Sample records for hysteresis

  1. Mathematical models of hysteresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Mayergoyz

    1986-01-01

    A new approach to Preisach's hysteresis model, which emphasizes its phenomenological nature and mathematical generality, is briefly described. Then the theorem which gives the necessary and sufficient conditions for the representation of actual hysteresis nonlinearities by Preisach's model is proven. The significance of this theorem is that it establishes the limits of applicability of this model.

  2. Plant thermal hysteresis proteins.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, M E; Duman, J G; Knight, C A

    1992-05-22

    Proteins which produce a thermal hysteresis (i.e. lower the freezing point of water below the melting point) are common antifreezes in cold adapted poikilothermic animals, especially fishes from ice-laden seas and terrestrial arthropods. However, these proteins have not been previously identified in plants. 16 species of plants collected from northern Indiana in autumn and winter had low levels of thermal hysteresis activity, but activity was absent in summer. This suggests that thermal hysteresis proteins may be a fairly common winter adaptation in angiosperms. Winter stem fluid from the bittersweet nightshade, Solanum dulcamara L., also showed the recrystallization inhibition activity characteristic of the animal thermal hysteresis proteins (THPs), suggesting a possible function for the THPs in this freeze tolerant species. Other potential functions are discussed. Antibodies to an insect THP cross reacted on immunoelectroblots with proteins in S. dulcamara stem fluid, indicating common epitopes in the insect and plant THPs. PMID:1599942

  3. Hysteresis in column systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyi, P.; Ivanyi, A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper one column of a telescopic construction of a bell tower is investigated. The hinges at the support of the column and at the connecting joint between the upper and lower columns are modelled with rotational springs. The characteristics of the springs are assumed to be non-linear and the hysteresis property of them is represented with the Preisach hysteresis model. The mass of the columns and the bell with the fly are concentrated to the top of the column. The tolling process is simulated with a cycling load. The elements of the column are considered completely rigid. The time iteration of the non-linear equations of the motion is evaluated by the Crank-Nicolson schema and the implemented non-linear hysteresis is handled by the fix-point technique. The numerical simulation of the dynamic system is carried out under different combination of soft, medium and hard hysteresis properties of hinges.

  4. Dynamic hysteresis modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirka, S. E.; Moroz, Y. I.; Marketos, P.; Moses, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    A viscous-type dynamic hysteresis model (DHM) is developed. The DHM is compatible with static underlying model of any type and nature (Preisach or non-Preisach). The distinguishing features of the DHM are its arbitrary frequency dependence and the ability to control the shape of the dynamic hysteresis loop. The numerical method for the incorporation of the DHM in magnetodynamic computations is illustrated by a good agreement of modelled dynamic loops with measured loops of non-oriented and grain-oriented electrical steels.

  5. Hysteresis of ionization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Dinklage, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Bruhn, B.; Testrich, H. [Institut fuer Physik, E.-M.-Arndt Universitaet Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Wilke, C. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Plasmaforschung und Technologie, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    A quasi-logistic, nonlinear model for ionization wave modes is introduced. Modes are due to finite size of the discharge and current feedback. The model consists of competing coupled modes and it incorporates spatial wave amplitude saturation. The hysteresis of wave mode transitions under current variation is reproduced. Sidebands are predicted by the model and found in experimental data. The ad hoc model is equivalent to a general--so-called universal--approach from bifurcation theory.

  6. A magnetic hysteresis model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flatley, Thomas W.; Henretty, Debra A.

    1995-01-01

    The Passive Aerodynamically Stabilized Magnetically Damped Satellite (PAMS) will be deployed from the Space Shuttle and used as a target for a Shuttle-mounted laser. It will be a cylindrical satellite with several corner cube reflectors on the ends. The center of mass of the cylinder will be near one end, and aerodynamic torques will tend to align the axis of the cylinder with the spacecraft velocity vector. Magnetic hysteresis rods will be used to provide passive despin and oscillation-damping torques on the cylinder. The behavior of the hysteresis rods depends critically on the 'B/H' curves for the combination of materials and rod length-to-diameter ratio ('l-over-d'). These curves are qualitatively described in most Physics textbooks in terms of major and minor 'hysteresis loops'. Mathematical modeling of the functional relationship between B and H is very difficult. In this paper, the physics involved is not addressed, but an algorithm is developed which provides a close approximation to empirically determined data with a few simple equations suitable for use in computer simulations.

  7. Mach, methodology, hysteresis and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, R.

    2008-11-01

    This methodological note examines the epistemological foundations of hysteresis with particular reference to applications to economic systems. The economy principles of Ernst Mach are advocated and used in this assessment.

  8. Theory of molecular hysteresis switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhushner, Mortko; Oleynik, Ivan

    2006-03-01

    Molecular hysteresis switching has been recently observed in a series of experiments that measured the I-V spectrum of bipyridyl-dinitro oligophenylene-ethylene dithiol (BPDN) based molecular devices [1]. The experimental observations clearly show the presence of Coulomb blockade in single organic molecules that is responsible for the voltage-induced switching. We present the theory of the hysteresis switch which explains the non-linear hysteresis I-V characteristics based on the mechanisms of Coulomb blockade and the existence of two different molecular conformations of neutral and charged states of the molecule. [1] A.S. Blum, J.G. Kushmerick, D.P. Long, C.H. Patterson, J.C. Yang, J.C. Henderson, Y.X. Yao, J.M. Tour, R. Shashidhar, and B.R. Ratna, ``Molecularly inherent voltage-controlled conductance switching'' , Nature Materials 4, 167 (2005).

  9. Efficient Computational Model of Hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joel

    2005-01-01

    A recently developed mathematical model of the output (displacement) versus the input (applied voltage) of a piezoelectric transducer accounts for hysteresis. For the sake of computational speed, the model is kept simple by neglecting the dynamic behavior of the transducer. Hence, the model applies to static and quasistatic displacements only. A piezoelectric transducer of the type to which the model applies is used as an actuator in a computer-based control system to effect fine position adjustments. Because the response time of the rest of such a system is usually much greater than that of a piezoelectric transducer, the model remains an acceptably close approximation for the purpose of control computations, even though the dynamics are neglected. The model (see Figure 1) represents an electrically parallel, mechanically series combination of backlash elements, each having a unique deadband width and output gain. The zeroth element in the parallel combination has zero deadband width and, hence, represents a linear component of the input/output relationship. The other elements, which have nonzero deadband widths, are used to model the nonlinear components of the hysteresis loop. The deadband widths and output gains of the elements are computed from experimental displacement-versus-voltage data. The hysteresis curve calculated by use of this model is piecewise linear beyond deadband limits.

  10. Hysteresis in Audiovisual Synchrony Perception

    PubMed Central

    van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    The effect of stimulation history on the perception of a current event can yield two opposite effects, namely: adaptation or hysteresis. The perception of the current event thus goes in the opposite or in the same direction as prior stimulation, respectively. In audiovisual (AV) synchrony perception, adaptation effects have primarily been reported. Here, we tested if perceptual hysteresis could also be observed over adaptation in AV timing perception by varying different experimental conditions. Participants were asked to judge the synchrony of the last (test) stimulus of an AV sequence with either constant or gradually changing AV intervals (constant and dynamic condition, respectively). The onset timing of the test stimulus could be cued or not (prospective vs. retrospective condition, respectively). We observed hysteretic effects for AV synchrony judgments in the retrospective condition that were independent of the constant or dynamic nature of the adapted stimuli; these effects disappeared in the prospective condition. The present findings suggest that knowing when to estimate a stimulus property has a crucial impact on perceptual simultaneity judgments. Our results extend beyond AV timing perception, and have strong implications regarding the comparative study of hysteresis and adaptation phenomena. PMID:25774653

  11. Asymmetric-hysteresis compensation in piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Gorka; Janssens, Thierry; Van Brussel, Hendrik; Al-Bender, Farid

    2012-07-01

    The advantages of using piezoelectric actuators in ultra-precision applications are often impaired by nonlinear effects, in particular hysteresis, which may lead to positioning uncertainties of up to 15% of the actuator's stroke. Model-based compensation strategies are often prescribed in order to overcome this limitation and achieve better dynamical accuracy. This comes, however, at the expense of increasing identification and implementation complexity, especially when hysteresis is of the asymmetric type, such as prevalent in hard piezoceramic materials. This paper proposes a new compensation strategy based upon (i) treating hysteresis as being separate from other dynamical effects and (ii) formulating a new, simplified model to deal with asymmetric hysteresis, based on applying a linear operator to the conventional hysteresis models. After developing the theoretical background of the compensation strategy, the accuracy improvement due to the new hysteresis-compensation method is demonstrated experimentally.

  12. Design of experiment for hysteresis loops measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu?ková, Michaela; Harman, Radoslav; Tu?ek, Pavel; Tu?ek, Ji?í

    2014-11-01

    Hysteresis loop measurements are frequently used to assess the magnetic quality of a nanomaterial under an external magnetic field. Based on the values of the hysteresis parameters, it is possible to decide whether the nanomaterial meets requirements of a given application. In this work, we present a new approach to the measurement of the hysteresis loop based on the theory of optimal experimental design. We show that the maximin efficient design leads to a reduction in the measurements costs when compared to the standard equispaced measurement design. Moreover, a significantly higher accuracy in the estimation of hysteresis parameters is reached within a broad range of plausible values. The functionality of the proposed approach is successfully tested considering real experimental data obtained from the hysteresis loop measurements of the ?-Fe2O3 phase. The measurement procedure can be easily adapted to any magnetic nanomaterial for which the values of its hysteresis parameters are to be determined.

  13. Contact angle hysteresis on fluoropolymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tavana, H; Jehnichen, D; Grundke, K; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W

    2007-10-31

    Contact angle hysteresis of liquids with different molecular and geometrical properties on high quality films of four fluoropolymers was studied. A number of different causes are identified for hysteresis. With n-alkanes as probe liquids, contact angle hysteresis is found to be strongly related to the configuration of polymer chains. The largest hysteresis is obtained with amorphous polymers whereas the smallest hysteresis occurs for polymers with ordered molecular chains. This is explained in terms of sorption of liquid by the solid and penetration of liquid into the polymer film. Correlation of contact angle hysteresis with the size of n-alkane molecules supports this conclusion. On the films of two amorphous fluoropolymers with different molecular configurations, contact angle hysteresis of one and the same liquid with "bulky" molecules is shown to be quite different. On the surfaces of Teflon AF 1600, with stiff molecular chains, the receding angles of the probe liquids are independent of contact time between solid and liquid and similar hysteresis is obtained for all the liquids. Retention of liquid molecules on the solid surface is proposed as the most likely cause of hysteresis in these systems. On the other hand, with EGC-1700 films that consist of flexible chains, the receding angles are strongly time-dependent and the hysteresis is large. Contact angle hysteresis increases even further when liquids with strong dipolar intermolecular forces are used. In this case, major reorganization of EGC-1700 chains due to contact with the test liquids is suggested as the cause. The effect of rate of motion of the three-phase line on the advancing and receding contact angles, and therefore contact angle hysteresis, is investigated. For low viscous liquids, contact angles are independent of the drop front velocity up to approximately 10 mm/min. This agrees with the results of an earlier study that showed that the rate-dependence of the contact angles is an issue only for liquids with high viscosity. PMID:17537391

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF HYSTERESIS (DYNAMIC PROBLEMS IN HYSTERESIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Isaak Mayergoyz

    2006-08-21

    This research has further advanced the current state of the art in the areas of dynamic aspects of hysteresis and nonlinear large scale magnetization dynamics. The results of this research will find important engineering applications in the areas of magnetic data storage technology and the emerging technology of “spintronics”. Our research efforts have been focused on the following tasks: • Study of fast (pulse) precessional switching of magnetization in magnetic materials. • Analysis of critical fields and critical angles for precessional switching of magnetization. • Development of inverse problem approach to the design of magnetic field pulses for precessional switching of magnetization. • Study of magnetization dynamics induced by spin polarized current injection. • Construction of complete stability diagrams for spin polarized current induced magnetization dynamics. • Development of the averaging technique for the analysis of the slow time scale magnetization dynamics. • Study of thermal effects on magnetization dynamics by using the theory of stochastic processes on graphs.

  15. Control of hysteresis: theory and experimental results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaobo Tan; P. S. Krishnaprasad; Wright-Patterson AF

    Hysteresis in smart materials hinders the wider applicability of such materials in actuators. In this paper, a systematic approach for coping with hysteresis is presented. The method is illustrated through the example of controlling a commercially available magnetostrictive actuator. We utilize the low-dimensional model for the magnetostrictive actuator that was developed in earlier work. For low frequency inputs, the model

  16. Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid `atomtronic' circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G.; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W.; Lobb, Christopher J.; Phillips, William D.; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2014-02-01

    Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits--it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices).

  17. Hysteresis and coercivity of hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ã-zdemir, Ã.-zden; Dunlop, David J.

    2014-04-01

    room-temperature hysteresis, 14 submicron hematites (0.12-0.45 µm) had large coercive forces Hc (150-350 mT), while 22 natural 1-5.5 mm hematite crystals had Hc = 0.8-23 mT (basal-plane measurements). Single-domain (SD) and multidomain (MD) hematites owe their high Hc mainly to magnetoelastic anisotropy, caused in fine particles by internal strains and in large crystals by defects like dislocations, with a smaller contribution by triaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy. A strong correlation between Hc and the defect moment Md measured below hematite's Morin transition also favors magnetoelastic control. Saturation remanence/saturation magnetization ratios Mrs/Ms and coercivity ratios Hcr/Hc (Hcr is remanent coercive force) are distinctive: Mrs/Ms = 0.5-0.9, Hcr/Hc = 1.02-1.17 for MD hematites; Mrs/Ms = 0.5-0.7, Hcr/Hc = 1.45-1.62 for SD hematites. In high-temperature (20-690°C) hysteresis, Hc(T) ~ Ms(T) to a power 1.8-2.4 above 385°C. Magnetoelastic wall pinning by crystal defects is thus more likely than control by domain nucleation which depends on magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Our results compare well with existing Hc vs. crystal size d data. A suggested peak in Hc around 15 µm and a proposed slope change around 100 µm are both questionable. Using only near-saturation data, Hc varies continuously as d-0.61 from ?0.1 µm to 2 mm. The SD threshold size d0 may be >15 µm but there is no strong evidence that d0 ?100 µm. Direct domain observations are needed to settle the question. Augmented data sets for Hc and Mrs vs. d show that SD hematite is increasingly affected by thermal fluctuations below ?0.3 µm and generally confirm a superparamagnetic threshold size ds of 0.025-0.03 µm.

  18. Corneal hysteresis and its relevance to glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Deol, Madhvi; Taylor, David A.; Radcliffe, Nathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. It is estimated that roughly 60.5 million people had glaucoma in 2010 and that this number is increasing. Many patients continue to lose vision despite apparent disease control according to traditional risk factors. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent findings with regard to corneal hysteresis, a variable that is thought to be associated with the risk and progression of glaucoma. Recent findings Low corneal hysteresis is associated with optic nerve and visual field damage in glaucoma and the risk of structural and functional glaucoma progression. In addition, hysteresis may enhance intraocular pressure (IOP) interpretation: low corneal hysteresis is associated with a larger magnitude of IOP reduction following various glaucoma therapies. Corneal hysteresis is dynamic and may increase in eyes after IOP-lowering interventions are implemented. Summary It is widely accepted that central corneal thickness is a predictive factor for the risk of glaucoma progression. Recent evidence shows that corneal hysteresis also provides valuable information for several aspects of glaucoma management. In fact, corneal hysteresis may be more strongly associated with glaucoma presence, risk of progression, and effectiveness of glaucoma treatments than central corneal thickness. PMID:25611166

  19. Analysis of hunting in Synchronous Hysteresis Motor

    E-print Network

    Truong, Cang Kim, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    The Synchronous Hysteresis Motor has an inherent instability when it is used to drive a gyroscope wheel. The motor ideally should spin at a constant angular velocity, but it instead sporadically oscillates about synchronous ...

  20. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  1. Structural hysteresis model of transmitting mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruderman, M.; Bertram, T.

    2015-02-01

    We present a structural hysteresis model which describes the dynamic behavior of transmitting mechanical systems with a hysteretic spring and damped bedstop element, both connected in series. From the application point view this approach can be used for predicting the transmitted mechanical force based only on the known kinematic excitation. Using the case study of an elastic gear transmission we show and identify a hysteresis response which multivariate behavior depends on an internal state of the bedstop motion.

  2. Hysteresis and creep in powdersHysteresis and creep in powders and grainsand grains

    E-print Network

    Harting, Jens

    Hysteresis and creep in powdersHysteresis and creep in powders and grainsand grains Ciprian David. Model usedDiscrete element methods. Model used Micromechanical investigation of granular soilsMicromechanical investigation of granular soils under cyclic loadingunder cyclic loading ConclusionsConclusions #12;Motivation

  3. Analysis of a hysteresis motor with overexcitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Takahasi, T.

    1982-11-01

    The performance of a hysteresis motor can be improved greatly if it is overexcited for a short period when running at synchronous speed. The change in the magnetic state of the rotor hysteresis material, when the stator voltage is raised and then reduced to the original value, is described in detail. Based on this, a method for the calculation of the motor performance after overexcitation is proposed, and the effect of overexcitation on the motor performance is clarified by using this method. Good agreement is found between the calculated and the measured results.

  4. Flexible pivot mount eliminates friction and hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highman, C. O.

    1970-01-01

    Flexible steel pivot mount, suspended by flat vertical beryllium copper springs, is capable of rotation, free of hysteresis and starting friction. Mount requires no lubrication, is made in varying sizes, and is driven with either dc torque motor or mechanical linkage.

  5. Circuit increases capability of hysteresis synchronous motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, I. N.

    1967-01-01

    Frequency and phase detector circuit enables a hysteresis synchronous motor to drive a load of given torque value at a precise speed determined by a stable reference. This technique permits driving larger torque loads with smaller motors and lower power drain.

  6. Macroscopic theory for capillary-pressure hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Athukorallage, Bhagya; Aulisa, Eugenio; Iyer, Ram; Zhang, Larry

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we present a theory of macroscopic contact angle hysteresis by considering the minimization of the Helmholtz free energy of a solid-liquid-gas system over a convex set, subject to a constant volume constraint. The liquid and solid surfaces in contact are assumed to adhere weakly to each other, causing the interfacial energy to be set-valued. A simple calculus of variations argument for the minimization of the Helmholtz energy leads to the Young-Laplace equation for the drop surface in contact with the gas and a variational inequality that yields contact angle hysteresis for advancing/receding flow. We also show that the Young-Laplace equation with a Dirichlet boundary condition together with the variational inequality yields a basic hysteresis operator that describes the relationship between capillary pressure and volume. We validate the theory using results from the experiment for a sessile macroscopic drop. Although the capillary effect is a complex phenomenon even for a droplet as various points along the contact line might be pinned, the capillary pressure and volume of the drop are scalar variables that encapsulate the global quasistatic energy information for the entire droplet. Studying the capillary pressure versus volume relationship greatly simplifies the understanding and modeling of the phenomenon just as scalar magnetic hysteresis graphs greatly aided the modeling of devices with magnetic materials. PMID:25646688

  7. Managing Hysteresis: Three Cornerstones to Fiscal Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The effects of the Great Recession of 2007-2009 continue to challenge school business officials (SBOs) and other education leaders as they strive to prepare students for the global workforce. Economists have borrowed a word from chemistry to describe this state of affairs: hysteresis--the lingering effects of the past on the present. Today's SBOs…

  8. Hysteresis heating based induction bonding of thermoplastic composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Suwanwatana; S. Yarlagadda; J GILLESPIEJR

    2006-01-01

    The bonding of polymer matrix composites using magnetic particulate susceptor materials for hysteresis induction heating is investigated in this study. Hysteresis heating is tailored through careful design of the microstructure of magnetic particulate polymer films. The bond strength of hysteresis-welded materials is comparable to that of autoclave-welded materials while offering an order of magnitude reduction in cycle time. The relative

  9. Quantum Hydrodynamic Simulation of Hysteresis in the Resonant Tunneling Diode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhangxin Chen; Bernardo Cockburn; Carl L. Gardner; Joseph W. Jerome

    1995-01-01

    Hysteresis in the current-voltage curve of a resonant tunneling diode is simulated and analyzed in the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for semiconductor devices. The simulations are the first to show hysteresis in the QHD equations and to confirm that bistability is an intrinsic property of the resonant tunneling diode. Hysteresis appears in many settings in fluid dynamics. The simulations presented

  10. Rotational hysteresis of exchange-spring magnets.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.S.; Bader, S.D.; Kaper, H.; Leaf, G.K.; Shull, R.D.; Shapiro, A.J.; Gornakov, V.S.; Nikitenko, V.I.; Platt, C.L.; Berkowitz, A.E.; David, S.; Fullerton, E.E.

    2002-03-27

    We highlight our experimental studies and micromagnetic simulations of the rotational hysteresis in exchange-spring magnets. Magneto-optical imaging and torque magnetometry measurements for SmCo/Fe exchange-spring films with uniaxial in-plane anisotropy show that the magnetization rotation created in the magnetically soft Fe layer by a rotating magnetic field is hysteretic. The rotational hysteresis is due to the reversal of the chirality of the spin spiral structure. Micromagnetic simulations reveal two reversal modes of the chirality, one at low fields due to an in-plane untwisting of the spiral, and the other, at high fields, due to an out-of-plane fanning of the spiral.

  11. Rheological Hysteresis in Soft Glassy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divoux, Thibaut; Grenard, Vincent; Manneville, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear rheology of a soft glassy material is captured by its constitutive relation, shear stress versus shear rate, which is most generally obtained by sweeping up or down the shear rate over a finite temporal window. For a huge amount of complex fluids, the up and down sweeps do not superimpose and define a rheological hysteresis loop. By means of extensive rheometry coupled to time-resolved velocimetry, we unravel the local scenario involved in rheological hysteresis for various types of well-studied soft materials. We introduce two observables that quantify the hysteresis in macroscopic rheology and local velocimetry, respectively, as a function of the sweep rate ?t-1. Strikingly, both observables present a robust maximum with ?t, which defines a single material-dependent time scale that grows continuously from vanishingly small values in simple yield stress fluids to large values for strongly time-dependent materials. In line with recent theoretical arguments, these experimental results hint at a universal time scale-based framework for soft glassy materials, where inhomogeneous flows characterized by shear bands and/or pluglike flow play a central role.

  12. Scalar and vector hysteresis simulations using HysterSoft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimian, M.; Andrei, P.

    2015-02-01

    Hysteresis modeling has become an important research area with many applications in science and engineering. In this article we present a unified and robust simulation framework designed to perform scalar and vector hysteresis modeling. The framework is based on HysterSoft© which is a simulation platform that can be interfaced with other libraries and simulation programs to model various aspects of hysteresis. We describe the main features of our simulation framework by focusing on scalar and vector hysteresis modeling, direct and inverse modeling, dynamic hysteresis modeling, first-order reversal-curves analysis, identification of the scalar and vector Preisach distribution function using an experimental first- order reversal-curves, noise passage analysis through hysteretic systems, and thermal relaxation in scalar and vector hysteresis. The simulation modules, the user-defined features, and various parameter identification techniques are also presented.

  13. Stage-Discharge Hysteresis and Bedforms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. M.; Giri, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Nabi, M.; McDonald, R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most commonly-cited (and earliest recorded) examples of hysteresis in geomorphology and hydraulics is that arising in river stage-discharge rating curves, where different stages occur on the rising and falling limbs of a hydrograph for the same discharge. This is typically attributed to bedform dynamics, particularly in the case where bedforms disappear during increasing flows due to high Froude numbers and/or suspended load and are subsequently reformed on the falling limb of the hydrograph. In that case, the effective form drag of the bedforms is significantly different for the same discharge, as the bedforms have very different shapes on the rising and falling limb. Although the effect is most noticeable in the case where bedforms 'wash out', it is important to realize that the same effects give rise to weaker forms of hysteresis even when bedforms are uniformly present but evolve in response to changing flows. In this presentation, examples of both strong and weak hysteresis are shown using results from two- and three-dimensional mobile bed models which directly resolve the pressure distribution on the bed (and hence the form drag on bed features). Computations are compared to laboratory measurements of bedform behavior to support the use of such computations for predicting bedform behavior in rapidly varying flows. To connect this to more practical computations for larger-scale rivers, we describe a straightforward method for combining bedform dynamics calculations with much coarser planform river models in order to include the effect of bedform shape changes on effective bed roughness. Results from this method are shown for the Kootenai River in Northern Idaho. These results support the use of this hybrid technique when models capable of resolving bedform mechanics are impractical.

  14. Hysteresis prediction inside magnetic shields and application.

    PubMed

    Mori?, Igor; De Graeve, Charles-Marie; Grosjean, Olivier; Laurent, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a simple model that is able to describe and predict hysteresis behavior inside Mumetal magnetic shields, when the shields are submitted to ultra-low frequency (<0.01 Hz) magnetic perturbations with amplitudes lower than 60??T. This predictive model has been implemented in a software to perform an active compensation system. With this compensation the attenuation of longitudinal magnetic fields is increased by two orders of magnitude. The system is now integrated in the cold atom space clock called PHARAO. The clock will fly onboard the International Space Station in the frame of the ACES space mission. PMID:25085183

  15. Hysteresis prediction inside magnetic shields and application

    SciTech Connect

    Mori?, Igor [Observatoire de Paris, SYRTE, Avenue Denfert 77, 75014 Paris (France); CNES, Edouard Belin 18, 31400 Toulouse (France); De Graeve, Charles-Marie [SOGETI High Tech, chemin Laporte 3, 31300 Toulouse (France); Grosjean, Olivier [CNES, Edouard Belin 18, 31400 Toulouse (France); Laurent, Philippe [Observatoire de Paris, SYRTE, Avenue Denfert 77, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-07-15

    We have developed a simple model that is able to describe and predict hysteresis behavior inside Mumetal magnetic shields, when the shields are submitted to ultra-low frequency (<0.01 Hz) magnetic perturbations with amplitudes lower than 60??T. This predictive model has been implemented in a software to perform an active compensation system. With this compensation the attenuation of longitudinal magnetic fields is increased by two orders of magnitude. The system is now integrated in the cold atom space clock called PHARAO. The clock will fly onboard the International Space Station in the frame of the ACES space mission.

  16. Hysteresis prediction inside magnetic shields and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori?, Igor; De Graeve, Charles-Marie; Grosjean, Olivier; Laurent, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a simple model that is able to describe and predict hysteresis behavior inside Mumetal magnetic shields, when the shields are submitted to ultra-low frequency (<0.01 Hz) magnetic perturbations with amplitudes lower than 60 ?T. This predictive model has been implemented in a software to perform an active compensation system. With this compensation the attenuation of longitudinal magnetic fields is increased by two orders of magnitude. The system is now integrated in the cold atom space clock called PHARAO. The clock will fly onboard the International Space Station in the frame of the ACES space mission.

  17. Mechanical hysteresis due to microplasticity in alumina with microcracks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nishino; H. Ogawa; S. Asano

    1992-01-01

    Stress-strain hysteresis in alumina with microcracks has been investigated by a loading–unloading test in the microstrain range around 10 While there remains a permanent strain after the initial loading, steady-state cyclic loading results in a single closed hysteresis loop with a symmetrical shape. Such a stabilized hysteresis loop is responsible for internal friction and can be attributed to the microplasticity

  18. Unemployment hysteresis and the NAIRU: a ratchet model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Smyth; Joshy Z. Easaw

    2001-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s the USA and European economies experienced unemployment rates that persistently drifted upwards. The present paper captures this phenomenon by a simple extension of the hysteresis approach to the natural rate hypothesis of unemployment using a ratchet model. The impact of peak unemployment levels on unemployment hysteresis is incorporated using a traditional ratchet model. The model

  19. Low-Voltage CMOS Comparators With Programmable Hysteresis

    E-print Network

    Furth, Paul

    ............................................................28 3.2.2 High-swing cascode current source.....................................29 3.2.3 OperationLow-Voltage CMOS Comparators With Programmable Hysteresis BY VISHNU B. KULKARNI Master of Science of comparators with programmable hysteresis. Optimizations are done in order to obtain minimum DC offsets

  20. A Domain Wall Model for Hysteresis in Piezoelectric Materials

    E-print Network

    A Domain Wall Model for Hysteresis in Piezoelectric Materials Ralph C. Smith Center for Research constitutive relations in piezoelec­ tric materials at moderate to high drive levels. Hysteresis and nonlinearities are due to the domain structure inherent to the materials and both aspects must be addressed

  1. Discharge mode transition and hysteresis in inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyo-Chang; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2013-06-01

    Experimental verification of the discharge mode transition and the hysteresis by considering matching circuit is investigated in inductively coupled plasma using measurements of the plasma density and the power absorption to the plasma. At an argon gas pressure of 100 mTorr where the hysteresis loop of the plasma density had been observed in some previous experiments, there is no hysteresis loop against either the input power or the absorbed power delivered via an automatic impedance matching network. At a higher gas pressure of 350 mTorr, however, the hysteresis loop is clearly seen as functions of both the absorbed power and the input power. This result suggests that the observed hysteresis is due to not only the matching effect but also the nonlinearity of the plasma during capacitive (E) to inductive (H) and H to E heating mode transitions.

  2. Positive hysteresis of Ce-doped GAGG scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Koshimizu, Masanori; Watanabe, Kenichi; Sato, Hiroki; Yagi, Hideki; Yanagitani, Takagimi

    2014-10-01

    Positive hysteresis and radiation tolerance to high-dose radiation exposure were investigated for Ce 1% and 3% doped Gd3(Al, Ga)5O12 (Ce:GAGG) crystal scintillator on comparison with other garnet scintillators such Ce:YAG, Ce:LuAG, Pr:LuAG, and ceramic Ce:GAGG. When they were irradiated by several Gy 60Co ?-rays, Ce 1% doped GAGG crystal exhibited ?20% light yield enhancement (positive hysteresis). This is the first time to observe positive hysteresis in Ce doped GAGG. On the other hand, other garnet materials did not show the positive hysteresis and their light yields were stable after 800 Gy irradiation except Pr:LuAG. The light yield of Pr:LuAG decreased largely. When irradiated Ce:GAGG which showed positive hysteresis was evaluated in Synchrotron facility (UVSOR), new excitation band was created around 60 nm.

  3. Thermal hysteresis behaviors of thermoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Hideo

    2014-12-01

    Thermoelectric behaviors for the thermal cycles between room and high temperatures are investigated in (Bi,Sb)2Te3 and Bi2S3. Because the reliability and reproducibility of the data against repeated heating are required, the Harman method is adopted to evaluate the figure of merit, ZT, in which only electrical contacts are needed. The electrical contacts are made by the spot welding method using a simple and low-power machine made in our laboratory to avoid damage to the samples. Thermoelectric properties are changed by repeating thermal cycles, though their rate of change is not always very high and is material dependent. The carrier number dominantly contributes to the thermal hysteresis of the thermoelectric properties upon the repetition of the thermal cycles, which actually affects the sample as an annealing effect. It is pointed out that changes in thermoelectric properties upon the repetition of the thermal cycles should be examined beforehand in practical applications.

  4. A Hysteresis Model for Piezoceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ralph C.; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the modeling of nonlinear constitutive relations and hysteresis inherent to piezoceramic materials at moderate to high drive levels. Such models are, necessary to realize the, full potential of the materials in high performance control applications, and a necessary prerequisite is the development of techniques which permit control implementation. The approach employed here is based on the qualification of reversible and irreversible domain wall motion in response to applied electric fields. A comparison with experimental data illustrates that because the resulting ODE model is physics-based, it can be employed for both characterization and prediction of polarization levels throughout the range of actuator operation. Finally, the ODE formulation is amenable to inversion which facilitates the development of an inverse compensator for linear control design.

  5. Contact Angle Hysteresis on Superhydrophobic Stripes

    E-print Network

    Alexander L. Dubov; Ahmed Mourran; Martin Möller; Olga I. Vinogradova

    2014-07-21

    We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, $\\phi_S$. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e. is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with $\\phi_S$, in contrast to predictions of the Cassie equation. To interpret this we develop a simple theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the elastic energy of strong defects at the borders of stripes, which scales as $\\phi_S^2 \\ln \\phi_S$. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except as in a dilute regime, and its value is determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on $\\phi_S$, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at $\\phi_S\\simeq 0.5$. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be proportional to $\\phi_S^2$. Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when $\\phi_S\\leq 0.2$.

  6. Hysteresis in Pressure-Driven DNA Denaturation

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Nicasio-Collazo, Luz Adriana; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    In the past, a great deal of attention has been drawn to thermal driven denaturation processes. In recent years, however, the discovery of stress-induced denaturation, observed at the one-molecule level, has revealed new insights into the complex phenomena involved in the thermo-mechanics of DNA function. Understanding the effect of local pressure variations in DNA stability is thus an appealing topic. Such processes as cellular stress, dehydration, and changes in the ionic strength of the medium could explain local pressure changes that will affect the molecular mechanics of DNA and hence its stability. In this work, a theory that accounts for hysteresis in pressure-driven DNA denaturation is proposed. We here combine an irreversible thermodynamic approach with an equation of state based on the Poisson-Boltzmann cell model. The latter one provides a good description of the osmotic pressure over a wide range of DNA concentrations. The resulting theoretical framework predicts, in general, the process of denaturation and, in particular, hysteresis curves for a DNA sequence in terms of system parameters such as salt concentration, density of DNA molecules and temperature in addition to structural and configurational states of DNA. Furthermore, this formalism can be naturally extended to more complex situations, for example, in cases where the host medium is made up of asymmetric salts or in the description of the (helical-like) charge distribution along the DNA molecule. Moreover, since this study incorporates the effect of pressure through a thermodynamic analysis, much of what is known from temperature-driven experiments will shed light on the pressure-induced melting issue. PMID:22496765

  7. Understanding the Hysteresis Loop Conundrum in Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Louizos, Christopher; Yáñez, Jaime A.; Forrest, Laird; Davies, Neal M.

    2015-01-01

    Hysteresis loops are phenomena that sometimes are encountered in the analysis of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships spanning from pre-clinical to clinical studies. When hysteresis occurs it provides insight into the complexity of drug action and disposition that can be encountered. Hysteresis loops suggest that the relationship between drug concentration and the effect being measured is not a simple direct relationship, but may have an inherent time delay and disequilibrium, which may be the result of metabolites, the consequence of changes in pharmacodynamics or the use of a non-specific assay or may involve an indirect relationship. Counter-clockwise hysteresis has been generally defined as the process in which effect can increase with time for a given drug concentration, while in the case of clockwise hysteresis the measured effect decreases with time for a given drug concentration. Hysteresis loops can occur as a consequence of a number of different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms including tolerance, distributional delay, feedback regulation, input and output rate changes, agonistic or antagonistic active metabolites, uptake into active site, slow receptor kinetics, delayed or modified activity, time-dependent protein binding and the use of racemic drugs among other factors. In this review, each of these various causes of hysteresis loops are discussed, with incorporation of relevant examples of drugs demonstrating these relationships for illustrative purposes. Furthermore, the effect that pharmaceutical formulation has on the occurrence and potential change in direction of the hysteresis loop, and the major pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamic modeling approaches utilized to collapse and model hysteresis are detailed. PMID:24735761

  8. HYSTERESIS OF BACKFLOW IMPRINTED IN COLLIMATED JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, Akira [Center for Frontier Science, Chiba University Yayoi-cho 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kino, Motoki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka 181-8588 (Japan); Nagakura, Hiroki [Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2010-01-20

    We report two different types of backflow from jets by performing two-dimensional special relativistic hydrodynamical simulations. One is anti-parallel and quasi-straight to the main jet (quasi-straight backflow), and the other is a bent path of the backflow (bent backflow). We find that the former appears when the head advance speed is comparable to or higher than the local sound speed at the hotspot, while the latter appears when the head advance speed is slower than the sound speed at the hotspot. Bent backflow collides with the unshocked jet and laterally squeezes the jet. At the same time, a pair of new oblique shocks is formed at the tip of the jet and new bent fast backflows are generated via these oblique shocks. The hysteresis of backflow collisions is thus imprinted in the jet as a node and anti-node structure. This process also promotes broadening of the jet cross-sectional area and also causes a decrease in the head advance velocity. This hydrodynamic process may be tested by observations of compact young jets.

  9. Hysteresis and nonlinear elasticity in rocks

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, K.R.; Guyer, R.A.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a theory of the propagation of elastic waves in hysteretic nonlinear elastic materials, e.g., rock. In the next section, we introduce the Priesach-Mayergoyz (P-M) model [6,7] of hysteretic systems and adapt it to describe the hysteretic mesoscopic elastic units (HMEU) determining the elastic properties of a rock. We combine the P-M model with effective medium theory (EMT) [8] to find the elastic response of a rock that has experienced a specified pressure history. Next, we consider elastic wave propagation in a hysteretic nonlinear elastic system governed by a history dependent equation of state. We consider one-dimensional propagation of compressional waves. The equation of motion for the longitudinal displacement field contains the same hysteretic nonlinear interactions that characterize the equation of state. We solve the equation of motion using the Green function technique developed by McCall [9]. This solution lets us identify the qualitative features in harmonic generation that are signatures of nonlinearity and hysteresis.

  10. High hysteresis in a homogeneous metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branagan, D. J.; Meacham, B. E.; McCallum, R. W.; Dennis, K. W.; Kramer, M. J.

    2003-05-01

    In this article, we demonstrate high hysteresis in a well characterized homogeneous Tb-Al glass which contained no crystallites or crystalline embryos as verified using conventional and synchrotron diffraction, neutron diffraction, and direct observation in the transmission electron microscope. At low temperature (2 K), the metallic glass structure exhibited intrinsic coercivities approaching 23 kOe and high isotropic energy products of 12.4 MGOe. After crystallization into a three-phase nanoscale structure, the hard magnetic properties were found to be far inferior to that obtainable in the glass structure. From the well defined intrinsic magnetic properties (Msat,Tc), it is clear that the glass contains one or more types of well defined associations (i.e., clusters) and that these associations lead to ferromagnetic coupling/ordering. From the large random magnetic anisotropy, it is probable that the domain size is much larger than the structural cluster size. The measured single-phase loop shapes and the development of high coercivity in the glass state can be explained by an "exchange bias" mechanism resulting in a near perfect distribution of "fragile" pinning centers.

  11. Hysteresis in the Central African Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, Stephan Alexander; Elias Bednar, Johannes; Gautam, Sishir; Petritsch, Richard; Schier, Franziska; Stanzl, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Past climate change caused severe disturbances of the Central African rainforest belt, with forest fragmentation and re-expansion due to drier and wetter climate conditions. Besides climate, human induced forest degradation affected biodiversity, structure and carbon storage of Congo basin rainforests. Information on climatically stable, mature rainforest, unaffected by human induced disturbances, provides means of assessing the impact of forest degradation and may serve as benchmarks of carbon carrying capacity over regions with similar site and climate conditions. BioGeoChemical (BGC) ecosystem models explicitly consider the impacts of site and climate conditions and may assess benchmark levels over regions devoid of undisturbed conditions. We will present a BGC-model validation for the Western Congolian Lowland Rainforest (WCLRF) using field data from a recently confirmed forest refuge, show model - data comparisons for disturbed und undisturbed forests under different site and climate conditions as well as for sites with repeated assessment of biodiversity and standing biomass during recovery from intensive exploitation. We will present climatic thresholds for WCLRF stability, analyse the relationship between resilience, standing C-stocks and change in climate and finally provide evidence of hysteresis.

  12. Hysteresis and transition in swirling nonpremixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Tummers, M.J.; Huebner, A.W.; van Veen, E.H.; Hanjalic, K. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); van der Meer, T.H. [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    Strongly swirling nonpremixed flames are known to exhibit a hysteresis when transiting from an attached long, sooty, yellow flame to a short lifted blue flame, and vice versa. The upward transition (by increasing the air and fuel flow rates) corresponds to a vortex breakdown, i.e. an abrupt change from an attached swirling flame (unidirectional or with a weak bluff-body recirculation), to a lifted flame with a strong toroidal vortex occupying the bulk of the flame. Despite dramatic differences in their structures, mixing intensities and combustion performance, both flame types can be realised at identical flow rates, equivalence ratio and swirl intensity. We report here on comprehensive investigations of the two flame regimes at the same conditions in a well-controlled experiment in which the swirl was generated by the rotating outer pipe of the annular burner air passage. Fluid velocity measured with PIV (particle image velocimetry), the qualitative detection of reaction zones from OH PLIF (planar laser-induced fluorescence) and the temperature measured by CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy) revealed major differences in vortical structures, turbulence, mixing and reaction intensities in the two flames. We discuss the transition mechanism and arguments for the improved mixing, compact size and a broader stability range of the blue flame in comparison to the long yellow flame. (author)

  13. Contact angle hysteresis: a review of fundamentals and applications

    E-print Network

    ’t Mannetje, D. J. C. M.

    Contact angle hysteresis is an important physical phenomenon. It is omnipresent in nature and also plays a crucial role in various industrial processes. Despite its relevance, there is a lack of consensus on how to incorporate ...

  14. A high-speed hysteresis motor spindle for machining applications

    E-print Network

    Bayless, Jacob D. (Jacob Daniel)

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of suitable drive technologies for use in a new high-speed machining spindle was performed to determine critical research areas. The focus is on a hysteresis motor topology using a solid, inherently-balanced ...

  15. On the question of hysteresis in Hall magnetohydrodynamic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Brian P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang Yimin [Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence, University of New Hampshire, Space Science Center, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Controversy has been raised regarding the cause of hysteresis, or bistability, of solutions to the equations that govern the geometry of the reconnection region in Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems. This brief communication presents a comparison of the frameworks within which this controversy has arisen and illustrates that the Hall MHD hysteresis originally discovered numerically by Cassak et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 235002 (2005)] is a different phenomenon from that recently reported by Zocco et al. [Phys. Plasmas 16, 110703 (2009)] on the basis of analysis and simulations in electron MHD with finite electron inertia. We demonstrate that the analytic prediction of hysteresis in EMHD does not describe or explain the hysteresis originally reported in Hall MHD, which is shown to persist even in the absence of electron inertia.

  16. Magnetically suspended reaction sphere with one-axis hysteresis drive

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Lei., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, modeling, implementation, and control of a magnetically suspended reaction sphere with one-axis hysteresis drive (1D-MSRS). The goal of this project is two fold: (a) exploring the design ...

  17. Essays on crime, hysteresis, poverty and conditional cash transfers 

    E-print Network

    Loureiro, Andre Oliveira Ferreira

    2013-07-03

    This thesis encompasses three essays around criminal behaviour with the first one analysing the impact of programmes aimed at poverty reduction, the second one developing a theoretical model of hysteresis in crime, and ...

  18. Orientational hysteresis in swarms of active particles in external field

    E-print Network

    Romensky, Maksym

    2015-01-01

    Structure and ordering in swarms of active particles have much in common with condensed matter systems like magnets or liquid crystals. A number of important characteristics of such materials can be obtained via dynamic tests such as hysteresis. In this work, we show that dynamic hysteresis can be observed also in swarms of active particles and possesses similar properties to the counterparts in magnetic materials. To study the swarm dynamics, we use computer simulation of the active Brownian particle model with dissipative interactions. The swarm is confined to a narrow linear channel and one-dimensional polar order parameter is measured. In an oscillating external field, the order parameter demonstrates dynamic hysteresis with the shape of the loop and its area varying with the amplitude and frequency of the applied field, swarm density and the noise intensity. We measure the scaling exponents for the hysteresis loop area, which can be associated with the controllability of the swarm. Although the exponents...

  19. Dynamic wetting on superhydrophobic surfaces: Droplet impact and wetting hysteresis

    E-print Network

    Smyth, Katherine M.

    We study the wetting energetics and wetting hysteresis of sessile and impacting water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of surface texture and surface energy. For sessile drops, we find three wetting ...

  20. Could linear hysteresis contribute to shear wave losses in tissues?

    PubMed

    Parker, Kevin J

    2015-04-01

    For nearly 100 y in the study of cyclical motion in materials, a particular phenomenon called "linear hysteresis" or "ideal hysteretic damping" has been widely observed. More recently in the field of shear wave elastography, the basic mechanisms underlying shear wave losses in soft tissues are in question. Could linear hysteresis play a role? An underlying theoretical question must be answered: Is there a real and causal physical model that is capable of producing linear hysteresis over a band of shear wave frequencies used in diagnostic imaging schemes? One model that can approximately produce classic linear hysteresis behavior, by examining a generalized Maxwell model with a specific power law relaxation spectrum, is described here. This provides a theoretical plausibility for the phenomenon as a candidate for models of tissue behavior. PMID:25701527

  1. Cavitation level-acoustic intensity hysteresis: experimental and numerical characterization

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Cavitation level-acoustic intensity hysteresis: experimental and numerical characterization P cours Albert Thomas 69424 Lyon cedex 03 pauline.labelle@inserm.fr Proceedings of the Acoustics 2012 importance. When applying successive ultrasonic shots for increasing acoustic intensities, the inertial

  2. Approximation properties of a PWL circuit model of hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotti, Silvano

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, some identification methods for a piece wise linear (PWL) circuit model of hysteresis phenomenon are presented and compared. The model provides a close prediction of static hysteresis and exhibits realistic dynamic features. The parameter identification problem can be solved by means of a suitable procedures based on representation theorem, on optimisation methods and on neural networks. Basic features are addressed and discussed.

  3. Experimental Highlight of Hysteresis Phenomenon in Rolling Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaci, S.; Cerlinc?, D. A.; Ciornei, F. C.; Filote, C.; Frunz?, G.

    2015-02-01

    In literature, the hysteresis phenomenon in rolling contacts is studied considering both rolling friction and sliding friction. Removal of sliding friction in experimental tests from a concentrated contact is a serious challenge. The paper proposes a method and presents a device ensuring pure rolling between two identical discs, normally loaded. Using photoelastic material for the two rolling discs, by means of photoelastic method, the hysteresis phenomenon due to rolling friction is qualitatively confirmed.

  4. An undulation theory for condensation in open end slit pores: critical hysteresis temperature & critical hysteresis pore size.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chunyan; Zeng, Yonghong; Do, D D; Nicholson, D

    2014-06-28

    A new theory of condensation in an open end slit pore, based on the concept of temperature dependent undulation, at the interface separating the adsorbed phase and the gas-like region, is presented. The theory, describes, for the first time, the microscopic origin of the critical hysteresis temperature and the critical hysteresis pore size, properties which are not accessible to any classical theories. PMID:24826906

  5. Dynamic Hysteresis in Compacted Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdary, Krishna M.

    The frequency and temperature dependent magnetic response of a bulk soft magnetic nanocomposite made by compacting Fe10Co 90 nanoparticles was measured and modeled. Electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the size, composition, and structure of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. Polyol synthesis was used to produce 200 nm particles with average grain size 20 nm and large superparamagnetic fraction. The nanoparticles were consolidated to 90% theoretical density by plasma pressure compaction. The compacted nanoparticles retained the 20 nm average grain size and large superparamagnetic fraction. The nanocomposite resistivity was more than three times that of the bulk alloy. Vibrating sample and SQUID-MPMS magnetometers were used for low frequency magnetic measurements of the nanoparticles and nanocomposite. Compaction reduced the coercivity from 175 Oe to 8 Oe and the effective anisotropy from 124 x 10 3 ergs/cc to 7.9 x 103 ergs/cc. These reductions were caused by increased exchange coupling between surface nanograins, consistent with predictions from the Random Anisotropy model. Varying degrees of exchange coupling existed within the nanocomposite, contributing to a distribution of energy barriers. A permeameter was used for frequency dependent magnetic measurements on a toroid cut from the nanocomposite. Complex permeability, coercivity, and power loss were extracted from dynamic minor hysteresis loops measured over a range of temperatures (77 K - 873 K) and frequencies (0.1 kHz - 100 kHz). The real and imaginary parts of the complex permeability spectrum showed asymmetries consistent with a distribution of energy barriers and high damping. When the complex permeability, power loss, and coercivity were scaled relative to the peak frequency of the imaginary permeability, all fell on universal curves. Various microscopic and macroscopic models for the complex permeability were investigated. The complex permeability was successfully fit by modifying the Cole-Davidson model with a scaling factor that extended the model to higher damping. The additional damping was consistent with the damping from eddy current modeling, showing that the nanocomposite's complex permeability could be explained by combining microscopic effects (the distribution of energy barriers represented by the Cole-Davidson model) with macroscopic effects (damping due to eddy currents).

  6. PREFACE: International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortell, Michael P.; O'Malley, Robert E.; Pokrovskii, Alexei; Rachinskii, Dmitrii; Sobolev, Vladimir A.

    2008-07-01

    We are interested in singular perturbation problems and hysteresis as common strongly nonlinear phenomena that occur in many industrial, physical and economic systems. The wording `strongly nonlinear' means that linearization will not encapsulate the observed phenomena. Often these two types of phenomena are manifested for different stages of the same or similar processes. A number of fundamental hysteresis models can be considered as limit cases of time relaxation processes, or admit an approximation by a differential equation which is singular with respect to a particular parameter. However, the amount of interaction between practitioners of theories of systems with time relaxation and systems with hysteresis (and between the `relaxation' and `hysteresis' research communities) is still low, and cross-fertilization is small. In recent years Ireland has become a home for a series of prestigious International Workshops in Singular Perturbations and Hysteresis: International Workshop on Multi-rate Processes and Hysteresis (University College Cork, Ireland, 3-8 April 2006). Proceedings are published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, volume 55. See further information at http://euclid.ucc.ie/murphys2008.htm International Workshop on Hysteresis and Multi-scale Asymptotics (University College Cork, Ireland, 17-21 March 2004). Proceedings are published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, volume 22. See further information at http://euclid.ucc.ie/murphys2006.htm International Workshop on Relaxation Oscillations and Hysteresis (University College Cork, Ireland, 1-6 April 2002). The related collection of invited lectures, was published as a volume Singular Perturbations and Hysteresis, SIAM, Philadelphia, 2005. See further information at http://euclid.ucc.ie/hamsa2004.htm International Workshop on Geometrical Methods of Nonlinear Analysis and Semiconductor Laser Dynamics (University College Cork, Ireland, 5-5 April 2001). A collection of invited papers has been published as a special issue of Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences: Nonlinear dynamics of laser and reacting systems, and is available online at http://www.ins.ucc.ie/roh2002.htm. See further information at http://www.ins.ucc.ie/roh2002.htm Among the aims of these workshops were to bring together leading experts in singular perturbations and hysteresis phenomena in applied problems; to discuss important problems in areas such as reacting systems, semiconductor lasers, shock phenomena in economic modelling, fluid mechanics, etc with an emphasis on hysteresis and singular perturbations; to learn and to share modern techniques in areas of common interest. The `International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis' (University College Cork, Ireland, April 3-8, 2006) brought together more than 70 scientists (including more than 10 students), actively researching in the areas of dynamical systems with hysteresis and singular perturbations, to analyze those phenomena that occur in many industrial, physical and economic systems. The countries represented at the Workshop included Czech Republic, England, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia, Scotland, South Africa, Switzerland and USA. All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The Workshop has been sponsored by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI), KE Consulting group, Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA, University College Cork (UCC), Boole Centre for Research in Informatics, UCC, Cork, School of Mathematical Sciences, UCC, Cork, Irish Mathematical Society, Tyndall National Institute, Cork, University of Limerick, Cork Institute of Technology, and Heineken. The supportive affiliation of the European Geophysics Society, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, and Laboratoire Poncelet is grateful

  7. Hysteresis and nonequilibrium work theorem for DNA unzipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapri, Rajeev

    2012-10-01

    We study by using Monte Carlo simulations the hysteresis in unzipping and rezipping of a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) by pulling its strands in opposite directions in the fixed force ensemble. The force is increased at a constant rate from an initial value g0 to some maximum value gm that lies above the phase boundary and then decreased back again to g0. We observed hysteresis during a complete cycle of unzipping and rezipping. We obtained probability distributions of work performed over a cycle of unzipping and rezipping for various pulling rates. The mean of the distribution is found to be close (the difference being within 10%, except for very fast pulling) to the area of the hysteresis loop. We extract the equilibrium force versus separation isotherm by using the work theorem on repeated nonequilibrium force measurements. Our method is capable of reproducing the equilibrium and the nonequilibrium force-separation isotherms for the spontaneous rezipping of dsDNA.

  8. Hysteresis modeling in ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yian; Moura, Mateus S; Costa, Ademir J; de Almeida, Luiz Alberto L; Paranjape, Makarand; Fontana, Marcio

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models are adapted to describe the hysteresis effects seen in the electrical characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. The ballistic transport model describes the contributions of conduction energy sub-bands over carbon nanotube field-effect transistor drain current as a function of drain-source and gate-source voltages as well as other physical parameters of the device. The limiting-loop proximity model, originally developed to understand magnetic hysteresis, is also utilized in this work. The curves obtained from our developed model corroborate well with the experimentally derived hysteretic behavior of the transistors. Modeling the hysteresis behavior will enable designers to reliably use these effects in both analog and memory applications. PMID:25187698

  9. Saturation overshoot and hysteresis for twophase flow in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilfer, R.; Steinle, R.

    2014-10-01

    Saturation overshoot and hysteresis for two phase flow in porous media are briefly reviewed. Old and new challenges are discussed. It is widely accepted that the traditional Richards model for twophase flow in porous media does not support non-monotone travelling wave solutions for the saturation profile. As a concequence various extensions and generalizations have been recently discussed. The review highlights different limits within the traditional theory. It emphasizes the relevance of hysteresis in the Buckley-Leverett limit with jump-type hysteresis in the relative permeabilities. Reviewing the situation it emerges that the traditional theory may have been abandoned prematurely because of its inability to predict saturation overshoot in the Richards limit.

  10. Hysteresis Modeling in Magnetostrictive Materials Via Preisach Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological characterization of hysteresis in magnetostrictive materials is presented. Such hysteresis is due to both the driving magnetic fields and stress relations within the material and is significant throughout, most of the drive range of magnetostrictive transducers. An accurate characterization of the hysteresis and material nonlinearities is necessary, to fully utilize the actuator/sensor capabilities of the magnetostrictive materials. Such a characterization is made here in the context of generalized Preisach operators. This yields a framework amenable to proving the well-posedness of structural models that incorporate the magnetostrictive transducers. It also provides a natural setting in which to develop practical approximation techniques. An example illustrating this framework in the context of a Timoshenko beam model is presented.

  11. Completely inverted hysteresis loops: Inhomogeneity effects or experimental artifacts

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C., E-mail: songcheng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Cui, B.; Pan, F., E-mail: panf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, H. Y. [Center for Testing and Analyzing of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-14

    Completely inverted hysteresis loops (IHL) are obtained by the superconducting quantum interference device with large cooling fields (>10 kOe) in (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} films with self-assembled LaSrMnO{sub 4}, an antiferromagnetic interface. Although the behaviours of measured loops show many features characteristic to the IHL, its origin, however, is not due to the exchange coupling between (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}/LaSrMnO{sub 4}, an often accepted view on IHL. Instead, we demonstrate that the negative remanence arises from the hysteresis of superconducting coils, which drops abruptly when lower cooling fields are utilized. Hence the completely inverted hysteresis loops are experimental artifacts rather than previously proposed inhomogeneity effects in complicated materials.

  12. The frequency-dependent Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malczyk, Robert; Izydorczyk, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    An extension of the Jiles-Atherton (J-A) magnetic hysteresis model is proposed in the paper. The physical J-A model has been substituted with the specially chosen mathematical Chua model. The proposed model produces identical results to those of the original J-A model for the static magnetic hysteresis loop. The new model permits the inclusion of a wide variety of additional effects observed for ferromagnetic materials without invalidating the well-known and broadly used J-A model parameters. Thus, it is possible to effectively model phenomena, whose detailed physical model would require complex mathematical calculations.

  13. Dielectric Hysteresis Loop in Alicyclic and Aromatic Polyamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Yukinobu; Tsunashima, Kenji; Koizumi, Naokazu

    1994-03-01

    The relationship between electric displacement D and electric field E was studied for alicyclic polyamides of 1,3-bis(aminomethyl)cyclohexane and adipic, pimelic and sebacic acids, an aromatic polyamide prepared from hexamethylenediamine (HMD) and isophthalic acid and a copolyamide of HMD with isophthalic and terephthalic acids. Quenched samples of these polyamides were poorly crystalline or amorphous and exhibited a D-E hysteresis loop with the remanent polarization of 26 to 38 mC·m-2. The remanent polarizations disappeared at the glass transition temperature of each sample. The origin of the D-E hysteresis loop is attributable to amide groups in amorphous regions.

