magnetrons are used intensively on industrial scale. A rotating cylindrical magnetron on laboratory scale makes it possible to study this deposition technique in detail and under well controlled conditions. Therefore, a small scale rotating cylindrical magnetron was designed and used to study the influence of the rotation speed on the hysteresis behavior during reactive magnetron sputtering of aluminum in Ar/O{sub 2} in dc mode. This study reveals that the hysteresis shifts towards lower oxygen flows when the rotation speed of the target is increased, i.e., target poisoning occurs more readily when the rotation speed is increased. The shift is more pronounced for the lower branch of the hysteresis loop than for the upper branch of the hysteresis. This behavior can be understood qualitatively. The results also show that the oxidation mechanism inside the race track is different from the oxidation mechanism outside the race track. Indeed, outside the race track the oxidation mechanism is only defined by chemisorption while inside the race track reactive ion implantation will also influence the oxidation mechanism.

Depla, D.; Haemers, J.; Buyle, G.; Gryse, R. de [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S1), B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2006-07-15

189

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel fuzzy system based method for modelling both rate-independent and rate-dependent hysteresis in the piezoelectric actuator is proposed. First, the partial Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy rule is designed. The antecedent structure of the fuzzy system is identified through uniform partition of its input variable. Then, the parameters of the consequent structure are optimized via the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. The modelling method is simple to implement and highly efficient to compute. Experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient to model both rate-independent and rate-dependent hysteresis. Based on the inverse of the developed model, feed-forward hysteresis compensation experiments at the frequencies of 50 Hz and 100 Hz are also conducted with the hysteresis effects being obviously reduced. The major contribution of this paper is that the inverse of the model can be analytically computed and the method can be applied to the case of real-time on-line modelling.

Li, Pengzhi; Yan, Feng; Ge, Chuan; Wang, Xueliang; Xu, Lisong; Guo, Jialiang; Li, Peiyue

2013-03-01

190

Quantification of Hysteresis and Nonlinear Effects on the Frequency Response of Ferroelectric and

. Introduction Ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials are increasingly considered for use as actuators, charge or current controlled amplifiers can minimize observed hysteresis in ferroelectric actuators [15Quantification of Hysteresis and Nonlinear Effects on the Frequency Response of Ferroelectric

191

A Homogenized Energy Model for Hysteresis in Ferroelectric Materials: General Density Formulation

of ferroelectric compounds as actuators and sensors in high performance control applications has burgeonedA Homogenized Energy Model for Hysteresis in Ferroelectric Materials: General Density Formulation hysteresis and constitutive nonlinearities in ferroelectric compounds based on energy analysis at mesoscopic

192

A Preisach Model for Quantifying Hysteresis in an Atomic Force Microscope

A Preisach Model for Quantifying Hysteresis in an Atomic Force Microscope Ralph C. Smith # , Murti Atomic force microscopes employ stacked or cylindrical piezoceramic actuators to achieve sub. Keywords: Atomic force microscope, hysteresis, constitutive nonlinearities, Preisach model 1. Introduction

193

A Preisach Model for Quantifying Hysteresis in an Atomic Force Microscope

A Preisach Model for Quantifying Hysteresis in an Atomic Force Microscope Ralph C. Smith , Murti Atomic force microscopes employ stacked or cylindrical piezoceramic actuators to achieve sub in various control designs. Keywords: Atomic force microscope, hysteresis, constitutive nonlinearities

194

Isolated Curves for Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography

We introduce the notion of isolated genus two curves. As there is no known efficient algorithm to explicitly construct isogenies between two genus two curves with large conductor gap, the discrete log problem (DLP) cannot be efficiently carried over from an isolated curve to a large set of isogenous curves. Thus isolated genus two curves might be more secure for DLP based hyperelliptic curve cryptography. We establish results on explicit expressions for the index of an endomorphism ring in the maximal CM order, and give conditions under which the index is a prime number or an almost prime number for three different categories of quartic CM fields. We also derived heuristic asymptotic results on the densities and distributions of isolated genus two curves with CM by any fixed quartic CM field. Computational results, which are also shown for three explicit examples, agree with heuristic prediction with errors within a tolerable range.

Wang, Wenhan

2012-01-01

195

Rainflow Counting and Energy Dissipation for Hysteresis Models in Elastoplasticity

Republic Abstract The rainflow counting method is widely used in the context of fatigue analy- sis. The rainflow counting method due to Endo is widely used to decompose an arbitrary sequence of (scalar) loadsRainflow Counting and Energy Dissipation for Hysteresis Models in Elastoplasticity Martin Brokate

KrejcÃ, Pavel

196

The influence of magnetic hysteresis on magnetorheological fluid clutch operation

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to elaborate upon the mathematical model of coupled electromagnetic, fluid dynamic and motion phenomena that will allow for investigation of the magnetic hysteresis influence on the axial symmetry magnetorheological fluid (MRF) clutch operation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To solve the partial differential equations describing magnetic vector and fluid velocity potential distributions in axial symmetry

Cezary J?dryczka; Piotr Sujka; Wojciech Szel?g

2009-01-01

197

Subharmonic ferroresonance in an LCR circuit with hysteresis

, requires the use of nonlinear dynamics methods. A sinusoidallyÂdriven series LCR circuit is one the Preisach model to simulate numerically a series LCR circuit (the same method can of course be appliedSubharmonic ferroresonance in an LCR circuit with hysteresis H. LAMBA # M.GRINFELD # S.McKEE # R

Lamba, Harbir

198

The back transition and hysteresis effects in DIII-D

The back transition from H-mode to L-mode has been studied on DIII-D as a part of the investigation of the L-H transition power threshold scaling. Based on a density-dependent scaling for the H-mode power threshold, ITER will require substantial hysteresis in this parameter to remain in H-mode as n{sub e} rises. Defining the hysteresis in terms of the ratio of sustaining to threshold power, P{sub HL}/P{sub LH} may need to be as small as 50% for ITER. Operation of DIII-D at injection powers slightly above the H-mode threshold results in an oscillatory behavior with multiple forward-backward transitions in the course of a discharge. These discharges represent a unique system for studying various control parameters that may influence the H{leftrightarrow}L state transition. Careful analysis of the power flow through the edge gives values for the sustaining power which are well below the corresponding threshold powers (P{sub HL}/P{sub LH} = 35--70%), indicating substantial hysteresis can be achieved in this parameter. Studies of other control parameter candidates such as edge temperature during the back transitions are less clear: the amount of hysteresis seen in these parameters, if any, is primarily dependent on the nature (ELMing, ELM-free) of the parent H-state.

Thomas, D.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Osborne, T.H.; Carlstrom, T.N. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1997-09-01

199

The mechanism by which fish antifreeze proteins cause thermal hysteresis

Antifreeze proteins are characterised by their ability to prevent ice from growing upon cooling below the bulk melting point. This displacement of the freezing temperature of ice is limited and at a sufficiently low temperature a rapid ice growth takes place. The separation of the melting and freezing temperature is usually referred to as thermal hysteresis, and the temperature of

Erlend Kristiansen; Karl Erik Zachariassen

2005-01-01

200

Idealized Hysteresis Modeling of Electrorheological and Magnetorheological Dampers

The hysteresis behavior of a linear stroke magnetorheological damper is characterized for sinusoidal displacement excitation at 2.0 Hz (nominal). Four different modeling perspectives are discussed for purposes of system identification procedures, including: (1) equivalent viscous damping, (2) nonlinear Bingham plastic model, (3) nonlinear biviscous model, and (4) nonlinear hysteretic biviscous model. By progressively adding model parameters with which to better

Norman M. Wereley; Li Pang; Gopalakrishna M. Kamath

1998-01-01

201

Modeling of a Magnetorheological Actuator Including Magnetic Hysteresis

Magnetorheological (MR) actuators provide controlled torque through control of an applied magnetic field. Therefore knowledge of the relationship between the applied current and output torque is required. This paper presents a new nonlinear modeling of MR actuators considering magnetic hysteresis to determine the torque-current nonlinear relationship. Equations for transmitted torque are derived according to mechanical shear configurations of the MR

Jinung An; Dong-Soo Kwon

2003-01-01

202

Elastic guides reduce hysteresis effect in Belleville spring package

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peripheral support guides that elastically flex with the slight breathing on radial displacement during actuation can greatly reduce the hysteresis present in a Belleville spring package. This technique provides a control device that enhances the precision of pressure regulating valves, pressure switches, and vacuum actuators.

Mc Glashan, W. F., Jr.; Toth, L. R.

1967-01-01

203

Periodic solutions of a forced system with hysteresis.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hysteresis damping arising in an oscillatory system due to the phenomenon of slip damping analyzed by Goodman and Klumpp (1956) is considered. An idealized physical model is proposed, and the existence of certain periodic motions is investigated in a system with small forcing which are near the largest periodic motion in a corresponding unforced system. Periodic solutions of the forced system are obtained.-

Drew, J. H.

1972-01-01

204

A Domain Wall Model for Hysteresis in Piezoelectric Materials

to attain the full potential of the materials as sensors and actuators in high performance applications. The model employed here is based on theory developed in [18, 19] for hysteresis in general ferroelectric design. i #12; 1 Introduction Piezoelectric materials provide the capability for designing actuators

205

Electroelastic equations describing slow hysteresis in polarized ferroelectric ceramic plates

Rotationally invariant electroelastic equations are extended to account for slow hysteretic effects in polarized ferroelectric ceramic plates by employing an internal variable in a thermodynamic state function. All material irreversibility is taken to be a consequence of the ferroelectric polarization-electric-field irreversibility. Since we are concerned with the slowest possible hysteresis, we ignore the evolution equation and take the known irreversible

L. Huang; H. F. Tiersten

1998-01-01

206

A Free Energy Model for Hysteresis in Ferroelectric Materials

A Free Energy Model for Hysteresis in Ferroelectric Materials Ralph C. Smith Stefan Seelecke The capability of piezoelectric materials to both actuate and sense derives from the noncentrosymÂ metric nature. This generates strains in the material and provides it with actuator capabilities. Alternatively, applied

207

A Free Energy Model for Hysteresis in Ferroelectric Materials

A Free Energy Model for Hysteresis in Ferroelectric Materials Ralph C. Smith Stefan Seelecke The capability of piezoelectric materials to both actuate and sense derives from the noncentrosym- metric nature. This generates strains in the material and provides it with actuator capabilities. Alternatively, applied

208

A Stress-Dependent Hysteresis Model for Ferroelectric Materials

exploiting ferroelectric compounds -- e.g., PZT, PLZT and PMN -- offer unique actuator and sensorA Stress-Dependent Hysteresis Model for Ferroelectric Materials Brian L. Ball 1 , Ralph C. Smith 2 models which characterize the fer- roelastic switching mechanisms inherent to ferroelectric materials

209

A TemperatureDependent Hysteresis Model for Relaxor Ferroelectrics

. Introduction Actuators constructed from the relaxor ferroelectric material Pb(Mg 1=3 , Nb 2=3 )O 3 (PMNA TemperatureÂDependent Hysteresis Model for Relaxor Ferroelectrics Ralph C. Smith 1 and Craig L addresses the development of a temperatureÂdependent constitutive model for relaxor ferroelectrics which

210

Ferroelectric non-hysteresis actuator for microwave tuneable devices

Low loss and highly tuneable microwave filters controlled by piezoelectric actuator are discussed. Dielectric or metallic parts of device should have the piezo-dirigible air gap between them. The most important for these devices is to use non-hysteresis relaxor ferroelectric ceramics with large electrostriction. Electromechanic way of control has restriction in the speed of operation, and this problem is estimated by

Y. M. Poplavko; S. A. Voronov

2010-01-01

211

Parameter Estimation Techniques for a Class of Nonlinear Hysteresis Models

materials employed in a wide range of actuators and sensors. These models are formulated as integral through comparison with experimental data. i #12;1 Introduction Hysteresis and constitutive nonlinearities frequency, temperature, and stress dependencies which makes it applicable for a wide range of transducer

212

PID Control of Second-Order Systems with Hysteresis

PID Control of Second-Order Systems with Hysteresis Bayu Jayawardhana, Hartmut Logemann & Eugene P 2007 Abstract. The efficacy of proportional, integral and derivative (PID) control for set point on the PID gains, explicitly formulated in terms of the system data, are determined under which asymptotic

Ryan, E.P.

213

Sensor Saturation for Hysteresis Reduction in GMR Magnetometers

Sensor Saturation for Hysteresis Reduction in GMR Magnetometers Philip S. Mease and Robert R technologies for the development of general-purpose magnetometers. They are applicable for both AC and DC of a magnetic field and instruments that make this measurement are known as magnetometers. The most common

Krchnavek, Robert R.

214

A Differential Model of Adsorption Hysteresis with Applications to Chromatography

A Differential Model of Adsorption Hysteresis with Applications to Chromatography M. Peszy- ena occuring in chromatography or other related disciplines, see [21]. These models have the general rise in the beginning of 20th century, chromatography has become a wide industrial domain delivering

Peszynska, Malgorzata

215

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the natural world, there exists one kind of structure which is beyond the scope of human laboratorial experiment. It is the structure of galaxies which is usually composed of billions of stars. Spiral galaxies are flat disk-shaped. There are two types of spiral galaxies. The spiral galaxies with some bar-shaped pattern are called barred spirals, and the ones without the pattern are called ordinary spirals. Longer-wavelength galaxy images (infrared, for example) show that ordinary spiral galaxies are basically an axi-symmetric disk that is called exponential disk. For a planar distribution of matter, Jin He defined Darwin curves in the plane as such that the ratio of the matter densities at both sides of the curve is constant along the curve. Therefore, the arms of ordinary spiral galaxies are Darwin curves. Now an important question is that: Are the arms of barred spiral galaxies the Darwin curves too? Fortunately, Jin He designed a piece of Galaxy Anatomy graphic software. With the software, not only can people simulate the stellar density distribution of barred spiral galaxies but also can draw the Darwin curves of the simulated galaxy structure. This paper shows partial evidence that the arms of galaxy NGC 3275, 4548 and 5921 follow Darwin curves.

He, Jin

2014-07-01

216

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a novel hysteresis compensator to enhance control accuracy in open-loop position tracking control of a piezoceramic flexible beam. The proposed hysteresis compensator consists of two components: a rate-independent hysteresis compensator and a nonlinear filter. The compensator is formulated based on the inverse Preisach model, while the weight coefficients of the filter are identified adaptively using a recursive least square (RLS) algorithm. In this work, two dynamic hysteresis compensators (or rate-independent hysteresis compensators) are developed by adopting two different nonlinear filters: Volterra and bilinear filters. In order to demonstrate the improved control accuracy of the proposed dynamic compensators, a flexible beam associated with the piezoceramic actuator is modeled using the finite element method (FEM) and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The beam model is then integrated with the proposed hysteresis model to achieve accurate position tracking control at the tip of the beam. An experimental investigation on the tip position tracking control is undertaken by realizing three different hysteresis compensators: a rate-independent hysteresis compensator, a rate-dependent hysteresis compensator with a Volterra nonlinear filter and a rate-independent hysteresis compensator with a bilinear nonlinear filter. It is shown that the proposed dynamic hysteresis compensators can provide much better tracking control accuracy than conventional rate-independent hysteresis compensators.

Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Choi, Seung-Bok

2010-12-01

217

Modeling and control with hysteresis and creep of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators

Hysteresis and creep hinder the effective use of IPMC in sensors and actuators. This paper proposes a hybrid model that can precisely portray hysteresis and creep in piezoelectric actuators, which is constructed by a Preisach operator with a piecewise uniform density function and creep operator. Then, the corresponding inverse models for both hysteresis and creep are developed. It studies online

Zhen Chen; Lina Hao; Dingyu Xue; Xinhe Xu; Yanmei Liu

2008-01-01

218

Unit Root in the Wage-Price Spiral Is Not Hysteresis in Unemployment

Hysteresis is one of the main concepts used in Layard, Nickell and Jackman's book, Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market. Attempts to clarify the concept of hysteresis, from its formal representation to its empirical applications. Emphasizes the idea that hysteresis refers back to a given set of formal properties, independently of the phenomenologies within which it is liable to

Bruno Amable; Jérôme Henry; Frédéric Lordon; Richard Topol

1993-01-01

219

Rational curves on Fermat hypersurfaces

In this note we study rational curves on degree $p^r+1$ Fermat hypersurface in $\\PP^{p^r+1}_k$, where $k$ is an algebraically closed field of characteristic $p$. The key point is that the presence of Frobenius morphism makes the behavior of rational curves to be very different from that of charateristic 0. We show that if there exists $N_0$ such that for all $e\\geq N_0$ there is a degree $e$ very free rational curve on $X$, then $N_0> p^r(p^r-1)$.

Shen, Mingmin

2011-01-01

220

Mesoscopic resistive switch: non-volatility, hysteresis and negative differential resistance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how a simple model nanoswitch can perform as a memory resistor. Its resistance is determined by electron tunneling through a nanoparticle diffusing around one or more potential minima located between the electrodes in the presence of Joule's heat dissipation. In the case of a single potential minimum, we observe hysteresis of the resistance at finite applied currents and negative differential resistance. For two (or more) minima the switching mechanism is non-volatile, meaning that the memristor can switch to a resistive state of choice and stay there. Moreover, the noise spectra of the switch exhibit 1/ f 2 ? 1/ f crossover, in agreement with recent experimental results.

Savel'ev, Sergey E.; Marchesoni, Fabio; Bratkovsky, Alexander M.

2013-12-01

221

Well-posedness for a class of biological diffusion models with hysteresis effect

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with a class of biological models which consist of nonlinear diffusion equations and a hysteresis operator describing the relationship between some variables of the equations. The existence of solutions to the analogous problem was ever considered by Aiki and Minchev (SIAM J Math Anal 36:2020-2032, 2005) under some assumptions including the global Lipschitz continuity of reaction terms. We show the existence of nonnegative solutions to the problem under consideration using the approximation method when the reaction terms are locally Lipschitz continuous. Moreover, we discuss the continuous dependence of solutions on initial data.

Zheng, Jiashan; Wang, Yifu

2014-05-01

222

Droplets on Inclined Plates: Local and Global Hysteresis of Pinned Capillary Surfaces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local contact line pinning prevents droplets from rearranging to minimal global energy, and models for droplets without pinning cannot predict their shape. We show that experiments are much better described by a theory, developed herein, that does account for the constrained contact line motion, using as an example droplets on tilted plates. We map out their shapes in suitable phase spaces. For 2D droplets, the critical point of maximum tilt depends on the hysteresis range and Bond number. In 3D, it also depends on the initial width, highlighting the importance of the deposition history.

Musterd, Michiel; van Steijn, Volkert; Kleijn, Chris R.; Kreutzer, Michiel T.

2014-08-01

223

This paper proposes a current-error space-vector-based hysteresis controller with online computation of boundary for two-level inverter-fed induction motor (IM) drives. The proposed hysteresis controller has got all advantages of conventional current-error space-vector-based hysteresis controllers like quick transient response, simplicity, adjacent voltage vector switching, etc. Major advantage of the proposed controller-based voltage-source-inverters-fed drive is that phase voltage frequency spectrum produced is

Rijil Ramchand; K. Gopakumar; Chintan Patel; K. Sivakumar; Anandarup Das; Haitham Abu-Rub

2012-01-01

224

Hysteresis in suspended sediment to turbidity relations due to changing particle size distributions

Turbidity (T) is the most ubiquitous of surrogate technologies used to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). The effects of sediment size on turbidity are well documented; however, effects from changes in particle size distributions (PSD) are rarely evaluated. Hysteresis in relations of SSC-to-turbidity (SSC~T) for single stormflow events was observed and quantified for a data set of 195 concurrent measurements of SSC, turbidity, discharge, velocity, and volumetric PSD collected during five stormflows in 2009–2010 on Yellow River at Gees Mill Road in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Regressions of SSC-normalized turbidity (T/SSC) on concurrently measured PSD percentiles show an inverse, exponential influence of particle size on turbidity that is not constant across the size range of the PSD. The majority of the influence of PSD on T/SSC is from particles of fine-silt and smaller sizes (finer than 16 microns). This study shows that small changes in the often assumed stability of the PSD are significant to SSC~T relations. Changes of only 5 microns in the fine silt and smaller size fractions of suspended sediment PSD can produce hysteresis in the SSC~T rating that can increase error and produce bias. Observed SSC~T hysteresis may be an indicator of changes in sediment properties during stormflows and of potential changes in sediment sources. Trends in the PSD time series indicate that sediment transport is capacity-limited for sand-sized sediment in the channel and supply-limited for fine silt and smaller sediment from the hillslope.

Landers, Mark N.; Sturm, Terry W.

2013-01-01

225

Charge state hysteresis in semiconductor quantum dots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which accounts for the observed hysteretic behaviour by extending the established description for transport in double dots coupled to two reservoirs. We demonstrate that this type of device operates like a single-electron memory latch.

Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A.; Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A. S.

2014-11-01

226

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties are sensitive proxies to characterize FeNi metal phases in meteorites. We present a data set of magnetic hysteresis properties of 91 ordinary chondrite falls. We show that hysteresis properties are distinctive of individual meteorites while homogeneous among meteorite subsamples. Except for the most primitive chondrites, these properties can be explained by a mixture of multidomain kamacite that dominates the induced magnetism and tetrataenite (both in the cloudy zone as single-domain grains, and as larger multidomain grains in plessite and in the rim of zoned taenite) dominates the remanent magnetism, in agreement with previous microscopic magnetic observations. The bulk metal contents derived from magnetic measurements are in agreement with those estimated previously from chemical analyses. We evidence a decreasing metal content with increasing petrologic type in ordinary chondrites, compatible with oxidation of metal during thermal metamorphism. Types 5 and 6 ordinary chondrites have higher tetrataenite content than type 4 chondrites. This is compatible with lower cooling rates in the 650-450 °C interval for higher petrographic types (consistent with an onion-shell model), but is more likely the result of the oxidation of ordinary chondrites with increasing metamorphism. In equilibrated chondrites, shock-related transient heating events above approximately 500 °C result in the disordering of tetrataenite and associated drastic change in magnetic properties. As a good indicator of the amount of tetrataenite, hysteresis properties are a very sensitive proxy of the thermal history of ordinary chondrites, revealing low cooling rates during thermal metamorphism and high cooling rates (e.g., following shock reheating or excavation after thermal metamorphism). Our data strengthen the view that the poor magnetic recording properties of multidomain kamacite and the secondary origin of tetrataenite make equilibrated ordinary chondrites challenging targets for paleomagnetic study.

Gattacceca, J.; Suavet, C.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Winklhofer, M.; Uehara, M.; Friedrich, Jon M.

2014-04-01

227

The objective is to investigate experimentally and theoretically the effects of neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress on magnetic properties in steels, using various magnetic measurement techniques. Interaction between experiment and modeling should suggest efficient magnetic measurement procedures for determining neutron embrittlement biaxial stress. This should ultimately assist in safety monitoring of nuclear power plants and of gas and oil pipelines. In the first six months of this first year study, magnetic measurements were made on steel surveillance specimens from the Indian Point 2 and D.C. Cook 2 reactors. The specimens previously had been characterized by Charpy tests after specified neutron fluences. Measurements now included: (1) hysteresis loop measurement of coercive force, permeability and remanence, (2) Barkhausen noise amplitude; and (3) higher order nonlinear harmonic analysis of a 1 Hz magnetic excitation. Very good correlation of magnetic parameters with fluence and embrittlement was found for specimens from the Indian Point 2 reactor. The D.C. Cook 2 specimens, however showed poor correlation. Possible contributing factors to this are: (1) metallurgical differences between D.C. Cook 2 and Indian Point 2 specimens; (2) statistical variations in embrittlement parameters for individual samples away from the stated men values; and (3) conversion of the D.C. Cook 2 reactor to a low leakage core configuration in the middle of the period of surveillance. Modeling using a magnetomechanical hysteresis model has begun. The modeling will first focus on why Barkhausen noise and nonlinear harmonic amplitudes appear to be better indicators of embrittlement than the hysteresis loop parameters.

Sablik, M.J.; Kwun, H.; Rollwitz, W.L.; Cadena, D.

1992-01-01

228

Television Quiz Show Simulation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

Hill, Jonnie Lynn

2007-01-01

229

Attachment/detachment hysteresis of fiber-based magnetic grabbers.

We developed an experimental protocol to analyze the behaviour of a model fiber-based magnetic grabber. A fiber is vertically suspended and fixed to the substrate by its upper end. A magnetic droplet is attached to the free end of the fiber and when a permanent magnet approaches the droplet, the fiber is forced to bow and finally jumps to the magnet. It appears that one can flex the micro-fibers by very small micro or even nano-Newton forces. Using this setup, we discovered a hysteresis of fiber attachment/detachment: the pathway of the fiber jumping to and off the magnet depends on the distance between the magnet and the clamped end. This phenomenon was successfully explained by the Euler-Benoulli model of an elastic beam. The observed hysteresis of fiber attachment/detachment was attributed to the multiple equilibrium configurations of the fiber tip placed in a dipole-type magnetic field. PMID:24668160

Gu, Yu; Kornev, Konstantin G

2014-04-28

230

Method of thermal strain hysteresis reduction in metal matrix composites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is disclosed for treating graphite reinforced metal matrix composites so as to eliminate thermal strain hysteresis and impart dimensional stability through a large thermal cycle. The method is applied to the composite post fabrication and is effective on metal matrix materials using graphite fibers manufactured by both the hot roll bonding and diffusion bonding techniques. The method consists of first heat treating the material in a solution anneal oven followed by a water quench and then subjecting the material to a cryogenic treatment in a cryogenic oven. This heat treatment and cryogenic stress reflief is effective in imparting a dimensional stability and reduced thermal strain hysteresis in the material over a -250.degree. F. to +250.degree. F. thermal cycle.

