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1

Laboratory Activities of the IAEA Laboratories, Vienna. Annual Report 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives a fairly comprehensive view of the activities and results of the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf, during the year 1979. These activities are presented under the following main categories: Metrology of the radiations; Dosimetry; Chemistry...

G. B. Cook

1981-01-01

2

Activities of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Laboratories Vienna. Annual Report - 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report outlines the activities of the laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency at Seibersdorf in the province of Lower Austria. The report covers the following sections of the laboratory: chemistry, medical applications, dosimetry, soil sc...

C. B. G. Taylor

1982-01-01

3

Laboratory Activities of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Laboratories, Vienna. Annual Report - 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents in ten sections the work done during 1978 by the laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency located in Seibersdorf in the province of Lower Austria. The ten sections are: 1) metrology, 2) dosimetry, 3) chemistry, 4) safeguard...

1980-01-01

4

Los Alamos National Laboratory support to IAEA environmental safeguards  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear and radiochemistry group provides sample preparation and analysis support to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL). These analyses include both non-destructive (alpha and gamma-ray spectrometry) and destructive (thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) methods. On a bi-annual basis the NWAL laboratories are invited to meet to discuss program evolution and issues. During this meeting each participating laboratory summarizes their efforts over the previous two years. This presentation will present Los Alamos National Laboratories efforts in support of this program. Data showing results from sample and blank analysis will be presented along with capability enhancement and issues that arose over the previous two years.

Steiner, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dry, Don E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roensch, Fred R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kinman, Will S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roach, Jeff L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Mont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-01

5

The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards - Destructive Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Support Program (USSP) to IAEA Safeguards priority of destructive analysis is aimed at strengthening the IAEA's ability to use destructive analysis as a safeguards tool. IAEA inspectors bring back nuclear and environmental samples from inspections, which are first cataloged by the IAEA and then analyzed by a network of laboratories located in many Member States and the IAEA's own Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Historically, the USSP was instrumental in introducing environmental sampling techniques to the IAEA in order to enhance its understanding of material processing activities conducted at nuclear facilities. The USSP has also worked with the IAEA to improve understanding of measurement uncertainty and measurement quality, incorporate new and improved analytical methods, and purchase analytical and computer equipment. Recent activities include a temporary increase in analysis of environmental samples using secondary ion mass spectrometry and provision of a cost-free expert to restore secondary ion mass spectroscopy laboratory functionality and to modernize the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Information System.

Hoffheins,B.

2008-07-13

6

IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a priority for healthcare providers in many countries. The IAEA's response to meet the increasing needs for training has been 2-folds. Through its regular program, a priority is given to the development of standardized syllabi and education and clinical training guides. Through its technical cooperation programme, support is given for setting up national medical physics education and clinical training programs in countries. In addition, fellowships are granted for professionals working in the field for specialized training, and workshops are organized at the national and regional level in specialized topics of nuclear medicine physics. So as to support on-the-job training, the IAEA has also setup a gamma camera laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. The laboratory is also equipped with QC tools and equipments, and radioisotopes are procured when training events are held. About 2-3 specialized courses are held every year for medical physicists at the IAEA gamma camera laboratory. In the area of research and development, the IAEA supports, through its coordinated research projects, new initiatives in quantitative nuclear medicine and internal dosimetry. The future of nuclear medicine is driven by advances in instrumentation, by the ever increasing availability of computing power and data storage, and by the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging and therapy. Future developments in nuclear medicine are partially driven by, and will influence, nuclear medicine physics and medical physics. To summarize, the IAEA has established a number of programs to support nuclear medicine physics and will continue to do so through its coordinated research activities, education and training in clinical medical physics, and through programs and meetings to promote standardization and harmonization of QA or QC procedures for imaging and treatment of patients. PMID:23561455

Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

2013-05-01

7

Proficiency Testing as a tool to monitor consistency of measurements in the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) established a Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (IAEA/WHO SSDL Network) in 1976. Through SSDLs designated by Member States, the Network provides a direct link of national dosimetry standards to the international measurement system of standards traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Within this structure and through the proper calibration of field instruments, the SSDLs disseminate S.I. quantities and units.To ensure that the services provided by SSDL members to end-users follow internationally accepted standards, the IAEA has set up two different comparison programmes. One programme relies on the IAEA/WHO postal TLD service and the other uses comparisons of calibrated ionization chambers to help the SSDLs verify the integrity of their national standards and the procedures used for the transfer of the standards to the end-users. The IAEA comparisons include {sup 60}Co air kerma (N{sub K}) and absorbed dose to water (N{sub D,W}) coefficients. The results of the comparisons are confidential and are communicated only to the participants. This is to encourage participation of the laboratories and their full cooperation in the reconciliation of any discrepancy.This work describes the results of the IAEA programme comparing calibration coefficients for radiotherapy dosimetry, using ionization chambers. In this programme, ionization chambers that belong to the SSDLs are calibrated sequentially at the SSDL, at the IAEA, and again at the SSDL. As part of its own quality assurance programme, the IAEA has participated in several regional comparisons organized by Regional Metrology Organizations.The results of the IAEA comparison programme show that the majority of SSDLs are capable of providing calibrations that fall inside the acceptance level of 1.5% compared to the IAEA.

Meghzifene, Ahmed; Czap, Ladislav; Shortt, Ken [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section Wagramer Strasse 5, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

2008-08-14

8

Der Forschungsreaktor Seibersdorf und seine Nutzung. (Utilization of the Research Reactor ASTRA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A short history and an overview over present research activities at the 10 MW Pool Type Reactor ASTRA of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf are given. The projects comprise: medical and industrial isotope production, material irradiations (e.g. sili...

A. Nedelik

1993-01-01

9

Objectives and Current Status of the IAEA Network of Centers of Excellence: Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Underground Research Laboratories (URLs) to develop and demonstrate technologies for the safe geologic disposal of radioactive wastes have been established for national purposes by several Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Under the auspices of the IAEA, nationally developed URLs and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form a Network of Centers of Excellence for training in and development of waste disposal technologies. Experience gained in the operation of the facilities, and through associated experimentation and demonstrations, will be transferred to participating Member States through hands-on work at the facilities. The Network consists of Network Members and Network Participants who share co-operative activities. Network Members are owners of facilities who have offered them to be part of the Network. At this time there are eight Members consisting of six underground facilities, a laboratory, and a university. Network Participants can potentially come from any interested IAEA Member State having spent nuclear fuel for disposal, with or without an established program for geologic disposal. There are presently about 15 Network Participants. A significant Network activity beginning in 2003 will be a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on characterization and evaluation of swelling clays for use in engineered barrier systems of geologic repositories. At the end of this project, every involved Member State should be able to identify and characterize a swelling clay that is suitable for use in a geologic repository. As the Network grows, additional CRPs to be carried out in the Underground Research Facilities of the Network Members will be defined.

Bell, M. J.; Knapp, M. R.

2003-02-27

10

Intercomparison of radon and decay product measurements in an underground mine and EPA radon laboratory: A study organized by the IAEA International Radon Metrology Programme  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna and the European Union (EU) in Bruxelles formed the International Radon Metrology Programme. The IRMP is designed to assess and foster the improvement of radon and decay product measurements that are made around the world. Within the framework of the IRMP, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (EPA) in Las Vegas, Nevada, organized jointly with the U.S. Bureau of Mines an international intercomparison exercise at a former uranium mine (Twilight Mine, Colorado) and the EPA Radon Laboratory. The main objective of this exercise was to compare radon and radon decay product instruments under both well-controlled as well as widely fluctuating exposure conditions. The laboratory exposures occurred under relatively steady radon and decay product conditions, with a moderate equilibrium ratio, while the conditions in the mine fluctuated greatly and the equilibrium ratio was low. An additional purpose of the exercise was to provide a forum for manufacturers and measurement organizations worldwise to exchange information and plan improvements in their operations and calibration programs. Altogether 19 organizations from seven countries intercomparing 32 different radon and radon decay product instruments participated in this exercise. This paper summarizes the results from the analysis of the experimental data obtained in the Bureau of Mines Twilight Mine in July of 1994, as well as the results from the EPA Radon laboratory in August of 1994.

Budd, G.; Hopper, R.; Braganza, E.; Ronca-Battista, M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Radiation and Indoor Environments National Lab.; Steinhaeusler, F. [Univ. of Salzburg (Austria); Stegner, P. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

1998-11-01

11

Progress in inertial fusion research at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Paper No. IAEA-CN-38\\/B2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is reviewed. Experiments using the Helios COâ laser system delivering up to 6 kJ on target are described. Because breakeven energy estimates for laser drivers of 1 ..mu..m and above have risen and there is a need for COâ experiments in the tens-of-kilojoule regime as soon as practical, a first phase

Perkins

1980-01-01

12

Progress in inertial fusion research at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Paper No. IAEA-CN-38/B-2  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is reviewed. Experiments using the Helios CO/sub 2/ laser system delivering up to 6 kJ on target are described. Because breakeven energy estimates for laser drivers of 1 ..mu..m and above have risen and there is a need for CO/sub 2/ experiments in the tens-of-kilojoule regime as soon as practical, a first phase of Antares construction is now directed toward completion of two of the six original modules in 1983. These modules are designed to deliver 40 kJ of CO/sub 2/ laser light on target.

Perkins, R.B.

1980-01-01

13

IAEA Safeguard System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intents of IAEA safeguards, analysing into the IAEA statutes, are presented. The different types of safeguard agreements; the measurements of accounting, containment and caution used by the operator and; the information to be provided and the verifica...

B. C. Pontes

1987-01-01

14

Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Statistical Analysis of Wet Chemistry Quality Control Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines quality control data for wet chemistry measurements made at Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL), Seibersdorf, Austria. The statistical properties were evaluated for three data sets: (1) iron titer measurements, (2) percent bias fac...

C. K. Bayne

1989-01-01

15

Nuclear analytical chemistry for the IAEA Action Team in Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of the 1991 Gulf War the U.N. Security Council Resolution called upon IAEA, assisted by the U.N. Special Commission, to carry out inspections of all Iraqi nuclear installations. The IAEA Action Team succeeded in implementing, on very short notice, a comprehensive system of inspection activities, including sampling and analysis at the Agency's Laboratories and other laboratories in

R. Zeisler; D. L. Donohue

1995-01-01

16

The role of the IAEA in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programmatic activities in nuclear medicine of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are mainly directed towards developing countries and include co-ordination of research projects, technical co-operation and information services. During the last 30?40 years the IAEA has introduced nuclear medicine in 39 countries. It has started more than 350 RIA laboratories and thereby often disseminated nuclear medicine to areas

Steffen Groth; Ajit Padhy

1999-01-01

17

Expanding the IAEA’s nuclear security mandate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion of civilian nuclear power means that greater international cooperation is required to ensure that terrorist groups do not acquire nuclear and radiological materials. The global nuclear security regime urgently needs to be strengthened; the authors write that boosting the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the best place to start. The IAEA established a nuclear security

Jack Boureston; Tanya Ogilvie-White

2010-01-01

18

IAEA safeguards and classified materials  

SciTech Connect

The international community in the post-Cold War period has suggested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilize its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials, some of which are classified, under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring classified materials. A traditional safeguards approach, based on nuclear material accountancy, would seem unavoidably to reveal classified information. However, further analysis of the IAEA`s safeguards approaches is warranted in order to understand fully the scope and nature of any problems. The issues are complex and difficult, and it is expected that common technical understandings will be essential for their resolution. Accordingly, this paper examines and compares traditional safeguards item accounting of fuel at a nuclear power station (especially spent fuel) with the challenges presented by inspections of classified materials. This analysis is intended to delineate more clearly the problems as well as reveal possible approaches, techniques, and technologies that could allow the adaptation of safeguards to the unprecedented task of inspecting classified materials. It is also hoped that a discussion of these issues can advance ongoing political-technical debates on international inspections of excess classified materials.

Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kratzer, M.

1997-11-01

19

TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPPING FOR IAEA SEALS.  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 2002, the U.S. Support Program (USSP) initiated an effort to define a strategy or ''roadmap'' for future seals technologies and to develop a generalized process for planning safeguards equipment development, which includes seals and other safeguards equipment. The underlying objectives of the USSP include becoming more proactive than reactive in addressing safeguards equipment needs, helping the IAEA to maintain an inventory of cost-effective, reliable, and effective safeguards equipment, establishing a long-term planning horizon, and securing IAEA ownership in the process of effective requirements definition and timely transitioning of new or improved systems for IAEA use. At an initial workshop, seals, their functions, performance issues, and future embodiments were discussed in the following order: adhesive seals, metal seals, passive and active loop seals, ultrasonic seals, tamper indicating enclosures (including sample containers, equipment enclosures, and conduits). Suggested improvements to these technologies focused largely on a few themes: (1) The seals must be applied quickly, easily, and correctly; (2) Seals and their associated equipment should not unduly add bulk or weight to the inspectors load; (3) Rapid, in-situ verifiability of seals is desirable; and (4) Seal systems for high risk or high value applications should have two-way, remote communications. Based upon these observations and other insights, the participants constructed a skeletal approach for seals technology planning. The process begins with a top-level review of the fundamental safeguards requirements and extraction of required system features, which is followed by analysis of suitable technologies and identification of technology gaps, and finally by development of a planning schedule for system improvements and new technology integration. Development of a comprehensive procedure will require the partnership and participation of the IAEA. The presentation will include a description of the roadmapping approach developed for safeguards technologies and an overview of the initial seals workshop results.