  14. Wetting hysteresis and droplet roll off behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces by Katherine Marie Smyth.

    E-print Network

    Smyth, Katherine Marie

    2010-01-01

    Various states of hydrophobic wetting and hysteresis are observed when water droplets are deposited on micro-post surfaces of different post densities. Hysteresis is commonly defined as the difference between the advancing ...

  15. Causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were designed to better understand the causes and implications of colloid and microorganism retention hysteresis with transients in solution ionic strength (IS). Saturated packed column experiments were conducted using two sizes of carboxyl modified latex (CML) microspheres (0.1 and 1.1...

  16. Small hysteresis and high energy storage power of antiferroelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinfei; Yang, Tongqing; Chen, Shengchen; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, modified Pb(Zr,Ti)O3(PZT) antiferroelectric (AFE) ceramics system was investigated by traditional solid state method. It was observed that the effect of different contents of Zr/Sn, Zr/Ti on modified PZT antiferroelectrics. With increasing Zr/Sn content, the EAFE (electric field of AFE phase to ferroelectric (FE) phase) value was enlarged. The phase switch field was reduced from FE to AFE (EFA). The hysteresis loops were changed from "slanted" to "square"-types. With increasing Zr/Ti concentrate, the EAFE value, and also the EFA was enlarged, while the hysteresis switch ?E was reduced. The hysteresis loops was from "square" to "slanted"-types. The samples with square hysteresis loops are suitable for energy storage capacitor applications, the composition of ceramics was Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.90Sn0.05Ti0.05)O3, which have the largest energy storage density 4.426J/cm3 at 227 kV/cm, and ?E was 80 kV/cm, energy efficient ? was about 0.612.

  17. Idealized Hysteresis Modeling of Electrorheological and Magnetorheological Dampers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman M. Wereley; Li Pang; Gopalakrishna M. Kamath

    1998-01-01

    The hysteresis behavior of a linear stroke magnetorheological damper is characterized for sinusoidal displacement excitation at 2.0 Hz (nominal). Four different modeling perspectives are discussed for purposes of system identification procedures, including: (1) equivalent viscous damping, (2) nonlinear Bingham plastic model, (3) nonlinear biviscous model, and (4) nonlinear hysteretic biviscous model. By progressively adding model parameters with which to better

  18. Modeling of a Magnetorheological Actuator Including Magnetic Hysteresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinung An; Dong-Soo Kwon

    2003-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) actuators provide controlled torque through control of an applied magnetic field. Therefore knowledge of the relationship between the applied current and output torque is required. This paper presents a new nonlinear modeling of MR actuators considering magnetic hysteresis to determine the torque-current nonlinear relationship. Equations for transmitted torque are derived according to mechanical shear configurations of the MR

  19. Hysteresis heating based induction bonding of composite materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Witchuda Suwanwatana

    2004-01-01

    The viability of using magnetic particulate susceptor materials for induction heating during bonding of polymer matrix composites is well established in this work. The unique ability to offer localized heating, geometric flexibility, and self-controlled temperature is the major advantage of this technique. Hysteresis heating is tailored through careful design of the microstructure of nickel particulate polymer films (Ni\\/PSU). An excellent

  20. Similarity Hypothesis for Capillary Hysteresis in Porous Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Philip

    1964-01-01

    A quantitative description of the capillary hysteresis properties of a porous ma- terial is developed through bivariate distribution density function f(a, ), where a andare wetting and drying potentials. This is formally equivalent to the independent domain theory of Poulovassilis. The similarity hypothesis ' (implying, loosely, that the distribution of geometrical relationships between wetting and drying meniscus curvatures is independent

  1. Hysteresis during lithium insertion in hydrogen-containing carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Zheng; J. R. Dahn; W. R. McKinnon

    1996-01-01

    The authors studied lithium insertion in hydrogen-containing carbons heated at temperatures near 700 C. High capacities with large hysteresis (lithium insertion into these carbons at nearly 0 V and removal at nearly 1 V) were shown to be proportional to the hydrogen content of the samples. It is believed that the lithium atoms may bind on hydrogen-terminated edges of hexagonal

  2. Dynamic contact angles and hysteresis under electrowetting-on-dielectric.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Wyatt C; Sen, Prosenjit; Kim, Chang-Jin C J

    2011-08-16

    By designing and implementing a new experimental method, we have measured the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles and the resulting hysteresis of droplets under electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD). Measurements were obtained over wide ranges of applied EWOD voltages, or electrowetting numbers (0 ? Ew ? 0.9), and droplet sliding speeds, or capillary numbers (1.4 × 10(-5) ? Ca ? 6.9 × 10(-3)). If Ew or Ca is low, dynamic contact angle hysteresis is not affected much by the EWOD voltage or the sliding speed; that is, the hysteresis increases by less than 50% with a 2 order-of-magnitude increase in sliding speed when Ca < 10(-3). If both Ew and Ca are high, however, the hysteresis increases with either the EWOD voltage or the sliding speed. Stick-slip oscillations were observed at Ew > 0.4. Data are interpreted with simplified hydrodynamic (Cox-Voinov) and molecular-kinetic theory (MKT) models; the Cox-Voinov model captures the trend of the data, but it yields unreasonable fitting parameters. MKT fitting parameters associated with the advancing contact line are reasonable, but a lack of symmetry indicates that a more intricate model is required. PMID:21751778

  3. A Domain Wall Model for Hysteresis in Ferroelastic Materials

    E-print Network

    with experimental stress-strain data. Keywords: Ferroelastic hysteresis; shape memory alloy; domain wall theory; ferroelastic domain; superelasticity; Landau theory of phase transitions;anyhysteretic strain; domain wall the model in two steps. First, we use the Landau theory of phase transitions to characterize the effective

  4. A Domain Wall Model for Hysteresis in Ferroelastic Materials

    E-print Network

    with experimental stress­strain data. Keywords: Ferroelastic hysteresis; shape memory alloy; domain wall theory; ferroelastic domain; superelasticity; Landau theory of phase transitions;anyhysteretic strain; domain wall the model in two steps. First, we use the Landau theory of phase transitions to characterize the e

  5. A simple model of hysteresis behavior using spreadsheet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, A.; Blachowicz, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hysteresis loops occur in many scientific and technical problems, especially as field dependent magnetization of ferromagnetic materials, but also as stress-strain-curves of materials measured by tensile tests including thermal effects, liquid-solid phase transitions, in cell biology or economics. While several mathematical models exist which aim to calculate hysteresis energies and other parameters, here we offer a simple model for a general hysteretic system, showing different hysteresis loops depending on the defined parameters. The calculation which is based on basic spreadsheet analysis plus an easy macro code can be used by students to understand how these systems work and how the parameters influence the reactions of the system on an external field. Importantly, in the step-by-step mode, each change of the system state, compared to the last step, becomes visible. The simple program can be developed further by several changes and additions, enabling the building of a tool which is capable of answering real physical questions in the broad field of magnetism as well as in other scientific areas, in which similar hysteresis loops occur.

  6. Hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric actuators: the modified Rayleigh model.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongkyu; Moon, Wonkyu

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we develop a novel modified Rayleigh model for hysteresis compensation in piezoelectric actuators. Piezoelectric actuators suffer from hysteresis, in large drive fields of more than 100 V, which can result in serious displacement errors. The typical phenomenological approach is to use the Rayleigh model; however, this model gives more than 10% difference with experiments at the large electric fields of more than 1kV/mm. Furthermore, there are no studies that apply the Rayleigh model to the compensation of precision actuators, such as stack actuators; it has only been applied in the study of the physical properties of piezoelectric materials. Therefore, we propose a modified Rayleigh model, in which each coefficient is defined differently according to whether the field is increasing or decreasing to account for asymmetry at the high fields. By applying a computer-based control from an inverse form of this modified Rayleigh model, we show that we can compensate for hysteresis to reduce the position error to less than five percent. This model has the merits of reducing complicated fitting procedures and of saving computation time compared to the Preisach model. Specifically, this model cannot only predict the hysteresis curves in all local fields using only one fitting procedure, but also make it possible to control the displacement of various piezo-based actuators without expensive sensors, based on the charge-based model. PMID:19939427

  7. Rainflow Counting and Energy Dissipation for Hysteresis Models in Elastoplasticity

    E-print Network

    Krejcí, Pavel

    Rainflow Counting and Energy Dissipation for Hysteresis Models in Elastoplasticity Martin Brokate Republic Abstract The rainflow counting method is widely used in the context of fatigue analy- sis for some remarks, we exclusively deal with the uniaxial case. Running title. Rainflow Counting and Energy

  8. Hysteresis and reluctance electric machines with bulk HTS rotor elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Kovalev; K. V. Ilushin; S. M.-A. Koneev; K. L. Kovalev; V. T. Penkin; V. N. Poltavets; W. Gawalek; T. Habisreuther; B. Oswald; K.-J. Best

    1999-01-01

    Two new types of HTS electric machines are considered. The first type is hysteresis motors and generators with cylindrical and disk rotors containing bulk HTS elements. The second type is reluctance motors with compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors. The compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors, consisting of joined alternating bulk HTS (YBCO) and ferromagnetic (iron) plates, provide a new active material for electromechanical purposes. Such

  9. Hysteresis electrical motors with bulk melt-textured YBCO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Kovalev; K. V. Ilushin; V. T. Penkin; K. L. Kovalev; V. S. Semenikhin; V. N. Poltavets; A. E. Larionoff; W. Gawalek; T. Habisreuther; T. Strasser; A. K. Shikov; E. G. Kazakov; V. V. Alexandrov

    1998-01-01

    New types of electrical motors based on bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS) are presented. Theoretical and experimental research of these motors is described. Results for a series of 100, 300, 500 and 1000 W HTS motors with cylindrical and disk rotors are presented. It is shown that, at liquid nitrogen temperatures, the specific mass-dimension parameter of hysteresis HTS machines is

  10. Friction and Adhesion Hysteresis between Surfactant Monolayers in Water

    E-print Network

    Klein, Jacob

    Friction and Adhesion Hysteresis between Surfactant Monolayers in Water Wuge H. Briscoe Physical with a double-chained quaternary ammonium surfactant in intimate adhesive contact in water. This enables us to propose a mechanism for surfactant boundary lubrication in water that is rather different from the classic

  11. A novel SVM-based hysteresis current controller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bong-Hwan Kwon; Tae-Woo Kim; Jang-Hyoun Youm

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a novel space vector modulation (SVM)-based hysteresis current controller (HCC) for squirrel cage induction motors is proposed. This technique utilizes all advantages of the HCC and SVM technique. The controller determines a set of space vectors from a region detector and applies a space vector selected according to the main HCC. A set of space vectors including

  12. Adsorption/desorption hysteresis in the adsorption isotherms for Kr and Xe on exfoliated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, T.; Usui, Y.; Arakawa, I.

    1993-05-01

    The adsorption/desorption hysteresis which appears in the adsorption isotherm for Kr physisorbed on exfoliated graphite has a very characteristic feature. A sharp transition at the termination of the hysteresis in the desorption branch of the isotherm suggests a first-order phase transition. The temperature dependence of the hysteresis for Kr and Xe on exfoliated graphite was investigated. The origin of the hysteresis of Kr is thought to be capillary condensation accompanied by a liquid-solid phase transition.

  13. Hysteresis in the dynamic perception of scenes and objects.

    PubMed

    Poltoratski, Sonia; Tong, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Scenes and objects are effortlessly processed and integrated by the human visual system. Given the distinct neural and behavioral substrates of scene and object processing, it is likely that individuals sometimes preferentially rely on one process or the other when viewing canonical "scene" or "object" stimuli. This would allow the visual system to maximize the specific benefits of these 2 types of processing. It is less obvious which of these modes of perception would be invoked during naturalistic visual transition between a focused view of a single object and an expansive view of an entire scene, particularly at intermediate views that may not be assigned readily to either stimulus category. In the current study, we asked observers to report their online perception of such dynamic image sequences, which zoomed and panned between a canonical view of a single object and an entire scene. We found a large and consistent effect of prior perception, or hysteresis, on the classification of the sequence: observers classified the sequence as an object for several seconds longer if the trial started at the object view and zoomed out, whereas scenes were perceived for longer on trials beginning with a scene view. This hysteresis effect resisted several manipulations of the movie stimulus and of the task performed, but hinged on the perceptual history built by unidirectional progression through the image sequence. Multiple experiments confirmed that this hysteresis effect was not purely decisional and was more prominent for transitions between corresponding objects and scenes than between other high-level stimulus classes. This finding suggests that the competitive mechanisms underlying hysteresis may be especially prominent in the perception of objects and scenes. We propose that hysteresis aids in disambiguating perception during naturalistic visual transitions, which may facilitate a dynamic balance between scene and object processing to enhance processing efficiency. PMID:25150947

  14. Partial and full inverse compensation for hysteresis in smart material systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph C. Smith; C. Bouron; Rick Zrostlik

    2000-01-01

    Smart material transducers employing piezoceramic or magnetostrictive drive components typically exhibit constitutive nonlinearities and hysteresis at moderate to high drive levels. In this paper, we discuss two techniques to compensate for hysteresis in high performance transducers. The first is based on a complete transducer model, and the resulting compensator accommodates both the constitutive nonlinearities and hysteresis inherent to the smart

  15. Finite element analysis of hysteresis motor using the vector magnetization-dependent model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Kyu Kim; Hyun-Kyo Jung; Sun-Ki Hong

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element analysis procedure combined with a vector hysteresis model for the accurate analysis of an hysteresis motor. The vector magnetization-dependent model is adopted to calculate the vector magnetization of the hysteresis ring. From the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field intensity, the magnetization of each ring element is calculated by the vector model. By

  16. Tracking control of a piezoceramic actuator with hysteresis compensation using inverse Preisach model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Song; Jinqiang Zhao; Xiaoqin Zhou; J. Alexis De Abreu-García

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the classical Preisach hysteresis modeling and tracking control of a curved pre-stressed piezoceramic patch actuator system with severe hysteresis. The actuator is also flexible with very small inherent damping. It has potential applications in active antennas. A series of tests are conducted to study the hysteresis properties of the piezoceramic actuator system. The numerical expressions of the

  17. Adaptive variable structure control of a class of nonlinear systems with unknown Prandtl-Ishlinskii hysteresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Yi Su; Qingqing Wang; Xinkai Chen; Subhash Rakheja

    2005-01-01

    Control of nonlinear systems preceded by unknown hysteresis nonlinearities is a challenging task and has received increasing attention in recent years due to growing industrial demands involving varied applications. In the literature, many mathematical models have been proposed to describe the hysteresis nonlinearities. The challenge addressed here is how to fuse those hysteresis models with available robust control techniques to

  18. Method of thermal strain hysteresis reduction in metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dries, Gregory A. (Inventor); Tompkins, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for treating graphite reinforced metal matrix composites so as to eliminate thermal strain hysteresis and impart dimensional stability through a large thermal cycle. The method is applied to the composite post fabrication and is effective on metal matrix materials using graphite fibers manufactured by both the hot roll bonding and diffusion bonding techniques. The method consists of first heat treating the material in a solution anneal oven followed by a water quench and then subjecting the material to a cryogenic treatment in a cryogenic oven. This heat treatment and cryogenic stress reflief is effective in imparting a dimensional stability and reduced thermal strain hysteresis in the material over a -250.degree. F. to +250.degree. F. thermal cycle.

  19. Hysteresis and Kinetic Effects During Liquid-Solid Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Streitz, F H; Chau, R

    2009-02-17

    We address the fundamental issue of phase transition kinetics in dynamically compressed materials. Focusing on solid bismuth (Bi) as a prototype material, we used a variety of time-resolved experiments including electrical conductivity and velocimetry to study the phase transition kinetics of the solid-solid phase transitions. Simple single shock experiments performed on several low-lying high pressure phases of Bi, revealed surprisingly complex behavior and slow dynamics. Strong hysteresis effects were observed in the transition behavior in experiments where the compressed Bi was allowed to release back across a phase line. These experiments represent the first reported simultaneous use of resistivity and velocimetry in a shock compression experiment, and the first observation of hysteresis effects occurring during dynamic compression and release.

  20. Magnetic hysteresis in granular CuCo alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allia, P.; Coisson, M.; Tiberto, P.; Vinai, F.; Knobel, M.

    1999-04-01

    Room-temperature hysteresis loops of granular Cu100-xCox alloys (5?x?15) obtained by planar flow casting in air and submitted to proper annealing treatments have been measured up to a field of 10 kOe by means of a vibrating sample magnetometer. In major loops (|Hvert|=10 kOe), the reduced remanence-to-saturation ratio mr=Mr/Ms and the coercivity Hc measured on all studied materials appear to be related by an almost linear law of the type mr?1/3 (?Hc/kT), ? being the average magnetic moment on Co particles. A similar relation is also observed on minor symmetrical loops (100 Oe?|Hvert|?9 kOe). The observed results are accounted for by a model which considers the hysteresis as originating by magnetic interactions among nearly superparamagnetic Co particles.

  1. Efficiency of Hysteresis Rods in Small Spacecraft Attitude Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Farrahi, Assal; Sanz-Andrés, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    A semiempirical method for predicting the damping efficiency of hysteresis rods on-board small satellites is presented. It is based on the evaluation of dissipating energy variation of different ferromagnetic materials for two different rod shapes: thin film and circular cross-section rods, as a function of their elongation. Based on this formulation, an optimum design considering the size of hysteresis rods, their cross section shape, and layout has been proposed. Finally, the formulation developed was applied to the case of four existing small satellites, whose corresponding in-flight data are published. A good agreement between the estimated rotational speed decay time and the in-flight data has been observed. PMID:24501579

  2. Attachment/detachment hysteresis of fiber-based magnetic grabbers.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Kornev, Konstantin G

    2014-04-28

    We developed an experimental protocol to analyze the behaviour of a model fiber-based magnetic grabber. A fiber is vertically suspended and fixed to the substrate by its upper end. A magnetic droplet is attached to the free end of the fiber and when a permanent magnet approaches the droplet, the fiber is forced to bow and finally jumps to the magnet. It appears that one can flex the micro-fibers by very small micro or even nano-Newton forces. Using this setup, we discovered a hysteresis of fiber attachment/detachment: the pathway of the fiber jumping to and off the magnet depends on the distance between the magnet and the clamped end. This phenomenon was successfully explained by the Euler-Benoulli model of an elastic beam. The observed hysteresis of fiber attachment/detachment was attributed to the multiple equilibrium configurations of the fiber tip placed in a dipole-type magnetic field. PMID:24668160

  3. Degradation and capacitance: voltage hysteresis in CdTe devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, D. S.; Dhere, R. G.; Glynn, S. C.; del Cueto, J. A.; Metzger, W. K.

    2009-08-01

    CdS/CdTe photovoltaic solar cells were made on two different transparent conducting oxide (TCO) structures in order to identify differences in fabrication, performance, and reliability. In one set of cells, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to deposit a bi-layer TCO on Corning 7059 borosilicate glass consisting of a F-doped, conductive tin-oxide (cSnO2) layer capped by an insulating (undoped), buffer (iSnO2) layer. In the other set, a more advanced bi-layer structure consisting of sputtered cadmium stannate (Cd2SnO4; CTO) as the conducting layer and zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4; ZTO) as the buffer layer was used. CTO/ZTO substrates yielded higher performance devices however performance uniformity was worse due to possible strain effects associated with TCO layer fabrication. Cells using the SnO2-based structure were only slightly lower in performance, but exhibited considerably greater performance uniformity. When subjected to accelerated lifetime testing (ALT) at 85 - 100 °C under 1-sun illumination and open-circuit bias, more degradation was observed in CdTe cells deposited on the CTO/ZTO substrates. Considerable C-V hysteresis, defined as the depletion width difference between reverse and forward direction scans, was observed in all Cu-doped CdTe cells. These same effects can also be observed in thin-film modules. Hysteresis was observed to increase with increasing stress and degradation. The mechanism for hysteresis is discussed in terms of both an ionic-drift model and one involving majority carrier emission in the space-charge region (SCR). The increased generation of hysteresis observed in CdTe cells deposited on CTO/ZTO substrates suggests potential decomposition of these latter oxides when subjected to stress testing.

  4. Hysteresis effects of changing the parameters of noncooperative games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Harré, Michael; Olbrich, Eckehard; Bertschinger, Nils; Jost, Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    We adapt the method used by Jaynes to derive the equilibria of statistical physics to instead derive equilibria of bounded rational game theory. We analyze the dependence of these equilibria on the parameters of the underlying game, focusing on hysteresis effects. In particular, we show that by gradually imposing individual-specific tax rates on the players of the game, and then gradually removing those taxes, the players move from a poor equilibrium to one that is better for all of them.

  5. Hysteresis of primary cosmic rays associated with Forbush decreases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Rajan

    1976-01-01

    A variation of quasi-steady primary-cosmic-ray intensities during Forbush events is reported which was detected in data obtained by a neutron monitor, the OGO 1 and 3 ion chambers, and daily observations of upper-atmosphere intensities recorded with standardized Geiger-Mueller counters. A regression plot of the intensities of high- and low-rigidity primaries is found to exhibit hysteresis loops during Forbush decreases, indicating

  6. Barkhausen discontinuities and hysteresis of ferromagnetics: New stochastic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Vengrinovich, Valeriy, E-mail: veng@iaph.bas-net.by [Institute of Applied Physics of the Belarus Academy of Sciences 220072, Akademicheskaya street 16, Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-02-18

    The magnetization of ferromagnetic material is considered as periodically inhomogeneous Markov process. The theory assumes both statistically independent and correlated Barkhausen discontinuities. The model, based on the chain evolution-type process theory, assumes that the domain structure of a ferromagnet passes successively the steps of: linear growing, exponential acceleration and domains annihilation to zero density at magnetic saturation. The solution of stochastic differential Kolmogorov equation enables the hysteresis loop calculus.

  7. Proton intercalation hysteresis in charging and discharging nickel hydroxide electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Podolske Ta; J. Newman

    1999-01-01

    A reproducible hysteresis in charge-discharge cycling of thin-film (10--40 nm thickness) electroprecipitated nickel hydroxide electrodes was quantified. Thin-film electrodes were prepared both with and without coprecipitated cobalt hydroxide, a common additive to nickel hydroxide electrodes. The ascending and descending branches of the hysteretic loop were determined. Experimental data were gathered using commonly employed techniques to capture electrode behavior on short-

  8. Domain-wall motion in random potential and hysteresis modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquale, M.; Basso, V.; Bertotti, G. [IEN Galileo Ferraris and INFM C. so M. DAzeglio42, 10125Torino (Italy)] [IEN Galileo Ferraris and INFM C. so M. DAzeglio42, 10125Torino (Italy); Jiles, D.C.; Bi, Y. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, 50011Ames, Iowa (United States)] [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, 50011Ames, Iowa (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Two different approaches to hysteresis modeling are compared using a common ground based on energy relations, defined in terms of dissipated and stored energy. Using the Preisach model and assuming that magnetization is mainly due to domain-wall motion, one can derive the expression of magnetization along a major loop typical of the Jiles{endash}Atherton model and then extend its validity to cases where mean-field effects and reversible contributions are present. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Tuning size and thermal hysteresis in bistable spin crossover nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Galán-Mascarós, José Ramón; Coronado, Eugenio; Forment-Aliaga, Alicia; Monrabal-Capilla, María; Pinilla-Cienfuegos, Elena; Ceolin, Marcelo

    2010-06-21

    Nanoparticles of iron(II) triazole salts have been prepared from water-organic microemulsions. The mean size of the nanoparticles can be tuned down to 6 nm in diameter, with a narrow size distribution. A sharp spin transition from the low spin (LS) to the high spin (HS) state is observed above room temperature, with a 30-40-K-wide thermal hysteresis. The same preparation can yield second generation nanoparticles containing molecular alloys by mixing triazole with triazole derivatives, or from metallic mixtures of iron(II) and zinc(II). In these nanoparticles of 10-15 nm, the spin transition "moves" towards lower temperatures, reaching a 316 K limit for the cooling down transition and maintaining a thermal hysteresis over 15-20-K-wide. The nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, TEM, and AFM, after deposition on gold or silicon surfaces. The spin transition was characterized by magnetic susceptibility measurements and EXAFS (in solid samples after solvent removal) and also by the color change between the LS (violet) and HS (colorless) states in an organic solvent suspension. The discovery of bistable magnetic nanoparticles of 6 nm with a wide thermal hysteresis above room temperature showcases the actual possibilities of spin crossover materials for nanotechnological applications. PMID:20503990

  10. Using stormwater hysteresis to characterize karst spring discharge.

    PubMed

    Toran, Laura; Reisch, Chad E

    2013-01-01

    Discharge from karst springs contains a mixture of conduit and matrix water, but the variations in groundwater mixing are poorly known. Storm events present an opportunity to try to map flow components because water entering during storms is more dilute and provides a tracer as it mixes with pre-event water along the flowpath from the recharge area to discharge at a spring. We used hysteresis plots of Mg/Ca ratios in a spring in the Cumberland Valley of Pennsylvania to map conduit (higher Ca) vs. diffuse (higher Mg) sources of recharge. We observed two types of temporal heterogeneity: within a storm event and from storm to storm. The timing of the variation in Mg/Ca suggested sources of mixing waters. An increase in the Mg/Ca ratio at the beginning of some storms while conductivity declined suggested diffuse recharge through the epikarst. The rapid changes in Mg/Ca ratios for low-intensity events probably occurred as the rainfall waxed and waned and illustrate that a variety of flowpaths are available at this spring because additional flushing of Mg occurred. In contrast, the conductivity hysteresis began with dilute water initially and rotation was similar from storm to storm. Hysteresis plots of the Mg/Ca ratio have the potential of revealing more of the complexity in discharge than conductivity alone. A better understanding of flow components in karst is needed to protect these aquifers as a groundwater resource. PMID:22974348

  11. Proton intercalation hysteresis in charging and discharging nickel hydroxide electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ta, K.P.; Newman, J.

    1999-08-01

    A reproducible hysteresis in charge-discharge cycling of thin-film (10--40 nm thickness) electroprecipitated nickel hydroxide electrodes was quantified. Thin-film electrodes were prepared both with and without coprecipitated cobalt hydroxide, a common additive to nickel hydroxide electrodes. The ascending and descending branches of the hysteretic loop were determined. Experimental data were gathered using commonly employed techniques to capture electrode behavior on short- and long-time scales. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge experiments were performed, and a macroscopic model of the nickel hydroxide solid material was constructed and used to interpret the simultaneous mass-transfer, kinetic, and thermodynamic phenomena occurring at the nickel hydroxide intercalation electrode. The persistent hysteresis exhibited by these thin-film electrodes cannot be due only to solid-state mass-transfer limitations. Agreement between calculated and experimental results is achieved with treatment of the hysteresis effect as a permanent, thermodynamic quantity. The numerical model may be applied to most rechargeable cells and is especially suited for systems which exhibit a permanent hysteretic loop or in which side reactions are prevalent. Model results agree with current and potential waveforms gathered from experiments performed with nickel hydroxide thin-film electrodes.

  12. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  13. Hysteresis Behaviour and Specific Damping Capacity of Negative Poisson's Ratio Foams Martz, E. O., Lakes, R. S., and Park, J. B. "Hysteresis behaviour and specific damping capacity of

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    1 Hysteresis Behaviour and Specific Damping Capacity of Negative Poisson's Ratio Foams Martz, E. O., Lakes, R. S., and Park, J. B. "Hysteresis behaviour and specific damping capacity of negative Poisson's ratio foams", Cellular Polymers, 15, 349-364, (1996). Abstract Open cell polyurethane foams have been

  14. Neural networks based identification and compensation of rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinliang; Tan, Yonghong; Su, Miyong; Xie, Yangqiu

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a method of the identification for the rate-dependent hysteresis in the piezoelectric actuator (PEA) by use of neural networks. In this method, a special hysteretic operator is constructed from the Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) model to extract the changing tendency of the static hysteresis. Then, an expanded input space is constructed by introducing the proposed hysteretic operator to transform the multi-valued mapping of the hysteresis into a one-to-one mapping. Thus, a feedforward neural network is applied to the approximation of the rate-independent hysteresis on the constructed expanded input space. Moreover, in order to describe the rate-dependent performance of the hysteresis, a special hybrid model, which is constructed by a linear auto-regressive exogenous input (ARX) sub-model preceded with the previously obtained neural network based rate-independent hysteresis sub-model, is proposed. For the compensation of the effect of the hysteresis in PEA, the PID feedback controller with a feedforward hysteresis compensator is developed for the tracking control of the PEA. Thus, a corresponding inverse model based on the proposed modeling method is developed for the feedforward hysteresis compensator. Finally, both simulations and experimental results on piezoelectric actuator are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach for the rate-dependent hysteresis.

  15. Comparative experiments regarding approaches to feedforward hysteresis compensation for piezoceramic actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Li-Min

    2014-09-01

    Piezoceramic actuators (PCAs) are desired devices in many micro/nano-positioning applications. The performance of PCA-based applications is severely limited by the presence of hysteresis nonlinearity. To remedy the hysteresis nonlinearity in such systems, feedforward hysteresis compensation is the most common technique. In the literature, many different feedforward hysteresis compensation approaches have been developed, but there are no comparative studies of these approaches. Focusing on the modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model (MPIM) for asymmetric hysteresis description of piezoceramic actuators, three feedforward hysteresis compensation approaches—inverse hysteresis compensation (IHC), without inverse hysteresis compensation (WIHC), and direct inverse hysteresis compensation (DIHC)—are developed and compared in this paper. Extensive comparative experiments were conducted on a PCA-actuated stage to verify the effectiveness of the three different feedforward control approaches to hysteresis compensation. The experimental results show that the performances among the three approaches are rather similar, and the main differences among them are due to the specific implementation of each approach.

  16. RBF neural networks hysteresis modelling for piezoceramic actuator using hybrid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Xuanju; Tan, Yonghong

    2007-01-01

    An radial basis function (RBF) neural networks rate-dependent hysteresis hybrid model for piezoceramic actuator is proposed. The piezoceramic actuator cannot be described by neural networks like the back propagation (BP) static neural networks because of its multi-valued hysteresis non-linearity. The proposed hybrid hysteresis model consists of hysteresis-like non-linearity in series with a dynamic RBF neural networks used for implementing non-linear transformations of the phase lag and non-linear magnitude. The hysteresis-like non-linearity model, which is composed of the previous output of piezoceramic actuator and input signal, differs from the hysteresis behaviour of piezoceramic actuator in only ways of their phase and magnitude, and it is used to describe the non-smooth behaviour of piezoceramic actuator. The results of both simulation and experiment show that the new modelling approach is very effective and of higher precision under a decayed input signal with the varying frequency.

  17. Origin of hysteresis in bed form response to unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Raleigh L.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2013-03-01

    Field and laboratory studies indicate that changes in riverbed morphology often lag changes in water discharge. This lagged response produces hysteresis in the relationship between water discharge and bed form geometry. To understand these phenomena, we performed flume experiments to observe the response of a sand bed to step increases and decreases in water discharge. For an abrupt rise in discharge, we observed that bed forms grew rapidly by collision and merger of bed forms migrating with different celerities. Growth rate slowed as bed forms approached equilibrium with the higher discharge regime. After an abrupt discharge drop, bed form decay occurred through formation of smaller secondary bed forms, in equilibrium with the lower discharge, which cannibalized the original, relict features. We present a simple model framework to quantitatively predict time scales of bed form adjustment to flow changes, based on equilibrium bed form heights, lengths, and celerities at low and high flows. For rising discharge, the model assumes that all bed form collisions result in irreversible merger, due to a dispersion of initial celerities. For falling discharge, we derive a diffusion model for the decay of relict high-stage features. Our models predict the form and time scale of experimental bed form adjustments. Additional experiments applying slow and fast triangular flood waves show that bed form hysteresis occurs only when the time scale of flow change is faster than the modeled (and measured) bed form adjustment time. We show that our predicted adjustment time scales can also be used to predict the occurrence of bed form hysteresis in natural floods.

  18. Ionically-mediated electromechanical hysteresis in transition metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yunseok [ORNL] [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL] [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Electromechanical activity, remanent polarization states, and hysteresis loops in paraelectric TiO2 and SrTiO3 are observed. The coupling between the ionic dynamics and incipient ferroelectricity in these materials is analyzed using extended Ginsburg Landau Devonshire (GLD) theory. The possible origins of electromechanical coupling including ionic dynamics, surface-charge induced electrostriction, and ionically-induced ferroelectricity are identified. For the latter, the ionic contribution can change the sign of first order GLD expansion coefficient, rendering material effectively ferroelectric. These studies provide possible explanation for ferroelectric-like behavior in centrosymmetric transition metal oxides.

  19. Effect of contact angle hysteresis on moving liquid film integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the formation and breakdown of a water film moving over solid surfaces (teflon, lucite, stainless steel, and copper). The flow rate associated with film formation was found to be higher than the flow rate at which film breakdown occurred. The difference in the flow rates for film formation and film breakdown was attributed to contact angle hysteresis. Analysis and experiment, which are in good agreement, indicated that film formation and film breakdown are functions of the advancing and receding angles, respectively.

  20. Capillary condensation, invasion percolation, hysteresis, and discrete memory

    SciTech Connect

    Guyer, R.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); McCall, K.R. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A model of the capillary condensation process, i.e., of adsorption-desorption isotherms, having only pore-pore interactions is constructed. The model yields (1) hysteretic isotherms, (2) invasion percolation on desorption, and (3) hysteresis with discrete memory for interior chemical potential loops. All of these features are seen in experiment. The model is compared to a model with no pore-pore interactions (the Preisach model) and to a related model of interacting pore systems (the random field Ising model). The capillary condensation model differs from both. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Role of measurement voltage on hysteresis loop shape in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yunseok [ORNL; Yang, J.-C. [University of California, Berkeley; Chu, Ying Hao [National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan; Yu, Pu [University of California, Berkeley; Lu, X. [Xidian University, China; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The dependence of on-field and off-field hysteresis loop shape in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) on driving voltage, Vac, is explored. A nontrivial dependence of hysteresis loop parameters on measurement conditions is observed. The strategies to distinguish between paraelectric and ferroelectric states with small coercive bias and separate reversible hysteretic and non-hysteretic behaviors are suggested. Generally, measurement of loop evolution with Vac is a necessary step to establish the veracity of PFM hysteresis measurements.

  2. Analysis of power magnetic components with nonlinear static hysteresis: finite-element formulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zhai; L. Vu-Quoc

    2005-01-01

    We present a new systematic methodology to efficiently solve coupled electromagnetic problems with nonlinear hysteresis at low frequency (10 kHz), called static hysteresis, by the finite-element method. The methodology integrates a new domain-wall-motion hysteresis model for power magnetic components (POMACs) into a finite-element potential formulation via an implicit-inverse model calculation. It uses a novel two-level iterative algorithm incorporating the efficient

  3. Hysteresis phenomena in the interaction process of conical shock waves: experimental and numerical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dor, G.; Vasiliev, E. I.; Elperin, T.; Chpoun, A.

    2001-12-01

    The interaction of two conical shock waves, one converging and straight and the other diverging and curvilinear, in an axisymmetric flow was investigated both experimentally and numerically. A double-loop hysteresis was discovered in the course of the experimental investigation. The double-loop hysteresis consisted of a major one, associated with the interaction between the boundary layer and the wave configuration, and a minor one, associated with the dual-solution phenomenon, which is known to be non-viscous-dependent. The minor hysteresis loop was found to be an internal hysteresis loop of the major one. As expected the numerical Euler calculations failed to detect the viscous-dependent major hysteresis loop but did succeed in obtaining the non-viscous-dependent minor (internal) hysteresis loop. In addition, multiple hysteresis loops, associated with the interaction between the shock wave configuration and the edge of the curvilinear mobile cone were also observed. The non-viscous minor hysteresis loop involved different overall shock wave reflection configurations, and the other hysteresis loops involved the same shock wave reflection configuration but different flow patterns.

  4. Element-specific magnetic hysteresis measurements, a new application of circularly polarized soft x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H.J.; Chen, C.T.; Meigs, G. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Idzerda, Y.U.; Chaiken, A.; Prinz, G.A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Ho, G.H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-09-07

    Element-specific magnetic hysteresis measurements on heteromagnetic materials have been achieved by using circularly polarized soft-x- rays. Dramatically different Fe and Co hysteresis curves of Fe/Cu/Co trilayers were obtained by recording the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) at their respective L{sub 3} white lines as a function of applied magnetic field. The data resolve the complicated hysteresis curves, observed by conventional magnetometry, and determine the individual magnetic moments for the Fe and Co layers. Fine hysteresis features, imperceptible in the conventional curves, were also observed, demonstrating a new application of circularly polarized soft-x-rays in the investigation of magnetic systems.

  5. Dynamics of Phase Transitions by Hysteresis Methods I

    E-print Network

    Bernd A. Berg; Urs M. Heller; Hildegard Meyer-Ortmanns; Alexander Velytsky

    2003-10-31

    In studies of the QCD deconfining phase transition or crossover by means of heavy ion experiments, one ought to be concerned about non-equilibrium effects due to heating and cooling of the system. Motivated by this, we look at hysteresis methods to study the dynamics of phase transitions. Our systems are temperature driven through the phase transition using updating procedures in the Glauber universality class. Hysteresis calculations are presented for a number of observables, including the (internal) energy, properties of Fortuin-Kasteleyn clusters and structure functions. We test the methods for 2d Potts models, which provide a rich collection of phase transitions with a number of rigorously known properties. Comparing with equilibrium configurations we find a scenario where the dynamics of the transition leads to a spinodal decomposition which dominates the statistical properties of the configurations. One may expect an enhancement of low energy gluon production due to spinodal decomposition of the Polyakov loops, if such a scenario is realized by nature.

  6. Hysteresis and saturation effects with the ALS lattice magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.

    1995-04-01

    The primary purpose of the magnetic measurements performed on the ALS storage ring lattice magnets was to ascertain their compliance with the strict tolerances established for this third-generation synchrotron light source. In the course of the data evaluation, an approximation method has been developed that leads to four-parameter representations of all magnet transfer functions. The expressions for the transfer functions were now used to change the standard working point of the ALS storage ring from the upper to the lower hysteresis branches of all lattice magnet families, and later to ramp the ring from the customary 1.5 GeV to the maximum design energy of 1.9 GeV in one uninterrupted process that did not require any intermediate tune correction. This achievement is all the more remarkable as no remnant fields had directly been measured with any of these magnets. A specific remnant field effect that led to anomalous machine behavior-when trying to recuperate the betatron tunes on the lower hysteresis branch at standard energy could be ascribed to the C-shape of the quadrupole yokes.

  7. Transport, hysteresis and avalanches in artificial spin ice systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, A [BABES-BOLYAI UNIV.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the hopping dynamics of an artificial spin ice system constructed from colloids on a kagome optical trap array where each trap has two possible states. By applying an external drive from an electric field which is analogous to a biasing applied magnetic field for real spin systems, we can create polarized states that obey the spin-ice rules of two spins in and one spin out at each vertex. We demonstrate that when we sweep the external drive and measure the fraction of the system that has been polarized, we can generate a hysteresis loop analogous to the hysteretic magnetization versus external magnetic field curves for real spin systems. The disorder in our system can be readily controlled by changing the barrier that must be overcome before a colloid can hop from one side of a trap to the other. For systems with no disorder, the effective spins all flip simultaneously as the biasing field is changed, while for strong disorder the hysteresis curves show a series of discontinuous jumps or avalanches similar to Barkhausen noise.

  8. Fractal growth of liquid crystals as a hysteresis phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ho-Kei; Dierking, Ingo

    2006-03-01

    Fractal percolation growth of liquid crystal phases within a supercooled isotropic liquid medium has been observed in recent years. Notable examples include the B2 phase of `banana' mesogens [1] and the smectic C phase of a calamitic hydrogen-bonding liquid crystal [2]. Here we present a dynamical model that describes such fractal growth as well as the spherical growth conventionally observed for nematics and cholesterics. The essential idea is that the supercooled medium does not fully respond to the temperature quench immediately (hysteresis). Its fraction of space available for the phase transition only relaxes from 0 to 1 at some finite rate. Depending on the coupling between the relaxation and growth rates, the liquid crystal phase either grows as a percolation cluster of fractal dimension D 1.89 or approaches a spherical shape of Euclidean dimension D -> 2. The crossover behaviour from relatively slow to fast relaxation is thoroughly investigated. Possible causes of the hysteresis for fractal growth will be discussed. [1] I. Dierking, Liq. Cryst. Today 12(1), (2003), 1 [2] I. Dierking, Chan H. K., Culfaz F., McQuire S., Phys. Rev. E 70, (2004), 051701

  9. Wavenumber selection and hysteresis in nonlinear baroclinic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shih-Hung

    1995-01-01

    Wavenumber transition and hysteresis in a highly unstable baroclinic flow are investigated using a high-resolution spectral numerical model. As the flow becomes more supercritical, the dominant wave gradually shifts from the most unstable wave predicted by the linear theory to a longer wave with a larger time-averaged amplitude, while the rectified mean flow attains a stronger shear at the center of the channel. The numerical results display a complex hysteresis behavior, which occurs not only between the states of different dominant wavenumbers, but also between the states of identical dominant wavenumber but of different dynamic characteristics. In a certain parameter range three stable states, each with different dominant wavenumber, are possible, and in another parameter range four stable states are possible, among them three stable states with an identical dominant wave. The numerical results suggest that a multiple weather regime exists even without external forcing in which the flow aperiodically varies between two distinct behaviors. The effects of stable higher harmonics are assessed and it is found that their presence contributes not only to the better approximation of the model solutions but also to the selection of the final equilibrium state, due to the chaotic nature of the initial transient period.

  10. A compact single-pass architecture for hysteresis thresholding and component labeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayssaa Al Najjar; Swetha Karlapudi; Magdy A. Bayoumi

    2010-01-01

    Hysteresis thresholding offers enhanced edge\\/object detection in the presence of noise. However, due to its recursive nature, it requires a lot of memory and execution time. Thus, it is restricted and sometimes totally avoided in streaming processors with limited memory. We propose an efficient architecture coupling hysteresis thresholding with component labeling and feature extraction in a single pass over the

  11. A novel hysteresis current controller for multilevel single phase voltage source inverters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Bode; D. N. Zmood; P. C. Loh; D. G. Holmes

    2001-01-01

    The application and benefits of hysteresis current control for two level voltage source inverters are well understood, but the extension of the strategy to multilevel inverters is much less established. Previous approaches have used either multiple hysteresis bands or a time based lockout strategy to decide when to switch to successive voltage levels, but these approaches are either complex, and\\/or

  12. Hysteresis compensation in PZT bimorph mirrors: Preisach's classical and non-linear models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo Dubra; John S. Massa; Carl Paterson

    2005-01-01

    A number of reflective wavefront correctors used in adaptive optics are based on the use of piezoelectric effect, either in piston, tip\\/tilt or curvature devices. The relation between the voltage applied to drive these devices and the mechanical response always presents hysteresis to some extent. In this work we study the performance of Preisach's classical and non-linear models of hysteresis

  13. Capillary Condensation in Porous Materials. Hysteresis and Interaction Mechanism without Pore Blocking/Percolation Process

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Capillary Condensation in Porous Materials. Hysteresis and Interaction Mechanism without Pore loops, reversal curves, and subloops in p+-type porous silicon, a porous material composed of straight hysteresis loops which depends on the porous material (H1 for MCM-41 and SBA-15, H2 for porous glass and p

  14. Onset of water stress, hysteresis in plant conductance, and hydraulic lift: Scaling soil water dynamics

    E-print Network

    Katul, Gabriel

    Onset of water stress, hysteresis in plant conductance, and hydraulic lift: Scaling soil water hysteresis in canopy conductance, hydraulic lift, and compensatory root water uptake during extended drying effective is dictated by soil hydraulic properties and surrogates for atmospheric water vapor demand

  15. Why Are Some Hysteresis Loops Shaped Like a Butterfly? Bojana Drincic a

    E-print Network

    Tan, Xiaobo

    Why Are Some Hysteresis Loops Shaped Like a Butterfly? Bojana Drinci´c a , Xiaobo Tan b , Dennis S The contribution of this paper is a framework for relating butterfly-shaped hysteresis maps to simple (single, a unimodal mapping is used to transform simple loops to butterfly loops. For the practically important class

  16. Continuum Damage Mechanics for hysteresis and fatigue of quasi-brittle materials and structures

    E-print Network

    Continuum Damage Mechanics for hysteresis and fatigue of quasi-brittle materials and structures R in the present work that damage, from the Continuum Damage Mechanics point of view, may be seen as the link@lmt.ens-cachan.fr, tel: 33 1 47 40 74 60, fax: 33 1 47 40 74 65 #12;CONTINUUM DAMAGE MECHANICS FOR HYSTERESIS AND FATIGUE

  17. Hysteresis from antiferromagnet domain-wall processes in exchange biased systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joo-Von Kim; R. L. Stamps

    2005-01-01

    The presence of magnetic impurities in the antiferromagnet can account for some ferromagnetic hysteresis behavior observed in exchange bias systems. We show theoretically that such impurities can modify domain-wall formation in the antiferromagnet, which under certain conditions can give rise to coercivity enhancement and asymmetric hysteresis. The linear dynamics of the ferromagnet\\/antiferromagnet structure in the presence of impurities is also

  18. Hysteresis, Avalanches, and Noise Matthew C. Kuntz, Olga Perkovi'c, Karin A. Dahmen,

    E-print Network

    Sethna, James P.

    Hysteresis, Avalanches, and Noise Matthew C. Kuntz, Olga Perkovi'c, Karin A. Dahmen, Bruce W simulations. In our studies of hysteresis and avalanches in a sim­ ple model of magnetism (the random be triggered when one of its neighbors flips (by participating in an avalanche), or a spin can be triggered

  19. cond-mat/9809122v223Apr1999 Hysteresis, Avalanches, and Noise

    E-print Network

    Sethna, James P.

    cond-mat/9809122v223Apr1999 Hysteresis, Avalanches, and Noise Matthew C. Kuntz, Olga Perkovi becomes crucial for larger simulations. In our studies of hysteresis and avalanches in a sim- ple model participating in an avalanche), or a spin can be triggered because of an increase in the external field H

  20. Interval Maps with Hysteresis A thesis submitted to the University of Strathclyde

    E-print Network

    Berkolaiko, Gregory

    Dynamics of Interval Maps with Hysteresis A thesis submitted to the University of Strathclyde of multistate maps, maps with hysteresis. The map under consideration is a collection of two continuous function is applied. We study two di#11;erent aspects of such maps: topological and combinato- rial

  1. A time-based double band hysteresis current regulation strategy for single-phase multilevel inverters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Loh; G. H. Bode; D. G. Holmes; T.A. Lipo

    2002-01-01

    Most multilevel inverter hysteresis current regulators use either multiple hysteresis bands, or a time-based switching logic that forces the current error back to zero by recursively stepping through successive voltage levels. Of these two alternatives, the time-based approach has the merit of only requiring simple analog circuitry and digital logic to implement the voltage level selection process for inverters of

  2. Hysteresis in the metachronal-tripod gait transition of insects: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiki, Soichiro; Aoi, Shinya; Funato, Tetsuro; Tomita, Nozomi; Senda, Kei; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2013-07-01

    Locomotion in biological systems involves various gaits, and hysteresis appears when the gaits change in accordance with the locomotion speed. That is, the gaits vary at different locomotion speeds depending on the direction of speed change. Although hysteresis is a typical characteristic of nonlinear dynamic systems, the underlying mechanism for the hysteresis in gait transitions remains largely unclear. In this study, we construct a neuromechanical model of an insect and investigate the dynamic characteristics of its gait and gait transition. The simulation results show that our insect model produces metachronal and tripod gaits depending on the locomotion speed through dynamic interactions among the body mechanical system, the nervous system, and the environment in a self-organized manner. They also show that it undergoes the metachronal-tripod gait transition with hysteresis by changing the locomotion speed. We examined the hysteresis mechanism in the metachronal-tripod gait transition of insects from a dynamic viewpoint.

  3. Note: Simple hysteresis parameter inspector for camera module with liquid lens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Jui; Liao, Tai-Shan; Hwang, Chi-Hung

    2010-05-01

    A method to inspect hysteresis parameter is presented in this article. The hysteresis of whole camera module with liquid lens can be measured rather than a single lens merely. Because the variation in focal length influences image quality, we propose utilizing the sharpness of images which is captured from camera module for hysteresis evaluation. Experiments reveal that the profile of sharpness hysteresis corresponds to the characteristic of contact angle of liquid lens. Therefore, it can infer that the hysteresis of camera module is induced by the contact angle of liquid lens. An inspection process takes only 20 s to complete. Thus comparing with other instruments, this inspection method is more suitable to integrate into the mass production lines for online quality assurance. PMID:20515182

  4. Hysteresis in coral reefs under macroalgal toxicity and overfishing.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Joydeb; Pal, Samares

    2015-03-01

    Macroalgae and corals compete for the available space in coral reef ecosystems.While herbivorous reef fish play a beneficial role in decreasing the growth of macroalgae, macroalgal toxicity and overfishing of herbivores leads to proliferation of macroalgae. The abundance of macroalgae changes the community structure towards a macroalgae-dominated reef ecosystem. We investigate coral-macroalgal phase shifts by means of a continuous time model in a food chain. Conditions for local asymptotic stability of steady states are derived. It is observed that in the presence of macroalgal toxicity and overfishing, the system exhibits hysteresis through saddle-node bifurcation and transcritical bifurcation. We examine the effects of time lags in the liberation of toxins by macroalgae and the recovery of algal turf in response to grazing of herbivores on macroalgae by performing equilibrium and stability analyses of delay-differential forms of the ODE model. Computer simulations have been carried out to illustrate the different analytical results. PMID:25708511

  5. Hysteresis in multiphase microfluidics at a T-junction.

    PubMed

    Zagnoni, Michele; Anderson, Jamie; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2010-06-15

    Multiphase microfluidics offer a wide range of functionalities in the fields of fluid dynamics, biology, particle synthesis, and, more recently, also in logical computation. In this article, we describe the hysteresis of immiscible, multiphase flow obtained in hydrophilic, microfluidic systems at a T-junction. Stable and unstable state behaviors, in the form of segmented and parallel flow patterns of oil and water, were reliably produced, depending upon the history of the flow rates applied to the phases. The transition mechanisms between the two states were analyzed both experimentally and using numerical simulations, describing how the physical and fluid dynamic parameters influenced the hysteretic behavior of the flow. The characteristics of these multiphase systems render them suitable to be used as pressure comparators and also for the implementation of microfluidic logic operations. PMID:20465264

  6. Wafer-level hysteresis-free resonant carbon nanotube transistors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ji; Bartsch, Sebastian T; Ionescu, Adrian M

    2015-03-24

    We report wafer-level fabrication of resonant-body carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistors (FETs) in a dual-gate configuration. An integration density of >10(6) CNTFETs/cm(2), an assembly yield of >80%, and nanoprecision have been simultaneously obtained. Through combined chemical and thermal treatments, hysteresis-free (in vacuum) suspended-body CNTFETs have been demonstrated. Electrostatic actuation by lateral gate and FET-based readout of mechanical resonance have been achieved at room temperature. Both upward and downward in situ frequency tuning has been experimentally demonstrated in the dual-gate architecture. The minuscule mass, high resonance frequency, and in situ tunability of the resonant CNTFETs offer promising features for applications in radio frequency signal processing and ultrasensitive sensing. PMID:25752991

  7. The thermodynamic origin of hysteresis in insertion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Wolfgang; Jamnik, Janko; Guhlke, Clemens; Huth, Robert; Moškon, Jože; Gaberš?ek, Miran

    2010-05-01

    Lithium batteries are considered the key storage devices for most emerging green technologies such as wind and solar technologies or hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles. Despite the tremendous recent advances in battery research, surprisingly, several fundamental issues of increasing practical importance have not been adequately tackled. One such issue concerns the energy efficiency. Generally, charging of 1010-1017 electrode particles constituting a modern battery electrode proceeds at (much) higher voltages than discharging. Most importantly, the hysteresis between the charge and discharge voltage seems not to disappear as the charging/discharging current vanishes. Herein we present, for the first time, a general explanation of the occurrence of inherent hysteretic behaviour in insertion storage systems containing multiple particles. In a broader sense, the model also predicts the existence of apparent equilibria in battery electrodes, the sequential particle-by-particle charging/discharging mechanism and the disappearance of two-phase behaviour at special experimental conditions.

  8. Hysteresis in Magnetic Shape Memory Composites: Modeling and Simulation

    E-print Network

    Conti, Sergio; Rumpf, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic shape memory alloys are characterized by the coupling between a structural phase transition and magnetic one. This permits to control the shape change via an external magnetic field, at least in single crystals. Composite materials with single-crystalline particles embedded in a softer matrix have been proposed as a way to overcome the blocking of the transformation at grain boundaries. We investigate hysteresis phenomena for small NiMnGa single crystals embedded in a polymer matrix for slowly varying magnetic fields. The evolution of the microstructure is studied within the rate-independent variational framework proposed by Mielke and Theil (1999). The underlying variational model incorporates linearized elasticity, micromagnetism, stray field and a dissipation term proportional to the volume swept by the phase boundary. The time discretization is based on an incremental minimization of the sum of energy and dissipation. A backtracking approach is employed to approximately ensure the global minimali...

  9. Phase transition and hysteresis in scale-free network traffic

    E-print Network

    Hu, M B; Wang, W X; Wu, Q S; Wu, Y H; Hu, Mao-Bin; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Wen-Xu; Wu, Qing-Song; Wu, Yong-Hong

    2006-01-01

    We model information traffic on scale-free networks by introducing the node queue length L proportional to the node degree and its delivering ability C proportional to L. The simulation gives the overall capacity of the traffic system which is quantified by a phase transition from free flow to congestion. It is found that the maximal capacity of the system results from the case of the local routing coefficient \\phi slightly larger than zero, and we provide an analysis for the optimal value of \\phi. In addition, we report for the first time the fundamental diagram of flow against density, in which hysteresis is found, and thus we can classify the traffic flow with four states: free flow, saturated flow, bistable and jammed.