Dries, Gregory A. (Inventor); Tompkins, Stephen S. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

231

Novel thermal hysteresis proteins from low temperature basidiomycete, Coprinus psychromorbidus.

The low temperature basidiomycete, Coprinus psychromorbidus, produced three kinds of thermal hysteresis proteins (THPs) in the extracellular space. Molecular mass of purified fungal THPs were approximately 23 kDa, respectively, however those fungal THPs had different N-terminal amino acid sequences. Those fungal THPs formed ice crystals resembling "stone Age arrow head". These observations indicate that fungal THPs did not form hexagonal ice crystals to inhibit its growth. PMID:12908023

Hoshino, T; Kiriaki, M; Nakajima, T

2003-01-01

232

An analysis of metal fatigue based on hysteresis energy

Halford's plastic-energy concept for lowcycle fatigue is extended to the medium- and high-cycle ranges. The resulting equations are compared with 74 sets of data in the medium- and high-cycle ranges. The difference in stress between theory and experimental data is less than ±5 percent.The plastic-hysteresis-energy analysis for fatigue is shown to be consistent with the octahedral shear-stress theory. In addition,

C. S. Chang; W. T. Pimbley; H. D. Conway

1968-01-01

233

Negative resistance and anomalous hysteresis in a collective molecular motor

A spatially extended model for a collective molecular motor is presented. The system is driven far from equilibrium by a quenched additive noise. As a result, it exhibits anomalous transport properties, namely, negative resistance and a clockwise hysteresis cycle. The phase diagram and the region of negative resistance are calculated using a Weiss mean field theory. Intuitive explanations of the anomalous transport properties as well as details of its energetics are given. PMID:11088302

Buceta; Parrondo; Van Den Broeck C; de La Rubia FJ

2000-06-01

234

The field-space perspective on hysteresis in uniaxial ferromagnets

A procedure for the analysis of hysteresis in the H space of a uniaxial ferromagnet with higher-order anisotropy is put forward. The formulation is valid to any order n in the anisotropy expansion. The critical boundaries separating stable from metastable states are cast in a formally decoupled parametric way as Hx=Hx(Mx), Hz=Hz(Mz). The analytic expressions provide the basis for the

Y. T. Millev; J. R. Cullen; H. P. Oepen

1998-01-01

235

The Field-Space Perspective on Hysteresis in Uniaxial Ferromagnets

A procedure for the analysis of hysteresis in the H space of a uniaxial ferromagnet with higher-order anisotropy is put forward. The formulation is valid to any order n in the anisotropy expansion. The critical boundaries separating stable from metastable states are cast in a formally decoupled parametric way as Hx5Hx( Mx), Hz5Hz(Mz). The analytic expressions provide the basis for

Y. T. Miller; J. R. Cullen; H. P. Oepen; J. Kirschner

1998-01-01

236

The field-space perspective on hysteresis in uniaxial ferromagnets

A procedure for the analysis of hysteresis in the H space of a uniaxial ferromagnet with higher-order anisotropy is put forward. The formulation is valid to any order n in the anisotropy expansion. The critical boundaries separating stable from metastable states are cast in a formally decoupled parametric way as Hx=Hx(Mx),Hz=Hz(Mz). The analytic expressions provide the basis for the construction

Y. T. Millev; J. R. Cullen; H. P. Oepen

1998-01-01

237

Barkhausen discontinuities and hysteresis of ferromagnetics: New stochastic approach

The magnetization of ferromagnetic material is considered as periodically inhomogeneous Markov process. The theory assumes both statistically independent and correlated Barkhausen discontinuities. The model, based on the chain evolution-type process theory, assumes that the domain structure of a ferromagnet passes successively the steps of: linear growing, exponential acceleration and domains annihilation to zero density at magnetic saturation. The solution of stochastic differential Kolmogorov equation enables the hysteresis loop calculus.

Vengrinovich, Valeriy, E-mail: veng@iaph.bas-net.by [Institute of Applied Physics of the Belarus Academy of Sciences 220072, Akademicheskaya street 16, Minsk (Belarus)

2014-02-18

238

Nanostructured organic-organic (O-O) heterojunction was fabricated by using the thin films of a hole transporting material, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and an electron transporting material, copper hexadecafluoro-phthalocyanine (F16CuPc). The nanostructured thin films were characterized by optical absorption spectra, FESEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, etc. Grain size of CuPc and F16CuPc on the substrate surface was different. XRD analysis shows that the crystallinity of the double layer films/heterojunction decreases as compared to the single layer film. The heterojunction sandwich structure ITO/F16CuPc/CuPc/Al, in the present study has shown a good diode like current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with reverse rectifying characteristics. In addition, electrical switching and hysteresis phenomena have also been observed in both sides of the voltage polarities. Interestingly, the single layer sandwich structure of the type ITO/CuPc/Al and ITO/F16CuPc/Al did not show any noticeable electrical switching and hysteresis in I-V characteristics as compared to double layer heterostructure. The reverse rectification has been explained on the basis of band bending due to the accumulation of charge carriers near the junction and the electrical switching has been explained considering the charge carriers trapping and detrapping at the O-O interface. PMID:23646732

Chowdhury, Avijit; Biswas, Bipul; Bera, Raghu Nath; Mallik, Biswanath

2013-01-01

239

Climate Hysteresis for Planets Orbiting Stars of Different Spectral Type

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary climate can be affected by the interaction of the host star spectral energy distribution with the wavelength-dependent reflectivity of ice and snow. We have explored this effect with a hierarchy of models. Results from both one-dimensional (1-D) radiative transfer and energy balance models and a three-dimensional (3-D) general circulation model indicate that terrestrial planets orbiting stars with higher near-UV radiation exhibit a stronger ice-albedo feedback. We found that ice extent is much greater on a planet orbiting an F-dwarf star than on a planet orbiting a G- or M-dwarf star at an equivalent flux distance, assuming fixed CO2 (present atmospheric level on Earth). The surface ice-albedo feedback effect becomes less important at the outer edge of the habitable zone for main-sequence stars, where the maintenance of surface liquid water requires high atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We show that ?3-10 bar of CO2 will entirely mask the climatic effect of ice and snow, leaving the outer limits of the habitable zone unaffected by the spectral dependence of water ice and snow albedo. However, less CO2 is needed to maintain open water for a planet orbiting an M-dwarf star than would be the case for hotter main-sequence stars. Both entrance into and exit out of a snowball state are sensitive to host star spectral energy distribution. Our simulations indicate a smaller climate hysteresis on M-dwarf planets, as measured by the range of instellation that permits multiple stable ice line latitudes. While M-dwarf planets appear less susceptible to snowball episodes than G- or F-dwarf planets over the course of their evolution, any snowball planets that are found orbiting M-dwarf stars may more easily melt out of these states as stellar luminosity increases over time. This effect is due to the lower-albedo ice on M-dwarf planets which, compounded with near-IR absorption by atmospheric gases, reduces the amount of increased stellar insolation, or “instellation”, necessary to melt these planets out of a snowball state.

Shields, Aomawa; Meadows, V.; Bitz, C.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Joshi, M.; Robinson, T.; Planetary Laboratory, Virtual

2013-10-01

240

Theory of the hysteresis loop in ferromagnets

/2, it leads to the same random forces as the random-field potential @Fig. 1~a!# that shows order-one fluctuations. Therefore, we restrict analytical analysis to the case of random-field impurities. For Monte Carlo simulations we have used both types... in Secs. II and III. We employed the Monte Carlo simulation with the Glauber dynamics ~see, e.g., Ref. 27! to check Eq. ~6! for perfect systems and systems with disorder. We modeled the disorder by a small concentration of randomly distributed...

Lyuksyutov, Igor F.; Nattermann, T.; Pokrovsky, Valery L.

1999-01-01

241

Local Condensation Curve from Dropwise to Glacial Region on Large Vertical Surface

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of several regimes of condensation heat transfer is well known. Regimes are given academic names as dropwise, transition, film and glacial condensation along the condensation curve showing the relationship between heat flux and surface subcooling. In case of comparatively large vertical surface, the lower part on the gravitational direction is affected by condensate from the upper part, and will be covered by water stream like a rivulet. It has no longer an existence as dropwise condition, and it is absolutely impossible that heat transfer problems under constant temperature or constant heat flux take place. The reason is why as follows, heat transfer of film condensation is some orders of magnitude less than dropwise condensation, and various regimes exist together simultaneously. In the present paper we shall try to observe the coexisting appearance of regimes in steam condensation at atmospheric pressure and make researches in the local condensation curve from top to bottom on the same surface, that is divided into eight parts in the rear side. The main results are shown as follows (1) Enhancement of heat transfer by wiping of drops appears toward somewhat lower position from top. (2) Frazil ice is observed in the supercooled liquid film flowing down on glacial condensation. (3) The regime of glacial condensation describes a thermal hysteresis loop.

Haraguchi, Tadao; Shimada, Ryohachi; Takeyama, Toshiro

242

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guiding of high current density (0.1–3?A?m?2) argon ion beams through a straight and tapered micro-glass-capillary is studied. It is observed that the ion beam requires a minimum threshold energy to pass through the capillary. The variation of beam current with applied voltage exhibits hysteresis due to the charges accumulated on the inner wall of the capillary. The dependence of hysteresis and beam transmission on the time interval between successive experiments including capillary dimensions and geometry are investigated. The guiding capability of a tapered capillary is demonstrated where beam size reduction without compromising total current is achieved. A particle-in-cell simulation code, developed by solving the Poisson’s equation and the equation of motion simultaneously, shows reasonable agreement with the experimental results.

Paul, Samit; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

2015-01-01

243

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, photo-induced hysteresis, threshold voltage (VT) shift, and recovery behaviors in photochemically activated solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated. It was observed that a white light illumination caused negative VT shift along with creation of clockwise hysteresis in electrical characteristics which can be attributed to photo-generated doubly ionized oxygen vacancies at the semiconductor/gate dielectric interface. More importantly, the photochemically activated IGZO TFTs showed much reduced overall VT shift compared to thermally annealed TFTs. Reduced number of donor-like interface states creation under light illumination and more facile neutralization of ionized oxygen vacancies by electron capture under positive gate potential are claimed to be the origin of the less VT shift in photochemically activated TFTs.

Jo, Jeong-Wan; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

2014-07-01

244

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

245

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that simple axisymmetric Newtonian calculation suffices to consistently connect disk galaxy rotation curves to underlying mass distribution and vice versa, without need for any dark matter. To this end, we connect mass density profiles of five galaxies of varying sizes with observed galaxy rotation curves. The five galaxies are: NGC6822 (4.8 kpc), Large Magellanic Cloud (9 kpc), The Milky Way (17 kpc), NGC3198 (30 kpc) and UGC9133 (102.5 kpc). The mass and mass density profiles of these galaxies have been computed using the scientific computing s/w package MATLAB taking the already available velocity profiles of the galaxies as the input, and without considering any dark matter contribution. We have plotted these profiles after computing them according to three different theories of gravity (and dynamics): Newtonian, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) and Vacuum Modified Gravity. We also consider how the profile due to the Newtonian theory would modify if we use a cosmological constant = 5 × 10^{-56} cm^{-2}. Comparing these mass and mass density profiles, we try to form an idea regarding what could be a realistic theory of gravity and whether we need dark matter to explain the results.

Banhatti, Dilip G.; Datta, Rahul

246

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A capillary surface is the boundary between two immiscible fluids. When the two fluids are in contact with a solid surface, there is a contact line. The physical phenomena that cause dissipation of energy during a motion of the contact line are hysteresis in the contact angle dynamics, and viscosity of the fluids involved. In this paper, we consider a simplified problem where a liquid and a gas are bounded between two parallel plane surfaces with a capillary surface between the liquid-gas interface. The liquid-plane interface is considered to be non-ideal, which implies that the contact angle of the capillary surface at the interface is set-valued, and change in the contact angle exhibits hysteresis. We analyze a two-point boundary value problem for the fluid flow described by the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations, wherein a capillary surface with one contact angle is deformed to another with a different contact angle. The main contribution of this paper is that we show the existence of non-unique classical solutions to this problem, and numerically compute the dissipation.

Athukorallage, Bhagya; Iyer, Ram

2014-02-01

247

A storage-extended rating curve for sediment flux estimation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An empirical suspended sediment concentration (SSC) estimation method was tested, which incorporates sediment storage, erosion, and sedimentation history of the upstream river system. It is based on the common rating curve method of which inaccurate SSC estimation is prevailingly caused by the assumption of an over-proportional relationship between SSC and discharge. However, this ignores the fact that SSC depends on the availability of sediments in the river basin as well. Hence, the tested method includes non-linear processes such as the clockwise and counter-clockwise hysteresis during flood discharges. The main characteristic of this new approach is that sediment flux is described as a composition of (i) the base transport of sediments from the catchment area into the river system, (ii) erosion, and (iii) in-situ sedimentation. The first two components are approximated with classical rating curves. The second component depends on (i) a threshold discharge for erosion and (ii) on the sediment availability. Sedimentation is factored as a constant value and it is zero if the discharge exceeds the threshold value. This new model formulation was tested with daily SSC and discharge measurements from the Alpine Rhine River for the period 1 June 2012 to 31 May 2013 at gauging station Diepoldsau, which is located a few kilometres upstream of Lake Constance. The seven empirical parameters of the model were estimated by using an evolutionary algorithm. This optimization algorithm found a threshold for erosion at a discharge of about 500 m3 s-1, a mean concentration of 124 mg l-1 that is lost due to sedimentation, and the mean content of sediment storage in the river bed of about 1.82×1011 kg, which is available for erosion. The results show an clear improvement of SSC estimation: R2 increased to 0.93 while it was 0.73 for the rating curve. Moreover, the new method calculated flood loads, which fitted perfect to measured sediments: e.g. the measured flood load of 7392 mg l-1 (4 June 2013) was approximated with 7357 mg l-1 by the model. To conclude, the additional consideration of erosion and sedimentation processes significantly improves SSC estimations especially during flood events and it offers a reliable way to estimate SSC time series with runoff data.

Fink, Gabriel; Wüest, Alfred

2014-05-01

248

Modelling Phase Curves and Occultations in KOI Light Curve

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clues about the atmospheric and surface conditions of a planet are buried within the Kepler light curve of the host star. We select several Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) which show phase variations and occultations to estimate the temperature and albedo of the exoplanet. We apply a Fourier decomposition filtering technique to remove variations in the KOI light curves that are likely of stellar origin. Finally, we use an MCMC algorithm to fit the different amplitudes of phase variations and compute the planet's mass, nightside temperature, and geometric albedo.

Mayorga, Laura C.; Jackiewicz, Jason

2015-01-01

249

Simple models for dynamic hysteresis loops calculation: Application to hyperthermia optimization

To optimize the heating properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in magnetic hyperthermia applications, it is necessary to calculate the area of their hysteresis loops in an alternating magnetic field. The three types of theories suitable to describe the hysteresis loops of MNPs are presented and compared to numerical simulations: equilibrium functions, Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories (SWMBTs) and linear response theory (LRT). Suitable formulas to calculate the hysteresis area of major cycles are deduced from SWMBTs and from numerical simulations; the domain of validity of the analytical formula is explicitly studied. In the case of minor cycles, the hysteresis area calculations are based on the LRT. A perfect agreement between LRT and numerical simulations of hysteresis loops is obtained. The domain of validity of the LRT is explicitly studied. Formulas to calculate the hysteresis area at low field valid for any anisotropy of the MNP are proposed. Numerical simulations of the magnetic field dependen...

Carrey, J; Respaud, M

2010-01-01

250

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

Mathieu, Aaron

2000-01-01

251

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

2009-04-06

252

Elephants show a rich social organization and display a number of unusual traits. In this paper, we analyse reports collected over a thirty-five year period, describing behaviour that has the potential to reveal signs of empathic understanding. These include coalition formation, the offering of protection and comfort to others, retrieving and 'babysitting' calves, aiding individuals that would otherwise have difficulty

Lucy A. Bates; Phyllis C. Lee; Norah Njiraini; Joyce H. Poole; Katito Sayialel; Soila Sayialel; Cynthia J. Moss; Richard W. Byrne

2008-01-01

253

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at SE Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Student activities and descriptions of the demonstrated material are also provided.

Shropshire, Steven

2004-04-06

254

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

Frasier, Debra

2008-01-01

255

We applied the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method to extract reduced-order models to efficiently solve nonlinear electromagnetic problems governed by Maxwell's equations with nonlinear hysteresis at low frequency (10 kHz), called static hysteresis, discretized by a finite-element method. We used a new domain-wall-motion hysteresis model for Power MAgnetic Components (POMACs) in the finite-element potential formulation via an efficient implicit-inverse model

Y. Zhai; L. Vu-Quoc

2007-01-01

256

Hysteresis zone or locus - Aerodynamic of bulbous based bodies at low speeds

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data are presented which seem to suggest that a well-defined hysteresis locus on bulbous based bodies at low speeds does not exist. Instead, if the experiment is repeated several times, the entire hysteresis region seems to fill with data rather than trace out a specific hysteresis locus. Data obtained on an oscillating model even at low reduced frequencies may be well defined but when applied to arbitrary motion lead to less accurate results than desired.

Covert, E. E.

1979-01-01

257

Quenching of giant hysteresis effects in La1-zYzHx switchable mirrors

The giant intrinsic hysteresis as a function of hydrogen concentration x in the optical and electrical properties of the archetypal switchable mirror YHx is eliminated by alloying Y with the chemically similar La. The La1-zYzHx films with z?0.67 are essentially hysteresis-free. The origin of the large hysteresis of alloys with z?0.86 is the large uniaxial lattice expansion that accompanies their

Gogh van A. T. M; D. G. Nagengast; E. S. Kooij; N. J. Koeman; R. P. Griessen

2000-01-01

258

Like most smart materials, such as piezoelectric materials and shape memory alloys, ion-exchange polymer-metal composite (IPMC), which is a kind of electroactive polymer material, exhibits the properties of hysteresis and creep. In this paper we explain the hysteresis and creep properties of IPMC, analyze the hysteresis using a discrete Prandtl-lshlinskii model, obtain a creep model of IPMC through modifying the

Lina Hao; Zhi Li

2010-01-01

259

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Come along as the folks at the University of Missouri show you the history of their college days through the Show Me magazine. It's a wonderful collection of college humor published from 1946 to 1963. First-time visitors would do well to read about the magazine's colorful past, courtesy of Jerry Smith. A good place to start is the November 1920 issue (easily found when you browse by date), which contains a number of parody advertisements along with some doggerels poking good natured fun at the football team and an assortment of deans. Also, it's worth noting that visitors can scroll through issues and save them to an online "bookbag" for later use.

2008-01-01

260

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

15 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a landslide that occurred off of a steep slope in Tithonium Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

*Location near*: 4.8oS, 84.6oW *Image width*: 3 km (1.9 mi) *Illumination from*: upper left *Season*: Southern Autumn

2006-01-01

261

In this paper, the iceophobic properties of superhydrophobic surfaces are investigated under dynamic flow conditions by using a closed loop low-temperature wind tunnel. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by coating the substrates of aluminum and steel plates with nano-structured hydrophobic particles. The superhydrophobic plates along with uncoated control ones were exposed to an air flow of 12 m/s and 20 F accompanying micron-sized water droplets in the icing wind tunnel and the ice formation and accretion were probed by high-resolution CCD cameras. Results show that the superhydrophobic coatings significantly delay the ice formation and accretion even under the dynamic flow condition of the highly energetic impingement of accelerated super-cooled water droplets. It is found that there is a time scale for this phenomenon (delay of the ice formation) which has a clear correlation with the contact angle hysteresis and the length scale of surface roughness of the superhydrophobic surface samples, being the highest for the plate with the lowest contact angle hysteresis and finer surface roughness. The results suggest that the key parameter for designing iceophobic surfaces is to retain a low contact angle hysteresis (dynamic property) and the non-wetting superhydrophobic state under the hydrodynamic pressure of impinging droplets, rather than to only have a high contact angle (static property), in order to result in efficient anti-icing properties under dynamic conditions such as forced flows.

Sarshar, Mohammad Amin [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Swarctz, Christopher [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL; Simpson, John T [ORNL; Choi, Chang-Hwan [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey

2012-01-01

262

Although the free energy perturbation procedure is exact when an infinite sample of configuration space is used, for finite sample size there is a systematic error resulting in hysteresis for forward and backward simulations. The qualitative behavior of this systematic error is first explored for a Gaussian distribution, then a first-order estimate of the error for any distribution is derived. To first order the error depends only on the fluctuations in the sample of potential energies, {Delta}E, and the sample size, n, but not on the magnitude of {Delta}E. The first-order estimate of the systematic sample-size error is used to compare the efficiencies of various computing strategies. It is found that slow-growth, free energy perturbation calculations will always have lower errors from this source than window-growth, free energy perturbation calculations for the same computing effort. The systematic sample-size errors can be entirely eliminated by going to thermodynamic integration rather than free energy perturbation calculations. When {Delta}E is a very smooth function of the coupling parameter, {lambda}, thermodynamic integration with a relatively small number of windows is the recommended procedure because the time required for equilibration is reduced with a small number of windows. These results give a method of estimating this sample-size hysteresis during the course of a slow-growth, free energy perturbation run. This is important because in these calculations time-lag and sample-size errors can cancel, so that separate methods of estimating and correcting for each are needed. When dynamically modified window procedures are used, it is recommended that the estimated sample-size error be kept constant, not that the magnitude of {Delta}E be kept constant. Tests on two systems showed a rather small sample-size hysteresis in slow-growth calculations except in the first stages of creating a particle, where both fluctuations and sample-size hysteresis are large.

Wood, R.H.; Muehlbauer, W.C.F. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States)); Thompson, P.T. (Swarthmore Coll., PA (United States))

1991-08-22

263

High contact angle hysteresis on polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) ion-paired with hydrophobic perfluorooctanoate anions is reported. Both the bilayer number of PEMs and the ionic strength of deposition solutions have significant influence on contact angle hysteresis: higher ionic strength and greater bilayer number cause increased contact angle hysteresis values. The hysteresis values of ~100° were observed on smooth PEMs and pinning of the receding contact line on hydrophilic defects is implicated as the cause of hysteresis. Surface roughness can be used to further tune the contact angle hysteresis on the PEMs. A surface with extremely high contact angle hysteresis of 156° was fabricated when a PEM was deposited on a rough substrate coated with submicrometer scale silica spheres. It was demonstrated that this extremely high value of contact angle hysteresis resulted from the penetration of water into the rough asperities on the substrate. The same substrate hydrophobized by chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane exhibits high advancing contact angle and low hysteresis. PMID:22044032

Wang, Liming; Wei, Jingjing; Su, Zhaohui

2011-12-20

264

Effect of contact angle hysteresis on moving liquid film integrity.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the formation and breakdown of a water film moving over solid surfaces (teflon, lucite, stainless steel, and copper). The flow rate associated with film formation was found to be higher than the flow rate at which film breakdown occurred. The difference in the flow rates for film formation and film breakdown was attributed to contact angle hysteresis. Analysis and experiment, which are in good agreement, indicated that film formation and film breakdown are functions of the advancing and receding angles, respectively.

Simon, F. F.; Hsu, Y. Y.

1972-01-01

265

Effect of contact angle hysteresis on moving liquid film integrity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the formation and breakdown of a water film moving over solid surfaces (teflon, lucite, stainless steel, and copper). The flow rate associated with film formation was found to be higher than the flow rate at which film breakdown occurred. The difference in the flow rates for film formation and film breakdown was attributed to contact angle hysteresis. Analysis and experiment, which are in good agreement, indicated that film formation and film breakdown are functions of the advancing and receding angles, respectively.

Simon, F. F.; Hsu, Y. Y.

1972-01-01

266

Curve Family Index (Visual Dictionary of Special Plane Curves)

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A discussion of the many ways to classify curves, how they are named, a curve family tree, and interconnection between curves, with related Web sites about fractals and curves. Hosted by the Math Forum.

Lee, Xah

2007-12-20

267

The role of hysteresis in modeling root water uptake, both for single root and root system models.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water retention curve obtained by progressive extraction of water from an initially saturated soil (desorption) differs from that obtained by gradual addition of water to air-dry soil (absorption). This phenomenon is called hysteresis (Koorevaar et al., 1983). Common as its occurrence is, it is often neglected in the modeling of root water uptake. We will present here a model for the transport of water to a single root. The model solves Richard's equation in cylindrical coordinates where the water uptake rate is a function of the root water potential. The occurrence of hysteresis is accounted for by application of the modified dependent domain model developed by Mualem (1984) and used by Kool and Parker (1987). We will discuss the differences in results due to the inclusion of the hysteresis subroutine, when alternate wetting and drying cycles occur. The influence of soil type and transpiration reduction function will be discussed. The findings obtained for the single root model were used to upscale root water uptake to a root system. This is a part of the FUSSIM2 model of Heinen and de Willigen (1998) and Heinen (2001), where water transport in a soil profile is calculated. We will use an example for a soil profile where the root length density decreases exponentially with depth, and where again wetting and drying cycles alternate. References Heinen M., 2001. FUSSIM2: brief description of the simulation model and application to fertigation scenarios. Agronomie 21: 285-296. Heinen, M., and P. de Willigen, 1998. FUSSIM2 A two-dimensional simulation model for water flow, solute transport and root uptake of water and nutrients in partly unsaturated porous media, QASA No. 20, AB-DLO, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 140 p. Kool J.B. and J.C. Parker, 1987. Development and evaluation of closed form expressions for hysteretic soil hydraulic properties. Water Resour. Res. 23: 105 114. Koorevaar P., G. Menelik and C. Dirksen, 1983. Elements of soil physics. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Developments in Soil Science 13, 228 p. Mualem Y., 1984. A modified dependent domain theory of hysteresis. Soil Sci. 137: 283 291.

de Willigen, P.; Heinen, M.