HOFFHEINS,B.; ANNESE,C.; GOODMAN,M.; OCONNOR,W.; GUSHUE,S.; PEPPER,S.

2003-07-13

20

The US Support program to IAEA Safeguards - 2008  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) was established in 1977 to provide technical assistance to the IAEA Department of Safeguards. Since that time the U.S. Department of State has provided funding of over $200 million and over 900 tasks have been completed by USSP contractors on behalf of the KEA. The USSP is directed by a U.S. interagency subcommittee known as the Subgroup on Safeguards Technical Support (SSTS) and is managed by the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In recent years, the SSTS and ISPO have identified priorities to guide the process of determining which IAEA requests are aligned with US. policy and will be funded. The USSP priorities are reviewed and updated prior to the USSP Annual Review Meeting which is hosted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) each spring in Vienna, Austria. This paper will report on the 2008 USSP priorities and be an introduction for a session which will consist of four papers on USSP priorities and four other papers related to USSP activities.

Pepper,S.

2008-06-09

21

Quality system implementation in Member States of the IAEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), through its Technical Co-operation Programme, has supported the establishment of many nuclear analytical and complementary laboratories in Member States. This included the development of capabilities for the use of various nuclear analytical techniques that include alpha, beta, and gamma spectrometry; radiochemical analysis; neutron activation analysis; energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis; and total reflection X-ray

Matthias Rossbach; Jane Gerardo-Abaya; Aleš Fajgelj; Peter Bode; Peter Vermaercke; Michael Bickel

2006-01-01

22

A brief history of NDA at the IAEA.  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 30 years ago, the first portable nondestructive assay instrument, a SAM-II, was brought to Vienna for IAEA consideration. This initial foray into the usage of nondestructive assay (NDA) as an independent assessment tool has materialized into one of the important tools for IAEA inspections. NDA instruments have several inherent advantages for inspectors; their measurements generate no radioactive waste, provide immediate answers, do not require specialized operators, and can be either taken to the items to be measured (portable instruments), or the items for measurement can be brought to the instruments, such as can be applied in on-site IAEA laboratories or off-site IAEA lab at Siebersdorf. The SAM-II was a small, lightweight, battery-powered, gamma-ray instrument used for uranium enrichment measurements. It was also found to be usehl for locating nuclear material, distinguishing between uranium and plutonium, and determining the active length of items like fuel pins. However it was not well suited for determining the amount of bulk material present, except for small containers of low-density materials. A 6-sided neutron coincidence counter, easily disassembled so it could be shipped and carried by airplane, was developed for bulk measurements of plutonium. The HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) was immediately useful for quantitative measurements of pure plutonium oxide. However, the IAEA had to make a trade-off between the ease of use of NDA instruments on-site, and the problems of obtaining small samples for shipment to an independent lab for more accurate analysis. NDA does not create radioactive waste, so as waste handling has become more cautious and more regulated, NDA looks better and better. After acceptance of NDA by the IAEA for routine use, the follow-up question was naturally, 'How much better can this measurement be made?' The Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) supported multiple and varied efforts in this direction, such as improving both the plutonium isotopic distribution measurement and the multiplicity counter, so that the assays can be performed on any plutonium samples instead of only pure oxides. Advances have also been made on uranium bulk measurements by the development of the active well coincidence counter. Meanwhile, several large bulk-handling facilities have been coming on line under IAEA safeguards. These facilities require full-time inspectors to be present whenever the plant is operating. The IAEA requested help so that measurements can be made even when inspectors are not present. The evolution and success of unattended NDA has been responsible for the capability of the IAEA to monitor large bulk-handling facilities without substantial increase in inspection effort. The integration of NDA with containment & surveillance measures and automation has been crucial to reducing inspection manpower. These systems have developed to the point where the IAEA can make credible conclusions on large high-throughput plants such as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication or reprocessing plants.

Sprinkle, J. K. (James K.); Sinkule, B. J. (Barbara J.); Hsue, S.-T. (Sin-Tao); Abhold, M. E. (Mark E.)

2001-01-01

23

IAEA reorganizes nuclear information services  

SciTech Connect

As part of an overall restructuring of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Department of Nuclear Energy, the agency has established the Nuclear Information Section (NIS). The restructuring, recently announced by IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, also includes the creation of a separate Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) Section, as demand for assistance in this area is growing among member countries. According to the NIS Web site, 'This restructuring and the creation of the NIS provides an opportunity for further enhancing existing information products and services and introducing new ones-all with an eye towards advancing higher organizational efficiency and effectiveness.'

Levine, E.

2012-08-15

24

Proceedings of the joint WHO\\/TDR, NIAD, IAEA and Frontis workshop on bridging laboratory and field research for genetic control of disease vectors, Nairobi, Kenya 14-16 July 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary research on genetic control of disease-transmitting insects knows two kinds of scientists: those that work in the laboratory and those known as `field people¿. Over the last decade, both groups seem to have developed differing research priorities, address fundamentally different aspects within the overall discipline of infectious-disease control, and worse, have developed a scientific `language¿ that is no longer

B. G. J. Knols; H. Bossin

2006-01-01

25

Comparison of NDA and DA measurement techniques for excess Pu powders at the Hanford Site: Operator and IAEA experience  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative physical measurements are necessary components of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nuclear material safeguards verification regime. In December 1994, IAEA safeguards were initiated on an inventory of plutonium-bearing oxide and scrap items in Vault 3 of the 2736-Z Building of the Plutonium Finishing Plant on the United States Department of Energy`s (USDOE) Hanford Site. The material originated in the United States nuclear weapons complex. The diversity of the chemical form and the heterogenous physical form of the plutonium in this inventory were expected to challenge the target precision and accuracy of methods employed by IAEA: quantitative destructive analytical techniques (which are susceptible to sampling error) and quantitative coincident neutron measurements (which rely on knowledge of the material`s chemical form and purity). Because of the diverse and heterogenous nature of plutonium-bearing scrap, plant operations increasingly have adopted calorimetric techniques both for item inventory measurements and for verification purposes. During the recent advent of IAEA safeguards at Vault 3, a set of destructive and nondestructive methods were applied to a number of inventory items (cans of plutonium-bearing powders) with widely ranging chemical purities. Results of these measurements, gathered by the operator`s and IAEA`s laboratories and instruments as well as by instruments from Pacific Northwest Laboratory and USDOE`s Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are presented and statistically compared.

Welsh, T.L.; McRae, L.P.; Delegard, C.H. [and others

1995-06-01

26

Comparison of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) System of Accounting and Control Guidelines with Practices at Nuclear Facilities in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study comparing the technical guidance for the State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with actual practices at two U.S. facilities. Th...

F. P. Roberts N. L. Harms B. W. Smith J. K. Young

1986-01-01

27

Proposed letter to Hans Blix, Director General of the IAEA  

SciTech Connect

A draft report prepared by the IAEA Secretariat outlining a possible model for sharing responsibilities between various parties on behalf of a postulated advanced reactor project -- that would include an opportunity for IAEA participation is discussed.

NONE

1994-12-31

28

Nuclear Nonproliferation: Difficulties in Accomplishing IAEA's Activities in North Korea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the status of IAEA's activities under the Agreed Framework, including IAEA's (1) nuclear-freeze-monitoring activities, (2) inspections of facilities not subject to the freeze, and (3) plans to verify the accuracy and completeness of ...

1998-01-01

29

Soils Newsletter. V. 9, no. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Newsletter describes the opening of the Soils and Plant Breeding Laboratory at the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory and describes the research taking place in the new unit. The Research Co-ordination Meetings on the improvement of yield and nitrogen fixat...

1986-01-01

30

The IAEA\\/WHO TLD postal programme for radiotherapy hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Since 1969 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), together with the World Health Organization (WHO), has performed postal TLD audits to verify the calibration of radiotherapy beams in developing countries.Materials and methods: A number of changes have recently been implemented to improve the efficiency of the IAEA\\/WHO TLD programme. The IAEA has increased the number of participants

Joanna Izewska; Pedro Andreo

2000-01-01

31

NGSI: IAEA Verification of UF6 Cylinders  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is often ignorant of the location of declared, uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders following verification, because cylinders are not typically tracked onsite or off. This paper will assess various methods the IAEA uses to verify cylinder gross defects, and how the task could be ameliorated through the use of improved identification and monitoring. The assessment will be restricted to current verification methods together with one that has been applied on a trial basis—short-notice random inspections coupled with mailbox declarations. This paper is part of the NNSA Office of Nonproliferation and International Security’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) program to investigate the concept of a global monitoring scheme that uniquely identifies and tracks UF6 cylinders.

Curtis, Michael M.

2012-06-05

32

Strengthening radiopharmacy practice in IAEA Member States.  

PubMed

Radiopharmaceuticals are essential components of nuclear medicine procedures. Without radiopharmaceuticals nuclear medicine procedures cannot be performed. Therefore it could be said that 'No radiopharmaceutical-no nuclear medicine.' A good radiopharmacy practice supports nuclear medicine activities by producing radiopharmaceuticals that are safe and are of the required quality in a consistent way. As with any medicinal product, radiopharmaceuticals are required to be produced under carefully controlled conditions and are tested for their quality, prior to the administration to patients, using validated standard operating procedures. These procedures are based on the principles of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). The GMP principles are based on scientific knowledge and applicable regulatory requirements and guidance related to radiopharmaceutical productions and use. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is committed to promote, in the Member States (MS), a rational and practical approach for the implementation of GMP for compounding or manufacturing of diagnostic or therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. To pursue this goal the IAEA has developed various mechanisms and collaborations with individual experts in the field and with relevant national and international institutions or organizations. IAEA's activities in promoting radiopharmaceutical science include commissioning expert advice in the form of publications on radiopharmaceutical production, quality control and usage, producing technical guidance on production and regulatory aspects related to new radiopharmaceuticals, creating guidance documentation for self or internal audits of radiopharmaceutical production facilities, producing guidance on implementation of Quality Management System and GMP in radiopharmacy, assisting in creation of specific radiopharmaceutical monographs for the International Pharmacopoeia, and developing radiopharmacy-related human resource capabilities in MS through individual and regional training courses and education programs. IAEA strongly supports development of clinical nuclear medicine services by assisting MS in setting up reliable Radiopharmaceutical production facilities for single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and for therapeutic applications. PMID:23561456

Duatti, Adriano; Bhonsle, Uday

2013-05-01

33

Quality assurance for IAEA inspection planning  

SciTech Connect

Under the provisions of the Treaty on Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons and other agreements with states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts inspections at nuclear facilities to confirm that their operation is consistent with the peaceful use of nuclear material. The Department of Safeguards at the IAEA is considering a quality assurance program for activities related to the planning of these facility inspections. In this report, we summarize recent work in writing standards for planning inspections at the types of facilities inspected by the IAEA. The standards specify the sequence of steps in planning inspections, which are: (1) administrative functions, such as arrangements for visas and travel, and communications with the state to confirm facility operating schedules and the state's acceptance of the assigned inspectors; (2) technical functions including a specification of the required inspection activities, determination of personnel and equipment resources, and a schedule for implementing the inspection activities at the facility; and (3) management functions, such as pre- and post-inspection briefings, where the planned and implemented inspection activities are reviewed.

Markin, J.T.

1986-01-01

34

Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

Geist, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bonner, Elisa [FORMER N-4 STUDENT

2009-01-01

35

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ``Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core`` problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-12-01

36

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-01-01

37

Comparison of IAEA system of accounting and control guidelines with practices at nuclear facilities in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study comparing the technical guidance for the state system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with actual practices at two US facilities. The guidance for SSAC is described in safeguards technical reports (STRs) for the IAEA. The technical details presented in the STRs for SSACs at the facility level were compared point by point with actual practices at both a low-enriched uranium conversion and fabrication facility and a research reactor facility.

Roberts, F.P.; Harms, N.L.; Smith, B.W.; Young, J.K.

1986-10-01

38

Nuclear Nonproliferation: IAEA Has Made Progress in Implementing Critical Programs but Continues to Face Challenges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

IAEA plays a crucial role in supporting U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals through its safeguards and nuclear security programs. The Department of State (State) coordinates the United States' financial and policy relationship with IAEA. IAEA's safeguards...