  10. The extrinsic hysteresis behavior of dilute binary ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lihua; Li, Jian; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Longlong; Li, Junming; Li, Decai

    2014-10-01

    We report on the magnetization behavior of dilute binary ferrofluids based on ?-Fe(2)O(3)/Ni(2)O(3) composite nanoparticles (A particles), with diameter about 11 nm, and ferrihydrite (Fe(5)O(7)(OH) ?4H2O) nanoparticles (B particles), with diameter about 6 nm. The results show that for the binary ferrofluids with A-particle volume fraction ?(A) = 0.2% and B-particle volume fractions ?(B) = 0.1% and ?(B) = 0.6%, the magnetization curves exhibit quasi-magnetic hysteresis behavior. The demagnetizing curves coincide with the magnetizing curves at high fields. However, for single ?-Fe(2)O(3)/Ni(2)O(3) ferrofluids with ?(A) = 0.2% and binary ferrofluids with ?(A) = 0.2% and ?(B) = 1.0%, the magnetization curves do not behave in this way. Additionally, at high field (750 kA/m), the binary ferrofluid with ?(B) = 1.0% has the smallest magnetization. From the model-of-chain theory, the extrinsic hysteresis behavior of these samples is attributed to the field-induced effects of pre-existing A particle chains, which involve both Brownian rotation of the chains'moments and a Néel rotation of the particles' moments in the chains. The loss of magnetization for the ferrofluids with ?(B) = 1.0% is attributed to pre-existing ring-like A-particle aggregates. These magnetization behaviors of the dilute binary ferrofluids not only depend on features of the strongly magnetic A-particle system, but also modifications of the weaker magnetic B-particle system. PMID:25365919

  11. Research on the Dynamic Hysteresis Loop Model of the Residence Times Difference (RTD)-Fluxgate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhang; Wu, Shujun; Zhou, Zhijian; Cheng, Defu; Pang, Na; Wan, Yunxia

    2013-01-01

    Based on the core hysteresis features, the RTD-fluxgate core, while working, is repeatedly saturated with excitation field. When the fluxgate simulates, the accurate characteristic model of the core may provide a precise simulation result. As the shape of the ideal hysteresis loop model is fixed, it cannot accurately reflect the actual dynamic changing rules of the hysteresis loop. In order to improve the fluxgate simulation accuracy, a dynamic hysteresis loop model containing the parameters which have actual physical meanings is proposed based on the changing rule of the permeability parameter when the fluxgate is working. Compared with the ideal hysteresis loop model, this model has considered the dynamic features of the hysteresis loop, which makes the simulation results closer to the actual output. In addition, other hysteresis loops of different magnetic materials can be explained utilizing the described model for an example of amorphous magnetic material in this manuscript. The model has been validated by the output response comparison between experiment results and fitting results using the model. PMID:24002230

  12. Research on the dynamic hysteresis loop model of the residence times difference (RTD)-fluxgate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanzhang; Wu, Shujun; Zhou, Zhijian; Cheng, Defu; Pang, Na; Wan, Yunxia

    2013-01-01

    Based on the core hysteresis features, the RTD-fluxgate core, while working, is repeatedly saturated with excitation field. When the fluxgate simulates, the accurate characteristic model of the core may provide a precise simulation result. As the shape of the ideal hysteresis loop model is fixed, it cannot accurately reflect the actual dynamic changing rules of the hysteresis loop. In order to improve the fluxgate simulation accuracy, a dynamic hysteresis loop model containing the parameters which have actual physical meanings is proposed based on the changing rule of the permeability parameter when the fluxgate is working. Compared with the ideal hysteresis loop model, this model has considered the dynamic features of the hysteresis loop, which makes the simulation results closer to the actual output. In addition, other hysteresis loops of different magnetic materials can be explained utilizing the described model for an example of amorphous magnetic material in this manuscript. The model has been validated by the output response comparison between experiment results and fitting results using the model. PMID:24002230

  13. Molecular thermal hysteresis in helix-dimer formation of sulfonamidohelicene oligomers in solution.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Masanori; Kushida, Yo; Yamaguchi, Masahiko

    2013-07-29

    Sulfonamidohelicene oligomers up to the nonamer level were synthesized by the repeated coupling reactions of a building block. A tetramer formed a helix dimer in 1,3-difluorobenzene, which unfolded to a random coil with heating. This structural change exhibited thermal hysteresis in which different thermal responses were observed in the course of temperature increase and decrease. The feature of the hysteresis was examined under different heating/cooling modes, and the mechanisms are discussed on the basis of the population change and the presence of an induction period. A proposal regarding the use of thermal hysteresis for sensing a temperature increase/decrease is also given. PMID:23775763

  14. Effects of annealing, pre-tension and mounting on the hysteresis of polymer strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abang, Ada; Webb, David J.

    2014-01-01

    When exposed to high levels of strain, polymer optical fibre grating sensors recorded in poly(methyl methacrylate) based fibre often exhibit hysteresis in the response of their Bragg wavelength to strain. We demonstrate that the application of pre-tension and annealing of the polymer fibre can reduce this hysteresis when the fibre is suspended freely between two supports, but much better performance is obtained when the sensor is attached directly to a substrate. In this case, the hysteresis can be lessened by more than a factor of 12.

  15. Implementation and analysis of an innovative digital charge amplifier for hysteresis reduction in piezoelectric stack actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Bazghaleh, Mohsen, E-mail: mohsen.bazghaleh@adelaide.edu.au; Grainger, Steven; Cazzolato, Ben; Lu, Tien-Fu [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, South Australia 5005 (Australia)] [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Oskouei, Reza [School of Computer Science, Engineering and Mathematics, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042 (Australia)] [School of Computer Science, Engineering and Mathematics, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042 (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Smart actuators are the key components in a variety of nanopositioning applications, such as scanning probe microscopes and atomic force microscopes. Piezoelectric actuators are the most common smart actuators due to their high resolution, low power consumption, and wide operating frequency but they suffer hysteresis which affects linearity. In this paper, an innovative digital charge amplifier is presented to reduce hysteresis in piezoelectric stack actuators. Compared to traditional analog charge drives, experimental results show that the piezoelectric stack actuator driven by the digital charge amplifier has less hysteresis. It is also shown that the voltage drop of the digital charge amplifier is significantly less than the voltage drop of conventional analog charge amplifiers.

  16. Hysteresis of thin film IPRTs in the range 100 °C to 600 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvizdi?, D.; Šestan, D.

    2013-09-01

    As opposed to SPRTs, the IPRTs succumb to hysteresis when submitted to change of temperature. This uncertainty component, although acknowledged as omnipresent at many other types of sensors (pressure, electrical, magnetic, humidity, etc.) has often been disregarded in their calibration certificates' uncertainty budgets in the past, its determination being costly, time-consuming and not appreciated by customers and manufacturers. In general, hysteresis is a phenomenon that results in a difference in an item's behavior when approached from a different path. Thermal hysteresis results in a difference in resistance at a given temperature based on the thermal history to which the PRTs were exposed. The most prominent factor that contributes to the hysteresis error in an IPRT is a strain within the sensing element caused by the thermal expansion and contraction. The strains that cause hysteresis error are closely related to the strains that cause repeatability error. Therefore, it is typical that PRTs that exhibit small hysteresis also exhibit small repeatability error, and PRTs that exhibit large hysteresis have poor repeatability. Aim of this paper is to provide hysteresis characterization of a batch of IPRTs using the same type of thin-film sensor, encapsulated by same procedure and same company and to estimate to what extent the thermal hysteresis obtained by testing one single thermometer (or few thermometers) can serve as representative of other thermometers of the same type and manufacturer. This investigation should also indicate the range of hysteresis departure between IPRTs of the same type. Hysteresis was determined by cycling IPRTs temperature from 100 °C through intermediate points up to 600 °C and subsequently back to 100 °C. Within that range several typical sub-ranges are investigated: 100 °C to 400 °C, 100 °C to 500 °C, 100 °C to 600 °C, 300 °C to 500 °C and 300 °C to 600 °C . The hysteresis was determined at various temperatures by comparison calibration with SPRT. The results of investigation are presented in a graphical form for all IPRTs, ranges and calibration points.

  17. On the Rayleigh law of magnetization: A new mathematical model of hysteresis loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Yu. F.

    2007-11-01

    A mathematical model of magnetic hysteresis loops for weak ac magnetic fields, which is applicable for both symmetrical hysteresis loops that are described by the Rayleigh law of magnetization and asymmetrical loops that are not, has been formulated. The asymmetrical hysteresis loops take place when the ferromagnet is affected, along with an ac magnetizing field, by a dc field. The frequency spectrum of a ferromagnet magnetization has been analyzed as a time function. A technique for experimental determination of parameters that enter into this model is proposed, which uses amplitudes and phases of the first three magnetization harmonic components (the first, the second, and the third ones).

  18. Feedback/feedforward control of hysteresis-compensated piezoelectric actuators for high-speed scanning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanfang; Shan, Jinjun; Gabbert, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the control system design for a piezoelectric actuator (PEA) for a high-speed trajectory scanning application. First nonlinear hysteresis is compensated for by using the Maxwell resistive capacitor model. Then the linear dynamics of the hysteresis-compensated piezoelectric actuator are identified. A proportional plus integral (PI) controller is designed based on the linear system, enhanced by feedforward hysteresis compensation. It is found that the feedback controller does not always improve tracking accuracy. When the input frequency exceeds a certain value, feedforward control only may result in better control performance. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  19. Adsorption-desorption Hysteresis of Kr and Xe on the Surface of an Ag Single Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Nozomu; Moto, Shuichi; Nakazawa, Jun; Miura, Takashi; Arakawa, Ichiro

    The isotherms and the isobars of krypton and xenon physisorbed on a silver single crystal surface were investigated by ellipsometric observation of the amount of adsorption. It was found that they showed a hysteresis in an adsorption-desorption loop for both the first and the second layer condensations. Careful examination of the effect of instability of an equilibrium pressure and a substrate temperature during the measurement revealed that they were not responsible for hysteresis. The observed hysteresis is very likely to be intrinsic one though its origin and mechanism are unknown.

  20. Experimental investigations of boiling heat transfer hysteresis on sintered, metal - Fibrous, porous structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Tadeusz Michal [Department of Heat Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, Al. Tysiaclecia P.P.7, 25-314 Kielce (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The paper discusses the results of experimental investigations of boiling heat transfer on sintered metal capillary-porous coverings of the heating surface. The experiments were carried out for copper, fibrous structures with stochastic distribution of pores. The boiling curves were obtained at the increasing and decreasing of the heat flux, which made it possible to detect the hysteresis phenomena of different types. The classification of the hysteresis phenomena, based on the author's own results and those available in the literature, was provided. Three types of hysteresis were observed. The physical mechanism of the phenomenon was presented and the features characteristic of boiling in the porous covering were taken into account. (author)

  1. Hysteresis Affects Approximate Number Discrimination in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Odic, Darko; Hock, Howard; Halberda, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual decisions are often affected not only by the evidence gathered during a trial but also by the history of preceding trials. This effect—termed perceptual hysteresis—provides evidence for how perceptual information is represented and how it is used. The present research focuses on how the difficulty of preceding trials affects subsequent ones—we find that how well 5-year-old children perform in a 2-alternative forced-choice numerical discrimination task depends on whether they have had a prior history of easier discriminations or a prior history of harder discriminations. Furthermore, this effect is modulated by the feedback children receive. In 3 experiments, we demonstrate that these effects are not related to practice or loss of interest due to negative feedback, or simply to trial difficulty or discriminability. Instead, children appear to have state-dependent confidence states such that prolonged experience making low-confidence decisions degrades performance, whereas prolonged experience making high-confidence decisions improves it. These results are discussed in the context of dynamical psychophysics, representations of confidence, and work on children’s and adults’ number perception abilities. PMID:23163765

  2. Hysteresis and anisotropy in ultrathin Fe/Si(001) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun; He, Wei; Wu, Qiong; Hu, Bo; Tang, Jin; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Chen, Zi-Yu; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

    2014-09-01

    It is challenging to investigate the magnetic anisotropy of Fe/Si(001) film in the case a limited magnetic field strength, when both coherent rotation and domain wall displacement coexist in the magnetization reversal process. Owing to the domain wall displacement, the magnetization reversal switching field is far lower than the magnetic anisotropy field, and, consequently, only the magnetization reversal process near easy axis can be treated as coherent rotation. Here, we record the slope of the magnetic torque curve of an iron film grown on a Si(001) substrate measured near the easy axis by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) to separate the coherent rotation of magnetization reversal process from domain wall displacement. Furthermore, the magnitudes of various magnetic anisotropy constants were derived from the magnetic torque curves. Our work suggests that the AMR at low fields can clearly separate the detailed contributions of various magnetic anisotropies when domain wall displacement existed in Fe(001) ultrathin film. We also report on the hysteresis behavior of such films as measured by magneto-optic Kerr effect.

  3. Solute concentration-dependent contact angle hysteresis and evaporation stains.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Feng; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2014-07-01

    The presence of nonvolatile solutes in a liquid drop on a solid surface can affect the wetting properties. Depending on the surface-activity of the solutes, the extent of contact angle hysteresis (CAH) can vary with their concentration and the pattern of the evaporation stain is altered accordingly. In this work, four types of concentration-dependent CAH and evaporation stains are identified for a water drop containing polymeric additives on polycarbonate. For polymers without surface-activity such as dextran, advancing and receding contact angles (?a and ?r) are independent of solute concentrations, and a concentrated stain is observed in the vicinity of the drop center after complete evaporation. For polymers with weak surface-activity such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), both ?a and ?r are decreased by solute addition, and the stain pattern varies with increasing PEG concentration, including a concentrated stain and a mountain-like island. For polymers with intermediate surface-activity such as sodium polystyrenesulfonate (NaPSS), ?a descends slightly, but ?r decreases significantly after the addition of a substantial amount of NaPSS, and a ring-like stain pattern is observed. Moreover, the size of the ring stain can be controlled by NaPSS concentration. For polymers with strong surface-activity such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), ?a remains essentially a constant, but ?r is significantly lowered after the addition of a small amount of PVP, and the typical ring-like stain is seen. PMID:24933206

  4. Magnetoabsorption and magnetic hysteresis in Ni ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Gómez, P.; Muñoz, J. M.; Valente, M. A.; Torres, C.; de Francisco, C.

    2013-01-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by a modified sol-gel technique employing coconut oil, and then annealed at different temperatures in 400-1200 °C range. This route of preparation has revealed to be one efficient and cheap technique to obtain high quality nickel ferrite nanosized powder. Sample particles sizes obtained with XRD data and Scherrer's formula lie in 13 nm to 138 nm, with increased size with annealing temperature. Hysteresis loops have been obtained at room temperature with an inductive method. Magnetic field induced microwave absorption in nanoscale ferrites is a recent an active area of research, in order to characterize and explore potential novel applications. In the present work microwave magnetoabsorption data of the annealed nickel ferrite nanoparticles are presented. These data have been obtained with a system based on a network analyzer that operates in the frequency range 0 - 8.5 GHz. At fields up to 400 mT we can observe a peak according to ferromagnetic resonance theory. Sample annealed at higher temperature exhibits different absorption, coercivity and saturation magnetization figures, revealing its multidomain character.

  5. Magnetic hysteresis of cerium doped bismuth ferrite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Surbhi; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-03-01

    The influence of Cerium doping on the structural and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 thin films have been investigated. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data and successive de-convolution of Raman scattering spectra of Bi1-xCexFeO3 (BCFO) thin films with x=0-0.20 reflect the single phase rhombohedral (R3c) formation for x<0.08, whereas concentration-driven gradual structural phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to partial tetragonal (P4mm) phase follows for x?0.08. All low wavenumber Raman modes (<300 cm-1) showed a noticeable shift towards higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration, except Raman E-1 mode (71 cm-1), shows a minor shift. Sudden evolution of Raman mode at 668 cm-1, manifested as A1-tetragonal mode, accompanied by the shift to higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration (x) affirm partial structural phase transition. Anomalous wasp waist shaped (M-H) hysteresis curves with improved saturation magnetization (Ms) for BCFO thin films is attributed to antiferromagnetic interaction/hybridization between Ce 4f and Fe 3d electronic states. The contribution of both hard and soft phase to the total coercivity is calculated. Polycrystalline Bi0.88Ce0.12FeO3 thin film found to exhibit better magnetic properties with Ms=15.9 emu/g without any impure phase.

  6. Avalanches and hysteresis in frustrated superconductors and XY spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Auditya; Andreanov, Alexei; Müller, Markus

    2014-10-01

    We study avalanches along the hysteresis loop of long-range interacting spin glasses with continuous XY symmetry, which serves as a toy model of granular superconductors with long-range and frustrated Josephson couplings. We identify sudden jumps in the T =0 configurations of the XY phases as an external field is increased. They are initiated by the softest mode of the inverse susceptibility matrix becoming unstable, which induces an avalanche of phase updates (or spin alignments). We analyze the statistics of these events and study the correlation between the nonlinear avalanches and the soft mode that initiates them. We find that the avalanches follow the directions of a small fraction of the softest modes of the inverse susceptibility matrix, similarly as was found in avalanches in jammed systems. In contrast to the similar Ising spin glass (Sherrington-Kirkpatrick) studied previously, we find that avalanches are not distributed with a scale-free power law but rather have a typical size which scales with the system size. We also observe that the Hessians of the spin-glass minima are not part of standard random matrix ensembles as the lowest eigenvector has a fractal support.

  7. Avalanches and hysteresis in frustrated superconductors and XY spin glasses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Auditya; Andreanov, Alexei; Müller, Markus

    2014-10-01

    We study avalanches along the hysteresis loop of long-range interacting spin glasses with continuous XY symmetry, which serves as a toy model of granular superconductors with long-range and frustrated Josephson couplings. We identify sudden jumps in the T=0 configurations of the XY phases as an external field is increased. They are initiated by the softest mode of the inverse susceptibility matrix becoming unstable, which induces an avalanche of phase updates (or spin alignments). We analyze the statistics of these events and study the correlation between the nonlinear avalanches and the soft mode that initiates them. We find that the avalanches follow the directions of a small fraction of the softest modes of the inverse susceptibility matrix, similarly as was found in avalanches in jammed systems. In contrast to the similar Ising spin glass (Sherrington-Kirkpatrick) studied previously, we find that avalanches are not distributed with a scale-free power law but rather have a typical size which scales with the system size. We also observe that the Hessians of the spin-glass minima are not part of standard random matrix ensembles as the lowest eigenvector has a fractal support. PMID:25375434

  8. The Dynamic Characteristic and Hysteresis Effect of an Air Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löcken, F.; Welsch, M.

    2015-02-01

    In many applications of vibration technology, especially in chassis, air springs present a common alternative to steel spring concepts. A design-independent and therefore universal approach is presented to describe the dynamic characteristic of such springs. Differential and constitutive equations based on energy balances of the enclosed volume and the mountings are given to describe the nonlinear and dynamic characteristics. Therefore all parameters can be estimated directly from physical and geometrical properties, without parameter fitting. The numerically solved equations fit very well to measurements of a passenger car air spring. In a second step a simplification of this model leads to a pure mechanical equation. While in principle the same parameters are used, just an empirical correction of the effective heat transfer coefficient is needed to handle some simplification on this topic. Finally, a linearization of this equation leads to an analogous mechanical model that can be assembled from two common spring- and one dashpot elements in a specific arrangement. This transfer into "mechanical language" enables a system description with a simple force-displacement law and a consideration of the nonobvious hysteresis and stiffness increase of an air spring from a mechanical point of view.

  9. Comprehensive modelling of dynamic hysteresis loops in the rolling and transverse directions for transformer laminations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghel, A. P. S.; Gupta, A.; Chwastek, K.; Kulkarni, S. V.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic properties of grain-oriented materials are affected by hysteresis, anisotropy and dynamic effects. The attempts to describe dynamic hysteresis loops are usually limited to the rolling direction (RD). On the other hand, modelling of magnetic properties for the transverse direction (TD) is important for numerical analysis of core-joints and corner regions in transformers. For this direction, hysteresis loops reveal complex shapes particularly for dynamic magnetization conditions. This paper presents a comprehensive approach for modelling of dynamic hysteresis loops in RD and TD. This work uses the magnetic viscosity-based approach, which is able to describe irregular widening of dynamic loops. The loss separation scheme is also considered for both principal directions. Variations of loss components with frequency for both directions are discussed. The computed dynamic loops in RD and TD are in a close agreement with experimental ones.

  10. Hysteresis and compensation behaviors of spin-3/2 cylindrical Ising nanotube system

    SciTech Connect

    Kocakaplan, Yusuf [Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2014-09-07

    The hysteresis and compensation behaviors of the spin-3/2 cylindrical Ising nanotube system are studied within the framework of the effective-field theory with correlations. The effects of the Hamiltonian parameters are investigated on the magnetic and thermodynamic quantities, such as the total magnetization, hysteresis curves, and compensation behaviors of the system. Depending on the Hamiltonian parameters, some characteristic hysteresis behaviors are found, such as the existence of double and triple hysteresis loops. According to Néel classification nomenclature, the system displays Q-, R-, P-, N-, M-, and S- types of compensation behaviors for the appropriate values of the system parameters. We also compare our results with some recently published theoretical and experimental works and find a qualitatively good agreement.

  11. IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering Compensation of Scanner Creep and Hysteresis

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering Compensation of Scanner Creep uncertainties associated with creep and hysteresis, and supports automated, computer-controlled manipulation) and by automation, which bypasses the time- consuming

  12. Magnetic structure and hysteresis in hard magnetic nanocrystalline film: Computer simulation

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    Magnetic structure and hysteresis in hard magnetic nanocrystalline film: Computer simulation simulations are used to study the effect of crystallographic textures on the magnetic properties of uniaxial nanocrystalline films of hard magnetic materials with arbitrary grain shapes and size distributions

  13. Investigation of the Temperature Hysteresis Phenomenon of a Loop Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaya, Tarik; Ku, Jentung; Hoang, Triem; Cheung, Mark K.

    1999-01-01

    The temperature hysteresis phenomenon of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was experimentally investigated. The temperature hysteresis was identified by the fact that the operating temperature depends upon not only the imposed power but also the previous history of the power variation. The temperature hysteresis could impose limitations on the LHP applications since the LHP may exhibit different steady-state operating temperatures at a given power input even when the condenser sink temperature remains unchanged. In order to obtain insight to this phenomenon, a LHP was tested at different elevations and tilts by using an elaborated power profile. A hypothesis was suggested to explain the temperature hysteresis. This hypothesis explains well the experimental observations. Results of this study provide a better understanding of the performance characteristics of the LHPS.

  14. Abstract --In electromagnetic applications, hysteresis phenomena in magnetic materials are responsible of

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    13. M M Abstract -- In electromagnetic applications, hysteresis phenomena in magnetic materials, electrical engineering is concerned with energy efficiency. In addition, in the case of electromagnetic.. Following the predefined criteria such as induction response and losses computation, some compatible models

  15. A novel double hysteresis-band current control for a three-level voltage source inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lafoz; I. J. Iglesias; C. Veganzones; M. Visiers

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new current control strategy for a high power three-level voltage source inverter (VSI). This control strategy consists on an extension to a three-level topology of the well-known hysteresis-band current control for a conventional two-level VSI. Line current is controlled by means of two hysteresis bands slightly displaced around the reference value. A simple calculation block decides

  16. Intercrystalline magnetic interaction and hysteresis characteristics of high-coercivity cobalt-based alloy coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Shadrov; A. E. Dmitrieva; L. V. Nemtsevich

    2011-01-01

    ?M(H) curves and the time dependences of the magnetization and the rotational hysteresis losses are used to analyze the effect\\u000a of intercrystalline magnetic interaction on the magnetization reversal and the hysteresis characteristics of nanostructured\\u000a cobalt-based alloy coatings, which manifest themselves in a change in the relations between the rotation and displacement\\u000a of reversible and irreversible processes and between thermally activated

  17. Three-Phase Four-Leg Inverter Based on Voltage Hysteresis Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyong Zhang; Jun Wang; Chuan Li

    2010-01-01

    As the output unit of variety distributed generation systems, the final power quality is determined by three-phase four-leg inverter. For the three-phase four-leg inverter, this paper presents a dynamic reference voltage hysteresis control scheme. Firstly, based on the existing hysteresis comparison method, this method improves the systems control rapidity and stability through designing differential negative feedback. Secondly, through theoretical analysis

  18. Hysteresis Responses of Evapotranspiration to Meteorological Factors at a Diel Timescale: Patterns and Causes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Han; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhu, Xianjin; Li, Yingnian; Yu, Guirui

    2014-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Understanding the ways in which ET changes with meteorological factors is central to a better understanding of ecological and hydrological processes. In this study, we used eddy covariance measurements of ET from a typical alpine shrubland meadow ecosystem in China to investigate the hysteresis response of ET to environmental variables including air temperature (Ta), vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and net radiation (Rn) at a diel timescale. Meanwhile, the simulated ET by Priestly-Taylor equation was used to interpret the measured ET under well-watered conditions. Pronounced hysteresis was observed in both Ta and VPD response curves of ET. At a similar Ta and VPD, ET was always significantly depressed in the afternoon compared with the morning. But the hysteresis response of ET to Rn was not evident. Similar hysteresis patterns were also observed in the Ta/VPD response curves of simulated ET. The magnitudes of the measured and simulated hysteresis loops showed similar seasonal variation, with relatively smaller values occurring from May to September, which agreed well with the lifetime of plants and the period of rainy season at this site. About 62% and 23% of changes in the strength of measured ET-Ta and ET-VPD loops could be explained by the changes in the strength of simulated loops, respectively. Thus, the time lag between Rn and Ta/VPD is the most important factor generating and modulating the ET-Ta/VPD hysteresis, but plants and water status also contribute to the hysteresis response of ET. Our research confirmed the different hysteresis in the responses of ET to meteorological factors and proved the vital role of Rn in driving the diel course of ET. PMID:24896829

  19. Ac magnetorestriction hysteresis and magnetization direction in grain oriented silicon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Mogi, Hisashi; Matsuo, Yukio; Kumano, Tomoji

    1999-09-01

    A hysteresis curve of ac magnetostriction was measured, magnetizing a grain oriented silicon steel in the direction deviated from rolling direction of a sample. The ac magnetostriction ({lambda} ac) curves were analyzed as harmonics in the interest of noise spectrum of such as a power transformer. The domain structure model in this magnetostriction process was proposed. The hysteresis was large in the magnetization direction inclined at 30 and 90{degree} from the rolling direction.

  20. Hysteresis responses of evapotranspiration to meteorological factors at a diel timescale: patterns and causes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Han; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhu, Xianjin; Li, Yingnian; Yu, Guirui

    2014-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Understanding the ways in which ET changes with meteorological factors is central to a better understanding of ecological and hydrological processes. In this study, we used eddy covariance measurements of ET from a typical alpine shrubland meadow ecosystem in China to investigate the hysteresis response of ET to environmental variables including air temperature (Ta), vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and net radiation (Rn) at a diel timescale. Meanwhile, the simulated ET by Priestly-Taylor equation was used to interpret the measured ET under well-watered conditions. Pronounced hysteresis was observed in both Ta and VPD response curves of ET. At a similar Ta and VPD, ET was always significantly depressed in the afternoon compared with the morning. But the hysteresis response of ET to Rn was not evident. Similar hysteresis patterns were also observed in the Ta/VPD response curves of simulated ET. The magnitudes of the measured and simulated hysteresis loops showed similar seasonal variation, with relatively smaller values occurring from May to September, which agreed well with the lifetime of plants and the period of rainy season at this site. About 62% and 23% of changes in the strength of measured ET-Ta and ET-VPD loops could be explained by the changes in the strength of simulated loops, respectively. Thus, the time lag between Rn and Ta/VPD is the most important factor generating and modulating the ET-Ta/VPD hysteresis, but plants and water status also contribute to the hysteresis response of ET. Our research confirmed the different hysteresis in the responses of ET to meteorological factors and proved the vital role of Rn in driving the diel course of ET. PMID:24896829

  1. Dynamic interface charge governing the current-voltage hysteresis in perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huimin; Liang, Chunjun; Zhao, Yong; Sun, Mengjie; Liu, Hong; Liang, Jingjing; Li, Dan; Zhang, Fujun; He, Zhiqun

    2015-04-01

    The accumulation of mobile ions causes space charge at interfaces in perovskite solar cells. There is a slow dynamic process of ion redistribution when the bias is changed. The interface charge affects band bending and thus the photocurrent of the solar cells. Consequently the dynamic process of the interface charge governs the current-voltage hysteresis. Very low interface charge density leads to hysteresis-free devices. PMID:25772648

  2. Measurements of the hysteresis in unzipping and rezipping double-stranded DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, K.; Danilowicz, C.; Coljee, V.; Prentiss, M.

    2007-05-01

    Complete unzipping and rezipping of ? -phage double-stranded DNA is achieved by applying a constant force. A strong hysteresis is observed at all tested time scales and temperatures. Hysteresis also occurs for partial unzipping, indicating stability for the partially open state over a force range of 2- 5pN . Results are compared to nearest-neighbor model simulations, and reasonable agreement is found.

  3. Hysteresis Effects and Strain-Induced Homogeneity Effects in Base Metal Thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlasek, P.; Elliott, C. J.; Pearce, J. V.; Duris, S.; Palencar, R.; Koval, M.; Machin, G.

    2015-03-01

    Thermocouples are used in a wide variety of industrial applications in which they play an important role for temperature control and monitoring. Wire inhomogeneity and hysteresis effects are major sources of uncertainty in thermocouple measurements. To efficiently mitigate these effects, it is first necessary to explore the impact of strain-induced inhomogeneities and hysteresis, and their contribution to the uncertainty. This article investigates homogeneity and hysteresis effects in Types N and K mineral-insulated metal-sheathed (MIMS) thermocouples. Homogeneity of thermocouple wires is known to change when mechanical strain is experienced by the thermoelements. To test this influence, bends of increasingly small radii, typical in industrial applications, were made to a number of thermocouples with different sheath diameters. The change in homogeneity was determined through controlled immersion of the thermocouple into an isothermal liquid oil bath at and was found to be very small at for Type K thermocouples, with no measureable change in Type N thermocouples found. An experiment to determine the hysteresis effect in thermocouples was performed on swaged, MIMS Type N and Type K thermocouples, in the temperature range from to . The hysteresis measurements presented simulate the conditions that thermocouples may be exposed to in industrial applications through continuous cycling over 136 h. During this exposure, a characteristic drift from the reference function has been observed but no considerable difference between the heating and cooling measurements was measureable. The measured differences were within the measurement uncertainties; therefore, no hysteresis was observed.

  4. From the Cover: Hysteresis drives cell-cycle transitions in Xenopus laevis egg extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Wei; Moore, Jonathan; Chen, Katherine; Lassaletta, Antonio D.; Yi, Chung-Seon; Tyson, John J.; Sible, Jill C.

    2003-02-01

    Cells progressing through the cell cycle must commit irreversibly to mitosis without slipping back to interphase before properly segregating their chromosomes. A mathematical model of cell-cycle progression in cell-free egg extracts from frog predicts that irreversible transitions into and out of mitosis are driven by hysteresis in the molecular control system. Hysteresis refers to toggle-like switching behavior in a dynamical system. In the mathematical model, the toggle switch is created by positive feedback in the phosphorylation reactions controlling the activity of Cdc2, a protein kinase bound to its regulatory subunit, cyclin B. To determine whether hysteresis underlies entry into and exit from mitosis in cell-free egg extracts, we tested three predictions of the Novak-Tyson model. (i) The minimal concentration of cyclin B necessary to drive an interphase extract into mitosis is distinctly higher than the minimal concentration necessary to hold a mitotic extract in mitosis, evidence for hysteresis. (ii) Unreplicated DNA elevates the cyclin threshold for Cdc2 activation, indication that checkpoints operate by enlarging the hysteresis loop. (iii) A dramatic "slowing down" in the rate of Cdc2 activation is detected at concentrations of cyclin B marginally above the activation threshold. All three predictions were validated. These observations confirm hysteresis as the driving force for cell-cycle transitions into and out of mitosis.

  5. Magnetoimpedance hysteresis in amorphous microwires induced by core-shell interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, M.; Zhukova, V.; Gonzalez, J.; Zhukov, A.

    2014-09-01

    We report on magneto-impedance (MI) hysteresis at MHz and GHz frequencies in amorphous microwires subject to a sufficiently high applied axial magnetic field HE. We show that this hysteresis originates from the magnetic hysteresis of the inner core which biases the outer shell causing a shift of the MI curve along the HE axis. Combined experiments (longitudinal and off-diagonal MI Z(HE), hysteresis loops M(HE) by vibrating sample magnetometer, and induction method) reveal the details of the magnetization reversal process in these microwires: Partial field dependencies Z(HE) and M(HE) are shown to be practically anhysteretic but shifted to the left or to the right about the origin by a residual magnetic field of the inner core HC. This shift can vary in the range from -35 to +35 A/m, depending on the magnetic history of the sample. We demonstrate that the hysteresis can be suppressed by application of a high enough axial magnetic field that saturates the magnetization of the inner core. A potential application of this hysteresis for memory devices is also proposed.

  6. Determination of PRT Hysteresis in the Temperature Range from -50 °C to 300 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žužek, V.; Batagelj, V.; Bojkovski, J.

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of hysteresis to the measurement uncertainty of industrial platinum resistance thermometers (IPRTs). Hysteresis is one of the sources of uncertainty that has so far not been sufficiently researched and documented. The term hysteresis applies to any system that is path dependent; the output depends on the history of the input. In our case, thermal hysteresis results in different resistance values at the same temperature point, depending on whether the temperature was increasing or decreasing. The reason for such behavior is related to the construction of the thermometer (strain due to thermal expansion and contraction) and also to possible moisture inside the encapsulation. In the process of evaluation of the calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of IPRTs within Working Group 8, the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT WG8) concluded that the uncertainty due to hysteresis is not uniformly defined and not always added to the total uncertainty of the resistance thermometer under calibration. In order to estimate the uncertainty contribution due to the hysteresis and compare different procedures, resistance measurements were carried out on a number of IPRTs of different qualities and tolerance classes. The temperature span was between -50 °C and 300 °C, which is the most frequent temperature range in the practical use of IPRTs. The hysteresis was then determined in different ways (change of resistance at the ice point and at the midpoint temperature according to the ASTM International Standard E644 and according to the new version of IEC Standard 60751), and a comparison of results was made.

  7. Migration of a coarse fluvial sediment pulse detected by hysteresis in bedload generated seismic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, D. L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Brodsky, E. E.; Cook, K. L.; Stark, C. P.; Wang, H. W.

    2014-10-01

    Seismic signals near rivers are partially composed of the elastic waves generated by bedload particles impacting the river bed. In this study, we explore the relationship between this seismic signal and river bedload transport by analyzing high-frequency broadband seismic data from multiple stations along the Chijiawan River in northern Taiwan following the removal of a 13 m check dam. This dam removal provides a natural experiment in which rapid and predictable changes in the river's profile occur, which in turn enables independent constraints on spatial and temporal variation in bedload sediment transport. We compare floods of similar magnitudes with and without bedload transport, and find that the amplitude of seismic shaking produced at a given river stage changes over the course of a single storm when bedload transport is active. Hysteresis in the relationship between bedload transport and river stage is a well-documented phenomenon with multiple known causes. Consequently, previous studies have suggested that hysteresis observed in the seismic amplitude-stage response is the signature of bedload transport. Field evidence and stream profile evolution in this study corroborate that interpretation. We develop a metric (?) for the normalized magnitude of seismic hysteresis during individual floods. This metric appears to scale qualitatively with total bedload transport at each seismic station, indicating a dominance of transport on the rising limbs of both storms. We speculate that hysteresis at this site arises from time-dependent evolution of the bed, for example due to grain packing, mobile armoring, or the temporal lag between stage and bedform growth. ? reveals along-stream variations in hysteresis for each storm, with a peak in hysteresis further downstream for the second event. The pattern is consistent with a migrating sediment pulse that is a predicted consequence of the dam removal. Our results indicate that hysteresis in the relationship between seismic wave amplitude and river stage may track sediment transport.

  8. Hysteresis in In2O3:Zn nanowire field-effect transistor and its application as a nonvolatile memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenfeng; Jie, Jiansheng; Luo, Linbao; Yuan, Guodong; He, Zhubing; Yao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Zhenhua; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2008-11-01

    Control and utilization of hysteresis in nanodevices is an important issue. In this paper, we show an enormous hysteresis in zinc-doped In2O3 nanowire field-effect transistors. Various measurements including changing the operating atmosphere, ozone treatment, and surface passivation were performed to understand and control the hysteresis. The hysteresis could be readily controlled by modifying the nanowire surface. Utilizing the hysteresis, the as-fabricated devices can function as nonvolatile memory elements with high charge storage stability exceeding 4 h. We propose that chemical species such as water molecules adsorbed on the devices and surface oxygen defects in the amorphous layer mainly originated from Zn2+ substitution of In3+ are the main causes of the large hysteresis and the nonvolatile memory effect.

  9. Changes in Wetting Hysteresis During Bioremediation: Changes in fluid flow behavior monitored with low-frequency seismic attenuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Wempe; H. Spetzler; C. Kittleson; J. Pursley

    2003-01-01

    We observed significant reduction in wetting hysteresis with time while a diesel-contaminated quartz crystal was dipped in and out of an oil-reducing bacteria solution. This wetting hysteresis is significantly greater than the wetting hysteresis when the diesel-contaminated quartz crystal is dipped in and out of (1) water, (2) diesel and (3) the bacterial food solution that does not contain bacteria.

  10. Cloning and characterization of a thermal hysteresis (antifreeze) protein with DNA-binding activity from winter bittersweet nightshade, Solanum dulcamara

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Huang; John G. Duman

    2002-01-01

    The gene for a thermal hysteresis (antifreeze) protein (sthp-64) from the bittersweet nightshade, Solanum dulcamara, was cloned and characterized. An expression cDNA library prepared from November S. dulcamara was screened using a polyclonal antibody generated against a previously purified 67 kDa thermal hysteresis protein, and positive clones were identified and sequenced. The full-length thermal hysteresis protein gene was cloned into an Escherichia

  11. Direct hysteresis measurements on ferroelectret films by means of a modified Sawyer-Tower circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xunlin; Holländer, Lars; Wirges, Werner; Gerhard, Reimund; Cury Basso, Heitor

    2013-06-01

    Ferro- and piezo-electrets are non-polar polymer foams or film systems with internally charged cavities. Since their invention more than two decades ago, ferroelectrets have become a welcome addition to the range of piezo-, pyro-, and ferro-electric materials available for device applications. A polarization-versus-electric-field hysteresis is an essential feature of a ferroelectric material and may also be used for determining some of its main properties. Here, a modified Sawyer-Tower circuit and a combination of unipolar and bipolar voltage waveforms are employed to record hysteresis curves on cellular-foam polypropylene ferroelectret films and on tubular-channel fluoroethylenepropylene copolymer ferroelectret film systems. Internal dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) are required for depositing the internal charges in ferroelectrets. The true amount of charge transferred during the internal DBDs is obtained from voltage measurements on a standard capacitor connected in series with the sample, but with a much larger capacitance than the sample. Another standard capacitor with a much smaller capacitance—which is, however, still considerably larger than the sample capacitance—is also connected in series as a high-voltage divider protecting the electrometer against destructive breakdown. It is shown how the DBDs inside the polymer cavities lead to phenomenological hysteresis curves that cannot be distinguished from the hysteresis loops found on other ferroic materials. The physical mechanisms behind the hysteresis behavior are described and discussed.

  12. Material Data Representation of Hysteresis Loops for Hastelloy X Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alam, Javed; Berke, Laszlo; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1993-01-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) model proposed by Rumelhart, Hinton, and Williams is applied to develop a functional approximation of material data in the form of hysteresis loops from a nickel-base superalloy, Hastelloy X. Several different ANN configurations are used to model hysteresis loops at different cycles for this alloy. The ANN models were successful in reproducing the hysteresis loops used for its training. However, because of sharp bends at the two ends of hysteresis loops, a drift occurs at the corners of the loops where loading changes to unloading and vice versa (the sharp bends occurred when the stress-strain curves were reproduced by adding stress increments to the preceding values of the stresses). Therefore, it is possible only to reproduce half of the loading path. The generalization capability of the network was tested by using additional data for two other hysteresis loops at different cycles. The results were in good agreement. Also, the use of ANN led to a data compression ratio of approximately 22:1.

  13. Effect of lipids on sorption/desorption hysteresis in natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guangwei; Rice, James A

    2011-07-01

    The chemical composition and physical conformation of natural organic matter (NOM) play a major role in regulating its capacity to retain hydrophobic organic compounds. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were used to study the correlations between sorption/desorption isotherm nonlinearity and compositional data obtained from quantitative (13)C solid-state DPMAS NMR spectroscopy for soil and peat organic matter with or without lipids. Sorption experiments were conducted using a batch equilibration method. Desorption experiments were carried out immediately following the sorption experiments by three successive decant-refill cycles. Hysteresis was observed in all samples. Nonlinear sorption behavior was increased by removal of lipids from the NOM. The hysteresis index, obtained from the ratio of the Freundlich exponents (N values) for the desorption and sorption isotherms, was lower in the lipid-extracted NOM samples than in the same samples without lipid extraction. The relationship between the extent of hysteresis and the characteristics of the (13)C DPMAS NMR spectra indicates that altering NOM composition through lipid extraction not only increased the proportion of aromatic-C content, but also increased sorption/desorption hysteresis. Our data also suggest that the hysteresis index is negatively related to aromaticity. PMID:21458839

  14. Rate-dependent light-induced thermal hysteresis of [Fe(PM-BiA)2(NCS)2] spin transition complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enachescu, Cristian; Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Chastanet, Guillaume; Létard, Jean-François; Linares, Jorge; Varret, François

    2006-04-01

    The light-induced bistability under permanent irradiation (LITH: light-induced thermal hysteresis), due to the competition between light irradiation and self-accelerated relaxation, shows crucially rate-dependent hysteresis. Major and minor hysteresis loops for [Fe(PM-BiA)2(NCS)2] spin crossover compound have been measured. Using appropriate master equations, distribution data from the first-order reversal curves diagrams of the purely thermal hysteresis, and parameter values previously derived from relaxation curves, we could simulate the LITH experimental data. The tunneling contribution to the relaxation rate revealed to be a key factor for the final agreement.

  15. A Ni-Cd battery model considering state of charge and hysteresis effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Plaza, M.; Serrano-Jiménez, D.; Eloy-García Carrasco, J.; Alonso-Martínez, J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper introduces an electrical battery model. Based on a Thévenin circuit with two RC parallel branches, it includes an ampère-hour counting method to estimate the state of charge (SOC) and a novel model for the hysteresis. The presented model can consider variations in its parameters under changes in all of its internal and external variables, although only SOC and hysteresis are considered. Hysteresis consideration does not only allow distinguishing the parameters during charging and discharging, but also during transients between them. The model was designed to be capable of being implemented in online and offline systems. Finally the proposed model was validated for a single Ni-Cd cell, characterized by current interruption method, in an offline system. The validation was also extended to a stack of 210 cells of the same technology.

  16. Anomalous optical switching and thermal hysteresis behaviors of VO2 films on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Dho, Joonghoe

    2011-12-01

    In order to study the optical switching of vanadium dioxide (VO2) and its thermal hysteresis behavior, we fabricated VO2 films on glass substrates at various oxygen pressures. Only the VO2 films made at 5-10 mTorr displayed x-ray diffraction peaks and metal-insulator transition. Upon heating and cooling, remarkably, these samples exhibited significant optical switching behaviors with a clockwise thermal hysteresis in the infrared range of >850 nm or with a counterclockwise thermal hysteresis in the near visible range of 650-850 nm. The temperature dependence of optical absorption was explained by the O2p-V3d splitting depending on the structural transition of VO2.

  17. Study of the fast photoswitching of spin crossover nanoparticles outside and inside their thermal hysteresis loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallé, G.; Etrillard, C.; Degert, J.; Guillaume, F.; Létard, J.-F.; Freysz, E.

    2013-02-01

    We have studied the low spin to high spin phase transition induced by nanosecond laser pulses outside and within the thermal hysteresis loop of the [Fe(Htrz)2 trz](BF4)2-H2O spin crossover nanoparticles. We demonstrate that, whatever the temperature of the compound, the photo-switching is achieved in less than 12.5 ns. Outside the hysteresis loop, the photo-induced high spin state remains up to 100 ?s and then relaxes. Within the thermal hysteresis loop, the photo-induced high spin state remains as long as the temperature of the sample is kept within the thermal loop. A Raman study indicates that the photo-switching can be completed using single laser pulse excitation.

  18. Modeling biaxial stress effects on magnetic hysteresis in steel with the field and stress axes noncoaxial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablik, M. J.; Augustyniak, B.; Chmielewski, M.

    1999-04-01

    A model based on the domain wall pinning magnetomechanical hysteresis model of Sablik and Jiles [M. J. Sablik and D. C. Jiles, IEEE Trans. Magn. 29, 2113 (1993)] was formulated to compute changes in magnetic hysteresis under biaxial stress conditions with the magnetic field and stress axes noncoaxial. The model included the Villari effect and other asymmetric stress effects. The magnetic field was taken at various angles relative to the stress axis. The Barkhausen noise, hysteresis loss, and maximum flux density were computed for fields varying between ±1 kA/m. The results compared favorably to experimental data on several steels—Polish St3 steel, Polish St41 steel, and US commercial grade steel pipe.

  19. Efficient hysteresis loop simulations of nanoparticle assemblies beyond the uniaxial anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamion, Alexandre; Bonet, Edgar; Tournus, Florent; Raufast, Cécile; Hillion, Arnaud; Gaier, Oksana; Dupuis, Véronique

    2012-04-01

    We propose a modified Stoner-Wohlfarth model combined with the geometrical approach of the coherent rotation of magnetization for simulating the hysteresis loops of an assembly of magnetic nanoparticles. The temperature and the size distribution are taken into account. This combined model enables the computation of hysteresis loops at low temperatures for assemblies of particles having an arbitrary type of anisotropy. The applicability of this model for fitting experimental data is discussed and results are compared to the zero-field-cooled and field-cooled fits. As an application, the hysteresis loops measured on Co clusters embedded in carbon and germanium matrices are fitted revealing unambiguously the presence of a biaxial anisotropy.

  20. Hybrid models of hysteresis for mixed hysteretic loops in heterogeneous magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimian, M.; Andrei, P.; Grayson, M.

    2014-05-01

    The mixed hysteresis behavior of counter-clockwise and clockwise loops has recently attracted the attention of the magnetics community, due to several experimental findings in inhomogeneous and hetero-structure magnetic systems. Various hybrid models are proposed here to address this behavior based on the superposition of standard hysteresis models and their newly developed clockwise variants. A special attention is also devoted to Bouc-Wen model, a typical clockwise often used by applied mechanics community, and to its relevance for mixed hysteresis. These clockwise and hybrid models have been implemented in an open-access academic software and their performance is illustrated by examples of hysteretic loops, first order reversal curves and diagrams simulated in this framework.

  1. Scaling Behavior of Barkhausen Avalanches along the Hysteresis loop in Nucleation-Mediated Magnetization Reversal Process

    SciTech Connect

    Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Kim, D.-H.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-10-14

    We report the scaling behavior of Barkhausen avalanches for every small field step along the hysteresis loop in CoCrPt alloy film having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Individual Barkhausen avalanche is directly observed utilizing a high-resolution soft X-ray microscopy that provides real space images with a spatial resolution of 15 nm. Barkhausen avalanches are found to exhibit power-law scaling behavior at all field steps along the hysteresis loop, despite their different patterns for each field step. Surprisingly, the scaling exponent of the power-law distribution of Barkhausen avalanches is abruptly altered from 1 {+-} 0.04 to 1.47 {+-} 0.03 as the field step is close to the coercive field. The contribution of coupling among adjacent domains to Barkhausen avalanche process affects the sudden change of the scaling behavior observed at the coercivity-field region on the hysteresis loop of CoCrPt alloy film.

  2. A lumped mucosal wave model of the vocal folds revisited: recent extensions and oscillation hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Jorge C; Koenig, Laura L; Lourenço, Kelem G; Ruty, Nicolas; Pelorson, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines an updated version of a lumped mucosal wave model of the vocal fold oscillation during phonation. Threshold values of the subglottal pressure and the mean (DC) glottal airflow for the oscillation onset are determined. Depending on the nonlinear characteristics of the model, an oscillation hysteresis phenomenon may occur, with different values for the oscillation onset and offset threshold. The threshold values depend on the oscillation frequency, but the occurrence of the hysteresis is independent of it. The results are tested against pressure data collected from a mechanical replica of the vocal folds, and oral airflow data collected from speakers producing intervocalic /h/. In the human speech data, observed differences between voice onset and offset may be attributed to variations in voice pitch, with a very small or inexistent hysteresis phenomenon. PMID:21428520

  3. A neural model of hysteresis in amorphous materials and piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lianwei; Shen, Yu

    2014-08-01

    A new approach to constructing hysteretic operator (HO) is proposed in this paper. Based on the HO, the input space of neural networks is expanded from one-dimension to two-dimension and the multi-value mapping of hysteresis is transformed into a continuous mapping comprised of one-to-one mapping and multiple-to-one mapping. Based on the expanded input space, a neural network is employed to approximate hysteresis. The results of experimental examples suggest the proposed approach is effective.

  4. The hysteresis phenomenon of the field emission from the graphene film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiangtao; Li, Jun; Yang, Juan; Yan, Xingbin; Tay, Beng-Kang; Xue, Qunji

    2011-10-01

    A cycle-testing of field emission behavior was carried out for graphene film prepared by electrophoresis deposition followed by annealing at 700 °C in argon atmosphere. The result shows that the graphene film displays a stable field emission characteristic after a period of conditioning. Also, it is interesting that the field emission hysteresis takes place when the film is measured in loops of rised and falled voltages. The possible physical mechanism of this hysteresis phenomenon may be relevant to the desorption/adsorption effect of gas molecules.

  5. Effect of twist process on critical current and hysteresis loss of Nb 3Sn strands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P. X.; Zhou, L.; Tang, X. D.; Liang, M.; Li, C. G.; Wu, Y.; Yan, G.; Yang, M.; Feng, Y.; Liu, X. H.; Weng, P. D.; Lu, Y. F.

    2007-10-01

    We have prepared Nb 3Sn strands by the internal tin process for superconducting conductor application in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The multifilamentary Nb 3Sn strands have a diameter of 0.82 mm and a unit length longer than 5000 m. We have investigated the effect of twist process on superconducting critical current density and hysteresis loss for Nb 3Sn strands. It has been found that the twist process significantly reduces the hysteresis loss of the strands, while the critical current density and the n-value remain nearly unchanged.

  6. Stress dependence and effect of plastic deformation on magnetic hysteresis and anhysteretic magnetization of FeNi32% films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Finkel; S. Lofland

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic hysteresis and anhysteretic magnetization of FeNi32% films were investigated as a function of isotropic stress. The magnetostriction contribution to dc magnetization under elastic stress and the effect of the plastic strain on the hysteresis loops are discussed. Also, a role of the plastic deformation interrelated with the elastic stress in the magnetization process is established. An experimental system

  7. A comparison of analytic and bayesian approaches for characterizing thermal hysteresis in cattle using algebraic and geometric distances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high ambient temperature poses a serious threat to cattle. Above a certain threshold, an animal’s body temperature (Tb) appears to be driven by the hot cyclic air temperature (Ta) and hysteresis occurs. Elliptical hysteresis describes the output of a process in response to a simple harmonic input,...

  8. Stabilization of a system with saturating, non-monotone hysteresis and frequency dependent power losses by a PD controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekanayake, D. B.; Iyer, R. V.

    2015-02-01

    We prove the closed loop stability of a PD controller for certain systems with saturating, non-monotone hysteresis and frequency dependent power losses. Most controllers use inverse compensators to cancel out actuator hysteresis nonlinearity. We show that we can achieve stability of the closed-loop system without an explicit inverse computation (using least squares minimization or otherwise).

  9. A time-based double-band hysteresis current regulation strategy for single-phase multilevel inverters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poh Chiang Loh; Gerwich H. Bode; Donald Grahame Holmes; Thomas A. Lipo

    2003-01-01

    Most multilevel inverter hysteresis current regulators use either multiple hysteresis bands, or a time-based switching logic that forces the current error back to zero by recursively stepping through successive voltage levels. Of these two alternatives, the time-based approach has the merit of only requiring simple analog circuitry and digital logic to implement the voltage level selection process for inverters of

  10. Feedforward controller based-on piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis model and its performance simulation of an XY plane motion stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pan Lizhi; Zhan Min; Wang Wendong; Liang Yakun

    2009-01-01

    The piezoelectric actuator is a perfect nano-positioning drive element for its good performance except its hysteresis, creep, and nonlinearity, which make its control difficult. This paper proposed a control design methodology based on piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis model. First system identifying experiments were performed to identify the system model of a XY serial kinematics plane nanopositioning stage employing piezoelectric actuators. The

  11. A power and wavelength detuning-dependent hysteresis loop in a single mode Fabry—Pérot laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Wei; Bikash, Nakarmi

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we observe experimentally the optical bistability induced by the side-mode injection power and wavelength detuning in a single mode Fabry—Pérot laser diode (SMFP-LD). Results show that the bistability characteristics of the dominant and injected modes are strongly dependent on the injected input optical power and wavelength detuning in an SMFP-LD. We observe three types of hysteresis loops: counterclockwise, clockwise, and butterfly hysteresis with various loop widths. In the case of a bistability loop caused by injection power, the transition from counterclockwise to clockwise in the hysteresis direction with the wavelength detuning from 0.028 nm to 0.112 nm is observed in a way of butterfly hysteresis for the dominant mode by increasing the wavelength detuning. The width of hysteresis loop, induced by wavelength detuning is also changed while the injection power is enhanced from -7 dBm to -5 dBm.

  12. Size dependent thermal hysteresis in spin crossover nanoparticles reflected within a Monte Carlo based Ising-like model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atitoaie, Alexandru; Tanasa, Radu; Enachescu, Cristian

    2012-04-01

    Spin crossover compounds are photo-magnetic bistable molecular magnets with two states in thermodynamic competition: the diamagnetic low-spin state and paramagnetic high-spin state. The thermal transition between the two states is often accompanied by a wide hysteresis, premise for possible application of these materials as recording media. In this paper we study the influence of the system's size on the thermal hysteresis loops using Monte Carlo simulations based on an Arrhenius dynamics applied for an Ising like model with long- and short-range interactions. We show that using appropriate boundary conditions it is possible to reproduce both the drop of hysteresis width with decreasing particle size, the hysteresis shift towards lower temperatures and the incomplete transition, as in the available experimental data. The case of larger systems composed by several sublattices is equally treated reproducing the shrinkage of the hysteresis loop's width experimentally observed.