2009-04-01

268

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Public Radio's "The Picture Show" photo blog is a great way to avoid culling through the thousands of less interesting and engaging photographs on the web. With a dedicated team of professionals, this blog brings together different posts that profile various sets of photographs that cover 19th century war in Afghanistan, visual memories of WWII, unpublished photographs of JFK's presidential campaign, and abandoned buildings on the islands in Boston Harbor. Visitors can search through previous posts, use social media features to share the photo features with friends, and also sign up to receive new materials via their RSS feed. There's quite a nice mix of material here, and visitors can also comment on the photos and recommend the collection to friends and others.

269

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last few days, the Earth has been buffeted by a geomagnetic storm caused by a major solar flare. In addition to disruptions in radio, telecommunications, and electric service, the flare may also produce a dramatic light show as it peaks tonight. Weather permitting, the aurora borealis, or northern lights, may be visible as far south as Washington, D.C. The best viewing time will be local midnight. The sun is currently at the peak of its eleven-year solar cycle, spawning flares and "coronal mass ejections" (CME), violent outbursts of gas from the sun's corona that can carry up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. Geomagnetic storms result when solar winds compress the magnetosphere, sometimes interfering with electric power transmission and satellites, but also creating beautiful aurorae, as many stargazers hope will occur tonight.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

270

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Egg is a new TV show about people making art across America" from PBS. This accompanying Website presents excerpts from sixteen episodes of the series, with three more "hatching soon," such as Close to Home, profiling three photographers: Jeanine Pohlhaus, whose pictures document her father's struggle with mental illness; Gregory Crewdson's photos of Lee, Massachusetts; and Joseph Rodriguez's photos of Hispanics in New York City. Excerpts include video clips, gallery listings where the artists' work can be seen, and short interviews with artists. Some episodes also offer "peeps," glimpses of material not shown on TV, such as the Space episode's peep, Shooting Stars, that provides directions for astrophotography, taking photographs of star trails. Other sections of the site are airdates, for local listings; see and do usa, where vacationers can search for art events at their destinations; and egg on the arts, a discussion forum.

271

A two-dimensional adsorption kinetic model for thermal hysteresis activity in antifreeze proteins.

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), collectively abbreviated as AF(G)Ps, are synthesized by various organisms to enable their cells to survive in subzero environments. Although the AF(G)Ps are markedly diverse in structure, they all function by adsorbing to the surface of embryonic ice crystals to inhibit their growth. This adsorption results in a freezing temperature depression without an appreciable change in the melting temperature. The difference between the melting and freezing temperatures, termed thermal hysteresis (TH), is used to detect and quantify the antifreeze activity. Insights from crystallographic structures of a number of AFPs have led to a good understanding of the ice-protein interaction features. Computational studies have focused either on verifying a specific model of AFP-ice interaction or on understanding the protein-induced changes in the ice crystal morphology. In order to explain the origin of TH, we propose a novel two-dimensional adsorption kinetic model between AFPs and ice crystal surfaces. The validity of the model has been demonstrated by reproducing the TH curve on two different beta-helical AFPs upon increasing the protein concentration. In particular, this model is able to accommodate the change in the TH behavior observed experimentally when the size of the AFPs is increased systematically. Our results suggest that in addition to the specificity of the AFPs for the ice, the coverage of the AFPs on the ice surface is an equally necessary condition for their TH activity. PMID:16774359

Li, Q Z; Yeh, Y; Liu, J J; Feeney, R E; Krishnan, V V

2006-05-28

272

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Activation of Ras proteins underlies functional decisions in diverse cell types. Two molecules, Ras-GRP and SOS (Ras–guanine nucleotide–releasing protein and Son of Sevenless, respectively), catalyze Ras activation in lymphocytes. Binding of active Ras to the allosteric pocket of SOS markedly increases the activity of SOS. Thus, there is a positive feedback loop regulating SOS. Combining in silico and in vitro studies, we demonstrate that “digital” signaling in lymphocytes (cells are “on” or “off”) is predicated on this allosteric regulation of SOS. The SOS feedback loop leads to hysteresis in the dose-response curve, which may enable T cells to exhibit “memory” of past encounters with antigen. Ras activation by Ras-GRP alone is “analog” (a graded increase in activation in response to an increase in the amplitude of the stimulus). We describe how the complementary analog (Ras-GRP) and digital (SOS) pathways act on Ras to efficiently convert analog input to digital output and make predictions regarding the importance of digital signaling in lymphocyte function and development.

Arup K. Chakraborty (Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Department of Chemical Engineering; REV); Jayajit Das (Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Department of Chemical Engineering; REV); Julie Zikherman (University of California; Department of Medicine; REV); Ming Yang (Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Department of Chemical Engineering; REV); Christopher C. Govern (Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Department of Chemical Engineering; REV); Mary Ho (University of California; Department of Anatomy; REV)

2009-04-14

273

Study of spin crossover nanoparticles thermal hysteresis using FORC diagrams on an Ising-like model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in the synthesis and characterization of spin crossover (SCO) nanoparticles and their prospects of switching at molecular level turned these bistable compounds into possible candidates for replacing the materials used in recording media industry for development of solid state pressure and temperature sensors or for bringing contributions in engineering. Compared to bulk samples with the same chemical structure, SCO nanoparticles display different characteristics of the hysteretic and relaxation properties like the shift of the transition temperature towards lower values along with decrease of the hysteresis width with nanoparticles size. Using an Ising-like model with specific boundary conditions within a Monte Carlo procedure, we here reproduce most of the hysteretic properties of SCO nanoparticles by considering the interaction between spin crossover edge molecules and embedding surfactant molecules and we propose a complex analysis concerning the effect of the interactions and sizes during the thermal transition in systems of SCO nanoparticles by using the First Order Reversal Curves diagram method and by comparison with similar effects in mixed crystal systems.

Atitoaie, Alexandru; Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian

2014-11-01

274

Mathematical Curve Conjectures

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a six-foot length of nylon rope is suspended at both ends to model a mathematical curve known as the hyperbolic cosine. In a write-pair-share activity, students are asked to make a conjecture concerning the nature of the curve and then embark on a guided discovery in which they attempt to determine a precise mathematical description of the curve using function notation.

James Rutledge

275

In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

Walusinski, Olivier

2014-01-01

276

Computational micromagnetic study of particulate media hysteresis and recording

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of the micromagnetic theory, algorithms, computer software and computer hardware built and used to study particulate media particles, hysteresis and recording is first provided. This includes a derivation and analysis of the modified version of the Fast Multipole Method used in this dissertation. Results will then be presented on particulate media particle nucleation field dependence on particle shape, particle aspect ratio, ferromagnetic exchange energy and external magnetic field angle. Results on the discretization necessary to accurately model a particle will also be provided. The reversal mode of a particle will be simulated and analyzed. Simulated longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops will be presented. Results will also be presented on particulate media coercivity and squareness dependence on volumetric packing fraction. Simulated recorded transition results will be given as well as total power spectra results for AC and DC erased particulate media. Numerical results will be compared to experimental data and analytical theories. Advice is provided on how to build a personal supercomputer like the one used in the numerical experiments of this dissertation.

Seberino, Christian

2000-11-01

277

Hysteresis-free operation of suspended carbon nanotube transistors.

Single-walled carbon nanotubes offer high sensitivity and very low power consumption when used as field-effect transistors in nanosensors. Suspending nanotubes between pairs of contacts, rather than attaching them to a surface, has many advantages in chemical, optical or displacement sensing applications, as well as for resonant electromechanical systems. Suspended nanotubes can be integrated into devices after nanotube growth, but contamination caused by the accompanying additional process steps can change device properties. Ultraclean suspended nanotubes can also be grown between existing device contacts, but high growth temperatures limit the choice of metals that can be used as contacts. Moreover, when operated in ambient conditions, devices fabricated by either the post- or pre-growth approach typically exhibit gate hysteresis, which makes device behaviour less reproducible. Here, we report the operation of nanotube transistors in a humid atmosphere without hysteresis. Suspended, individual and ultraclean nanotubes are grown directly between unmetallized device contacts, onto which palladium is then evaporated through self-aligned on-chip shadow masks. This yields pairs of needle-shaped source/drain contacts that have been theoretically shown to allow high nanotube-gate coupling and low gate voltages. This process paves the way for creating ultrasensitive nanosensors based on pristine suspended nanotubes. PMID:20601944

Muoth, M; Helbling, T; Durrer, L; Lee, S-W; Roman, C; Hierold, C

2010-08-01

278

Irreversibility and hysteresis in redox molecular conduction junctions.

In this work we present and discuss theoretical models of redox molecular junctions that account for recent observations of nonlinear charge transport phenomena, such as hysteresis and hysteretic negative differential resistance (NDR). A defining feature in such models is the involvement of at least two conduction channels--a slow channel that determines transitions between charge states of the bridge and a fast channel that dominates its conduction. Using Marcus' theory of heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) at metal-molecule interfaces we identify and describe different regimes of nonlinear conduction through redox molecular bridges, where the transferring charge can be highly localized around the redox moiety. This localization and its stabilization by polarization of the surrounding medium and/or conformational changes can lead to decoupling of the current response dynamics from the time scale of the voltage sweep (that is, the current does not adiabatically follow the voltage), hence to the appearance of memory (thermodynamic irreversibility) in this response that is manifested by hysteresis in current-voltage cycles. In standard voltammetry such irreversibility leads to a relative shift of the current peaks along the forward and backward voltage sweeps. The common origin of these behaviors is pointed out, and expressions of the threshold voltage sweep rates are provided. In addition, the theory is extended (a) to analyze the different ways by which such phenomena are manifested in single sweep cycles and in ensemble averages of such cycles and (b) to examine quantum effects in the fast transport channel. PMID:23679824

Migliore, Agostino; Nitzan, Abraham

2013-06-26

279

Contact angle hysteresis and pinning at periodic defects in statics.

This article deals with the theoretical prediction of the wetting hysteresis on nonideal solid surfaces in terms of the surface heterogeneity parameters. The spatially periodical chemical heterogeneity is considered. We propose precise definitions for both the advancing and the receding contact angles for the Wilhelmy plate geometry. It is well known that in such a system, a multitude of metastable states of the liquid meniscus occurs for each different relative position of the defect pattern on the plate with respect to the liquid level. As usual, the static advancing and receding angles are assumed to be a consequence of the preceding contact line motion in the respective direction. It is shown how to select the appropriate states among all metastable states. Their selection is discussed. The proposed definitions are applicable to both the static and the dynamic contact angles on heterogeneous surfaces. The static advancing and receding angles are calculated for two examples of periodic heterogeneity patterns with sharp borders: the horizontal alternating stripes of a different wettability (studied analytically) and the doubly periodic pattern of circular defects on a homogeneous base (studied numerically). The wetting hysteresis is determined as a function of the defect density and the spatial period. A comparison with the existing results is carried out. PMID:25122314

Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Nikolayev, Vadim S

2014-07-01

280

Contact angle hysteresis and pinning at periodic defects in statics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with the theoretical prediction of the wetting hysteresis on nonideal solid surfaces in terms of the surface heterogeneity parameters. The spatially periodical chemical heterogeneity is considered. We propose precise definitions for both the advancing and the receding contact angles for the Wilhelmy plate geometry. It is well known that in such a system, a multitude of metastable states of the liquid meniscus occurs for each different relative position of the defect pattern on the plate with respect to the liquid level. As usual, the static advancing and receding angles are assumed to be a consequence of the preceding contact line motion in the respective direction. It is shown how to select the appropriate states among all metastable states. Their selection is discussed. The proposed definitions are applicable to both the static and the dynamic contact angles on heterogeneous surfaces. The static advancing and receding angles are calculated for two examples of periodic heterogeneity patterns with sharp borders: the horizontal alternating stripes of a different wettability (studied analytically) and the doubly periodic pattern of circular defects on a homogeneous base (studied numerically). The wetting hysteresis is determined as a function of the defect density and the spatial period. A comparison with the existing results is carried out.

Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Nikolayev, Vadim S.

2014-07-01

281

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

2007-01-01

282

Composite curved frames for helicopter fuselage structure

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of analysis and testing of composite curved frames. A major frame was selected from the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter and designed as a composite structure. The curved beam effects were expected to increase flange axial stresses and induce transverse bending. A NASTRAN finite element analysis was conducted and the results were used in the design of composite curved frame specimens. Three specimens were fabricated and five static tests were conducted. The NASTRAN analysis and test results are compared for axial, transverse, and Web strains. Results show the curved beam effects are closely predicted by a NASTRAN analysis and the effects increase with loading on the composite frames.

Rich, M. J.; Lowry, D. W.

1984-01-01

283

Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

Guberman, Steven L.

1994-01-01

284

A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

Raup, D. M.

1991-01-01

285

Discrete regenerative fuel cell reduces hysteresis for sustainable cycling of water

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discrete regenerative fuel cell is being developed as a residential power control that synchronizes with a renewables load which fluctuates significantly with the time and weather. The power of proton exchange membrane fuel cells can be scaled-up adjustably to meet the residential power demand. As a result, scale-ups from a basic unit cell with a 25 cm2 active area create a serpentine flow-field on an active area of 100 cm2 and take into account the excessive current and the remaining power obtained by stacking single cells. Operating a fuel cell utilising oxygen produced by the electrolyser instead of air improves the electrochemical reaction and the water balance. Furthermore, the performance test results with oxygen instead of air show almost no hysteresis, which results in the very stable operation of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell as well as the sustainable cycle of water by hydrogen and oxygen mediums.

Park, Kiwon; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Hyung-Man; Choi, Kap-Seung; Hwang, Gunyong

2014-04-01

286

Discrete regenerative fuel cell reduces hysteresis for sustainable cycling of water

The discrete regenerative fuel cell is being developed as a residential power control that synchronizes with a renewables load which fluctuates significantly with the time and weather. The power of proton exchange membrane fuel cells can be scaled-up adjustably to meet the residential power demand. As a result, scale-ups from a basic unit cell with a 25?cm2 active area create a serpentine flow-field on an active area of 100?cm2 and take into account the excessive current and the remaining power obtained by stacking single cells. Operating a fuel cell utilising oxygen produced by the electrolyser instead of air improves the electrochemical reaction and the water balance. Furthermore, the performance test results with oxygen instead of air show almost no hysteresis, which results in the very stable operation of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell as well as the sustainable cycle of water by hydrogen and oxygen mediums. PMID:24699531

Park, Kiwon; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Hyung-Man; Choi, Kap-Seung; Hwang, Gunyong

2014-01-01

287

Magnetic biasing of a ferroelectric hysteresis loop in a multiferroic orthoferrite.

In a multiferroic orthoferrite Dy0.7Tb0.3FeO3, which shows electric-field-(E-)driven magnetization (M) reversal due to a tight clamping between polarization (P) and M, a gigantic effect of magnetic-field (H) biasing on P-E hysteresis loops is observed in the case of rapid E sweeping. The magnitude of the bias E field can be controlled by varying the magnitude of H, and its sign can be reversed by changing the sign of H or the relative clamping direction between P and M. The origin of this unconventional biasing effect is ascribed to the difference in the Zeeman energy between the +P and -P states coupled with the M states with opposite sign. PMID:24484164

Tokunaga, Y; Taguchi, Y; Arima, T; Tokura, Y

2014-01-24

288

Geomorphological origin of recession curves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties through a conceptual-physical model of the drainage process of the riparian unconfined aquifer. We show that the power-law exponent, ?, of -dQ/dt vs. Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs. G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. Using Digital Terrain Models and daily discharge observations from 67 US basins we find that geomorphologic ? estimates match well the values obtained from recession curves analyses. Finally, we argue that the link between recession flows and network morphology points to an important role of low-flow discharges in shaping the channel network.

Biswal, Basudev; Marani, Marco

2010-12-01

289

Anodic Polarization Curves Revisited

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment published in this "Journal" has been revisited and it is found that the curve pattern of the anodic polarization curve for iron repeats itself successively when the potential scan is repeated. It is surprising that this observation has not been reported previously in the literature because it immediately brings into…

Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Ying; Liu, Lin

2013-01-01

290

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take a solid cube with rods attached at diagonally opposite vertices. Hold the rods horizontally and rapidly spin the cube. (See Figure 1.) You should see a curved outline formed by the spinning cube. The objective of this demos is to discover how the straight edges of the cube become curved. The demo is physically based, but can be simulated within various software packages.

Hill, David R.

2003-02-24

291

Electrostatic curved electrode actuators

In this paper, the design, fabrication, and first experimental results of electrostatic curved electrode actuators are addressed. The actuator design is based upon the deformation of a movable micromechanical structure by electrostatic forces using a fixed curved electrode. When a voltage is applied, an electrostatic force is created that will deform the free structure along the outline of the fixed

Rob Legtenberg; Erwin Berenschot; Miko Elwenspoek; J. H. J. Fluitman

1995-01-01

292

The Lorenz dominance criterion is the centre piece of inequality analysis. Yet, the appeal of this criterion, which requires considering Lorenz curves in their entirety, is undermined by the practical problem that many sample Lorenz curves intersect in the tails. The commonly used inferential methods, based on central limit theorem arguments, do not apply to the tails since these contain

Christian Schluter; Mark Trede

2002-01-01

293

Hysteresis Modeling and Inverse Feedforward Control of an AFM Piezoelectric Scanner Based on Nano of micro/nano technology. As a critical part of AFM system, the piezoelectric scanner exists many defects in this paper possess a good performance for AFM nano imaging. Index Terms-- Hysteresis modeling, feedforward

Li, Yangmin

294

Extension of Hysteresis operators of Preisach-type to real, Lebesgue measurable

Extension of Hysteresis operators of Preisach-type to real, Lebesgue measurable functions R. Iyer to real, Lebesgue measurable functions is then obtained in the standard manner using the re-defined Play operators. Key words: Hysteresis operators of Preisach type, Lebesgue measurable functions. PACS: 75.60.-d

Iyer, Ram Venkataraman

295

Density hysteresis of heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix

Density hysteresis of heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix Yang Zhanga,b , Antonio of heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix in a temperature-pressure range, from 300 to 130 K and from 1 to 2,900 bars, where bulk water will crystalize. We observed a promi- nent hysteresis phenomenon

Chen, Sow-Hsin

296

In this work, PZ–PNN ceramic was prepared by a columbite method and sintered at optimum temperature. The effect of uniaxial compressive stress on the hysteresis properties of PZ–PNN ceramics is investigated. The hysteresis loop and ferroelectric properties under the compressive stress of the ceramics are observed at stress up to 100 MPa using a compressometer in conjunction with a modified

W. C. Vittayakorn; N. Vittayakorn

2009-01-01

297

Modeling and control of a piezoelectric actuator driven system with asymmetric hysteresis

This study describes the high-precision positioning control of a system with asymmetric hysteresis. A switching system concept is adopted to describe the Preisach-type hysteresis, and a systematic modeling procedure is established to obtain the parameters of the system. A piezoelectric actuator system driven by a voltage amplifier is used to verify the modeling accuracy. A control structure, comprising a feedforward

Ming-Jyi Jang; Chieh-Li Chen; Jie-Ren Lee

2009-01-01

298

A Domain Wall Model for Ferroelectric Hysteresis Ralph C. Smith 1 and Craig L. Hom 2

from a PMNÂPTÂBT actuator operating at a temperature within the ferroelectric regime. Keywords: Domain of these materials in high performance actuator design. The nature of hysteresis models for ferroelectric materialsA Domain Wall Model for Ferroelectric Hysteresis Ralph C. Smith 1 and Craig L. Hom 2 1 Center

299

We present a model for the simulation of ferroelectric hysteresis loops. It is based on the Preisach operator and takes advantage of an analytic weight function for the underlying fundamental switching operators. The five independent parameters describing this weight function are determined for a discoidal piezoceramic actuator by adapting the model output to measurements of the polarization. Further hysteresis simulations,

F. Wolf; A. Sutor; S. J. Rupitsch; R. Lerch

2010-01-01

300

A Domain Wall Model for Ferroelectric Hysteresis Ralph C. Smith1 and Craig L. Hom2

from a PMN-PT-BT actuator operating at a temperature within the ferroelectric regime. Keywords: Domain of these materials in high performance actuator design. The nature of hysteresis models for ferroelectric materialsA Domain Wall Model for Ferroelectric Hysteresis Ralph C. Smith1 and Craig L. Hom2 1Center

301

Hysteresis, Avalanches, and Noise Matthew C. Kuntz, Olga Perkovi'c, Karin A. Dahmen,

Hysteresis, Avalanches, and Noise Matthew C. Kuntz, Olga Perkovi'c, Karin A. Dahmen, Bruce W simulations. In our studies of hysteresis and avalanches in a simÂ ple model of magnetism (the random be triggered when one of its neighbors flips (by participating in an avalanche), or a spin can be triggered

Sethna, James P.

302

cond-mat/9809122v223Apr1999 Hysteresis, Avalanches, and Noise

cond-mat/9809122v223Apr1999 Hysteresis, Avalanches, and Noise Matthew C. Kuntz, Olga Perkovi becomes crucial for larger simulations. In our studies of hysteresis and avalanches in a sim- ple model participating in an avalanche), or a spin can be triggered because of an increase in the external field H

Sethna, James P.

303

Manuscript bleed-through removal via hysteresis thresholding Rolando Estrada and Carlo Tomasi

Manuscript bleed-through removal via hysteresis thresholding Rolando Estrada and Carlo Tomasi@cs.duke.edu Abstract Many types of degradation can render ancient manuscripts very hard to read. In bleed, we propose hysteresis thresholding to greatly reduce bleed-through. Thresholding alone cannot

Tomasi, Carlo

304

Hysteresis Caused by Water Molecules in Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect

commonly comprise nanotubes lying on SiO2 surfaces exposed to the ambient environment. It is shown here structure similar to that in Figure 1a) exhibiting hysteresis in current versus gate-voltage (Si as back-gate nanotubes, or traps at the SiO2/Si interface.11,12,14 No dependence of the hysteresis on chemical

Javey, Ali

305

Why Are Some Hysteresis Loops Shaped Like a Butterfly? Bojana Drincic a

Why Are Some Hysteresis Loops Shaped Like a Butterfly? Bojana DrinciÂ´c a , Xiaobo Tan b , Dennis S The contribution of this paper is a framework for relating butterfly-shaped hysteresis maps to simple (single, a unimodal mapping is used to transform simple loops to butterfly loops. For the practically important class

Tan, Xiaobo

306

A setup for measuring the high-frequency hysteresis loops of magnetic samples is described. An alternating magnetic field in the range 6-100 kHz with amplitude up to 80 mT is produced by a Litz wire coil. The latter is air-cooled using a forced-air approach so no water flow is required to run the setup. High-frequency hysteresis loops are measured using a system of pick-up coils and numerical integration of signals. Reproducible measurements are obtained in the frequency range of 6-56 kHz. Measurement examples on ferrite cylinders and on iron oxide nanoparticle ferrofluids are shown. Comparison with other measurement methods of the hysteresis loop area (complex susceptibility, quasi-static hysteresis loops, and calorific measurements) is provided and shows the coherency of the results obtained with this setup. This setup is well adapted to the magnetic characterization of colloidal solutions of magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia applications. PMID:25273736

Connord, V; Mehdaoui, B; Tan, R P; Carrey, J; Respaud, M

2014-09-01

307

Characterization of hysteresis in magnetic systems: A Preisach approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of hysteresis is perhaps the most widely recognized microscopic manifestation of magnetic ordering, and is the principal feature which is responsible for technologically-oriented applications of magnetic materials such as permanent magnets and recording media. Interest in a phenomenological model of hysteresis originally proposed by Preisach in 1935 has been renewed recently, particularly in engineering applications, such as the characterization of magnetic recording media and magnetostrictive materials. Thus, a rigorous assessment of the capabilities and limitations of the Preisach model for characterizing magnetic materials is of considerable importance from both fundamental and technological perspectives. The fundamental characteristics of hysteresis are discussed and a theoretical background for the processes involved in magnetic systems is established. A generalized version of the scalar Preisach model, which includes original contributions, is developed to extend the model's abilities to describe the effects of the structure of the initially demagnetized state, the presence and nature of interactions, the system's coercive field distribution, and especially, the effects of temperature and experimental wart time, on the observed hysteretic properties of a variety of magnetic systems including spin glasses, ferromagnets, ferrimagnets, and superparamagnets. The moment and remanence of magnetic systems are measured as a function of applied field and temperature, using both a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a SQUID-based magnetometer. A Preisach analysis of the data is used to characterize the irreversible response of six magnetic systems: CrO 2 audio tape; magnetoferritin; a Nd2Fe14B permanent magnet; a floppy disk medium; and longitudinal and perpendicular cobalt-chromium-based hard disk materials. The ambiguous nature of tools presently used to analyze the nature of magnetic systems, such as the application of Henkel plots to the analysis of interaction effects, is demonstrated and alternative Preisach-based analysis schemes are presented. The physical significance of parameters, which emerged from the Preisach calculations, is discussed in detail and modifications are proposed to model this array of real magnetic systems. These changes to the scalar Preisach model extend its capabilities, while maintaining the inherent simplicity of a scalar model. Limitations of the model are also discussed critically, and suggestions for future generalizations are made.