2013-01-01

39

Determination of Trace Elements in IAEA Milk Powder A-11, IAEA Animal Muscle H-4, and IAEA Pig Kidney H-7 by Means of Neutron Activation Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three biological materials serve as reference materials for analytical quality control in various IAEA/WHO coordinated research programmes on trace elements in biological systems. (Atomindex citation 11:501668)

T. G. Aalbers T. G. Verburg P. S. Tjioe J. J. M. de Goeij

1978-01-01

40

Reference Material for Radionuclides in Sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon Sediment)  

SciTech Connect

The IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's program of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). An important part of the AQCS program has been a production of Reference Materials (RMs) and their provision to radioanalytical laboratories. The RMs have been developed for different marine matrices (sediment, water, biota), with accuracy and precision required for the present state of the art of radiometrics and mass spectrometry methods. The RMs have been produced as the final products of world-wide intercomparison exercises organized during last 30 years. A total of 44 intercomparison exercises were undertaken and 39 RMs were produced for radionuclides in the marine environment. All required matrices (seawater, biota, sediment) have been covered with radionuclide concentrations ranging from typical environmental levels to elevated levels affected by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants. The long-term availability of RMs (over 10 years) requires the use of very specific techniques to collect and pretreat large quantities of material (e.g., in excess of 100 kg) in order to ensure sample stability and homogenization of any analytes of interest. The production of a RM is therefore a long process, covering the identification of needs, sample collection, pre-treatment, homogenization, bottling, distribution to laboratories, evaluation of data, preliminary reporting, additional analyses in expert laboratories, certification of the material, and finally issuing the RM. In this paper we describe a reference material IAEA-384, Fangataufa lagoon sediment, designed for determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in the marine environment. This RM has been prepared with the aim of testing the performance of analytical laboratories to measure the activity of these radionuclides in a sediment sample contaminated by elevated levels of fallout from nuclear weapons tests. Participating laboratories were requested to determine as many radionuclides as possible by radiometric (alpha, beta and gamma-spectrometry) as well as by mass spectrometry methods (e.g., ICPMS - Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, TIMS - Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry, AMS - Accelerator Mass Spectrometry).

Povinec, P; Pham, M; Barci-Funel, G; Bojanawski, R; Boshkova, T; Burnett, W; Carvalho, F; Chapeyron, B; Cunha, I; Dahlgaard, H; Galabov, N; Gastaud, J; Geering, J; Gomez, I; Green, N; Hamilton, T; Ibanez, F; Majah, M I; John, M; Kanisch, G; Kenna, T; Kloster, M; Korun, M; Wee Kwong, L L; La Rosa, J; Lee, S; Levy-Palomo, I; Malatova, M; Maruo, Y; Mitchell, P; Murciano, I; Nelson, R; Oh, J; Oregioni, B; Petit, G L; Pettersson, H; Reineking, A; Smedley, P; Suckow, A; der Struijs, T v; Voors, P; Yoshimizu, K; Wyse, E

2005-09-23

41

Analytical quality of environmental analysis: Recent results and future trends of the IAEA-ILMR's Analytical Quality Control Program  

SciTech Connect

The Analytical Quality Control Services Program of the IAEA-ILMR covers a wide variety of intercalibration and reference materials. The purpose of the program is to ensure the comparability of the results obtained by the different participants and to enable laboratories engaged in low-level analyses of marine environmental materials to control their analytical performance. Within the past five years, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco has organized eight intercomparison exercises, on a world-wide basis, on natural materials of marine origin comprising sea water, sediment, seaweed and fish flesh. Results on artificial (fission and activation products, transuranium elements) and natural radionuclides were compiled and evaluated. Reference concentration values were established for a number of the intercalibration samples allowing them to become certified as reference materials available for general distribution. The results of the fish flesh sample and those of the deep-sea sediment are reviewed. The present status of three on-going intercomparison exercises on post-Chernobyl samples IAEA-306 (Baltic Sea sediment), IAEA-307 (Mediterranean sea-plant Posidonia oceanica) and IAEA-308 (Mediterranean mixed seaweed) is also described. 1 refs., 4 tabs.

Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Holm, E.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P. (International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity (Monaco))

1988-01-01

42

Automated Controlled-Potential Coulometer for the IAEA  

SciTech Connect

An automated controlled-potential coulometer has been developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the determination of plutonium for use at the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Siebersdorf, Austria. The system is functionally the same as earlier systems built for use at the Savannah River Site`s Analytical Laboratory. All electronic circuits and printed circuits boards have been upgraded with state-of-the-art components. A higher amperage potentiostat with improved control stability has been developed. The system achieves electronic calibration accuracy and linearity of better than 0.01 percent, with a precision and accuracy better than 0.1 percent has been demonstrated. This coulometer features electrical calibration of the integration system, electrolysis current background corrections, and control-potential adjustment capabilities. These capabilities allow application of the system to plutonium measurements without chemical standards, achieving traceability to the international measurement system through electrical standards and Faraday`s constant. the chemist is provided with the capability to perform measurements without depending upon chemical standards, which is a significant advantage for applications such as characterization of primary and secondary standards. Additional benefits include reducing operating cost to procure, prepare and measure calibration standards and the corresponding decrease in radioactive waste generation. The design and documentation of the automated instrument are provided herein. Each individual module`s operation, wiring, layout, and alignment are described. Interconnection of the modules and system calibration are discussed. A complete set of prints and a list of associated parts are included.

Cordaro, J.V. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Holland, M.K.; Fields, T.

1998-01-29

43

Assessment of Alternative Funding Mechanisms for the IAEA  

SciTech Connect

While the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is growing concern that global demographic trends, advances in technology and the trend towards austerity in Member State budgets will stretch the Agency’s resources to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As part of an ongoing effort by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to evaluate the IAEA’s long-term budgetary concerns , this paper proposes a series of alternate funding mechanisms that have the potential to sustain the IAEA in the long-term, including endowment, charity, and fee-for-service funding models.

Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Ford, Benjamin E.

2012-06-15

44

Information system for IAEA inspectors at a centrifuge enrichment plant  

SciTech Connect

An information system has been developed to aid International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Plant in the US. This system is designed to provide the inspectors with data storage, data analysis, and data evaluation and decision capabilities with minimal impact on the plant operations. The techniques and methodologies developed for this specific case are described with discussion of their general applicability to IAEA inspections at all types of facilities. 7 refs.

Baker, A.L.; Tape, J.W.; Picard, R.R.; Strittmatter, R.B.

1985-01-01

45

Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections. Final report: Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections  

SciTech Connect

This is the second of two reports prepared to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA or Agency) in enhancing the effectiveness of its international safeguards inspections through inspector training in {open_quotes}Observational Skills{close_quotes}. The first (Phase 1) report was essentially exploratory. It defined Observational Skills broadly to include all appropriate cognitive, communications, and interpersonal techniques that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively. It identified 10 specific Observational Skills components, analyzed their relevance to IAEA safeguards inspections, and reviewed a variety of inspection programs in the public and private sectors that provide training in one or more of these components. The report concluded that while it should be possible to draw upon these other programs in developing Observational Skills training for IAEA inspectors, the approaches utilized in these programs will likely require significant adaption to support the specific job requirements, policies, and practices that define the IAEA inspector`s job. The overall objective of this second (Phase 2) report is to provide a basis for the actual design and delivery of Observational Skills training to IAEA inspectors. The more specific purposes of this report are to convey a fuller understanding of the potential application of Observational Skills to the inspector`s job, describe inspector perspectives on the relevance and importance of particular Observational Skills, identify the specific Observational Skill components that are most important and relevant to enhancing safeguards inspections, and make recommendations as to Observational Skills training for the IAEA`s consideration in further developing its Safeguards training program.

Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.

1994-09-01

46

USSP-IAEA WORKSHOP ON ADVANCED SENSORS FOR SAFEGUARDS.  

SciTech Connect

The IAEA Medium Term Strategy (2006-2011) defines a number of specific goals in respect to the IAEA's ability to provide assurances to the international community regarding the peaceful use of nuclear energy through States adherences to their respective non-proliferation treaty commitments. The IAEA has long used and still needs the best possible sensors to detect and measure nuclear material. The Department of Safeguards, recognizing the importance of safeguards-oriented R&D, especially targeting improved detection capabilities for undeclared facilities, materials and activities, initiated a number of activities in early 2005. The initiatives included letters to Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), personal contacts with known technology holders, topical meetings, consultant reviews of safeguards technology, and special workshops to identify new and novel technologies and methodologies. In support of this objective, the United States Support Program to IAEA Safeguards hosted a workshop on ''Advanced Sensors for Safeguards'' in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 23-27, 2007. The Organizational Analysis Corporation, a U.S.-based management consulting firm, organized and facilitated the workshop. The workshop's goal was to help the IAEA identify and plan for new sensors for safeguards implementation. The workshop, which was attended by representatives of seven member states and international organizations, included presentations by technology holders and developers on new technologies thought to have relevance to international safeguards, but not yet in use by the IAEA. The presentations were followed by facilitated breakout sessions where the participants considered two scenarios typical of what IAEA inspectors might face in the field. One scenario focused on an enrichment plant; the other scenario focused on a research reactor. The participants brainstormed using the technologies presented by the participants and other technologies known to them to propose techniques and methods that could be used by the IAEA to strengthen safeguards. Creative thinking was encouraged during discussion of the proposals. On the final day of the workshop, the OAC facilitators summarized the participant's ideas in a combined briefing. This paper will report on the results of the April 2007 USSP-IAEA Workshop on Advanced Sensors for Safeguards and give an overview of the proposed technologies of greatest promise.

PEPPER,S.; QUEIROLO, A.; ZENDEL, M.; WHICHELLO, J.; ANNESE, C.; GRIEBE, J.; GRIEBE, R.

2007-11-13

47

Chemistry and technology of radioactive waste management —the IAEA perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper refers the consideration of chemical composition of radioactive waste in selection of particular method and technology for waste treatment and conditioning, importance of physicochemical parameters of waste processing techniques for optimisation of waste processing to produce waste form of appropriate quality. Consideration of waste chemistry is illustrated by several IAEA activities on radioactive waste management and by outlining the scope of some selected technical reports on different waste management subjects. Different components of the IAEA activities on radioactive waste management and on technology transfer are presented and discussed.

Efremenkov, V. M.

2003-01-01

48

IAEA Newsbriefs. V. 14, no. 3(84). Jul-Aug 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tis issue gives brief information on the following topics: Global Nuclear Issues on IAEA General Conference Agenda (27 September 1999, Vienna), Scientific Forum Looks At Nuclear Energy and Sustainable Development, IAEA Board Approves Year 2000 Budget, Mor...

1999-01-01

49

Strategy study on the effective participation in the IAEA technical cooperation programmes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this research are to seek the most effective means of participation in implementing IAEA technical cooperation programs, to seek and establish a desirable role for Korea in these program, to predict future opportunities among IAEA progra...

J. Lee J. K. Chung K. Kim P. Choi Y. Hong

1997-01-01

50

IAEA Newsbriefs. V. 9, no. 4(66). Oct 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This issue gives brief information on the following topics: IAEA Analyzing effect of US-DPRK Agreed Framework, Statement to General Assembly in New-York, Council on Foreign Relations, 19 October 1994, Congress of the European Nuclear Society, 4 October 19...

1994-01-01

51

Nonproliferation, Disarmament, and the IAEA in Tomorrow's World  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards have evolved considerably during the last five decades and have become an integral part of the international non-proliferation regime and the global security system. To carry on serving well the international community, they need to continue to move with the times -- especially in light of the renewed interest in nuclear energy and its

Cooley; Jill

2008-01-01

52

Indo-US Nuclear Agreement and IAEA Safeguards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear transfers to a non-nuclear weapon state (NNWS) are conditioned on IAEA safeguards on all current and future peaceful nuclear activities, what are called the full-scope safeguards (FSS) or comprehensive safeguards. Since India is a NNWS according to the NPT definition, the NSG Guidelines as currently implemented would, therefore, invoke FSS if India seeks nuclear technology or nuclear power plants

R Ramachandran

2005-01-01

53

IAEA activities in Gas-cooled Reactor technology development  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the charter to ``foster the exchange of scientific and technical information``, and ``encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world``. This paper describes the Agency`s activities in Gas-cooled Reactor (GCR) technology development.

Cleveland, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kupitz, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

1992-12-31

54

IAEA activities in Gas-cooled Reactor technology development  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the charter to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information'', and encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world''. This paper describes the Agency's activities in Gas-cooled Reactor (GCR) technology development.

Cleveland, J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kupitz, J. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

1992-01-01

55

IAEA verification experiment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect

In April 1996, the United States (US) added the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to the list of facilities eligible for the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. At that time, the US proposed that the IAEA carry out a Verification Experiment at the plant with respect to the downblending of about 13 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the form of UF{sub 6}. This material is part of the 226 metric tons of fissile material that President Clinton has declared to be excess to US national-security needs and which will be permanently withdrawn from the US nuclear stockpile. In September 1997, the IAEA agreed to carry out this experiment, and during the first three weeks of December 1997, the IAEA verified the design information concerning the downblending process. The plant has been subject to short-notice random inspections since December 17, 1997. This paper provides an overview of the Verification Experiment, the monitoring technologies used in the verification approach, and some of the experience gained to date.