  13. [LR7573E]059101PRE Contact-angle hysteresis in solid-on-solid wetting

    E-print Network

    Attard, Phil

    PROOF COPY [LR7573E]059101PRE Contact-angle hysteresis in solid-on-solid wetting Phil Attard Ian the solid surfaces. The deformation and contact area are obtained self-consistently as a function of load depend upon the interfacial energies of the phases. For a liquid drop on a solid in a vapor the Young

  14. A stability-based mechanism for hysteresis in the walk–trot transition in quadruped locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Aoi, Shinya; Katayama, Daiki; Fujiki, Soichiro; Tomita, Nozomi; Funato, Tetsuro; Yamashita, Tsuyoshi; Senda, Kei; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupeds vary their gaits in accordance with their locomotion speed. Such gait transitions exhibit hysteresis. However, the underlying mechanism for this hysteresis remains largely unclear. It has been suggested that gaits correspond to attractors in their dynamics and that gait transitions are non-equilibrium phase transitions that are accompanied by a loss in stability. In the present study, we used a robotic platform to investigate the dynamic stability of gaits and to clarify the hysteresis mechanism in the walk–trot transition of quadrupeds. Specifically, we used a quadruped robot as the body mechanical model and an oscillator network for the nervous system model to emulate dynamic locomotion of a quadruped. Experiments using this robot revealed that dynamic interactions among the robot mechanical system, the oscillator network, and the environment generate walk and trot gaits depending on the locomotion speed. In addition, a walk–trot transition that exhibited hysteresis was observed when the locomotion speed was changed. We evaluated the gait changes of the robot by measuring the locomotion of dogs. Furthermore, we investigated the stability structure during the gait transition of the robot by constructing a potential function from the return map of the relative phase of the legs and clarified the physical characteristics inherent to the gait transition in terms of the dynamics. PMID:23389894

  15. Sensitivity of sulfate direct climate forcing to the hysteresis of particle phase transitions

    E-print Network

    , focusing on the sulfate-ammonium system. The phase transition affects the hygroscopic behavior]. The composition of sulfate-ammonium particles is charac- terized by the extent of neutralization, defined as XSensitivity of sulfate direct climate forcing to the hysteresis of particle phase transitions Jun

  16. Experiments on Snap Buckling, Hysteresis and Loop Formation in Twisted Rods

    E-print Network

    Neukirch, Sébastien

    Experiments on Snap Buckling, Hysteresis and Loop Formation in Twisted Rods by V.G.A. Goss, G. In this way, commonly encountered phenomena are investigated, such as snap buckling, the formation of loops, rod experiments, snap buckling, loop formation, snarling, hockling, welded boundary condi- tions

  17. Experiments on snap buckling, hysteresis and loop formation in twisted rods.

    E-print Network

    Neukirch, Sébastien

    Experiments on snap buckling, hysteresis and loop formation in twisted rods. V.G.A.Goss, G encountered phenomena such as snap­buckling, the formation of loops, and buckling into and out of planar, snap buckling, loop formation, snarling, hock­ ling, welded boundary conditions. 1 Introduction

  18. Experiments on snap buckling, hysteresis and loop formation in twisted rods

    E-print Network

    van der Heijden, Gert

    Experiments on snap buckling, hysteresis and loop formation in twisted rods V.G.A. Goss , G phenomena such as snap buckling, the formation of loops, and buckling into and out of planar configurations are investigated. The effect of gravity is discussed. Key words: twisted rods, rod experiments, snap buckling, loop

  19. Cochlear hysteresis: Observation with low-frequency modulated distortion product otoacoustic emissions

    E-print Network

    Allen, Jont

    Cochlear hysteresis: Observation with low-frequency modulated distortion product otoacoustic of the MPs occurred at positive sound pressures for rising in bias pressure or loading of the cochlear levels. Both physiologic indices and model parameters suggest that the cochlear transducer dynamically

  20. FORWARD HYSTERESIS AND BACKWARD BIFURCATION CAUSED BY CULLING IN AN AVIAN INFLUENZA MODEL

    E-print Network

    Martcheva, Maia

    FORWARD HYSTERESIS AND BACKWARD BIFURCATION CAUSED BY CULLING IN AN AVIAN INFLUENZA MODEL HAYRIYE influenza virus strain magnifies the need for controlling the incidence of H5N1 infection in domestic bird measure. We use mathematical modeling to understand the dynamics of avian influenza under different

  1. Ultra-precise tracking control of piezoelectric actuators via a fuzzy hysteresis model.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengzhi; Yan, Feng; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Mingchao

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a novel Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy system based model is proposed for hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. The antecedent and consequent structures of the fuzzy hysteresis model (FHM) can be, respectively, identified on-line through uniform partition approach and recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. With respect to controller design, the inverse of FHM is used to develop a feedforward controller to cancel out the hysteresis effect. Then a hybrid controller is designed for high-performance tracking. It combines the feedforward controller with a proportional integral differential (PID) controller favourable for stabilization and disturbance compensation. To achieve nanometer-scale tracking precision, the enhanced adaptive hybrid controller is further developed. It uses real-time input and output data to update FHM, thus changing the feedforward controller to suit the on-site hysteresis character of the piezoelectric actuator. Finally, as to 3 cases of 50 Hz sinusoidal, multiple frequency sinusoidal and 50 Hz triangular trajectories tracking, experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controllers. Especially, being only 0.35% of the maximum desired displacement, the maximum error of 50 Hz sinusoidal tracking is greatly reduced to 5.8 nm, which clearly shows the ultra-precise nanometer-scale tracking performance of the developed adaptive hybrid controller. PMID:22938339

  2. Hysteresis, Discrete Memory, and Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Rock: A New Paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Guyer; K. R. McCall; G. N. Boitnott

    1995-01-01

    The structural elements in a rock are characterized by their density in Preisach-Mayergoyz space (PM space). This density is found for a Berea sandstone from stress-strain data and used to study the response of the sandstone to elaborate pressure protocols. Hysteresis with discrete memory, in agreement with experiment, is found. The relationship between strain, quasistatic modulus, and dynamic modulus is

  3. X-ray diffraction investigation of a spin crossover hysteresis loop. P Guionneau1,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    @icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr The nature and the mechanism of the magnetic hysteresis for the thermal spin crossover exhibited by an iron(II) compound is investigated by mean of variable temperature powder and single crystals X-ray diffraction in the spin crossover features according to the nature of the sample ­ powder or single crystal ­ that should

  4. Simulation of AV hysteresis pacing using an integrated dual chamber heart and pacer model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Lian; Garth Garner; Hannes Krätschmer; Dirk Müssig

    2009-01-01

    Long term right ventricular apical pacing has been known to have adverse effects in cardiac function. The AV hysteresis (AVH) is a feature existing in many dual-chamber cardiac pacemakers that aims to minimize the right ventricular pacing, but its clinical efficacy remains inconclusive due to conflicting evidence from different studies. We have recently developed a novel integrated dual-chamber heart and

  5. Adaptive wavelet neural network control with hysteresis estimation for piezo-positioning mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Faa-Jeng; Shieh, Hsin-Jang; Huang, Po-Kai

    2006-03-01

    An adaptive wavelet neural network (AWNN) control with hysteresis estimation is proposed in this study to improve the control performance of a piezo-positioning mechanism, which is always severely deteriorated due to hysteresis effect. First, the control system configuration of the piezo-positioning mechanism is introduced. Then, a new hysteretic model by integrating a modified hysteresis friction force function is proposed to represent the dynamics of the overall piezo-positioning mechanism. According to this developed dynamics, an AWNN controller with hysteresis estimation is proposed. In the proposed AWNN controller, a wavelet neural network (WNN) with accurate approximation capability is employed to approximate the part of the unknown function in the proposed dynamics of the piezo-positioning mechanism, and a robust compensator is proposed to confront the lumped uncertainty that comprises the inevitable approximation errors due to finite number of wavelet basis functions and disturbances, optimal parameter vectors, and higher order terms in Taylor series. Moreover, adaptive learning algorithms for the online learning of the parameters of the WNN are derived based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. Finally, the command tracking performance and the robustness to external load disturbance of the proposed AWNN control system are illustrated by some experimental results. PMID:16566470

  6. Calculation of hysteresis losses in hard superconductors carrying ac: isolated conductors and edges of thin sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W T Norris

    1970-01-01

    Two methods of calculating hysteresis losses in hard superconductors are described. The London model is assumed in which the critical current density is taken independent of magnetic field. Losses in isolated wires of different cross section are considered but it is found that losses for solid wires vary by at most a factor of 3 for different shaped wires of

  7. Ultra-precise tracking control of piezoelectric actuators via a fuzzy hysteresis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengzhi; Yan, Feng; Ge, Chuan; Zhang, Mingchao

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a novel Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy system based model is proposed for hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. The antecedent and consequent structures of the fuzzy hysteresis model (FHM) can be, respectively, identified on-line through uniform partition approach and recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. With respect to controller design, the inverse of FHM is used to develop a feedforward controller to cancel out the hysteresis effect. Then a hybrid controller is designed for high-performance tracking. It combines the feedforward controller with a proportional integral differential (PID) controller favourable for stabilization and disturbance compensation. To achieve nanometer-scale tracking precision, the enhanced adaptive hybrid controller is further developed. It uses real-time input and output data to update FHM, thus changing the feedforward controller to suit the on-site hysteresis character of the piezoelectric actuator. Finally, as to 3 cases of 50 Hz sinusoidal, multiple frequency sinusoidal and 50 Hz triangular trajectories tracking, experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controllers. Especially, being only 0.35% of the maximum desired displacement, the maximum error of 50 Hz sinusoidal tracking is greatly reduced to 5.8 nm, which clearly shows the ultra-precise nanometer-scale tracking performance of the developed adaptive hybrid controller.

  8. Towards a truck-driver model using a hysteresis based analysis and verification approach

    E-print Network

    Towards a truck-driver model using a hysteresis based analysis and verification approach (Extended this methodology, we reuse a car driver model and build a truck driver model by considering relevant aspects. We. In this work we propose to produce a model of the behav- ior of truck drivers, which are known to have

  9. A macroscopic theory for the existence of the hysteresis and butterfly loops in ferroelectricity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Chen; Stephen T. Montgomery

    1980-01-01

    We present in this paper a minimal macroscopic theory leading to the hysteresis loop and the butterfly loop in ferroelectricity. This theory is based on the notion that as domains switch under the action of an external electric field the number of dipoles aligned in the direction of the field also alters and it obeys a rate law which depends

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of Snowball Earth Hysteresis Experiment: Efficiency, Entropy Production, and Irreversibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerio Lucarini; Klaus Fraedrich; Frank Lunkeit

    2010-01-01

    We present an extensive thermodynamic analysis of a hysteresis experiment performed on a simplified yet Earth-like climate model. We slowly vary the solar constant by 20% around the present value and detect that for a large range of values of the solar constant the realization of snowball or of regular climate conditions depends on the history of the system. Using

  11. The role of transport phenomena on efficacy, stability and hysteresis in encapsulated cellular systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan C. Roberts; Robert J. Fisher

    2000-01-01

    Multiple steady states are possible when transport limitations are imposed on cellular systems that exhibit some level of substrate inhibition. These distinct steady states can be achieved under identical operating conditions such as temperature, flowrate, and composition. Cells will exhibit different metabolisms depending on their environmental history and the path taken to the specific reactor operating conditions. Hysteresis is observed

  12. Strain and hysteresis by stochastic matrix cracking in ceramic matrix composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Ahn; W. A. Curtin

    1997-01-01

    A theory is presented to predict the stress\\/strain relations and unload\\/reload hysteresis behavior during the evolution of multiple matrix cracking in unidirectional fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). The theory is based on the similarity between multiple matrix cracking and fiber fragmentation in a single fiber composite, and determines the crack and strain evolution as a function of the statistical

  13. Relationships between hysteresis measurements and the constituent properties of ceramic matrix composites. 1: Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Vagaggini; Jean-Marc Domergue; Anthony G. Evans

    1995-01-01

    A methodology for assessing constituent properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) from stress\\/strain curves is developed. The procedures demonstrate how the properties of the interface and the misfit strain can be related to the unload\\/reload hysteresis and the permanent strain. The approach is illustrated in companion papers by obtaining experimental measurements on two CMCs. The results demonstrate why differences in

  14. Fractal analysis of soil water hysteresis as influenced by sewage sludge application

    E-print Network

    Perfect, Ed

    , and the air/water displacement suction), and A2 (a compound parameter that includes D2, and the critical, were significantly affected by hysteresis and/or the sludge treatments for the loam soil. Values of A1 of the loam soil. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Continuous human population growth

  15. A new simple asymmetric hysteresis operator and its application to inverse control of piezoelectric actuators.

    PubMed

    Badel, A; Qiu, J; Nakano, T

    2008-05-01

    Piezoelectric actuators (PEAs) are commonly used as micropositioning devices due to their high resolution, high stiffness, and fast frequency response. Because piezoceramic materials are ferroelectric, they fundamentally exhibit hysteresis behavior in their response to an applied electric field. The positioning precision can be significantly reduced due to nonlinear hysteresis effects when PEAs are used in relatively long range applications. This paper describes a new, precise, and simple asymmetric hysteresis operator dedicated to PEAs. The complex hysteretic transfer characteristic has been considered in a purely phenomenological way, without taking into account the underlying physics. This operator is based on two curves. The first curve corresponds to the main ascending branch and is modeled by the function f1. The second curve corresponds to the main reversal branch and is modeled by the function g2. The functions f(1) and g(2) are two very simple hyperbola functions with only three parameters. Particular ascending and reversal branches are deduced from appropriate translations of f(1) and g(2). The efficiency and precision of the proposed approach is demonstrated, in practice, by a real-time inverse feed-forward controller for piezoelectric actuators. Advantages and drawbacks of the proposed approach compared with classical hysteresis operators are discussed. PMID:18519217

  16. Experimental investigation on hysteresis effect of refrigerant flowing through a coiled adiabatic capillary tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhou Guobing; Zhang Yufeng

    2006-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the mass flow rate hysteresis of R22 in a coiled adiabatic capillary tube. The measured mass flow rate data in a coiled adiabatic capillary are found to be more dispersive than those in a straight one. The scatter bands of measured data are significantly dependent on how the state points are achieved. For increasing inlet subcooling

  17. Hysteresis and self-sustained oscillations in space charge limited currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. N. Gartstein; P. S. Ramesh

    1998-01-01

    A problem of charged particle flow between parallel plate electrodes with arbitrary injection velocities is revisited. A steady-state analysis is advanced by the kinetic simulations which show that the system under consideration can exhibit features characteristic of nonlinear dynamical systems. In particular, a hysteresis between supply limited and space charge limited currents is demonstrated as well as the existence of

  18. Incorporating core hysteresis properties in three-dimensional computations of transformer inrush current forces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Adly; H. H. Hanafy

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that transformer inrush currents depend upon the core properties, residual flux, switching instant, and the overall circuit parameters. Large transient inrush currents introduce abnormal electromagnetic forces which may destroy the transformer windings. This paper presents an approach through which core hysteresis may be incorporated in three-dimensional computations of transformer inrush current forces. Details of the approach,

  19. Hysteresis Loop for a No-loaded, Delta-connected Transformer Model Deduced from Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrodi, Yves; Kamei, Kenji; Kohyama, Haruhiko; Ito, Hiroki

    At a transformer's steady-state condition, whereby a transformer and its load are constantly supplied by a sinusoidal source, the current-flux pair within the transformer core and its windings will cycle along a hysteresis loop. This nonlinear current-flux characteristic becomes important while at transformer gets reenergized. A remaining residual flux and the fact that a transformer is typically used up to its saturation level can lead to high-amplitude magnetizing inrush currents and associated voltage disturbances. These disturbances can be reduced by controlled transformer switching. In order to pre-evaluate the effect of a specific controlled transformer energization, pre-simulations can be applied. In that case the hysteresis loop and its saturation characteristic will become the most important model parameter. If the corresponding manufacturer specifications are not available a standard hysteresis loops can be used, but might come up with an inaccurate simulation result. Therefore, this paper analyses the measured 3-phase currents from two delta-connected power transformers by “Fourier Series” in order to deduce a single-phase hysteresis loop, which can be implemented into a typical 3-phase transformer model. Additionally, the saturation behavior of a power-transformer will be estimated and a comparison of ATP/EMTP simulations will conclude this paper.

  20. Hysteresis operators in phase-field models of Penrose-fife type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Krej?í; Jürgen Sprekels

    1998-01-01

    Phase-field systems as mathematical models for phase transitions have drawn a considerable attention in recent years. However, while they are suitable for capturing many of the experimentally observed phenomena, they are only of restricted value in modelling hysteresis effects occurring during phase transition processes. To overcome this shortcoming of existing phase-field theories, the authors have recently proposed a new approach

  1. Series and parallel operation of hysteresis current-controlled PWM rectifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Dixon; B. T. Ooi

    1989-01-01

    Different strategies for series and parallel connections of hysteresis current-controlled PWM rectifier have been investigated by experiments, computer simulations, and analyses. Each rectifier unit delivers near-sinusoidal current waveforms at unity (or even leading) power factor. Of particular concern are the questions of: (i) system stability; (ii) the capability of the modular units to share voltage (series connection) and current (parallel

  2. Calculation of the magnetic field in the active zone of a hysteresis clutch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ermilov, M. A.; Glukhov, O. M.

    1977-01-01

    The initial distribution of magnetic induction in the armature stationary was calculated relative to the polar system of a hysteresis clutch. Using several assumptions, the problem is reduced to calculating the static magnetic field in the ferromagnetic plate with finite and continuous magnetic permeability placed in the air gap between two identical, parallel semiconductors with rack fixed relative to the tooth or slot position.

  3. Control of deep-hysteresis aeroengine compressors. II. Design of control laws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav KrstiC; Hsin-Hsiung Wang

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we continue the development of a methodology for control of deep-hysteresis compressors initiated in a companion paper. We develop a family of controllers which are applicable not only to the particular model presented in Part I of this paper, but also to general Moore-Greitzer type models with arbitrary compressor characteristics. For each of our controllers we show

  4. Scaling behavior of hysteresis in multilayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tao; Du, Gang; Zhang, Baoshun; Zeng, Zhongming, E-mail: zmzeng2012@sinano.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ruoshui Road 398, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Extrinsic hysteresis effects are often observed in MoS{sub 2} field effect devices due to adsorption of gas molecules on the surface of MoS{sub 2} channel. Scaling is a common method used in ferroics to quantitatively study the hysteresis. Here, the scaling behavior of hysteresis in multilayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors with a back-gated configuration was investigated. The power-law scaling relations were obtained for hysteresis area (?A?) and memory window (?V) with varying the region of back-gate voltage (V{sub bg,max}). It is interesting to find that the transition voltage in the forward sweep (V{sub FW}) and in the backward sweep (V{sub BW}) shifted to the opposite directions of back-gate voltage (V{sub bg}) with increasing V{sub bg,max}. However, when decreasing V{sub bg,max}, V{sub FW} shifted to positive and reversibly recovered, but V{sub BW} almost kept unchanged. The evolution of ?A?, ?V, V{sub FW,} and V{sub BW} with V{sub bg,max} were discussed by the electrons transferring process between the adsorbate and MoS{sub 2} channel.

  5. Pore-scale mechanisms for hysteresis in capillary-dominated drainage and imbibition (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, A.; Wildenschild, D.; Andersson, L.; Herring, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the flow of two immiscible fluid phases through the pore space of rocks and soils is a complex problem involving fluid dynamics, surface science and geometry. Invariably one fluid, usually water, preferentially coats the solid surface. Of major interest, and a significant challenge for multiphase fluid modelling, is the fact that the flow displays hysteresis: the measured difference in pressure between fluids (the capillary pressure) is higher when the water is draining out than when it is imbibing back in. One consequence of this hysteresis include capillary trapping, of relevance to waterflooding oil recovery and geosequestration of CO¬2. While several models have attempted with mixed success to capture this hysteresis at the macro-scale, no consensus yet exists on its pore-scale causes. The current work makes use of X-ray micro-tomography (MCT) data to help identify resolve this question. We first enumerate the different mechanisms that have been proposed in the literature for this hysteresis. We break these mechanisms into two categories: local mechanisms that may occur inside a single geometric feature (such as a pore or throat) and those that may only be observed within some sort of labyrinth. Local mechanisms include contact angle hysteresis (induced by surface, chemistry surface roughness and/or interface pinning), the ink-bottle effect and geometric bistability associated with the stability of both main terminal menisci and arc menisci in a constrictive pore space element. The nonlocal mechanisms are fluid trapping (possible for both wetting and nonwetting fluids) and structure hysteresis arising from heterogeneity in the pore system. Our results arise from the analysis of imaging experiments in which water was successively imbibed into and drained from small samples of Bentheimer sandstone and unconsolidated grain packs. The experiment were conducted at both synchrotron and laboratory X-ray MCT facilities, with both imaging setups having sufficient resolution to show the distribution of the two fluid phases throughout the material while also capturing fluid menisci in individual pores. We apply a range of topological and geometric analyses to these images, most notably the calculation of Betti numbers, interfacial area and interfacial curvature, to quantify the differences in fluid configurations during imbibition and drainage. While our results suggest that geometric bistability may be the primary cause for hysteresis in these particular experiments, we discuss the significance of our results and suggest that far more work is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  6. Transient hysteresis of near-surface permafrost response to external forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.; Demchenko, Pavel F.; Arzhanov, Maxim M.; Mokhov, Igor I.

    2014-03-01

    Estimates of changes in near-surface permafrost (NSP) area S p relative to change in globally averaged surface air temperature T g are made by using the global climate model developed at the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS (IAP RAS CM). For ensemble of runs forced by scenarios constructed as return-to-preindustrial continuations of the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios family, a possibility of transient hysteresis in dependence of S p versus T g is exhibited: in some temperature range which depends on imposed scenario of external forcing, NSP area is larger, at the same global mean surface air temperature, in a warming climate than in a cooling climate. This hysteresis is visible more clearly for scenarios with higher concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in comparison to those in which this concentration is lower. Hysteresis details are not sensitive to the type of the prescribed continuation path which is used to return the climate to the preindustrial state. The multiple-valued dependence of S p on T g arises due to dependence of soil state in the regions of extra-tropical wetlands and near the contemporary NSP boundaries on sign of external climatic forcing. To study the dependence of permafrost hysteresis on amplitude and temporal scale of external forcing, additional model runs are performed. These runs are forced by idealised scenarios of atmospheric CO2 content varying, depending on run, with periods from 100 to 1,000 year and with different amplitudes. It is shown that the above-mentioned hysteresis is related to the impact of phase transitions of soil water on apparent inertia of the system as well as to the impact of soil state on atmospheric hydrological cycle and radiation transfer in the atmosphere.

  7. Experimental investigation on the hysteresis phenomenon and the photostrictive effect of PLZT with coupled multi-physics fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. H.; Wang, X. J.; Cheng, W. X.; Wang, J.

    2015-04-01

    Lead lanthanum zirconate (PLZT) ceramic has been widely studied as an opto-electromechanical actuator activated by ultraviolet light for active vibration control of various structures. However, the slow response time of photodeformation and the hysteresis phenomenon between the photovoltage and photo-induced deformation greatly affect the performance of PLZT as an actuator. The primary purposes of this article are to provide a comprehensive analysis on the hysteresis phenomenon and seek the reason of the hysteresis phenomenon with the experimental method. To this end, this study proposed the hysteresis phenomenon by photostrictive static experiments and investigated the possible influence factors on the hysteresis phenomenon through a series of experiments. The experimental results indicate that the temperature elevation of PLZT ceramic subjected to light illumination plays a significant role in the hysteresis phenomenon. Therefore, reducing the temperature rise of PLZT ceramic exposed to ultraviolet light is an effective means to eliminate the hysteresis phenomenon and improve the respond speed of photo-induced deformation.

  8. Hysteresis in the conductance of asymmetrically biased GaAs quantum point contacts with in-plane side gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, N.; Dutta, M.; Charles, J.; Cahay, M.; Newrock, R. S.

    2013-07-01

    We have observed hysteresis between the forward and reverse sweeps of a common mode bias applied to the two in-plane side gates of an asymmetrically biased GaAs quantum point contact (QPC). The size of the hysteresis loop increases with the amount of bias asymmetry ?Vg between the two side gates and depends on the polarity of ?Vg. Our results are in qualitative agreement with Non-Equilibrium Green's Function simulations including the effects of dangling bond scattering on the sidewalls of the QPC. It is argued that hysteresis may constitute another indirect proof of spontaneous spin polarization in the narrow portion of the QPC.

  9. Fast-response single-inductor dual-output hysteresis-current-controlled DC–DC buck converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiann-Jong Chen; Bo-Han Hwang; Jui-Hsuan Hsu; Yuh-Shyan Hwang; Cheng-Chieh Yu

    A fast-response single-inductor dual-output hysteresis-current-controlled DC–DC buck is proposed for enhancing the transient\\u000a characteristics of switching DC–DC converters and fabricated with TSMC 0.35 ?m DPQM CMOS processes. By adopting a hysteresis-current-controlled\\u000a DC–DC buck converter, it is demonstrated that the hysteresis-current-controlled technique have improved dynamic response of\\u000a load variations whether the load current is light or heavy. Fast-response structure achieves 5 ?s response

  10. The stress dependence of magnetostriction hysteresis in TbDyFe [110] oriented crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhibin; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Xu, Huibin

    2011-06-01

    The magnetostriction curves and minor loops of the TbDyFe [110] oriented crystal are tested under different compressive pre-stress from 0 to 120 MPa. It is observed that the magnetostriction hysteresis first increases from about 33 Oe under 0 MPa, achieves the maximum of about 70 Oe under 30 MPa, and then decreases to about 16 Oe under 120 MPa (near disappearance) with an increase in the compressive pre-stress. By the theoretical simulation, it is found that upon increasing the compressive pre-stress the dominant energy changes from magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy to magnetoelastic energy. This leads to the domain rotation mode changing from irreversibility to reversibility and consequently results in the decrease of magnetostriction hysteresis, which explains the experimental results very well.

  11. Surface aligned magnetic moments and hysteresis of an endohedral single-molecule magnet on a metal.

    PubMed

    Westerström, Rasmus; Uldry, Anne-Christine; Stania, Roland; Dreiser, Jan; Piamonteze, Cinthia; Muntwiler, Matthias; Matsui, Fumihiko; Rusponi, Stefano; Brune, Harald; Yang, Shangfeng; Popov, Alexey; Büchner, Bernd; Delley, Bernard; Greber, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    The interaction between the endohedral unit in the single-molecule magnet Dy_{2}ScN@C_{80} and a rhodium (111) substrate leads to alignment of the Dy 4f orbitals. The resulting orientation of the Dy_{2}ScN plane parallel to the surface is inferred from comparison of the angular anisotropy of x-ray absorption spectra and multiplet calculations in the corresponding ligand field. The x-ray magnetic circular dichroism is also angle dependent and signals strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This directly relates geometric and magnetic structure. Element specific magnetization curves from different coverages exhibit hysteresis at a sample temperature of ?4??K. From the measured hysteresis curves, we estimate the zero field remanence lifetime during x-ray exposure of a submonolayer to be about 30 seconds. PMID:25768775

  12. Surface Aligned Magnetic Moments and Hysteresis of an Endohedral Single-Molecule Magnet on a Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerström, Rasmus; Uldry, Anne-Christine; Stania, Roland; Dreiser, Jan; Piamonteze, Cinthia; Muntwiler, Matthias; Matsui, Fumihiko; Rusponi, Stefano; Brune, Harald; Yang, Shangfeng; Popov, Alexey; Büchner, Bernd; Delley, Bernard; Greber, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between the endohedral unit in the single-molecule magnet Dy2ScN @C80 and a rhodium (111) substrate leads to alignment of the Dy 4 f orbitals. The resulting orientation of the Dy2ScN plane parallel to the surface is inferred from comparison of the angular anisotropy of x-ray absorption spectra and multiplet calculations in the corresponding ligand field. The x-ray magnetic circular dichroism is also angle dependent and signals strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This directly relates geometric and magnetic structure. Element specific magnetization curves from different coverages exhibit hysteresis at a sample temperature of ˜4 K . From the measured hysteresis curves, we estimate the zero field remanence lifetime during x-ray exposure of a submonolayer to be about 30 seconds.

  13. Density hysteresis of heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Faraone, Antonio; Kamitakahara, William A.; Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Leão, Juscelino B.; Chang, Sung; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    A neutron scattering technique was developed to measure the density of heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix in a temperature-pressure range, from 300 to 130 K and from 1 to 2,900 bars, where bulk water will crystalize. We observed a prominent hysteresis phenomenon in the measured density profiles between warming and cooling scans above 1,000 bars. We interpret this hysteresis phenomenon as support (although not a proof) of the hypothetical existence of a first-order liquid–liquid phase transition of water that would exist in the macroscopic system if crystallization could be avoided in the relevant phase region. Moreover, the density data we obtained for the confined heavy water under these conditions are valuable to large communities in biology and earth and planetary sciences interested in phenomena in which nanometer-sized water layers are involved. PMID:21746898

  14. Theory of Sorption Hysteresis in Nanoporous Solids: I. Snap-Through Instabilities

    E-print Network

    Bazant, Zdenek P

    2011-01-01

    The sorption-desorption hysteresis observed in many nanoporous solids, at vapor pressures low enough for the the liquid (capillary) phase of the adsorbate to be absent, has long been vaguely attributed to changes in the nanopore structure, but no mathematically consistent explanation has been presented. The present work takes an analytical approach to account for discrete molecular forces in the nanopore fluid and proposes two related mechanisms that can explain the hysteresis at low vapor pressure without assuming any change in the nanopore structure. The first mechanism, presented in Part I, consists of a series of snap-through instabilities during the filling or emptying of non-uniform nanopores or nanoscale asperities. The instabilities are caused by non-uniqueness in the misfit disjoining pressures engendered by a difference between the nanopore width and an integer multiple of the thickness of a monomolecular adsorption layer. The second mechanism, presented in Part II, consists of molecular coalescence...

  15. A guided enquiry approach to introduce basic concepts concerning magnetic hysteresis to minimize student misconceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yajun; Zhai, Zhaohui; Gunnarsson, Klas; Svedlindh, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Basic concepts concerning magnetic hysteresis are of vital importance in understanding magnetic materials. However, these concepts are often misinterpreted by many students and even textbooks. We summarize the most common misconceptions and present a new approach to help clarify these misconceptions and enhance students’ understanding of the hysteresis loop. In this approach, students are required to perform an experiment and plot the measured magnetization values and thereby calculated demagnetizing field, internal field, and magnetic induction as functions of the applied field point by point on the same graph. The concepts of the various coercivity, remanence, saturation magnetization, and saturation induction will not be introduced until this stage. By plotting this graph, students are able to interlink all the preceding concepts and intuitively visualize the underlying physical relations between them.

  16. Precision control of piezo-actuated optical deflector with nonlinearity correction based on hysteresis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Geng; Guan, Chunlin; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Hong; Rao, Changhui

    2014-04-01

    The hysteresis nonlinearity of piezoelectric actuator is one of the main defects in the control of optical deflector which is widely used as a key component in adaptive optics system. In this paper, a control method combining the feedforward and feedback controllers is proposed to precisely control the deflection angle of an optical deflector. The inverse of an asymmetric Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) hysteresis model is utilized in the feedforward loop, and a PID controller is used in the feedback loop. Then, a tracking control experiment for the desired triangle wave was performed. From the experimental results, we can see that the response of the optical deflector is linearized and the positioning precision of optical deflector is significantly improved.

  17. Density hysteresis of heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Faraone, Antonio [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kamitakahara, William [ORNL; Liu, Kao-Hsiang [National Taiwan University; Mou, Chung-Yuan [National Taiwan University; Leao, Juscelino B [ORNL; Chang, Sung C [ORNL; Chen, Sow-hsin H [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A neutron scattering technique was developed to measure the density of heavy water confined in a nanoporous silica matrix in a temperature-pressure range, from 300 to 130 K and from 1 to 2,900 bars, where bulk water will crystalize. We observed a prominent hysteresis phenomenon in the measured density profiles between warming and cooling scans above 1,000 bars. We inter- pret this hysteresis phenomenon as support (although not a proof) of the hypothetical existence of a first-order liquid liquid phase transition of water that would exist in the macroscopic system if crystallization could be avoided in the relevant phase region. Moreover, the density data we obtained for the confined heavy water under these conditions are valuable to large communities in biology and earth and planetary sciences interested in phenomena in which nanometer-sized water layers are involved.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Role of Disorder on Contact Angle Hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sams, Angelina N.; Merten, Victoria E.; Pettersen, Michael S.

    2012-02-01

    Hysteretic behavior of the contact angle of a liquid on a solid is often ascribed to topographic or chemical heterogeneity of the surface. Recent experiments by Rolley and GuthmannootnotetextE. Rolley and C. Guthmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 166105 (2007). on liquid hydrogen on cesium suggest that both the hysteresis and the contact line dynamics might be explained in terms of the mesoscale structure of the cesium surface. We have investigated a room temperature system with similar wetting and structural properties, tetradecane on dodecanethiol-treated evaporated gold films, and compare the results with a model of the expected hysteresis due to the topographical heterogeneity as measured by AFM, and reported disorder in the thiol film.ootnotetextE. Delamarche, B. Michel, H. Kang and C.Gerber, Langmuir 10, 4103 (1994).

  19. Hysteresis mechanism and control in pentacene organic field-effect transistors with polymer dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Shi, Wei; Han, Shijiao; Yu, Junsheng

    2013-05-01

    Hysteresis mechanism of pentacene organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and/or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) dielectrics is studied. Through analyzing the electrical characteristics of OFETs with various PVA/PMMA arrangements, it shows that charge, which is trapped in PVA bulk and at the interface of pentacene/PVA, is one of the origins of hysteresis. The results also show that memory window is proportional to both trap amount in PVA and charge density at the gate/PVA or PVA/pentacene interfaces. Hence, the controllable memory window of around 0 ˜ 10 V can be realized by controlling the thickness and combination of triple-layer polymer dielectrics.

  20. Hysteresis phenomenon and multistability in figure-of-eight microstructured fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guesmi, Khmaies; Bahloul, Faouzi; Salhi, Mohamed; Sanchez, François; Attia, Rabah

    2015-04-01

    We report a theoretical investigation of multi-pulse emission of a microstructured figure-of-eight fiber laser operating in passive mode-locking. The proposed laser is mode locked by the nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). We study, in this paper, the hysteresis dependence and the number of pulses in steady state as a function of both the small signal gain and the nonlinear coefficient of microstructured fiber. The numerical simulation confirms that the pulse splitting is a consequence of the energy quantization in anomalous dispersion. Moreover, our results suggest that the hysteresis phenomenon is an intrinsic feature of the mode-locked fiber lasers independently of the exact mode-locking mechanism. Finally, we identify that the nonlinear coefficient of microstructured fiber plays a key role in the formation of multi-soliton.

  1. An implicit method for the nonlinear modelling and simulation of piezoceramic actuators displaying hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leigh, Timothy D.; Zimmerman, David C.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments have shown that piezoceramic materials display a nonlinear relationship between the applied electric field and the actuation strain. This relationship also displays a substantial hysteresis upon reversal of the applied field. In this paper, piezoceramic actuator models are incorporated into the structural equations of motion to arrive at a set of nonlinear actively controlled structural equations of motion. A new implicit algorithm for determining the time history of the actively controlled structure is presented. The algorithm employs the trapezoidal rule for stepping the equations forward in time. The algorithm is compared to an explicit algorithm and is shown to provide greater numerical accuracy. In addition, the numerical stability and convergence characteristics are presented via example. The new algorithm displays convergence and stability properties that are comparable to the standard trapezoidal rule used for dynamic systems without hysteresis.

  2. Disorder-driven first-order phase transformations: A model for hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmen, K.; Kartha, S.; Krumhansl, J.A.; Roberts, B.W.; Sethna, J.P.; Shore, J.D. (Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-2501 (United States))

    1994-05-15

    Hysteresis loops in some magnetic systems are composed of small avalanches (manifesting themselves as Barkhausen pulses). Hysteresis loops in other first-order phase transitions (including some magnetic systems) often occur via one large avalanche. The transition between these two limiting cases is studied, by varying the disorder in the zero-temperature random-field Ising model. Sweeping the external field through zero at weak disorder, we get one large avalanche with small precursors and aftershocks. At strong disorder, we get a distribution of small avalanches (small Barkhausen effect). At the critical value of disorder where a macroscopic jump in the magnetization first occurs, universal power-law behavior of the magnetization and of the distribution of (Barkhausen) avalanches is found. This transition is studied by mean-field theory, perturbative expansions, and numerical simulation in three dimensions.

  3. Precision beam pointing control with jitter attenuation by optical deflector exhibiting dynamic hysteresis in COIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Zeng-Bao; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Liu, Qin; He, Xin; Shi, Wen-Bo; Mao, Jian-Qin; Jin, Yu-Qi

    2015-02-01

    Due to the existence of various disturbances during the lasing process of the chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL), the optical beam pointing performance is severely degraded. In this paper, an adaptive control methodology is proposed for the precise pointing control of the optical beam with active beam jitter rejection using a giant magnetostrictive optical deflector (GMOD) which exhibits severe dynamic hysteresis nonlinearity. In particular, a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) based fast compensator is employed to eliminate the dynamic hysteresis without the inverse model construction. Then an improved feedforward adaptive filter is developed to deal with jitter attenuation when the full-coherent reference signal is unavailable. To improve the stability and overall robustness of the controller, especially when a large initial bias exists, a PI controller is placed in parallel with the adaptive filter. Experimental results validate the precise pointing ability of the proposed control method.

  4. Characterizing piezoscanner hysteresis and creep using optical levers and a reference nanopositioning stage

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, H.; Regnier, S. [Institute of Intelligent System and Robotics, University of Pierre and Marie Curie/CNRS UMR 7222, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Rakotondrabe, M. [Department of Automatic Control and Micro-Mechatronic Systems, FEMTO-ST Institute, CNRS UMR 6174-UFC/ENSMM/UTBM, 24, Rue Alain Savary, 25000 Besancon (France)

    2009-04-15

    A method using atomic force microscope (AFM) optical levers and a reference nanopositioning stage has been developed to characterize piezoscanner hysteresis and creep. The piezoscanner is fixed on a closed-loop nanopositioning stage, both of which have the same arrangement on each axis of the three spatial directions inside the AFM-based nanomanipulation system. In order to achieve characterization, the optical lever is used as a displacement sensor to measure the relative movement between the nanopositioning stage and the piezoscanner by lateral tracking a well-defined slope with the tapping mode of the AFM cantilever. This setup can be used to estimate a piezoscanner's voltage input with a reference displacement from the nanopositioning stage. The hysteresis and creep were accurately calibrated by the method presented, which use the current setup of the AFM-based nanomanipulation system without any modification or additional devices.

  5. Simulation study of hysteresis in the gradient-flux relation in toroidal plasma turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, N.; Sugita, S.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, K.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2015-04-01

    Global nonlinear simulations with heat modulation are carried out to understand the turbulent transport mechanism in toroidal plasmas. Rapid propagation of the heat modulation and a hysteresis in the gradient-flux relation are found in the turbulent simulation of drift-interchange modes. A global mode is excited nonlinearly, and the nonlinear couplings with Reynolds stress take a finite temporal duration for self-consistent redistribution of the energy. The mode also has a seesaw effect: increase of the amplitude of the global mode at one position affects the turbulence at the other radial position not by inducing the radial flux by itself, but by absorbing the energy from microscopic modes. Successive excitations of microscopic modes cause the accelerated propagation of the flux change like turbulence spreading after the onset of modulation. Owing to these non-diffusive processes, the hysteresis appears in the gradient-flux relation, which is compared with experiments.

  6. Hysteresis Modeling of the Porous Nitinol Delivery System, Designed and Fabricated By Sls Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkovsky, I.

    At report, we presented a common design and theoretical modelling scheme for a porous scaffold from nitinol with a shape memory effect (SME), fabricated by the selective laser sintering (SLS) process. The operation of the SME fluidic MEMS involves such physical process as heat transfer, phase transformation with temperature hysteresis, stress-strain and electrical resistance variations accompanying the phase transformation. This model can be used for an estimation of drug delivery system (DDS) route during a porous volume changing.

  7. Hysteresis and metastability of Bose-Einstein-condensed clouds of atoms confined in ring potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussou, A.; Tsibidis, G. D.; Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Jackson, A. D.; Kavoulakis, G. M.

    2015-02-01

    We consider a Bose-Einstein-condensed cloud of atoms which rotate in a toroidal or annular potential. Assuming one-dimensional motion, we evaluate the critical frequencies associated with the effect of hysteresis and the critical coupling for stability of the persistent currents. We perform these calculations using both the mean-field approximation and the method of numerical diagonalization of the many-body Hamiltonian which includes corrections due to the finiteness of the atom number.

  8. A level-set approach for simulations of flows with multiple moving contact lines with hysteresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. M. Spelt

    2005-01-01

    The level-set method of Sussman et al. [J. Comput. Phys. 148 (1999) 81] is extended such that flows with multiple moving contact lines can be simulated, accounting for inertia, a relation between contact-line speed and contact angle, slip and contact-line hysteresis. The convergence properties of the method are investigated, with particular attention on the resolution of the contact-line stress singularity.

  9. Global distribution of solid and aqueous sulfate aerosols: Effect of the hysteresis of particle phase transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Wang; Andrew A. Hoffmann; Daniel J. Jacob; Scot T. Martin

    2008-01-01

    The partitioning between solid and aqueous phases of tropospheric sulfate-ammonium particles is simulated with a global 3-D chemical transport model (CTM). The simulation explicitly accounts for the hysteresis of particle phase transitions by transporting aqueous sulfate and three solid sulfate forms (namely, ammonium sulfate, letovicite, and ammonium bisulfate). Composition-dependent deliquescence relative humidities (DRH) and crystallization relative humidities (CRH) are based

  10. Global distribution of solid and aqueous sulfate aerosols: Effect of the hysteresis of particle phase transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Wang; Andrew A. Hoffmann; Daniel J. Jacob; Scot T. Martin

    2008-01-01

    (1) The partitioning between solid and aqueous phases of tropospheric sulfate-ammonium particles is simulated with a global 3-D chemical transport model (CTM). The simulation explicitly accounts for the hysteresis of particle phase transitions by transporting aqueous sulfate and three solid sulfate forms (namely, ammonium sulfate, letovicite, and ammonium bisulfate). Composition-dependent deliquescence relative humidities (DRH) and crystallization relative humidities (CRH) are

  11. Model for the effect of tensile and compressive stress on ferromagnetic hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablik, M. J.; Kwun, H.; Burkhardt, G. L.; Jiles, D. C.

    1987-04-01

    A model is presented for the stress-dependent effective field, which when used in conjunction with the Jiles-Atherton theory, qualitatively accounts for (1) the change in slope and shape of the hysteresis curves with uniaxial stress and (2) the convexity of the curves depicting remanent and peak magnetization as a function of stress. Also, the model can produce the Villari reversal if parameters are selected appropriately.

  12. Temperature hysteresis of the change in the cholesteric pitch and surface anchoring in thin planar layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Zink; V. A. Belyakov

    1997-01-01

    Hysteresis of the temperature of jumps in the cholesteric pitch in planar layers of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) has\\u000a been observed in the temperature dependence of the optical transmission spectra measured in a 4.8 m thick specimen of a 60% chiral racemic mixture of CE6. The temperature difference for the pitch jumps during heating and\\u000a cooling was equal to about

  13. Thermodynamic Analysis of Snowball Earth Hysteresis Experiment: Efficiency, Entropy Production, and Irreversibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Fraedrich; Frank Lunkeit

    2009-01-01

    We present an extensive thermodynamic analysis of a hysteresis experiment\\u000aperformed on a simplified yet Earth-like climate model. We slowly vary the\\u000asolar constant by 20% around the present value and detect a substantial\\u000abistability: for a large range of values the realization of snowball (SB) or of\\u000awarm (W) climate conditions depend on the history of the system. Using

  14. Determination of hysteresis loops in thermo-mechanical fatigue using isothermal stress-strain data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Skelton

    1994-01-01

    Thermo-mechanical fatigue stress-strain data on ferritic\\/austenitic steels and superalloys from a variety of sources are analyzed with regard to hysteresis loop stress asymmetry. This arises from a decoupling of the thermal and mechanical strain signals in the test technique so that many tension-compression load combinations are possible. Data from simplified isothermal and bithermal tests are also examined. Taking a typical

  15. Small hysteresis loops investigations on high T sub c oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sosnowski, J. (Polish Academy of Science, Electrical Inst., 04-703 Warszawa, Pozaryskiego 28 (PL)); Raabe, J.; Bobryk, E. (Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Chemistry, 00-664 Warszawa, ul. Noakowskiego 3 (PL)); Gilewski, A.; Warchulska, J. (International Lab. for High Magnetic Fields and Temperature, 53-529 Wroclaw, Prochnika 95 (PL))

    1991-08-10

    In this paper results of investigations on small hysteresis loops of yttrium-based high temperature ceramical compounds are presented. A proposed theoretical model describing the magnetic induction profile in a sample has been used for numerical approximation of the experimental data. The results of this fitting procedure then allow one to obtain detailed information on the pinning force's magnetic field dependence as well as the critical current of ceramical compounds.

  16. Hysteresis-Current-Controlled Buck Converter Suitable for Li-Ion Battery Charger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fong-Cheng Yang; Chih-Chiang Chen; Jiann-Jong Chen; Yuh-Shyan Hwang; Wen-Ta Lee

    2006-01-01

    A new hysteresis-current-controlled (HCC) buck converter suitable for Li-ion battery charger is presented in this paper. The technique adopted in this charger is constant current\\/constant voltage dual mode, which is decided by the value of internal resistance of Li-ion battery. This technique will degrade the damage of Li-ion battery and improve the power efficiency of charger. The Li-ion battery charger

  17. Incorporating core hysteresis properties in three-dimensional computations of transformer inrush current forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adly, A. A.; Hanafy, H. H.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that transformer inrush currents depend upon the core properties, residual flux, switching instant, and the overall circuit parameters. Large transient inrush currents introduce abnormal electromagnetic forces which may destroy the transformer windings. This paper presents an approach through which core hysteresis may be incorporated in three-dimensional computations of transformer inrush current forces. Details of the approach, measurements, and simulations for a shell-type transformer are given in the paper.

  18. Magnetic processes in hysteresis motors equipped with melt-textured YBCO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Habisreuther; T. Strasser; W. Gawalek; P. Gornert; K. V. Ilushin; L. K. Kovalev

    1997-01-01

    Several hysteresis motors have been constructed with an output power up to 500 W at T=77 K. The rotors of these machines consist of melt-textured YBCO. In this work, the authors present detailed investigations on the magnetic processes in these rotors. Spheres were cut from melt-textured YBCO and investigated by rotating in vector-VSM. From these measurements, torque moments on the

  19. Numerical study for hysteresis phenomena of shock wave reflection in overexpanded axisymmetric supersonic jet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuyoshi Yasunobu; Ken Matsuoka; Hideo Kashimura; Shigeru Matsuo; Toshiaki Setoguchi

    2006-01-01

    When the high-pressure gas is exhausted to the vacuum chamber from the supersonic nozzle, the overexpanded supersonic jet\\u000a is formed at specific condition. In two-dimensional supersonic jet, furthermore, it is known that the hysteresis phenomena\\u000a for the reflection type of shock wave in the flow field is occurred under the quasi-steady flow and for instance, the transitional\\u000a pressure ratio between

  20. Analytical modeling of the hysteresis phenomenon in guinea pig ventricular myocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paco Lorente; Carmen Delgado; Mario Delmar; Jose Jalife

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, we have demonstrated hysteresis phenomena in the excitability of single, enzymatically dissociated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Membrane potentials were recorded with patch pipettes in the whole-cell current clamp configuration. Repetitive stimulation with depolarizing current pulses of constant cycle length and duration but varying strength led to predictable excitation (1:l) and non-excitation (1:0) patterns depending on current

  1. A Sub10- Digitally Controlled Oscillator Based on Hysteresis Delay Cell Topologies for WBAN Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Yu Hsu; Jui-Yuan Yu; Chen-Yi Lee

    2010-01-01

    This brief presents an all digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) design with two newly proposed hysteresis delay cells (HDCs) for wireless body area network applications. According to circuit topologies, the two HDCs are defined as on-off and cascaded HDCs that provide various propagation delay values. These HDCs form a simple oscillator structure based on a power-of-2 delay stage DCO (P2-DCO) architecture.

  2. Investigations of magnetic hysteresis of barium ferrite using the torsion pendulum method

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, H.J.; Hempel, K.A.

    1988-11-15

    The magnetic stiffness is measured by the torsion pendulum method as a function of the applied field. Measurements are performed on random assemblies of chemically coprecipitated barium ferrite powders. The magnetic stiffness for both minor and major loops of the hysteresis cycle is measured and compared with calculated curves based on the model of coherent rotation. The discrepancies between theory and experiment are partly due to the effect of magnetic interaction.

  3. Mechanisms of magnetic and temperature hysteresis in ErFeO3 and TmFeO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsymbal, L. T.; Bazaliy, Ya. B.; Kakazei, G. N.; Vasiliev, S. V.

    2010-10-01

    Magnetic hysteresis is studied in the orthoferrites ErFeO3 and TmFeO3 using the single crystal samples of millimeter dimensions. It is shown that in both materials one observes a temperature transition manifesting itself through the temperature hysteresis of the magnetic moment and a peculiar temperature evolution of the field hysteresis loop shapes near this transition. Experiments rule out the hypothesis that the ordering of the orthoferrite's rare-earth magnetic moments plays an important role in these phenomena. The hysteresis curves can be explained by a few-domain magnetic state of the samples that results from the weak ferromagnetism of the orthoferrites. The phenomenon is generic for weak ferromagnets with temperature dependent magnetization. A large characteristic magnetic length makes the behavior of the relatively big samples analogous to that observed in the nanosize samples of strong ferromagnets.

  4. Kinematics of Electrons in The Volume of a Planar Vacuum Diode in Regime of Saturation. Parameters of Hysteresis

    E-print Network

    Stoyanov, Dimitar G

    2015-01-01

    The kinematics laws of electrons motion in the volume of a planar vacuum diode running in regime of current saturation are used. The characteristics of diode hysteresis in the conditions of S-figurative instability are got and analyzed.

  5. Kinematics of Electrons in The Volume of a Planar Vacuum Diode in Regime of Saturation. Parameters of Hysteresis

    E-print Network

    Dimitar G. Stoyanov

    2014-12-19

    The kinematics laws of electrons motion in the volume of a planar vacuum diode running in regime of current saturation are used. The characteristics of diode hysteresis in the conditions of S-figurative instability are got and analyzed.

  6. A modeling approach to represent hysteresis in capillary pressure-saturation relationship based on fluid connectivity in void space

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Quanlin

    A modeling approach to represent hysteresis in capillary pressure- saturation relationship based presents a new model for description of hysteretic constitutive relationships between capillary pressure and saturation under capillary-dominated multiphase flow conditions in porous media. Hysteretic relationships

  7. Hysteresis compensation in PZT bimorph mirrors: Preisach's classical and non-linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Massa, John S.; Paterson, Carl

    2005-12-01

    A number of reflective wavefront correctors used in adaptive optics are based on the use of piezoelectric effect, either in piston, tip/tilt or curvature devices. The relation between the voltage applied to drive these devices and the mechanical response always presents hysteresis to some extent. In this work we study the performance of Preisach's classical and non-linear models of hysteresis on a bimorph mirror, which is a curvature device, but both models can also be applied to piston and tip/tilt devices. Bimorph mirrors with PZT actuators and a passive glass substrate were tested in an adaptive optics test-bed (AOTB) using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. First- and second-order reversal curves were sampled uniformly in Preisach space, and interpolation algorithms were implemented to test Preisach's classical and non-linear forward models respectively. Then, arbitrary voltage configuration sequences were applied to the mirror and the responses were recorded. Finally, the inversion of the models was implemented and included in the AOTB linear control algorithm to test the closed-loop performance. We found that both hysteresis models provide a similar improvement in the open-loop error. The improvement estimation depends on the particular sequence applied, the number of samples of the Preisach function and noise among other factors. Finally, we present data showing that the hysteretic behavior in a multi-electrode mirror is, within experimental error, independent of the electrode geometry, area and location.

  8. Observation of optical hysteresis in an all-optical passive ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.; Emshary, C.; Al-Saidi, I.

    1984-01-01

    The first observation of dispersive optical hysteresis in an all optical passive uni-directional ring cavity system is reported. Ammonia gas is used as the non-linear medium for which a number of vibrational-rotational transitions are in near coincidence with the step tunable emission from a TEA CO2 laser. Pronounced instabilities and optical hysteresis are found to occur over a gas pressure range commensurate with that for self-focussing. A grating tunable hybrid TEA CO2 laser with amplifier, operating on a single mode, with a gain switched pulse duration of approximately 10 nsec was used. The temporal features of the cavity signal was sensitive to gas pressure. Outside the pressure range for instabilities (and self focussing) the ring signal exhibited a smooth temporal form similar to that of the incident signal. Cavity blocking and cavity misalignment checks unambiguously identified these nonlinear effects to be due to cavity feedback. Hysteresis associated with optical bistability is clearly evident for an NH3 pressure of 10 torr.

  9. Purification and characterization of a thermal hysteresis protein from a plant, the bittersweet nightshade Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Duman, J G

    1994-05-18

    Thermal hysteresis proteins (THPs), which depress the freezing point of water below the melting point (producing a characteristic thermal hysteresis), are well known for their antifreeze activity in both fish and terrestrial arthropods, but have only recently been identified in plants. This study describes the purification of a THP from winter-collected bittersweet nightshade, Solanum dulcamara, using ion exchange and preparative 'free flow' isoelectric focusing. The THP has a molecular mass of 67 kDa (considerably larger than those of animal THPs), and an unusually high glycine component (23.7 mol%). Treatments of the THP with periodate or borate caused inactivation, suggesting the presence of carbohydrate. More specific treatments directed at galactose (beta-galactosidase or Abrus precatorius lectin) also resulted in inactivation, indicating that galactose is present. A thermal hysteresis activity versus THP concentration curve showed that the specific activity of the S. dulcamara THP is lower than that of any known animal THP. The functional significance of this low activity is discussed. PMID:8186242

  10. Significance of conservative asparagine residues in the thermal hysteresis activity of carrot antifreeze protein.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dang-Quan; Liu, Bing; Feng, Dong-Ru; He, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shu-Qi; Wang, Hong-Bin; Wang, Jin-Fa

    2004-01-01

    The approximately 24-amino-acid leucine-rich tandem repeat motif (PXXXXXLXXLXXLXLSXNXLXGXI) of carrot antifreeze protein comprises most of the processed protein and should contribute at least partly to the ice-binding site. Structural predictions using publicly available online sources indicated that the theoretical three-dimensional model of this plant protein includes a 10-loop beta-helix containing the approximately 24-amino-acid tandem repeat. This theoretical model indicated that conservative asparagine residues create putative ice-binding sites with surface complementarity to the 1010 prism plane of ice. We used site-specific mutagenesis to test the importance of these residues, and observed a distinct loss of thermal hysteresis activity when conservative asparagines were replaced with valine or glutamine, whereas a large increase in thermal hysteresis was observed when phenylalanine or threonine residues were replaced with asparagine, putatively resulting in the formation of an ice-binding site. These results confirmed that the ice-binding site of carrot antifreeze protein consists of conservative asparagine residues in each beta-loop. We also found that its thermal hysteresis activity is directly correlated with the length of its asparagine-rich binding site, and hence with the size of its ice-binding face. PMID:14531728

  11. Modeling concentration-dependent sorption-desorption hysteresis of atrazine in a loam soil.

    PubMed

    Anagu, Ihuaku; Ingwersen, Joachim; Drori, Yaron; Chefetz, Benny; Streck, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    Nonequilibrium sorption plays an active role in the transport of organic contaminants in soil. We applied a two-stage, one-rate model (2S1R) and a new, nonlinear variant (2S1RN) of this model to examine the effects of wastewater irrigation on the sorption kinetics of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) in soil. The models were applied to previously published sorption-desorption data sets, which showed pronounced deviations between sorption curves and desorption curves (sorption-desorption hysteresis). Moreover, the slopes of the desorption curves decreased with decreasing concentration. Different treatments had been used, and two experimental time steps (2 and 14 d) were used. Treatments considered were lipid removal, fulvic and humic acid removal, and untreated soil. The 2S1R model was unable to reproduce the observed type of hysteresis, but the 2S1RN model, which assumes that the sorption-desorption process follows a power function relationship, was able to reproduce the observed type of hysteresis. Visually, applying the new model improved the model fits in all test cases. Statistically, as tested by an extra sum of squares analysis, the new model performed significantly better in 50% of all test cases. According to an example simulation, the choice of the sorption model has a considerable impact on the prediction of atrazine transport in soil. PMID:21520761

  12. Observations of hysteresis in solar cycle variations among seven solar activity indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.; White, Oran R.

    1994-01-01

    We show that smoothed time series of 7 indices of solar activity exhibit significant solar cycle dependent differences in their relative variations during the past 20 years. In some cases these observed hysteresis patterns start to repeat over more than one solar cycle, giving evidence that this is a normal feature of solar variability. Among the indices we study, we find that the hysteresis effects are approximately simple phase shifts, and we quantify these phase shifts in terms of lag times behind the leading index, the International Sunspot Number. Our measured lag times range from less than one month to greater than four months and can be much larger than lag times estimated from short-term variations of these same activity indices during the emergence and decay of major active regions. We argue that hysteresis represents a real delay in the onset and decline of solar activity and is an important clue in the search for physical processes responsible for changing solar emission at various wavelengths.

  13. Hysteresis properties of ordinary chondrites and implications for their thermal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Suavet, C. R.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Winklhofer, M.; Uehara, M.; Friedrich, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a large dataset of magnetic hysteresis properties of ordinary chondrite falls. We show that hysteresis properties are distinctive of individual meteorites while homogeneous among meteorite subsamples. Except for the most primitive chondrites, these properties can be explained by a mixture of multidomain kamacite and tetrataenite (both in the cloudy zone and as larger grains in plessite and in the rim of zoned taenite). Kamacite dominates the induced magnetism whereas tetrataenite dominates the remanent magnetism, in agreement with previous microscopic magnetic observations. Type 5 and 6 chondrites have higher tetrataenite content than type 4 chondrites, suggesting they have lower cooling rates at least in the 650-450 °C interval, consistent with an onion-shell model. In equilibrated chondrites, shock-related transient heating events above ~500 °C result in the disordering of tetrataenite and associated drastic change in magnetic properties. As a good indicator of the amount of tetrataenite, hysteresis properties are a very sensitive proxy of the thermal history of ordinary chondrites, revealing low cooling rates during thermal metamorphism, and high cooling rates following shock reheating or excavation after thermal metamorphism.

  14. A reduced-order model from high-dimensional frictional hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Anindya

    2014-06-01

    Hysteresis in material behaviour includes both signum nonlinearities as well as high dimensionality. Available models for component-level hysteretic behaviour are empirical. Here, we derive a low-order model for rate-independent hysteresis from a high-dimensional massless frictional system. The original system, being given in terms of signs of velocities, is first solved incrementally using a linear complementarity problem formulation. From this numerical solution, to develop a reduced-order model, basis vectors are chosen using the singular value decomposition. The slip direction in generalized coordinates is identified as the minimizer of a dissipation-related function. That function includes terms for frictional dissipation through signum nonlinearities at many friction sites. Luckily, it allows a convenient analytical approximation. Upon solution of the approximated minimization problem, the slip direction is found. A final evolution equation for a few states is then obtained that gives a good match with the full solution. The model obtained here may lead to new insights into hysteresis as well as better empirical modelling thereof. PMID:24910522

  15. Effect of Hysteresis on Measurements of Thin-Film Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D.; del Cueto, J.