Mitchler, Patricia Darlene

308

Ultralyophobic oxidized aluminum surfaces exhibiting negligible contact angle hysteresis.

Ultralyophobic oxidized aluminum surfaces exhibiting negligible contact angle hysteresis for probe liquids were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of bis((tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2,-tetrahydrooctyl)-dimethylsiloxy)methylsilane (CF(3)(CF(2))(5)CH(2)CH(2)Si(CH(3))(2)O)(2)SiCH(3)H, (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH). Oxidized aluminum surfaces were prepared by photooxidation/cleaning of sputter-coated aluminum on silicon wafers (Si/Al(Al(2)(O(3)))) using oxygen plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed that this facile CVD method produces a monolayer with a thickness of 1.1 nm on the Si/Al(Al(2)(O(3))) surface without a discernible change in surface morphology. After monolayer deposition, the hydrophilic Si/Al(Al(2)(O(3))) surface became both hydrophobic and oleophobic and exhibited essentially no contact angle hysteresis for water and n-hexadecane (advancing/receding contact angles (theta(A)/theta(R)) = 110 degrees/109 degrees and 52 degrees/50 degrees, respectively). Droplets move very easily on this surface and roll off of slightly tilted surfaces, independently of the contact angle (which is a practical definition of ultralyophobic). A conventional fluoroalkylsilane monolayer was also prepared from 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrimethoxysilane (CF(3)(CF(2))(7)CH(2)CH(2)Si(OCH(3))(3), R(F)Si(OMe)(3)) for comparison. The theta(A)/theta(R) values for water and n-hexadecane are 121 degrees/106 degrees and 76 degrees/71 degrees, respectively. The larger hysteresis values indicate the "pinning" of probe liquids, even though advancing contact angles are larger than those of the (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH-derived monolayers. The (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH-derived monolayers have excellent hydrolytic stability in water. We propose that the (R(F)Si(Me)(2)O)(2)SiMeH-derived monolayers are flexible and liquidlike and that drops in contact with these surfaces experience very low energy barriers between metastable states, leading to the formation of nonhysteretic ultralyophobic surfaces. PMID:20030348

Hozumi, Atsushi; McCarthy, Thomas J

2010-02-16

309

Effect of surface texturing on superoleophobicity, contact angle hysteresis, and "robustness".

Previously, we reported the creation of a fluorosilane (FOTS) modified pillar array silicon surface comprising ~3-?m-diameter pillars (6 ?m pitch with ~7 ?m height) that is both superhydrophobic and superoleophobic, with water and hexadecane contact angles exceeding 150° and sliding angles at ~10° owing to the surface fluorination and the re-entrant structure in the side wall of the pillar. In this work, the effects of surface texturing (pillar size, spacing, and height) on wettability, contact angle hysteresis, and "robustness" are investigated. We study the static, advancing, and receding contact angles, as well as the sliding angles as a function of the solid area fraction. The results reveal that pillar size and pillar spacing have very little effect on the static and advancing contact angles, as they are found to be insensitive to the solid area fraction from 0.04 to ~0.4 as the pillar diameter varies from 1 to 5 ?m and the center-to-center spacing varies from 4.5 to 12 ?m. On the other hand, sliding angle, receding contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis are found to be dependent on the solid area fraction. Specifically, receding contact angle decreases and sliding angle and hysteresis increase as the solid area fraction increases. This effect can be attributable to the increase in pinning as the solid area fraction increases. Surface Evolver modeling shows that water wets and pins the pillar surface whereas hexadecane wets the pillar surface and then penetrates into the side wall of the pillar with the contact line pinning underneath the re-entrant structure. Due to the penetration of the hexadecane drop into the pillar structure, the effect on the receding contact angle and hysteresis is larger relative to that of water. This interpretation is supported by studying a series of FOTS pillar array surfaces with varying overhang thickness. With the water drop, the contact line is pinned on the pillar surface and very little overhang thickness effect was observed. On the other hand, the hexadecane drop is shown to wet the pillar surface and the side wall of the overhang. It then pins at the lower edge of the overhang structure. A plot of the thickness of the overhang as a function of the static, advancing, and receding contact angles and sliding angle of hexadecane reveals that static, advancing, and receding contact angles decrease and sliding angle increases as the thickness of the overhang increases. A larger overhang effect is observed with octane due to its lower surface tension. The robustness of the pillar array surface against external pressure induced wetting and abrasion was modeled. Surface Evolver simulation (with the hexadecane drop) indicates that wetting breakthrough pressure as high as ~70 kPa is achievable with 0.5-?m-diameter pillar array FOTS surfaces. Mechanical modeling shows that bending of the pillars is the key failure by abrasion, which can be avoided with a short pillar structure. The path to fabricate a superoleophobic surface that can withstand the external force equivalent of a gentle cleaning blade (up to ~30 kPa) without wetting and abrasion failure is discussed. PMID:22992132

Zhao, Hong; Park, Kyoo-Chul; Law, Kock-Yee

2012-10-23

310

Cumulative growth of minor hysteresis loops in the Kolmogorov model

The phenomenon of nonrepeatability of successive remagnetization cycles in Co/M (M = Pt, Pd, Au) multilayer film structures is explained in the framework of the Kolmogorov crystallization model. It is shown that this model of phase transitions can be adapted so as to adequately describe the process of magnetic relaxation in the indicated systems with 'memory.' For this purpose, it is necessary to introduce some additional elements into the model, in particular, (i) to take into account the fact that every cycle starts from a state 'inherited' from the preceding cycle and (ii) to assume that the rate of growth of a new magnetic phase depends on the cycle number. This modified model provides a quite satisfactory qualitative and quantitative description of all features of successive magnetic relaxation cycles in the system under consideration, including the surprising phenomenon of cumulative growth of minor hysteresis loops.

Meilikhov, E. Z., E-mail: meilikhov@imp.kiae.ru; Farzetdinova, R. M. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)] [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2013-01-15

311

Mechanical Properties of Spider Dragline Silk: Humidity, Hysteresis, and Relaxation

Spider silk is well-known for its outstanding mechanical properties. However, there is a significant variation of these properties in literature and studies analyzing large numbers of silk samples to explain these variations are still lacking. To fill this gap, the following work examines the mechanical properties of major ampullate silk based on a large ensemble of threads from Nephila clavipes and Nephila senegalensis. In addition, the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the mechanical properties was quantified. The large effect of RH on the mechanical properties makes it plausible that the variation in the literature values can to a large extent be attributed to changes in RH. Spider silk's most remarkable property—its high tenacity—remains unchanged. In addition, this work also includes hysteresis as well as relaxation measurements. It is found that the relaxation process is well described by a stretched exponential decay. PMID:17766337

Vehoff, T.; Glišovi?, A.; Schollmeyer, H.; Zippelius, A.; Salditt, T.

2007-01-01

312

Transient hysteresis of storm tracks response to anthropogenic forcing variation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we consider midlatitude storm tracks of Northern Hemisphere. The storm tracks are the regions of strong baroclinicity with which surface cyclones are associated. The effect of increasing and following decreasing anthropogenic load on storm tracks activity was investigated. The global climate system model of intermediate complexity ("Planet Simulator", Fraedrich K. et al., 2005) was used for this study. Anthropogenic forcing was set according to continued till 4000 AD climatic scenario RCP8.5 with the reduction of anthropogenic load to preindustrial value at different intensities (100 and 1000 years). The transient hysteresis in dependence of storm tracks activity versus global atmospheric temperature was exhibited. Moreover, poleward shift of storm tracks with the anthropogenic forcing increase and their following backward shift with the anthropogenic forcing decrease was demonstrated. This work is partially supported by SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant 13-05-12034, 13-05-00480, 14-05-00502.

Martynova, Yuliya; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir

2014-05-01

313

Micromagnetic simulations of hysteresis in an array of cobalt nanotubes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we perform modeling of hysteresis measurements, described earlier by Crowley et al., of an array of cobalt nanotubes using a single infinite tube simulation. The modeling has been performed under the assumptions that (i) the long axis of the tube is the hard axis of the anisotropy and (ii) in the experiment we deal with a distribution of different tubes, each having a different anisotropy constant. The best fit to the experimental result is achieved using a log-normal anisotropy distribution, with a peak value close to -0.2 MJ/m 3. The distribution parameters are nearly the same for both experimental temperatures, Texp=1.8 and 300 K. These parameters are only weakly dependent on the tube-wall width and the material parameters.

Lebecki, K. M.; Kazakova, O.; Gutowski, M. W.

2008-02-01

314

GENERALIZED MORDELL CURVES, GENERALIZED FERMAT CURVES, AND THE HASSE PRINCIPLE

GENERALIZED MORDELL CURVES, GENERALIZED FERMAT CURVES, AND THE HASSE PRINCIPLE NGUYEN NGOC DONG. The descending chain condition on sequences of curves 18 6. Certain generalized Fermat curves violating the Hasse of generalized Fermat curves 33 9. Epilogue 35 Acknowledgements 45 References 45 Abstract. A generalized Mordell

Nguyen, Dong Quan Ngoc

315

To realize an analog artificial neural network hardware, the circuit element for synapse function is important because the number of synapse elements is much larger than that of neuron elements. One of the candidates for this synapse element is a ferroelectric memristor. This device functions as a voltage controllable variable resistor, which can be applied to a synapse weight. However, its conductance shows hysteresis characteristics and dispersion to the input voltage. Therefore, the conductance values vary according to the history of the height and the width of the applied pulse voltage. Due to the difficulty of controlling the accurate conductance, it is not easy to apply the back-propagation learning algorithm to the neural network hardware having memristor synapses. To solve this problem, we proposed and simulated a learning operation procedure as follows. Employing a weight perturbation technique, we derived the error change. When the error reduced, the next pulse voltage was updated according to the back-propagation learning algorithm. If the error increased the amplitude of the next voltage pulse was set in such way as to cause similar memristor conductance but in the opposite voltage scanning direction. By this operation, we could eliminate the hysteresis and confirmed that the simulation of the learning operation converged. We also adopted conductance dispersion numerically in the simulation. We examined the probability that the error decreased to a designated value within a predetermined loop number. The ferroelectric has the characteristics that the magnitude of polarization does not become smaller when voltages having the same polarity are applied. These characteristics greatly improved the probability even if the learning rate was small, if the magnitude of the dispersion is adequate. Because the dispersion of analog circuit elements is inevitable, this learning operation procedure is useful for analog neural network hardware. PMID:25393715

Ueda, Michihito; Nishitani, Yu; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Omote, Atsushi

2014-01-01

316

Episodic variations in dissolved solutes are frequently complicated by a cyclical relationship between concentration and stream discharge. Established three-component models of runoff generation are used to explain this hysteresis effect and to illustrate how different component concentrations produce different hysteresis forms. It is demonstrated that a two-component model cannot reproduce all the hysteresis forms commonly observed. A method, based on

Christopher Evans; Trevor D. Davies

1998-01-01

317

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive demo illustrates the generation of a logistic curve. This demo is appropriate for a pre-calculus course, but is quite effective in a calculus class immediately after a discussion of inflection points.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2002-02-03

318

Short-run cost curves shift over time as depletion counters increasing knowledge. Under competition, a rightward (leftward) shift indicates lower (higher) cost and greater (lesser) productivity. A simple coefficient captures ...

Adelman, Morris Albert

1998-01-01

319

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to the normal distribution or bell curve. The lesson also discusses controversy behind the interpretation of the bell curve. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to the normal distribution as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2011-05-23

320

Enhancement of coil-stretch hysteresis by self-concentration in polymer solutions

The effect of concentration on coil-stretch hysteresis in extensional flows of polymer solutions is examined with insights from Brownian dynamics simulations of isolated chains and scaling theory for non-dilute solutions. In the hysteresis regime, stretched molecules pervade larger volumes than equilibrium coils. For such chains, intermolecular overlap and hydrodynamic screening crossover set in at concentrations much smaller than the critical overlap concentration $c^\\ast$ for equilibrium coils. The width of the hysteresis window is consequently strongly enhanced around $c^\\ast$.

Ranganathan Prabhakar

2013-01-31

321

Molecular thermal hysteresis in helix-dimer formation of sulfonamidohelicene oligomers in solution.

Sulfonamidohelicene oligomers up to the nonamer level were synthesized by the repeated coupling reactions of a building block. A tetramer formed a helix dimer in 1,3-difluorobenzene, which unfolded to a random coil with heating. This structural change exhibited thermal hysteresis in which different thermal responses were observed in the course of temperature increase and decrease. The feature of the hysteresis was examined under different heating/cooling modes, and the mechanisms are discussed on the basis of the population change and the presence of an induction period. A proposal regarding the use of thermal hysteresis for sensing a temperature increase/decrease is also given. PMID:23775763

Shigeno, Masanori; Kushida, Yo; Yamaguchi, Masahiko

2013-07-29

322

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the control system design for a piezoelectric actuator (PEA) for a high-speed trajectory scanning application. First nonlinear hysteresis is compensated for by using the Maxwell resistive capacitor model. Then the linear dynamics of the hysteresis-compensated piezoelectric actuator are identified. A proportional plus integral (PI) controller is designed based on the linear system, enhanced by feedforward hysteresis compensation. It is found that the feedback controller does not always improve tracking accuracy. When the input frequency exceeds a certain value, feedforward control only may result in better control performance. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

Liu, Yanfang; Shan, Jinjun; Gabbert, Ulrich

2015-01-01

323

"Universal" Recession Curves and their Geomorphological Roots

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic structural organization of channel networks, and of the connected hillslopes, have been shown to be intimately linked to basin responses to rainfall events, leading to geomorphological theories of the hydrologic response. Here, We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties. We show that the power-law exponent of -dQ/dt vs. Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs. G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. We then generalize the power-law expressions of recession curves, to identify "universal" curves, independent of the initial moisture conditions and of basin area, by making the -dQ/dt vs. Q curve non-dimensional using an index discharge representative of initial moisture conditions. We subsequently rescale the geomorphic recession curve, N(l) vs. G(l), producing a collapse of the geomorphic recession curves constructed from the DTM's of 67 US study basins. Finally, by use of the specific discharge u = Q/A, we link the two previous results and define the specific recession curves, whose collapse across basins within homogeneous geographical areas lends further, decisive, support to the notion that the statistical properties of observational recession curves bear the signature of the geomorphological structure of the networks producing them.

Marani, M.; Biswal, B.

2011-12-01

324

15. View South on Wabash of Dan Ryan Line showing ...

15. View South on Wabash of Dan Ryan Line showing curve from Harrison St. Photo by Jet Lowe. - Union Elevated Railroad, Union Loop, Wells, Van Buren, Lake Streets & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

325

10. VIEW SHOWING TWO BUTTRESSES ON THE NORTH ELEVATION, WHICH ...

10. VIEW SHOWING TWO BUTTRESSES ON THE NORTH ELEVATION, WHICH SUPPORT A DEEP CURVE IN THE LONGEST SECTION OF THE WALL, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

326

Molecular dynamics simulations of the melting curves and nucleation of nickel under pressure

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three embedded atom method potentials have been applied to investigate the melting properties of nickel under compression. In these three potentials, Mendelev's potential can reproduce a satisfying melting curve, which accords well with the experiments and first-principles calculations. Thus, we recommend that the Mendelev's potential should be a reliable potential for simulating melting properties of nickel. Using Mendelev's potential, we calculated the melting of Ni with two approaches, i.e., hysteresis approach and two-phase method. Both approaches produce results in very close proximity, with the disagreement less than 4.35% at the applied pressures. Fitting the well-known Simon equation to our melting data yields the melting curves for Ni: 1651(1+P/35.172)0.607 (hysteresis approach) and 1725(1+P/39.812)0.617 (two-phase approach). Based on the hysteresis method, we investigated in detail the melting nucleation of nickel at high pressure, and found that with pressure increasing, the critical nucleus size r* increases fast first and then decreases, and again rises. When taking account of the Gibbs free energy barrier ?G*, it found that the ?G* increase monotonically with pressure up to 300 GPa, and can be described as a third-order polynomial relation.

Zhang, Wen-Jin; Liu, Zhong-Li; Peng, Yu-Feng

2014-09-01

327

Design of an efficient elliptic curve cryptography coprocessor

Elliptic curve cryptography plays a crucial role in networking and communication security. FPGA based architecture of elliptic curve cryptography coprocessor is proposed in this paper. The coprocessor contains the operation over binary finite fields, point adding, doubling and scalar multiplication on elliptic curve. In this coprocessor a new type of FPGA-based modular multiplier architecture is proposed. Experiment results show that

B. MuthuKumar; S. Jeevanantharr

2009-01-01

328

Observing the yield curve of compacted pack ice

A method for observing the yield curve of compacted pack ice is developed based on the characteristic analysis of the stress field within the pack ice. The analysis shows that the slope of the yield curve is associated with the angle between intersecting linear kinematic features; thus by measuring the intersection angles we can inversely estimate the yield curve. Applying

Keguang Wang

2007-01-01

329

Although the temperature response of soil respiration (Rs) has been studied extensively, several issues remain unresolved, including hysteresis in the Rs–temperature relationship and differences in the long- vs. short-term Rs sensitivity to temperature. Progress on these issues will contribute to reduced uncertainties in carbon cycle modeling. We monitored soil CO2 efflux with an automated chamber system in a Pinus tabulaeformis plantation near Beijing throughout 2011. Soil temperature at 10-cm depth (Ts) exerted a strong control over Rs, with the annual temperature sensitivity (Q10) and basal rate at 10°C (Rs10) being 2.76 and 1.40 µmol m?2 s?1, respectively. Both Rs and short-term (i.e., daily) estimates of Rs10 showed pronounced seasonal hysteresis with respect to Ts, with the efflux in the second half of the year being larger than that early in the season for a given temperature. The hysteresis may be associated with the confounding effects of microbial population dynamics and/or litter input. As a result, all of the applied regression models failed to yield unbiased estimates of Rs over the entire annual cycle. Lags between Rs and Ts were observed at the diel scale in the early and late growing season, but not in summer. The seasonality in these lags may be due to the use of a single Ts measurement depth, which failed to represent seasonal changes in the depth of CO2 production. Daily estimates of Q10 averaged 2.04, smaller than the value obtained from the seasonal relationship. In addition, daily Q10 decreased with increasing Ts, which may contribute feedback to the climate system under global warming scenarios. The use of a fixed, universal Q10 is considered adequate when modeling annual carbon budgets across large spatial extents. In contrast, a seasonally-varying, environmentally-controlled Q10 should be used when short-term accuracy is required. PMID:23469089

Jia, Xin; Zha, Tianshan; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Wenjing; Wang, Xiaoping; Yu, Haiqun; He, Guimei

2013-01-01

330

Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

331

This paper proposes a simple current error space vector based hysteresis controller for two-level inverter fed Induction Motor (IM) drives. This proposed hysteresis controller retains all advantages of conventional current error space vector based hysteresis controllers like fast dynamic response, simple to implement, adjacent voltage vector switching etc. The additional advantage of this proposed hysteresis controller is that it gives

Rijil Ramchand; Chintan Patel; Anandarup Das; K. Sivakumar; K. Gopakumar; L. M. Patnaik

2010-01-01

332

We consider configurations of Neveu-Schwarz fivebranes, Dirichlet fourbranes and an orientifold sixplane in type IIA string theory. Upon lifting the configuration to M-theory and proposing a description of how to include the effects of the orientifold sixplane we derive the curves describing the Coulomb branch of N=2 gauge theories with orthogonal and symplectic gauge groups, product gauge groups of the form SU(k_1)...SU(k_i) x SO(N) and SU(k_1)...SU(k_i) x Sp(N). We also propose new curves describing theories with unitary gauge groups and matter in the symmetric or antisymmetric representation.

Karl Landsteiner; Esperanza Lopez

1997-08-22

333

We consider configurations of Neveu-Schwarz fivebranes, Dirichlet fourbranes and an orientifold sixplane in type IIA string theory. Upon lifting the configuration to M-theory and proposing a description of how to include the effects of the orientifold sixplane we derive the curves describing the Coulomb branch of N=2 gauge theories with orthogonal and symplectic gauge groups, product gauge groups of the form SU(k_1)...SU(k_i) x SO(N) and SU(k_1)...SU(k_i) x Sp(N). We also propose new curves describing theories with unitary gauge groups and matter in the symmetric or antisymmetric representation.

Landsteiner, K; Landsteiner, Karl; Lopez, Esperanza

1998-01-01

334

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calculus texts have problems on finding the Areas between Curves in the chapters on applications of Integration. The NCB suggests finding some of these examples in a text and trying them in Harumi's graph. Experimenting on a computer with the approximation for finding the area using rectangles is fascinating. As the number of rectangles increases, the approximation improves. Therefore, mathematicians define the area A between the two curves as the limit of the sum of the areas of these approximating rectangles where n is the number of rectangles bounded between a and b.

Monroy, Harumi

2006-01-01

335

Magnetic structure and hysteresis in hard magnetic nanocrystalline film: Computer simulation

Magnetic structure and hysteresis in hard magnetic nanocrystalline film: Computer simulation simulations are used to study the effect of crystallographic textures on the magnetic properties of uniaxial nanocrystalline films of hard magnetic materials with arbitrary grain shapes and size distributions

Laughlin, David E.

336

Investigation of the Temperature Hysteresis Phenomenon of a Loop Heat Pipe

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The temperature hysteresis phenomenon of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was experimentally investigated. The temperature hysteresis was identified by the fact that the operating temperature depends upon not only the imposed power but also the previous history of the power variation. The temperature hysteresis could impose limitations on the LHP applications since the LHP may exhibit different steady-state operating temperatures at a given power input even when the condenser sink temperature remains unchanged. In order to obtain insight to this phenomenon, a LHP was tested at different elevations and tilts by using an elaborated power profile. A hypothesis was suggested to explain the temperature hysteresis. This hypothesis explains well the experimental observations. Results of this study provide a better understanding of the performance characteristics of the LHPS.

Kaya, Tarik; Ku, Jentung; Hoang, Triem; Cheung, Mark K.

1999-01-01

337

Mixed convection on a horizontal surface within a partial enclosure: Hysteresis effects

In this paper, the authors report results of a numerical study of mixed convection over a horizontal surface in a partially open adiabatic symmetric vertical channel for different enclosure configurations. Specifically, they study the effect of the height of the exit opening and the aspect ratio on the hysteresis effect observed in such enclosures. As w*, the ratio of the height of the exit opening to the height of the enclosure is increased, the extent of the hysteresis loop shifts. However, at a value of w* = 0.6, the hysteresis loop actually gets bigger. Moreover a periodic, unsteady behavior of the flow is also observed for low Reynolds number. As the aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of width to height of the enclosure) is decreased, the hysteresis loop shifts again. These interesting flow characteristics and associated heat transfer are discussed in detail. The paper also reports the effect of outlet boundary conditions on the flow and temperature fields.

Calmidi, V.V.; Mahajan, R.L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31

338

13. M M Abstract -- In electromagnetic applications, hysteresis phenomena in magnetic materials, electrical engineering is concerned with energy efficiency. In addition, in the case of electromagnetic.. Following the predefined criteria such as induction response and losses computation, some compatible models

Boyer, Edmond

339

Avalanches and hysteresis in frustrated superconductors and XY spin glasses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study avalanches along the hysteresis loop of long-range interacting spin glasses with continuous XY symmetry, which serves as a toy model of granular superconductors with long-range and frustrated Josephson couplings. We identify sudden jumps in the T =0 configurations of the XY phases as an external field is increased. They are initiated by the softest mode of the inverse susceptibility matrix becoming unstable, which induces an avalanche of phase updates (or spin alignments). We analyze the statistics of these events and study the correlation between the nonlinear avalanches and the soft mode that initiates them. We find that the avalanches follow the directions of a small fraction of the softest modes of the inverse susceptibility matrix, similarly as was found in avalanches in jammed systems. In contrast to the similar Ising spin glass (Sherrington-Kirkpatrick) studied previously, we find that avalanches are not distributed with a scale-free power law but rather have a typical size which scales with the system size. We also observe that the Hessians of the spin-glass minima are not part of standard random matrix ensembles as the lowest eigenvector has a fractal support.

Sharma, Auditya; Andreanov, Alexei; Müller, Markus

2014-10-01

340

Avalanches and hysteresis in frustrated superconductors and XY spin glasses.

We study avalanches along the hysteresis loop of long-range interacting spin glasses with continuous XY symmetry, which serves as a toy model of granular superconductors with long-range and frustrated Josephson couplings. We identify sudden jumps in the T=0 configurations of the XY phases as an external field is increased. They are initiated by the softest mode of the inverse susceptibility matrix becoming unstable, which induces an avalanche of phase updates (or spin alignments). We analyze the statistics of these events and study the correlation between the nonlinear avalanches and the soft mode that initiates them. We find that the avalanches follow the directions of a small fraction of the softest modes of the inverse susceptibility matrix, similarly as was found in avalanches in jammed systems. In contrast to the similar Ising spin glass (Sherrington-Kirkpatrick) studied previously, we find that avalanches are not distributed with a scale-free power law but rather have a typical size which scales with the system size. We also observe that the Hessians of the spin-glass minima are not part of standard random matrix ensembles as the lowest eigenvector has a fractal support. PMID:25375434

Sharma, Auditya; Andreanov, Alexei; Müller, Markus

2014-10-01

341

Solute concentration-dependent contact angle hysteresis and evaporation stains.