Gordon, D.M.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Calvert, O.L.; Bonner, T.N. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Portsmouth, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Adams, J.G. [United States Enrichment Corp. (United States); Cherry, R.C. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Whiting, N.E. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

1998-08-01

56

Major mutation-assisted plant breeding programs supported by FAO\\/IAEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Joint FAO\\/IAEA programme, radiation-induced mutations are used for genetic improvement of both seed and vegetatively propagated plants. The FAO\\/IAEA programme maintains a database of officially released mutant varieties worldwide (http:www-mvd.iaea.org\\/). Currently, over 2300 mutant varieties are registered in our database. Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) and Technical Co-operation Projects (TCP) are two major activities at IAEA that serve Member

S. Mohan. Jain

2005-01-01

57

Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol in the Philippines: USDOE/PNRI Cooperation  

SciTech Connect

The Philippines entered into force the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Additional Protocol (AP) in February 2010. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency responsible for implementing the AP. In June 2010 the IAEA invited the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to help conduct a joint national training seminar on the AP. DOE presented to PNRI its AP international technical assistance program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), which helps partner countries implement the AP. In coordination with the IAEA, DOE established this program in 2008 to complement IAEA AP seminars with long-term country-specific cooperation from the perspective of a Member State. The US version of the AP is the same version as that of non-nuclear weapon states except for the addition of a national security exclusion. Due to this, DOE cooperation with other countries enables the sharing of valuable lessons learned in implementing the AP. DOE/INSEP described to PNRI the various areas of cooperation it offers to interested countries, whether they are preparing for entry into force or already implementing the AP. Even countries that have entered the AP into force are sometimes not fully prepared to implement it well, and welcome cooperation to improve their implementation process. PNRI and DOE/INSEP subsequently agreed to cooperate in several areas to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the Philippines AP implementation. These areas include providing working-level training to PNRI staff and preparing an information document that details that training for future reference, assisting with the development of an outreach program and procedures for AP reporting and complementary access, and identifying Annex II equipment and non-nuclear materials whose export must be reported under the AP. DOE laboratory representatives, funded by INSEP, met again with PNRI in February 2011 to provide training for PNRI AP staff and investigate specific ways to improve implementation. Another meeting in July 2011 focused on preparations for outreach to industry and universities. In this paper PNRI describes current implementation of the AP in the Philippines, and both DOE/INSEP and PNRI provide their perspectives on their cooperation to enhance that implementation.

Sequis, Julietta E.; Cain, Ronald A.; Burbank, Roberta L.; Hansen, Linda H.; VanSickle, Matthew; Killinger, Mark H.; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

2011-07-19

58

Offering excess US fissile materials for IAEA safeguards  

SciTech Connect

In his September 1993 nonproliferation policy announcement, President Clinton described an initiative to submit U.S. excess fissile material for international safeguards. This set in motion U.S. government agency activities in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and elsewhere to begin identifying materials judged no longer needed for the U.S. deterrent. At the same time, preparations for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safe-guards were begun at a few DOE sites. In September 1994, the IAEA selected a facility at the Oak Ridge site and began applying safeguards to excess highly enriched uranium (HEU). In March 1995 the President declared that {approximately}200 tonnes of fissile materials would no longer be needed for national security purposes and would, therefore, be declared excess. In February 1996 the Secretary of Energy announced specific quantities and locations of excess HEU and plutonium. In early September 1996, recommendations prepared by the DOE on the international safeguarding of excess materials were approved by the National Security Council. These recommendations outlined the steps to be taken to make excess fissile material available for international safeguards. The principal responsibility for carrying out this program was assigned to the DOE. By this time IAEA inspections had also begun at the Hanford and Rocky Flats sites. The DOE has identified four general categories of excess materials. Category 1 consists of {approximately}12 tonnes of material under IAEA safeguards at Oak Ridge, Hanford, and Rocky Flats. Category 2 includes 27.6 t of HEU that is expected to be made available in the next several years. Category 3 is composed of {approximately}85 t of HEU and plutonium that is currently being evaluated within the DOE to determine the amount of this material that can be made available for IAEA safeguards. The final category consists of more than 100 tonnes of excess materials in classified forms.

Cherry, R.C. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Whitesel, R.N. [JUPITER Corp., Wheaton, MD (United States)

1997-12-01

59

A dosimetry study comparing NCS report-5, IAEA TRS-381, AAPM TG-51 and IAEA TRS-398 in three clinical electron beam energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New codes of practice for reference dosimetry in clinical high-energy photon and electron beams have been published recently, to replace the air kerma based codes of practice that have determined the dosimetry of these beams for the past twenty years. In the present work, we compared dosimetry based on the two most widespread absorbed dose based recommendations (AAPM TG-51 and IAEA TRS-398) with two air kerma based recommendations (NCS report-5 and IAEA TRS-381). Measurements were performed in three clinical electron beam energies using two NE2571-type cylindrical chambers, two Markus-type plane-parallel chambers and two NACP-02-type plane-parallel chambers. Dosimetry based on direct calibrations of all chambers in 60Co was investigated, as well as dosimetry based on cross-calibrations of plane-parallel chambers against a cylindrical chamber in a high-energy electron beam. Furthermore, 60Co perturbation factors for plane-parallel chambers were derived. It is shown that the use of 60Co calibration factors could result in deviations of more than 2% for plane-parallel chambers between the old and new codes of practice, whereas the use of cross-calibration factors, which is the first recommendation in the new codes, reduces the differences to less than 0.8% for all situations investigated here. The results thus show that neither the chamber-to-chamber variations, nor the obtained absolute dose values are significantly altered by changing from air kerma based dosimetry to absorbed dose based dosimetry when using calibration factors obtained from the Laboratory for Standard Dosimetry, Ghent, Belgium. The values of the 60Co perturbation factor for plane-parallel chambers (katt . km for the air kerma based and pwall for the absorbed dose based codes of practice) that are obtained from comparing the results based on 60Co calibrations and cross-calibrations are within the experimental uncertainties in agreement with the results from other investigators.

Palmans, Hugo; Nafaa, Laila; de Patoul, Nathalie; Denis, Jean-Marc; Tomsej, Milan; Vynckier, Stefaan

2003-05-01

60

Comparison of air kerma standards for medium-energy x-radiation between the MKEH and the IAEA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of the air kerma standards for medium-energy x-radiation was performed between the MKEH and the IAEA. Two reference class ionization chambers of the IAEA, traceable to the PTB with volumes 1000 cm3 and 100 cm3, and the ISO 4037 N-40, N-60, N-120 and N-300 standard beam qualities were selected for the comparison. The calibration coefficients, NK, were determined for both chambers at the MKEH in August 2011 and before and after this at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory. The comparison ratio of the calibration coefficients normalized to the previous comparison results of the PTB and MKEH primary air kerma standards was in the range from 0.989 to 0.994 for the beam qualities used. The relative expanded (k = 2) uncertainty for each of these ratios is around 2%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Csete, István; Czap, Ladislav; Gomola, Igor

2012-01-01

61

Kalibrering av ionekamre i IAEA-vannfantom. (Calibration of ionization chambers in IAEA water phantom).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The calibration in a water phantom is realised at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory in Norway. The method is valid for chambers used in high energy radiation therapy. The method, setup and corrections in the calibration are described. The absorb...

H. Bjerke O. Mikkelborg

1995-01-01

62

IAEA integrated safeguards instrumentation program (I2SIP)  

SciTech Connect

This article is a review of the IAEA integrated safeguards instrumentation program. The historical development of the program is outlined, and current activities are also noted. Brief technical descriptions of certain features are given. It is concluded that the results of this year`s efforts in this area will provide significant input and be used to assess the viability of the proposed concepts and to decide on the directions to pursue in the future.

Arlt, R.; Fortakov, V.; Gaertner, K.J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)] [and others

1995-12-31

63

November IAEA Report: Centrifuge File Not Closed; Natanz Enrichment Expands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Status of the Workplan: The IAEA outlined its discussions with Iran on the history of its P1 and P2 centrifuge programs. The P1 centrifuge is currently installed at the Fuel Enrichment Plant (FEP) at Natanz. Iran is undertaking research and development (R&D) on a variant of the P2, a faster, more advanced centrifuge, and has apparently started mechanical testing of

David Albright; Jacqueline Shire

2007-01-01

64

The use of isotopic age for improved groundwater assessment and management: recent IAEA initiatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater provides more than half of the world's freshwater supply and fossil groundwater sustains a significant portion of the current food production by irrigated agriculture, as well as contributes to baseflow of rivers. In spite of the importance of groundwater, a number of fundamental aspects of aquifer hydrogeology, including recharge, groundwater-surface water interactions, and the extent and distribution of fossil groundwater remain poorly characterized in most countries. Aquifer assessments at regional or national scales can be conducted more effectively and rapidly by using groundwater isotope signatures and ages, but a lack of easy access to analytical facilities and discordant ages estimated from multiple isotope tracers have been two of the important impediments in the wider use of age dating for groundwater investigations. We have recently established a noble gas facility at the IAEA to increase the availability of groundwater ages and have demonstrated the use of tritium-helium isotope pair in a shallow aquifer and river baseflow in Austria for characterizing groundwater residence time. Carbon-14 data collected prior to the advent of accelerator mass spectrometry is subject to large uncertainties because of potentially large contamination with atmospheric carbon dioxide during ampling. Using field and laboratory experiments, we demonstrate that carbon-14 values as much as 10 pMC in the Nubian Aquifer can be attributed to contamination during sampling. In this presentation, we will discuss recent IAEA initiatives for a wider application of tritium-helium-3, carbon-14 and krypton-81 for groundwater dating and to increase the availability of comprehensive, national assessments of water resources.

Aggarwal, P. K.; Matsumoto, T.; Araguás Araguás, L. J.; Han, L. F.; Van Duren, M.; Philipp, P. M.; Choudhry, M. A.; Kralik, M.

2012-04-01

65

IAEA activities in the area of partitioning and transmutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four major challenges are facing the long-term development of nuclear energy: improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptance. Meeting the sustainability criteria is the driving force behind the topic of this paper. In this context, sustainability has two aspects: natural resources and waste management. IAEA's activities in the area of Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) are mostly in response to the latter. While not involving the large quantities of gaseous products and toxic solid wastes associated with fossil fuels, radioactive waste disposal is today's dominant public acceptance issue. In fact, small waste quantities permit a rigorous confinement strategy, and mined geological disposal is the strategy followed by some countries. Nevertheless, political opposition arguing that this does not yet constitute a safe disposal technology has largely stalled these efforts. One of the primary reasons cited is the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission. This concern has led to increased R&D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount and radio-toxicity of long-lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or sub-critical systems. In the frame of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste, ADS, and deuterium tritium plasma-driven sub-critical systems. The paper presents past accomplishments, current status and planned activities of this IAEA project.

Stanculescu, Alexander

2006-06-01

66

RECRUITMENT OF U.S. CITIZENS FOR VACANCIES IN IAEA SAFEGUARDS  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on its member states to assist with recruiting qualified individuals for positions within the IAEA's secretariat. It is important that persons within and outside the US nuclear and safeguards industries become aware of career opportunities available at the IAEA, and informed about important vacancies. The IAEA has established an impressive web page to advertise opportunities for employment. However, additional effort is necessary to ensure that there is sufficient awareness in the US of these opportunities, and assistance for persons interested in taking positions at the IAEA. In 1998, the Subgroup on Safeguards Technical Support (SSTS) approved a special task under the US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) for improving US efforts to identify qualified candidates for vacancies in IAEA's Department of Safeguards. The International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) developed a plan that includes increased advertising, development of a web page to support US recruitment efforts, feedback from the US Mission in Vienna, and interaction with other recruitment services provided by US professional organizations. The main purpose of this effort is to educate US citizens about opportunities at the IAEA so that qualified candidates can be identified for the IAEA's consideration.

PEPPER,S.E.; DECARO,D.; WILLIAMS,G.; CARELLI,J.; ASSUR,M.

1999-07-25

67

Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS No. 472  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the approach taken to present the information on fruits in the IAEA report TRS No. 472, supported by the IAEA-TECDOC-1616, which describes the key transfer processes, concepts and conceptual models regarded as important for dose assessment, as well as relevant parameters for modelling radionuclide transfer in fruits. Information relate to fruit plants grown in agricultural ecosystems of temperate regions. The relative significance of each pathway after release of radionuclides depends upon the radionuclide, the kind of crop, the stage of plant development and the season at time of deposition. Fruit intended as a component of the human diet is borne by plants that are heterogeneous in habits, and morphological and physiological traits. Information on radionuclides in fruit systems has therefore been rationalised by characterising plants in three groups: woody trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Parameter values have been collected from open literature, conference proceedings, institutional reports, books and international databases. Data on root uptake are reported as transfer factor values related to fresh weight, being consumption data for fruits usually given in fresh weight.

Carini, F.; Pellizzoni, M.; Giosuè, S.

2012-04-01

68

The IAEA's activities on radiation protection in interventional cardiology  

PubMed Central

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its mandate of developing and applying standards of radiation safety has initiated a number of activities in recent years on radiation protection in interventional cardiology. These activities are implemented through four mechanisms, namely training, providing information through the website, research projects and assistance to Member States through Technical Cooperation (TC) projects. Major international initiatives have been taken in the area of training where more than half a dozen regional training courses have been conducted for cardiologists from over 50 countries. Additionally four national training events for over 300 medical and paramedical staff members involved in interventional procedures were held. The training material is freely available on CD from the IAEA. The newly established website provides information on radiation protection issues [1]. Two coordinated research projects have just been completed where peak skin doses to patients undergoing high dose interventional procedures were studied and factors to manage patient doses were identified. The technical cooperation projects involving protection in cardiac interventional procedures have 30 countries as participants.