    2011-03-01

    Transient or hysteresis effects in polycrystalline thin film CdS/CdTe cells are a function of pre-measurement voltage bias and whether Cu is introduced as an intentional dopant during back contact fabrication. When Cu is added, the current-density (J) vs. voltage (V) measurements performed in a reverse-to-forward voltage direction will yield higher open-circuit voltage (Voc), up to 10 mV, and smaller short-circuit current density (Jsc), by up to 2 mA/cm2, relative to scanning voltage in a forward-to-reverse direction. The variation at the maximum power point, Pmax, is however small. The resulting variation in FF can be as large as 3%. When Cu is not added, hysteresis in both Voc and Jsc is negligible however Pmax hysteresis is considerably greater. This behavior corroborates observed changes in depletion width, Wd, derived from capacitance (C) vs voltage (V) scans. Measured values of Wd are always smaller in reverse-to-forward voltage scans, and conversely, larger in the forward-to-reverse voltage direction. Transient ion drift (TID) measurements performed on Cu-containing cells do not show ionic behavior suggesting that capacitance transients are more likely due to electronic capture-emission processes. J-V curve simulation using Pspice shows that increased transient capacitance during light-soak stress at 100 degrees C correlates with increased space-charge recombination. Voltage-dependent collection however was not observed to increase with stress in these cells.

  16. Hysteresis effects in a motor task with cotton-top tamarins (Sanguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel J; Wark, Jason

    2009-07-01

    The way human adults grasp an object is influenced by their recent history of motor actions. Previously executed grasps are often more likely to reoccur on subsequent grasps. This type of hysteresis effect has been incorporated into cognitive models of motor planning, suggesting that when planning movements, individuals tend to reuse recently used plans rather than generating new plans from scratch. To the best of our knowledge, the phylogenetic roots of this phenomenon have not been investigated. Here, the authors asked whether 6 cotton-top tamarin monkeys (Saguinus oedipus) would demonstrate a hysteresis effect on a reaching task. The authors tested the monkeys by placing marshmallow pieces within grasping distance of a hole through which the monkeys could reach. On subsequent trials, the marshmallow position changed such that it progressed in an arc in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. The authors asked whether the transition point in right- versus left-handed reaches would differ depending on the direction of the progression. The data supported this hysteresis prediction. The outcome provides additional support for the notion that human motor planning strategies may have a lengthy evolutionary history. PMID:19594287

  17. a Thermal Conduction Switch Based on Low Hysteresis Nitife Shape Memory Alloy Helical Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, V. B.; Bewerse, C.; Notardonato, W. U.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2008-03-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators possess an inherent property of sensing a change in temperature and delivering significant force against external loads through a shape change resulting from a temperature-induced phase transformation. The utilization of a reversible trigonal (R-phase) to cubic phase transformation in NiTiFe SMAs allows for this strain recovery to occur with reduced hysteresis between the forward and reverse transformations. However, the magnitude of the strain recovery associated with the R-phase transformation is lower than that of the monoclinic to cubic phase transformation. The use of helical springs can compensate for this design constraint as they produce significant stroke when compared to straight elements such as thin strips and wires. This work reports on the development and implementation of NiTiFe helical springs in a low-hysteresis thermal conduction switch for advanced spaceport applications associated with NASA's requirements for future lunar and Mars missions. Such a low-hysteresis thermal conduction switch can provide on-demand heat transfer between two reservoirs at different temperatures.

  18. Hysteresis force loss and damping properties in a practical magnet superconductor maglev test vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenjiang; Liu, Yu; Wen, Zheng; Chen, Xiaodong; Duan, Yi

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasible application of a permanent magnet-high-temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system to a maglev train or a space vehicle launcher, we have constructed a demonstration maglev test vehicle. The force dissipation and damping of the maglev vehicle against external disturbances are studied in a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies by using a sine vibration testing set-up. The dynamic levitation force shows a typical hysteresis behavior, and the force loss is regarded as the hysteresis loss, which is believed to be due to flux motions in superconductors. In this study, we find that the hysteresis loss has weak frequency dependence at small amplitudes and that the dependence increases as the amplitude grows. To analyze the damping properties of the maglev vehicle at different field cooling (FC) conditions, we also employ a transient vibration testing technique. The maglev vehicle shows a very weak damping behavior, and the damping is almost unaffected by the trapped flux of the HTSs in different FC conditions, which is believed to be attributed to the strong pinning in melt-textured HTSs.

  19. Nonequilibrium hysteresis and Wien effect water dissociation at a bipolar membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, D. T.; Craster, R. V.; Matar, O. K.; Cheng, L.-J.; Chang, H.-C.

    2012-11-01

    As in electrochemical cyclic voltammetry, time-periodic reverse voltage bias across a bipolar membrane is shown to exhibit hysteresis due to transient effects. This is due to the incomplete depletion of mobile ions, at the junction between the membranes, within two adjoining polarized layers; the layer thickness depends on the applied voltage and the surface charge densities. Experiments show that the hysteresis consists of an Ohmic linear rise in the total current with respect to the voltage, followed by a decay of the current. A limiting current is established for a long period when all the mobile ions are depleted from the polarized layer. If the resulting high field within the two polarized layers is sufficiently large, water dissociation occurs to produce proton and hydroxyl traveling wave fronts which contribute to another large jump in the current. We use numerical simulation and asymptotic analysis to interpret the experimental results and to estimate the amplitude of the transient hysteresis and the water-dissociation current.

  20. Changes in Wetting Hysteresis During Bioremediation: Changes in fluid flow behavior monitored with low-frequency seismic attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wempe, W.; Spetzler, H.; Kittleson, C.; Pursley, J.

    2003-12-01

    We observed significant reduction in wetting hysteresis with time while a diesel-contaminated quartz crystal was dipped in and out of an oil-reducing bacteria solution. This wetting hysteresis is significantly greater than the wetting hysteresis when the diesel-contaminated quartz crystal is dipped in and out of (1) water, (2) diesel and (3) the bacterial food solution that does not contain bacteria. The reduction in wetting hysteresis of the bacteria solution on the quartz surface results from a reduction in the advancing contact angle formed at the air-liquid-quartz contact with time; the receding contact angle remains the same with time. Our results suggest that the bacteria solution moves across the quartz surface with less resistance after bioremediation has begun. These results imply that bioremediation may influence fluid flow behavior with time. For many fluid-solid systems there is a difference between the contact angle while a contact line advances and recedes across a solid surface; this difference is known as wetting hysteresis. Changes in wetting hysteresis can occur from changes in surface tension or the surface topography. Low contact angle values indicate that the liquid spreads or wets well, while high values indicate poor wetting or non-wetting. Contact angles are estimated in the lab by measuring the weight of the meniscus formed at the air-liquid-quartz interface and by knowing the fluid surface tension. In the lab, we have been able to use low-frequency seismic attenuation data to detect changes in the wetting characteristics of glass plates and of Berea sandstone. The accepted seismic attenuation mechanism is related to the loss of seismic energy due to the hysteresis of meniscus movement (wetting hysteresis) when a pore containing two fluids is stressed at very low frequencies (< 10 Hz). When fluid-fluid-solid systems that exhibit wettability hysteresis are stressed at low frequencies, we observe seismic attenuation, whereas in a system that does not exhibit wettability hysteresis we do not. From our wettability hysteresis results, we conclude that we may be able to monitor bioremediation progress using seismic attenuation data. We are measuring low-frequency seismic attenuation in the lab while flowing bacteria solution through Berea sandstone and we are testing this application in the field.

  1. Relationships between hysteresis measurements and the constituent properties of ceramic matrix composites. 2: Experimental studies on unidirectional materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Domergue; Emmanuel Vagaggini; Anthony G. Evans

    1995-01-01

    The use of hysteresis loop measurements for assessing the constituent properties of unidirectional CMCs is evaluated, using basic theory described in a companion paper. Results are obtained on SiC\\/CAS and SiC\\/SiC composites. These materials exhibit very different hysteresis characteristics, reflected in differences in sliding stress, Ï, and debond energy, Î{sub i}. These interface properties are manifest in the respective tensile

  2. Hysteresis of Magnetite, Hematite and Pyrrhotite Crystals at High and Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Alternating gradient force magnetometers and sensitive vibrating-sample magnetometers operating above, at, and below room temperature have enabled rapid reliable measurements of hysteresis and remanence curves. The hysteresis parameters Ms, Mrs, Hc, plus the remanence coercivity Hcr, are routinely determined, at room temperature at least, and reported in the form of a Day plot as an indication of domain state and inferred grain size. Yet our knowledge of the hysteresis and remanence properties of individual crystals or sized crystal aggregates of magnetite, titanomagnetite, hematite, pyrrhotite and other important magnetic minerals has scarcely advanced beyond what was known at the end of the 1980's. Applications have indeed outstripped fundamental studies. This presentation will focus on new hysteresis measurements for well-sized magnetites of a variety of origins; magnetite inclusions in plagioclase, pyroxene, amphiboles and biotite; hematite; and pyrrhotite. Measurements were made at 20oC intervals from 25oC to the Curie point for all magnetites and hematites and at 10oC intervals for pyrrhotite. For one set of sized magnetites (0.6, 3, 6, 9, 14 and 110 micrometers), hysteresis and back-field remanence curves were also measured below room temperature (every 10 K from 10 K to 70 K, every 5 K from 80 K to 140 K, and every 10 K from 150 K to 300 K). These data give a wealth of information about the individual mineral crystals and trends linking crystals of common origin but different sizes. From Ms(T) we obtain precise Curie points and transition temperatures. Mrs(T)/Ms(T) tracks sometimes subtle changes in domain structure with changing temperature. Hc(T) gives an indication of the mechanism(s) of anisotropy, important for understanding TRM acquisition in crystals above single-domain size. Mrs(T) and Hc(T) often show substantial irreversible changes in the first heating- cooling cycle, particularly but not exclusively for synthetic crystals, stabilizing in subsequent cycles. Finally, Mrs(T)/Ms(T) vs. Hcr(T)/Hc(T) data trace curves on a Day plot showing unmistakable differences in domain structure between monoclinic and cubic magnetite, as well as more subtle changes away from the Verwey transition.

  3. Assessment of the hydrological behaviour of watersheds of contrasting land use using suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, Rafael; Casalí, Javier; Díez, Javier; Goñi, Mikel; Campo, Miguel A.

    2010-05-01

    Four experimental watersheds in Navarre (Spain), maintained by the local government, have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz "principal", Op, and Oskotz "woodland", Ow). La Tejería and Latxaga watersheds, located in the central western part of Navarre, are roughly similar to each other regarding size (approximately 200 ha), geology (marls and sandstones), soils (alkaline, fine texture topsoil), climate (humid sub Mediterranean) and land use (80-90% cultivated with winter grain crops). On the other hand, Op (ca.1,700 ha) is covered with forest and pasture (cattle-breeding); while Ow (ca. 500 ha), a sub-watershed of the Op, is almost completely covered with forest. The predominant climate in Op/Ow is sub-Atlantic. As a result, a detailed description and a general characterization of the hydrological and erosion behaviour of these watersheds were published recently by the same authors of this current research. However, this information, although extensive and valuable, is still insufficient for finding out the internal and complex hydrological functioning of these watersheds reflected in the frequent occurrence of the hysteresis phenomenon. "Hysteresis" is when the amount of sediment concentration associated with a certain flow is different depending on the direction in which the analysis is performed -towards the increase or towards the diminution of the flow. This phenomenon to some extent reflects the way in which the runoff generation processes are conjugated with those of the production and transport of sediments, hence the usefulness of hysteresis as a diagnostic hydrological parameter. However, the complexity of the phenomena and factors which determine hysteresis make its interpretation uncertain or, at the very least, problematic. 5 types of hysteresis have been recognized but, however, only three types are usually reported: "clockwise", "anticlockwise" and "eight-shape". This article aims to investigate the hydrological-erosion behaviour of 4 watersheds with contrasting land uses by means of the analysis and interpretation of the sediment-flow relationship throughout a long period of time. The first results of this work are presented here. The sediment-flow relationship of 375 events occurring between 1996 and 2009 in the La Tejería, Latxaga, Ow and Op watersheds was analyzed seeking to identify events presenting hysteresis. To make the comparison between events easier a normalized hysteresis index was calculated -although it was only applicable for clockwise and anticlockwise hysteresis- based on the determination of the area comprised between the top and bottom limbs of the sediment-flow graph. Only 25-60% of the events taking place in the grain-cultivated watersheds exhibited a clear hysteresis. Conversely, in Op/Ow this figure rose to 95%. In the watersheds cultivated with grain, the factors controlling erosion -protection due to cultivation, tillage, etc.- can change drastically throughout the year and even inside one same watershed, so that it is not surprising that the sediment-flow relationship did not show a clear hysteresis, unlike what happened in the watersheds under woodland/pasture. In general, 3 types of hysteresis were observed: clockwise, anticlockwise and eight-shape, although the first of these was predominant. It was, thus, in Op/Ow that 90% of the events which displayed hysteresis did so with the clockwise type, whereas in La Tejería this rate was only 50%. Also, the hysteresis in Op/Ow and Laxtaga was more clearly defined (a higher index) than that in La Tejería. This predominance of curves with clockwise hysteresis suggest that the main areas of sediment discharge were to be found in the banks and areas near to the bed and to the record station.

  4. A suite of user-friendly global climate models: Hysteresis experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraedrich, K.

    2012-05-01

    A hierarchy of global spectral circulation models is introduced ranging from the shallow-water system via the primitive-equation dynamical core of the atmosphere to the Planet Simulator as a Global Climate Model (GCM) of Intermediate Complexity (MIC) which can be used to run climate and paleo-climate simulations for time scales up to ten thousand years or more in an acceptable real time. The priorities in development are set to speed, easy handling and portability with a modular structure suitable for problem-dependent configuration. Adaptions exist for the planetary atmospheres of Mars and of Saturn's moon Titan and are being extended. Common coupling interfaces enable the addition of ocean, ice, vegetation models and more. An interactive mode with a Model Starter and a Graphical User Interface (GUI) is available to select a configuration from the available model suite, to set its parameters and inspect atmospheric fields while changing the models' parameters on the fly. This is especially useful for teaching, debugging and tuning of parameterizations. An updated overview of the model suite's features is presented based on the Earth-like climate model Planet Simulator with mixed-layer ocean introducing static and memory hysteresis in terms of a parameter sweep of the solar constant and CO2 concentrations. The static hysteresis experiment demonstrates that the solar constant varying by 20% reveals warm and snowball Earth climate regimes depending on the history of the system. This hysteresis subjected to a thermodynamic analysis shows the following features: i) Both climate regimes are characterized by global mean surface temperature and entropy growing with increasing solar constant. ii) The climate system's efficiency decreases (increases) with increasing solar constant in present-day warm (snowball) climate conditions. iii) Climate transitions near bifurcation points are characterized by high efficiency associated with the system's large distance from the stable regime. Memory hysteresis evolves when changing the direct atmospheric radiative forcing which, associated with a well-mixed CO2 concentration, modifies the planetary thermodynamic state, and hence the surface temperature. The hysteresis effected by different CO2 change rates is analysed: i) The response is due to infrared cooling (for constant temperature lapse-rate) which, in turn, is related to the surface temperature through the Stefan-Boltzmann law in a ratio proportional to the new infrared opacity. Subsequent indirect effects, that are water-vapour-greenhouse and ice-albedo feedbacks, enhance the response. ii) Different rates of CO2 variation may lead to similar transient climates characterized by the same global mean surface temperature but different values of CO2 concentration. iii) Far from the bifurcation points, the model's climate depends on the history of the radiative forcing thus displaying a hysteresis cycle that is neither static nor dynamical, but is related to the memory response of the model determined by the mixed-layer depth of the ocean. Results are supported by a zero-dimensional energy balance model.

  5. Hysteresis in suspended sediment to turbidity relations due to changing particle size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landers, Mark N.; Sturm, Terry W.

    2013-09-01

    Turbidity (T) is the most ubiquitous of surrogate technologies used to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). The effects of sediment size on turbidity are well documented; however, effects from changes in particle size distributions (PSD) are rarely evaluated. Hysteresis in relations of SSC-to-turbidity (SSC˜T) for single stormflow events was observed and quantified for a dataset of 195 concurrent measurements of SSC, turbidity, discharge, velocity, and volumetric PSD collected during five stormflows in 2009-2010 on Yellow River at Gees Mill Road in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Regressions of SSC-normalized turbidity (T/SSC) on concurrently measured PSD percentiles show an inverse, exponential influence of particle size on turbidity that is not constant across the size range of the PSD. The majority of the influence of PSD on T/SSC is from particles of fine silt and smaller sizes (finer than 16 µm). This study shows that small changes in the often assumed stability of the PSD are significant to SSC˜T relations. Changes of only 5 µm in the fine silt and smaller size fractions of suspended sediment PSD can produce hysteresis in the SSC˜T rating that can increase error and produce bias. Observed SSC˜T hysteresis may be an indicator of changes in sediment properties during stormflows and of potential changes in sediment sources. Trends in the PSD time series indicate that sediment transport is capacity limited for sand-sized sediment in the channel and supply limited for fine silt and smaller sediment from the hillslope.

  6. Application of magnetomechanical hysteresis modeling to magnetic techniques for monitoring neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress

    SciTech Connect

    Sablik, M.J.; Kwun, H.; Rollwitz, W.L.; Cadena, D.

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to investigate experimentally and theoretically the effects of neutron embrittlement and biaxial stress on magnetic properties in steels, using various magnetic measurement techniques. Interaction between experiment and modeling should suggest efficient magnetic measurement procedures for determining neutron embrittlement biaxial stress. This should ultimately assist in safety monitoring of nuclear power plants and of gas and oil pipelines. In the first six months of this first year study, magnetic measurements were made on steel surveillance specimens from the Indian Point 2 and D.C. Cook 2 reactors. The specimens previously had been characterized by Charpy tests after specified neutron fluences. Measurements now included: (1) hysteresis loop measurement of coercive force, permeability and remanence, (2) Barkhausen noise amplitude; and (3) higher order nonlinear harmonic analysis of a 1 Hz magnetic excitation. Very good correlation of magnetic parameters with fluence and embrittlement was found for specimens from the Indian Point 2 reactor. The D.C. Cook 2 specimens, however showed poor correlation. Possible contributing factors to this are: (1) metallurgical differences between D.C. Cook 2 and Indian Point 2 specimens; (2) statistical variations in embrittlement parameters for individual samples away from the stated men values; and (3) conversion of the D.C. Cook 2 reactor to a low leakage core configuration in the middle of the period of surveillance. Modeling using a magnetomechanical hysteresis model has begun. The modeling will first focus on why Barkhausen noise and nonlinear harmonic amplitudes appear to be better indicators of embrittlement than the hysteresis loop parameters.

  7. Metal phases in ordinary chondrites: Magnetic hysteresis properties and implications for thermal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Suavet, C.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Winklhofer, M.; Uehara, M.; Friedrich, Jon M.

    2014-04-01

    Magnetic properties are sensitive proxies to characterize FeNi metal phases in meteorites. We present a data set of magnetic hysteresis properties of 91 ordinary chondrite falls. We show that hysteresis properties are distinctive of individual meteorites while homogeneous among meteorite subsamples. Except for the most primitive chondrites, these properties can be explained by a mixture of multidomain kamacite that dominates the induced magnetism and tetrataenite (both in the cloudy zone as single-domain grains, and as larger multidomain grains in plessite and in the rim of zoned taenite) dominates the remanent magnetism, in agreement with previous microscopic magnetic observations. The bulk metal contents derived from magnetic measurements are in agreement with those estimated previously from chemical analyses. We evidence a decreasing metal content with increasing petrologic type in ordinary chondrites, compatible with oxidation of metal during thermal metamorphism. Types 5 and 6 ordinary chondrites have higher tetrataenite content than type 4 chondrites. This is compatible with lower cooling rates in the 650-450 °C interval for higher petrographic types (consistent with an onion-shell model), but is more likely the result of the oxidation of ordinary chondrites with increasing metamorphism. In equilibrated chondrites, shock-related transient heating events above approximately 500 °C result in the disordering of tetrataenite and associated drastic change in magnetic properties. As a good indicator of the amount of tetrataenite, hysteresis properties are a very sensitive proxy of the thermal history of ordinary chondrites, revealing low cooling rates during thermal metamorphism and high cooling rates (e.g., following shock reheating or excavation after thermal metamorphism). Our data strengthen the view that the poor magnetic recording properties of multidomain kamacite and the secondary origin of tetrataenite make equilibrated ordinary chondrites challenging targets for paleomagnetic study.

  8. Hysteresis effects in the formation of a neutralizing beam plasma at low ion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the PEGASES II thruster prototype is used as an ion source generating low-energy (<300\\ \\text{eV}) positive Ar ion beam, extracted without an external neutralizer. The ions are extracted and accelerated from the source using a two-grid system. The extracted positive ion beam current is measured on a large beam target that can be translated along the acceleration axis. The ion beam current shows a stepwise transition from a low-current to a high-current extraction regime with hysteresis. The hysteresis region depends strongly upon the beam target position. Langmuir probe measurements in the plume show high plasma potentials and low plasma densities in the low-current mode, while the plasma potential drops and the density increases in the high-current mode. The ion energy distribution functions of the beam are measured for different regimes of ion extraction. The ion beam extracted in the high-current mode is indicated by the presence of an additional low-energy peak corresponding to ions from an ion-beam plasma created in the downstream chamber, as well as 10-20 times higher intensity of the primary ion beam peak. The hysteresis behavior is explained by the formation of a downstream neutralizing beam plasma, that depends on the target position and pressure in agreement with a Paschen-like breakdown by secondary electrons. The obtained results are of high relevance for further development of the PEGASES thruster, as well as for improving existing neutralizer-free concepts of the broad-beam ion sources.

  9. Hysteresis in suspended sediment to turbidity relations due to changing particle size distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Sturm, Terry W.

    2013-01-01

    Turbidity (T) is the most ubiquitous of surrogate technologies used to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). The effects of sediment size on turbidity are well documented; however, effects from changes in particle size distributions (PSD) are rarely evaluated. Hysteresis in relations of SSC-to-turbidity (SSC~T) for single stormflow events was observed and quantified for a data set of 195 concurrent measurements of SSC, turbidity, discharge, velocity, and volumetric PSD collected during five stormflows in 2009–2010 on Yellow River at Gees Mill Road in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Regressions of SSC-normalized turbidity (T/SSC) on concurrently measured PSD percentiles show an inverse, exponential influence of particle size on turbidity that is not constant across the size range of the PSD. The majority of the influence of PSD on T/SSC is from particles of fine-silt and smaller sizes (finer than 16 microns). This study shows that small changes in the often assumed stability of the PSD are significant to SSC~T relations. Changes of only 5 microns in the fine silt and smaller size fractions of suspended sediment PSD can produce hysteresis in the SSC~T rating that can increase error and produce bias. Observed SSC~T hysteresis may be an indicator of changes in sediment properties during stormflows and of potential changes in sediment sources. Trends in the PSD time series indicate that sediment transport is capacity-limited for sand-sized sediment in the channel and supply-limited for fine silt and smaller sediment from the hillslope.

  10. Force of Adhesion Upon Loss of Contact Angle Hysteresis: When a Liquid Behaves Like a Solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Juan V.; Castillo, Rolando

    2013-11-01

    The theoretically predicted vanishment of the macroscopic contact angle hysteresis is found experimentally along with a small but finite force of adhesion (FAd?-0.5?N) that, unexpectedly, is independent of the history of the preload. Our results agree with the prediction of a model in which the surface tension of the liquid provides the counterpart of the restoring force of an elastic solid, evidencing that the dewetting of a liquid in the absence of strong pinning points is equivalent to the detachment of an elastic solid.

  11. Droplets on Inclined Plates: Local and Global Hysteresis of Pinned Capillary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musterd, Michiel; van Steijn, Volkert; Kleijn, Chris R.; Kreutzer, Michiel T.

    2014-08-01

    Local contact line pinning prevents droplets from rearranging to minimal global energy, and models for droplets without pinning cannot predict their shape. We show that experiments are much better described by a theory, developed herein, that does account for the constrained contact line motion, using as an example droplets on tilted plates. We map out their shapes in suitable phase spaces. For 2D droplets, the critical point of maximum tilt depends on the hysteresis range and Bond number. In 3D, it also depends on the initial width, highlighting the importance of the deposition history.

  12. Statistical mechanics of DNA unzipping under periodic force: scaling behavior of hysteresis loops.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Mishra, Garima

    2013-06-21

    A simple model of DNA based on two interacting polymers has been used to study the unzipping of a double stranded DNA subjected to a periodic force. We propose a dynamical transition where, without changing the physiological condition, it is possible to bring DNA from the zipped or unzipped state to a new dynamic (hysteretic) state by varying the frequency of the applied force. Our studies reveal that the area of the hysteresis loop grows with the same exponents as of the isotropic spin systems. These exponents are amenable to verification in the force spectroscopic experiments. PMID:23829761

  13. Mesoscopic resistive switch: non-volatility, hysteresis and negative differential resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savel'ev, Sergey E.; Marchesoni, Fabio; Bratkovsky, Alexander M.

    2013-12-01

    We show how a simple model nanoswitch can perform as a memory resistor. Its resistance is determined by electron tunneling through a nanoparticle diffusing around one or more potential minima located between the electrodes in the presence of Joule's heat dissipation. In the case of a single potential minimum, we observe hysteresis of the resistance at finite applied currents and negative differential resistance. For two (or more) minima the switching mechanism is non-volatile, meaning that the memristor can switch to a resistive state of choice and stay there. Moreover, the noise spectra of the switch exhibit 1/ f 2 ? 1/ f crossover, in agreement with recent experimental results.

  14. ac Dynamics of Ferroelectric Domains from an Investigation of the Frequency Dependence of Hysteresis Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Sang Mo [Seoul National University; Jo, Ji Young [Seoul National University; Kim, T. H. [Seoul National University; Yoon, J. -G. [University of Suwon; Song, T. K. [Changwon National University; Lee, Ho Nyung [ORNL; Marton, Zsolt [ORNL; Park, S. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Korea; Jo, Y. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Korea; Noh, Tae Won [Seoul National University

    2010-01-01

    We investigated nonequilibrium domain wall dynamics under an ac field by measuring the hystere- sis loops of epitaxial ferroelectric capacitors at various frequencies and temperatures. Polarization switching is induced mostly by thermally activated creep motion at lower frequencies, and by vis- cous ow motion at higher frequencies. The dynamic crossover between the creep and ow regimes unveils two frequency-dependent scaling regions of hysteresis loops. Based on these findings, we constructed a dynamic phase diagram for hysteretic ferroelectric domain dynamics in the presence of ac fields.

  15. Influence of fourfold anisotropy form on hysteresis loop shape in ferromagnetic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrmann, Andrea [Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany); Blachowicz, Tomasz [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Center for Science and Education, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2014-08-15

    The dependence of the form of different mathematical depictions of fourfold magnetic anisotropies has been examined, using a simple macro-spin model. Strong differences in longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops occur due to deviations from the usual phenomenological model, such as using absolute value functions. The proposed possible models can help understanding measurements on sophisticated magnetic nanosystems, like exchange bias layered structures employed in magnetic hard disk heads or magnetic nano-particles, and support the development of solutions with specific magnetization reversal behavior needed in novel magneto-electronic devices.

  16. Hysteresis, Discrete Memory, and Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Rock: A New Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Guyer, R.A.; McCall, K.R. [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Boitnott, G.N. [New England Research Inc., 76 Olcott Drive, White River Junction, Vermont 05001 (United States)] [New England Research Inc., 76 Olcott Drive, White River Junction, Vermont 05001 (United States)

    1995-04-24

    The structural elements in a rock are characterized by their density in Preisach-Mayergoyz space (PM space). This density is found for a Berea sandstone from stress-strain data and used to study the response of the sandstone to elaborate pressure protocols. Hysteresis with discrete memory, in agreement with experiment, is found. The relationship between strain, quasistatic modulus, and dynamic modulus is established. Nonlinear wave propagation, the production of copious harmonics, and nonlinear attenuation are demonstrated. PM space is shown to be the central construct in a new paradigm for the description of the elastic behavior of consolidated materials.

  17. PREFACE: 6th International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis (MURPHYS2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimian, Mihai; Rachinskii, Dmitrii

    2015-02-01

    The International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis (MURPHYS) conference series focuses on multiple scale systems, singular perturbation problems, phase transitions and hysteresis phenomena occurring in physical, biological, chemical, economical, engineering and information systems. The 6th edition was hosted by Stefan cel Mare University in the city of Suceava located in the beautiful multicultural land of Bukovina, Romania, from May 21 to 24, 2012. This continued the series of biennial multidisciplinary conferences organized in Cork, Ireland from 2002 to 2008 and in Pécs, Hungary in 2010. The MURPHYS 2012 Workshop brought together more than 50 researchers in hysteresis and multi-scale phenomena from the United State of America, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Greece, Ukraine, and Romania. Participants shared and discussed new developments of analytical techniques and numerical methods along with a variety of their applications in various areas, including material sciences, electrical and electronics engineering, mechanical engineering and civil structures, biological and eco-systems, economics and finance. The Workshop was sponsored by the European Social Fund through Sectoral Operational Program Human Resources 2007-2013 (PRO-DOCT) and Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava. The Organizing Committee was co-chaired by Mihai Dimian from Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava (Romania), Amalia Ivanyi from the University of Pecs (Hungary), and Dmitrii Rachinskii from the University College Cork (Ireland). All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. The Guest Editors wish to place on record their sincere gratitude to Miss Sarah Toms for the assistance she provided during the publication process. More information about the Workshop can be found at http://www.murphys.usv.ro/ Mihai Dimian and Dmitrii Rachinskii Guest Editors for Journal of Physics: Conference Series Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Multi-Rate Processes and Hysteresis

  18. Phase Transitions, Hysteresis, and Hyperbolicity for Self-Organized Alignment Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degond, Pierre; Frouvelle, Amic; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-04-01

    We provide a complete and rigorous description of phase transitions for kinetic models of self-propelled particles interacting through alignment. These models exhibit a competition between alignment and noise. Both the alignment frequency and noise intensity depend on a measure of the local alignment. We show that, in the spatially homogeneous case, the phase transition features (number and nature of equilibria, stability, convergence rate, phase diagram, hysteresis) are totally encoded in how the ratio between the alignment and noise intensities depend on the local alignment. In the spatially inhomogeneous case, we derive the macroscopic models associated to the stable equilibria and classify their hyperbolicity according to the same function.

  19. Gas flow across a wet screen - Analogy to a relief valve with hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachman, A.; Dodge, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    The flow of gas through a wet fine-mesh screen is analyzed in terms of the capillary forces of the liquid wetting the screen and the pressure difference across the screen thickness driving the gas flow. Several different types of time-dependent flow are shown to be possible. The most interesting type is one in which the pressure difference opens small channels in the liquid, which are then closed rapidly by the wetting action of the liquid. The opening and closing exhibit hysteresis, and the flow is highly oscillatory.

  20. Well-posedness for a class of biological diffusion models with hysteresis effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jiashan; Wang, Yifu

    2014-05-01

    This paper is concerned with a class of biological models which consist of nonlinear diffusion equations and a hysteresis operator describing the relationship between some variables of the equations. The existence of solutions to the analogous problem was ever considered by Aiki and Minchev (SIAM J Math Anal 36:2020-2032, 2005) under some assumptions including the global Lipschitz continuity of reaction terms. We show the existence of nonnegative solutions to the problem under consideration using the approximation method when the reaction terms are locally Lipschitz continuous. Moreover, we discuss the continuous dependence of solutions on initial data.

  1. Turbidity-based sediment monitoring in northern Thailand: Hysteresis, variability, and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Alan D.; Benner, Shawn G.; Tantasirin, Chatchai; Wood, Spencer H.; Sutherland, Ross A.; Sidle, Roy C.; Jachowski, Nicholas; Nullet, Mike A.; Xi, Lu Xi; Snidvongs, Anond; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Fox, Jefferson M.

    2014-11-01

    Annual total suspended solid (TSS) loads in the Mae Sa Catchment in northern Thailand, determined with an automated, turbidity-based monitoring approach, were approximately 62,000, 33,000, and 14,000 Mg during the three years of observation. These loads were equivalent to basin yields of 839 (603-1170), 445 (217-462), and 192 (108-222) Mg km-2 for the 74.16-km2 catchment during 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. The yearly uncertainty ranges indicate our loads may be underestimated by 38-43% or overestimated by 28-33%. In determining the annual loads, discharge (Q) and turbidity (T) values were compared against 333 hand-sampled total suspended solid concentrations (TSS) measured during 18 runoff events and other flow conditions across the three-year period. Annual rainfall varied from 1632 to 1934 mm; and catchment runoff coefficients (annual runoff/annual rainfall) ranged from 0.25 to 0.41. Measured TSS ranged from 8 to 15,900 mg l-1; the low value was associated with dry-season base flow; the latter, a wet-season storm. Storm size and location played an important role in producing clockwise, anticlockwise, and complex hysteresis in the Q-TSS relationship. Turbidity alone was a good estimator for turbidity ranges of roughly 10-2800 NTU (or concentrations approximately 25-4000 mg l-1). However, owing to hysteresis and high sediment concentrations that surpass the detection limits of the turbidity sensor during many annual storms, TSS was estimated best using a complex multiple regression equation based on high/low ranges of turbidity and Q as independent variables. Turbidity was not a good predictor of TSS fractions >2000 ?m. Hysteresis in the monthly Q-TSS relationship was generally clockwise over the course of the monsoon season, but infrequent large dry-season storms disrupted the pattern in some years. The large decrease in annual loads during the study was believed to be related to depletion of fine sediment delivered to the stream by several landslides occurring the year prior to the study. The study indicated the importance of monitoring Q and turbidity at fine resolutions (e.g., sub-hourly) to capture the TSS dynamics and to make accurate load estimations in this flashy headwater stream where hysteresis in the Q-TSS signature varied at several time scales.

  2. Order Parameter Dynamics of Body-scaled Hysteresis and Mode Transitions in Grasping Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Frank; M. J. Richardson; Stacy M. Lopresti-Goodman; M. T. Turvey

    2009-01-01

    Several experimental studies have shown that human grasping behavior exhibits a transition from one-handed to two-handed grasping\\u000a when to-be-grasped objects become larger and larger. The transition point depends on the relative size of objects measured\\u000a in terms of human body-scales. Most strikingly, the transitions between the two different behavioral ‘modes’ of grasping exhibit\\u000a hysteresis. That is, one-to-two hand transitions and

  3. How small is pedogenic magnetite? Size estimates for loessic soils based on remanence and hysteresis measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiss, C. E.; Machac, T.

    2005-12-01

    Pedogenic magnetite (or maghemite) is generally believed to be fine-grained, consisting mainly of superparamagnetic (SP) and single-domain (SD) particles. These grain size estimates are based on increased values of ARM/IRM or frequency dependent susceptibility (?FD) in the magnetically enhanced horizons. However, these changes in grain size dependent parameters are generally quite small, compared to the often large increase in concentration dependent parameters, such as low field susceptibility, saturation magnetization (J_S), or various remanence parameters (RM). In addition, a recent study by Dunlop (2002b) suggested that hysteresis properties of several Chinese soils (modern and buried) do not suggest a fining of the magnetic component in the magnetically enhanced soil horizons. We used the model of Dunlop (2002a)to analyze hysteresis data from twenty modern soil profiles from the Midwestern United States. In contrast to the data analyzed by Dunlop (2002b), our data can be modeled equally well with binary mixtures of SD-MD and SD-SP particles. To complement the ambiguous hysteresis data we generated a simple mixing model to constrain the size distribution of pedogenic magnetite. Our model assumes remanence acquisition efficiencies f = RM / J_S for coarse (MD - PSD) and fine (SD-SP) magnetite for ARM and IRM. It then uses ARM/IRM ratios to estimate the relative abundances of coarse and fine magnetite. The validity of our grain size distribution estimates can be checked by comparing measured J_S values to J_S calculated from our model output and measured values of IRM (or ARM). A comparison of our ARM/IRM modeling and hysteresis data shows that the magnetic properties of magnetically enhanced soil horizons can be explained with the addition of a fine grained magnetite component. This component, however, has a wide grain size distribution which includes SP, SD and likely PSD particles. Dunlop, D. J. (2002a). Theory and application of the Day plot (Mrs/M_s versus Hcr/H_c) 1. Theoretical curves and tests using titanomagnetite data. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 10.1029/2001JB000486. Dunlop, D. J. (2002b). Theory and application of the Day plot (Mrs/M_s versus Hcr/H_c) 2. Application to data for rocks, sediments and soils. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 10.1029/2001JB000487.

  4. Vortex diffusion and vortex-line hysteresis in radial quantum turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saluto, L.; Jou, D.; Mongiovi, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    We study the influence of vortex diffusion on the evolution of inhomogeneous quantized vortex tangles. A simple hydrodynamical model to describe inhomogeneous counterflow superfluid turbulence is used. As an illustration, we obtain solutions for these effects in radial counterflow of helium II between two concentric cylinders at different temperatures. The vortex diffusion from the inner hotter cylinder to the outer colder cylinder increases the vortex length density everywhere as compared with the non-diffusive situation. The possibility of hysteresis in the vortex line density under cyclical variations of the heat flow is explored.

  5. Nonlinear susceptibility and dynamic hysteresis loops of magnetic nanoparticles with biaxial anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouari, Bachir; Titov, Serguey V.; El Mrabti, Halim; Kalmykov, Yuri P.

    2013-02-01

    The nonlinear ac susceptibility and dynamic magnetic hysteresis (DMH) of a single domain ferromagnetic particle with biaxial anisotropy subjected to both external ac and dc fields of arbitrary strength and orientation are treated via Brown's continuous diffusions model [W. F. Brown, Jr., Phys. Rev. 130, 1677 (1963)] of magnetization orientations. The DMH loops and nonlinear ac susceptibility strongly depend on the dc and ac field strengths, the polar angle between the easy axis of the particle, the external field vectors, temperature, and damping. In contrast to uniaxial particles, the nonlinear ac stationary response and DMH strongly depend on the azimuthal direction of the ac field and the biaxiality parameter ?.

  6. Modeling and inverse compensation of hysteresis in vanadium dioxide using an extended generalized Prandtl–Ishlinskii model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Merced, Emmanuelle; Sepúlveda, Nelson; Tan, Xiaobo

    2014-12-01

    Vanadium dioxide (V{{O}2}), a promising multifunctional smart material, has shown strong promise in microactuation, memory, and optical applications. During thermally induced insulator-to-metal phase transition of V{{O}2}, the changes of its electrical, mechanical, and optical properties demonstrate pronounced, complex hysteresis with respect to the temperature, which presents a challenge in the utilization of this material. In this paper, an extended generalized Prandtl–Ishlinskii model is proposed to model the hysteresis in V{{O}2}, where a nonlinear memoryless function is introduced to improve its modeling capability. A novel inverse compensation algorithm for this hysteresis model is developed based on fixed-point iteration with which the convergence conditions of the algorithm are derived. The proposed approach is shown to be effective for modeling and compensating the asymmetric and non-monotonic hysteresis with saturation between the curvature output and the temperature input of a V{{O}2}-coated microactuator, as well as the asymmetric hysteresis with partial saturation between the resistance output and the temperature input of a V{{O}2} film.

  7. Measurement method for determining the magnetic hysteresis effects of reluctance actuators by evaluation of the force and flux variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrijsen, N. H.; Jansen, J. W.; Compter, J. C.; Lomonova, E. A.

    2013-07-01

    A measurement method is presented which identifies the magnetic hysteresis effects present in the force of linear reluctance actuators. The measurement method is applied to determine the magnetic hysteresis in the force of an E-core reluctance actuator, with and without pre-biasing permanent magnet. The force measurements are conducted with a piezoelectric load cell (Kistler type 9272). This high-bandwidth force measurement instrument is identified in the frequency domain using a voice-coil actuator that has negligible magnetic hysteresis and eddy currents. Specifically, the phase delay between the current and force of the voice-coil actuator is used for the calibration of the measurement instrument. This phase delay is also obtained by evaluation of the measured force and flux variation in the E-core actuator, both with and without permanent magnet on the middle tooth. The measured magnetic flux variation is used to distinguish the phase delay due to magnetic hysteresis from the measured phase delay between the current and the force of the E-core actuator. Finally, an open loop steady-state ac model is presented that predicts the magnetic hysteresis effects in the force of the E-core actuator.

  8. Hysteresis and threshold switching characteristics in thin-film-transistors with inserted Pt-Fe2O3 core–shell nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Yoon-Jae; Noh, Young Jun; Choi, Young Jin; Kang, Chi Jung; Lee, Hyun Ho; Yoon, Tae-Sik

    2014-11-01

    Hysteresis and threshold switching characteristics were investigated in the indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin-film-transistors (TFTs) with inserted Pt-Fe2O3 core–shell nanocrystals (NCs) layer between source/drain and IGZO channel. The output curves showed the hysteresis with threshold drain voltage and the transfer curves showed the hysteresis with the shift of threshold gate voltage. These hysteresis, threshold switching, and shift of threshold voltage in both output and transfer curves are caused by charging of inserted NCs. These unique features demonstrated the memory and on/off switching operation by controlling both threshold gate and drain voltages through charging NCs.

  9. Neurons with hysteresis from a network that can learn without any changes in synaptic connection strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, G.W.; Benson, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    A neural network concept derived from an analogy between the immune system and the central nervous system is outlined. The theory is based on a neuron that is slightly more complicated than the conventional McCullogh-Pitts type of neuron, in that is exhibits hysteresis at the single cell level. This added complication is compensated by the fact that a network of such neurons is able to learn without the necessity for any changes in synaptic connection strengths. The learning occurs as a neural consequence of interactions between the network and its environment, with environmental stimuli moving the system around in an N-dimensional phase space, until a point in phase space is reached such that the system's responses are appropriate for dealing with the stimuli. Due to the hysteresis associated with each neuron, the system tends to stay in the region of phase space where it is located. The theory includes a role for sleep in learning. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Contact angle hysteresis of cylindrical drops on chemically heterogeneous striped surfaces

    E-print Network

    Masao Iwamatsu

    2005-11-26

    Contact angle hysteresis of a macroscopic droplet on a heterogeneous but flat substrate is studied using the interface displacement model. First, the apparent contact angle of a droplet on a heterogeneous surface under the condition of constant volume is considered. By assuming a cylindrical liquid-vapor surface (meniscus) and minimizing the total free energy, we derive an equation for the apparent contact angle, which is similar but different from the well-known Cassie's law. Next, using this modified Cassie's law as a guide to predict the behavior of a droplet on a heterogeneous striped surface, we examine several scenarios of contact angle hysteresis using a periodically striped surface model. By changing the volume of the droplet, we predict a sudden jump of the droplet edge, and a continuous change of the apparent contact angle at the edge of two stripes. Our results suggest that as drop volume is increased (advancing contact lines), the predominant drop configuration observed is the one whose contact angle is large; whereas, decreasing drop volume from a large value (receding contact lines) yields drop configuration that predominantly exhibit the smaller contact angle.

  11. Theory of Sorption Hysteresis in Nanoporous Solids: I. Snap-Through Instabilities

    E-print Network

    Zdenek P. Bazant; Martin Z. Bazant

    2011-08-24

    The sorption-desorption hysteresis observed in many nanoporous solids, at vapor pressures low enough for the the liquid (capillary) phase of the adsorbate to be absent, has long been vaguely attributed to changes in the nanopore structure, but no mathematically consistent explanation has been presented. The present work takes an analytical approach to account for discrete molecular forces in the nanopore fluid and proposes two related mechanisms that can explain the hysteresis at low vapor pressure without assuming any change in the nanopore structure. The first mechanism, presented in Part I, consists of a series of snap-through instabilities during the filling or emptying of non-uniform nanopores or nanoscale asperities. The instabilities are caused by non-uniqueness in the misfit disjoining pressures engendered by a difference between the nanopore width and an integer multiple of the thickness of a monomolecular adsorption layer. The second mechanism, presented in Part II, consists of molecular coalescence within a partially filled surface, nanopore or nanopore network. This general thermodynamic instability is driven by attractive intermolecular forces within the adsorbate and forms the basis to develop a unified theory of both mechanisms. The ultimate goals of the theory are to predict the fluid transport in nanoporous solids from microscopic first principles, and to determine the pore size distribution and internal surface area from sorption tests.

  12. Hysteresis-free high rate reactive sputtering of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Särhammar, Erik, E-mail: erik.sarhammar@angstrom.uu.se; Berg, Sören; Nyberg, Tomas [Department of Solid State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    This work reports on experimental studies of reactive sputtering from targets consisting of a metal and its oxide. The composition of the targets varied from pure metal to pure oxide of Al, Ta, and Nb. This combines features from both the metal target and oxide target in reactive sputtering. If a certain relation between the metal and oxide parts is chosen, it may be possible to obtain a high deposition rate, due to the metal part, and a hysteresis-free process, due to the oxide part. The aim of this work is to quantify the achievable boost in oxide deposition rate from a hysteresis-free process by using a target consisting of segments of a metal and its oxide. Such an increase has been previously demonstrated for Ti using a homogeneous substoichiometric target. The achievable gain in deposition rate depends on transformation mechanisms from oxide to suboxides due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. Such mechanisms are different for different materials and the achievable gain is therefore material dependent. For the investigated materials, the authors have demonstrated oxide deposition rates that are 1.5–10 times higher than what is possible from metal targets in compound mode. However, although the principle is demonstrated for oxides of Al, Ta, and Nb, a similar behavior is expected for most oxides.

  13. Numerical analysis of moving contact line with contact angle hysteresis using feedback deceleration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun Kwon; Kang, Kwan Hyoung

    2012-04-01

    Contact angle (CA) hysteresis is important in many natural and engineering wetting processes, but predicting it numerically is difficult. We developed an algorithm that considers CA hysteresis when analyzing the motion of the contact line (CL). This algorithm employs feedback control of CA which decelerates CL speed to make the CL stationary in the hysteretic range of CA, and one control coefficient should be heuristically determined depending on characteristic time of the simulated system. The algorithm requires embedding only a simple additional routine with little modification of a code which considers the dynamic CA. The method is non-iterative and explicit, and also has less computational load than other algorithms. For a drop hanging on a wire, the proposed algorithm accurately predicts the theoretical equilibrium CA. For the drop impacting on a dry surface, the results of the proposed algorithm agree well with experimental results including the intermittent occurrence of the pinning of CL. The proposed algorithm is as accurate as other algorithms, but faster.

  14. The Effect Of Hysteresis And Heterogeneity On Specific Yield And Fillable Porosity: Theoretical Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patros, T.

    2011-12-01

    Specific yield, or drainable porosity, is an important component in estimating groundwater recharge (GWR) using the water table fluctuation (WTF) method. The use of soil fillable porosity instead of specific yield has been proposed due to the effect of hysteresis on the soil moisture characteristic curve (SMCC), which shows that the specific yield may be larger than the fillable porosity, resulting in larger estimation of GWR. Here, an attempt is made to compare the specific yield and the fillable porosity mathematically, using an equation(s) for the SMCC (including hysteresis) from the literature. The implication of using either the specific yield or the fillable porosity on GWR estimation in homogeneous and layered heterogeneous profiles for a variety of soil textural classes is presented. In addition, replacing soil residual volumetric water content with soil field capacity, or specific retention, as a lower limit of the SMCC, and the influence of that change on GWR estimation, is critically examined for both the specific yield and the fillable porosity.

  15. Ternary metal fluorides as high-energy cathodes with low cycling hysteresis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Kim, Sung-Wook; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kang, Kisuk; Wang, Liping; Su, Dong; Vajo, John J.; Wang, John; Graetz, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal fluorides are an appealing alternative to conventional intercalation compounds for use as cathodes in next-generation lithium batteries due to their extremely high capacity (3–4 times greater than the current state-of-the-art). However, issues related to reversibility, energy efficiency and kinetics prevent their practical application. Here we report on the synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of ternary metal fluorides (M1yM21-yFx: M1, M2=Fe, Cu), which may overcome these issues. By substituting Cu into the Fe lattice, forming the solid–solution CuyFe1-yF2, reversible Cu and Fe redox reactions are achieved with surprisingly small hysteresis (<150?mV). This finding indicates that cation substitution may provide a new avenue for tailoring key electrochemical properties of conversion electrodes. Although the reversible capacity of Cu conversion fades rapidly, likely due to Cu+ dissolution, the low hysteresis and high energy suggest that a Cu-based fluoride cathode remains an intriguing candidate for rechargeable lithium batteries. PMID:25808876

  16. Kinetic analysis of drug–target interactions with PET for characterization of pharmacological hysteresis

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Cristian; Weinzimmer, David; Searle, Graham; Labaree, David; Ropchan, Jim; Huang, Yiyun; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Carson, Richard E; Gunn, Roger N

    2013-01-01

    In vivo characterization of the brain pharmacokinetics of novel compounds provides important information for drug development decisions involving dose selection and the determination of administration regimes. In this context, the compound-target affinity is the key parameter to be estimated. However, if compounds exhibit a dynamic lag between plasma and target bound concentrations leading to pharmacological hysteresis, care needs to be taken to ensure the appropriate modeling approach is used so that the system is characterized correctly and that the resultant estimates of affinity are correct. This work focuses on characterizing different pharmacokinetic models that relate the plasma concentration to positron emission tomography outcomes measurements (e.g., volume of distribution and target occupancy) and their performance in estimating the true in vivo affinity. Measured (histamine H3 receptor antagonist—GSK189254) and simulated data sets enabled the investigation of different modeling approaches. An indirect pharmacokinetic-receptor occupancy model was identified as a suitable model for the calculation of affinity when a compound exhibits pharmacological hysteresis. PMID:23385202

  17. Ternary metal fluorides as high-energy cathodes with low cycling hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Kim, Sung-Wook; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kang, Kisuk; Wang, Liping; Su, Dong; Vajo, John J; Wang, John; Graetz, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal fluorides are an appealing alternative to conventional intercalation compounds for use as cathodes in next-generation lithium batteries due to their extremely high capacity (3-4 times greater than the current state-of-the-art). However, issues related to reversibility, energy efficiency and kinetics prevent their practical application. Here we report on the synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of ternary metal fluorides (M(1)yM(2)1-yFx: M(1), M(2)=Fe, Cu), which may overcome these issues. By substituting Cu into the Fe lattice, forming the solid-solution CuyFe1-yF2, reversible Cu and Fe redox reactions are achieved with surprisingly small hysteresis (<150?mV). This finding indicates that cation substitution may provide a new avenue for tailoring key electrochemical properties of conversion electrodes. Although the reversible capacity of Cu conversion fades rapidly, likely due to Cu(+) dissolution, the low hysteresis and high energy suggest that a Cu-based fluoride cathode remains an intriguing candidate for rechargeable lithium batteries. PMID:25808876

  18. Hysteresis in clay swelling induced by hydrogen bonding: accurate prediction of swelling states.

    PubMed

    Tambach, Tim J; Bolhuis, Peter G; Hensen, Emiel J M; Smit, Berend

    2006-01-31

    We perform grand-canonical molecular simulations to study the molecular mechanism of clay swelling hysteresis as a function of the relative humidity. In particular, we focus on the transition from the one- to the two-layer hydrate and the influence of three types of counterions (Li+, Na+, and K+). Our results cover the experimental relative humidity region where swelling and shrinking usually occur. We show that the thermodynamic origin of swelling hysteresis is a free-energy barrier separating the layered hydrates. This free-energy barrier is dominated by breaking and formation of hydrogen bonds between and within water layers. This network of water molecules is similar for all counterions, but the positions of these counterions depend upon their size. The relatively large K+ counterions show more affinity for clay surface adsorption, which increases the free-energy barrier and inhibits swelling. On the other hand, the relatively small Li+ counterions are quite well-accommodated in the water network, and thereby, they can form a new swelling state with a basal spacing of approximately 13.5 A. This new swelling state is an alternative explanation for the widely accepted simultaneous occurrence of two or more swelling phases. PMID:16430287

  19. On the benefits of hysteresis effects for closed-loop separation control using plasma actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, N.; Cattafesta, L. N.; Moreau, E.; Griffin, J.; Bonnet, J. P.

    2011-08-01

    Flow separation control by a non-thermal plasma actuator is considered for a NACA 0015 airfoil at a chord Reynolds number of 1.9 × 105. Static hysteresis in the lift coefficient is demonstrated for increasing and then decreasing sinusoidal voltage amplitude supplying a typical single dielectric barrier discharge actuator at the leading edge of the model. In addition to these open-loop experiments, unsteady surface pressure signals are examined for transient processes involving forced reattachment and natural separation. The results show that strong pressure oscillations in the relatively slow separation process, compared to reattachment, precede the ultimate massive flow separation. To enhance the contrast between the parts of the signal related to the attached flow and those related to the incipient separation, RMS estimate of filtered values of Cp is used to define a flow separation predictor that is implemented in feedback control. Two simple controllers are proposed, one based on a predefined threshold of the unsteady Cp and another that utilizes the flow separation predictor to identify incipient separation. The latter effectively leverages the hysteresis in the post-stall regime to reduce the electrical power consumed by the actuator while maintaining continuously attached flow.

  20. Weak hysteresis in a simplified model of the L-H transition

    SciTech Connect

    Malkov, M. A.; Diamond, P. H. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    A simple one-field L-H transition model is studied in detail, analytically and numerically. The dynamical system consists of three equations coupling the drift wave turbulence level, zonal flow speed, and the pressure gradient. The fourth component, i.e., the mean shear velocity, is slaved to the pressure gradient. Bursting behavior, characteristic for predator-prey models of the drift wave - zonal flow interaction, is recovered near the transition to the quiescent H-mode (QH) and occurs as strongly nonlinear relaxation oscillations. The latter, in turn, arise as a result of Hopf bifurcation (limit cycle) of an intermediate fixed point (between the L- and H-modes). The system is shown to remain at the QH-mode fixed point even after the heating rate is decreased below the bifurcation point (i.e., hysteresis, subcritical bifurcation), but the basin of attraction of the QH-mode shrinks rapidly with decreasing power. This suggests that the hysteresis in the H-L transition may be less than that expected from S-curve models. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that by shaping the heating rate temporal profile, one can reduce the average power required for the transition to the QH-mode.

  1. Motion of an isolated liquid plug inside a capillary tube: effect of contact angle hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Vyas; Khandekar, Sameer; Bouamrane, Nathan; Lefevre, Frederic; Bonjour, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of a single, small and isolated partially wetting liquid plug (of known length L and wettability), placed at rest inside a long, dry, circular capillary tube ( D = 1.5 mm), and subsequently quasi-statically pushed from one end by applying air pressure, the other end being kept exposed to atmosphere, are reported. The air pressure first overcomes the `static' friction manifested by the three-phase contact line at the advancing and receding menisci, and then, the plug motion gets initiated, eventually leading to a terminal velocity (Ca ~ 2.8 × 10-5), when pressure force balances net frictional resistance due to viscous and surface forces. It is seen that, under steady motion, the curvature profiles of the advancing and receding menisci of liquid plug, respectively, remain the same, independent of the plug length. Steady-state pressure drop is dominated by the contribution due to contact angle hysteresis, which is also independent of the plug length. Increasing the system wettability drastically decreased the contact angle hysteresis and the associated net pressure drop.

  2. The magnetostriction and its ratio to hysteresis for Tb-Dy-Ho-Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bowen; Lv, Yan; Li, Guolu; Huang, Wenmei; Sun, Ying; Cui, Baozhi

    2014-05-01

    The x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe2) + (1 - x)(Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2) alloys were prepared in an arc furnace under high purity argon. The as-cast samples wrapped in Mo foil were sealed in a silica tube filled with high purity argon. The static measurement of magnetostriction (?//, ??) was made by standard strain gauge, and the magnetization M was measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that the magnetostriction ?// of x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe2) + (1 - x)(Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2) alloys decreases with increasing x and it does from 880 × 10-6 for x = 0 to 210 × 10-6 for x = 0.9 at the magnetic field of 640 kA/m. The ratio (?///Wh) of magnetostriction to hysteresis exhibits a peak when x = 0.1, and it means that the Tb0.285Dy0.63Ho0.085Fe2 (x = 0.1) alloy possesses both large magnetostriction and small magnetostrictive hysteresis.

  3. Anomalous hysteresis below 1 K in the transfer characteristics of MoS2 field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, Yoshihiro; Murata, Kotaro; Toda, Shunichi

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies on single- and multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) devices have revealed their promising characteristics as semiconductor devices. Understanding the transport properties at metal/MoS2 interfaces may be crucial for their implementation. In this study, we measured the electrical characteristics of field effect transistors (FETs) with a MoS2 channel from room temperature to 30 mK. A high on/off ratio (up to 107 at 1 K) was observed at all temperatures. Below 1 K, we observed for the first time an anomalously large hysteresis in the transfer characteristics of the MoS2 FET. We hypothesize that this hysteresis results from the slow injection of electrons via quantum tunneling through the Schottky barrier at the contacts. The size of the hysteresis increased with increase in the scan rate of the gate voltage, which is consistent with the possibility of slow injection of electrons.