The presence of nonvolatile solutes in a liquid drop on a solid surface can affect the wetting properties. Depending on the surface-activity of the solutes, the extent of contact angle hysteresis (CAH) can vary with their concentration and the pattern of the evaporation stain is altered accordingly. In this work, four types of concentration-dependent CAH and evaporation stains are identified for a water drop containing polymeric additives on polycarbonate. For polymers without surface-activity such as dextran, advancing and receding contact angles (?a and ?r) are independent of solute concentrations, and a concentrated stain is observed in the vicinity of the drop center after complete evaporation. For polymers with weak surface-activity such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), both ?a and ?r are decreased by solute addition, and the stain pattern varies with increasing PEG concentration, including a concentrated stain and a mountain-like island. For polymers with intermediate surface-activity such as sodium polystyrenesulfonate (NaPSS), ?a descends slightly, but ?r decreases significantly after the addition of a substantial amount of NaPSS, and a ring-like stain pattern is observed. Moreover, the size of the ring stain can be controlled by NaPSS concentration. For polymers with strong surface-activity such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), ?a remains essentially a constant, but ?r is significantly lowered after the addition of a small amount of PVP, and the typical ring-like stain is seen. PMID:24933206

Li, Yueh-Feng; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

2014-07-01

342

Droplet evaporation dynamics on a superhydrophobic surface with negligible hysteresis.

We report on experiments of droplet evaporation on a structured superhydrophobic surface that displays very high contact angle (CA ? 160 deg), and negligible contact angle hysteresis (<1 deg). The droplet evaporation is observed to occur in a constant-contact-angle mode, with contact radius shrinking for almost the entire duration of evaporation. Experiments conducted on Teflon-coated smooth surface (CA ? 120 deg) as a baseline also support an evaporation process that is dominated by a constant-contact-angle mode. The experimental results are compared with an isothermal diffusion model for droplet evaporation from the literature. Good agreement is observed for the Teflon-coated smooth surface between the analytical expression and experimental results in terms of the total time for evaporation, transient volume, contact angle, and contact radius. However, for the structured superhydrophobic surface, the experiments indicate that the time taken for complete evaporation of the droplet is greater than the predicted time, across all droplet volumes. This disparity is attributed primarily to the evaporative cooling at the droplet interface due to the high aspect ratio of the droplet and also the lower effective thermal conductivity of the substrate due to the presence of air gaps. This hypothesis is verified by numerically evaluating the temperature distribution along the droplet interface. We propose a generalized relation for predicting the instantaneous volume of droplets with initial CA > 90 deg, irrespective of the mode of evaporation. PMID:23952149

Dash, Susmita; Garimella, Suresh V

2013-08-27

343

Ion-dosage-dependent room-temperature hysteresis in MOS structures with thin oxides

Two sets of metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) structures with oxide thicknesses of 115 and 350 Å, respectively, were exposed to 16-keV Si ion beams after dry oxidation. Small-signal capacitance-voltage measurements at room temperature revealed a hysteresis effect in the ion exposed samples, whose magnitude and direction depended on the ion dosage. No hysteresis could be detected in the control (unimplanted) samples. Mobile

Arya Raychaudhuri; S. Chatterjee; S. Ashok; S. Kar

1991-01-01

344

Constricted hysteresis loop and microstructure of Cu-Mn-Al alloys

The microstructure of 44.7 Cu-20.6 Mn-34.7 Al (at.%) alloy, which exhibits a remarkable constricted hysteresis loop in the as-cast state, has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that the constricted hysteresis loop is caused by the nonuniform precipitation of nonmagnetic Cu9Al4 particles in the ferromagnetic Cu2MnAl matrix.

K. Narita; S. Koga

1977-01-01

345

The paper proposes a novel magnetic field sensor where a technique for hysteresis compensation is employed. The sensor integrates a magnetostrictive material with a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) strain sensor. Because of hysteresis and non-linear phenomena taking place in such materials, the sensor’s performances may be sensibly reduced. To this aim, magneto-elastic material is accurately modelled in order to compensate

D. Davino; C. Visone; C. Ambrosino; S. Campopiano; A. Cusano; A. Cutolo

2008-01-01

346

Large thermal hysteresis for iron(II) spin crossover complexes with N-(pyrid-4-yl)isonicotinamide.

A new series of iron(II) 1D coordination polymers with the general formula [FeL1(pina)]·xsolvent with L1 being a tetradentate N2O2(2-) coordinating Schiff-base-like ligand [([3,3']-[1,2-phenylenebis(iminomethylidyne)]bis(2,4-pentanedionato)(2-)-N,N',O(2),O(2)'], and pina being a bridging axial ligand N-(pyrid-4-yl)isonicotinamide, are discussed. The X-ray crystal structure of [FeL1(pina)]·2MeOH was solved for the low-spin state. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c, and the analysis of the crystal packing reveals the formation of a hydrogen bond network where additional methanol molecules are included. Different magnetic properties are observed for the seven samples analyzed, depending on the nature of the included solvent molecules. The widest hysteresis loop is observed for a fine crystalline sample of composition [FeL1(pina)]·xH2O/MeOH. The 88 K wide thermal hysteresis loop (T1/2? = 328 K and T1/2? = 240 K) is centered around room temperature and can be repeated without of a loss of the spin transition properties. For the single crystals of [FeL1(pina)]·2MeOH, a 51 K wide hysteresis loop is observed (T1/2? = 296 K and T1/2? = 245 K) that is also stable for several cycles. For a powder sample of [FeL1(pina)]·0.5H2O·0.5MeOH a cooperative spin transition with a 46 K wide hysteresis loop around room temperature is observed (T1/2? = 321 K and T1/2? = 275 K). This compound was further investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy and DSC. Both methods reveal that, in the cooling mode, the spin transition is accompanied by a phase transition while in the heating mode a loss of the included methanol is observed that leads to a loss of the spin transition properties. These results show that the pina ligand was used successfully in a crystal-engineering-like approach to generate 1D coordination polymers and improve their spin crossover properties. PMID:25314334

Lochenie, Charles; Bauer, Wolfgang; Railliet, Antoine P; Schlamp, Stephan; Garcia, Yann; Weber, Birgit

2014-11-01

347

Titania nanorods curve to lower their energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous formation of curved nanorods is generally unexpected, since curvature introduces strain energy. However, electron microscopy shows that under hydrothermal conditions, some nanorods grown by oriented attachment of small anatase particles on {101} surfaces are curved and dislocation free. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the lattice energy of a curved anatase rod is actually lower than that of a linear rod due to more attractive long-range interatomic Coulombic interactions among atoms in the curved rod. The thermodynamic driving force stemming from lattice energy could be harnessed to produce asymmetric morphologies unexpected from classical Ostwald ripening with unusual shapes and properties.Spontaneous formation of curved nanorods is generally unexpected, since curvature introduces strain energy. However, electron microscopy shows that under hydrothermal conditions, some nanorods grown by oriented attachment of small anatase particles on {101} surfaces are curved and dislocation free. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the lattice energy of a curved anatase rod is actually lower than that of a linear rod due to more attractive long-range interatomic Coulombic interactions among atoms in the curved rod. The thermodynamic driving force stemming from lattice energy could be harnessed to produce asymmetric morphologies unexpected from classical Ostwald ripening with unusual shapes and properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis of nanocrystalline titania; X-ray characterization of samples; electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) examination of samples; surface charges needed to bend an anatase nanorod; structure modeling and energy minimization; molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; structures of anatase nanorods from MD. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02616g

Zhang, Hengzhong; Finnegan, Michael P.; Banfield, Jillian F.

2013-07-01

348

Factorization with genus 2 curves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elliptic curve method (ECM) is one of the best factorization methods available. It is possible to use hyperelliptic curves instead of elliptic curves but it is in theory slower. We use special hyperelliptic curves and Kummer surfaces to reduce the complexity of the algorithm. Our implementation GMP-HECM is faster than GMP-ECM for factoring large numbers.

Cosset, Romain

2010-04-01

349

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hysteresis nonlinearities of a magnetostrictive actuator were characterized under different amplitudes of simple and complex harmonic excitations over a wide range of frequencies (10-200 Hz) and magnetic bias levels (35-75 kA m-1). The measured data revealed asymmetric output-input characteristics and strong dependence on the magnetic bias, amplitude and frequency of the input. Output saturation was also observed under moderate to high amplitude excitations. A phenomenological hysteresis model is proposed in this study to model the hysteresis nonlinearities of a magnetostrictive actuator. A rate-dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii model integrating a memoryless function of deadband operator was subsequently formulated to describe both the rate dependence and the asymmetric hysteresis loops of the magnetostrictive actuator in addition to the output saturation. Comparisons of the integrated Prandtl-Ishlinskii model responses with the measured data suggested that the model can effectively describe the nonlinear hysteresis properties of the magnetostrictive actuator over a broad range of excitation amplitudes and frequencies. The inverse of the proposed rate-dependent Prandtl-Ishlinskii model can be obtained analytically. Then, the inverse model can be applied as feedforward compensator for compensation of asymmetric rate-dependent hysteresis nonlinearities without using feedback control techniques.

Aljanaideh, Omar; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

2014-03-01

350

Uncertainty propagation: Curve fitting

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn a sample-variance curve fitting method that can be used to determine whether a set of experimental data appears to have been generated by a model. This method is based on minimizing the reduced chi-squared value. This video includes a reminder to inspect normalized residuals before reporting fitted parameters.

2013-06-21

351

We consider configurations of Neveu-Schwarz fivebranes, Dirichlet fourbranes and an orientifold sixplane in type IIA string theory. Upon lifting the configuration to M-theory and proposing a description of how to include the effects of the orientifold sixplane we derive the curves describing the Coulomb branch of N = 2 gauge theories with orthogonal and symplectic gauge groups, product gauge groups

Karl Landsteiner; Esperanza Lopez

352

We consider configurations of Neveu-Schwarz fivebranes, Dirichlet fourbranes and an orientifold sixplane in type IIA string theory. Upon lifting the configuration to M-theory and proposing a description of how to include the effects of the orientifold sixplane we derive the curves describing the Coulomb branch of N = 2 gauge theories with orthogonal and symplectic gauge groups, product gauge groups

Karl Landsteiner; Esperanza Lopez

1998-01-01

353

Electrostatic curved electrode actuators

This paper presents the design and performance of an electrostatic actuator consisting of a laterally compliant cantilever beam and a fixed curved electrode, both suspended above a ground plane. A theoretical description of the static behavior of the cantilever as it is pulled into contact with the rigid fixed-electrode structure is given. Two models are presented: a simplified semi-analytical model

Rob Legtenberg; John Gilbert; Stephen D. Senturia; Miko Elwenspoek

1997-01-01

354

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A procedure that allows students to view an entire bacterial growth curve during a two- to three-hour student laboratory period is described. Observations of the lag phase, logarithmic phase, maximum stationary phase, and phase of decline are possible. A nonpathogenic, marine bacterium is used in the investigation. (KR)

Paulton, Richard J. L.

1991-01-01

355

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An unusual shape is considered, and properties and steps in drawing it are detailed. The focus is on development and presentation of a computer program that will draw the curve. The program is written in BASIC with special plotting commands for a Techtronix computer, but is adaptable to other systems. (MP)

Lambert, Tim

1982-01-01

356

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will observe the surface of rotating potatoes to help them understand how astronomers can sometimes determine the shape of asteroids from variations in reflective brightness. When astronomers graph data relating to reflective brightness as a function of time, the resulting graph is called a "light curve."

2009-04-22

357

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

Lawes, Jonathan F.

2013-01-01

358

A Mechanism of Magnetic Hysteresis in Heterogeneous Alloys

The Becker-Kersten treatment of domain boundary movements is widely applicable in the interpretation of magnetization curves, but it does not account satisfactorily for the higher coercivities obtained, for example, in permanent magnet alloys. It is suggested that in many ferromagnetic materials there may occur 'particles' (this term including atomic segregates or 'islands' in alloys), distinct in magnetic character from the

E. C. Stoner; E. P. Wohlfarth

1948-01-01

359

Three-body choreographies in given curves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As shown by Johannes Kepler in 1609, in the two-body problem, the shape of the orbit, a given ellipse, and a given non-vanishing constant angular momentum determine the motion of the planet completely. Even in the three-body problem, in some cases, the shape of the orbit, conservation of the center of mass and a constant of motion (the angular momentum or the total energy) determine the motion of the three bodies. We show, by a geometrical method, that choreographic motions, in which equal mass three bodies chase each other around the same curve, will be uniquely determined for the following two cases. (i) Convex curves that have point symmetry and non-vanishing angular momentum are given. (ii) Eight-shaped curves which are similar to the curve for the figure-eight solution and the energy constant are given. The reality of the motion should be tested whether the motion satisfies an equation of motion or not. Extensions of the method for generic curves are shown. The extended methods are applicable to generic curves which do not have point symmetry. Each body may have its own curve and its own non-vanishing masses.

Ozaki, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Toshiaki

2009-10-01

360

Generating artificial light curves: revisited and updated

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of artificial light curves with known statistical and variability properties is of great importance in astrophysics. Consolidating the confidence levels during cross-correlation studies, understanding the artefacts induced by sampling irregularities, establishing detection limits for future observatories are just some of the applications of simulated data sets. Currently, the widely used methodology of amplitude and phase randomization is able to produce artificial light curves which have a given underlying power spectral density (PSD) but which are strictly Gaussian distributed. This restriction is a significant limitation, since the majority of the light curves, e.g. active galactic nuclei, X-ray binaries, gamma-ray bursts, show strong deviations from Gaussianity exhibiting `burst-like' events in their light curves yielding long-tailed probability density functions (PDFs). In this study, we propose a simple method which is able to precisely reproduce light curves which match both the PSD and the PDF of either an observed light curve or a theoretical model. The PDF can be representative of either the parent distribution or the actual distribution of the observed data, depending on the study to be conducted for a given source. The final artificial light curves contain all of the statistical and variability properties of the observed source or theoretical model, i.e. the same PDF and PSD, respectively. Within the framework of Reproducible Research, the code and the illustrative example used in this paper are both made publicly available in the form of an interactive MATHEMATICA notebook.

Emmanoulopoulos, D.; McHardy, I. M.; Papadakis, I. E.

2013-08-01

361

A significant reduction of hysteresis in MnFe(P,Si) compounds

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetocaloric effects in Mn1.3Fe0.7- x Co x P0.46Si0.54 compounds ( x = 0, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1) were investigated systematically. X-ray diffraction shows that the compounds crystallize in the Fe2P-type hexagonal structure with space group P-62m symmetry. Magnetic measurements show that the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition temperatures range from 247 to 298 K. The maximal magnetic entropy changes in the Mn1.3Fe0.7P0.46Si0.54 compound reaches 8.3 J/kgK for a field change from 0 to 1.5 T. The thermal hysteresis of these compounds is less than 3 K. The maximum adiabatic temperature change is 2.2 K in Mn1.3Fe0.7P0.46Si0.54 and Mn1.3Fe0.65Co0.05P0.46Si0.54 compounds for a field change from 0 to 1.48 T, indicating this material system has potential for room-temperature magnetic refrigeration applications.

Huliyageqi, B.; Geng, Yao-xiang; Li, Ying-jie; Tegus, O.

2013-08-01

362

In addition to gene network switches, local epigenetic modifications to DNA and histones play an important role in all-or-none cellular decision-making. Here, we study the dynamical design of a well-characterized epigenetic chromatin switch: the yeast SIR system, in order to understand the origin of the stability of epigenetic states. We study hysteresis in this system by perturbing it with a histone deacetylase inhibitor. We find that SIR silencing has many characteristics of a non-linear bistable system, as observed in conventional genetic switches, which are based on activities of a few promoters affecting each other through the abundance of their gene products. Quite remarkably, our experiments in yeast telomeric silencing show a very distinctive pattern when it comes to the transition from bistability to monostability. In particular, the loss of the stable silenced state, upon increasing the inhibitor concentration, does not seem to show the expected saddle node behavior, instead looking like a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. In other words, the ‘off’ state merges with the ‘on’ state at a threshold concentration leading to a single state, as opposed to the two states remaining distinct up to the threshold and exhibiting a discontinuous jump from the ‘off’ to the ‘on’ state. We argue that this is an inevitable consequence of silenced and active regions coexisting with dynamic domain boundaries. The experimental observations in our study therefore have broad implications for the understanding of chromatin silencing in yeast and beyond. PMID:25536038

Nagaraj, Vijayalakshmi H.; Mukhopadhyay, Swagatam; Dayarian, Adel; Sengupta, Anirvan M.

2014-01-01

363

Effect of preparation conditions on the hysteresis behavior of granular Fe-SiO 2

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hysteresis behavior of Fe ?(SiO 2) 1- ? granular films was studied as a function of preparation conditions. The films were prepared by dc and rf magnetron sputtering over the composition range ?v = 0.1-0.9 volume fraction of Fe. The Tandem deposition method and deposition from a composite target both with and without titanium sublimation, were used to prepare the films. A typical granular structure was observed, with grain size in the range 2-20 rim. X-ray diffraction and selected area diffraction showed an ?-Fe (bcc) type structure. Magnetic properties showed that by varying the deposition method and some of the sputtering parameters (sputtering rate, argon flow, film thickness and substrate temperature), it is possible to switch from a relativeIy magnetically hard sample ( Hc ˜ 700 Oe) to a soft sample ( Hc ˜ 20 Oe). A dramatic increase in H c has been observed at cryogenic temperatures. This result, along with the Mössbauer data, suggests a shell/core granule morphology with an Fe and/or (Fe-Si) core surrounded by Fe-Si-O.

Christodoulides, J. A.; Shevchenko, N. B.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.; Papaefthymiou, V.

1997-02-01

364

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honeycomb sandwich materials are commonly used for aero-structures, but because the outer skins are typically thin, 2-10 plys, the structures are susceptible to impact damage. NDI methods such as tap tests, bond testers and TTU ultrasound are successfully deployed to find impact damage, but identifying the type/degree of damage is troublesome. As the type/degree of impact damage guides decisions by the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) community regarding repair, the ability to characterize impacts is of interest. Previous work demonstrated that additional impact characterization may be gleaned from hysteresis loop area, as determined from an out-of-plane load-vs-displacement plot, where this parameter shows a correlation with impact energy. This presentation reports on current work involving the development of a portable hysteresis measurement and imaging system based on an instrumented tapper. Data processing and analysis methods that allow production of the load/displacement data from a single accelerometer are discussed, with additional reporting of tests of software to automatically vary pixel size during scanning to decrease C-scans inspection time.

Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.

2011-06-01

365

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault-propagation folds form an important trapping element in both onshore and offshore fold-thrust belts, and as such benefit from reliable interpretation. Building an accurate geologic interpretation of such structures requires palinspastic restorations, which are made more challenging by the interplay between folding and faulting. Trishear (Erslev, 1991; Allmendinger, 1998) is a useful tool to unravel this relationship kinematically, but is limited by a restriction to planar fault geometries, or at least planar fault segments. Here, new methods are presented for trishear along continuously curved reverse faults defining a flat-ramp transition. In these methods, rotation of the hanging wall above a curved fault is coupled to translation along a horizontal detachment. Including hanging wall rotation allows for investigation of structures with progressive backlimb rotation. Application of the new algorithms are shown for two fault-propagation fold structures: the Turner Valley Anticline in Southwestern Alberta, and the Alpha Structure in the Niger Delta.

Brandenburg, J. P.

2013-08-01

366

The laparoscopic learning curve.

To characterize the learning curve for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, we compared the first 47 cases (group A), which were performed by two senior attending surgeons who assisted each other when the procedure was introduced into clinical practice (1990-1991), with the first 46 cases (group R) performed by two surgical chief residents who were assisted by members of the teaching faculty in 1992-1993. The patient groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, and anesthetic class, but pathologically proven acute cholecystitis was more common in group R (33% vs. 9%; p < 0.005). To analyze operative procedures and outcomes, we compared operative time, frequency of successful operative cholangiography (attempted in all cases), frequency of conversion to open cholecystectomy, major complication rate, and days of postoperative stay for all patients and for those without complications. Of these parameters, only operative time for nonacute cases differed significantly between the groups (144 min for group A vs. 114 min for group R; p < 0.05). Complications in group A included one ductal injury and one case of postoperative pancreatitis; group R had one ductal injury and two cases of postoperative bleeding. We conclude that (a) the learning curve has similar structure for senior surgeons and resident trainees; and (b) the resident learning curve is not hazardous when teaching assistants are trained in the procedure, which has implications for safe instruction and proctoring of residents and staff. PMID:8611992

Lekawa, M; Shapiro, S J; Gordon, L A; Rothbart, J; Hiatt, J R

1995-12-01

367

Determination of PRT Hysteresis in the Temperature Range from -50 °C to 300 °C

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the contribution of hysteresis to the measurement uncertainty of industrial platinum resistance thermometers (IPRTs). Hysteresis is one of the sources of uncertainty that has so far not been sufficiently researched and documented. The term hysteresis applies to any system that is path dependent; the output depends on the history of the input. In our case, thermal hysteresis results in different resistance values at the same temperature point, depending on whether the temperature was increasing or decreasing. The reason for such behavior is related to the construction of the thermometer (strain due to thermal expansion and contraction) and also to possible moisture inside the encapsulation. In the process of evaluation of the calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of IPRTs within Working Group 8, the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT WG8) concluded that the uncertainty due to hysteresis is not uniformly defined and not always added to the total uncertainty of the resistance thermometer under calibration. In order to estimate the uncertainty contribution due to the hysteresis and compare different procedures, resistance measurements were carried out on a number of IPRTs of different qualities and tolerance classes. The temperature span was between -50 °C and 300 °C, which is the most frequent temperature range in the practical use of IPRTs. The hysteresis was then determined in different ways (change of resistance at the ice point and at the midpoint temperature according to the ASTM International Standard E644 and according to the new version of IEC Standard 60751), and a comparison of results was made.

Žužek, V.; Batagelj, V.; Bojkovski, J.

2010-09-01

368

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic signals near rivers are partially composed of the elastic waves generated by bedload particles impacting the river bed. In this study, we explore the relationship between this seismic signal and river bedload transport by analyzing high-frequency broadband seismic data from multiple stations along the Chijiawan River in northern Taiwan following the removal of a 13 m check dam. This dam removal provides a natural experiment in which rapid and predictable changes in the river's profile occur, which in turn enables independent constraints on spatial and temporal variation in bedload sediment transport. We compare floods of similar magnitudes with and without bedload transport, and find that the amplitude of seismic shaking produced at a given river stage changes over the course of a single storm when bedload transport is active. Hysteresis in the relationship between bedload transport and river stage is a well-documented phenomenon with multiple known causes. Consequently, previous studies have suggested that hysteresis observed in the seismic amplitude-stage response is the signature of bedload transport. Field evidence and stream profile evolution in this study corroborate that interpretation. We develop a metric (?) for the normalized magnitude of seismic hysteresis during individual floods. This metric appears to scale qualitatively with total bedload transport at each seismic station, indicating a dominance of transport on the rising limbs of both storms. We speculate that hysteresis at this site arises from time-dependent evolution of the bed, for example due to grain packing, mobile armoring, or the temporal lag between stage and bedform growth. ? reveals along-stream variations in hysteresis for each storm, with a peak in hysteresis further downstream for the second event. The pattern is consistent with a migrating sediment pulse that is a predicted consequence of the dam removal. Our results indicate that hysteresis in the relationship between seismic wave amplitude and river stage may track sediment transport.

Roth, D. L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Brodsky, E. E.; Cook, K. L.; Stark, C. P.; Wang, H. W.

2014-10-01

369

The volume/pressure (V/P) curve of the total respiratory system in paralysed patients is drawn assuming that volume changes of the respiratory system (delta V resp) equals volume displacement of the measuring apparatus (delta V syr), usually a supersyringe. However, in 93 VP curves we found that O2 removed from the lung-syringe system during the procedure (proportional to the time) largely exceeds the CO2 added to the lung-syringe system (delta V gas). This results in a net loss of volume from the system (delta V resp less than delta V-syr). Deflation compliance, hysteresis area and ratio are significantly affected by this phenomenon. Inflation compliance is less influenced by delta V gas, partially compensated by the intrapulmonary gas expansion due to the temperature changes. We conclude that the parameters computed on the deflation limb of V/P curve are misleading if proper correction of the volume scale is not introduced. PMID:3558932

Gattinoni, L; Mascheroni, D; Basilico, E; Foti, G; Pesenti, A; Avalli, L

1987-01-01

370

2013 Goat Shows Show Date Show Name Entries Due Eligibility Weigh In Show Time Contact Phone Extra/13/2013 Cannon Co. Day of Show Youth Must 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. Carol 615-563-5260 Bring own Jr. Goat $1.00 a head Control 10 a.m. Melton Bedding Association Goat 7/20/2013 Overton Co. Day of Show Youth Before 5 p.m. 6

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

371

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a new type of hierarchically structured surface consisting of re-entrant silicon micropillars with silicon nanowires atop for superhydrophobic surface with extremely low hysteresis. Re-entrant microstructures were fabricated on a silicon substrate through a customized one-mask microfabrication process while silicon nanopillars were created on the entire surface of microstructures, including sidewalls, by a metal-assisted-chemical etching process. The strategy of constructing hierarchical surfaces aims to reduce the actual contact area between liquid and top part of solid surface, thereby increasing the contact angle and reducing the sliding angle. The strategy of using re-entrant profile of the microstructure aims to prevent a liquid droplet from falling into cavities of roughened structures and decrease the actual contact area between the liquid droplet and sidewalls of solid structures, therefore reducing adhesion forces acting on the liquid droplet. Our measurement shows that the surface incorporating both hierarchical and re-entrant strategies exhibits a sliding angle as low as 0.5°, much lower than sliding angles of surfaces only incorporating either one of the strategies.