Rehani, MM

2007-01-01

69

Analysis of uncertainties in the IAEA\\/WHO TLD postal dose audit system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) operate the IAEA\\/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme. Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) are used as transfer devices in this programme. In the present work the uncertainties in the dose determination from TLD measurements have been evaluated. The analysis of uncertainties comprises uncertainties in the calibration coefficient of the TLD

J. Izewska; M. Hultqvist; P. Bera

2008-01-01

70

IAEA Nuclear Data Section: provision of atomic and nuclear databases for user applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Data Section (NDS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides a wide range of atomic and nuclear data services to scientists worldwide, with particular emphasis placed on the needs of developing countries. Highly focused Co-ordinated Research Projects and multinational data networks are sponsored under the auspices of the IAEA for the development and assembly of databases through

Denis P Humbert; Alan L Nichols; Otto Schwerer

2004-01-01

71

The IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). It defines its rationale, key objectives and specifies the organizational structure. The IAEA General Conference (2000) has invited 'all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the Agency in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining

Juergen Kupitz

2002-01-01

72

The IAEA CRP on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003, the IAEA has initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors, is to increase the capability of Member States in developing and applying advanced technologies in

W. Maschek; X. Chen; A. Rineiski; M. Schikorr; A. Stanculescu; B. Arien; E. Malambu; Y. Bai; J. Li; Y. Wu; S. Zheng; C. Chabert; Y. Peneliau; A. Chebeskov; V. Dekoussar; M. Vorotyntsev; D. F. da Cruz; K. Devan; V. Gopalakrishnan; R. Harish; P. Mohanakrishnan; G. Pandikumar; S. Dulla; P. Ravetto; O. Feynberg; V. Ignatiev; V. Subbotin; A. Surenkov; R. Zakirov; J. Kophazi; M. Szieberth; K. Morita; R. Srivenkatesan; S. Taczanowski; K. Tucek; H. Wider; P. Vertes; J. Uhlir

2007-01-01

73

Nuclear seawater desalination — IAEA activities and economic evaluation for southern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has addressed the issue of seawater desalination for potable water production with renewed intensity since 1989. It has been found that there are no technical impediments to the use of nuclear reactors as an energy source for seawater desalination. Highlights of projects regarding nuclear desalination in several of the IAEA Member States are described,

Peter J. Gowin; Toshio Konishi

1999-01-01

74

Role of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards in confidence building  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, I will examine some attributes of confidence building and connect them with how the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) interacts with its member states in carrying out its safeguards function. These interactions and the structure set up to define them help maintain and strengthen confidence between the IAEA and the member states and among these states. 3 refs.

Augustson, R.H.

1989-01-01

75

Patient exposure tracking: the IAEA smart card project.  

PubMed

The existing approach of radiation protection is largely based on the collective dose to the population with provisions for protection at an individual level through justification and optimisation. With the individual patient dose now exceeding the life-long occupational dose to a worker in a typical radiology practice, there is a need to establish approaches based on the protection of an individual patient. Radiation exposure tracking seems a way forward in this respect. Technological advances in recent years have provided opportunities for tracking to becoming a reality. The IAEA project on Smart Card/SmartRadTrack is described in this paper. The tracking is now a reality in a few dozen centres in many countries connected by picture archiving and communication systems, and there is hope that this will extend to cover other countries and continents. PMID:21778155

Rehani, Madan M; Frush, Donald P

2011-07-20

76

Nuclear Analytical Applications within the IAEA Nuclear Data Section  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, supports Member States development of nuclear techniques through a number of targeted actions and projects. The Section fulfills this role by organizing Coordinated Research Projects, or through less formal Data Development Projects and/or Technical Meetings. Training workshops are also regularly organized in conjunction with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. A number of projects relating to materials analysis techniques have been recently undertaken, e.g. neutron activation analysis, ion beam analysis, and proton induced X- or {gamma}-ray emission. In particular, details of the Coordinated Research Project focusing on the nuclear data requirements for the k{sub 0} method of neutron activation analysis are given. The paper illustrates how the IAEA strives to bring together relevant partners and provides a unique and structured basis for international collaboration.

Kellett, Mark A. [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

2011-12-13

77

Seabed gamma-ray spectrometry: applications at IAEA-MEL.  

PubMed

The technique of underwater gamma-ray spectrometry has been developed to complement or replace the traditional sampling-sample analysis approach for applications with space-time constraints, e.g. large areas of investigation, emergency response or long-term monitoring. IAEA-MEL has used both high-efficiency NaI(Tl) and high-resolution HPGe spectrometry to investigate contamination with anthropogenic radionuclides in a variety of marine environments. Surveys at the South Pacific nuclear test sites of Mururoa and Fangataufa have been used to guide sampling in areas of high contamination around ground zero points. In the Irish Sea offshore from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant, a gamma-ray survey of seabed sediment was carried out to obtain estimates of the distribution and subsequently, for the inventory of 137Cs in the investigated area. PMID:11379061

Osvath, I; Povinec, P P

2001-01-01

78

The future of IAEA safeguards: challenges and responses  

SciTech Connect

For nearly two decades, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) has been transforming its safeguards system to address the challenges posed by undeclared nuclear programs, the associated revelation of an extensive non-State nuclear procurement network and other issues, including past limits to its verification mandate and the burden of noncompliance issues. Implementing the new measures, including those in the Additional Protocol, and integrating new and old safeguards measures, remains a work in progress. Implementation is complicated by factors including the limited teclmological tools that are available to address such issues as safeguarding bulk handling facilities, detection of undeclared facilities/activities, especially related to enrichment, etc. As this process continues, new challenges are arising, including the demands of expanding nuclear power production worldwide, so-called safeguards by design for a new generation of facilities, the possible IAEA role in a fissile material cutoff treaty and other elements of the arms control and disarmament agenda, the possible role in 'rollback' cases, etc. There is no doubt safeguards will need to evolve in the future, as they have over the last decades. In order for the evolutionary path to proceed, there will inter alia be a need to identify technological gaps, especially with respect to undeclared facilities, and ensure they are filled by adapting old safeguards technologies, by developing and introducing new and novel safeguards teclmologies and/or by developing new procedures and protocols. Safeguards will also need to respond to anticipated emerging threats and to future, unanticipated threats. This will require strategic planning and cooperation among Member States and with the Agency. This paper will address challenges to IAEA safeguards and the technological possibilities and R&D strategies needed to meet those challenges in the context of the forty-year evolution of safeguards, including the ongoing transformation of safeguards by the Agency.

Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

79

IAEA coordinated research activities on materials for advanced reactor systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the recent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, public resentment towards nuclear energy is very high; however it is also important to emphasise that for other facilities the safety record has been remarkably good when compared to those of other new or conventional energy technologies. In addition to clear safety improvements new systems will have increased thermal efficiency, maximised fuel use, and reduced nuclear waste production. In order to initiate commercial deployment of power reactors, small scale demonstrations of such new systems are urgently needed. This will help to develop, test and qualify new structural materials with improved properties with respect to radiation, corrosion, thermal and other degradation processes. To solve all challenges related to the performance parameters of such materials, internationally driven efforts must focus on research, targeted testing, and final selection of appropriate materials. This is recognised as a key milestone in successful demonstration and future deployment of newly designed nuclear reactors. Because of clear synergies between fusion and fission research and development communities have been identified, closer cooperation of research groups has been stimulated. Although some operational conditions are expected to change, many basic features will remain similar. In addition to the material science effort, new experimental facilities are being developed for the study of high-radiation damage effects on the microstructure of candidate materials prior to their qualification.During last 5 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched several coordinated research activities in this specific, but very important field. This paper gives a summary of on-going IAEA activities related to the development and characterisation of structural and plasma facing materials for nuclear energy.

Zeman, A.; Inozemtsev, V.; Kamendje, R.; Beatty, R. L.

2013-11-01

80

IAEA INPRO Project: A Vision of How to Meet the Opportunities and Challenges of Large-Scale Nuclear Energy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) can be considered as the IAEA's response to the challenges of growing energy demand. INPRO's activities are intended to help to achieve one of the main objectives of the IAEA - to promote the development and peaceful use of nuclear energy. INPRO applies a carefully developed Methodology to

M. Khoroshev; F. Depisch; S. Subbotin

2006-01-01

81

The IAEA/WHO TL dosimetry service for radiotherapy centres 1969-87.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a postal dosimetry service in 1966 using lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The World Health Organization (WHO) joined the programme in 1968. Dosimeters were sent on 29 occasions to primary standards laboratories or to the 'Bureau International des Poids et Measures' to guarantee the traceability to primary standards of absorbed dose. The mean deviation was -0.26 +/- 0.18% (1% SD of the mean). One SD for a single result was about 1%. The number of intercomparisons made during the whole period is about 2,000 from about 700 radiotherapy centres in 89 countries. To date only 60Co machines have been included. The mean deviation of all the results from the centres was -0.25, and 1% SD for a single result 6.7%. About 5% of the centres had deviations larger than 30%, at least on one occasion. It is shown that the accuracy in dosimetry improves considerably for those departments participating more than once in the TL dosimetry service. PMID:2390272

Svensson, H; Hanson, G P; Zsdánszky, K

1990-01-01

82

A Review of the IAEA Vulnerability Assessment Level Scheme: Applicabiliy to DTRA and DOE Programs in the FSU  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) plans to use the Common Criteria, as the tool for developing graded and measurable evaluation criteria for information technology (IT) in safeguards systems in facilities subject to IAEA inspection. In their draft paper [ITSECSES] the IAEA defines a three-tiered Vulnerability Assessment Level (VAL) scheme. Each increased VAL level (1-3) defines additional and more stringent security and security-related requirements for the system developer, the system evaluator (assessor or authenticator), and for the IAEA. When all parties meet all requirements for a particular VAL level, IAEA has a measurable degree of confidence in the secure and proper operation of an IT system.

Devaney, Mike M.; Hansen, Randy R.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Melton, Ronald B.

2001-12-06

83

The IAEA Assistance Training Programme for Transport Security  

SciTech Connect

The IAEA Office of Nuclear Security is working cooperatively with the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, European Union and Australia to provide transport security assistance to countries throughout the world. Assistance is available to countries in reviewing and upgrading their transport security programs at all levels: (1) National level (regulatory and other government agencies); and (2) Operator level (shippers and carriers). Assistance is directed at implementing a consistent level of security throughout the life cycle of radioactive material (same level of security during transport as when in a fixed facility) Upgrade assistance can include: (1) Expert advisory missions to provide advice and guidance; (2) Training courses for regulatory, governmental and industry personnel; (3) Transport security awareness; (4) Detailed training on designing and implementing transport security programs; (5) Planning to identify and prioritize needs (developing security approaches and plans); (6) Developing model security plans and procedures; and (7) Equipment (vehicles, packages, command and control equipment, etc.). Country visits are now being scheduled to initiate transport security cooperative activities. A training course has been developed to assist countries in developing and implementing transport security programs. The training course has been given as a national training course (three times) and as a Regional training course (three times). The course addresses recommended security provisions for the transport of all radioactive material.

Eriksson, Ann-Margret [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Hawk, Mark B [ORNL; Anderson, Kimberly K [ORNL

2010-01-01

84

The IAEA Assistance and Training Programme for Transport Security  

SciTech Connect

The IAEA Office of Nuclear Security is working cooperatively with the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, European Union and Australia to provide transport security assistance to countries throughout the world. Assistance is available to countries in reviewing and upgrading their transport security programs at all levels: (1) National level (regulatory and other government agencies); and (2) Operator level (shippers and carriers). Assistance is directed at implementing a consistent level of security throughout the life cycle of radioactive material (same level of security during transport as when in a fixed facility) Upgrade assistance can include: (1) Expert advisory missions to provide advice and guidance; (2) Training courses for regulatory, governmental and industry personnel; (3) Transport security awareness; (4) Detailed training on designing and implementing transport security programs; (5) Planning to identify and prioritize needs (developing security approaches and plans); (6) Developing model security plans and procedures; and (7) Equipment (vehicles, packages, command and control equipment, etc.). Country visits are now being scheduled to initiate transport security cooperative activities. A training course has been developed to assist countries in developing and implementing transport security programs. The training course has been given as a national training course (three times) and as a Regional training course (three times). The course addresses recommended security provisions for the transport of all radioactive material.

Hawk, Mark B [ORNL; Eriksson, Ann-Margret [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Rawl, Richard [Transport Security and Safety, Oak Ridge; Anderson, Kimberly K [ORNL

2010-01-01

85

Framework for fuel-cycle approaches to IAEA safeguards  

SciTech Connect

In order to compare several nuclear-safeguards verification approaches to one another and to the conventional facility-oriented approach, we establish a framework of the classes of information routinely verifiable by IAEA safeguards inspections. For each facility type within a State nuclear fuel cycle, the classes include flow data, inventory data, and shipper and receiver data. By showing which classes of information are verified for each facility type within three fuel cycles of different complexity, we distinguish the inspection approaches from one anoter and exhibit their fuel-cycle dependence, i.e., their need for sets of safeguards inspection activities different from those required under the facility-oriented approach at similar facilities in fuel cycles of differing complexity. Tables V-1, V-2, and V-3 graphically depict these relations and give a qualitative summary of the relative effectiveness and effort requirements of the approaches classified. The zone, information-correlation, diversion-assumption-change, and randomization-over-facilities approaches depend intrinsically on the complexity of the fuel cycle: their very definition implies fuel-cycle dependence. The approaches involving randomization over activities and goal relaxations do not have such dependence.

Fishbone, L.G.