  4. Modeling the influence of varying magnetic properties in soft magnetic materials on the hysteresis shape using the flux tube approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrun, M.; Steentjes, S.; Hameyer, K.; Dolinar, D.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic properties can vary significantly inside soft magnetic steel sheets (SMSSs), both due to mechanical stresses and structural changes originating from different manufacturing processes. The integral consideration, i.e. averaging these effects over the SMSS, leads to a strong simplification of the underlying mechanisms. Such simplification is often inadequate when considering the influence of the varying magnetic properties on the hysteresis loop shape and its dynamic behavior. This paper presents a new approach to model irregular hysteresis loops of non-oriented SMSSs using the flux tube approach, where the SMSS is divided into several flux tubes having different magnetic properties. This enables to model non-homogeneous distributions of the magnetic flux and irregular hysteresis loops subject to varying magnetic properties.

  5. Characterization of the electrocaloric effect and hysteresis loss in relaxor ferroelectric thin films under alternating current bias fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yanbing; Ju, Y. Sungtaek

    2014-06-01

    We report characterization and analysis of the frequency-dependent temperature responses in thin films exhibiting the electrocaloric (EC) effect under AC bias fields using a high-precision lock-in technique. The temperature response detected by an embedded thin-film resistance thermometer is analyzed using the steady-periodic solutions of a 3D heat conduction model to extract the equivalent volumetric heat sources/sinks, which represent the combined effects of electrocaloric cooling/heating and hysteresis loss. The dependence of the measured heat source strengths on the bias field frequency and amplitude is consistent with our model prediction and independently measured dielectric properties. The volumetric heating rate due to hysteresis loss is estimated to be as much as 15% of the EC heating/cooling rates for solution-cast relaxor ferroelectric polymer films studied here. Our experimental approach enables a systematic study of the electrocaloric performance of thin films and deleterious impact of hysteresis loss.

  6. Magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface and the interpretation of permanent remanence in lunar surface samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.

    1972-01-01

    A magnetic hysteresis classification of the lunar surface is presented. It was found that there is a distinct correlation between natural remanence (NRM), saturation magnetization, and the hysteresis ratios for the rock samples. The hysteresis classification is able to explain some aspects of time dependent magnetization in the lunar samples and relates the initial susceptibility to NRM, viscous remanence, and to other aspects of magnetization in lunar samples. It is also considered that since up to 60% of the iron in the lunar soil may be super paramagnetic at 400 K, and only 10% at 100 K, the 50% which becomes ferromagnetic over the cycle has the characteristics of thermoremanence and may provide for an enhancement in measurable field on the dark side during a subsatellite magnetometer circuit.

  7. Using sharp transitions in contact angle hysteresis to move, deflect, and sort droplets on a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Michael A.; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2012-06-01

    In order to make an effective droplet-based microfluidic device, one must be able to precisely control a number of key processes including droplet positioning, motion, coalescence, mixing, and sorting. In a typical three-dimensional device, these processes are well understood. However, for planar or open microfluidic devices, many of these processes have yet to be demonstrated. In this paper, a series of superhydrophobic surfaces created by sanding Teflon are used as the microfluidics platform. The superhydrophobic surfaces used in this study all have advancing contact angles of 150° but have contact angle hysteresis that were varied smoothly from 3° to 30° as the grit size of the sandpaper is changed. Drop motion was initiated by placing the surface on an inclined plane. To deflect and move droplets along the surface, single and multiple transition lines in receding contact angle were created by spatially varying the surface roughness of the Teflon. The degree of droplet deflection was studied as a function of droplet size, droplet speed, and the angle that the transition line in contact angle hysteresis made with the principle direction of droplet motion. Droplet deflections across a single transition as large as 140% the droplet diameter were observed. The droplet deflection was found to increase with increasing difference in contact angle hysteresis across the transition and increasing transition angles up to about 40°. The largest deflections were observed over a very narrow range of droplet velocities corresponding to a range in Weber numbers between 0.1 and 0.2. This narrow range in Weber number suggests that transitions in receding contact angle can be used to sort drops based on velocity, size or wetting properties with a strong degree of selectivity. The direction of deflection was observed to change depending on whether the drops transitioned from a region of low to high or high to low contact angle hysteresis. In a transition from low to high hysteresis, a large portion of the drop's kinetic energy is converted into interfacial energy as the receding contact line of the drop is deformed. Alternatively, a transition from high to low hysteresis results in some of the drop's interfacial energy converted into kinetic energy as the deformation of the droplet is reduced. The result is either a reduction or increase in the droplet's velocity normal to the line of transition depending on the sign of the transition in contact angle hysteresis. Finally, single and multiple stripes of different contact angle hysteresis are also shown to be effective at deflecting droplets.

  8. Tracking Control of Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuators Based on Self-Sensing Feedback and Inverse Hysteresis Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu-Hung; Huang, Tse-Shih; Yen, Jia-Yush

    2010-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) offer a high power-to-weight ratio, large recovery strain, and low driving voltages, and have thus attracted considerable research attention. The difficulty of controlling SMA actuators arises from their highly nonlinear hysteresis and temperature dependence. This paper describes a combination of self-sensing and model-based control, where the model includes both the major and minor hysteresis loops as well as the thermodynamics effects. The self-sensing algorithm uses only the power width modulation (PWM) signal and requires no heavy equipment. The method can achieve high-accuracy servo control and is especially suitable for miniaturized applications. PMID:22315530

  9. Thermal hysteresis and friction of phase boundary motion in ferromagnetic Ni52Mn23Ga25 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Hong; Chen, Jing-Lang; Liu, Zhu-Hong; Wu, Guang-Heng; Zhan, Wen-Shan

    2002-01-01

    We calculated the energy consumed for phase boundary motion in a Ni52Mn23Ga25 single-crystalline sample during martensitic transformation using a boundary friction phenomenological theory. It was found that the energy consumed for phase boundary motion is 13.14 J/mol, only a small part of the latent heat of martensitic transformation. Furthermore, the results of transformation loops measured by ac magnetic susceptibility proved that the thermal hysteresis of martensitic transformation is in direct proportion to the volume fraction of martensite. It was also indicated that the thermal hysteresis of martensitic transformation originates from the friction of phase boundary motion.

  10. A Jiles-Atherton and fixed-point combined technique for time periodic magnetic field problems with hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Chiampi, M.; Repetto, M. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica Industriale] [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica Industriale; Chiarabaglio, D. [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Torino (Italy)] [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Torino (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    The hysteresis phenomenon can significantly affect the behavior of magnetic cores in electrical machines and devices. This paper presents a finite element solution of periodic steady state magnetic field problems in soft materials with scalar hysteresis. The Jiles-Atherton model is employed for the generation of symmetric B-H loops and it is coupled with the Fixed Point Technique for handling magnetic nonlinearities. The proposed procedure is applied to a hysteretic model problem whose analytical solution is available. The results show that the Fixed Point Technique can efficiently deal with non-single valued material characteristics under periodic operating conditions.

  11. Plasma power measurement and hysteresis in the E-H transition of a rf inductively coupled plasma system

    SciTech Connect

    Daltrini, A. M.; Moshkalev, S. A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, Center for Semiconductor Components, P.O. Box 6061, Campinas SP 13083-870 (Brazil); Morgan, T. J. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06457 (United States); Piejak, R. B.; Graham, W. G. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen's University Belfast BT 7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-11

    An experimental investigation of the argon plasma behavior near the E-H transition in an inductively coupled Gaseous Electronics Conference reference cell is reported. Electron density and temperature, ion density, argon metastable density, and optical emission measurements have been made as function of input power and gas pressure. When plotted versus plasma power, applied power corrected for coil and hardware losses, no hysteresis is observed in the measured plasma parameter dependence at the E-H mode transition. This suggests that hysteresis in the E-H mode transition is due to ignoring inherent power loss, primarily in the matching system.

  12. arXiv:1406.6845v1[cond-mat.dis-nn]26Jun2014 Avalanches and hysteresis in frustrated superconductors and XY-spin-glasses

    E-print Network

    Müller, Markus

    arXiv:1406.6845v1[cond-mat.dis-nn]26Jun2014 Avalanches and hysteresis in frustrated superconductors. 38, 01187 Dresden, Germany (Dated: June 27, 2014) We study avalanches along the hysteresis loop by the softest mode of the inverse susceptibility matrix becoming unstable, which induces an avalanche of phase

  13. A Low Hysteresis NiTiFe Shape Memory Alloy Based Thermal Conduction Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Lemanski, J. L.; Krishnan, V. B.; Manjeri, R. Mahadevan; Vaidyanathan, R. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, 32816 (United States); Notardonato, W. U. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, 32899 (United States)

    2006-03-31

    Shape memory alloys possess the ability to return to a preset shape by undergoing a solid state phase transformation at a particular temperature. This work reports on the development and testing of a low temperature thermal conduction switch that incorporates a NiTiFe shape memory element for actuation. The switch was developed to provide a variable conductive pathway between liquid methane and liquid oxygen dewars in order to passively regulate the temperature of methane. The shape memory element in the switch undergoes a rhombohedral or R-phase transformation that is associated with a small hysteresis (typically 1-2 deg. C) and offers the advantage of precision control over a set temperature range. For the NiTiFe alloy used, its thermomechanical processing, subsequent characterization using dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry and implementation in the conduction switch configuration are addressed.

  14. Magnetic Hysteresis Loop as a Tool for the Evaluation of Spheroidization of Cementites in Pearlitic Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, J. N.; Kamada, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Pearlitic Fe-0.76wt.% C binary alloy was isothermally annealed at 700 °C up to 100 h to study the spheroidization of cementites and its effect on both the mechanical and magnetic properties with the aim to use the magnetic techniques for the evaluation of spheroidization in steels. Micro-Vickers hardness, magnetic hysteresis loop (MHL) measurements, optical and scanning electron microscopy studies were carried out at various lengths of time by interrupting the test. Microhardness and coercivity were decreased with increase in annealing time due to reduction in dislocation pinning and magnetic domain wall pinning for the breaking of cementite lamella and their subsequent transformation to spheroidal form. The microhardness and coercivity showed a very good correlation with the change in microstructure indicating that MHL would be a suitable non-destructive evaluation tool for the evaluation of spheroidized pearlitic steels.

  15. The fatigue resistance and hysteresis of man-made fibre ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Parsey, M.R.

    1983-09-01

    Data on the fatigue life of man-made fibre ropes is updated and the various mechanisms of rope fatigue discussed. One of these mechanisms, internal hysteresis heating, is examined a little further. Such internal heating should be unimportant in cycling polyester and nylon ropes at non-resonant periods over 24 seconds and at loads of up to 50% of break. But internal temperatures sufficient to cause internal degradation in initially wet size 24 ropes cycled to 28% of break for 24 hours at wave period are predicted from simple theory which agrees well with existing data on smaller ropes. Operators working in such extreme conditions should bear this in mind in defining hawser construction and material.

  16. Ultrasonic study of the gelation of gelatin: phase diagram, hysteresis and kinetics

    E-print Network

    N. G. Parker; M. J. W. Povey

    2010-10-28

    We map the ultrasonic (8 MHz) speed and attenuation of edible-grade gelatin in water, exploring the key dependencies on temperature, concentration and time. The ultrasonic signatures of the sol-gel transition, confirmed by rheological measurements, and incomplete gel formation at low concentrations, enable a phase diagram of the system to be constructed. Sensitivity is also demonstrated to the kinetics of gel formation and melting, and associated hysteresis effects upon cyclic temperature sweeps. Furthermore, simple acoustic models of the sol and gel state enable estimation of the speed of sound and compressibility of gelatin. Our results demonstrate the potential of ultrasonic measurements to characterise the structure and visco-elasticity of gelatin hydrogels.

  17. Defect-related hysteresis in nanotube-based nano-electromechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Tsetseris, Leonidas; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2011-01-01

    The electronic properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) depend on the positions of their walls with respect to neighboring shells. This fact can enable several applications of MWCNTs as nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS). In this article, we report the findings of a first-principles study on the stability and dynamics of point defects in double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) and their role in the response of the host systems under inter-tube displacement. Key defect-related effects, namely, sudden energy changes and hysteresis, are identified, and their relevance to a host of MWCNT-based NEMS is highlighted. The results also demonstrate the dependence of these effects on defect clustering and chirality of DWCNT shells. PMID:21711767

  18. Discrete regenerative fuel cell reduces hysteresis for sustainable cycling of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiwon; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Hyung-Man; Choi, Kap-Seung; Hwang, Gunyong

    2014-04-01

    The discrete regenerative fuel cell is being developed as a residential power control that synchronizes with a renewables load which fluctuates significantly with the time and weather. The power of proton exchange membrane fuel cells can be scaled-up adjustably to meet the residential power demand. As a result, scale-ups from a basic unit cell with a 25 cm2 active area create a serpentine flow-field on an active area of 100 cm2 and take into account the excessive current and the remaining power obtained by stacking single cells. Operating a fuel cell utilising oxygen produced by the electrolyser instead of air improves the electrochemical reaction and the water balance. Furthermore, the performance test results with oxygen instead of air show almost no hysteresis, which results in the very stable operation of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell as well as the sustainable cycle of water by hydrogen and oxygen mediums.

  19. Highly stable hysteresis-free carbon nanotube thin-film transistors by fluorocarbon polymer encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tae-Jun; Kiriya, Daisuke; Chen, Kevin; Javey, Ali

    2014-06-11

    We report hysteresis-free carbon nanotube thin-film transistors (CNT-TFTs) employing a fluorocarbon polymer (Teflon-AF) as an encapsulation layer. Such fluorocarbon encapsulation improves device uniformity with excellent operation stability in air and even in water. The fluoropolymers possess high hydrophobicity for efficient removal of water molecules from the vicinity of nanotubes, which are known to induce charge trapping. In addition, the strong dipole associated with the carbon-fluorine bonds can provide effective screening of the charge carriers in nanotubes from various trap states in the substrate. We also report on the extended applications of encapsulation with Teflon-AF for the realization of dual-gate CNT-TFTs, where one gate is used to control the threshold voltage and the other to switch the device. The fluorocarbon encapsulation technique presents a promising approach for enhanced device reliability, which is critical for future system-level electronics based on CNTs. PMID:24796606

  20. Why Microtubules run in Circles - Mechanical Hysteresis of the Tubulin Lattice

    E-print Network

    Falko Ziebert; Hervé Mohrbach; Igor M. Kuli?

    2014-05-18

    The fate of every eukaryotic cell subtly relies on the exceptional mechanical properties of microtubules. Despite significant efforts, understanding their unusual mechanics remains elusive. One persistent, unresolved mystery is the formation of long-lived arcs and rings, e.g. in kinesin-driven gliding assays. To elucidate their physical origin we develop a model of the inner workings of the microtubule's lattice, based on recent experimental evidence for a conformational switch of the tubulin dimer. We show that the microtubule lattice itself coexists in discrete polymorphic states. Curved states can be induced via a mechanical hysteresis involving torques and forces typical of few molecular motors acting in unison. This lattice switch renders microtubules not only virtually unbreakable under typical cellular forces, but moreover provides them with a tunable response integrating mechanical and chemical stimuli.

  1. Unified model of hyperthermia via hysteresis heating in systems of interacting magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ruta, S; Chantrell, R; Hovorka, O

    2015-01-01

    We present a general study of the frequency and magnetic field dependence of the specific heat power produced during field-driven hysteresis cycles in magnetic nanoparticles with relevance to hyperthermia applications in biomedicine. Employing a kinetic Monte-Carlo method with natural time scales allows us to go beyond the assumptions of small driving field amplitudes and negligible inter-particle interactions, which are fundamental to the applicability of the standard approach based on linear response theory. The method captures the superparamagnetic and fully hysteretic regimes and the transition between them. Our results reveal unexpected dipolar interaction-induced enhancement or suppression of the specific heat power, dependent on the intrinsic statistical properties of particles, which cannot be accounted for by the standard theory. Although the actual heating power is difficult to predict because of the effects of interactions, optimum heating is in the transition region between the superparamagnetic and fully hysteretic regimes. PMID:25766365

  2. Discrete regenerative fuel cell reduces hysteresis for sustainable cycling of water.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwon; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Hyung-Man; Choi, Kap-Seung; Hwang, Gunyong

    2014-01-01

    The discrete regenerative fuel cell is being developed as a residential power control that synchronizes with a renewables load which fluctuates significantly with the time and weather. The power of proton exchange membrane fuel cells can be scaled-up adjustably to meet the residential power demand. As a result, scale-ups from a basic unit cell with a 25 cm(2) active area create a serpentine flow-field on an active area of 100 cm(2) and take into account the excessive current and the remaining power obtained by stacking single cells. Operating a fuel cell utilising oxygen produced by the electrolyser instead of air improves the electrochemical reaction and the water balance. Furthermore, the performance test results with oxygen instead of air show almost no hysteresis, which results in the very stable operation of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell as well as the sustainable cycle of water by hydrogen and oxygen mediums. PMID:24699531

  3. A reinforcement discrete neuro-adaptive control for unknown piezoelectric actuator systems with dominant hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chih-Lyang; Jan, Chau

    2003-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental studies of a reinforcement discrete neuro-adaptive control for unknown piezoelectric actuator systems with dominant hysteresis are presented. Two separate nonlinear gains, together with an unknown linear dynamical system, construct the nonlinear model (NM) of the piezoelectric actuator systems. A nonlinear inverse control (NIC) according to the learned NM is then designed to compensate the hysteretic phenomenon and to track the reference input without the risk of discontinuous response. Because the uncertainties are dynamic, a recurrent neural network (RNN) with residue compensation is employed to model them in a compact subset. Then, a discrete neuro-adaptive sliding-mode control (DNASMC) is designed to enhance the system performance. The stability of the overall system is verified by Lyapunov stability theory. Comparative experiments for various control schemes are also given to confirm the validity of the proposed control. PMID:18237991

  4. A unified model of hysteresis and long-time relaxation in heterogeneous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. V.; Ostrovsky, L. A.

    2014-09-01

    A physical model of stress-strain dynamics and long-time relaxation (slow time) in structured media is proposed. The model is based on the analysis of inter-grain contacts and the resulting surface force potential with a barrier. The result is a unified description of the classical acoustic nonlinearity, stress-strain hysteresis, and logarithmic relaxation law for sound velocity (and, hence, for the frequency of nonlinear resonance in samples of structured materials). Estimates of a characteristic volume of interacting contacts give close values for the variety of consolidated materials. For weak (linear) testing waves, the logarithmic relaxation occurs if a classical quadratic nonlinearity is added to the stress-strain relation.

  5. A Low Hysteresis NiTiFe Shape Memory Alloy Based Thermal Conduction Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanski, J. L.; Krishnan, V. B.; Manjeri, R. Mahadevan; Notardonato, W. U.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2006-03-01

    Shape memory alloys possess the ability to return to a preset shape by undergoing a solid state phase transformation at a particular temperature. This work reports on the development and testing of a low temperature thermal conduction switch that incorporates a NiTiFe shape memory element for actuation. The switch was developed to provide a variable conductive pathway between liquid methane and liquid oxygen dewars in order to passively regulate the temperature of methane. The shape memory element in the switch undergoes a rhombohedral or R-phase transformation that is associated with a small hysteresis (typically 1-2 degrees C) and offers the advantage of precision control over a set temperature range. For the NiTiFe alloy used, its thermomechanical processing, subsequent characterization using dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry and implementation in the conduction switch configuration are addressed.

  6. Nanomechanical Detection of Magnetic Hysteresis of a Single-crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet Micromagnetic Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losby, Joseph; Diao, Zhu; Burgess, Jacob; Compton, Shawn; Fani Sani, Fatemeh; Firdous, Tayyaba; Vick, Douglas; Belov, Miro; Hiebert, Wayne; Freeman, Mark

    2013-03-01

    A micromagnetic disk was milled from a monocrystalline yttrium iron garnet film using a focused ion beam and micromanipulated onto a nanoscale torsional resonator. Nanomechanical torque magnetometry results show a unipolar magnetic hysteresis characteristic of a magnetic vortex state. Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-based micromagnetic simulations of the disk show a rich, flux-enclosed, three-dimensional domain structure. On the top and bottom faces of the disk, a skewed vortex state exists with a very small core. The core region extends through the thickness of the disk with a smooth variation in core diameter reaching a maximum along the midplane of the disk. The single crystalline nature of the disk lends to an observed absence of Barkhausen-like steps in the magnetization-versus-field curves, qualitatively different in comparison to the magnetometry results of an individual polycrystalline permalloy microdisk. Prospects for the mechanical detection of spin dynamical modes in these structures will also be discussed.

  7. Spatial Frequency Integration During Active Perception: Perceptual Hysteresis When an Object Recedes

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Timothy F.; Oliva, Aude

    2012-01-01

    As we move through the world, information about objects moves to different spatial frequencies. How the visual system successfully integrates information across these changes to form a coherent percept is thus an important open question. Here we investigate such integration using hybrid faces, which contain different images in low and high spatial frequencies. Observers judged how similar a hybrid was to each of its component images while walking toward or away from it or having the stimulus moved toward or away from them. We find that when the stimulus is approaching, observers act as if they are integrating across spatial frequency separately at each moment. However, when the stimulus is receding, observers show a perceptual hysteresis effect, holding on to details that are imperceptible in a static stimulus condition. Thus, observers appear to make optimal inferences by sticking with their previous interpretation when losing information but constantly reinterpreting their input when gaining new information. PMID:23162509

  8. A facile process to achieve hysteresis-free and fully stabilized graphene field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Ji; Lee, Young Gon; Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Sang Kyung; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2015-02-19

    The operation of chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) is highly sensitive to environmental factors such as the substrate, polymer residues, ambient condition, and other species adsorbed on the graphene surface due to their high defect density. As a result, CVD GFETs often exhibit a large hysteresis and time-dependent instability. These problems become a major roadblock in the systematic study of graphene devices. We report a facile process to alleviate these problems, which can be used to fabricate stable high performance CVD GFETs with symmetrical current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and an effective carrier mobility over 6000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This process combined a few steps of processes in sequence including pre-annealing in a vacuum, depositing a passivation layer, and the final annealing in a vacuum, and eliminated ?50% of charging sources primarily originating from water reduction reactions. PMID:25672592

  9. Discrete regenerative fuel cell reduces hysteresis for sustainable cycling of water

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kiwon; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Hyung-Man; Choi, Kap-Seung; Hwang, Gunyong

    2014-01-01

    The discrete regenerative fuel cell is being developed as a residential power control that synchronizes with a renewables load which fluctuates significantly with the time and weather. The power of proton exchange membrane fuel cells can be scaled-up adjustably to meet the residential power demand. As a result, scale-ups from a basic unit cell with a 25?cm2 active area create a serpentine flow-field on an active area of 100?cm2 and take into account the excessive current and the remaining power obtained by stacking single cells. Operating a fuel cell utilising oxygen produced by the electrolyser instead of air improves the electrochemical reaction and the water balance. Furthermore, the performance test results with oxygen instead of air show almost no hysteresis, which results in the very stable operation of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell as well as the sustainable cycle of water by hydrogen and oxygen mediums. PMID:24699531

  10. Microscopic pattern of ice crystal growth in the presence of thermal hysteresis proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Coger, R.; Rubinsky, B. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Fletcher, G. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland (Canada))

    1994-08-01

    This study examines the effect of thermal hysteresis proteins (THPs) from the winter flounder (Psuedopleuronectes americanus) on the ice-water interface morphology during freezing of aqueous solutions. Experiments were performed using a directional solidification stage, and the development of the two-phase interface was observed through a microscope and recorded by a video system. Unusual ice crystal morphologies were observed, including faceted ice crystal growth along the (1100) crystal plane; spicular or needlelike growth in the (1010) direction; and growth parallel to the c-axis, (0001), consisting of incorporated liquid inclusions bounded by hexagonal prism faces. The observed crystallographic structures can be explained as an effect of the interaction between the THPs and the primary prism faces of ice crystals. This results in an increase in the Gibbs free energy of these planes, followed by ice growth into the supercooled liquid adjacent to these faces.

  11. Magnetic biasing of a ferroelectric hysteresis loop in a multiferroic orthoferrite.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Y; Taguchi, Y; Arima, T; Tokura, Y

    2014-01-24

    In a multiferroic orthoferrite Dy0.7Tb0.3FeO3, which shows electric-field-(E-)driven magnetization (M) reversal due to a tight clamping between polarization (P) and M, a gigantic effect of magnetic-field (H) biasing on P-E hysteresis loops is observed in the case of rapid E sweeping. The magnitude of the bias E field can be controlled by varying the magnitude of H, and its sign can be reversed by changing the sign of H or the relative clamping direction between P and M. The origin of this unconventional biasing effect is ascribed to the difference in the Zeeman energy between the +P and -P states coupled with the M states with opposite sign. PMID:24484164

  12. Unified model of hyperthermia via hysteresis heating in systems of interacting magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruta, S.; Chantrell, R.; Hovorka, O.

    2015-03-01

    We present a general study of the frequency and magnetic field dependence of the specific heat power produced during field-driven hysteresis cycles in magnetic nanoparticles with relevance to hyperthermia applications in biomedicine. Employing a kinetic Monte-Carlo method with natural time scales allows us to go beyond the assumptions of small driving field amplitudes and negligible inter-particle interactions, which are fundamental to the applicability of the standard approach based on linear response theory. The method captures the superparamagnetic and fully hysteretic regimes and the transition between them. Our results reveal unexpected dipolar interaction-induced enhancement or suppression of the specific heat power, dependent on the intrinsic statistical properties of particles, which cannot be accounted for by the standard theory. Although the actual heating power is difficult to predict because of the effects of interactions, optimum heating is in the transition region between the superparamagnetic and fully hysteretic regimes.

  13. Mechanical characterization of journal superconducting magnetic bearings: stiffness, hysteresis and force relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristache, Cristian; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio; Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco Antonio; Pato, Nelson; Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    Superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs) can provide stable levitation without direct contact between them and a magnetic source (typically a permanent magnet). In this context, superconducting magnetic levitation provides a new tool for mechanical engineers to design non-contact mechanisms solving the tribological problems associated with contact at very low temperatures. In the last years, different mechanisms have been proposed taking advantage of superconducting magnetic levitation. Flywheels, conveyors or mechanisms for high-precision positioning. In this work the mechanical stiffness of a journal SMBs have been experimentally studied. Both radial and axial stiffness have been considered. The influence of the size and shape of the permanent magnets (PM), the size and shape of the HTS, the polarization and poles configuration of PMs of the journal SMB have been studied experimentally. Additionally, in this work hysteresis behavior and force relaxation are considered because they are essential for mechanical engineer when designing bearings that hold levitating axles.

  14. Numerical simulation of dune-flat bed transition and stage-discharge relationship with hysteresis effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shimizu, Y.; Giri, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nelson, J.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents recent advances on morphodynamic modeling of bed forms under unsteady discharge. This paper includes further development of a morphodynamic model proposed earlier by Giri and Shimizu (2006a). This model reproduces the temporal development of river dunes and accurately replicates the physical properties associated with bed form evolution. Model results appear to provide accurate predictions of bed form geometry and form drag over bed forms for arbitrary steady flows. However, accurate predictions of temporal changes of form drag are key to the prediction of stage-discharge relation during flood events. Herein, the model capability is extended to replicate the dune-flat bed transition, and in turn, the variation of form drag produced by the temporal growth or decay of bed forms under unsteady flow conditions. Some numerical experiments are performed to analyze hysteresis of the stage-discharge relationship caused by the transition between dune and flat bed regimes during rising and falling stages of varying flows. The numerical model successfully simulates dune-flat bed transition and the associated hysteresis of the stage-discharge relationship; this is in good agreement with physical observations but has been treated in the past only using empirical methods. A hypothetical relationship for a sediment parameter (the mean step length) is proposed to a first level of approximation that enables reproduction of the dune-flat bed transition. The proposed numerical model demonstrates its ability to address an important practical problem associated with bed form evolution and flow resistance in varying flows. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Back-propagation operation for analog neural network hardware with synapse components having hysteresis characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Michihito; Nishitani, Yu; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Omote, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To realize an analog artificial neural network hardware, the circuit element for synapse function is important because the number of synapse elements is much larger than that of neuron elements. One of the candidates for this synapse element is a ferroelectric memristor. This device functions as a voltage controllable variable resistor, which can be applied to a synapse weight. However, its conductance shows hysteresis characteristics and dispersion to the input voltage. Therefore, the conductance values vary according to the history of the height and the width of the applied pulse voltage. Due to the difficulty of controlling the accurate conductance, it is not easy to apply the back-propagation learning algorithm to the neural network hardware having memristor synapses. To solve this problem, we proposed and simulated a learning operation procedure as follows. Employing a weight perturbation technique, we derived the error change. When the error reduced, the next pulse voltage was updated according to the back-propagation learning algorithm. If the error increased the amplitude of the next voltage pulse was set in such way as to cause similar memristor conductance but in the opposite voltage scanning direction. By this operation, we could eliminate the hysteresis and confirmed that the simulation of the learning operation converged. We also adopted conductance dispersion numerically in the simulation. We examined the probability that the error decreased to a designated value within a predetermined loop number. The ferroelectric has the characteristics that the magnitude of polarization does not become smaller when voltages having the same polarity are applied. These characteristics greatly improved the probability even if the learning rate was small, if the magnitude of the dispersion is adequate. Because the dispersion of analog circuit elements is inevitable, this learning operation procedure is useful for analog neural network hardware. PMID:25393715

  16. Hydrological hysteresis and its value for assessing process consistency in catchment conceptual models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovet, O.; Ruiz, L.; Hrachowitz, M.; Faucheux, M.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.

    2015-01-01

    While most hydrological models reproduce the general flow dynamics, they frequently fail to adequately mimic system-internal processes. In particular, the relationship between storage and discharge, which often follows annual hysteretic patterns in shallow hard-rock aquifers, is rarely considered in modelling studies. One main reason is that catchment storage is difficult to measure, and another one is that objective functions are usually based on individual variables time series (e.g. the discharge). This reduces the ability of classical procedures to assess the relevance of the conceptual hypotheses associated with models. We analysed the annual hysteric patterns observed between stream flow and water storage both in the saturated and unsaturated zones of the hillslope and the riparian zone of a headwater catchment in French Brittany (Environmental Research Observatory ERO AgrHys (ORE AgrHys)). The saturated-zone storage was estimated using distributed shallow groundwater levels and the unsaturated-zone storage using several moisture profiles. All hysteretic loops were characterized by a hysteresis index. Four conceptual models, previously calibrated and evaluated for the same catchment, were assessed with respect to their ability to reproduce the hysteretic patterns. The observed relationship between stream flow and saturated, and unsaturated storages led us to identify four hydrological periods and emphasized a clearly distinct behaviour between riparian and hillslope groundwaters. Although all the tested models were able to produce an annual hysteresis loop between discharge and both saturated and unsaturated storage, the integration of a riparian component led to overall improved hysteretic signatures, even if some misrepresentation remained. Such a system-like approach is likely to improve model selection.

  17. Back-Propagation Operation for Analog Neural Network Hardware with Synapse Components Having Hysteresis Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Michihito; Nishitani, Yu; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Omote, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To realize an analog artificial neural network hardware, the circuit element for synapse function is important because the number of synapse elements is much larger than that of neuron elements. One of the candidates for this synapse element is a ferroelectric memristor. This device functions as a voltage controllable variable resistor, which can be applied to a synapse weight. However, its conductance shows hysteresis characteristics and dispersion to the input voltage. Therefore, the conductance values vary according to the history of the height and the width of the applied pulse voltage. Due to the difficulty of controlling the accurate conductance, it is not easy to apply the back-propagation learning algorithm to the neural network hardware having memristor synapses. To solve this problem, we proposed and simulated a learning operation procedure as follows. Employing a weight perturbation technique, we derived the error change. When the error reduced, the next pulse voltage was updated according to the back-propagation learning algorithm. If the error increased the amplitude of the next voltage pulse was set in such way as to cause similar memristor conductance but in the opposite voltage scanning direction. By this operation, we could eliminate the hysteresis and confirmed that the simulation of the learning operation converged. We also adopted conductance dispersion numerically in the simulation. We examined the probability that the error decreased to a designated value within a predetermined loop number. The ferroelectric has the characteristics that the magnitude of polarization does not become smaller when voltages having the same polarity are applied. These characteristics greatly improved the probability even if the learning rate was small, if the magnitude of the dispersion is adequate. Because the dispersion of analog circuit elements is inevitable, this learning operation procedure is useful for analog neural network hardware. PMID:25393715

  18. A facile process to achieve hysteresis-free and fully stabilized graphene field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun Ji; Lee, Young Gon; Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Sang Kyung; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2015-02-01

    The operation of chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) is highly sensitive to environmental factors such as the substrate, polymer residues, ambient condition, and other species adsorbed on the graphene surface due to their high defect density. As a result, CVD GFETs often exhibit a large hysteresis and time-dependent instability. These problems become a major roadblock in the systematic study of graphene devices. We report a facile process to alleviate these problems, which can be used to fabricate stable high performance CVD GFETs with symmetrical current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and an effective carrier mobility over 6000 cm2 V-1 s-1. This process combined a few steps of processes in sequence including pre-annealing in a vacuum, depositing a passivation layer, and the final annealing in a vacuum, and eliminated ~50% of charging sources primarily originating from water reduction reactions.The operation of chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) is highly sensitive to environmental factors such as the substrate, polymer residues, ambient condition, and other species adsorbed on the graphene surface due to their high defect density. As a result, CVD GFETs often exhibit a large hysteresis and time-dependent instability. These problems become a major roadblock in the systematic study of graphene devices. We report a facile process to alleviate these problems, which can be used to fabricate stable high performance CVD GFETs with symmetrical current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and an effective carrier mobility over 6000 cm2 V-1 s-1. This process combined a few steps of processes in sequence including pre-annealing in a vacuum, depositing a passivation layer, and the final annealing in a vacuum, and eliminated ~50% of charging sources primarily originating from water reduction reactions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06397j

  19. Hydrostatic pressure effect on magnetic hysteresis parameters of multidomain magnetite: Implication for crustal magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Nishioka, Takashi; Kodama, Kazuto; Mochizuki, Nobutatsu; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2014-08-01

    Hydrostatic pressure effects on magnetic parameters for crustal rock have been poorly investigated yet, while it is important for an understanding of source of long-wavelength magnetic anomaly, which is considered to reside in deep crust. In this study we have conducted the in situ magnetic hysteresis measurements on multidomain (MD) magnetite under high pressure up to 1 GPa. With special attention to hydrostatic condition and sample preparation, pressure dependences of its magnetic hysteresis parameters (saturation magnetization, Ms; saturation remanence, Mrs; coercivity, Bc; coercivity of remanence, Bcr) are revealed as follows: (1) Bc monotonically increases with pressure at a rate of +91%/GPa; (2) Ms is constant under high pressure up to 1 GPa; (3) Mrs increases with pressure up to 0.5 GPa by ?30% and reaches to saturation above the pressure; (4) Bcr is nearly constant at low pressure, and it increases above ?0.6 GPa; and (5) the changes in ratios Mrs/Ms and Bcr/Bc correlate with each other, resulting in systematic movement on the Day plot. These findings allow us to estimate change in a relaxation time of magnetic remanence carried by MD magnetite as a function of depth in the continental crust. In the model calculation, we consider no effect of plastic deformation on magnetic properties of magnetite, and the relaxation time is calculated using the theoretical thermal gradient. In consequence, the relaxation time monotonously decreases with depth, and primary remanence is considered to be replaced by a viscous remanent magnetization (VRM) over the Brunhes chron. Therefore, it is suggested that MD magnetite in deep crustal rocks can contribute to the source of the anomaly over the continental crust by VRM and induced magnetization.

  20. Hydrological hysteresis in catchments and its value for assessing process consistency in conceptual models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovet, O.; Ruiz, L.; Hrachowitz, M.; Faucheux, M.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.

    2014-05-01

    While most hydrological models reproduce the general flow dynamics, they frequently fail to adequately mimic system internal processes. In particular, the relationship between storage and discharge, which often follows annual hysteretic patterns in shallow hard-rock aquifers, is rarely considered in modelling studies. One main reason is that catchment storage is difficult to measure and another one is that objective functions are usually based on individual variables time series (e.g. the discharge). This reduces the ability of classical procedures to assess the relevance of the conceptual hypotheses associated with models. We analyzed the annual hysteric patterns observed between stream flow and water storage both in the saturated and unsaturated zones of the hillslope and the riparian zone of a headwater catchment in French Brittany (ORE AgrHys). The saturated zone storage was estimated using distributed shallow groundwater levels and the unsaturated zone storage using several moisture profiles. All hysteretic loops were characterized by a hysteresis index. Four conceptual models, previously calibrated and evaluated for the same catchment, were assessed with respect to their ability to reproduce the hysteretic patterns. The observed relationship between stream flow, saturated, and unsaturated storages led to identify four hydrological periods and emphasized a clearly distinct behaviour between riparian and hillslope groundwaters. Although all the tested models were able to produce an annual hysteresis loop between discharge and both saturated and unsaturated storage, integration of a riparian component led to overall improved hysteretic signatures, even if some misrepresentation remained. Such systems-like approach is likely to improve model selection.

  1. Hysteresis processes in the regular reflection?Mach reflection transition in steady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dor, G.; Ivanov, M.; Vasilev, E. I.; Elperin, T.

    2002-05-01

    Ernst Mach recorded experimentally, in the late 1870s, two different shock-wave reflection configurations and laid the foundations for one of the most exciting and active research field in an area that is generally known as Shock Wave Reflection Phenomena. The first wave reflection, a two-shock wave configuration, is known nowadays as regular reflection, RR, and the second wave reflection, a three-shock wave configuration, was named after Ernst Mach and is called nowadays Mach reflection, MR. A monograph entitled Shock Wave Reflection Phenomena, which was published by Ben-Dor in 1990, summarized the state-of-the-art of the reflection phenomena of shock waves in steady, pseudo-steady and unsteady flows. Intensive analytical, experimental and numerical investigations in the last decade, which were led mainly by Ben-Dor's research group and his collaboration with Chpoun's, Zeitoun's and Ivanov's research groups, shattered the state-of-the-knowledge, as it was presented in Ben-Dor (Shock Wave Reflection Phenomena, Springer, New York, 1991), for the case of steady flows. Skews's and Hornung's research groups joined in later and also contributed to the establishment of the new state-of-the-knowledge of the reflection of shock waves in steady flows. The new state-of-the-knowledge will be presented in this review. Specifically, the hysteresis phenomenon in the RR?MR transition process, which until the early 1990s was believed not to exist, will be presented and described in detail, in a variety of experimental set-ups and geometries. Analytical, experimental and numerical investigations of the various hysteresis processes will be presented.

  2. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 338, 189196 (2003) Hysteresis in the light curves of soft X-ray transients

    E-print Network

    Coppi, Paolo

    the hard-to-soft transition. This hysteresis effect rules out the propeller mechanism as the sole cause of state transitions in Aql X-1. Assuming the propeller mechanism only operates at a luminosity equal energies with no apparent cut-off. The radiation mechanisms in the very high state are not as well un

  3. Hysteresis observed in quasi open-circuit voltage measurements of lithium insertion in hydrogen-containing carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Zheng; J. R. Dahn

    1997-01-01

    High capacities with large hysteresis were observed during lithium insertion in hydrogen-containing carbons heated at temperatures near 700 °C. Quasi open-circuit voltage (OCV) measurements were used to study these materials. Using a simple model developed previously [1], we can qualitatively model the result of the OCV measurement. It is believed that the lithium atoms bind near aromatic hydrogen at edge

  4. Temperature-electric field hysteresis loop of electrocaloric effect in ferroelectricity—Direct measurement and analysis of electrocaloric effect. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinfei; Yang, Tongqing; Wei, Kun; Yao, Xi

    2013-04-01

    The polarization of polar domain in ferroelectric materials is orientated and reversed with the alternating electric field, and the hysteresis loops of polarization-electric field (P-E) and strain-electric field (S-E) are observed. For electrocaloric (EC) effect, the temperature change with the application and removal of electric field is also attributed to the change of polarization with the applied field. In most reports about EC, the temperature change is shown as an abrupt jump or slump due to the applied electric field that is a pulsed wave. Obviously, it is impossible to observe the hysteresis loop of EC. In our research, both sine wave and pulsed wave electric field are applied to samples in direct measurement, and temperature-electric field hysteresis loop (T-E) is observed only in measurement of sine wave. The T-E hysteresis loop displays a shape of butterfly, just like the shape of S-E. The electric field dependence of EC is also given. The obtained results will be helpful for us to know the electrocaloric effect further.

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 12, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2013 1125 Creep, Hysteresis, and Cross-Coupling Reduction in

    E-print Network

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 12, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2013 1125 Creep, Hysteresis micro- scopes (SPMs) that are commercially available have low scan- ning speed and cannot retain image, which means that the scanning time decreases with an increasing speed, as shown in Table I. Manuscript

  6. Hysteresis behavior during reactive magnetron sputtering of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using a rotating cylindrical magnetron

    SciTech Connect

    Depla, D.; Haemers, J.; Buyle, G.; Gryse, R. de [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S1), B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-07-15

    Rotating cylindrical magnetrons are used intensively on industrial scale. A rotating cylindrical magnetron on laboratory scale makes it possible to study this deposition technique in detail and under well controlled conditions. Therefore, a small scale rotating cylindrical magnetron was designed and used to study the influence of the rotation speed on the hysteresis behavior during reactive magnetron sputtering of aluminum in Ar/O{sub 2} in dc mode. This study reveals that the hysteresis shifts towards lower oxygen flows when the rotation speed of the target is increased, i.e., target poisoning occurs more readily when the rotation speed is increased. The shift is more pronounced for the lower branch of the hysteresis loop than for the upper branch of the hysteresis. This behavior can be understood qualitatively. The results also show that the oxidation mechanism inside the race track is different from the oxidation mechanism outside the race track. Indeed, outside the race track the oxidation mechanism is only defined by chemisorption while inside the race track reactive ion implantation will also influence the oxidation mechanism.

  7. Introducing Hysteresis in Snow Depletion Curves to Improve the Water Budget of a Land Surface Model in an Alpine Catchment

    E-print Network

    Introducing Hysteresis in Snow Depletion Curves to Improve the Water Budget of a Land Surface Model), a distributed land surface model (LSM) with a multilayer, physically based snow model, has been applied of the accu- mulation and ablation of the snow cover using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

  8. Hysteresis from antiferromagnet domain-wall processes in exchange-biased systems: Magnetic defects and thermal effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joo-Von Kim; R. L. Stamps

    2005-01-01

    The partial domain-wall theory of exchange bias predicts bias field magnitudes and film thickness dependencies consistent with certain experimental systems. However, the theory does not account for the coercivity enhancement that accompanies the hysteresis loop shift in single domain materials. We show theoretically that the presence of an attractive domain-wall potential in the antiferromagnet, arising from magnetic impurities, for example,

  9. Hysteresis, avalanches, and disorder-induced critical scaling: A renormalization-group approach Karin Dahmen* and James P. Sethna

    E-print Network

    Sethna, James P.

    Hysteresis, avalanches, and disorder-induced critical scaling: A renormalization-group approach is added, one finds a transition where the jump in the magnetization corresponding to an infinite avalanche avalanches , and universal behavior. We expand the critical exponents about mean-field theory in 6 dimensions

  10. Unifying soil respiration pulses, inhibition, and temperature hysteresis through dynamics of labile soil carbon and O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Grantz, D. A.; Chatterjee, A.; Eberwein, J. E.; Allsman, L. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2014-04-01

    Event-driven and diel dynamics of soil respiration (Rs) strongly influence terrestrial carbon (C) emissions and are difficult to predict. Wetting events may cause a large pulse or strong inhibition of Rs. Complex diel dynamics include hysteresis in the relationship between Rs and soil temperature. The mechanistic basis for these dynamics is not well understood, resulting in large discrepancies between predicted and observed Rs. We present a unifying approach for interpreting these phenomena in a hot arid agricultural environment. We performed a whole ecosystem wetting experiment with continuous measurement of Rs to study pulse responses to wetting in a heterotrophic system. We also investigated Rs during cultivation of Sorghum bicolor to evaluate the role of photosynthetic C in the regulation of diel variation in Rs. Finally, we adapted a Rs model with sensitivity to soil O2 and water content by incorporating two soil C pools differing in lability. We observed a large wetting-induced pulse of Rs from the fallow field and were able to accurately simulate the pulse via release of labile soil C. During the exponential phase of plant growth, Rs was inhibited in response to wetting, which was accurately simulated through depletion of soil O2. Without plants, hysteresis was not observed; however, with growing plants, an increasingly significant counterclockwise hysteresis developed. Hysteresis was simulated via a dynamic photosynthetic C pool and was not likely controlled by physical processes. These results help characterize the complex regulation of Rs and improve understanding of these phenomena under warmer and more variable conditions.

  11. Cloning and characterization of a thermal hysteresis (antifreeze) protein with DNA-binding activity from winter bittersweet nightshade, Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Duman, John G

    2002-03-01

    The gene for a thermal hysteresis (antifreeze) protein (sthp-64) from the bittersweet nightshade, Solanum dulcamara, was cloned and characterized. An expression cDNA library prepared from November S. dulcamara was screened using a polyclonal antibody generated against a previously purified 67 kDa thermal hysteresis protein, and positive clones were identified and sequenced. The full-length thermal hysteresis protein gene was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector and expressed as a fusion protein. The putative thermal hysteresis protein (STHP-64) contains two conserved regions 56 and 57 amino acids in length which have the C-X4-C-X22-23-H-X1-H zinc finger motif which is present in WRKY proteins, a family of transcription factors which play a role in regulating expression of pathogenesis-related proteins in plants. Additional features of transcription factors, such as an acidic domain between the two zinc-fingers and a glutamine-rich region upstream of the first zinc-finger are also present in STHP-64. A DNA binding assay showed that the expressed STHP-64 fusion protein has specific DNA-binding ability. A unique feature of STHP-64 is that the C-terminus contains 10 consecutive 13-mer repeats. Such repeats are a common feature of animal antifreeze proteins. The expressed STHP-64 fusion protein had low levels of thermal hysteresis activity, but this activity was considerably increased by addition of citrate, which is known as an enhancer of certain insect antifreeze proteins. Northern blots demonstrated that the STHP-64 transcript was not present in leaves until November and December, suggesting that cold acclimation induces STHP-64 production. PMID:11905961

  12. Thermochromic liquid crystal thermography: Hysteresis, illumination and imaging system effects, image processing and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Michael Robert

    Thermochromic Liquid Crystals (TLC's) reflect incident light iridescently depending on their temperature and are used extensively in thermography. Recent advances involve using the reflected color (e.g. hue) from digital images of surfaces coated with TLC's to produce full-field global surface temperature distributions. These advances have made it important to take a deeper look into factors influencing the hue-temperature behavior of TLC's and the effects of image processing. The behavior of five different microencapsulated TLC's (both broad-band and narrow-band) has been investigated. Although TLC's have generally been thought to be reversible and repeatable, all five of these TLC's were found to exhibit a similar hysteresis behavior when cooled rather than heated. This hysteresis is characterized by a decrease in reflectivity and a shift in the temperature associated with the peak reflected intensity during cooling relative to heating. The combined effect is a shift in the hue-temperature calibration of the TLC. This shift results in temperature biases during cooling (relative to heating), of approximately 20% of the useful calibration range for broadband TLC's and as high as 40% to 60% of the useful calibration range for narrow-band TLC's. The magnitude of the hysteresis increases with an increase in the peak temperature prior to cooling. Repeatable heating (and cooling) calibrations are obtained when the TLC is initially cooled below (or heated above) an apparent reset temperature. These reset temperatures appear to be related to the red start temperature for heating and the blue stop temperature (about 20°C to 25°C above the top of the useful calibration range) for cooling. A permanent shift in the hue-temperature calibration (characterized by a decrease in reflectivity and a shift in the temperature associated with the peak reflected intensity) was observed during the tests. This shift appears to be due to high temperature exposure (60°C-80°C). A theoretical model of a TLC imaging system was developed to investigate some of the factors affecting TLC hue- temperature behavior. These factors include the spectral distribution of the illumination source and UV filter, the surface reflection due to both the TLC and background, the TLC coating thickness and the sensing device (camera) spectral characteristics and gain settings. Results from the model are compared to experimental measurements. It is found that typical measurements cannot be explained by a TLC reflectivity model with a monochromatic spike or narrow bandwidth, the model that is often assumed. A model with TLC reflection over a relatively broad band of wavelengths results in good agreement between the model and measurements. The significance of background reflection, which commonly accounts for 30% to 50% of the reflected light, is examined. It is shown that the background reflection tends to attenuate the hue-temperature calibration curve toward the background hue value. Five illumination sources are compared to examine their effect on the hue- temperature behavior. It is found that ``full spectrum'' bulbs, which have a relatively uniform radiant intensity across the visible spectrum, tend to have the lowest temperature measurement uncertainties and the broadest useful ranges, which are desirable calibration attributes. An interactive liquid crystal image processing toolbox was developed in MATLAB to assist in the analysis and processing of TLC images and in the subsequent calculation of heat transfer information. An overview of this toolbox is provided.

  13. Influence of hydraulic hysteresis on the mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils and interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Charbel N.

    Unsaturated soils are commonly widespread around the world, especially at shallow depths from the surface. The mechanical behavior of this near surface soil is influenced by the seasonal variations such as rainfall or drought, which in turn may have a detrimental effect on many structures (e.g. retaining walls, shallow foundations, mechanically stabilized earth walls, soil slopes, and pavements) in contact with it. Thus, in order to better understand this behavior, it is crucial to study the complex relationship between soil moisture content and matric suction (a stress state variable defined as pore air pressure minus pore water pressure) known as the Soil Water Characteristic Curve (SWCC). In addition, the influence of hydraulic hysteresis on the behavior of unsaturated soils, soil-structure interaction (i.e. rough and smooth steel interfaces, soil-geotextile interfaces) and pavement subgrade (depicted herein mainly by resilient modulus, Mr) was also studied. To this end, suction-controlled direct shear tests were performed on soils, rough and smooth steel interfaces and geotextile interface under drying (D) and wetting after drying (DW). The shearing behavior is examined in terms of the two stress state variables, matric suction and net normal stress. Results along the D and DW paths indicated that peak shear strength increased with suction and net normal stress; while in general, the post peak shear strength was not influenced by suction for rough interfaces and no consistent trend was observed for soils and soil-geotextiles interfaces. Contrary to saturated soils, results during shearing at higher suction values (i.e. 25 kPa and above) showed a decrease in water content eventhough the sample exhibited dilation. A behavior postulated to be related to disruption of menisci and/or non-uniformity of pore size which results in an increase in localized pore water pressures. Interestingly, wetting after drying (DW) test results showed higher peak and post peak shear strength than that of the drying (D) tests. This is believed to be the result of many factors such as: (1) cyclic suction stress loading, (2) water content (less on wetting than drying), and (3) type of soil. The cyclic suction loading may have induced irrecoverable plastic strains, resulting in stiffer samples for wetting tests as compared to drying. Additionally, water may be acting as a lubricant and thus resulting in lower shear strength for test samples D with higher water contents than DW samples. Furthermore, various shear strength models were investigated for their applicability to the experimental data. Models were proposed for the prediction of shear strength with suction based on the SWCC. The models are able to predict the shear strength of unsaturated soil and interfaces due to drying and wetting (i.e. hydraulic hysteresis) by relating directly to the SWCC. The proposed models were used and partly validated by predicting different test results from the literature. In addition, an existing elastoplastic constitutive model was investigated and validated by comparing the predicted and experimental (stress-displacement, volume change behavior) results obtained from rough and geotextile interface tests. This study also explores the effect of hydraulic hysteresis on the resilient modulus (Mr) of subgrade soils. Suction-controlled Mr tests were performed on compacted samples along the primary drying, wetting, secondary drying and wetting paths. Two test types were performed to check the effect of cyclic deviatoric stress loading on the results. First, M r tests were performed on the same sample at each suction (i.e. 25, 50, 75, 100 kPa) value along all the paths (drying, wetting etc.). A relationship between resilient modulus (Mr) and matric suction was obtained and identified as the resilient modulus characteristic curve (MRCC). MRCC results indicated that Mr increased with suction along the drying curve. On the other hand, results on the primary wetting indicated higher Mr than that of the primary drying and the secondary drying. The second type of test

  14. Modeling mixed clockwise and counter-clockwise hysteresis in multi-layer materials by using a generalized Jiles-Atherton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, Petru; Mehta, Mohit; Dimian, Mihai

    2014-02-01

    A generalized Jiles-Atherton model is proposed to describe mixed clockwise and counter-clockwise hysteresis loops. While it is physically inconsistent for homogeneous magnetic materials, this mixed type of hysteresis is exhibited by several multi-layer and superlattice materials with antiferromagnetic coupling. The modeling approach is based on a newly developed clockwise hysteretic model using the Jiles-Atherton framework and its linear superposition to the classical counter-clockwise version. The resulting technique is implemented in open-access academic software for hysteresis and simulation samples are presented in the paper.

  15. A neural network for incorporating the thermal effect on the magnetic hysteresis of the 3F3 material using the Jiles-Atherton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, A.; Nouicer, E.; Feliachi, Mouloud

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with the temperature dependent modeling approach for the generation of hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic materials. The physical model is developed to study the effect of temperature on the magnetic hysteresis loop using the Jiles-Atherton (J-A) model. The thermal effects were incorporated through temperature dependent hysteresis parameters of JA model. The temperature-dependent J-A model was validated by measurements made on the ferrite material. The results of proposed model were in good agreement with the measurements.

  16. OP09O-OP404-9 Wide Field Camera 3 CCD Quantum Efficiency Hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The HST/Wide Field Camera (WFC) 3 UV/visible channel CCD detectors have exhibited an unanticipated quantum efficiency hysteresis (QEH) behavior. At the nominal operating temperature of -83C, the QEH feature contrast was typically 0.1-0.2% or less. The behavior was replicated using flight spare detectors. A visible light flat-field (540nm) with a several times full-well signal level can pin the detectors at both optical (600nm) and near-UV (230nm) wavelengths, suppressing the QEH behavior. We are characterizing the timescale for the detectors to become unpinned and developing a protocol for flashing the WFC3 CCDs with the instrument's internal calibration system in flight. The HST/Wide Field Camera 3 UV/visible channel CCD detectors have exhibited an unanticipated quantum efficiency hysteresis (QEH) behavior. The first observed manifestation of QEH was the presence in a small percentage of flat-field images of a bowtie-shaped contrast that spanned the width of each chip. At the nominal operating temperature of -83C, the contrast observed for this feature was typically 0.1-0.2% or less, though at warmer temperatures contrasts up to 5% (at -50C) have been observed. The bowtie morphology was replicated using flight spare detectors in tests at the GSFC Detector Characterization Laboratory by power cycling the detector while cold. Continued investigation revealed that a clearly-related global QE suppression at the approximately 5% level can be produced by cooling the detector in the dark; subsequent flat-field exposures at a constant illumination show asymptotically increasing response. This QE "pinning" can be achieved with a single high signal flat-field or a series of lower signal flats; a visible light (500-580nm) flat-field with a signal level of several hundred thousand electrons per pixel is sufficient for QE pinning at both optical (600nm) and near-UV (230nm) wavelengths. We are characterizing the timescale for the detectors to become unpinned and developing a protocol for flashing the WFC3 CCDs with the instrument's internal calibration system in flight. A preliminary estimate of the decay timescale for one detector is that a drop of 0.1-0.2% occurs over a ten day period, indicating that relatively infrequent cal lamp exposures can mitigate the behavior to extremely low levels.