Hu, Huan; Swaminathan, Vikhram V.; Zamani Farahani, Mahmoud Reza; Mensing, Glennys; Yeom, Junghoon; Shannon, Mark A.; Zhu, Likun

2014-09-01

372

Slip-stick wetting and large contact angle hysteresis on wrinkled surfaces.

Wetting on a corrugated surface that is formed via wrinkling of a hard skin layer formed by UV oxidation (UVO) of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) slab is studied using advancing and receding water contact angle measurements. The amplitude of the wrinkled pattern can be tuned through the pre-strain of the PDMS prior to surface oxidation. These valleys and peaks in the surface topography lead to anisotropic wetting by water droplets. As the droplet advances, the fluid is free to move along the direction parallel to the wrinkles, but the droplet moving orthogonal to the wrinkles encounters energy barriers due to the topography and slip-stick behavior is observed. As the wrinkle amplitude increases, anisotropy in the sessile droplet increases between parallel and perpendicular directions. For the drops receding perpendicular to the wrinkles formed at high strains, the contact angle tends to decrease steadily towards zero as the drop volume decreases, which can result in apparent hysteresis in the contact angle of over 100°. The wrinkled surfaces can exhibit high sessile and advancing contact angles (>115°), but the receding angle in these cases is generally vanishing as the drop is removed. This effect results in micrometer sized drops remaining in the grooves for these highly wrinkled surfaces, while the flat analogous UVO-treated PDMS shows complete removal of all macroscopic water drops under similar conditions. These wetting characteristics should be considered if these wrinkled surfaces are to be utilized in or as microfluidic devices. PMID:21145561

Bukowsky, Colton; Torres, Jessica M; Vogt, Bryan D

2011-02-15

373

The gene for a thermal hysteresis (antifreeze) protein (sthp-64) from the bittersweet nightshade, Solanum dulcamara, was cloned and characterized. An expression cDNA library prepared from November S. dulcamara was screened using a polyclonal antibody generated against a previously purified 67 kDa thermal hysteresis protein, and positive clones were identified and sequenced. The full-length thermal hysteresis protein gene was cloned into an Escherichia

Tao Huang; John G. Duman

2002-01-01

374

Magnetic hysteresis (7--75 K in magnetic fields up to 5 T) and relaxation characteristics (5--50 K in magnetic fields up to 2 T) have been measured with the field perpendicular to the surface of Ag-sheathed TlBaCaCuO (1223 phase) and Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO (2223 phase) superconducting tapes. A study of the difference in the magnetic hysteresis between precursor powders and as-processed tapes was also carried out. The relaxation data were curve-fit using a rate equation for thermally activated flux motion, U{sub eff}/[kG(T)] = {minus}T[ln(dM/dt) {minus} ln (H{omega}{sub o} a/2{pi}d)] with the temperature dependence of U{sub eff} scaled by the functional form G(T) = 1 {minus} (T/Tx){sup 2}. By comparing the results obtained from magnetic characterization with those from transport current measurement, these observations suggest that (1) Tl-1223 tapes have a weaker field dependence for J{sub c} at T > 35 K than Bi-2223 tapes due to the special crystal structure of the 1223 phase, and (2) weak links limit the transport critical current densities in Tl-1223 tapes to 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} at 5 T and 35 K, for instance.

Kung, P.J.; Maley, M.P.; Coulter, J.Y.; Willis, J.O.; Peterson, D.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); McHenry, M.E. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science; Wahlbeck, P.G. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1992-05-01

375

Magnetic hysteresis (7--75 K in magnetic fields up to 5 T) and relaxation characteristics (5--50 K in magnetic fields up to 2 T) have been measured with the field perpendicular to the surface of Ag-sheathed TlBaCaCuO (1223 phase) and Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO (2223 phase) superconducting tapes. A study of the difference in the magnetic hysteresis between precursor powders and as-processed tapes was also carried out. The relaxation data were curve-fit using a rate equation for thermally activated flux motion, U{sub eff}/(kG(T)) = {minus}T(ln(dM/dt) {minus} ln (H{omega}{sub o} a/2{pi}d)) with the temperature dependence of U{sub eff} scaled by the functional form G(T) = 1 {minus} (T/Tx){sup 2}. By comparing the results obtained from magnetic characterization with those from transport current measurement, these observations suggest that (1) Tl-1223 tapes have a weaker field dependence for J{sub c} at T > 35 K than Bi-2223 tapes due to the special crystal structure of the 1223 phase, and (2) weak links limit the transport critical current densities in Tl-1223 tapes to 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} at 5 T and 35 K, for instance.

Kung, P.J.; Maley, M.P.; Coulter, J.Y.; Willis, J.O.; Peterson, D.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); McHenry, M.E. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science); Wahlbeck, P.G. (Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

1992-01-01

376

Digital Jordan Curve Theorems Christer O. Kiselman

Digital Jordan Curve Theorems Christer O. Kiselman's digital Jordan curve theorem states that the complement of a Jordan curve in the digital plane of Jordan curves. 1 Introduction The classical Jordan curve theorem says that the complement

Kiselman, Christer

377

Soccer Tournament ELI Talent Show

Highlights Soccer Tournament ELI Talent Show Notes from your Teachers Notes from the Office very quickly! ELI Talent Show As you probably already know, the ELI is going to have its second annual Talent Show. The talent show is open to ELI students, faculty, staff, and LAs. Acts can include

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

378

Unzipping DNA by a periodic force: Hysteresis loop area and its scaling

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the hysteresis in the unzipping of double-stranded DNA whose ends are subjected to a time-dependent periodic force with frequency (? ) and amplitude (G ). For the static force, i.e., ? ?0 , the DNA is in equilibrium with no hysteresis. On increasing ? , the area of the hysteresis loop initially increases and becomes maximum at frequency ?*(G ) , which depends on the force amplitude G . If the frequency is increased further, we find that for lower amplitudes the loop area decreases monotonically to zero, but for higher amplitudes it has an oscillatory component. The height of subsequent peaks decreases, and finally the loop area becomes zero at very high frequencies. The number of peaks depends on the length of the DNA. We give a simple analysis to estimate the frequencies at which maxima and minima occur in the loop area. We find that the area of the hysteresis loop scales as 1 /? in the high-frequency regime, whereas it scales as G??? with exponents ? =1 and ? =5 /4 at low frequencies. The values of the exponents ? and ? are different from the exponents reported earlier based on the hysteresis of small hairpins.

Kapri, Rajeev

2014-12-01

379

Unzipping DNA by a periodic force: hysteresis loop area and its scaling

We study, by using Monte Carlo simulations, the hysteresis in unzipping of a double stranded DNA whose ends are subjected to a time dependent periodic force with frequency ($\\omega$) and amplitude ($G$). For the static force, i.e., $\\omega \\to 0$, the DNA is in equilibrium with no hysteresis. On increasing $\\omega$, the area of the hysteresis loop initially increases and becomes maximum at frequency $\\omega^{*}(G)$, which depends on the force amplitude $G$. If the frequency is further increased, we find that for lower amplitudes the loop area decreases monotonically to zero, but for higher amplitudes it has an oscillatory component. The height of subsequent peaks decrease and finally the loop area becomes zero at very high frequencies. The number of peaks depend on the length of the DNA. We give a simple analysis to estimate the frequencies at which maxima and minima occurs in the loop area. We find that the area of the hysteresis loop scales as $1/\\omega$ in high frequency regime whereas, it scales as $G^{\\alpha} \\omega^{\\beta}$ with exponents $\\alpha =1$ and $\\beta = 5/4$ at low frequencies. The values of the exponents $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ are different from the exponents reported earlier based on hysteresis of small hairpins.

Rajeev Kapri

2014-09-30

380

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will refer to the tabulated data used to create the Keeling Curve of atmospheric carbon dioxide to create a mathematical function that accounts for both periodic and long-term changes. They will use this function to answer a series of questions, including predictions of atmospheric concentration in the future. A link to the data, which is in an Excel file, as well as the answer key are provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

381

Crystallography on curved surfaces

We study static and dynamical properties that distinguish 2D crystals constrained to lie on a curved substrate from their flat-space counterparts. A generic mechanism of dislocation unbinding in the presence of varying Gaussian curvature is presented in the context of a model surface amenable to full analytical treatment. We find that glide diffusion of isolated dislocations is suppressed by a binding potential of purely geometrical origin. Finally, the energetics and biased diffusion dynamics of point defects such as vacancies and interstitials are explained in terms of their geometric potential. PMID:16894160

Vitelli, Vincenzo; Lucks, J. B.; Nelson, D. R.

2006-01-01

382

Continuity of discrete curve evolution

Recently Latecki and Lakamper reported a process called discrete curve evolution. This process has various application possibilities, in particular, for noise removal and shape simplification of boundary curves in digital images. In this paper we prove that the process of the discrete curve evolution is continuous: if polygon Q is close to polygon P, then the polygons obtained by their

Longin Jan Latecki; R. R. Ghadially; Rolf Lakaemper; Ulrich Eckhardt

2000-01-01

383

Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography Darrel Hankerson Alfred Menezes Scott Vanstone Springer #12;Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography Springer New York Berlin Heidelberg Hong Kong London Milan Paris Tokyo #12;#12;Darrel Hankerson Alfred Menezes Scott Vanstone Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Babinkostova, Liljana

384

Confronting the Environmental Kuznets Curve

he environmental Kuznets curve posits an inverted-U relationship be- tween pollution and economic development. Kuznets's name was appar- ently attached to the curve by Grossman and Krueger (1993), who noted its resemblance to Kuznets's inverted-U relationship between income inequality and development. In the first stage of industrialization, pollution in the environ- mental Kuznets curve world grows rapidly because people are

Susmita Dasgupta; Benoit Laplante; Hua Wang; David Wheeler

2002-01-01

385

5. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CLUB MODERNE LOUNGE SHOWING EXAMPLES ...

5. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CLUB MODERNE LOUNGE SHOWING EXAMPLES OF THE LEATHER COVERED BOOTHS INSTALLED IN 19486. FACADE OF THE CLUB MODERNE, SHOWING THE ORIGINAL CURVED CORNER PROFILE AND TRI-COLOR CARRERE GLASS FACADE. - Anaconda Historic District, Club Moderne, 801 East Park Avenue, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

386

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Do Blood Tests Show? Blood tests show whether the levels ... changes may work best. Result Ranges for Common Blood Tests This section presents the result ranges for ...

387

Highlights ELI Talent Show Final Exams Scholarship Nominees Graduate Admissions Workshop Reminders from the Office Manners, Cultures, & Grammar TheELIWeekly ELI Talent Show It's going to be a blast! Come one, come all! The 2nd Annual ELI Talent Show will be on Tuesday, April 15th

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

388

Dynamic hysteresis and scaling behavior for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic hysteresis of Nb-doped Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT, 0.40 ? x ? 0.60) ceramics with different phase structures was investigated as functions of frequency f and electric field amplitude E0. When E0 grows over ˜1.5 times of coercive field Ec, all the loops become well saturated and their scaling relations of hysteresis area ?A? against f and E0 can be expressed with an identical form as ?A??f0.01E00.10 for either tetragonal phase or morphotropic phase, which is in good agreement with our previous result of rhombohedral PZT [Chen et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 244101 (2013)]. The results indicate that ferroelectrics with fairly distinct domain structures could have similar dynamic hysteresis and scaling behavior at high-E0 region.

Chen, Xuefeng; Dong, Xianlin; Zhou, Zhiyong; Wang, Junxia; Cao, Fei; Wang, Genshui; Zhang, Hongling

2014-03-01

389

We report the scaling behavior of Barkhausen avalanches for every small field step along the hysteresis loop in CoCrPt alloy film having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Individual Barkhausen avalanche is directly observed utilizing a high-resolution soft X-ray microscopy that provides real space images with a spatial resolution of 15 nm. Barkhausen avalanches are found to exhibit power-law scaling behavior at all field steps along the hysteresis loop, despite their different patterns for each field step. Surprisingly, the scaling exponent of the power-law distribution of Barkhausen avalanches is abruptly altered from 1 {+-} 0.04 to 1.47 {+-} 0.03 as the field step is close to the coercive field. The contribution of coupling among adjacent domains to Barkhausen avalanche process affects the sudden change of the scaling behavior observed at the coercivity-field region on the hysteresis loop of CoCrPt alloy film.

Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Kim, D.-H.; Shin, S.-C.

2008-10-14

390

We have studied the low spin to high spin phase transition induced by nanosecond laser pulses outside and within the thermal hysteresis loop of the [Fe(Htrz){sub 2} trz](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}-H{sub 2}O spin crossover nanoparticles. We demonstrate that, whatever the temperature of the compound, the photo-switching is achieved in less than 12.5 ns. Outside the hysteresis loop, the photo-induced high spin state remains up to 100 {mu}s and then relaxes. Within the thermal hysteresis loop, the photo-induced high spin state remains as long as the temperature of the sample is kept within the thermal loop. A Raman study indicates that the photo-switching can be completed using single laser pulse excitation.

Galle, G.; Degert, J.; Freysz, E. [Universite de Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR-CNRS 5798, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)] [Universite de Bordeaux, LOMA, UMR-CNRS 5798, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Etrillard, C.; Letard, J.-F. [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR CNRS 9048, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France)] [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR CNRS 9048, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Guillaume, F. [Universite de Bordeaux, ISM, UMR CNRS 5255, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)] [Universite de Bordeaux, ISM, UMR CNRS 5255, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

2013-02-11

391

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a measurement protocol that effectively eliminates both the hysteresis and the temporal drift typically observed in the channel conductance of single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWNT FETs) during the application of gate voltages. Before each resistance measurement, the gate is first stepped through a series of alternating positive and negative voltages to produce a neutral charge distribution within the device. This process is highly effective at removing the hysteresis in the channel conductance, and time-dependent measurements further demonstrate that the drain current is stable and single-valued, independent of the prior measurement history. The effectiveness of this method can be understood within the Preisach hysteresis model, which we demonstrate as a useful framework to predict the observed results.

Tunnell, Andrew; Ballarotto, Vincent; Cumings, John

2014-01-01

392

Adaptive neural control for a class of nonlinear time-varying delay systems with unknown hysteresis.

This paper investigates the fusion of unknown direction hysteresis model with adaptive neural control techniques in face of time-delayed continuous time nonlinear systems without strict-feedback form. Compared with previous works on the hysteresis phenomenon, the direction of the modified Bouc-Wen hysteresis model investigated in the literature is unknown. To reduce the computation burden in adaptation mechanism, an optimized adaptation method is successfully applied to the control design. Based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, two neural-network-based adaptive control algorithms are constructed to guarantee that all the system states and adaptive parameters remain bounded, and the tracking error converges to an adjustable neighborhood of the origin. In final, some numerical examples are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control methods. PMID:25420237

Liu, Zhi; Lai, Guanyu; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Xin; Chen, Chun Lung Philip

2014-12-01

393

A Model for Rate-Dependent Hysteresis in Piezoceramic Materials Operating at Low Frequencies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses the modeling of certain rate-dependent mechanisms which contribute to hysteresis inherent to piezoelectric materials operating at low frequencies. While quasistatic models are suitable for initial material characterization in some applications, the reduction in coercive field and polarization values which occur as frequencies increase must be accommodated to achieve the full capabilities of the materials. The model employed here quantifies the hysteresis in two steps. In the first, anhysteretic polarization switching is modeled through the application of Boltzmann principles to balance the electrostatic and thermal energy. Hysteresis is then incorporated through the quantification of energy required to translate and bend domain walls pinned at inclusions inherent to the materials. The performance of the model is illustrated through a fit to low frequency data (0.1 Hz - 1 Hz) from a PZT5A wafer.

Smith, Ralph C.; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Wieman, Robert

2001-01-01

394

A model for the hysteresis observed in gating of lysenin channels.

The pore-forming toxin lysenin self-inserts to form conductance channels in natural and artificial lipid membranes containing sphingomyelin. The inserted channels exhibit voltage regulation and hysteresis of the macroscopic current during the application of positive periodic voltage stimuli. We explored the bi-stable behavior of lysenin channels and present a theoretical approach for the mechanism of the hysteresis to explain its static and dynamic components. This investigation develops a model to incorporate the role of charge accumulation on the bilayer lipid membrane in influencing the channel conduction state. Our model is supported by experimental results and also provides insight into the temperature dependence of lysenin channel hysteresis. Through this work we gain perspective into the mechanism of how the response of a channel protein is determined by previous stimuli. PMID:24075493

Krueger, Eric; Al Faouri, Radwan; Fologea, Daniel; Henry, Ralph; Straub, David; Salamo, Greg

2013-12-31

395

A Ni-Cd battery model considering state of charge and hysteresis effects

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces an electrical battery model. Based on a Thévenin circuit with two RC parallel branches, it includes an ampère-hour counting method to estimate the state of charge (SOC) and a novel model for the hysteresis. The presented model can consider variations in its parameters under changes in all of its internal and external variables, although only SOC and hysteresis are considered. Hysteresis consideration does not only allow distinguishing the parameters during charging and discharging, but also during transients between them. The model was designed to be capable of being implemented in online and offline systems. Finally the proposed model was validated for a single Ni-Cd cell, characterized by current interruption method, in an offline system. The validation was also extended to a stack of 210 cells of the same technology.

García-Plaza, M.; Serrano-Jiménez, D.; Eloy-García Carrasco, J.; Alonso-Martínez, J.

2015-02-01

396

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hysteresis characteristic of piezoelectric actuators is one of the major deficiencies in a wide variety of precise tracking positioning controls. This article proposes a control method for piezoelectric actuator based on a proportional integral differential (PID) feedback controller with a feedforward compensation. The hysteresis phenomenon of a piezoelectric actuator is described in the feedforward loop by using a new mathematical model. Finally, some tracking control experiments for a desired sinusoidal trajectory are performed according to the proposed control method. The experimental results demonstrate that the positioning precision is noticeably improved by adding the feedforward compensation based on the new hysteresis model. The maximum error in tracking the sinusoidal signal is lowered about one order of magnitude in comparison with a regular PID controller without any feedforward compensation.

Ru, Changhai; Sun, Lining

2005-09-01

397

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model based on the domain wall pinning magnetomechanical hysteresis model of Sablik and Jiles [M. J. Sablik and D. C. Jiles, IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 2113 (1993)] was formulated to compute changes in magnetic hysteresis under biaxial stress conditions with the magnetic field and stress axes noncoaxial. The model included the Villari effect and other asymmetric stress effects. The magnetic field was taken at various angles relative to the stress axis. The Barkhausen noise, hysteresis loss, and maximum flux density were computed for fields varying between ±1 kA/m. The results compared favorably to experimental data on several steels—Polish St3 steel, Polish St41 steel, and US commercial grade steel pipe.

Sablik, M. J.; Augustyniak, B.; Chmielewski, M.

1999-04-01

398

Hysteresis between coral reef calcification and the seawater aragonite saturation state

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

predictions of how ocean acidification (OA) will affect coral reefs assume a linear functional relationship between the ambient seawater aragonite saturation state (?a) and net ecosystem calcification (NEC). We quantified NEC in a healthy coral reef lagoon in the Great Barrier Reef during different times of the day. Our observations revealed a diel hysteresis pattern in the NEC versus ?a relationship, with peak NEC rates occurring before the ?a peak and relatively steady nighttime NEC in spite of variable ?a. Net ecosystem production had stronger correlations with NEC than light, temperature, nutrients, pH, and ?a. The observed hysteresis may represent an overlooked challenge for predicting the effects of OA on coral reefs. If widespread, the hysteresis could prevent the use of a linear extrapolation to determine critical ?a threshold levels required to shift coral reefs from a net calcifying to a net dissolving state.

McMahon, Ashly; Santos, Isaac R.; Cyronak, Tyler; Eyre, Bradley D.

2013-09-01

399

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the two embedded atom method (EAM) potentials to calculate the melting curves of cobalt over a wide range of pressure. Zhou's EAM potential can produce satisfying results, in better agreement with the experiment compared with Pun's. Based on Zhou's potential, we simulated the melting of Co with two approaches, i.e., the one-phase (hysteresis) method and two-phase (solid-liquid coexistence) method. Both approaches can effectively reduce the superheating, and their results are in the close proximity at the applied pressures. With the one-phase method, during the investigation of the entropy of fusion of Co, we found that with the pressure increasing, the entropy of fusion decreases rapidly first and then oscillates with pressure; when the pressure is beyond 100 GPa, the entropy of fusion shows less pressure effect. When taking account of the solid-liquid interfacial energy at different pressures, we found that it increases monotonically with pressure, and can be well described as a fifth-order polynomial relation. Moreover, the thermal equation of state (EOS) and the temperature dependence of atomic structures of Co have been obtained successfully.

Zhang, Wen-jin; Peng, Yu-feng; Liu, Zhong-li

2014-05-01

400

A neural model of hysteresis in amorphous materials and piezoelectric materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to constructing hysteretic operator (HO) is proposed in this paper. Based on the HO, the input space of neural networks is expanded from one-dimension to two-dimension and the multi-value mapping of hysteresis is transformed into a continuous mapping comprised of one-to-one mapping and multiple-to-one mapping. Based on the expanded input space, a neural network is employed to approximate hysteresis. The results of experimental examples suggest the proposed approach is effective.

Ma, Lianwei; Shen, Yu

2014-08-01

401

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been observed with 20/30 GHz satellite beacon measurements that the ratio of 30 GHz to 20 GHz attenuation changes during some fade events. This ratio displays a hysteresis effect. This effect can be explained by a change in the drop size distribution (DSD) during the event. However, it appears only above approximately 6-8 dB of attenuation at 20 GHz. Instantaneous frequency scaling of attenuation is being proposed as part of an algorithm for uplink power control (ULPC) and the dynamic range of such an algorithm must be appropriately limited to avoid the hysteresis.

Sweeney, D. G.; Pratt, T.; Bostian, C. W.

1992-01-01

402

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a modified Bouc-Wen model for asymmetric rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuator. On this basis, we develop a new digital inverse controller with a simple structure cascaded in the feedforward path for piezoelectric actuator. In order to eliminate modeling errors and parameter uncertainties, the developed inverse controller is combined with a feedback loop to establish a hybrid control scheme. In our experiments, the proposed model together with the developed hybrid control scheme has shown significantly reduced tracking errors caused by asymmetric rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuator.

Li, Wei; Chen, Xuedong; Li, Zilong

2013-11-01

403

Abrupt climate transitions, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, occurred frequently during the last glacial period, specifically from 80–11 thousand years before present, but were nearly absent during interglacial periods and the early stages of glacial periods, when major ice-sheets were still forming. Here we show, with a fully coupled state-of-the-art climate model, that closing the Bering Strait and preventing its throughflow between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans during the glacial period can lead to the emergence of stronger hysteresis behavior of the ocean conveyor belt circulation to create conditions that are conducive to triggering abrupt climate transitions. Hence, it is argued that even for greenhouse warming, abrupt climate transitions similar to those in the last glacial time are unlikely to occur as the Bering Strait remains open. PMID:22493225

Hu, Aixue; Meehl, Gerald A.; Han, Weiqing; Timmermann, Axel; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Liu, Zhengyu; Washington, Warren M.; Large, William; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kimoto, Masahide; Lambeck, Kurt; Wu, Bingyi

2012-01-01

404

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hysteretic flux density B(H) of thin film HTSC resonators is measured through measurements of microwave surface impedance Z_s(H,T). A modified critical state model is examined to explain the data. The model generalizes Bean's original proposition by (i)including the demagnetization effects of perpendicular geometry which is commonly employed in experiments, (ii) including more than one critical currents as would be expected to exist in thin films and polycrystals, and (iii) generalizing the hysteresis law that is generally ascribed to this case. All this is done while still retaining the fundamental notions of a critical state. Our model shows good agreement with characteristic features of the data. Experimentally observed novel effects when the microwave and the DC fields are of comparable magnitude are also described. Implications of our experiment towards harmonic generation and intermods will also be presented.

Choudhury, Durga P.; Willemsen, Balam A.; Derov, John S.; Sridhar, S.

1997-03-01

405

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased roughness is known to enhance the natural wetting properties of surfaces, making them either more hydrophobic or more hydrophilic. In this work we study the wetting properties of water and mercury drops in contact with boron doped diamond films with progressively increased surface roughnesses. We show how thermal oxidation of a microcrystalline film creates pyramids decorated with sub-micron protrusions that turn its naturally mercuryphobic surface into super-mercuryphobic. With this liquid, we observe the vanishment of the contact angle hysteresis that is expected for rough surfaces as the contact angle approaches 180?, making small drops of mercury roll along out of the surface at an apparent zero tilt-angle. In contrast, the incorporation of nano-globules on the oxidized surface through a silanization process is necessary to increase the hydrophobic properties of the film for which the contact angle with water reaches 138°. The wetting states that dominate in each case are discussed.