1986-10-01

86

Radiation processing of natural polymers: The IAEA contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, non-toxic, and biodegradable natural polymers. Crosslinked natural polymers can be used as hydrogel wound dressings, face cleaning cosmetic masks, adsorbents of toxins, and non-bedsore mats; while low molecular weight products show antibiotic, antioxidant, and plant-growth promoting properties. Recognizing the potential benefits that radiation technology can offer for processing of natural polymers into useful products, the IAEA implemented a coordinated research project (CRP) on “Development of Radiation-processed products of Natural Polymers for application in Agriculture, Healthcare, Industry and Environment”. This CRP was launched at the end of 2007 with participation of 16 MS to help connecting radiation technology and end-users to derive enhanced benefits from these new value-added products of radiation-processed natural materials. In this paper the results of activities in participating MS related to this work will be presented.

Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Safrany, Agnes; Sampa, Maria Helena De O.; Ramamoorthy, Natesan

2010-03-01

87

Nuclear Nonproliferation: Strengthened Oversight Needed to Address Proliferation and Management Challenges in IAEA's Technical Cooperation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A key mission of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy through its Technical Cooperation (TC) program, which provides equipment, training, fellowships, and other services to its member states. The U...

2009-01-01

88

Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-307 radionuclides in sea plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Mediterranean Sea plant sample, coded as IAEA-307, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclide levels, are reported. This sample was collected along the shore from the vicinity of t...

A. Veglia S. Ballestra D. Vas

1989-01-01

89

Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-306 radionuclides in Baltic Sea sediment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Baltic Sea sediment sample, coded as IAEA-306, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclide levels, are reported. This sample was collected in the fall 1986. It was anticipated that ...

S. Ballestra D. Vas J. J. Lopez V. Noshkin

1989-01-01

90

IAEA Technical co-operation. A partner in development. Nuclear science serving people.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This issue contains descriptions of IAEA technical cooperation programs in a variety of disciplines and locations. It includes articles on the eradication of Tsetse flies in Africa, biofertilizers for agriculture, new strains of rice, water resource manag...

D. Kinley J. Perez Vargaz

1997-01-01

91

Determination of the absolute 32 S\\/ 34 S ratio of IAEA-S-1 reference material and V-CDT sulfur isotope standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absolute32S\\/34S ratios of IAEA-S-1 reference material and V-CDT standard are determined. For cross-checking, two sets of synthetic isotope\\u000a mixtures are prepared from high purity32S and34S-enriched materials in different forms: the first set is prepared from BaSO4 whereas the second is prepared from Ag2S. The sulfur isotope analyses are done by using SF6 method with a MAT-251 EM mass spectrometer.

Tiping Ding; Ruimei Bai; Yanhe Li; Defang Wan; Xiaoqiu Zou; Qinglian Zhang

1999-01-01

92

CFD simulation of the IAEA 10 MW generic MTR reactor under loss of flow transient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional simulation of the IAEA 10MW generic reactor under loss of flow transient is introduced using the CFD code, Fluent. The IAEA reactor calculation is a safety-related benchmark problem for an idealized material testing reactor (MTR) pool type specified in order to compare calculational methods used in various research centers. The flow transients considered include fast loss of flow accidents

Amgad Salama; Salah El-Din El-Morshedy

2011-01-01

93

The IAEA's WorldAtom Internet site: International news and information services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides news and public information services via the Internet through its WorldAtom home page. The page is accessible at www.iaea.org\\/worldatom. Following are brief highlights of the items available on the site by clicking Press Centre, Reference Centre, or other links: Daily Press Review: Summaries of selected news items pertaining to global nuclear developments and

Kyd

2000-01-01

94

Certification for trace elements and methyl mercury mass fractions in IAEA452 scallop ( Pecten Maximus ) sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

A marine certified reference material (CRM), IAEA-452, prepared with scallop (Pecten maximus) sample was recently produced by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and certified for trace elements and methyl\\u000a mercury (MeHg). The Scallop (Pecten maximus) sample is commonly found and consumed seafood and is also used as bio-indicators for trace metal contamination in marine\\u000a pollution studies. This paper presents

E. Vasileva; S. Azemard; J. Oh; P. Bustamante; M. Betti

95

Coordinated Research Projects of the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit  

SciTech Connect

The IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit is dedicated to the provision of databases for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (AM/PMI) data that are relevant for nuclear fusion research. IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) are the principal mechanism by which the Unit encourages data evaluation and the production of new data. Ongoing and planned CRPs on AM/PMI data are briefly described here.

Braams, B. J.; Chung, H.-K. [Nuclear Data Section, NAPC Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, P. O. Box 100, Vienna International Centre, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

2011-05-11

96

The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Containment and Surveillance  

SciTech Connect

The United States Support Program (USSP) priority for containment and surveillance (US) focuses on maintaining or improving the reliability and cost-effectiveness of C/S systems for IAEA safeguards, expanding the number of systems that are unattended and remotely monitored, and developing verification methods that help streamline the on-site inspection process. Existing IAEA C/S systems have evolved to become complex, integrated systems, which may include active seals, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments, video cameras, and other sensors. These systems operate autonomously. They send analytical data to IAEA headquarters where it can be reviewed. These systems present challenges to the goals of improved system performance, standardization, reliability, maintainability, documentation, and cost effectiveness. One critical lesson from past experiences is the need for cooperation and common objectives among the IAEA, the developer, and the facility operator, to create a successful, cost effective system. Recent USSP C/S activities include Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant safeguard systems, production of a new shift register, numerous vulnerability assessments of C/S systems, a conduit monitoring system which identifies tampering of IAEA conduit deployed in the field, fiber optic seal upgrades, unattended monitoring system software upgrades, next generation surveillance system which will upgrade existing camera systems, and support of the IAEA's development of the universal nondestructive assay data acquisition platform.

Diaz,R.A.

2008-06-13

97

Lessons from UNSCOM/IAEA applicable to nuclear arms control  

SciTech Connect

In early 1991, the Security Council of the United Nations tasked the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the assistance and cooperation of the United Nations Special Commission, to oversee the destruction, removal or rendering harmless of nuclear weapons material and capabilities in Iraq. The conduct of the nuclear inspections, and the subsequent activities (identification, destruction, removal rendering harmless), have provided a wealth of experience and insight into the inspection and monitoring process as well as into the political realities of such an operation. The early inspections were conducted in an atmosphere of discovery and inexperience on both the part of the Iraqis and the IAEA and UNSCOM. As time went on, the Iraqis became more adept at hiding and obscuring relevant documents and equipment, and the inspection teams became more knowledgeable about inspection and investigative techniques, and the pre-existing Iraqi programs. A continuous monitoring presence in Iraq has now been established and an import/export monitoring regime is being developed. While steps taken to date have proven effective in inhibiting resumption of nuclear weaponization activities, it remains to be seen how effective these measures will be in the future. The external and internal conditions which led the Iraqi leadership to undertake a nuclear weaponization program have not changed, and the prognosis for the long term is uncertain. The entire process in Iraq has shown how fragile are the tools available to the international community, and how a determined proliferator can evade inspection and monitoring measures. Such measures cannot prevent nuclear proliferation, they can only hope to deter it, or, failing in that, detect it.

Dorn, D.W.

1995-12-05

98

Containment and surveillance -- A principal IAEA safeguards measure  

SciTech Connect

The growth of the safeguards inspectorate of the Agency, spanning more than 40 years, has produced a variety of interesting subjects (legal, technical, political, etc.) for recollection, discussion, and study. Although the Agency was established in 1957, the first practical inspections did not occur until the early 1960s. In the early inspections, thee was little C/S equipment available, and no optical surveillance was used. However, by the third decade of the IAEA, the 1980s, many technology advances were made, and the level of C/S equipment activities increased. By the late 1980s, some 200 Twin Minolta film camera systems were deployed by the Agency for safeguards use. At the present time, the Agency is evaluating and beginning to implement remote monitoring as part of the Strengthened Safeguards System. However, adoption of remote monitoring by international agencies cannot occur rapidly because of the many technical and policy issues associated with this activity. A glimpse into the future indicates that an important element of safeguards instrumentation will be the merging of C/S and NDA equipment into integrated systems. The use of modern interior area monitors in International Safeguards also offers a great potential for advancing C/S measures. The research in microsensors is in its infancy, and the opportunities for their reducing the cost, increasing the life time, and increasing the reliability of sensors for safeguards applications are manifold. A period may be approaching in which the terminology of C/S will no longer have its original meaning, as integrated systems combining NDA instruments and C/S instruments are already in use and are expected to be the norm in the near future.

Drayer, D.D.; Dupree, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sonnier, C.S. [Jupiter Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

99

IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online educational resources programs geared toward the enhancement of the nuclear medicine profession as delivered by the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA. PMID:23561452

Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

2013-05-01

100

A suggested approach to applying IAEA safeguards to plutonium in weapons components  

SciTech Connect

It is the announced policy of the United States to make fissile material removed from its nuclear weapons stockpile subject to the US-IAEA voluntary safeguards agreement. Much of this material is plutonium in the form of pits. The application of traditional IAEA safeguards would reveal Restricted Data to unauthorized persons which is prohibited by US law and international treaties. Prior to the availability of a facility for the conversion of the plutonium in the pits to a non-sensitive form this obvious long-term solution to the problem is foreclosed. An alternative near-term approach to applying IAEA safeguards while preserving the necessary degree of confidentiality is required. This paper identifies such an approach. It presents in detail the form of the US declaration; the safeguards objectives which are met; inspection techniques which are utilized and the conclusion which the IAEA could reach concerning the contents of each item and the aggregate of all items. The approach would reveal the number of containers and the aggregate mass of plutonium in a set of n containers presented to the IAEA for verification while protecting data of the isotopic composition and plutonium mass of individual components. The suggested approach provides for traceability from the time the containers are sealed until the conversion of the plutonium to a non-sensitive form.

Lu, M.S.; Allentuck, J.

1998-08-01

101

Cooperation between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA Under the State-Level Concept:  

SciTech Connect

The role of State and Regional Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSACs/RSACs) will increase within the framework of the state-level concept that is being implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to effectively implement the concept and further establish a state-level approach, which is sought to tailor safeguards activities in a specific state accordingly, collaboration between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is very important. Nevertheless, the implementation of such concept is not simple. Optimal relationship between operators and national/governmental authorities and between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is an evolving process. Benefits of such an approach as well as roles and responsibilities must be made clear to all parties involved. Acknowledging the uniqueness and diversity of SSACs/RSACs is a first step, followed by the implementation of confidence-building measures that result from an efficient communication process, and culminating with a transparent technical cooperation program. This paper analyses various aspects of the complex relationship among all parties involved in the implementation of the state-level concept: operators, national authorities, government agencies, SSACs/RSACs, and the IAEA. The author analyses the intricate network of possibilities to improve cooperation and discusses issues involving the provision of additional and voluntary information by SSACs/RSACs to the IAEA.

Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Johnson, Jaclyn M [ORNL

2012-01-01

102

Testing the validity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety culture model.  

PubMed

This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included. PMID:24076304

López de Castro, Borja; Gracia, Francisco J; Peiró, José M; Pietrantoni, Luca; Hernández, Ana

2013-08-30

103

Project plan international atomic energy agency (IAEA) safeguards project plutonium finishing plant  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the PFP Integrated Project Management Plan (PMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP IAEA project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the IAEA project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process.

BARTLETT, W.D.

1999-05-13

104

The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards - How It Works  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Support Program to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards (USSP) was established in 1977 to transfer US technology and expertise to assist the IAEA Department of Safeguards because its limited budget and scope would not allow for R&D activities and the procurement of specialized or customized equipment. Over the years, the USSP and the Department of Safeguards have worked together continuously to develop and improve processes for requesting, selecting, and managing projects that support the Safeguards verification mission. This paper will discuss the main USSP processes for accepting and processing Safeguards requests, and managing and reporting task progress.

Nock,C.; Hoffheins,B.

2008-07-13

105

Laboratory Reagents  

SciTech Connect

Replaced by WMH-310, Section 4.17. This document outlined the basic methodology for preparing laboratory reagents used in the 222-S Standards Laboratory. Included were general guidelines for drying, weighing, transferring, dissolving, and diluting techniques common when preparing laboratory reagents and standards. Appendix A contained some of the reagents prepared by the laboratory.

CARLSON, D.D.

1999-10-08

106

Comparison of the PARET/ANL and RELAP5/MOD3 codes for the analysis of IAEA benchmark transients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PARET/ANL and RELAP5/MOD3 codes are used to analyze the series of benchmark transients specified for the IAEA Research Reactor Core Conversion Guidebook (IAEA-TECDOC-643, Vol. 3). The computed results for these loss-of-flow and reactivity insertion tr...

W. L. Woodruff N. A. Hanan R. S. Smith J. E. Matos

1996-01-01

107

Nuclear Nonproliferation: IAEA Has Strengthened Its Safeguards and Nuclear Security Programs, but Weaknesses Need to Be Addressed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safeguards system has been a cornerstone of U.S. efforts to prevent nuclear weapons proliferation since the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) was adopted in 1970. IAEA has strengthened...