  17. Modeling of piezoceramics and piezoelectric laminates addressing complete coupling and hysteresis behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xu

    Smart composite structures have the ability to actively react to environmental disturbance while maintaining or even improving system performance. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites is the development of effective analysis tools that can accurately address piezoelectric coupling effects, stress distributions and even hysteresis behavior under large actuation. This dissertation addresses each of these important topics. A general framework is developed for the analysis of piezoelectric laminates with surface bonded and embedded sensors/actuators. The developed theory can account for the complete two-way coupling among piezoelectric, mechanical and thermal fields. The higher order theories are developed or used to address transverse shear effects and nonuniform distributions of temperature and electrical fields. The impact of various coupling effects and control authority of smart composite structures is investigated in detail. To obtain accurate stress and strain predictions for laminated shells with arbitrary thickness, an improved shear deformation theory is developed. To accommodate the complexity of zigzag-like in-plane deformation through laminate thickness, in-plane displacement field is modeled using the superposition of overall first order shear deformation and layerwise functions. By imposing the interlaminar continuity, the number of structural variables is reduced and is independent of the number of layers. The developed theory is validated using available exact solutions and is further used in the analysis of piezoelectric laminates. To model the significant piezoelectric nonlinearity exhibited under high electrical actuation, a hysteresis model is developed. The nonlinear material model is derived from a new form of elastic Gibbs free energy in terms of the state variables of strain and polarization. Higher order terms are used in the expression to capture ferroelectric nonlinearities. With the introduction of a new material constant, an explicit formulation governing the nonlinear constitutive relationship is obtained by using saturation polarization, remnant polarization, coercive electric field and linear piezoelectric coefficients. The developed nonlinear constitutive relations are applicable in the case of high stroke actuation to utilize the largest possible strain available in piezoceramics.

  18. The origin of noise and hysteresis in permalloy ring-core fluxgate sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narod, Barry

    2013-04-01

    in permalloy ring-core fluxgate sensors a single phenomenon may cause both fluxgate noise and magnetic hysteresis. It also provides an explanation for Barkhausen noise, remanence and coercivity. It can also resolve the "domain nucleation problem." in the unmagnetized state a high-quality permalloy foil takes a domain structure generally referred to as "stripe domains," which present at the free surface as parallel, uniformly spaced domain walls bounding regions of alternating 'in' and 'out' leakage flux, and domain walls crossing the entire thickness of the foil. The leakage flux is a requirement of the random orientation, grain-by-grain, of magnetic easy axes' angles with respect to the foil free surface, and creates a free space field with a magnetostatic energy cost. This together with domain wall energy determines an energy budget to be minimized. Throughout the magnetization cycle the free surface domain pattern remains essentially unchanged, due to the extreme magnetostatic energy cost such a change would elicit. Thus domain walls are 'pinned' to free surfaces. As the fluxgate core is driven to saturation, domain walls pinned at the free surfaces first bulge then reconnect to form a new domain configuration this author has called "channel domains", which are attached to free surfaces. Energy released during the domain wall reconnection manifests as Barkhausen noise, while the reconnection itself manifests as a Barkhausen jump. The approach to saturation now continues as reversible channel domain compression. Driving the permalloy into deep saturation will compress the channel domains to arbitrarily small thickness, but will not cause them to denucleate. Returning from saturation the channel domain structure will survive through zero drive H, thus explaining remanence. The Barkhausen jumps being irreversible, exothermic events are sources of fluxgate noise. It is also the case that fluxgate signal power is proportional to B-H loop curvature, that is to the second derivative of B. The degree to which Barkhausen jumps coincide with loop curvature is a measure of fluxgate noise that accompanies fluxgate signal. B-H loops with significant curvature beyond the open hysteresis loop may be used to advantage to acquire fluxgate signal with much reduced fluxgate noise.

  19. Magnetic hysteresis of an artificial square ice studied by in-plane Bragg x-ray resonant magnetic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. P.; Kinane, C. J.; Charlton, T. R.; Stein, A.; Sánchez-Hanke, C.; Arena, D. A.; Langridge, S.; Marrows, C. H.

    2012-06-01

    We report X-ray resonant magnetic scattering studies of a Permalloy artificial square ice nanomagnet array, focussing on the field-driven evolution of the sum ? and difference ? signals of left and right handed circularly polarized synchrotron X-rays at different lateral positions in reciprocal space Qx. We used X-rays tuned to the Fe L3 resonance energy, with the scattering plane aligned along a principal symmetry axis of the array. Details of the specular ? hysteresis curve are discussed, following the system magnetization from an initial demagnetized state. The periodic structure gives rise to distinct peaks at in-plane reciprocal Bragg positions, as shown by fitting ?(Qx) to a model based on a simple unit cell structure. Diffraction order-dependent hysteresis in ? is observed, indicative of the reordering of magnetization on the system's two interpenetrating sublattices, which markedly deviates from an ideal Ising picture under strong applied fields.

  20. Enhanced magnetic hysteresis in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal and its influence on magnetic shape memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heczko, O.; Drahokoupil, J.; Straka, L.

    2015-05-01

    Enhanced magnetic hysteresis due to boron doping in combination with magnetic shape memory effect in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal results in new interesting functionality of magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys such as mechanical demagnetization. In Ni50.0Mn28.5Ga21.5 single crystal, the boron doping increased magnetic coercivity from few Oe to 270 Oe while not affecting the transformation behavior and 10 M martensite structure. However, the magnetic field needed for MSM effect also increased in doped sample. The magnetic behavior is compared to undoped single crystal of similar composition. The evidence from the X-ray diffraction, magnetic domain structure, magnetization loops, and temperature evolution of the magnetic coercivity points out that the enhanced hysteresis is caused by stress-induced anisotropy.

  1. Physical motivations of the constitutive relations for ferroelectric ceramics and the existence of butterfly and hysteresis loops

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    The responses of ferroelectric ceramics can be quite complex depending on the physical processes to which they are subjected. Their mechanical, electromechanical and dielectric properties depend on domain switching, dipole dynamics and phase transformation which can be caused by external stimuli such as mechanical and electrical loadings, and temperature variations. A theory, taking into account the effects of domain switching and dipole dynamics, has been formulated, and in its present stage of development is sufficient to characterize various observable resonses. Specifically, a special case of the theory predicts the nature of the butterfly and hysteresis loops. The butterfly and hysteresis loops are manifestations of the mechanical, electro-mechanical and dielectric responses due to domain switching produced by cyclic electric fields. Comparisons of the predictions of the theory with experimental results are made in a pseudo one dimensional context.

  2. Light-induced hysteresis and recovery behaviors in photochemically activated solution-processed metal-oxide thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Jeong-Wan; Park, Sung Kyu, E-mail: yhkim76@skku.edu, E-mail: skpark@cau.ac.kr [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Hoon, E-mail: yhkim76@skku.edu, E-mail: skpark@cau.ac.kr [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    In this report, photo-induced hysteresis, threshold voltage (V{sub T}) shift, and recovery behaviors in photochemically activated solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated. It was observed that a white light illumination caused negative V{sub T} shift along with creation of clockwise hysteresis in electrical characteristics which can be attributed to photo-generated doubly ionized oxygen vacancies at the semiconductor/gate dielectric interface. More importantly, the photochemically activated IGZO TFTs showed much reduced overall V{sub T} shift compared to thermally annealed TFTs. Reduced number of donor-like interface states creation under light illumination and more facile neutralization of ionized oxygen vacancies by electron capture under positive gate potential are claimed to be the origin of the less V{sub T} shift in photochemically activated TFTs.

  3. A New Type Hysteresis Loop in SiN/GdFeCoSi/SiN Sandwich Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanling; Wang, Shiqi; Shono, Keiji; Yu, Xiangyou; Lu, Mu; Zhai, Hongru

    A new type of inverted hysteresis loop was observed in an amorphous SiN/GdFeCoSi/SiN film, in which a magnetic GdFeCoSi layer with a thickness of 40 nm was sandwiched by SiN capping and buffer layers 5 nm thick. An inverted hysteresis loop with negative remanence appeared, when an applied field was perpendicular to the film plane, with remanance ratio of 0.4 and HC=120 Oe. An FMR experiment study showed that two magnetic phases existed in the system. A major magnetic phase had an easy-plane anisotropy and the other minor magnetic phase had an easy-normal anisotropy. By assuming an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between them, the inverted loops can be explained.

  4. Modeling hysteresis curves of anisotropic SmCoFeCuZr magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio da Silva, Fernanda A.; Castro, Nicolau A.; de Campos, Marcos F.

    2013-02-01

    The hysteresis curves at room temperature and at 630 K of an anisotropic magnet were successfully modeled with the Stoner-Wohlfarth Callen-Liu-Cullen (SW-CLC) model. This implies that coherent rotation of domains is the reversal mechanism in this magnet. The chemical composition of the evaluated magnet is Sm(CobalFe0.06Cu0.108Zr0.03)7.2. The anisotropy field HA was estimated with the model, resulting ?0HA=7.1 T at the room temperature, and 2.9 T at 630 K. For this sample, the CLC interaction parameter (1/d) is very low (near zero) and, thus, the nanocrystalline 2:17 grains are well "magnetically decoupled". The texture analysis using Schulz Pole figure data indicated Mr/Ms ratio=0.96, and this means that the magnet is very well aligned. The excellent alignment of the grains is one of the reasons for the high coercivity of this sample (˜4 T at room temperature).

  5. Molecular Origin and Functional Consequences of Digital Signaling and Hysteresis During Ras Activation in Lymphocytes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arup K. Chakraborty (Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Department of Chemical Engineering; REV)

    2009-04-14

    Activation of Ras proteins underlies functional decisions in diverse cell types. Two molecules, Ras-GRP and SOS (Ras–guanine nucleotide–releasing protein and Son of Sevenless, respectively), catalyze Ras activation in lymphocytes. Binding of active Ras to the allosteric pocket of SOS markedly increases the activity of SOS. Thus, there is a positive feedback loop regulating SOS. Combining in silico and in vitro studies, we demonstrate that “digital” signaling in lymphocytes (cells are “on” or “off”) is predicated on this allosteric regulation of SOS. The SOS feedback loop leads to hysteresis in the dose-response curve, which may enable T cells to exhibit “memory” of past encounters with antigen. Ras activation by Ras-GRP alone is “analog” (a graded increase in activation in response to an increase in the amplitude of the stimulus). We describe how the complementary analog (Ras-GRP) and digital (SOS) pathways act on Ras to efficiently convert analog input to digital output and make predictions regarding the importance of digital signaling in lymphocyte function and development.

  6. Molecular origin and functional consequences of digital signaling and hysteresis during Ras activation in lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arup K; Das, Jayajit; Zikherman, Julie; Yang, Ming; Govern, Christopher C; Ho, Mary; Weiss, Arthur; Roose, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Activation of Ras proteins underlies functional decisions in diverse cell types. Two molecules, Ras-GRP and SOS (Ras-guanine nucleotide-releasing protein and Son of Sevenless, respectively), catalyze Ras activation in lymphocytes. Binding of active Ras to the allosteric pocket of SOS markedly increases the activity of SOS. Thus, there is a positive feedback loop regulating SOS. Combining in silico and in vitro studies, we demonstrate that "digital" signaling in lymphocytes (cells are "on" or "off") is predicated on this allosteric regulation of SOS. The SOS feedback loop leads to hysteresis in the dose-response curve, which may enable T cells to exhibit "memory" of past encounters with antigen. Ras activation by Ras-GRP alone is "analog" (a graded increase in activation in response to an increase in the amplitude of the stimulus). We describe how the complementary analog (Ras-GRP) and digital (SOS) pathways act on Ras to efficiently convert analog input to digital output and make predictions regarding the importance of digital signaling in lymphocyte function and development. PMID:19366993

  7. Current hysteresis by oxygen vacancy exchange between oxides in Pt/a-IGZO/TaOx/W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeon-Min; Kim, Myeong-Ho; Lee, Seung-Ryul; Kim, Young-Bae; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2014-02-01

    ReRAM (resistance random access memory) has been receiving attention as the next-generation memory owing to advantages such as fast switching-speed, low power consumption, and simple structure. However, in order to improve the properties of the candidate materials that show resistive switching phenomenon, it is essential to understand the resistive switching mechanism. This study was conducted to investigate the switching mechanism of a ReRAM device with Pt/a-IGZO (amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O)/TaOx/Al2O3/W structure that exhibits useful properties such as forming free and self-rectifying properties in addition to the general memory properties of existing ReRAM devices. Based on a series of designed experiments and analysis, it was found that the current hysteresis in this device is based on the oxygen vacancy exchange between a-IGZO and TaOx. The movement of positively charged oxygen vacancy according to the relative polarity of applied voltage between the two oxides induces the resistance change of TaOx layer, which in turn results in the resistive switching.

  8. Experimental methodology to measure damping in microstructures by using the actuation force hysteresis curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pasquale, G.; Somá, A.

    2013-05-01

    The study of damping in MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems) is crucial for dynamic response prediction and functional parameters estimation as switch and release time, resonance and quality factor. Geometrical features (borders, perforations, anchors, etc.) complicate the airflow and impose to validate the results calculated or simulated with models. Fluid damping is the dominant dissipation source, accompanied by structural dissipations, thermo-elastic damping, anchor losses, surface effects and electric losses. In literature, the damping coefficient of MEMS is generally derived from the peaks of the structural frequency response function (FRF) by the half power method. Despite the wide usage of this approach, it is affected by two main drawbacks: highly precise and automated detection instruments are needed, and it is applicable only in resonance conditions. The method presented here is based on the measurement of damping from the hysteresis cycle of the actuation force; it applies in the time domain and works at any frequency and vibration amplitude. The effectiveness of this methodology on MEMS is proved by comparing the damping results with those provided at resonance conditions by the half power method. The samples, designed by the authors, are gold microplates with square holes and elastic springs. The measurements are conducted by the laser vibrometer Polytech MSA500. The comparison shows very good agreement with the damping coefficients calculated with the traditional approach (differences within 2% at resonance).

  9. Thin-Film Ferro Electric-Coupled Microstripline Phase Shifters With Reduced Device Hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert; Mueller, Carl H.; VanKeuls, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the performance of coupled microstripline phase shifters (CMPS) fabricated using BaxSr 1 -xTiO 3 (BST) ferroelectric thin films. The CMPS were fabricated using commercially available pulsed laser deposition BST films with Ba:Sr ratios of 30:70 and 20:80. Microwave characterization of these CMPS was performed at upper Kuband frequencies, particularly at frequencies near 16 and 18 GHz. X-ray diffraction studies indicate that the 30:70 films exhibit almost a 1:1 ratio between the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters, suggesting that their cubics create strain -free films suitable for producing CMPS devices with reduced hysteresis in the paraelectric state. The quality of performance of the CMPS was studied based on their relative phase shift and insertion loss within the DC bias range of 0 to 400 V (i.e., E-field ranges within 0 to 53 V/micron). The performance of the CMPS was tested as a function of temperature to investigate their operation in the paraelectric, as well as in the ferroelectric, state (i.e., above and below the Curie temperature, respectively). The novel behavior discussed here is based on the experimental observation of the CMPS. This behavior, observed for the aforementioned cation ratio, highlights the relevance of good crystalline structure for high-quality CMPS.

  10. Novel Magnetic Chiral Structures and Unusual Temperature Hysteresis in the Metallic Helimagnet MnP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Teruo; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Sato, Taku J.; Matsuura, Masato; Ohoyama, Kenji; Yokoyama, Makoto; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    We have reinvestigated the magnetic properties of the classical metallic helimagnet MnP by magnetization and neutron scattering experiments. Our neutron scattering results indicate that the previously reported magnetic structure in the low-temperature (LT) helimagnetic phase (T < 47 K) should be modified to an alternately tilted helimagnetic structure produced by the Dzyaloshinsky–Moriya interaction. In the intermediate temperature (IT) range between the LT helimagnetic phase and the high-temperature (HT) ferromagnetic phase along the c-axis, 47 < T < 252 K, we have found a weak ferromagnetic behavior along the b-axis. Surprisingly, the IT weak ferromagnetic phase has two different states, namely, the large magnetization (LM) and small magnetization (SM) states. The SM state emerges with cooling from the paramagnetic phase above 292 K via the HT ferromagnetic phase and LM state emerges with warming from the LT helimagnetic phase. The weak ferromagnetism along the b-axis and the unusual temperature hysteresis in the IT phase can be understood by assuming a spontaneous formation of the stripe structure consisting of alternately arranged HT ferromagnetic and LT helimagnetic domains.

  11. Bistability and hysteresis in the emergence of pulses in microstrip Gunn-diode circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, V. B.; Yurchenko, L. V.

    2014-12-01

    We develop time-domain simulations of microwave and THz radiation sources built as arrays of active devices when the radiation wavelength is small as compared to spacing between electronic components. We pursue an approach when the system is represented by equations with time-delay feedback that could generate chaos and other forms of complicated dynamics. The approach simplifies simulations of ultra-wideband effects and exceeds capabilities of frequency-domain methods. As a model case, we simulated a microstrip circuit with Gunn diode and a remote resonator emitting the radiation towards infinity. We observed the emergence of either the continuous waves or the trains of high-frequency pulses depending on the bias conditions. We found bistability and hysteresis in the onset of different oscillation modes that depends on the way of driving the bias voltage into the domain of instability of the given system. The results would allow one to improve the design of THz radiation sources with time-delay coupling between components.

  12. Magnetic hysteresis experiments at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilder, S.; Legoff, M.; Peyronneau, J.; Chervin, J. C.

    2003-04-01

    We have developed a system that measures reversible magnetic susceptibility of micron-sized samples under high pressures (in excess of 30 GPa) in a diamond anvil cell. Our system employs two unequal pick up coils wound in opposition around a diamond resulting in a virtually null magnetic surface. Around these is an inducing coil, mounted in null mutual inductance. A lock-in amplifier measures the output of the sensing coil. The detection system is housed in a beryllium-copper membrane-type diamond cell placed in the confines of an electromagnet. Thus the pressure of the cell is remotely controlled and the ac (reversible) susceptibility (Xrev) is measured as a function of applied field (H), with H varying from minus 1.2 T to +1.2 T. Because the integral of Xrev(H)dH is proportional to the magnetic moment (of the reversible part of the remanence, or Mrev), we can measure the reversible hysteresis parameters of ferromagnetic materials as a function of pressure. Examples of our experimental results will be given based on experiments on magnetite and 99 percent pure iron.

  13. Lattice water molecules tuned spin-crossover for an iron(II) complex with thermal hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yang-Hui; Yang, Li-Jing; Liu, Qing-Ling; Ling, Yang; Wang, Wei; Sun, Bai-Wang

    2014-11-28

    A new iron(II) complex based on the 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine ligand [Fe(4,4'-dmbpy)3(ClO4)(SCN)·3H2O (1·3H2O)] has been prepared and characterized. Structural studies and Hirshfeld surface analysis for complex 1·3H2O at three different temperatures (300, 240 and 130 K) are described. The UV-vis absorption spectrum of a water-free sample (1) in methanol solution and magnetic susceptibility measurements for solid-state samples 1·3H2O and 1 revealed that the removal of lattice water molecules from complex 1·3H2O changed the magnetic properties from the low-spin state (1·3H2O) to the complete spin-crossover (1) between 350-220 K with a thermal hysteresis of 7 K, and was accompanied by a colour change from brown to red. PMID:25301143

  14. Design of Mechanisms for Deployable, Optical Instruments: Guidelines for Reducing Hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Hachkowski, M. Roman

    2000-01-01

    This paper is intended to facilitate the development of deployable, optical instruments by providing a rational approach for the design, testing, and qualification of high-precision (i.e., low-hysteresis) deployment mechanisms for these instruments. Many of the guidelines included herein come directly from the field of optomechanical engineering, and are, therefore, neither newly developed guidelines, nor are they uniquely applicable to the design of high-precision deployment mechanisms. This paper is to be regarded as a guide to design and not a set of NASA requirements, except as may be defined in formal project specifications. Furthermore, due to the rapid pace of advancement in the field of precision deployment, this paper should be regarded as a preliminary set of guidelines. However, it is expected that this paper, with revisions as experience may indicate to be desirable, might eventually form the basis for a set of uniform design requirements for high-precision deployment mechanisms on future NASA space-based science instruments.

  15. Electric field effect modulation and hysteresis in thin graphite using ferroelectric gate oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, X.; Zou, K.; Zhu, J.; Posadas, A.; Reiner, J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2008-03-01

    We study the electronic properties of thin graphite field effect transistors (FETs) using ferroelectric gate oxide Pb (Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT). Thin graphite flakes (3-5nm) are exfoliated onto 300 nm PZT films epitaxially grown on doped SrTiO3 (STO) and fabricated into FET devices. Carriers are induced into the FETs by applying a voltage Vg on the STO substrate (backgate). We observe a maximum carrier density (n) of ˜4x10^13cm-2 and a density modulation of ˜2x^12cm-2/Vg(V), and extract a high dielectric constant ˜100 of PZT. We also explore the potential of non-volatile memory devices based on the large polarization of PZT (˜40 ?C/cm^2) and its field switching behavior. At 300 K, both the resistance and n of the devices show pronounced hysteretic behavior as Vg is swept beyond 3 V, with two distinct states. The unstable one decays exponentially with time, with a time constant of ˜6 hours at 300 K and a few days at 150 K, suggesting a thermally activated process. We discuss possible origins of the hysteresis, highlighting the importance of adsorbates at the interface of PZT and graphite.

  16. Wetting hysteresis of a dry patch left inside a flowing film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, E.; Limat, L.

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the influence of wetting hysteresis on the shape and stability of dry patches. Such patches are generated in a film flowing over an inclined plane in a situation of partial wetting. We performed experiments on silicon oil flowing over a glass plate coated with fluoropolymers in which direct visualizations are combined with refraction of a laser sheet to probe contact angle distribution around the patches. The shape evolution depends on the history of the flow, and is different for progressive increase or decrease of flow rate. For increasing flow rates, the shape is in agreement with a simple model based upon a balance between gravity and capillarity, and in which the contact angle is supposed to be uniform. Laser measurements indicate that its value coincides with the static advancing contact angle. For a decreasing flow rate the situation is much more complicated: the shape remains qualitatively that predicted by the model, but quantitatively, the curvature of the patch boundary is not reproducible. Laser measurements suggest that this is linked to wetting heterogeneities (wetting defects) that impose nonuniform contact angle distributions. Finally, the stability is explored in terms of two critical flow rates (expansion or advection of the patches).

  17. Hysteresis compensation for piezoelectric actuators in single-point diamond turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Hu, Dejin; Wan, Daping; Liu, Hongbin

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, interests have been growing for fast tool servo (FTS) systems to increase the capability of existing single-point diamond turning machines. Although piezoelectric actuator is the most universal base of FTS system due to its high stiffness, accuracy and bandwidth, nonlinearity in piezoceramics limits both the static and dynamic performance of piezoelectric-actuated control systems evidently. To compensate the nonlinear hysteresis behavior of piezoelectric actuators, a hybrid model coupled with Preisach model and feedforward neural network (FNN) has been described. Since the training of FNN does not require a special calibration sequence, it is possible for on-line identification and real-time implementation with general operating data of a specific piezoelectric actuator. To describe the rate dependent behavior of piezoelectric actuators, a hybrid dynamic model was developed to predict the response of piezoelectric actuators in a wider range of input frequency. Experimental results show that a maximal error of less than 3% was accomplished by this dynamic model.

  18. Metastable nanobubbles at the solid-liquid interface due to contact angle hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Takashi; Yamada, Yutaka; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Koji; Takata, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-27

    Nanobubbles exist at solid-liquid interfaces between pure water and hydrophobic surfaces with very high stability, lasting in certain cases up to several days. Not only semispherical but also other shapes, such as micropancakes, are known to exist at such interfaces. However, doubt has been raised as to whether or not the nanobubbles are gas-phase entities. In this study, surface nanobubbles at a pure water-highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) interface were investigated by peak force quantitative nanomechanics (PF-QNM). Multiple isolated nanobubbles generated by the solvent-exchange method were present on the terraced areas, avoiding the steps of the HOPG surface. Adjacent nanobubbles coalesced and formed metastable nanobubbles. Coalescence was enhanced by the PF-QNM measurement. We determined that nanobubbles can exist for a long time because of nanoscale contact angle hysteresis at the water-HOPG interface. Moreover, the hydrophilic steps of HOPG were avoided during coalescence, providing evidence that the nanobubbles are truly gas phase. PMID:25540821

  19. Hysteresis in elastic behavior: The connection between low-frequency response and acoustic properties of rocks

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, K.R. [Earth and Environ. Sciences Div., Los Alamos Natl. Lab., Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Guyer, R.A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Zhu, L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The strain response of rock to quasistatic stress cycles (e.g., 10{sup {minus}3} Hz) is highly nonlinear, hysteretic, and displays discrete memory. Rocks also display unusual nonlinear behavior in acoustic wave experiments (e.g., 10{sup 4} Hz). Nonlinearity and hysteresis are prominent features in elastic measurements on rocks. This observation is the key to making the connection between low-frequency (quasistatic) and high-frequency (acoustic) measurements, e.g., between static modulus and dynamic modulus. A new paradigm has been developed for the description of the elastic behavior of rocks and other consolidated materials. This paradigm uses the statistical properties of an ensemble of micron-scale hysteretic mechanical units to describe the elastic response of a macroscopic piece of material. It provides a recipe for inverting stress-strain data (low-frequency data) for the distribution of hysteretic mechanical units. From this distribution, the high-frequency acoustic response of the macroscopic piece of material can be predicted. The new paradigm will be described in principle and in application. Quasistatic stress-strain data on sandstone lead to predictions for dynamic modulus and resonant response that agree well with experiment.

  20. Predator-prey reversal: a possible mechanism for ecosystem hysteresis in the North Sea?

    PubMed

    Fauchald, Per

    2010-08-01

    Removal of large predatory fishes from marine ecosystems has resulted in persistent ecosystem shifts, with collapsed predator populations and super-abundant prey populations. One explanation for these shifts is reversals of predator-prey roles that generate internal feedbacks in the ecosystems. Pelagic forage fish are often predators and competitors to the young life stages of their larger fish predators. I show that cod recruitment in the North Sea has been negatively related to the spawning-stock biomass of herring for the last 44 years. Herring, together with the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus, the major food for cod larvae, were the main predictors of cod recruitment. These predictors were of equivalent importance, worked additively, and explained different parts of the dynamics in cod recruitment. I suggest that intensive harvesting of cod has released herring from predator control, and that a large population of herring suppresses cod recruitment through predation on eggs and larvae. This feedback mechanism can promote alternative stable states and therefore cause hysteresis to occur under changing conditions; however, harvesting of herring might at present prevent a shift in the ecosystem to a herring-dominated state. PMID:20836439

  1. Cochlear hysteresis: observation with low-frequency modulated distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Bian, Lin; Linhardt, Erin E; Chertoff, Mark E

    2004-05-01

    Low-frequency modulation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) can be used to estimate a nonlinear transducer function (fTr) of the cochlea. From gerbils, DPOAEs were measured while presenting a high-level bias tone. Within one period of the bias tone, the magnitudes of the cubic difference tone (CDT, 2f1 - f2) demonstrated two similar modulation patterns (MPs) each resembled the absolute value of the third derivative of the fTr. The center peaks of the MPs occurred at positive sound pressures for rising in bias pressure or loading of the cochlear transducer, and more negative pressures while decreasing bias amplitude or unloading. The corresponding fTr revealed a sigmoid-shaped hysteresis loop with counterclockwise traversal. Physiologic indices that characterized the double MP varied with primary level. A Boltzmann-function-based model with negative damping as a feedback component was proposed. The model was able to replicate the experimental results. Model parameters that fit to the CDT data indicated higher transducer gain and more prominent feedback role at lower primary levels. Both physiologic indices and model parameters suggest that the cochlear transducer dynamically changes its gain with input signal level and the nonlinear mechanism is a time-dependent feedback process. PMID:15139627

  2. Hysteresis conditions the vertical position of deep chlorophyll maximum in the temperate ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier

    2013-12-01

    chlorophyll maxima (DCMs) are widespread features of oceans. In temperate regions, DCMs are commonly associated with isopycnal surfaces that frequently move over a wide vertical range. This general association between DCMs and isopycnals remains unexplained by present theories, and we show here that it emerges from the seasonal history of the water column. Analysis of the formation of more than 9000 seasonal DCMs throughout the world's oceans consistently locates the vertical position of spring/summer DCMs in temperate seas at the density of the previous winter mixed layer, independently of this density value and future depth. These results indicate that DCM formation cannot be understood without hysteresis by solely considering the instantaneous response of phytoplankton to vertical gradients in physical and chemical fields. Present theories for DCM formation cannot explain why spring and summer DCMs are systematically found at a density equal to that of the previous mixed layer where a bloom has occurred. Rather than reacting to instantaneous physical forcing, the results indicate that DCMs operate as self-preserving biological structures that are associated with particular isopycnals because of their capacity to modify the physicochemical environment. Combined with remote sensors to measure salinity and temperature in the surface ocean, this new understanding of DCM dynamics has the potential to improve the quantification of three-dimensional primary production via satellites. This significant enhancement of the representation of oceanic biological processes can also allow increasingly realistic predictions of future biogeochemical scenarios in a warming ocean.

  3. Hysteresis, avalanches, and disorder-induced critical scaling: A renormalization-group approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmen, K.; Sethna, J.P. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-2501 (United States)] [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-2501 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Hysteresis loops are often seen in experiments at first-order phase transformations, when the system goes out of equilibrium. They may have a macroscopic jump (roughly as in the supercooling of liquids) or they may be smoothly varying (as seen in most magnets). We have studied the nonequilibrium zero-temperature random-field Ising-model as a model for hysteretic behavior at first-order phase transformations. As disorder is added, one finds a transition where the jump in the magnetization (corresponding to an infinite avalanche) decreases to zero. At this transition we find a diverging length scale, power-law distributions of noise (avalanches), and universal behavior. We expand the critical exponents about mean-field theory in 6{minus}{epsilon} dimensions. Using a mapping to the pure Ising model, we Borel sum the 6{minus}{epsilon} expansion to {ital O}({epsilon}{sup 5}) for the correlation length exponent. We have developed a method for directly calculating avalanche distribution exponents, which we perform to {ital O}({epsilon}). Our analytical predictions agree with numerical exponents in two, three, four, and five dimensions [Perkovi{acute c} {ital et} {ital al}., Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 75}, 4528 (1995)]. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. New soft magnetic amorphous cobalt based alloys with high hysteresis loop linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, V. K.; Maslov, V. V.; Kochkubey, A. P.; Kirilchuk, V. V.

    2008-02-01

    The new amorphous Co56÷59(Fe,Ni,Mn)21÷24(Si0.2B0.8)20-based metal alloys (AMA) with high saturation induction (BS>=1T) were developed. Toroidal tape wound magnetic cores made from these AMA after heat-magnetic treatment (HMT) in a reversal field are characterized by high hysteresis loop linearity, minimum effective magnetic permeability and its high field stability in combination with low coercivity Hc (1-3 A/m, 1 kHz). For the most prospecting alloy compositions the value of effective magnetic permeability decreases compared to known alloys up to 550 - 670 units and remains constant in the wide magnetic field range 1100 - 1300 A/m. Maximum remagnetization loop linearity is achieved after optimum HMT in high Ni containing AMAs, which are characterized by the record low squareness ratio values Ks=0.002-0.02 and Hc=1.0 A/m. Magnetic cores made from the new amorphous alloys can be used both in filter chokes of switch-mode power supply units and in matching mini-transformers of telecommunication systems; at that, high efficiency and accuracy of signal transmission including high frequency pulses are ensured under conditions of long-term influence of dc magnetic bias.

  5. Numerical study of drop motion on a surface with stepwise wettability gradient and contact angle hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun-Jie; Huang, Haibo; Wang, Xinzhu

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the motion of a two-dimensional drop on a surface with stepwise wettability gradient (WG) is studied numerically by a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann finite-difference method. We incorporate the geometric wetting boundary condition that allows accurate implementation of a contact angle hysteresis (CAH) model. The method is first validated through a series of tests that check different constituents of the numerical model. Then, simulations of a drop on a wall with given stepwise WG are performed under different conditions. The effects of the Reynolds number, the viscosity ratio, the WG, as well as the CAH on the drop motion are investigated in detail. It was discovered that the shape of the drop in steady motion may be fitted by two arcs that give two apparent contact angles, which are related to the respective contact line velocities and the relevant contact angles (that specify the WG and CAH) through the relation derived by Cox ["The dynamics of the spreading of liquids on a solid surface. Part 1. viscous flow," J. Fluid Mech. 168, 169-194 (1986)] if the slip length in simulation is defined according to Yue et al. ["Sharp-interface limit of the Cahn-Hilliard model for moving contact lines," J. Fluid Mech. 645, 279-294 (2010)]. It was also found that the steady capillary number of the drop is significantly affected by the viscosity ratio, the magnitudes of the WG, and the CAH, whereas it almost shows no dependence on the Reynolds number.

  6. Hysteresis in consumer markets with focus on the mobile communications market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twomey, C.

    2008-11-01

    Our aim here is to try to identify hysteresis in the switching patterns of consumers in the Irish mobile phone industry. It was not until the introduction by the Communication Regulator of full-number portability that consumers began to take advantage of the savings that switching mobile phone operator could produce. As with most relatively new industries, the awareness of savings is clouded by a lack of understanding of whats on offer and an underlying fear of change from something they have only just started to comprehend. With people changing company loyalties more frequently than ever at the prospect of better, more cost-efficient services, it is now the million euro question for the phone companies on how close they should match each others' offers to maximize their profits, and what their best pricing strategy should be to obtain an even larger share of the market. Through the use of experimental economics and by modelling switching behaviour using the Preisach model, along with observed and market data, we hope to both pose this problem and start the journey to answering this question.

  7. Study of spin crossover nanoparticles thermal hysteresis using FORC diagrams on an Ising-like model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atitoaie, Alexandru; Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian

    2014-11-01

    Recent developments in the synthesis and characterization of spin crossover (SCO) nanoparticles and their prospects of switching at molecular level turned these bistable compounds into possible candidates for replacing the materials used in recording media industry for development of solid state pressure and temperature sensors or for bringing contributions in engineering. Compared to bulk samples with the same chemical structure, SCO nanoparticles display different characteristics of the hysteretic and relaxation properties like the shift of the transition temperature towards lower values along with decrease of the hysteresis width with nanoparticles size. Using an Ising-like model with specific boundary conditions within a Monte Carlo procedure, we here reproduce most of the hysteretic properties of SCO nanoparticles by considering the interaction between spin crossover edge molecules and embedding surfactant molecules and we propose a complex analysis concerning the effect of the interactions and sizes during the thermal transition in systems of SCO nanoparticles by using the First Order Reversal Curves diagram method and by comparison with similar effects in mixed crystal systems.

  8. Structural instability, multiple stable states, and hysteresis in periphyton driven by phosphorus enrichment in the Everglades.

    PubMed

    Dong, Quan; McCormick, Paul V; Sklar, Fred H; DeAngelis, Donald L

    2002-02-01

    Periphyton is a key component of the Everglades ecosystems. It is a major primary producer, providing food and habitat for a variety of organisms, contributing material to the surface soil, and regulating water chemistry. Periphyton is sensitive to the phosphorus (P) supply and P enrichment has caused dramatic changes in the native Everglades periphyton assemblages. Periphyton also affects P availability by removing P from the water column and depositing a refractory portion into sediment. A quantitative understanding of the response of periphyton assemblages to P supply and its effects on P cycling could provide critical supports to decision making in the conservation and restoration of the Everglades. We constructed a model to examine the interaction between periphyton and P dynamics. The model contains two differential equations: P uptake and periphyton growth are assumed to follow the Monod equation and are limited by a modified logistic equation. Equilibrium and stability analyses suggest that P loading is the driving force and determines the system behavior. The position and number of steady states and the stability also depend upon the rate of sloughing, through which periphyton deposits refractory P into sediment. Multiple equilibria may exist, with two stable equilibria separated by an unstable equilibrium. Due to nonlinear interplay of periphyton and P in this model, catastrophe and hysteresis are likely to occur. PMID:11895379

  9. Adaptive state of charge algorithm for nickel metal hydride batteries including hysteresis phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbrugge, Mark; Tate, Edward

    A state of charge (SOC) algorithm is described and implemented for a nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery system. The essential elements of the algorithm were first used as part of the GM Precept hybrid electric vehicle program, which culminated in an 80-mile-per-gallon, 5-passenger, technology-demonstration vehicle. The algorithm is based on a simple equivalent-circuit representation of the battery pack, with the parameters adapted by means of on-line least-square regression. The output of the algorithm is the SOC, which is a measure of the available energy within the battery system, and the power capability for subsequent charge or discharge, which enables efficient hybrid vehicle operation through optimal torque allocation. The behavior of the algorithm in terms of convergence, accuracy, and robustness is examined; for these analyses, the power required from the battery for the Precept to complete a variety of drive schedules provides the power versus time trace. Voltage hysteresis is shown to play a critical role, and this effect makes determining the SOC particularly difficult for NiMH batteries relative to other battery systems (e.g., lead acid and lithium ion).

  10. Hierarchically structured re-entrant microstructures for superhydrophobic surfaces with extremely low hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Huan; Swaminathan, Vikhram V.; Zamani Farahani, Mahmoud Reza; Mensing, Glennys; Yeom, Junghoon; Shannon, Mark A.; Zhu, Likun

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports a new type of hierarchically structured surface consisting of re-entrant silicon micropillars with silicon nanowires atop for superhydrophobic surface with extremely low hysteresis. Re-entrant microstructures were fabricated on a silicon substrate through a customized one-mask microfabrication process while silicon nanopillars were created on the entire surface of microstructures, including sidewalls, by a metal-assisted-chemical etching process. The strategy of constructing hierarchical surfaces aims to reduce the actual contact area between liquid and top part of solid surface, thereby increasing the contact angle and reducing the sliding angle. The strategy of using re-entrant profile of the microstructure aims to prevent a liquid droplet from falling into cavities of roughened structures and decrease the actual contact area between the liquid droplet and sidewalls of solid structures, therefore reducing adhesion forces acting on the liquid droplet. Our measurement shows that the surface incorporating both hierarchical and re-entrant strategies exhibits a sliding angle as low as 0.5°, much lower than sliding angles of surfaces only incorporating either one of the strategies.

  11. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 338, 189--196 (2003) Hysteresis in the light curves of soft Xray transients

    E-print Network

    Coppi, Paolo

    at a luminosity #5 times lower than the hard­to­soft transition. This hysteresis effect rules out the propeller mechanism as the sole cause of state transitions in Aql X­1. Assuming the propeller mechanism only operates­off. The radiation mechanisms in the very high state are not as well un­ derstood as in the other states. There also

  12. Analysis, Design, and Implementation of Hysteresis Modulation Sliding-mode Controller for Negative-output Elementary Boost Converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ramash Kumar; S. Jeevananthan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the analysis, design, and output voltage regulation of a negative-output elementary boost converter operated in the continuous conduction mode using a hysteresis modulation sliding-mode controller for applications requiring the constant power source in medical equipment, telecom, industrial, and military\\/aerospace telemetry applications. The negative-output elementary boost converter is a new series of attractive DC-DC converters possessing high-voltage transfer

  13. A new method for validating fatigue mechanisms based on the correlated analysis of hysteresis loop parameters using the landau theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Ricinschi; Alexandru Ionut Lerescu; Masanori Okuyama

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of the fatigue in sol-gel derived Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films is investigated using a Landau theory-based lattice model where various degradation hypotheses are implemented. For mechanism validation, a correlated analysis of normalized hysteresis loop parameters is shown to be extremely valuable. The most likely mechanism is the formation of degraded regions gradually spreading across the sample surface, where switching

  14. Hysteresis in optical sensing and its impact on the analytical error of a calibration-free acid sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo R. Allain; Ziling Xue

    2001-01-01

    Durability tests and statistical analyses of errors have been conducted for an indicator-doped optical sol–gel sensor for concentrated strong acid. During the 9-month tests with no recalibration, the sensor response was steady in 2, 6, and 10M HCl. The studies here revealed that the major component of the analytical error was the hysteresis of the sensor response for this bromocresol

  15. The Variable-Bandwidth Hysteresis-Modulation Sliding-Mode Control for the PWM–PFM Converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Chen; Yong Kang

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the sliding-mode (SM) control method for the pulsewidth modulation -pulse frequency modula- tion (PWM-PFM) converters, in which both the duty cycle and the switching frequency are utilized as control parameters. Being dif- ferent from the conventional PWM-PFM modulator, the proposed method utilizes a direct hysteresis modulation (HM) SM controller to perform the PWM, and, meanwhile, employs a

  16. Correlations of Capacitance-Voltage Hysteresis with Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cell Performance During Accelerated Lifetime Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D.; del Cueto, J.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present the correlation of CdTe solar cell performance with capacitance-voltage hysteresis, defined presently as the difference in capacitance measured at zero-volt bias when collecting such data with different pre-measurement bias conditions. These correlations were obtained on CdTe cells stressed under conditions of 1-sun illumination, open-circuit bias, and an acceleration temperature of approximately 100 degrees C.

  17. Origin and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH3NH3PbI3 planar heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuchuan; Xiao, Zhengguo; Bi, Cheng; Yuan, Yongbo; Huang, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    The large photocurrent hysteresis observed in many organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells has become a major hindrance impairing the ultimate performance and stability of these devices, while its origin was unknown. Here we demonstrate the trap states on the surface and grain boundaries of the perovskite materials to be the origin of photocurrent hysteresis and that the fullerene layers deposited on perovskites can effectively passivate these charge trap states and eliminate the notorious photocurrent hysteresis. Fullerenes deposited on the top of the perovskites reduce the trap density by two orders of magnitude and double the power conversion efficiency of CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) solar cells. The elucidation of the origin of photocurrent hysteresis and its elimination by trap passivation in perovskite solar cells provides important directions for future enhancements to device efficiency. PMID:25503258

  18. Origin and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH3NH3PbI3 planar heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yuchuan; Xiao, Zhengguo; Bi, Cheng; Yuan, Yongbo; Huang, Jinsong

    2014-12-01

    The large photocurrent hysteresis observed in many organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells has become a major hindrance impairing the ultimate performance and stability of these devices, while its origin was unknown. Here we demonstrate the trap states on the surface and grain boundaries of the perovskite materials to be the origin of photocurrent hysteresis and that the fullerene layers deposited on perovskites can effectively passivate these charge trap states and eliminate the notorious photocurrent hysteresis. Fullerenes deposited on the top of the perovskites reduce the trap density by two orders of magnitude and double the power conversion efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells. The elucidation of the origin of photocurrent hysteresis and its elimination by trap passivation in perovskite solar cells provides important directions for future enhancements to device efficiency.

  19. Nonlinear space charge dynamics in mixed ionic-electronic conductors: Resistive switching and ferroelectric-like hysteresis of electromechanical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Varenyk, Olexandr V.; Kim, Yunseok; Strelcov, Evgheni; Tselev, Alexander; Morozovsky, Nicholas V.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2014-08-01

    We performed self-consistent modelling of nonlinear electrotransport and electromechanical response of thin films of mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIEC) allowing for steric effects of mobile charged defects (ions, protons, or vacancies), electron degeneration, and Vegard stresses. We establish correlations between the features of the nonlinear space-charge dynamics, current-voltage, and bending-voltage curves for different types of the film electrodes. A pronounced ferroelectric-like hysteresis of the bending-voltage loops and current maxima on the double hysteresis current-voltage loops appear for the electron-transport electrodes. The double hysteresis loop with pronounced humps indicates a memristor-type resistive switching. The switching occurs due to the strong nonlinear coupling between the electronic and ionic subsystems. A sharp meta-stable maximum of the electron density appears near one open electrode and moves to another one during the periodic change of applied voltage. Our results can explain the nonlinear nature and correlation of electrical and mechanical memory effects in thin MIEC films. The analytical expression proving that the electrically induced bending of MIEC films can be detected by interferometric methods is derived.

  20. Nonlinear space charge dynamics in mixed ionic-electronic conductors: Resistive switching and ferroelectric-like hysteresis of electromechanical response

    SciTech Connect

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Morozovsky, Nicholas V. [Institute of Physics NAS of Ukraine, 46, pr. Nauki, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine); Eliseev, Eugene A. [Institute of Problems for Material Sciences, NAS of Ukraine, 3, Krjijanovskogo str., Kyiv 03028 Ukraine (Ukraine); Varenyk, Olexandr V. [Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Radiophysical Faculty 4, pr. Akademika Hlushkova, 03022 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kim, Yunseok [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Strelcov, Evgheni; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V. [The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-08-14

    We performed self-consistent modelling of nonlinear electrotransport and electromechanical response of thin films of mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIEC) allowing for steric effects of mobile charged defects (ions, protons, or vacancies), electron degeneration, and Vegard stresses. We establish correlations between the features of the nonlinear space-charge dynamics, current-voltage, and bending-voltage curves for different types of the film electrodes. A pronounced ferroelectric-like hysteresis of the bending-voltage loops and current maxima on the double hysteresis current-voltage loops appear for the electron-transport electrodes. The double hysteresis loop with pronounced humps indicates a memristor-type resistive switching. The switching occurs due to the strong nonlinear coupling between the electronic and ionic subsystems. A sharp meta-stable maximum of the electron density appears near one open electrode and moves to another one during the periodic change of applied voltage. Our results can explain the nonlinear nature and correlation of electrical and mechanical memory effects in thin MIEC films. The analytical expression proving that the electrically induced bending of MIEC films can be detected by interferometric methods is derived.

  1. Dipole-dipole interaction and its concentration dependence of magnetic fluid evaluated by alternating current hysteresis measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Satoshi; Yamada, Tsutomu; Takemura, Yasushi

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are used as therapeutic and diagnostic tools, such as for treating hyperthermia and in magnetic particle imaging, respectively. Magnetic relaxation is one of the heating mechanisms of MNPs. Brownian and Néel relaxation times are calculated conventional theories; however, the influence of dipole-dipole interactions has not been considered in conventional models. In this study, water-dispersed MNPs of different concentrations and MNPs fixed with an epoxy bond were prepared. dc and ac hysteresis loops for each sample were measured. With respect to both dc and ac hysteresis loops, magnetization decreased with the increase in MNP concentration because of inhibition of magnetic moment rotation due to dipole-dipole interactions. Moreover, intrinsic loss power (ILP) was estimated from the areas of the ac hysteresis loops. The dependence of ILP on the frequency of the magnetic field was evaluated for each MNP concentration. The peak frequency of ILP increased with the decrease in MNP concentration. These peaks were due to Brownian relaxation, as they were not seen with the fixed sample. This indicates that the Brownian relaxation time became shorter with lower MNP concentration, because the weaker dipole-dipole interactions with lower concentrations suggested that the magnetic moments could rotate more freely.

  2. Effects of Contact Angle Hysteresis on Ice Adhesion and Growth over Superhydrophobic Surfaces under Dynamic Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sarshar, Mohammad Amin [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Swarctz, Christopher [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL; Simpson, John T [ORNL; Choi, Chang-Hwan [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the iceophobic properties of superhydrophobic surfaces are investigated under dynamic flow conditions by using a closed loop low-temperature wind tunnel. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by coating the substrates of aluminum and steel plates with nano-structured hydrophobic particles. The superhydrophobic plates along with uncoated control ones were exposed to an air flow of 12 m/s and 20 F accompanying micron-sized water droplets in the icing wind tunnel and the ice formation and accretion were probed by high-resolution CCD cameras. Results show that the superhydrophobic coatings significantly delay the ice formation and accretion even under the dynamic flow condition of the highly energetic impingement of accelerated super-cooled water droplets. It is found that there is a time scale for this phenomenon (delay of the ice formation) which has a clear correlation with the contact angle hysteresis and the length scale of surface roughness of the superhydrophobic surface samples, being the highest for the plate with the lowest contact angle hysteresis and finer surface roughness. The results suggest that the key parameter for designing iceophobic surfaces is to retain a low contact angle hysteresis (dynamic property) and the non-wetting superhydrophobic state under the hydrodynamic pressure of impinging droplets, rather than to only have a high contact angle (static property), in order to result in efficient anti-icing properties under dynamic conditions such as forced flows.

  3. Properties of ferromagnetic film hysteresis, on the surface of a hard-magnetic antiferromagnet, with a domain structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, A. S.; Pankratova, M. L.

    2014-11-01

    This is a theoretical investigation of the exchange bias phenomenon, and the properties of a thin magnetic film's magnetization hysteresis loop, on the rough surface of a hard-magnetic antiferromagnet. An interface model with a periodic structure of atomic steps is presented. These atomic steps are associated with a spatially inhomogeneous distribution of the ferromagnetic film magnetization, akin to a system of domain walls. This structure leads to a complicated external field dependence of magnetization: the hysteresis curve can assume an asymmetrical shape and "fall apart" into two hysteresis loops, divided by a "horizontal plateau," or an area with constant field-independent magnetization. Such field dependence behavior has been recently observed experimentally in different ferro/antiferromagnet systems. The field dependence of magnetization has been obtained analytically using the long-wave approximation for various characteristics of ferromagnetic film (its thickness, values of exchange interaction, and magnetic anisotropy), and the interface (the period of the inhomogeneous structure, and exchange interaction through the interface). The analytical results are confirmed by numerical calculations for the corresponding discrete model with a more complex interface structure.

  4. Black hole-like hysteresis and accretion states in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Darias, T.; Fender, R. P.; Motta, S. E.; Belloni, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    We have systematically studied a large sample of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) monitored by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (50 sources; 10000+ observations). We find that the hysteresis patterns between Compton-dominated and thermal-dominated states, typically observed in black hole LMXBs, are also common in neutron star systems. These patterns, which also sample intermediate states, are found when looking at the evolution of both X-ray colour and fast variability of 10 systems accreting below ˜30 per cent of the Eddington luminosity (LEdd). We show that hysteresis does not require large changes in luminosity and it is the natural form that state transitions take at these luminosities. At higher accretion rates, neutron stars do not show hysteresis, and they remain in a thermal-dominated, low-variability state, characterized by flaring behaviour and fast colour changes. Only at luminosities close to LEdd, are high variability levels seen again, in correspondence to an increase in the fractional contribution of the Comptonization component. We compare this behaviour with that observed in LMXBs harbouring black holes, showing that the spectral, timing and multiwavelength properties of a given source can be determined by its location in the fast variability-luminosity diagram, which, therefore, provides a common framework for neutron star and black hole accretion states.

  5. Evaluation of the potential for hysteresis in index-velocity ratings for the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Lemont, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Sinha, Sumit; Dutta, Som; Johnson, Kevin K.; Duncker, James J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for monitoring flows in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Lemont, Illinois, as a part of the Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting overseen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District. Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting is mandated by a U.S. Supreme Court decree in order to monitor, and limit, the State of Illinois’ annual diversion of Great Lakes water through the manmade CSSC. Every 5 years, a technical review committee consisting of practicing engineers and academics reviews USGS streamgaging practices in the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois. The sixth technical review committee expressed concern that the index-velocity rating—the method used to estimate mean cross-sectional velocity from a measured index velocity—may be subject to hysteresis at this site because of the unique, unsteady hydraulics of the canal. Hysteresis in index-velocity ratings can occur at sites where the flow distribution in the channel varies significantly between the rising and falling limbs of the hydrograph for the same discharge. Presently, hysteresis in index-velocity ratings has been documented only in tidally affected sites. This report investigates whether hysteresis can occur at this nontidal site, and the conditions under which it is likely to occur, by using both a theoretical approach and a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The theoretical analysis investigated the conditions required for hysteresis in the index-velocity rating, and the modeling analysis focused on the effect of the timing of the inflows from the CSSC and the Cal-Sag Channel on the potential for hysteresis and whether highly resolved simulations of actual high-flow events show any evidence of hysteresis. Based on both a theoretical analysis using observed historical data and an analysis using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, there is no conclusive evidence for the existence of hysteresis in the index-velocity rating at the USGS streamgage on the CSSC near Lemont, Illinois. Although the theoretical analysis indicated the possibility of hysteresis at this site, the hydrodynamic conditions required to generate hysteresis are not present at this site based on historical data. Ongoing streamgaging practices at this site will use the information in this report and include periodic assessment of the index-velocity rating for any signs of hysteresis that might result from future changes to the operation of this manmade canal.

  6. Optical studies of thermal cycling and hysteresis effects in elastic order-disorder phase transformations. I. Pure alkali-metal cyanide crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Ortiz-Lopez; Fritz Luty

    1988-01-01

    The order-disorder transformations in NaCN, KCN, and RbCN are studied under thermal cycling around Tc by monitoring the change in optical transmission produced by the light-scattering properties of their multidomain ordered structures. The phase transitions in both NaCN (large-hysteresis cubic &lrarr2; orthorhombic) and RbCN (hysteresis-free cubic &lrarr2; monoclinic) remain basically unchanged under multiple thermal recycling. In contrast to these persistently

  7. An approach of PI gain scheduling with hysteresis switching for the control of boiler drum level in the coal-fired power generation units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenfu Bi; Yuezhi Pan; Qiang Zhang; Fusheng Wang

    2006-01-01

    An approach, where hysteresis switching logic is used in gain scheduling of PI controller, is proposed and applied practically in the control of boiler drum level of 4× 300MW coal-fired power generation units. The parameterized candidate PI controllers are designed at a number of operating points based on on-site engineering tuning\\/tests, and, hysteresis switching logic, which is shown theoretically can

  8. Design and Digital Implementation of Constant Frequency Hysteresis Current Controller for Three-Phase Voltage Source Inverter Using TMS320F2812

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyanraj, D.; Lenin Prakash, S.

    2014-01-01

    A constant frequency hysteresis current control technique for a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) has been developed for AC drives, power quality and renewable energy applications. This paper presents a digital implementation of a constant frequency hysteresis current control technique for a three-phase VSI feeding an inductive load, using digital signal controller TMS320F2812. The limitations of variable frequency hysteresis control have been discussed and overcoming these limitations by means of digital implementation has been proposed. The complete design procedure of the proposed technique has been presented with an illustrative example. The three-phase VSI feeding an inductive load has also been simulated by using MATLAB and the simulation results have been presented. The hardware results of hysteresis current controlled three-phase VSI feeding an inductive load have been presented. Also the performance analysis of the hysteresis current controller has been presented. Operation of this controller has also been explained with a help of phase plane trajectory of hysteresis controller.

  9. Interaction of bipolaron with the H2O/O2 redox couple causes current hysteresis in organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Qu, Minni; Li, Hui; Liu, Ran; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics is one of the major obstacles to the implementation of organic thin-film transistors in large-area integrated circuits. The hysteresis has been correlated either extrinsically to various charge-trapping/transfer mechanisms arising from gate dielectrics or surrounding ambience or intrinsically to the polaron-bipolaron reaction in low-mobility conjugated polymer thin-film transistors. However, a comprehensive understanding essential for developing viable solutions to eliminate hysteresis is yet to be established. By embedding carbon nanotubes in the polymer-based conduction channel of various lengths, here we show that the bipolaron formation/recombination combined with the H2O/O2 electrochemical reaction is responsible for the hysteresis in organic thin-film transistors. The bipolaron-induced hysteresis is a thermally activated process with an apparent activation energy of 0.29?eV for the bipolaron dissociation. This finding leads to a hysteresis model that is generally valid for thin-film transistors with both band transport and hopping conduction in semiconducting thin films. PMID:24463853

  10. Interaction of bipolaron with the H2O/O2 redox couple causes current hysteresis in organic thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Minni; Li, Hui; Liu, Ran; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics is one of the major obstacles to the implementation of organic thin-film transistors in large-area integrated circuits. The hysteresis has been correlated either extrinsically to various charge-trapping/transfer mechanisms arising from gate dielectrics or surrounding ambience or intrinsically to the polaron-bipolaron reaction in low-mobility conjugated polymer thin-film transistors. However, a comprehensive understanding essential for developing viable solutions to eliminate hysteresis is yet to be established. By embedding carbon nanotubes in the polymer-based conduction channel of various lengths, here we show that the bipolaron formation/recombination combined with the H2O/O2 electrochemical reaction is responsible for the hysteresis in organic thin-film transistors. The bipolaron-induced hysteresis is a thermally activated process with an apparent activation energy of 0.29?eV for the bipolaron dissociation. This finding leads to a hysteresis model that is generally valid for thin-film transistors with both band transport and hopping conduction in semiconducting thin films.

  11. A pore scale investigation of sorption hysteresis and its application in nano-petrophysics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodanovic, M.; Mehmani, A.