Escobar, Juan V.; Garza, Cristina; Alonso, Juan Carlos; Castillo, Rolando

2013-05-01

406

Laser-induced magnetization curve

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an all optical ultrafast method to highly magnetize general quantum magnets using a circularly polarized terahertz laser. The key idea is to utilize a circularly polarized laser and its chirping. Through this method, one can obtain magnetization curves of a broad class of quantum magnets as a function of time even without any static magnetic field. We numerically demonstrate the laser-induced magnetization process in realistic quantum spin models and find a condition for the realization. The onset of magnetization can be described by a many-body version of Landau-Zener mechanism. In a particular model, we show that a plateau state with topological properties can be realized dynamically.

Takayoshi, Shintaro; Sato, Masahiro; Oka, Takashi

2014-12-01

407

Massive Gravity in Curved Cosmological Backgrounds

We study the physical propagating modes in a massive gravity model in curved cosmological backgrounds, which we have found as classical solutions in our previous paper. We show that, generically, there exist such the cosmological background solutions consistent with the equations of motion where we assume the ghost condensation ansatzes. Using the (1 + 3)-parametrization of the metric fluctuations with

Masahiro Maeno; Ichiro Oda

2009-01-01

408

Multipulse phase resetting curves.

In this paper, we introduce and study systematically, in terms of phase response curves, the effect of dual-pulse excitation on the dynamics of an autonomous oscillator. Specifically, we test the deviations from linear summation of phase advances resulting from two small perturbations. We analytically derive a correction term, which generally appears for oscillators whose intrinsic dimensionality is >1. The nonlinear correction term is found to be proportional to the square of the perturbation. We demonstrate this effect in the Stuart-Landau model and in various higher dimensional neuronal models. This deviation from the superposition principle needs to be taken into account in studies of networks of pulse-coupled oscillators. Further, this deviation could be used in the verification of oscillator models via a dual-pulse excitation. PMID:24229244

Krishnan, Giri P; Bazhenov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady

2013-10-01

409

Multipulse phase resetting curves

In this paper, we introduce and study systematically, in terms of phase response curves, the effect of dual-pulse excitation on the dynamics of an autonomous oscillator. Specifically, we test the deviations from linear summation of phase advances resulting from two small perturbations. We analytically derive a correction term, which generally appears for oscillators whose intrinsic dimensionality is >1. The nonlinear correction term is found to be proportional to the square of the perturbation. We demonstrate this effect in the Stuart-Landau model and in various higher dimensional neuronal models. This deviation from the superposition principle needs to be taken into account in studies of networks of pulse-coupled oscillators. Further, this deviation could be used in the verification of oscillator models via a dual-pulse excitation. PMID:24229244

Krishnan, Giri P.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Pikovsky, Arkady

2014-01-01

410

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students graph second and third order functions, discovering an inverse relationship between squares and square roots and between cubes and cube roots. Students graph these functions on both linear grid (evenly spaced numbers), and a log-log grid (evenly space exponents). Graph lines that curve on linear grids transform into straight lines on the log-log grids, with slopes equal to their exponential powers. This activity is activity E3 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

411

Curved nanostructured materials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphite is a layered material that is very flexible, in which each layer is able to curve in order to form cages, nanotubes, nanocoils, nanocones, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that various synthetic routes are capable of producing graphite-like nanomaterials with fascinating electronic and mechanical properties. There are other layered systems, which could curl and bend, thus generating novel nanostructures with positive and negative Gaussian curvature. In this context, we will also demonstrate that hexagonal boron nitride, tungsten disulfide (WS2), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and rhenium disulfide (ReS2) are also able to create nanocages, nanotubes and nano-arrangements exhibiting novel physico-chemical properties that could revolutionize materials science in the 21st century.

Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

2003-10-01

412

Planning a Successful Tech Show

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

Nikirk, Martin

2011-01-01

413

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high ambient temperature poses a serious threat to cattle. Above a certain threshold, an animal’s body temperature (Tb) appears to be driven by the hot cyclic air temperature (Ta) and hysteresis occurs. Elliptical hysteresis describes the output of a process in response to a simple harmonic input,...

414

for Power Ferrites Paiboon Nakmahachalasint, Student Member, IEEE, Khai D. T. Ngo, Senior Member, IEEE manganeseÂzinc (MnZn) ferrites. The procedures to extract the model parameters from voltage and current and minor hysteresis loops of three commercial power ferrites. Index Terms--Domain-wall, hysteresis modeling

Vu-Quoc, Loc

415

Modeling of Nonlinear Hysteresis in Elastomers H.T. Banks, Gabriella A. Pinter and Laura K. Potter

Modeling of Nonlinear Hysteresis in Elastomers H.T. Banks, Gabriella A. Pinter and Laura K. Potter discuss issues related to modeling of nonlinearities and hysteresis arising in a class of lled elastomers required for a smart elastomer technology. Smart material structures and uids 11 , 23 are generally

416

Effective potentials in geodesic curves on surfaces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the equations of geodesic curves on surfaces embedded in euclidean space are obtained. By introducing a vector Lagrange multiplier, we show that the geodesic curvature of the curves are zero and the normal curvature of them can be identified with the force transmitted to the surface. We then obtain the corresponding formulas in the case of axially symmetric surfaces, where a first integral of the geodesic equations can be interpreted as a particle moving in an effective potential (being zero the total energy), and the angular momenta is conserved. The methodology developed is illustrated with some examples: the catenoid and the pseudosphere.

Santiago, J. A.; Chacón-Acosta, G.; González-Gaxiola, O.

2014-11-01

417

Using Graphs to Show Connections

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to show how graphs of GLOBE data over time show the interconnectedness of Earth's system components at the local level. Students visit a study site, where they observe and recall their existing knowledge of air, water, soil, and living things to make a list of interconnections among the four Earth system components. They make predictions about the effects of a change in a system, inferring ways these changes affect the characteristics of other related components.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

418

Semiparametric adjusted exposure-response curves.

Exposure-response curves are central to understanding how continuous exposures relate to health outcomes. Common methods to plot such curves include the use of crude and adjusted regression, with the exposure specified using fractional polynomials or regression splines. These approaches are subject to important limitations. In this article, we illustrate the use of semiparametric marginally adjusted exposure-response curves obtained via inverse probability weighting. We explore the relation between interpregnancy interval and preterm birth in a cohort of over 720,000 live births in Quebec between 1989 and 2008. We include online supplementary material showing how mixed modeling routines in standard software packages can be used to implement the procedure, and how pointwise bootstrap confidence intervals can be obtained. PMID:25137220

Naimi, Ashley I; Moodie, Erica E M; Auger, Nathalie; Kaufman, Jay S

2014-11-01

419

Banded vegetation is a characteristic feature of semi-arid environments. It occurs on gentle slopes, with alternating stripes of vegetation and bare ground running parallel to the contours. A number of mathematical models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms underlying these patterns, and how they might be affected by changes in environmental conditions. One of the most widely used models is due to Rietkerk and co-workers, and is based on a water redistribution hypothesis, with the key feedback being that the rate of rainwater infiltration into the soil is an increasing function of plant biomass. Here, for the first time, we present a detailed study of the existence and stability of pattern solutions of the Rietkerk model on slopes, using the software package wavetrain (www.ma.hw.ac.uk/wavetrain). Specifically, we calculate the region of the rainfall-migration speed parameter plane in which patterns exist, and the sub-region in which these patterns are stable as solutions of the model partial differential equations. We then perform a detailed simulation-based study of the way in which patterns evolve when the rainfall parameter is slowly varied. This reveals complex behaviour, with sudden jumps in pattern wavelength, and hysteresis; we show that these jumps occur when the contours of constant pattern wavelength leave the parameter region giving stable patterns. Finally, we extend our results to the case in which a diffusion term for surface water is added to the model equations. The parameter regions for pattern existence and stability are relatively insensitive to small or moderate levels of surface water diffusion, but larger diffusion coefficients significantly change the subdivision into stable and unstable patterns. PMID:25142517

Dagbovie, Ayawoa S; Sherratt, Jonathan A

2014-10-01

420

Hysteresis, phase transitions, and dangerous transients in electrical power distribution systems.

The majority of dynamical studies in power systems focus on the high-voltage transmission grids where models consider large generators interacting with crude aggregations of individual small loads. However, new phenomena have been observed indicating that the spatial distribution of collective, nonlinear contribution of these small loads in the low-voltage distribution grid is crucial to the outcome of these dynamical transients. To elucidate the phenomenon, we study the dynamics of voltage and power flows in a spatially extended distribution feeder (circuit) connecting many asynchronous induction motors and discover that this relatively simple 1+1 (space+time) dimensional system exhibits a plethora of nontrivial spatiotemporal effects, some of which may be dangerous for power system stability. Long-range motor-motor interactions mediated by circuit voltage and electrical power flows result in coexistence and segregation of spatially extended phases defined by individual motor states, a "normal" state where the motors' mechanical (rotation) frequency is slightly smaller than the nominal frequency of the basic ac flows and a "stalled" state where the mechanical frequency is small. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by a perturbation of the voltage or base frequency at the head of the distribution feeder. Such behavior is typical of first-order phase transitions in physics, and this 1+1 dimensional model shows many other properties of a first-order phase transition with the spatial distribution of the motors' mechanical frequency playing the role of the order parameter. In particular, we observe (a) propagation of the phase-transition front with the constant speed (in very long feeders) and (b) hysteresis in transitions between the normal and stalled (or partially stalled) phases. PMID:23848724

Duclut, Charlie; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

2013-06-01

421

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a novel high-performance control scheme with hysteresis compensator and disturbance observer for high-precision motion control of a nanopositioning stage driven by a piezoelectric stack actuator (PSA). In the developed control scheme, a real-time inverse hysteresis compensator (IHC) with the modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is firstly designed to compensate for the asymmetric hysteresis nonlinearity of the PSA. Due to the imperfect compensation, the dynamics behaviors of the PSA-actuated stage with the IHC can be treated as a linear dynamic system plus a lumped disturbance term. Owing to the unknown nature of this lumped disturbance term, a disturbance observer (DOB) is used as a means for disturbance rejection. With the DOB, a tracking controller is finally designed and implemented to stabilize the position error. To verify the proposed control scheme, a real-time experimental platform with a PSA-actuated nanopositioning stage is built, and extensive experimental tests are performed. The comparative experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and improved performance of the developed control approach in terms of the maximum-value errors, root-mean-square-value errors and hysteresis compensation.

Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Li-Min; Su, Chun-Yi

2014-10-01

422

Analysis of thermal hysteresis protein hydration using the random network model

The hydration of polar and apolar groups can be explained quantitatively, via the random network model of water, in terms of differential distortions in first hydration shell water–water hydrogen bonding angle. This method of analyzing solute induced structural distortions of water is applied to study the ice-binding type III thermal hysteresis protein. The analysis reveals subtle but significant differences in

Kelly Ryan Gallagher; Kim A. Sharp

2003-01-01

423

HYSTERESIS MODELLING FOR A MR DAMPER Jorge de-J. Lozoya-Santos1

of a commercial Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper is exploited for identification of a Hysteresis-based Control The Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper is a non-linear component with dissipative capability used in the con a certain magnetic field is applied to the MR fluids, the particles in the fluids are polarized

Boyer, Edmond

424

Modeling and Identification of Elastic Robot Joints With Hysteresis and Backlash

This paper presents a novel approach to the modeling and identification of elastic robot joints with hysteresis and backlash. The model captures the dynamic behavior of a rigid robotic manipulator with elastic joints. The model includes electromechanical submodels of the motor and gear from which the relationship between the applied torque and the joint torsion is identified. The friction behavior

Michael Ruderman; Frank Hoffmann; Torsten Bertram

2009-01-01

425

A KYP lemma and invariance principle for systems with multiple hysteresis non-linearities

Absolute stability criteria for systems with multiple hysteresis non-linearities are given in this paper. It is shown that the stability guarantee is achieved with a simple two part test on the linear subsystem. If the linear subsystem satis® es a particular linear matrix inequality and a simple residue condition, then, as is proven, the non-linear system will be asymptotically stable.

THOMAS PAREÂ; ARASH HASSIBI

2001-01-01

426

A Wind-Induced Thermohaline Circulation Hysteresis and Millennial Variability Regimes

A Wind-Induced Thermohaline Circulation Hysteresis and Millennial Variability Regimes YOSEF 12 December 2006) ABSTRACT The multiple equilibria of the thermohaline circulation (THC: used here of the wind stress amplitude. Starting with active winds and a thermally dominant thermohaline circulation

Tziperman, Eli

427

Untangling perceptual memory: hysteresis and adaptation map into separate cortical networks.

Perception is an active inferential process in which prior knowledge is combined with sensory input, the result of which determines the contents of awareness. Accordingly, previous experience is known to help the brain "decide" what to perceive. However, a critical aspect that has not been addressed is that previous experience can exert 2 opposing effects on perception: An attractive effect, sensitizing the brain to perceive the same again (hysteresis), or a repulsive effect, making it more likely to perceive something else (adaptation). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and modeling to elucidate how the brain entertains these 2 opposing processes, and what determines the direction of such experience-dependent perceptual effects. We found that although affecting our perception concurrently, hysteresis and adaptation map into distinct cortical networks: a widespread network of higher-order visual and fronto-parietal areas was involved in perceptual stabilization, while adaptation was confined to early visual areas. This areal and hierarchical segregation may explain how the brain maintains the balance between exploiting redundancies and staying sensitive to new information. We provide a Bayesian model that accounts for the coexistence of hysteresis and adaptation by separating their causes into 2 distinct terms: Hysteresis alters the prior, whereas adaptation changes the sensory evidence (the likelihood function). PMID:23236204

Schwiedrzik, Caspar M; Ruff, Christian C; Lazar, Andreea; Leitner, Frauke C; Singer, Wolf; Melloni, Lucia

2014-05-01

428

Capillary condensation, invasion percolation, hysteresis, and discrete memory R. A. Guyer

Capillary condensation, invasion percolation, hysteresis, and discrete memory R. A. Guyer of the capillary condensation process, i.e., of adsorption-desorption isotherms, having only pore- pore and to a related model of interacting pore systems the random field Ising model . The capillary condensation model

429

Dynamics and hysteresis in square lattice artificial spin ice G. M. Wysin

simultaneously1,2,3,4,5 . The name spin ice comes from the fact that lowest energy states obey the ice ruleDynamics and hysteresis in square lattice artificial spin ice G. M. Wysin Department of Physics spin ice on a square lattice in two dimensions. Each island of the spin ice has a three

Wysin, Gary

430

A macroscopic theory for the existence of the hysteresis and butterfly loops in ferroelectricity

We present in this paper a minimal macroscopic theory leading to the hysteresis loop and the butterfly loop in ferroelectricity. This theory is based on the notion that as domains switch under the action of an external electric field the number of dipoles aligned in the direction of the field also alters and it obeys a rate law which depends

Peter J. Chen; Stephen T. Montgomery

1980-01-01

431

the static hysteresis in smart material based actuators that is modeled by the Prandtl- Ishlinskii approach, ...) and advanced control laws (H, passivity,...) have been successfully used [6][7]. Its main advantages-st Institute, UMR CNRS-6174 / UFC / ENSMM / UTBM Automatic Control and Micro-Mechatronic Systems department (AS

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

432

effective is dictated by soil hydraulic properties and surrogates for atmospheric water vapor demandOnset of water stress, hysteresis in plant conductance, and hydraulic lift: Scaling soil water] Estimation of water uptake by plants and subsequent water stress are complicated by the need to resolve

Katul, Gabriel

433

Calculation of the magnetic field in the active zone of a hysteresis clutch

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial distribution of magnetic induction in the armature stationary was calculated relative to the polar system of a hysteresis clutch. Using several assumptions, the problem is reduced to calculating the static magnetic field in the ferromagnetic plate with finite and continuous magnetic permeability placed in the air gap between two identical, parallel semiconductors with rack fixed relative to the tooth or slot position.

Ermilov, M. A.; Glukhov, O. M.

1977-01-01

434

Apparent elastic modulus and hysteresis of skeletal muscle cells throughout differentiation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of differentiation on the transverse mechanical properties of mammalian myocytes was determined by using atomic force microscopy. The apparent elastic modulus increased from 11.5 +/- 1.3 kPa for undifferentiated myoblasts to 45.3 +/- 4.0 kPa after 8 days of differentiation (P < 0.05). The relative contribution of viscosity, as determined from the normalized hysteresis area, ranged from 0.13 +/- 0.02 to 0.21 +/- 0.03 and did not change throughout differentiation. Myosin expression correlated with the apparent elastic modulus, but neither myosin nor beta-tubulin were associated with hysteresis. Microtubules did not affect mechanical properties because treatment with colchicine did not alter the apparent elastic modulus or hysteresis. Treatment with cytochalasin D or 2,3-butanedione 2-monoxime led to a significant reduction in the apparent elastic modulus but no change in hysteresis. In summary, skeletal muscle cells exhibited viscoelastic behavior that changed during differentiation, yielding an increase in the transverse elastic modulus. Major contributors to changes in the transverse elastic modulus during differentiation were actin and myosin.

Collinsworth, Amy M.; Zhang, Sarah; Kraus, William E.; Truskey, George A.

2002-01-01

435

Magnetic hysteresis in natural materials. [chondrites, lunar samples and terrestrial rocks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic hysteresis loops and the derived hysteresis ratios R sub H and R sub I are used to classify the various natural dilute magnetic materials. R sub I is the ratio of saturation isothermal remanence (I sub R) to saturation (I sub S) magnetization, and R sub H is the ratio of remanent coercive force (H sub R) to coercive force (H sub C). The R sub H and R sub I values depend on grain size, the characteristics of separate size modes in mixtures of grains of high and low coercivity, and the packing characteristics. Both R sub H and R sub I are affected by thermochemical alterations of the ferromagnetic fraction. Hysteresis loop constriction is observed in lunar samples, chondrite meteorites, and thermochemically altered basaltic rocks, and is due to mixtures of components of high and low coercivity. Discrete ranges of R sub H and R sub I for terrestrial and lunar samples and for chondrite meteorites provide for a classification of these natural materials based on their hysteresis properties.

Wasilewski, P. J.

1973-01-01

436

Scaling behavior of hysteresis in multilayer MoS2 field effect transistors

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrinsic hysteresis effects are often observed in MoS2 field effect devices due to adsorption of gas molecules on the surface of MoS2 channel. Scaling is a common method used in ferroics to quantitatively study the hysteresis. Here, the scaling behavior of hysteresis in multilayer MoS2 field effect transistors with a back-gated configuration was investigated. The power-law scaling relations were obtained for hysteresis area (?A?) and memory window (?V) with varying the region of back-gate voltage (Vbg,max). It is interesting to find that the transition voltage in the forward sweep (VFW) and in the backward sweep (VBW) shifted to the opposite directions of back-gate voltage (Vbg) with increasing Vbg,max. However, when decreasing Vbg,max, VFW shifted to positive and reversibly recovered, but VBW almost kept unchanged. The evolution of ?A?, ?V, VFW, and VBW with Vbg,max were discussed by the electrons transferring process between the adsorbate and MoS2 channel.

Li, Tao; Du, Gang; Zhang, Baoshun; Zeng, Zhongming

2014-09-01

437

Hysteresis and Related Error Mechanisms in the NIST Watt Balance Experiment

The NIST watt balance experiment is being completely rebuilt after its 1998 determination of the Planck constant. That measurement yielded a result with an approximately 110 -7 relative standard uncertainty. Because the goal of the new incarnation of the experiment is a ten-fold decrease in uncertainty, it has been necessary to reexamine many sources of systematic error. Hysteresis effects account

Joshua P. Schwarz; Ruimin Liu; David B. Newell; Richard L. Steiner; Edwin R. Williams; Douglas Smith

2001-01-01

438

Hysteresis and the single-phase metal-insulator transition in switchable YHx films

Extraordinary large hysteresis effects in optical, electrical, and structural properties are observed in switchable mirrors based on thin yttrium hydride (YHx) films, deposited on quartz glass or sapphire. The pressure-composition isotherms of the YHx system between x=2 and 3 for absorption and desorption, determined electrochemically, differ by approximately three orders of magnitude. The optical transmittance exhibits a distinct minimum when

E. S. Kooij; Gogh van A. T. M; D. G. Nagengast; N. J. Koeman; R. P. Griessen

2000-01-01

439

A grounded-load charge amplifier for reducing hysteresis in piezoelectric tube scanners

A grounded-load charge amplifier for reducing hysteresis in piezoelectric tube scanners A. J 2005 In this paper, a charge amplifier adapted for piezoelectric tube scanners is presented. Previous difficulty associated with piezoelectric tube scanners and piezoelectric actuators in general . When employed

Fleming, Andrew J.

440

Hysteresis Loop for a No-loaded, Delta-connected Transformer Model Deduced from Measurements

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a transformer's steady-state condition, whereby a transformer and its load are constantly supplied by a sinusoidal source, the current-flux pair within the transformer core and its windings will cycle along a hysteresis loop. This nonlinear current-flux characteristic becomes important while at transformer gets reenergized. A remaining residual flux and the fact that a transformer is typically used up to its saturation level can lead to high-amplitude magnetizing inrush currents and associated voltage disturbances. These disturbances can be reduced by controlled transformer switching. In order to pre-evaluate the effect of a specific controlled transformer energization, pre-simulations can be applied. In that case the hysteresis loop and its saturation characteristic will become the most important model parameter. If the corresponding manufacturer specifications are not available a standard hysteresis loops can be used, but might come up with an inaccurate simulation result. Therefore, this paper analyses the measured 3-phase currents from two delta-connected power transformers by “Fourier Series” in order to deduce a single-phase hysteresis loop, which can be implemented into a typical 3-phase transformer model. Additionally, the saturation behavior of a power-transformer will be estimated and a comparison of ATP/EMTP simulations will conclude this paper.

Corrodi, Yves; Kamei, Kenji; Kohyama, Haruhiko; Ito, Hiroki

441

An Analytical Description of Slow Hysteresis in Polarized Ferroelectric Ceramic Actuators

Recently, an existing system of electroelastic equations was extended to account for slow hysteretic effects in polarized ferroelectric ceramic plates by employing an internal variable in a thermodynamic state function. All material irreversibility was taken to be a consequence of the ferroelectric polarization-electric field irreversibility. Since only the slowest possible hysteresis is of concern, the evolution equation is ignored and

L. Huang; H. F. Tiersten

1998-01-01

442

Unzipping DNA by a periodic force: hysteresis loop area and its scaling

We study, by using Monte Carlo simulations, the hysteresis in unzipping of a double stranded DNA whose ends are subjected to a time dependent periodic force with frequency ($\\omega$) and amplitude ($G$). For the static force, i.e., $\\omega \\to 0$, the DNA is in equilibrium with no hysteresis. On increasing $\\omega$, the area of the hysteresis loop initially increases and becomes maximum at frequency $\\omega^{*}(G)$, which depends on the force amplitude $G$. If the frequency is further increased, we find that for lower amplitudes the loop area decreases monotonically to zero, but for higher amplitudes it has an oscillatory component. The height of subsequent peaks decrease and finally the loop area becomes zero at very high frequencies. The number of peaks depend on the length of the DNA. We give a simple analysis to estimate the frequencies at which maxima and minima occurs in the loop area. We find that the area of the hysteresis loop scales as $1/\\omega$ in high frequency regime whereas, it scales as $G^{\\a...

Kapri, Rajeev

2014-01-01

443

FORWARD HYSTERESIS AND BACKWARD BIFURCATION CAUSED BY CULLING IN AN AVIAN INFLUENZA MODEL

FORWARD HYSTERESIS AND BACKWARD BIFURCATION CAUSED BY CULLING IN AN AVIAN INFLUENZA MODEL HAYRIYE influenza virus strain magnifies the need for controlling the incidence of H5N1 infection in domestic bird measure. We use mathematical modeling to understand the dynamics of avian influenza under different

Martcheva, Maia

444

A stability-based mechanism for hysteresis in the walk–trot transition in quadruped locomotion

Quadrupeds vary their gaits in accordance with their locomotion speed. Such gait transitions exhibit hysteresis. However, the underlying mechanism for this hysteresis remains largely unclear. It has been suggested that gaits correspond to attractors in their dynamics and that gait transitions are non-equilibrium phase transitions that are accompanied by a loss in stability. In the present study, we used a robotic platform to investigate the dynamic stability of gaits and to clarify the hysteresis mechanism in the walk–trot transition of quadrupeds. Specifically, we used a quadruped robot as the body mechanical model and an oscillator network for the nervous system model to emulate dynamic locomotion of a quadruped. Experiments using this robot revealed that dynamic interactions among the robot mechanical system, the oscillator network, and the environment generate walk and trot gaits depending on the locomotion speed. In addition, a walk–trot transition that exhibited hysteresis was observed when the locomotion speed was changed. We evaluated the gait changes of the robot by measuring the locomotion of dogs. Furthermore, we investigated the stability structure during the gait transition of the robot by constructing a potential function from the return map of the relative phase of the legs and clarified the physical characteristics inherent to the gait transition in terms of the dynamics. PMID:23389894

Aoi, Shinya; Katayama, Daiki; Fujiki, Soichiro; Tomita, Nozomi; Funato, Tetsuro; Yamashita, Tsuyoshi; Senda, Kei; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

2013-01-01

445

Hysteresis of switching waves and dissipative solitons in nonlinear magnetic metamaterials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Localized structures forming in the bistable regimes in a chain of weakly coupled split ring resonators, which are the building blocks of a nonlinear magnetic metamaterial, where electric current is generated by external electromagnetic radiation, have been studied analytically and numerically. The hysteresis of the velocity of switching waves (fronts) has been revealed and discrete dissipative solitons have been found.