2005-01-01

108

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Program on Radiation and Tissue Banking: a Successful Program for Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its inception the IAEA program in radiation and tissue banking supported the establishment of twenty five tissue banks in different countries. Now more than 103 tissue banks are now operating in these countries. The production of sterilized tissues has grown in an exponential mode within the IAEA program. From 1988 until the end of 2000 the production of sterilized

Jorge Morales Pedraza

2006-01-01

109

Safety Significance of Near Field Earthquakes An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a Co-ordinated Research Program (CRP) of the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA). The title of the CRP is: Safety Significance of Near Field Earthquakes (NFE). The rationale for such a CRP is the well-known technical finding that the usual engineering practices in seismic design of Nuclear Facilities result in a poor estimate

Pierre Labbé

110

Project plan international atomic energy agency (IAEA) safeguards project plutonium finishing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the PFP Integrated Project Management Plan

1999-01-01

111

23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: Summary Of Sessions EX/C and ICC  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

Richard J. Hawryluk

2011-01-05

112

The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Training and Human Resources  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) priority of training and human resources is aimed at providing the Department of Safeguards with an appropriate mixture of regular staff and extrabudgetary experts who are qualified to meet the IAEA's technical needs and to provide personnel with appropriate instruction to improve the technical basis and specific skills needed to perform their job functions. The equipment and methods used in inspection activities are unique, complex, and evolving. New and experienced safeguards inspectors need timely and effective training to perform required tasks and to learn new skills prescribed by new safeguards policies or agreements. The role of the inspector has changed from that of strictly an accountant to include that of a detective. New safeguards procedures are being instituted, and therefore, experienced inspectors must be educated on these new procedures. The USSP also recognizes the need for training safeguards support staff, particularly those who maintain and service safeguards equipment (SGTS), and those who perform information collection and analysis (SGIM). The USSP is committed to supporting the IAEA with training to ensure the effectiveness of all staff members and will continue to offer its assistance in the development and delivery of basic, refresher, and advanced training courses. This paper will discuss the USSP ongoing support in the area of training and IAEA staffing.

Queirolo,A.

2008-06-13

113

Negotiating Global Nuclearities: Apartheid, Decolonization, and the Cold War in the making of the IAEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

After years of relative obscurity, the International Atomic Energy Agency has received a lot of public attention over the past decade. International political discourse - and journalistic coverage thereof - portray the IAEA as the most authoritative judge of a nation's ability to produce atomic weapons. In this discourse, the agency's impartiality is guaranteed both by the technical qualifications of

Gabrielle Hecht

114

Safety of evolutionary and innovative nuclear reactors: IAEA activities and world efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Defence in Depth' approach constitutes the basis of the IAEA safety standards for nuclear power plants. Lessons learned from the current generation of reactors suggest that, for the next generation of reactor designs, the Defence in Depth philosophy should be retained, and that its implementation should be guided by the probabilistic insights. Recent developments in the area of general safety

T. Saito; M. Gasparini

2004-01-01

115

DE-TOP: A new IAEA tool for the thermodynamic evaluation of nuclear desalination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IAEA Desalination Thermodynamic Optimization Program DE-TOP, a newly developed tool for thermodynamic analysis of coupled nuclear power and seawater desalination plants, was released early this year. This software is capable of analyzing different coupling options including power generation systems coupled to desalination systems through various alternatives of steam extractions. The advantages and disadvantages of each coupling on the overall

I. G. Sánchez-Cervera; K. C. Kavvadias; I. Khamis

116

The 1995 IAEA intercomparison of gamma-ray spectrum analysis software  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an intercomparison organized by the IAEA, 12 PC-based programs for gamma-ray spectrum analysis were tested using seven reference spectra and a sum of squared differences method. It was found that all programs yield peak areas without bias, relative to each other. Most of the programs could analyze a spectrum containing only singlets in reasonable statistical control with respect to

M. Blaauw; V. Osorio Fernandez; P. van Espen; G. Bernasconi; R. Capote Noy; H. Manh Dung; N. I. Molla

1997-01-01

117

Special from encapsulation for radioactive material shipments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Special Form encapsulation has been used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to ship radioactive solids for the past fifteen years. A family of inexpensive stainless steel containers has been developed and tested to meet the USA Department of Transportation (DOT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations concerning radioactive material shipments as Special Form.

Schaich, R.W.

1980-01-01

118

Safeguards Implementation: Establishment of Indonesian Safeguards Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Under the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), U.S. National Laboratories support the Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to ''collaborate with international partners to strengthen international safeguards at all stages of nuclear development.'' This engagement in safeguards implementation cooperation is the basis for the security and safeguards arrangement with the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of the Republic of Indonesia (BAPETEN) and includes strengthening of the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC). There are many components in a robust SSAC. While INSEP carries on its program in a holistic approach, it is more effective and efficient to address individual components, rather than the entire system at one time, with the objective of strengthening the system as a whole. Nuclear material accountancy is one of these components. Nuclear material accountancy necessitates that a State periodically take an inventory of its material and record changes. To better perform these activities, BAPETEN requested assistance with establishing a safeguards laboratory where its staff could perform independent material characterization, maintain nondestructive assay equipment, and facilitate hands-on training of BAPETEN safeguards inspectors. In compliance with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidelines and safety series documents, INSEP and BAPETEN opened the BAPETEN Safeguards Laboratory in February 2010 to provide these competencies. BAPETEN showcased these new capabilities in July 2010 at the IAEA-sponsored Regional Workshop on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control at Facilities where hands-on activities were held at BAPETEN's Headquarters in Jakarta using the equipment supplied by INSEP. Discussions have begun on the establishment of a security and safeguards laboratory at the BAPETEN Training Center located in Cisarua. This paper describes the many steps involved with the Safeguards Laboratory Implementation Plan from its drafting in August 2007 to the completion of the laboratory in February 2010.

Shipwash, Jacqueline L [ORNL; Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Smith, Steven E [ORNL; Solodov, Alexander A [ORNL; Suharyanta, Suharyanta [ORNL; Sunaryadi, Dedi [ORNL

2011-01-01

119

Approach to IAEA material-balance verification with intermittent inspection at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a potential approach by which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) might verify the nuclear-material balance at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) for the circumstance in which the IAEA inspections occur on an intermittent basis. The verification approach is a variation of the standard IAEA attributes/variables measurement-verification method. This alternative approach is useful and applicable at the Portsmouth GCEP, which will ship all its product and tails UF/sub 6/ to United States facilities not eligible for IAEA safeguards. The paper reviews some of the relevant results of the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), describes the standard IAEA material-balance-verification approach for bulk-handling facilities, and provides the procedures to be followed in handling and processing UF/sub 6/ cylinders at the Portsmouth GCEP. The paper then discusses the assumptions made in the approach, and derives a formula for the probability with which the IAEA could detect the diversion of a significant quantity of uranium (75 kg of U-235 in depleted, normal, and low-enriched uranium) if this method were applied. The paper also provides numerical examples of IAEA detection probability should the operator divert uranium from the feed, product, or tails streams for the Portsmouth GCEP with a capacity of 1100 tonnes of separative work per year.

Gordon, D.M.; Sanborn, J.B.

1984-05-18

120

Calibrated sulfur isotope abundance ratios of three IAEA sulfur isotope reference materials and V-CDT with a reassessment of the atomic weight of sulfur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibrated values have been obtained for sulfur isotope abundance ratios of sulfur isotope reference materials distributed by the IAEA (Vienna). For the calibration of the measurements, a set of synthetic isotope mixtures were prepared gravimetrically from high purity Ag 2S materials enriched in 32S, 33S, and 34S. All materials were converted into SF 6 gas and subsequently, their sulfur isotope ratios were measured on the SF 5+ species using a special gas source mass spectrometer equipped with a molecular flow inlet system (IRMM's Avogadro II amount comparator). Values for the 32S/ 34S abundance ratios are 22.650 4(20), 22.142 4(20), and 23.393 3(17) for IAEA-S-1, IAEA-S-2, and IAEA-S-3, respectively. The calculated 32S/ 34S abundance ratio for V-CDT is 22.643 6(20), which is very close to the calibrated ratio obtained by Ding et al. (1999). In this way, the zero point of the VCDT scale is anchored firmly to the international system of units SI. The 32S/ 33S abundance ratios are 126.942(47), 125.473(55), 129.072(32), and 126.948(47) for IAEA-S-1, IAEA-S-2, IAEA-S-3, and V-CDT, respectively. In this way, the linearity of the V-CDT scale is improved over this range. The values of the sulfur molar mass for IAEA-S-1 and V-CDT were calculated to be 32.063 877(56) and 32.063 911(56), respectively, the values with the smallest combined uncertainty ever reported for the sulfur molar masses (atomic weights).

Ding, T.; Valkiers, S.; Kipphardt, H.; De Bièvre, P.; Taylor, P. D. P.; Gonfiantini, R.; Krouse, R.

2001-09-01

121

Comparison of the IAEA unyielding surface to various yielding targets  

SciTech Connect

An experimental program was conducted to determine the effects of target characteristics on the structural response of radioactive material transport containers subjected to impact tests. A cylindrical half-scale model without any energy mitigating devices represented the impacting projectile. The models were impacted at different velocities in an end-on orientation into soil, concrete, and unyielding targets. As expected, the impact into an unyielding target resulted in damage to the unit that enveloped the deformation produced from the tests into the yielding targets. Only striking the 18-inch thick concrete runway at twice the impact velocity obtained from a 30-ft fall onto an unyielding target (88 ft/s vs. 44 ft/s) resulted in relatively similar cask damage. In the past, tests have been performed to qualify the severity of the unyielding target with respect to yielding surfaces. The British staged a spectacular train crash into a truck cask at an impact velocity of 100 mph. A German rail cask was dropped 66 ft and impacted a simulated asphalt roadbed at 45 mph. Sandia National Laboratories performed a series of crash tests involving a train colliding into a radioactive materials transport cask at 80 mph, and a cask on a railcar impacting into a concrete wall. All of these demonstrations resulted in cask damage that was less severe than obtained from the regulatory 30-ft drop onto an unyielding target. These tests provide an environment in which the energy absorbing capabilities of the vehicle structure interact with the hardness of the target. It must be emphasized that the complete description of an impact accident situation combines the impact velocity with the target hardness.

Gonzales, A.

1987-08-01

122

NOTE: Monte Carlo simulation of correction factors for IAEA TLD holders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IAEA standard thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) holder has been developed for the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose program for audits of high-energy photon beams, and it is also employed by the ESTRO-QUALity assurance network (EQUAL) and several national TLD audit networks. Factors correcting for the influence of the holder on the TL signal under reference conditions have been calculated in the present work from Monte Carlo simulations with the PENELOPE code for 60Co ?-rays and 4, 6, 10, 15, 18 and 25 MV photon beams. The simulation results are around 0.2% smaller than measured factors reported in the literature, but well within the combined standard uncertainties. The present study supports the use of the experimentally obtained holder correction factors in the determination of the absorbed dose to water from the TL readings; the factors calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations may be adopted for the cases where there are no measured data.

Hultqvist, Martha; Fernández-Varea, José M.; Izewska, Joanna

2010-03-01

123

Towards a tactical nuclear weapons treaty? Is There a Role of IAEA Tools of Safeguards?  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding the definition of tactical nuclear weapons. We then map out the steps that would need to be taken in order to begin discussions on a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. These steps will review the potential role of the IAEA in verification of a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. Specifically, does IAEA involvement in various arms control treaties serve as a useful roadmap on how to overcome some of the issues pertaining to a tactical nuclear weapons treaty?

Saunders, Emily C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowberry, Ariana N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fearey, Bryan L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-12

124

The US Support Program Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards Information Technology, Collection, and Analysis 2008  

SciTech Connect

One of the United States Support Program's (USSP) priorities for 2008 is to support the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) development of an integrated and efficient safeguards information infrastructure, including reliable and maintainable information systems, and effective tools and resources to collect and analyze safeguards-relevant information. The USSP has provided funding in support of this priority for the ISIS Re-engineering Project (IRP), and for human resources support to the design and definition of the enhanced information analysis architecture project (nVision). Assistance for several other information technology efforts is provided. This paper will report on the various ongoing support measures undertaken by the USSP to support the IAEA's information technology enhancements and will provide some insights into activities that the USSP may support in the future.

Tackentien,J.

2008-06-12

125

The nuclear energy-nonproliferation link and what the IAEA can do now.  

SciTech Connect

Projections of the World Bank indicate that world energy demand is increasing and may more than double by 2050. Several political leaders have recognised the importance of nuclear energy to meet growing energy needs. Indeed, availability of a secure, economically viable energy source is a major factor in the developing world's progress. This expansion, with the potential spread of sensitive material and technology that could be used to develop nuclear weapons, reinforces the need for a comprehensive strategy to counter or mitigate the proliferation risks. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is qualified to lead in developing and promoting a systems approach to enrich and integrate the wide range of national and international efforts required to manage this risk. This paper addresses specific actions that the IAEA, with other bilateral and multilateral efforts, could undertake to facilitate the expansion of nuclear energy while managing security risks.

Duggan, Ruth Ann; Sellers, Tommy Alvin; Ellis, Doris E.

2006-01-01

126

A method for comparing impacts with real targets to impacts onto the IAEA unyielding target  

SciTech Connect

The severity of the IAEA accident conditions test requirement (IAEA 1990) of an impact onto an essentially unyielding target from a drop height of 9 meters encompasses a large fraction of all real world impacts. This is true, in part, because of the unyielding nature of the impact target. Impacts onto the unyielding target have severities equivalent to higher velocity impacts onto real targets which are not unyielding. The severity of impacts with yielding targets is decreased by the amount of the impact energy absorbed in damaging the target. In demonstrating the severity of the regulatory impact event it is advantageous to be able to relate this impact onto an essentially unyielding target to impacts with yielding targets.