    2013-12-01

    Experimental methods on organic-rich mud rock (shale) samples show a wide distri- bution of pore sizes (1 nm - 1 micron) and suggest complex spatial configurations. In any rock sample, pore sizes and pore connectivity have first-order impact on macroscopic properties such as permeability. We adapted gas flow physics in pore throat networks to nanoscale, specifically relevant to modeling shale reservoirs. Contrary to the classical pore scale flow modeling in conventional reservoirs, where permeability is only a function of topology and morphology of the pores, the permeability in shale depends on pressure as well. In addition to traditional viscous flow of Hagen-Poiseuille or Darcy type, we included slip flow, Knudsen diffusion as well as sorption on pore walls in our network model to simulate gas flow in shale systems that contain pores on both micrometer and nanometer scales. Diffusion and sorption have a significant impact on ultimate gas permeability, and the magnitude of the effect depends on pore connectivity, network geometry and size distribution. A direct observation on shale pore inter-connectivity in three dimensions is limited in length scale and field of view, however, and therefore it is imperative to quantify the pore structure indirectly. We further explore comparison of nitrogen sorption experiments and network simulation for the purpose of shale pore network structure quantification. Motivated by existing two-dimensional scanning electron microscopy images, we construct three network classes with distinct, three-dimensional multiscale types of interconnectivity. We simulate nitrogen sorption cycle hysteresis and helium endpoint relative permeability for each network type. We observe and classify signature behaviors for each type that can be compared to experimental data in order to infer actual 3D shale pore network interconnectivity.

  12. Hysteresis, phase transitions, and dangerous transients in electrical power distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Duclut, Charlie; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The majority of dynamical studies in power systems focus on the high-voltage transmission grids where models consider large generators interacting with crude aggregations of individual small loads. However, new phenomena have been observed indicating that the spatial distribution of collective, nonlinear contribution of these small loads in the low-voltage distribution grid is crucial to the outcome of these dynamical transients. To elucidate the phenomenon, we study the dynamics of voltage and power flows in a spatially extended distribution feeder (circuit) connecting many asynchronous induction motors and discover that this relatively simple 1+1 (space+time) dimensional system exhibits a plethora of nontrivial spatiotemporal effects, some of which may be dangerous for power system stability. Long-range motor-motor interactions mediated by circuit voltage and electrical power flows result in coexistence and segregation of spatially extended phases defined by individual motor states, a "normal" state where the motors' mechanical (rotation) frequency is slightly smaller than the nominal frequency of the basic ac flows and a "stalled" state where the mechanical frequency is small. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by a perturbation of the voltage or base frequency at the head of the distribution feeder. Such behavior is typical of first-order phase transitions in physics, and this 1+1 dimensional model shows many other properties of a first-order phase transition with the spatial distribution of the motors' mechanical frequency playing the role of the order parameter. In particular, we observe (a) propagation of the phase-transition front with the constant speed (in very long feeders) and (b) hysteresis in transitions between the normal and stalled (or partially stalled) phases. PMID:23848724

  13. The role of temporally varying erodibility in hysteresis in fine-grained coastal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiberg, P.; Carr, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment transport rates are typically expressed as some function of excess shear stress, the difference between the fluid shear stress at the sediment surface and the shear stress needed to initiate transport of the sediment comprising the surface. While a great deal of research has addressed questions related to temporal and spatial variations in the fluid stresses driving transport and deposition, considerably less has focused on temporal and spatial variations in sediment erodibility. Most sediment transport relationships involved a critical shear stress that is at most a function of grain size and density for non-cohesive sediment or a function of depth for cohesive sediment. Such simple characterizations of erodibility are frequently inadequate for representing sediment dynamics in fine-grained coastal and shallow marine environments where a wide range of processes, including consolidation, biofilm production and bioturbation can cause dramatic temporal and spatial (horizontal and vertical) variations in erodibility. For example, flood deposits of mud on the continental shelf can initially be highly erodible, facilitating the formation of wave-supported gravity flows, but quickly (days-weeks) consolidate to the point where they can become relatively resistant to resuspension by large storm waves - well above traditional notions of 'storm wave base'. On the other hand, loss of protection by primary producers - such as a die off of seagrasses or biofilms - can release large quantities of previously stable sediment into a coastal system. In this talk we explore the importance of temporal variations in erodibility on coastal and shallow marine systems in producing path-dependence and hysteresis in fine-grained coastal systems.

  14. Thermodynamic Analysis of Snowball Earth Hysteresis Experiment: Efficiency, Entropy Production, and Irreversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Fraedrich, Klaus; Lunkeit, Frank

    2010-05-01

    We present an extensive thermodynamic analysis of a hysteresis experiment performed on a simplified yet Earth-like climate model. We slowly vary the solar constant by 20% around the present value and detect that for a large range of values of the solar constant the realization of snowball or of regular climate conditions depends on the history of the system. Using recent results on the global climate thermodynamics, we show that the two regimes feature radically different properties. The efficiency of the climate machine monotonically increases with decreasing solar constant in present climate conditions, whereas the opposite takes place in snowball conditions. Instead, entropy production is monotonically increasing with the solar constant in both branches of climate conditions, and its value is about four times larger in the warm branch than in the corresponding cold state. Finally, the degree of irreversibility of the system, measured as the fraction of excess entropy production due to irreversible heat transport processes, is much higher in the warm climate conditions, with an explosive growth in the upper range of the considered values of solar constants. Whereas in the cold climate regime a dominating role is played by changes in the meridional albedo contrast, in the warm climate regime changes in the intensity of latent heat fluxes are crucial for determining the observed properties. This substantiates the importance of addressing correctly the variations of the hydrological cycle in a changing climate. An interpretation of the climate transitions at the tipping points based upon macro-scale thermodynamic properties is also proposed. Our results support the adoption of a new generation of diagnostic tools based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics for auditing climate model and outline a set of parameterizations to be used in conceptual and intermediate complexity models or for the reconstruction of the past climate conditions

  15. Torpor and hypothermia: reversed hysteresis of metabolic rate and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Fritz; Currie, Shannon E; O'Shea, Kelly A; Hiebert, Sara M

    2014-12-01

    Regulated torpor and unregulated hypothermia are both characterized by substantially reduced body temperature (Tb) and metabolic rate (MR), but they differ physiologically. Although the remarkable, medically interesting adaptations accompanying torpor (e.g., tolerance for cold and ischemia, absence of reperfusion injury, and disuse atrophy) often do not apply to hypothermia in homeothermic species such as humans, the terms "torpor" and "hypothermia" are often used interchangeably in the literature. To determine how these states differ functionally and to provide a reliable diagnostic tool for differentiating between these two physiologically distinct states, we examined the interrelations between Tb and MR in a mammal (Sminthopsis macroura) undergoing a bout of torpor with those of the hypothermic response of a similar-sized juvenile rat (Rattus norvegicus). Our data show that under similar thermal conditions, 1) cooling rates differ substantially (approximately fivefold) between the two states; 2) minimum MR is approximately sevenfold higher during hypothermia than during torpor despite a similar Tb; 3) rapid, endogenously fuelled rewarming occurs in torpor but not hypothermia; and 4) the hysteresis between Tb and MR during warming and cooling proceeds in opposite directions in torpor and hypothermia. We thus demonstrate clear diagnostic physiological differences between these two states that can be used experimentally to confirm whether torpor or hypothermia has occurred. Furthermore, the data can clarify the results of studies investigating the ability of physiological or pharmacological agents to induce torpor. Consequently, we recommend using the terms "torpor" and "hypothermia" in ways that are consistent with the underlying regulatory differences between these two physiological states. PMID:25253085

  16. Rate-dependent elastic hysteresis during the peeling of pressure sensitive adhesives.

    PubMed

    Villey, Richard; Creton, Costantino; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Jet, Thomas; Saintyves, Baudouin; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Yarusso, David J; Ciccotti, Matteo

    2015-04-22

    The modelling of the adherence energy during peeling of Pressure Sensitive Adhesives (PSA) has received much attention since the 1950's, uncovering several factors that aim at explaining their high adherence on most substrates, such as the softness and strong viscoelastic behaviour of the adhesive, the low thickness of the adhesive layer and its confinement by a rigid backing. The more recent investigation of adhesives by probe-tack methods also revealed the importance of cavitation and stringing mechanisms during debonding, underlining the influence of large deformations and of the related non-linear response of the material, which also intervenes during peeling. Although a global modelling of the complex coupling of all these ingredients remains a formidable issue, we report here some key experiments and modelling arguments that should constitute an important step forward. We first measure a non-trivial dependence of the adherence energy on the loading geometry, namely through the influence of the peeling angle, which is found to be separable from the peeling velocity dependence. This is the first time to our knowledge that such adherence energy dependence on the peeling angle is systematically investigated and unambiguously demonstrated. Secondly, we reveal an independent strong influence of the large strain rheology of the adhesives on the adherence energy. We complete both measurements with a microscopic investigation of the debonding region. We discuss existing modellings in light of these measurements and of recent soft material mechanics arguments, to show that the adherence energy during peeling of PSA should not be associated to the propagation of an interfacial stress singularity. The relevant deformation mechanisms are actually located over the whole adhesive thickness, and the adherence energy during peeling of PSA should rather be associated to the energy loss by viscous friction and by rate-dependent elastic hysteresis. PMID:25791135

  17. Ice-binding proteins that accumulate on different ice crystal planes produce distinct thermal hysteresis dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Drori, Ran; Celik, Yeliz; Davies, Peter L.; Braslavsky, Ido

    2014-01-01

    Ice-binding proteins that aid the survival of freeze-avoiding, cold-adapted organisms by inhibiting the growth of endogenous ice crystals are called antifreeze proteins (AFPs). The binding of AFPs to ice causes a separation between the melting point and the freezing point of the ice crystal (thermal hysteresis, TH). TH produced by hyperactive AFPs is an order of magnitude higher than that produced by a typical fish AFP. The basis for this difference in activity remains unclear. Here, we have compared the time dependence of TH activity for both hyperactive and moderately active AFPs using a custom-made nanolitre osmometer and a novel microfluidics system. We found that the TH activities of hyperactive AFPs were time-dependent, and that the TH activity of a moderate AFP was almost insensitive to time. Fluorescence microscopy measurement revealed that despite their higher TH activity, hyperactive AFPs from two insects (moth and beetle) took far longer to accumulate on the ice surface than did a moderately active fish AFP. An ice-binding protein from a bacterium that functions as an ice adhesin rather than as an antifreeze had intermediate TH properties. Nevertheless, the accumulation of this ice adhesion protein and the two hyperactive AFPs on the basal plane of ice is distinct and extensive, but not detectable for moderately active AFPs. Basal ice plane binding is the distinguishing feature of antifreeze hyperactivity, which is not strictly needed in fish that require only approximately 1°C of TH. Here, we found a correlation between the accumulation kinetics of the hyperactive AFP at the basal plane and the time sensitivity of the measured TH. PMID:25008081

  18. Pattern selection and hysteresis in the Rietkerk model for banded vegetation in semi-arid environments.

    PubMed

    Dagbovie, Ayawoa S; Sherratt, Jonathan A

    2014-10-01

    Banded vegetation is a characteristic feature of semi-arid environments. It occurs on gentle slopes, with alternating stripes of vegetation and bare ground running parallel to the contours. A number of mathematical models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms underlying these patterns, and how they might be affected by changes in environmental conditions. One of the most widely used models is due to Rietkerk and co-workers, and is based on a water redistribution hypothesis, with the key feedback being that the rate of rainwater infiltration into the soil is an increasing function of plant biomass. Here, for the first time, we present a detailed study of the existence and stability of pattern solutions of the Rietkerk model on slopes, using the software package wavetrain (www.ma.hw.ac.uk/wavetrain). Specifically, we calculate the region of the rainfall-migration speed parameter plane in which patterns exist, and the sub-region in which these patterns are stable as solutions of the model partial differential equations. We then perform a detailed simulation-based study of the way in which patterns evolve when the rainfall parameter is slowly varied. This reveals complex behaviour, with sudden jumps in pattern wavelength, and hysteresis; we show that these jumps occur when the contours of constant pattern wavelength leave the parameter region giving stable patterns. Finally, we extend our results to the case in which a diffusion term for surface water is added to the model equations. The parameter regions for pattern existence and stability are relatively insensitive to small or moderate levels of surface water diffusion, but larger diffusion coefficients significantly change the subdivision into stable and unstable patterns. PMID:25142517

  19. Hysteresis and precession of a swirling jet normal to a wall.

    PubMed

    Shtern, V; Mi, J

    2004-01-01

    Interaction of a swirling jet with a no-slip surface has striking features of fundamental and practical interest. Different flow states and transitions among them occur at the same conditions in combustors, vortex tubes, and tornadoes. The jet axis can undergo precession and bending in combustors; this precession enhances large-scale mixing and reduces emissions of NOx. To explore the mechanisms of these phenomena, we address conically similar swirling jets normal to a wall. In addition to the Serrin model of tornadolike flows, a new model is developed where the flow is singularity free on the axis. New analytical and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations explain occurrence of multiple states and show that hysteresis is a common feature of wall-normal vortices or swirling jets no matter where sources of motion are located. Then we study the jet stability with the aid of a new approach accounting for deceleration and nonparallelism of the base flow. An appropriate transformation of variables reduces the stability problem for this strongly nonparallel flow to a set of ordinary differential equations. A particular flow whose stability is studied in detail is a half-line vortex normal to a rigid plane-a model of a tornado and of a swirling jet issuing from a nozzle in a combustor. Helical counter-rotating disturbances appear to be first growing as Reynolds number increases. Disturbance frequency changes its sign along the neutral curve while the wave number remains positive. Short disturbance waves propagate downstream and long waves propagate upstream. This helical instability causes bending of the vortex axis and its precession-the effects observed in technological flows and in tornadoes. PMID:14995717

  20. Hysteresis, phase transitions, and dangerous transients in electrical power distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclut, Charlie; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The majority of dynamical studies in power systems focus on the high-voltage transmission grids where models consider large generators interacting with crude aggregations of individual small loads. However, new phenomena have been observed indicating that the spatial distribution of collective, nonlinear contribution of these small loads in the low-voltage distribution grid is crucial to the outcome of these dynamical transients. To elucidate the phenomenon, we study the dynamics of voltage and power flows in a spatially extended distribution feeder (circuit) connecting many asynchronous induction motors and discover that this relatively simple 1+1 (space+time) dimensional system exhibits a plethora of nontrivial spatiotemporal effects, some of which may be dangerous for power system stability. Long-range motor-motor interactions mediated by circuit voltage and electrical power flows result in coexistence and segregation of spatially extended phases defined by individual motor states, a “normal” state where the motors’ mechanical (rotation) frequency is slightly smaller than the nominal frequency of the basic ac flows and a “stalled” state where the mechanical frequency is small. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by a perturbation of the voltage or base frequency at the head of the distribution feeder. Such behavior is typical of first-order phase transitions in physics, and this 1+1 dimensional model shows many other properties of a first-order phase transition with the spatial distribution of the motors’ mechanical frequency playing the role of the order parameter. In particular, we observe (a) propagation of the phase-transition front with the constant speed (in very long feeders) and (b) hysteresis in transitions between the normal and stalled (or partially stalled) phases.

  1. Magnetic viscosity, hysteresis reptation, and their relationship with adjacent track interference in advanced perpendicular recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Kumar; Roddick, Eric

    2012-08-01

    The role of exchange interactions and thermal relaxation in advanced three-layer exchange-coupled composite perpendicular recording media with graded anisotropy was investigated through studies on magnetic viscosity, magnetic hysteresis reptation, and spin-stand adjacent track interference. For this purpose, thickness series in the NiW seed and the three magnetic layers were made and studied. For each sample, both magnetic viscosity and reptation were evaluated using a magnetometer over a series of initial magnetic states. Magnetic viscosity, which is the change in the magnetization of the sample with time, showed a distinct second-order dependence on a logarithmic time-scale. In general, viscosity appeared to be more strongly influenced by exchange-coupling interactions in the media than the thermal stability. Magnetic reptation, which is the change in the magnetization when the external field was repeatedly cycled between a nonzero field and zero field, i.e., remanence, showed two types of distinct reptation phenomena—field reptation and remanence reptation—depending on whether the magnetic state was evaluated with the external field present or removed, respectively. Both field and remanence reptation showed a second-order logarithmic dependence on the number of cycles. A comparison of viscosity and field reptation revealed a correlation, indicating that the origin of field reptation in perpendicular recording media can be associated with viscosity. Such a correlation could not be established between viscosity and remanence reptation. Spin-stand signal amplitude change of written tracks, due to adjacent track interference, also followed a second-order logarithmic dependence on the number of adjacent writes. When compared appropriately, the signal amplitude change showed an excellent correlation with remanence reptation across all media samples. This suggests that adjacent track interference in magnetic recording can be associated with remanence reptation evaluated using a magnetometer, despite their vast difference in time-scales. Moreover, this correlation was observed irrespective of the thermal stability of the media, which corroborates the hypothesis that in composite media, exchange interaction effects have a more dominant role than thermal relaxation effects in influencing switchability vis-à-vis adjacent track interference. In consequence, remanence reptation can be a useful technique to study the interplay of exchange and thermal effects in magnetic media.

  2. Corneal Hysteresis as a Risk Factor for Glaucoma Progression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Felipe A.; Freitas, Daniel; Lisboa, Renato; Kuang, Tung-Mei; Zangwill, Linda M.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the role of corneal hysteresis (CH) as a risk factor for the rate of visual field progression in a cohort of glaucoma patients followed prospectively over time. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Participants The study group included 114 eyes of 68 glaucoma patients followed for an average of 4.0 ± 1.1 years. Visual fields were obtained with standard automated perimetry. Included eyes had a median number of 7 (range: 5 to 12) tests during follow-up. Methods CH measurements were acquired at baseline using the Ocular Response Analyzer (Reichert Instruments, Depew, NY, USA). Evaluation of rates of visual field change during follow-up was performed using the Visual Field Index (VFI). Linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship between rates of visual field loss and baseline CH, baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT), while adjusting for potentially confounding factors. An interaction term between IOP and CH was included in the model to investigate whether the effect of IOP on rates of progression depended on the level of CH. Main Outcome Measures Effects of CH, IOP and CCT on rates of VFI loss over time. Results CH had a significant effect on rates of visual field progression over time. In the univariable model including only CH as a predictive factor along with time and their interaction, each 1mmHg lower CH was associated with 0.25%/year faster rate of VFI decline over time (P<0.001). The multivariable model showed that the effect of IOP on rates of progression depended on CH. Eyes with high IOP and low CH were at increased risk for having fast rates of disease progression. CH explained a larger proportion of the variation in slopes of VFI change than CCT (17.4% versus 5.2%, respectively). Conclusion CH measurements were significantly associated with risk of glaucoma progression. Eyes with lower CH had faster rates of visual field loss than those with higher CH. The prospective longitudinal design of this study supports the role of CH as an important factor to be considered in the assessment of the risk of progression in glaucoma patients. PMID:23642371

  3. A novel methodology based on contact angle hysteresis approach for surface changes monitoring in model PMMA-Corega Tabs system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorzelski, Stanis?aw J.; Berezowski, Zdzis?aw; Rochowski, Pawe?; Szurkowski, Janusz

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to propose a quantitative description of dental surface modifications, resulting from application of Corega and oral cavity liquids, with several surface parameters derived from liquid/solid contact angle measurements. In particular, to predict the long-term effectiveness of denture cleansers in prosthetics, it is necessary to determine surface wettability variations for model dental materials/probe liquid systems related to the contamination effect caused by substances found in the oral cavity. A novel simple low-cost methodology, based on liquid drop contact angle hysteresis CAH approach developed by Chibowski, was adopted to trace solid surface free energy changes in the model PMMA-Corega Tabs interfacial layer. Contact angle and its hysteresis were studied with a sessile drop-inclined plate method in contact with a cleanser (Corega Tabs) and model liquids found in the oral cavity. The apparent solid surface free energy, adsorptive film pressure, work of adhesion and spreading were derived from contact angle hysteresis data for both model solid surfaces (reference) and samples affected by different reactive liquids for a certain time. A time-dependent surface wettability changes of dentures were expressed quantitatively in terms of the corresponding variations of the surface energy parameters which turned out to be unequivocally related to the cleanser exposure time and polarity of the liquids applied to the dental material. The novel methodology appeared to be a useful tool for long term surface characterization of dental materials treated with surfactants-containing liquids capable of forming adhesive layers. The time of optimal use and effectiveness of cleansers are also reflected dynamically in the corresponding variations of the surface wettability parameters. Further studies on a large group of dental surface-probe liquid systems are required to specify the role played by other important factors (liquid polarity, pH and temperature).

  4. Suppression of the thermal hysteresis in magnetocaloric MnAs thin film by highly charged ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Trassinelli, M., E-mail: martino.trassinelli@insp.jussieu.fr; Marangolo, M.; Eddrief, M.; Etgens, V. H.; Gafton, V.; Hidki, S.; Lacaze, E.; Lamour, E.; Prigent, C.; Rozet, J.-P.; Steydli, S.; Zheng, Y.; Vernhet, D. [CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-02-24

    We present the investigation on the modifications of structural and magnetic properties of MnAs thin film epitaxially grown on GaAs induced by slow highly charged ions bombardment under well-controlled conditions. The ion-induced defects facilitate the nucleation of one phase with respect to the other in the first-order magneto-structural MnAs transition, with a consequent suppression of thermal hysteresis without any significant perturbation on the other structural and magnetic properties. In particular, the irradiated film keeps the giant magnetocaloric effect at room temperature opening new perspective on magnetic refrigeration technology for everyday use.

  5. Room temperature study of the optical switching of a spin crossover compound inside its thermal hysteresis loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallé, G.; Deldicque, D.; Degert, J.; Forestier, Th.; Létard, J.-F.; Freysz, E.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the low-spin to high spin state phase transition induced by a single or a sequence of nanosecond laser pulses within the thermal hysteresis loop of the [Fe(NH2-trz)3](NO3)2-H2O spin crossover compound. We demonstrate that the final state that is photoinduced can be finely controlled by changing the central wavelength and the energy of the laser pulses. A simple model accounts for the observed phenomena and paves the way for the practical applications to optical data storage at room temperature of spin state transition compounds.

  6. Observation of threshold energy and hysteresis in high current ion beam guiding and transmission through a micro-glass-capillary

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Samit; Jayakiran, A.; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India)

    2012-11-26

    The energy dependent guiding of high current density (0.1-3 A/m{sup 2}) argon ion beams through a micro-glass-capillary is studied. It is observed that ion transmission through the capillary takes place only if its energy is greater than the retarding potential barrier, which depends upon the amount of charge deposited on the capillary inner wall. Foremost evidence of the observation that the transmitted current exhibits hysteresis with ion energy is presented. Particle in cell simulations carried out by solving Poisson's and Newton's force equation self-consistently, agree reasonably well with the experimental results.

  7. Hysteresis phenomena and multipulse formation of a dissipative system in a passively mode-locked fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xueming [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710119 (China)

    2010-02-15

    A model describing the dissipative soliton evolution in a passively mode-locked fiber laser is proposed by using the nonlinear polarization rotation technique and the spectral filtering effect. It is numerically found that the laser alternately evolves on the stable and unstable mode-locking states as a function of the pump strength. Numerical simulations show that the passively mode-locked fiber lasers with large net normal dispersion can operate on multiple pulse behavior and hysteresis phenomena. The experimental observations confirm the theoretical predictions. The theoretical and experimental results achieved are qualitatively distinct from those observed in net-anomalous-dispersion conventional-soliton fiber lasers.

  8. Room temperature resistive state switching with hysteresis in GdMnO{sub 3} thin film with low threshold voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Rajib, E-mail: rajibnath.bu@gmail.com, E-mail: arup@bose.res.in; Raychaudhuri, A. K., E-mail: rajibnath.bu@gmail.com, E-mail: arup@bose.res.in [S. N. Bode National Centre for Basic Sciences, Sector-3, Tank No. 14, JD Block, Kolkata 98, West Bengal (India); Mukovskii, Ya. M.; Andreev, N.; Chichkov, Vladimir [National Science and Technology University, (MISIS), Leninskii prospekt 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-05

    In this paper, we report a room temperature resistive state switching with hysteresis, in a thin film of GdMnO{sub 3} grown on NdGaO{sub 3} substrate. The switched states have a resistance ratio ?10{sup 3}. The switching is unipolar in nature, with a low set voltage <3 V, while the reset voltage <0.3?V. The switching occurs between a high resistance polaronic insulating state and a low resistance metallic state. The resistance state transition has been ascribed to an electronic mechanism that originates from co-existing phases (created by charge disproportionation) that can undergo a percolative transition enabled by the applied bias.

  9. Enhancement of coil--stretch hysteresis by self-concentration in extensional flows, and its implications for capillary thinning of liquid bridges of dilute polymer solutions

    E-print Network

    Ranganathan Prabhakar

    2014-04-27

    The coil-stretch transition in extensional flows of viscoelastic dilute polymer solutions is known to be associated with a strong hysteresis in molecular conformations and rheo-optical properties. At infinite dilution, hysteresis is caused by the large difference in frictional drag coefficient between undeformed isotropic polymer coils and highly stretched conformations. At the low extension rates in the hysteresis regime, stretched molecules pervade larger volumes than equilibrium coils since the flow is too weak to suppress transverse fluctuations. The onset of intermolecular overlap occurs for such stretched conformations at polymer concentrations much smaller than c*, the conventional critical overlap concentration for equilibrium coils. Therefore, for a range of concentrations c screened in stretched conformations. Scaling arguments based on "blob" concepts are used here to argue that the stretched state drag coefficient can grow strongly with concentration in the dilute regime. A dumbbell model with conformation-dependent drag model is used to predict a concomitant strong enhancement of coil-stretch hysteresis with increasing concentration in the dilute regime. This extensional flow induced self-concentration leads to a maximum in hysteretic effects around c*, which progressively diminish in the semi-dilute regime where screening in isotropic coils reduces the difference in drag coefficient between stretched and coiled states. It is shown that the concentration dependence observed by Clasen et al. (2006) of capillary-thinning dynamics in liquid bridges of polymer solutions provides direct evidence of coil-stretch hysteresis enhancement by self-concentration.

  10. Purification and partial characterization of thermal hysteresis proteins from overwintering larvae of pine needle gall midge, Thecodiplosis japonensis (Diptera: cecidomiidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Gong, H; Park, H Y

    2000-01-01

    The pine needle gall midge of Thecodiplosis japonensis is a serious forest pest and overwinters as a 3rd instar larva at soil surface in Korea. The time necessary for killing 50% of larvae at -15 degree C is 160 min. During overwintering period, T. japonensis larvae accumulate relatively high content of trehalose as the main cryoprotectant. In this paper, the proteinaceous cryoprotectants were identified. Two thermal hysteresis proteins (THP-1S and 2S) were purified from overwintering larvae by ethanol fractionation, trichloroacetic acid precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-25) and gel permeation chromatography (Sephadex G-100). Their molecular weights are 34.9 and 37.8 kD respectively. T. japonensis THPs cannot be stained by periodic acid-Schiffs' reagent, suggesting no carbohydrate in them. The thermal hysteresis activity of THP-2 at the concentration of 50 mg/ml is 11.02 +/- 0.08 degree C (mean +/- SD, n=10), perhaps the highest active insect THP. It is the first report of purified T. japonensis THPs in Diptera. PMID:12148056

  11. In Vivo Evaluation of the Skin Tensile Strength by the Suction Method: Pilot Study Coping with Hysteresis and Creep Extension

    PubMed Central

    Piérard, Gérald E.; Piérard, Sébastien; Delvenne, Philippe; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    From an engineering standpoint, both the skin and subcutaneous tissue act as interconnected load-transmitting structures. They are subject to a variety of intrinsic and environmental influences. Changes in the cutaneous viscoelasticity represent an important aspect in a series of skin conditions. The aim of this work was to explore the methodology of biomechanical measurements in order to better appreciate the evolution and severity of some connective tissue diseases. The Cutometer MPA 580 (C+K electronic) was used in the steep and progressive suction procedures. Adapting measurement modalities was explored in order to mitigate any variability in data collection. The repeat steep suction procedure conveniently reveals the creep phenomenon. By contrast, the progressive suction procedure highlights the hysteresis phenomenon. These viscoelastic characteristics are presently described using the 2 and 4?mm probes on normal skin and in scleroderma, acromegaly, corticosteroid-induced dermatoporosis, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The apposition of an additional outer contention on the skin altered differently the manifestations of the creep extension and hysteresis among the tested skin conditions. Any change in the mechanical test procedure affects the data. In clinical and experimental settings, it is mandatory to adhere to a strict and controlled protocol. PMID:23986871

  12. Development of a Portable Mechanical Hysteresis Measurement and Imaging System for Impact Characterization in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.

    2011-06-01

    Honeycomb sandwich materials are commonly used for aero-structures, but because the outer skins are typically thin, 2-10 plys, the structures are susceptible to impact damage. NDI methods such as tap tests, bond testers and TTU ultrasound are successfully deployed to find impact damage, but identifying the type/degree of damage is troublesome. As the type/degree of impact damage guides decisions by the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) community regarding repair, the ability to characterize impacts is of interest. Previous work demonstrated that additional impact characterization may be gleaned from hysteresis loop area, as determined from an out-of-plane load-vs-displacement plot, where this parameter shows a correlation with impact energy. This presentation reports on current work involving the development of a portable hysteresis measurement and imaging system based on an instrumented tapper. Data processing and analysis methods that allow production of the load/displacement data from a single accelerometer are discussed, with additional reporting of tests of software to automatically vary pixel size during scanning to decrease C-scans inspection time.

  13. Hysteresis of magnetic force-gap in static and dynamic magnetic levitation with a high-{T_c} superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, X.-F.; Zhang, Z.-X.

    2008-11-01

    Hysteresis behavior of magnetic force versus gap between a high-Tc superconductor and a magnet, in static and dynamic cases, is studied numerically. Differing from the previous methods, based on macro electromagnetic constitutive relation of superconductors and Maxwell equations, a numerical method with the finite element method (FEM) is established. After numerical code is examined by comparing between numerical and experimental results of the relation of magnetic force-gap, the hysteresis curves of magnetic force-gap including major and minor loops in static case are simulated, and furthermore the dependences of major loop on main parameters including the critical current density and the thickness of superconductor, the residual magnetic field of magnet, and the diameter ratio of superconductor to magnet are studied numerically. In the case of free vibration, by investigating dynamic response of levitated body at different levitation/suspension positions in this magnetic levitation system, we obtain the corresponding results of the variation of magnetic force with gap. All the numerical results of the relation between magnetic force and gap show the strongly nonlinear and highly hysteretic behavior.

  14. Development of a portable mechanical hysteresis measurement and imaging system for impact characterization in honeycomb sandwich structures

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K. [Center for NDE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Honeycomb sandwich materials are commonly used for aero-structures, but because the outer skins are typically thin, 2-10 plys, the structures are susceptible to impact damage. NDI methods such as tap tests, bond testers and TTU ultrasound are successfully deployed to find impact damage, but identifying the type/degree of damage is troublesome. As the type/degree of impact damage guides decisions by the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) community regarding repair, the ability to characterize impacts is of interest. Previous work demonstrated that additional impact characterization may be gleaned from hysteresis loop area, as determined from an out-of-plane load-vs-displacement plot, where this parameter shows a correlation with impact energy. This presentation reports on current work involving the development of a portable hysteresis measurement and imaging system based on an instrumented tapper. Data processing and analysis methods that allow production of the load/displacement data from a single accelerometer are discussed, with additional reporting of tests of software to automatically vary pixel size during scanning to decrease C-scans inspection time.

  15. Investigation of Adjustable Current-Voltage Characteristics and Hysteresis Phenomena for Multiple-Peak Negative Differential Resistance Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Kwang-Jow; Liang, Dong-Shong

    A multiple-peak negative differential resistance (NDR) circuit made of standard Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOS) and SiGe-based heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) is demonstrated. We can obtain a three-peak I-V curve by connecting three cascoded MOS-HBT-NDR circuits by suitably designing the MOS parameters. This novel three-peak NDR circuit possesses the adjustable current-voltage characteristics and high peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR). We can adjust the PVCR values to be as high as 11.5, 6.5, and 10.3 for three peaks, respectively. Because the NDR circuit is a very strong nonlinear element, we discuss the extrinsic hysteresis phenomena in this multiple-peak NDR circuit. The effect of series resistance on hysteresis phenomena is also investigated. Our design and fabrication of the NDR circuit is based on the standard 0.35?m SiGe BiCMOS process.

  16. Stochastic relaxation of the contact line of a water drop on a solid substrate subjected to white noise vibration: roles of hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Mettu, Srinivas; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2010-06-01

    Relaxation of the three phase contact line of a sessile drop of water on a low energy surface is studied by subjecting it to a white noise vibration. While a spring force acts on the contact line whenever the contact angle deviates from its equilibrium value, it is opposed by hysteresis. The drop, therefore, remains pinned at a metastable state. With an appropriate amount of vibration, the drop can reach a global equilibrium state irrespective of its initial state, be it advanced or retreated. While the end state is free of hysteresis, the current study sheds light on the dynamics of relaxation that is analyzed in conjunction with a modified Langevin equation. Instead of exhibiting a smooth relaxation as predicted by the Langevin equation with a smooth background potential, stepwise relaxation is observed in most cases. These stepwise relaxations can be explained if the background potential is made slightly corrugated that signifies the existence of metastable states of a drop on a surface. The fluctuation of the displacement of the contact line is highly non-Gaussian. It is shown that an exponential distribution of the displacement fluctuation arises due to the nonlinear hysteresis term in the Langevin equation. The observations of stick-slip motion, the large time of relaxation, and the anomalous displacement fluctuation suggest that hysteresis is present during the relaxation process of the drop even though the final state reached by the drop is free of hysteresis. Finally, we compare the displacement fluctuations of the contact line on two different surfaces: a silicone rubber and a fluorocarbon monolayer. Although the displacement fluctuation is exponential in both cases, the later surface exhibits a greater variance of the distribution than the former plausibly due to differences in hysteresis. This result indicates that the fluctuation of displacement may be used as a tool to study the surface property of a low energy substrate. PMID:20099806

  17. A digitization scheme of sub-microampere current using a commercial comparator with hysteresis and FPGA-based wave union TDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.

    2013-01-01

    A digitization scheme of sub-microampere current using a commercial comparator with adjustable hysteresis and FPGA-based Wave Union TDC has been tested. The comparator plus a few passive components forms a current controlled oscillator and the input current is sent into the hysteresis control pin. The input current is converted into the transition times of the oscillations, which are digitized with a Wave Union TDC in FPGA and the variation of the transition times reflects the variation of the input current. Preliminary tests show that input charges < 25 fC can be measured at > 50 M samples/s without a preamplifier.

  18. The influence of temperature hysteresis at metal-semiconductor phase transition on current-voltage characteristic of VO 2 –based ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Ivon; V. R. Kolbunov; I. M. Chernenko

    2005-01-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of ceramics (wt%) 80VO2-15VPG-5Cu and 45VO2-15VPG-5Cu-35SnO2 were investigated (VPG—vanadium phosphate glass). After switching to high electric current, these characteristics show a hysteresis loop in the electric current increase-decrease cycle. The cause of hysteresis is the different phase transition temperatures in VO2 crystallites for transition from semiconductor phase to metallic phase and for the reverse transition. The distinction

  19. The J-Meter Coercivity Spectrometer - Hysteresis Loop, IRM Acquisition Spectrum and Viscosity Spectrum in 6 Minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkin, R. J.; Nourgaliev, D.; Iassonov, P.

    2009-05-01

    The J-Meter Coercivity Spectrometer uses an innovative robust design for measuring a geological sample's magnetic hysteresis loop, IRM acquisition spectrum and viscosity spectrum in 6 minutes. With this tool, several labs around the world have been able measure large sample collections and develop useful magnetic proxies for a variety of paleoclimate, diagenesis and other studies. The main element of the J-meter is a pulse magnetometer, in which an electromotive force pulse is induced in an array of pick-up coils by the magnetic field of a sample moving at a high speed past the coils. The sample is placed near the rim of a 50 cm diameter plexiglas disk which rotates 18 times a second through the pole pieces of an electromagnet. Both the induced and remanent magnetization are measured during each rotation of the disk. Induced magnetization for hysteresis loops are measure with a set of pick-up coils mounted directly on the pole pieces, similar to the geometry used for a vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic remanence is measured with a second array of coils situated away from the electromagnet and surrounded by a three-layer mu-metal shield. The electromagnet field is ramped up to 500 mT, and the down to the opposite polarity (-500 mT). The J meter is called a coercivity spectrometer because it is particularly well suited to measuring the IRM acquisition curve with sufficient sensitivity and resolution to take the derivative which defines the coercivity spectrum. To finish each measurement, the magnetic field is cut to zero and the viscous demagnetization is monitored for 100s, mostly following a log(time) relationship but with perturbations determined by the grain size distribution of the finest grains. A suite of analysis programs have been developed to determine hysteresis parameters and S-ratios, and to characterize coercivity and viscosity spectra. We present a series of applications demonstrating the power of the J-Meter to trace sediment sources, paleoclimate variations and diagenetic alteration associate with bacterial activity.

  20. Hysteresis-free high-temperature precise bimorph actuators produced by direct bonding of lithium niobate wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Baturin, I. S.; Mingaliev, E. A.; Zorikhin, D. V.; Udalov, A. R.; Greshnyakov, E. D.

    2015-02-01

    The current paper presents a piezoelectric bimorph actuator produced by direct bonding of lithium niobate wafers with the mirrored Y and Z axes. Direct bonding technology allowed to fabricate bidomain plate with precise positioning of ideally flat domain boundary. By optimizing the cutting angle (128° Y-cut), the piezoelectric constant became as large as 27.3 pC/N. Investigation of voltage dependence of bending displacement confirmed that bimorph actuator has excellent linearity and hysteresis-free. Decrease of the applied voltage down to mV range showed the perfect linearity up to the sub-nm deflection amplitude. The frequency and temperature dependences of electromechanical transmission coefficient in wide temperature range (from 300 to 900 K) were investigated.

  1. Thin-film photoconductor-electroluminescent memory device with a high brightness and a wide and stable hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thioulouse, P.; Gonzalez, C.; Solomon, I.

    1987-04-01

    An improved thin-film photoconductor-electroluminescent memory and display device is described, which integrates an optimized ZnS:Mn active layer, Ta2O5 insulating films, and a-Si(1-x)C(x):H photoconducting material. The performance with a 1-kHz sinewave excitation is an hysteresis width of about 25 V, on ON luminance of about 650 cd/sq m, and an OFF luminance of about 0.1 cd/sq m. The memory effect shows no degradation over an estimated operating time of 2000 h. The electrical ON switching time is shorter than 10 microsec. The performance of a full-size panel based on this structure is briefly discussed.

  2. Super-mercuryphobic and hydrophobic diamond surfaces with hierarchical structures: Vanishment of the contact angle hysteresis with mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Juan V.; Garza, Cristina; Alonso, Juan Carlos; Castillo, Rolando

    2013-05-01

    Increased roughness is known to enhance the natural wetting properties of surfaces, making them either more hydrophobic or more hydrophilic. In this work we study the wetting properties of water and mercury drops in contact with boron doped diamond films with progressively increased surface roughnesses. We show how thermal oxidation of a microcrystalline film creates pyramids decorated with sub-micron protrusions that turn its naturally mercuryphobic surface into super-mercuryphobic. With this liquid, we observe the vanishment of the contact angle hysteresis that is expected for rough surfaces as the contact angle approaches 180?, making small drops of mercury roll along out of the surface at an apparent zero tilt-angle. In contrast, the incorporation of nano-globules on the oxidized surface through a silanization process is necessary to increase the hydrophobic properties of the film for which the contact angle with water reaches 138°. The wetting states that dominate in each case are discussed.

  3. On the origin of giant magnetocaloric effect and thermal hysteresis in multifunctional ?-FeRh thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tiejun; Cher, M. K.; Shen, L.; Hu, J. F.; Yuan, Z. M.

    2013-12-01

    We report temperature and field dependent lattice structure, magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in epitaxial Fe50Rh50 thin films with (001) texture. Temperature-dependent XRD measurements reveal an irreversible first-order phase transition with 0.66% lattice change upon heating/cooling. First-principle calculation shows a state change of Rh from non-magnetic (0 ?B) for antiferromagnetic phase to magnetic (0.93 ?B) state for ferromagnetic phase. A jump of magnetization at temperature of 305 K and field more than 5 T indicates a field-assisted magnetic state change of Ru that contributes to the jump. Giant positive magnetic entropy change was confirmed by isothermal magnetization measurements and an in-situ temperature rise of 15 K. The magnetic state change of Rh between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic states is the main origin of giant magnetic entropy change and large thermal hysteresis observed.

  4. Role of the Bering Strait on the hysteresis of the ocean conveyor belt circulation and glacial climate stability

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Aixue; Meehl, Gerald A.; Han, Weiqing; Timmermann, Axel; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Liu, Zhengyu; Washington, Warren M.; Large, William; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kimoto, Masahide; Lambeck, Kurt; Wu, Bingyi

    2012-01-01

    Abrupt climate transitions, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, occurred frequently during the last glacial period, specifically from 80–11 thousand years before present, but were nearly absent during interglacial periods and the early stages of glacial periods, when major ice-sheets were still forming. Here we show, with a fully coupled state-of-the-art climate model, that closing the Bering Strait and preventing its throughflow between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans during the glacial period can lead to the emergence of stronger hysteresis behavior of the ocean conveyor belt circulation to create conditions that are conducive to triggering abrupt climate transitions. Hence, it is argued that even for greenhouse warming, abrupt climate transitions similar to those in the last glacial time are unlikely to occur as the Bering Strait remains open. PMID:22493225

  5. Onset of water stress, hysteresis in plant conductance, and hydraulic lift: Scaling soil water dynamics from millimeters to meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, Mario; Katul, Gabriel; Porporato, Amilcare

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of water uptake by plants and subsequent water stress are complicated by the need to resolve the soil-plant hydrodynamics at scales ranging from millimeters to meters. Using a simplified homogenization technique, the three-dimensional (3-D) soil water movement dynamics can be reduced to solving two 1-D coupled Richards' equations, one for the radial water movement toward rootlets (mesoscale, important for diurnal cycle) and a second for vertical water motion (macroscale, relevant to interstorm timescales). This approach allows explicit simulation of known features of root uptake such as diurnal hysteresis in canopy conductance, hydraulic lift, and compensatory root water uptake during extended drying cycles. A simple scaling analysis suggests that the effectiveness of the hydraulic lift is mainly controlled by the root vertical distribution, while the soil moisture levels at which hydraulic lift is most effective is dictated by soil hydraulic properties and surrogates for atmospheric water vapor demand.

  6. Low-voltage and hysteresis-free organic thin-film transistors employing solution-processed hybrid bilayer gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2014-07-01

    This study presents a promising approach to realize low-voltage (<3 V) organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) exhibiting improved electrical and optical stability. Such device performance results from the use of solution-processed hybrid bilayer gate dielectrics consisting of zirconium dioxide (high-k dielectric) and amorphous fluoropolymer, CYTOP® (low-k dielectric). Employing a very thin amorphous fluoropolymer film reduces interfacial defect-states by repelling water molecules and other aqueous chemicals from an organic semiconductor active layer due to the hydrophobic surface-property. The chemically clean interface, stemming from decrease in density of trap states improves all the key device properties such as field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and sub-threshold swing. Furthermore, degradation by electrical bias-stress and photo-induced hysteresis were suppressed in OTFTs employing hybrid bilayer gate dielectrics.

  7. Low-voltage and hysteresis-free organic thin-film transistors employing solution-processed hybrid bilayer gate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Tae-Jun [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    This study presents a promising approach to realize low-voltage (<3?V) organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) exhibiting improved electrical and optical stability. Such device performance results from the use of solution-processed hybrid bilayer gate dielectrics consisting of zirconium dioxide (high-k dielectric) and amorphous fluoropolymer, CYTOP{sup ®} (low-k dielectric). Employing a very thin amorphous fluoropolymer film reduces interfacial defect-states by repelling water molecules and other aqueous chemicals from an organic semiconductor active layer due to the hydrophobic surface-property. The chemically clean interface, stemming from decrease in density of trap states improves all the key device properties such as field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and sub-threshold swing. Furthermore, degradation by electrical bias-stress and photo-induced hysteresis were suppressed in OTFTs employing hybrid bilayer gate dielectrics.

  8. Effects of tantalum addition on hysteresis losses and critical current densities of powder-metallurgy processed Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting wires

    SciTech Connect

    Matsukura, N.; Fukumoto, Y.; Miyazaki, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Powder-metallurgy processed (PMP) multifilamentary Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting wires have been fabricated. The critical current densities and hysteresis losses of the wires are measured and the effects of tantalum addition to niobium on them are investigated. Although tantalum addition decreases both the critical current densities and the hysteresis losses, the reduction of the hysteresis loss is more pronounced. As a result, the effective filament diameter is diminished. The critical current density of the PMP Nb{sub 3}Sn wire may depend on the combination of the bridging among Nb{sub 3}Sn filaments and the supernormal interface pinning centers. This wire includes 3721 composite cores which consist of copper and Nb{sub 3}Sn. The non-homogeneous deformation of filaments is reduced by tantalum additions. Both the bridging among Nb{sub 3}Sn filaments and the super-normal interface pinning center energies may be reduced by tantalum additions, and therefore depressing the critical current density. Tantalum additions also depress the sausage-like deformation of composite cores, suggesting that both bridging and coupling among the composite cores is suppressed. Consequently both the hysteresis loss and the effective filament diameter are decreased.

  9. Estimation of magnetic loss in an induction motor fed with sinusoidal supply using a finite element software and a new approach to dynamic hysteresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Chevalier; A. Kedous-Labouc; B. Cornut; C. Cester

    1999-01-01

    A method to estimate precise iron loss in an electrical machine is presented. This method implements a 2D finite element simulation of moving structure including the non-linear magnetic behaviour and a new dynamical hysteresis model of the magnetic circuit. The 2D finite element simulation is used to evaluate the induction evolution with time in any point of the motor structure.

  10. The dielectric properties and the hysteresis loops of the spin-1 Ising nanowire system with the effect of a negative core/shell coupling: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhouria, Y.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Ahuja, R.; Dujardin, F.

    2014-09-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation technique has been used to study the effect of a negative core/shell coupling on the dielectric properties and the hysteresis behavior of the spin-1 Ising nanowire system with a square surface area. The influence of the temperature and the exchange coupling on the critical and compensation behaviors of the ferroelectric and ferrielectric nanowire are also investigated.

  11. An air-cooled Litz wire coil for measuring the high frequency hysteresis loops of magnetic samples—A useful setup for magnetic hyperthermia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connord, V.; Mehdaoui, B.; Tan, R. P.; Carrey, J.; Respaud, M.

    2014-09-01

    A setup for measuring the high-frequency hysteresis loops of magnetic samples is described. An alternating magnetic field in the range 6-100 kHz with amplitude up to 80 mT is produced by a Litz wire coil. The latter is air-cooled using a forced-air approach so no water flow is required to run the setup. High-frequency hysteresis loops are measured using a system of pick-up coils and numerical integration of signals. Reproducible measurements are obtained in the frequency range of 6-56 kHz. Measurement examples on ferrite cylinders and on iron oxide nanoparticle ferrofluids are shown. Comparison with other measurement methods of the hysteresis loop area (complex susceptibility, quasi-static hysteresis loops, and calorific measurements) is provided and shows the coherency of the results obtained with this setup. This setup is well adapted to the magnetic characterization of colloidal solutions of magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia applications.

  12. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 224402 (2011) Anomalous magneto-optical Kerr hysteresis loops in Fe0.25TaS2

    E-print Network

    Kono, Junichiro

    , and superconductors. Charge density wave (CDW) states sometimes coexist, and compete with, superconductivity of the Kerr angle shows a clear hysteresis loop, but its shape sensitively changes with the wavelength. We was studied by magneto-optical (MO) Faraday effect.11 Real-time MO images revealed unusual dendritic domain

  13. Effect of the magnetic field applied during cooling on magnetic hysteresis in the low-temperature phase of magnetite: First-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Smirnov

    2007-01-01

    The strength of a magnetic field applied during cooling through the Verwey transition can control the low-temperature (LT) magnetic hysteresis properties of magnetite. This effect is investigated using the first-order reversal curve (FORC) technique. LT FORC distributions were measured at 20 K from four polycrystalline samples after cooling from 300 K in zero magnetic field or in the presence of

  14. Double hysteresis loop induced by defect dipoles in ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2})O{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Pu Yunti; Zhu Jiliang; Zhu Xiaohong; Luo Yuansheng; Wang Mingsong; Li Xuhai; Liu Jing; Zhu Jianguo; Xiao Dingquan [Department of Materials Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Pb(Zr{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2})O{sub 3} (PZT80/20) thin films were deposited on the Pt(111)/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Mainly perovskite crystalline phase with highly (202)-preferred orientation, determined by x-ray diffraction, was formed in the lead zirconate titanate (PZT)(80/20) thin films. Polarization measurements of the unannealed and aged films showed a clear double hysteresis loop. However, the double hysteresis loop phenomenon was greatly suppressed in the PZT thin films annealed under pure oxygen, and thus they exhibited larger remnant polarization (P{sub r} = 6.3 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}). The related mechanism for the appearance of constricted and double hysteresis loops was investigated to be associated with the realignment and disassociation of defect dipoles via oxygen octahedral rotations or oxygen vacancy diffusion. The butterfly-shaped C-V characteristic curve with a valley gave further evidence for double hysteresis loop characteristic in the unannealed and aged PZT thin films.

  15. Asymmetric hysteresis loops and smearing of the dielectric anomaly at the transition temperature due to space charges in ferroelectric thin films

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Asymmetric hysteresis loops and smearing of the dielectric anomaly at the transition temperature-electrode interfaces, asymmetric surface fields, as well as space charge regions. In this study, we analyze the effect related to each other through EC- =EC+ may shift depending on the space charge concentration

  16. The Effect of Films on the Capillary Pressure - Saturation Hysteresis in a Smooth-walled Wedge Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Nolte, D.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2010-12-01


    Thin fluid films are central to many multiphase flow applications; however, experimental investigation of films requires direct detection and measurement of films. Water film thicknesses can range from a few nanometers to several micrometers and may vary depending on local pore structures and material properties. In this study, laser confocal microscopy was employed to image volumetric fluid distribution and 3D interfaces during drainage and imbibition processes in a smooth-walled channel. Confocal microscopy provides an effective method to image directly 3D thin films and to measure film thickness, volume, and other parameters. The detection resolution is 1.19 ?m/pixel through a 10x objective lens and is 0.72 ?m/pixel through a 20x lens. A smooth-walled wedge channel was fabricated to study the generation and relaxation of water films in the non-wetting phase of air. The effect of films on contact angle, interfacial area per volume (IAV), and capillary pressure - saturation (Pc - Sw) hysteresis were also investigated.
    Micromodels were fabricated using a negative photoresist (SU-8) sandwiched between two cover glasses. An all-SU-8 smooth-walled wedge channel was fabricated by laser direct-writing two-photon polymerization, 100 ?m wide at the outlet and 20 ?m at the inlet with a constant aperture of 40 ?m. A laser scanning confocal microscope was used to image the wetting (water) and non-wetting (air) phase distributions by labeling the wetting phase with a fluorophore, Alex Fluor-488, 1.0% by wieght. The 3D air-water interfaces were imaged and then reconstructed using a stack of confocal images. The samples were initially saturated with water, the wetting phase. A series of drainage and imbibition cycles were performed by incrementing or decrementing the air pressure. At each pressure, the system was allowed to equilibrate and then a stack of scans in depth was collected to acquire the 3D fluid distribution for the given pressure. The confocal images were analyzed to extract the volume saturation of water, IAV, and contact angle.
    Thin films of water between the air and the solid phase (SU-8 channel) were observed in the wedge micro-channel. The presence of films were found to increase the capillary pressure relative to the condition with no films by 0 ~ 1300 Pa as a function of wetting phase saturation. Force balance analysis was performed based on the contact angle at the common line, which shows an additional surface tension from the film that is approximately 1/10 that of the water surface tension. The same energy expended for the hysteresis loops was found between with and without film. In addition, only partial film relaxation is observed when a hysteresis scan is paused.
    Acknowledgments: This research is supported by the National Science Foundation (0911284-EAR).

  17. Testing for the presence and source of nonstationarity in United States energy efficiency: Time trends, hysteresis or random walk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArdle, Paul Francis

    This research tests for the presence and source of non-stationarity in U.S. aggregate energy efficiency for the 1900-1991 period. An outlier/intervention model is used to test for the presence of a unit-root in aggregate energy efficiency against the alternative hypothesis of a segmented/broken trend. A decomposed energy price model is also used to test if hysteresis in energy efficiency results from an asymmetrical response to energy price changes. The analysis revealed four distinct stages in aggregate energy efficiency during the 20th century: (1) the 1900-1920 period characterized by highly volatile decreases in energy efficiency caused by rapid industrialization and transition to a fossil-fueled economy; (2) the 1920-1949 period distinguished by a persistent increase in energy efficiency as the economy became adept at harnessing fossil energy; (3) the 1949-1972 period when energy efficiency remained stable within a narrow range; and (4) the 1973-1991 period when energy efficiency improved dramatically in response to the two oil prices shocks of the 1970s. Key modeling results include the following: (1) energy efficiency follows a unit-root process even when the effects of intervention outliers are taken into consideration, indicating that the unit-root hypothesis cannot be rejected against an alternative of a segmented/broken trend; (2) a major source of non-stationarity in energy efficiency is hysteresis induced by non-reverting changes in energy efficiency, in turn caused by dramatic increases in energy prices; and (3) although a strong negative trend appears to have occurred in aggregate energy intensity since 1920, it seems to be the result of energy price increases, rather than a general downward trend. An important economic implication of the analysis is that energy price increases appear to impact energy efficiency, while energy price decreases appear to have much less effect. This finding is consistent with much of the economic literature in this area that has indicated that energy efficiency and GDP growth respond asymmetrically to energy prices. Namely, energy efficiency and GDP growth respond to strong energy price increases, whereas large energy price decreases produce little reaction in these variables.

  18. Enhanced hysteresis in the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition of VO2 precipitates formed in SiO2 by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, R.; Boatner, L. A.; Haynes, T. E.; Haglund, R. F.; Feldman, L. C.

    2001-11-01

    A strongly enhanced hysteresis with a width of >34 °C has been observed in the semiconductor-to-metal phase transition of submicron-scale VO2 precipitates formed in the near-surface region of amorphous SiO2 by the stoichiometric coimplantation of vanadium and oxygen and subsequent thermal processing. This width is approximately an order of magnitude larger than that reported previously for the phase transition of VO2 particles formed in Al2O3 by a similar technique. The phase transition is accompanied by a significant change in infrared transmission. The anomalously wide hysteresis loop observed here for the VO2/SiO2 system can be exploited in optical data storage and switching applications in the infrared region.

  19. Unusual resistance hysteresis in n-layer graphene field effect transistors fabricated on ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, X.; Hoffman, J.; Posadas, A.; Zou, K.; Ahn, C. H.; Zhu, J.

    2010-07-01

    We have fabricated n-layer graphene field effect transistors on epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (PZT) thin films. At low gate voltages, PZT behaves as a high-? dielectric with ? up to 100. An unusual resistance hysteresis occurs in gate sweeps at high voltages, with its direction opposite to that expected from the polarization switching of PZT. The relaxation of the metastable state is thermally activated, with an activation barrier of 50-110 meV and a time constant of 6 h at 300 K. We attribute its origin to the slow dissociation/recombination dynamics of water molecules adsorbed at the graphene-PZT interface. This robust hysteresis can potentially be used to construct graphene-ferroelectric hybrid memory devices.

  20. Hierarchically structured superhydrophobic flowers with low hysteresis of the wild pansy (Viola tricolor) – new design principles for biomimetic materials

    PubMed Central

    Droste, Damian M; Koch, Kerstin; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Summary Hierarchically structured flower leaves (petals) of many plants are superhydrophobic, but water droplets do not roll-off when the surfaces are tilted. On such surfaces water droplets are in the “Cassie impregnating wetting state”, which is also known as the “petal effect”. By analyzing the petal surfaces of different species, we discovered interesting new wetting characteristics of the surface of the flower of the wild pansy (Viola tricolor). This surface is superhydrophobic with a static contact angle of 169° and very low hysteresis, i.e., the petal effect does not exist and water droplets roll-off as from a lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf. However, the surface of the wild pansy petal does not possess the wax crystals of the lotus leaf. Its petals exhibit high cone-shaped cells (average size 40 µm) with a high aspect ratio (2.1) and a very fine cuticular folding (width 260 nm) on top. The applied water droplets are in the Cassie–Baxter wetting state and roll-off at inclination angles below 5°. Fabricated hydrophobic polymer replicas of the wild pansy were prepared in an easy two-step moulding process and possess the same wetting characteristics as the original flowers. In this work we present a technical surface with a new superhydrophobic, low adhesive surface design, which combines the hierarchical structuring of petals with a wetting behavior similar to that of the lotus leaf. PMID:21977435