Rosanov, N. N.; Vysotina, N. V.; Shatsev, A. N.; Shadrivov, I. V.; Kivshar, Yu. S.

2011-08-01

446

PM motor sensorless position detection based on iron BH local hysteresis

A sensorless position detection technique for a permanent magnet (PM) motor with non-salient rotor is presented. It is shown that the phase self inductances and resistances measured at higher frequencies vary slightly with the rotor position. The origin of the variations is found in the iron B-H hysteresis characteristics. In order to exploit these small variations for the rotor position

Omar Scaglione; Miroslav Markovic; Yves Perriard

2009-01-01

447

Nonlinear Curve-Fitting Program

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear optimization algorithm helps in finding best-fit curve. Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, interactive curve-fitting routine based on description of quadratic expansion of X(sup 2) statistic. Utilizes nonlinear optimization algorithm calculating best statistically weighted values of parameters of fitting function and X(sup 2) minimized. Provides user with such statistical information as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters producing highest degree of correlation between experimental data and mathematical model. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Everhart, Joel L.; Badavi, Forooz F.

1989-01-01

448

Pulse transit time (PTT) is a cardiovascular parameter of emerging interest due to its potential to estimate blood pressure (BP) continuously and without a cuff. Both linear and nonlinear equations have been used in the estimation of BP based on PTT. This study, however, demonstrates that there is a hysteresis phenomenon between BP and PTT during and after dynamic exercise. A total of 46 subjects including 16 healthy subjects, 13 subjects with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, and 17 patients with cardiovascular disease underwent graded exercise stress test. PTT was measured from electrocardiogram and photoplethysmogram of the left index finger of the subject, i.e., a pathway that includes predominately aorta, brachial, and radial arteries. The results of this study showed that, for the same systolic BP (SBP), PTT measured during exercise was significantly larger than PTT measured during recovery for all subject groups. This hysteresis was further quantified as both normalized area bounded by the SBP-PTT relationship (AreaN) and SBP difference at PTT during peak exercise plus 20 ms (?SBP20). Significant attenuation of both AreaN (p <; 0.05) and ?SBP20 (p <; 0.01) is observed in cardiovascular patients compared with healthy subjects, independent of resting BP. Since the SBP-PTT relationship are determined by the mechanical properties of arterial wall, which is predominately mediated by the sympathetic nervous system through altered vascular smooth muscle (VSM) tone during exercise, results of this study are consistent with the previous findings of autonomic nervous dysfunction in cardiovascular patients. We further conclude that VSM tone has a nonnegligible influence on the BP-PTT relationship and thus should be considered in the PTT-based BP estimation. PMID:24158470

Liu, Qing; Yan, Bryan P; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Poon, Carmen C Y

2014-02-01

449

Reflectometry on curved interfaces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflectometry is known since long as an interferometric method which can be used to characterize surfaces and thin films regarding their structure and, to a certain degree, composition as well. Properties like layer structures, layer thickness, density, and interface roughness can be determined by fitting the obtained reflectivity data with an appropriate model using a recursive fitting routine. However, one major drawback of the reflectometric method is its restriction to planar surfaces. In this article we demonstrate an approach to apply X-ray and neutron reflectometry to curved surfaces by means of the example of bent bare and coated glass slides. We prove the possibility to observe all features like Fresnel decay, Kiessig fringes, Bragg peaks and off-specular scattering and are able to interpret the data using common fitting software and to derive quantitative results about roughness, layer thickness and internal structure. The proposed method has become practical due to the availability of high quality 2D-detectors. It opens up the option to explore many kinds and shapes of samples, which, due to their geometry, have not been in the focus of reflectometry techniques until now.

Früh, Johannes; Rühm, Adrian; Möhwald, Helmuth; Krastev, Rumen; Köhler, Ralf

2015-01-01

450

$ $ Map showing locations of UT's Main, Scott Park, and Health Science Campuses Student Parking HEALTH SCIENCE CAMPUS GLENDALE BANCROFT NEBRASKA DETROIT FERI A NG BUILDING DIRECTORY AC Scott Park..........................................WBReceiving..........................................WB Minority Business Development Ctr....FAMinority Business Development Ctr....FA NorthwestNorthwest State

Viola, Ronald

451

The OOPSLA trivia show (TOOTS)

OOPSLA has a longstanding tradition of being a forum for discussing the cutting edge of technology in a fun and participatory environment. The type of events sponsored by OOPSLA sometimes border on the unconventional. This event represents an atypical panel that conforms to the concept of a game show that is focused on questions and answers related to OOPSLA themes.

Jeff Gray; Douglas C. Schmidt

2009-01-01

452

Diarrheal Disease in Show Swine

or short-term diarrhea followed by systemic or blood stream infection. E-439 3-07 *Visiting Professor, Swine Practice, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The Texas A&M University System. Diarrheal Disease in Show Swine Bruce Lawhorn...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2007-02-27

453

Browse the archive Show summaries

for consumers? www.fightthepowergrab.o Slide Shows for Physics MathType for science and math presentations that a "fast ignition" laser facility could make a significant contribution to fusion research, as well than magnets to confine the plasma, will be investigated by the National Ignition Facility (NIF

454

Suitable Conditions of Reservoir Simulation for Searching Rule Curves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to carry out a suitable length of inflow record using in the simulation model. The second objective is to find an effect of initial reservoir capacity of reservoir simulation for searching the optimal rule curves. The reservoir simulation model was connected with genetic algorithms to search the optimal rule curves quickly. The model has been applied to determine the optimal rule curves of the Bhumibol and Sirikit Reservoirs (the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand). The optimal rule curves of each condition were used to assess by a Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the shortest period of dry inflow record using in the simulation model in order to search the optimal rule curves is 10 year. Furthermore, the minimum initial capacity of reservoir for searching optimal rule curves is 10% of full capacity.

Kangrang, Anongrit; Chaleeraktrakoon, Chavalit

455

Solar panel surface crack extraction using curve fitting

The solar panel surface crack is a very important factor affecting its performance. Analyzing the characteristics of the solar panel surface image, detecting and annotating the crack using the min filter, the paper proposes the method of cubic parametric spline curve fitting crack which is compared with the least-squares polynomial curve fitting. The experiments show that the former has smaller

Xu Meifang; Wang Haoquan; Gui Zhiguo

2010-01-01

456

13. PULL CURVE RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of a September 1907 photograph ...

13. PULL CURVE RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of a September 1907 photograph showing the reconstruction of a pull curve at Sacramento and Larkin Streets following the earthquake and fire. The tracks belong to United Railroads of San Francisco. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

457

NUMBER OF RATIONAL POINTS OF A SINGULAR CURVE

In this paper, we give a bound for the number of rational points of a complete, geometrically irreducible, algebraic curve dened over a nite eld. We compare it with other known bounds and discuss its sharpness. We also show that the asymptotic Drinfeld-Vladut bound can be generalized to the case of singular curves.

NIGA GALINDO

458

The geomorphological origin of recession curves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify a previously undetected link between the river network morphology and key recession curves properties through a conceptual-physical model of the drainage process of the riparian unconfined aquifer. We show that the power-law exponent, ? of -dQ/dt vs Q curves is related to the power-law exponent of N(l) vs G(l) curves (which we show to be connected to Hack's law), where l is the downstream distance from the channel heads, N(l) is the number of channel reaches exactly located at a distance l from their channel head, and G(l) is the total length of the network located at a distance greater or equal to l from channel heads. Using Digital Terrain Models and daily discharge observations from 67 US basins we find that geomorphologic ? estimates match well the values obtained from recession curves analyses. Finally, we argue that the link between recession flows and network morphology points to an important role of low-flow discharges in shaping the channel network.

Biswal, B.; Marani, M.

2010-12-01

459

Modeling and Fitting Exoplanet Transit Light Curves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a numerical model along with an original fitting routine for the analysis of transiting extra-solar planet light curves. Our light curve model is unique in several ways from other available transit models, such as the analytic eclipse formulae of Mandel & Agol (2002) and Giménez (2006), the modified Eclipsing Binary Orbit Program (EBOP) model implemented in Southworth’s JKTEBOP code (Popper & Etzel 1981; Southworth et al. 2004), or the transit model developed as a part of the EXOFAST fitting suite (Eastman et al. in prep.). Our model employs Keplerian orbital dynamics about the system’s center of mass to properly account for stellar wobble and orbital eccentricity, uses a unique analytic solution derived from Kepler’s Second Law to calculate the projected distance between the centers of the star and planet, and calculates the effect of limb darkening using a simple technique that is different from the commonly used eclipse formulae. We have also devised a unique Monte Carlo style optimization routine for fitting the light curve model to observed transits. We demonstrate that, while the effect of stellar wobble on transit light curves is generally small, it becomes significant as the planet to stellar mass ratio increases and the semi-major axes of the orbits decrease. We also illustrate the appreciable effects of orbital ellipticity on the light curve and the necessity of accounting for its impacts for accurate modeling. We show that our simple limb darkening calculations are as accurate as the analytic equations of Mandel & Agol (2002). Although our Monte Carlo fitting algorithm is not as mathematically rigorous as the Markov Chain Monte Carlo based algorithms most often used to determine exoplanetary system parameters, we show that it is straightforward and returns reliable results. Finally, we show that analyses performed with our model and optimization routine compare favorably with exoplanet characterizations published by groups such as the Keele Astrophysics Group and the Transiting Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescope (TRAPPIST) team.

Millholland, Sarah; Ruch, G. T.

2013-01-01

460

Random Curves by Conformal Welding

We construct a conformally invariant random family of closed curves in the plane by welding of random homeomorphisms of the unit circle given in terms of the exponential of Gaussian Free Field. We conjecture that our curves are locally related to SLE$(\\kappa)$ for $\\kappa<4$.

Astala, K; Kupiainen, A; Saksman, E

2009-01-01

461

Random Curves by Conformal Welding

We construct a conformally invariant random family of closed curves in the plane by welding of random homeomorphisms of the unit circle given in terms of the exponential of Gaussian Free Field. We conjecture that our curves are locally related to SLE$(\\kappa)$ for $\\kappa<4$.

K. Astala; P. Jones; A. Kupiainen; E. Saksman

2009-12-17

462

Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

Sernelius, Bo E. [Division of Theory and Modeling, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2009-10-15

463

Growth Curves for Girls with Turner Syndrome

The objective of this study was to review the growth curves for Turner syndrome, evaluate the methodological and statistical quality, and suggest potential growth curves for clinical practice guidelines. The search was carried out in the databases Medline and Embase. Of 1006 references identified, 15 were included. Studies constructed curves for weight, height, weight/height, body mass index, head circumference, height velocity, leg length, and sitting height. The sample ranged between 47 and 1,565 (total?=?6,273) girls aged 0 to 24?y, born between 1950 and 2006. The number of measures ranged from 580 to 9,011 (total?=?28,915). Most studies showed strengths such as sample size, exclusion of the use of growth hormone and androgen, and analysis of confounding variables. However, the growth curves were restricted to height, lack of information about selection bias, limited distributional properties, and smoothing aspects. In conclusion, we observe the need to construct an international growth reference for girls with Turner syndrome, in order to provide support for clinical practice guidelines. PMID:24949463

Bertapelli, Fabio; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Antonio, Maria Ângela Reis de Góes Monteiro; Barbeta, Camila Justino de Oliveira; de Lemos-Marini, Sofia Helena Valente

2014-01-01

464

Growth curves for girls with Turner syndrome.

The objective of this study was to review the growth curves for Turner syndrome, evaluate the methodological and statistical quality, and suggest potential growth curves for clinical practice guidelines. The search was carried out in the databases Medline and Embase. Of 1006 references identified, 15 were included. Studies constructed curves for weight, height, weight/height, body mass index, head circumference, height velocity, leg length, and sitting height. The sample ranged between 47 and 1,565 (total = 6,273) girls aged 0 to 24 y, born between 1950 and 2006. The number of measures ranged from 580 to 9,011 (total = 28,915). Most studies showed strengths such as sample size, exclusion of the use of growth hormone and androgen, and analysis of confounding variables. However, the growth curves were restricted to height, lack of information about selection bias, limited distributional properties, and smoothing aspects. In conclusion, we observe the need to construct an international growth reference for girls with Turner syndrome, in order to provide support for clinical practice guidelines. PMID:24949463

Bertapelli, Fabio; Barros-Filho, Antonio de Azevedo; Antonio, Maria Ângela Reis de Góes Monteiro; Barbeta, Camila Justino de Oliveira; de Lemos-Marini, Sofia Helena Valente; Guerra-Junior, Gil

2014-01-01

465

Analysis of geometries with closed timelike curves

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the analysis of cylindrically symmetric and stationary space-times mathcal{C}_{t} with closed timelike curves. The equation of motion describing the evolution of a massive scalar field in a mathcal{C}_{t} space-time is obtained. A class of space-times with closed timelike curves describing cosmic strings and cylinders is studied in detail. In such space-times, both massive particles as well as photons can reach the non-causal region. Geodesics and closed timelike curves are calculated and investigated. We have observed that massive particles and photons describe, essentially, two kinds of trajectories: confined orbits and scattering states. The analysis of the light cones show us clearly the intersection between future and past inside the non-causal region. Exact solutions for the equation of motion of massive scalar field propagating in cosmic strings and cylinder space-times are presented. Quasinormal modes for the scalar field have been calculated in static and rotating cosmic cylinders. We found unstable modes in the rotating cases. Rotating as well as static cosmic strings, i.e., without regular interior solutions, do not display quasinormal modes for the scalar field. We conclude presenting a conjecture relating closed timelike curves and space-time instability.

Pavan, A. B.

2010-05-01

466

Curved conveyor section guide assembly

A guide assembly for a curved conveyor section of a scraperchain conveyor guides the scraper assembly from a first straight conveyor portion round the curved conveyor section to a second straight conveyor portion. This guiding is accomplished by a pair of independently rotatable pulley wheels. A further pair of independently rotatable pulley wheels are provided to guide the drive chain of a plough round the curved conveyor section. This enables the plough to be driven to and fro along the first straight conveyor portion by a drive station attached to the second straight conveyor portion adjacent to the guide assembly.

Truszczinski, H.

1981-02-03

467

The objective is to investigate experimentally and theoretically the effects of neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress on magnetic properties in steels, using various magnetic measurement techniques. Interaction between experiment and modeling should suggest efficient magnetic measurement procedures for determining neutron embrittlement biaxial stress. This should ultimately assist in safety monitoring of nuclear power plants and of gas and oil pipelines. In the first six months of this first year study, magnetic measurements were made on steel surveillance specimens from the Indian Point 2 and D.C. Cook 2 reactors. The specimens previously had been characterized by Charpy tests after specified neutron fluences. Measurements now included: (1) hysteresis loop measurement of coercive force, permeability and remanence, (2) Barkhausen noise amplitude; and (3) higher order nonlinear harmonic analysis of a 1 Hz magnetic excitation. Very good correlation of magnetic parameters with fluence and embrittlement was found for specimens from the Indian Point 2 reactor. The D.C. Cook 2 specimens, however showed poor correlation. Possible contributing factors to this are: (1) metallurgical differences between D.C. Cook 2 and Indian Point 2 specimens; (2) statistical variations in embrittlement parameters for individual samples away from the stated men values; and (3) conversion of the D.C. Cook 2 reactor to a low leakage core configuration in the middle of the period of surveillance. Modeling using a magnetomechanical hysteresis model has begun. The modeling will first focus on why Barkhausen noise and nonlinear harmonic amplitudes appear to be better indicators of embrittlement than the hysteresis loop parameters.

Sablik, M.J.; Kwun, H.; Rollwitz, W.L.; Cadena, D.

1992-01-01

468

CURVE-FITTING-ALGORITHM (CFA) AS POWER QUALITY BASIC ALGORITHM

Many computing techniques are used to evaluate Power Quality parameters, each showing specific advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents a n improvement of Curve Fitting Algorithm (CFA) having good accuracy in the estimation of the signal's pow er quality parameters.

M. Caciotta; F. Leccese; A. Trifirò

469

On the Pythagoras numbers of real analytic curves

We show that the Pythagoras number of a real analytic curve is the supremum of the Pythagoras numbers of its singularities,\\u000a or that supremum plus 1. This includes cases when the Pythagoras number is infinite.

Francesca Acquistapace; Fabrizio Broglia; José F. Fernando; Jesús M. Ruiz

2007-01-01

470

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

The images were obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

2005-01-01

471

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scaling behaviors of dynamic hysteresis were investigated in serial rhombohedral Nb-doped Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) bulk ceramics as a function of frequency (f) and field amplitude (E0). Three distinct regions were plotted including linear loops, minor loops, and saturated loops with an increase of E0. When the external fields were over ˜1.5 times of coercive field (Ec), the scaling relations of saturated loops for these PZT ceramics could be expressed with an identical form as hysteresis area ?A? ? f 0.01E00.10, which indicated that similar ferroelectric systems with different compositions could display a uniform scaling law under high-E0 and low-f regions.

Chen, Xuefeng; Dong, Xianlin; Zhou, Zhiyong; Wang, Junxia; Cao, Fei; Wang, Genshui; Zhang, Hongling

2013-12-01

472

Hysteresis loops and adiabatic Landau-Zener-Stückelberg transitions in the magnetic molecule {V6}.

We have observed hysteresis loops and abrupt magnetization steps in the magnetic molecule {V(6)}, where each molecule comprises a pair of identical spin triangles, in the temperature range 1-5 K for external magnetic fields B with sweep rates of several Tesla per millisecond executing a variety of closed cycles. The hysteresis loops are accurately reproduced using a generalization of the Bloch equation based on direct one-phonon transitions between the instantaneous Zeeman-split levels of the ground state (an S=1/2 doublet) of each spin triangle. The magnetization steps occur for B approximately 0, and they are explained in terms of adiabatic Landau-Zener-Stückelberg transitions between the lowest magnetic energy levels as modified by an intertriangle anisotropic exchange of order 0.4 K. PMID:15904102

Rousochatzakis, I; Ajiro, Y; Mitamura, H; Kögerler, P; Luban, M

2005-04-15

473

Hysteresis Loops and Adiabatic Landau-Zener-Stückelberg Transitions in the Magnetic Molecule {V6}

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed hysteresis loops and abrupt magnetization steps in the magnetic molecule {V6}, where each molecule comprises a pair of identical spin triangles, in the temperature range 1 5 K for external magnetic fields B with sweep rates of several Tesla per millisecond executing a variety of closed cycles. The hysteresis loops are accurately reproduced using a generalization of the Bloch equation based on direct one-phonon transitions between the instantaneous Zeeman-split levels of the ground state (an S=1/2 doublet) of each spin triangle. The magnetization steps occur for B?0, and they are explained in terms of adiabatic Landau-Zener-Stückelberg transitions between the lowest magnetic energy levels as modified by an intertriangle anisotropic exchange of order 0.4 K.

Rousochatzakis, I.; Ajiro, Y.; Mitamura, H.; Kögerler, P.; Luban, M.

2005-04-01

474

Density hysteresis of heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix

A neutron scattering technique was developed to measure the density of heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix in a temperature-pressure range, from 300 to 130 K and from 1 to 2,900 bars, where bulk water will crystalize. We observed a prominent hysteresis phenomenon in the measured density profiles between warming and cooling scans above 1,000 bars. We inter- pret this hysteresis phenomenon as support (although not a proof) of the hypothetical existence of a first-order liquid liquid phase transition of water that would exist in the macroscopic system if crystallization could be avoided in the relevant phase region. Moreover, the density data we obtained for the confined heavy water under these conditions are valuable to large communities in biology and earth and planetary sciences interested in phenomena in which nanometer-sized water layers are involved.

Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Faraone, Antonio [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kamitakahara, William [ORNL; Liu, Kao-Hsiang [National Taiwan University; Mou, Chung-Yuan [National Taiwan University; Leao, Juscelino B [ORNL; Chang, Sung C [ORNL; Chen, Sow-hsin H [ORNL

2011-01-01

475

A method using atomic force microscope (AFM) optical levers and a reference nanopositioning stage has been developed to characterize piezoscanner hysteresis and creep. The piezoscanner is fixed on a closed-loop nanopositioning stage, both of which have the same arrangement on each axis of the three spatial directions inside the AFM-based nanomanipulation system. In order to achieve characterization, the optical lever is used as a displacement sensor to measure the relative movement between the nanopositioning stage and the piezoscanner by lateral tracking a well-defined slope with the tapping mode of the AFM cantilever. This setup can be used to estimate a piezoscanner's voltage input with a reference displacement from the nanopositioning stage. The hysteresis and creep were accurately calibrated by the method presented, which use the current setup of the AFM-based nanomanipulation system without any modification or additional devices.

Xie, H.; Regnier, S. [Institute of Intelligent System and Robotics, University of Pierre and Marie Curie/CNRS UMR 7222, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Rakotondrabe, M. [Department of Automatic Control and Micro-Mechatronic Systems, FEMTO-ST Institute, CNRS UMR 6174-UFC/ENSMM/UTBM, 24, Rue Alain Savary, 25000 Besancon (France)

2009-04-15

476

The influence of laminar separation and transition on low Reynolds number airfoil hysteresis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study of the Lissaman 7769 and Miley MO6-13-128 airfoils at low chord Reynolds numbers is presented. Although both airfoils perform well near their design Reynolds number of about 600,000, they each produce a different type of hysteresis loop in the lift and drag forces when operated below chord Reynolds numbers of 300,000. The type of hysteresis loop was found to depend upon the relative location of laminar separation and transition. The influence of disturbance environment and experimental procedure on the low Reynolds number airfoil boundary layer behavior is also presented. The use of potential flow solutions to help predict how a given airfoil will behave at low Reynolds numbers is also discussed.

Mueller, T. J.

1984-01-01

477

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments have shown that piezoceramic materials display a nonlinear relationship between the applied electric field and the actuation strain. This relationship also displays a substantial hysteresis upon reversal of the applied field. In this paper, piezoceramic actuator models are incorporated into the structural equations of motion to arrive at a set of nonlinear actively controlled structural equations of motion. A new implicit algorithm for determining the time history of the actively controlled structure is presented. The algorithm employs the trapezoidal rule for stepping the equations forward in time. The algorithm is compared to an explicit algorithm and is shown to provide greater numerical accuracy. In addition, the numerical stability and convergence characteristics are presented via example. The new algorithm displays convergence and stability properties that are comparable to the standard trapezoidal rule used for dynamic systems without hysteresis.

Leigh, Timothy D.; Zimmerman, David C.

1991-01-01

478

Disorder-driven first-order phase transformations: A model for hysteresis

Hysteresis loops in some magnetic systems are composed of small avalanches (manifesting themselves as Barkhausen pulses). Hysteresis loops in other first-order phase transitions (including some magnetic systems) often occur via one large avalanche. The transition between these two limiting cases is studied, by varying the disorder in the zero-temperature random-field Ising model. Sweeping the external field through zero at weak disorder, we get one large avalanche with small precursors and aftershocks. At strong disorder, we get a distribution of small avalanches (small Barkhausen effect). At the critical value of disorder where a macroscopic jump in the magnetization first occurs, universal power-law behavior of the magnetization and of the distribution of (Barkhausen) avalanches is found. This transition is studied by mean-field theory, perturbative expansions, and numerical simulation in three dimensions.

Dahmen, K.; Kartha, S.; Krumhansl, J.A.; Roberts, B.W.; Sethna, J.P.; Shore, J.D. (Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-2501 (United States))

1994-05-15

479

Influence of the magnetization damping on dynamic hysteresis loops in single domain particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports on the influence of the magnetization damping on dynamic hysteresis loops in single-domain particles with uniaxial anisotropy. The approach is based on the Néel-Brown theory and the hierarchy of differential recurrence relations, which follow from averaging over the realizations of the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz equation. A new method of solution is proposed, where the resulting system of differential equations is solved directly using optimized algorithms to explore its sparsity. All parameters involved in uniaxial systems are treated in detail, with particular attention given to the frequency dependence. It is shown that in the ferromagnetic resonance region, novel phenomena are observed for even moderately low values of the damping. The hysteresis loops assume remarkably unusual shapes, which are also followed by a pronounced reduction of their heights. Also demonstrated is that these features remain for randomly oriented ensembles and, moreover, are approximately independent of temperature and particle size.

Landi, Gabriel T.

2012-02-01

480

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hysteresis nonlinearity of piezoelectric actuator is one of the main defects in the control of optical deflector which is widely used as a key component in adaptive optics system. In this paper, a control method combining the feedforward and feedback controllers is proposed to precisely control the deflection angle of an optical deflector. The inverse of an asymmetric Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) hysteresis model is utilized in the feedforward loop, and a PID controller is used in the feedback loop. Then, a tracking control experiment for the desired triangle wave was performed. From the experimental results, we can see that the response of the optical deflector is linearized and the positioning precision of optical deflector is significantly improved.

Wang, Geng; Guan, Chunlin; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Hong; Rao, Changhui

2014-04-01