Ammerman, D.J.

1991-01-01

127

A method for comparing impacts with real targets to impacts onto the IAEA unyielding target  

SciTech Connect

The severity of the IAEA accident conditions test requirement (IAEA 1990) of an impact onto an essentially unyielding target from a drop height of 9 meters encompasses a large fraction of all real world impacts. This is true, in part, because of the unyielding nature of the impact target. Impacts onto the unyielding target have severities equivalent to higher velocity impacts onto real targets which are not unyielding. The severity of impacts with yielding targets is decreased by the amount of the impact energy absorbed in damaging the target. In demonstrating the severity of the regulatory impact event it is advantageous to be able to relate this impact onto an essentially unyielding target to impacts with yielding targets.

Ammerman, D.J.

1991-12-31

128

Iaea Activities In Support Of Countries Considering Embarking On Nuclear Power Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IAEA annually updates its projection of the use of nuclear power in its Member States by collecting information from them.\\u000a The 2008 projection [1] is that by the year 2030 installed nuclear capacity will increase by 30–100%. The low projection is\\u000a an aggregation of data on plants already being built or planned or firmly committed and the high projection

Omoto Akira

129

Department of Energy Efforts to Promote Universal Adherence to the IAEA Additional Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entry-into-force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP) in January 2009 continues to demonstrate the ongoing commitment by the United States to promote universal adherence to the AP. The AP is a critical tool for improving the International Atomic Energy Agencys (IAEA) capabilities to detect undeclared activities that indicate a clandestine nuclear weapons program. This is because States Parties are required

Mark H. Killinger; Linda H. Hansen; Don N. Kovacic; Matthew VanSickle; Kenneth E. Apt

2009-01-01

130

Assessment of the Application of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The IAEA, working with the individual Member States, undertook to examine the manner in which domestic, import, export and through-country shipments of radioactive materials are controlled and regulated worldwide. The information to be examined was collec...

1986-01-01

131

The Mailbox Computer System for the IAEA verification experiment on HEU downlending at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect

IN APRIL 1996, THE UNITED STATES (US) ADDED THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT TO THE LIST OF FACILITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) SAFEGUARDS. AT THAT TIME, THE US PROPOSED THAT THE IAEA CARRY OUT A ''VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT'' AT THE PLANT WITH RESPECT TO DOOWNBLENDING OF ABOUT 13 METRIC TONS OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) IN THE FORM OF URANIUM HEXAFLUROIDE (UF6). DURING THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1997 THROUGH JULY 1998, THE IAEA CARRIED OUT THE REQUESTED VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT. THE VERIFICATION APPROACH USED FOR THIS EXPERIMENT INCLUDED, AMONG OTHER MEASURES, THE ENTRY OF PROCESS-OPERATIONAL DATA BY THE FACILITY OPERATOR ON A NEAR-REAL-TIME BASIS INTO A ''MAILBOX'' COMPUTER LOCATED WITHIN A TAMPER-INDICATING ENCLOSURE SEALED BY THE IAEA.

Aronson, A.L.; Gordon, D.M.

2000-07-31

132

A comparison of the PARET\\/ANL and RELAP5\\/MOD3 codes for the analysis of IAEA benchmark transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PARET\\/ANL and RELAP5\\/MOD3 codes are used to analyze the series of benchmark transients specified for the IAEA Research Reactor Core Conversion Guidebook (IAEA-TECDOC-643, Vol. 3). The computed results for these loss-of-flow and reactivity insertion transients with scram are in excellent agreement and agree well with the earlier results reported in the guidebook. Attempts to also compare RELAP5\\/MOD3 with the

W. L. Woodruff; N. A. Hanan; R. S. Smith; J. E. Matos

1996-01-01

133

A comparison of the PARET/ANL and RELAP5/MOD3 codes for the analysis of IAEA benchmark transients  

SciTech Connect

The PARET/ANL and RELAP5/MOD3 codes are used to analyze the series of benchmark transients specified for the IAEA Research Reactor Core Conversion Guidebook (IAEA-TECDOC-643, Vol. 3). The computed results for these loss-of-flow and reactivity insertion transients with scram are in excellent agreement and agree well with the earlier results reported in the guidebook. Attempts to also compare RELAP5/MOD3 with the SPERT series of experiments are in progress.

Woodruff, W.L.; Hanan, N.A.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

1996-12-31

134

Paleomagnetics Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the California Institute of Technology's Paleomagnetics Laboratory promotes its research of weakly magnetic geologic and biological materials. Users can learn about the facilities such as the biomagnetics lab and the automatic sampler. The website features the laboratory's recent research on many topics including extraterrestrial magnetism, magnetofossils, and historical geomagnetic field behavior. Visitors can find out more about the many laboratory members' research activities through links to their home pages. Researchers can download a selection of the group's publications. Everyone can enjoy the amazing images from recent geologic field trips across the globe.

135

Rethinking Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an inquiry analysis tool and adaptation principles to help teachers evaluate and adapt laboratory instructional materials to be more inquiry-oriented. Based on the National Research Council's (NRC) essential features of inquiry. (NB)

Volkmann, Mark J.; Abell, Sandra K.

2003-01-01

136

Laboratory Methods  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

The FDA sets scientific standards for testing foods for various contaminants. Laboratories and food companies worldwide use these standards to make ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

137

Rethinking Laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although research demonstrates the value of inquiry-based science, many curriculum materials are still based on traditional approaches that fail to engage students in inquiry. Using an example of a typical cookbook laboratory--the "rusty nail," this article describes an inquiry analysis tool and adaptation principles that were created to help teachers evaluate and adapt laboratory instructional materials to be more inquiry-oriented.

Volkmann, Mark J.; Abell, Sandra K.

2003-09-01

138

Seal Wire Integrity Verification Instrument: Evaluation of Laboratory Prototypes  

SciTech Connect

Tamper indicating devices (TIDs) provide evidence that sensitive items, to which they have been applied, have been tampered with or not. Passive wire-loop seals, a class of TIDs, are generally comprised of a multi-strand seal wire that is threaded through or around key features and a unique seal body that captures and restrains the seal wire. Seal integrity resides with unique identification of the seal and the integrity of the seal body and the seal wire. Upon inspection, the seal wire may be cut and the full length inspected. A new seal may be applied in the field as a replacement, if desired. Seal wire inspection typically requires visual and tactile examinations, which are both subjective. A need therefore exists to develop seal wire inspection technology that is easy to use in the field, is objective, provides an auditable data trail, and has low error rates. Expected benefits, if successfully implemented, are improved on-site inspection reliability and security. The work scope for this effort was restricted to integrity of seal wire used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and resulted in development of a wire integrity verification instrument (WIVI) laboratory prototype. Work included a performance evaluation of a laboratory-bench-top system, and design and delivery of two WIVI laboratory prototypes. The paper describes the basic physics of the eddy current measurement, a description of the WIVI laboratory prototype, and an initial evaluation performed by IAEA personnel. --- Funding was provided by the U.S. Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS).

Good, Morris S.; Skorpik, James R.; Kravtchenko, Victor; Wishard, Bernard; Prince, James M.; Pardini, Allan F.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Mathews, Royce; Khayyat, Sakher; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Undem, Halvor A.

2009-10-07

139

Department of Energy Efforts to Promote Universal Adherence to the IAEA Additional Protocol  

SciTech Connect

Entry-into-force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP) in January 2009 continues to demonstrate the ongoing commitment by the United States to promote universal adherence to the AP. The AP is a critical tool for improving the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) capabilities to detect undeclared activities that indicate a clandestine nuclear weapons program. This is because States Parties are required to provide information about, and access to, nuclear fuel cycle activities beyond their traditional safeguards reporting requirements. As part of the U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification, the Administration is required to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states, as well as assistance to the IAEA to promote the effective implementation of APs in those states. A key U.S. effort in this area is being managed by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through new and existing bilateral cooperation agreements, INSEP has initiated technical assistance projects for AP implementation with selected non-weapon states. States with which INSEP is currently cooperating include Vietnam and Thailand, with Indonesia, Algeria, Morocco, and other countries as possible future collaborators in the area of AP implementation. The INSEP collaborative model begins with a joint assessment with our partners to identify specific needs they may have regarding entering the AP into force and any impediments to successful implementation. An action plan is then developed detailing and prioritizing the necessary joint activities. Such assistance may include: advice on developing legal frameworks and regulatory documents; workshops to promote understanding of AP requirements; training to determine possible declarable activities; assistance in developing a system to collect and submit declarations; performing industry outreach to raise awareness; guidance for reporting export and manufacturing of “especially designed or prepared” equipment listed in AP Annex I/Annex II; and lastly, developing indigenous capabilities to sustain AP implementation. INSEP also coordinates with the IAEA to ensure the harmonization of the assistance provided by DOE and the IAEA. This paper describes current efforts and future plans for AP international implementation support.

Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Kovacic, Don N.; VanSickle, Matthew; Apt, Kenneth E.

2009-10-06

140

Evaluation of IAEA coordinated program steels and welds for 288 deg C radiation embrittlement resistance  

SciTech Connect

Eight steel materials supplied by the Federal Republic of Germany, France and Japan to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Program on 'Analysis of the Behavior of Advanced Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels Under Neutron Irradiation' were irradiated at 288C for assessments of relative notch ductility and dynamic fracture toughness change with approximately 2 x 10 to the 19th power n/sq cm, E >1 MeV. Notch ductility and fracture toughness were determined, respectively, by Charpy-V and fatigue precracked Charpy-V test methods. An A533-B steel plate (HSST 03) produced in the USA was included in the irradiation test series for reference.

Hawthorne, J.R.

1982-02-01

141

The Development of Low-Level Measurement Capabilities for Total and Isotopic Uranium in Environmental Samples at Brazilian and Argentine Laboratories by ABACC  

SciTech Connect

In June 1998, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), with assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), began a program to assess environmental sampling and analysis capabilities at laboratories in Argentina and Brazil. The program began with staff training conducted in South America and the United States by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Both laboratories are participating members of DOE’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) that support IAEA’s environmental sampling program. During the initial planning meeting, representatives from ABACC and all the participating analytical laboratories supporting ABACC were briefed on how the first exercise would be managed and on key aspects necessary to analyze low-level environmental samples for uranium. Subsequent to this training, a laboratory evaluation exercise (Exercise 1) was conducted using standard swipe samples prepared for this exercise by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The results of Exercise 1 determined that sample contamination was a major factor in the analysis, and a thorough review of laboratory procedures was required to reduce the level of contamination to acceptable levels. Following modification of sample preparation procedures, the laboratories performed Exercise 2, an analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1547, Peach Leaves. The results of Exercise 2 demonstrated that several laboratories were capable of accurately determining the total uranium and uranium isotopic distribution in the peach leaves. To build on these successes, Exercise 3 was performed using a series of standard swipe samples prepared by the IAEA and distributed to laboratories supporting ABACC and to PNNL and ORNL. The results of Exercise 3 demonstrate that ABACC now has support laboratories in both Argentina and Brazil, which are capable of accurately measuring both the quantity and isotopic composition of uranium at the levels expected in typical environmental samples (i.e., nanogram quantities).

Guidicini, Olga M.; Olsen, Khris B.; Hembree, Doyle M.; Carter, Joel A.; Whitaker, Michael; Hayes, Susan M.

2005-07-01

142

Laboratory Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for flexibility in science research facilities is discussed, with emphasis on the effect of that need on the design of laboratories. The relationship of office space, bench space, and special equipment areas, and the location and distribution of piping and air conditioning, are considered particularly important. This building type study…

Barnett, Jonathan

143

International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): Outcomes of an IAEA Meeting  

PubMed Central

The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed. ICARO was organized by the IAEA at the request of the Member States and co-sponsored and supported by other international organizations to assess advances in technologies in radiation oncology in the face of economic challenges that most countries confront. Participants submitted research contributions, which were reviewed by a scientific committee and presented via 46 lectures and 103 posters. There were 327 participants from 70 Member States as well as participants from industry and government. The ICARO meeting provided an independent forum for the interaction of participants from developed and developing countries on current and developing issues related to radiation oncology.

2011-01-01

144

International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): outcomes of an IAEA meeting.  

PubMed

The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed.ICARO was organized by the IAEA at the request of the Member States and co-sponsored and supported by other international organizations to assess advances in technologies in radiation oncology in the face of economic challenges that most countries confront. Participants submitted research contributions, which were reviewed by a scientific committee and presented via 46 lectures and 103 posters. There were 327 participants from 70 Member States as well as participants from industry and government. The ICARO meeting provided an independent forum for the interaction of participants from developed and developing countries on current and developing issues related to radiation oncology. PMID:21294881

Salminen, Eeva K; Kiel, Krystyna; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Joiner, Michael C; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Wondergem, Jan; Meghzifene, Ahmed

2011-02-04

145

The IAEA CRP on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect

In 2003, the IAEA has initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors, is to increase the capability of Member States in developing and applying advanced technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. Twenty institutions from 15 Member States and one international organization participated in this CRP. The CRP concentrated on the assessment of the dynamic behavior of various transmutation systems. The reactor systems investigated comprise critical reactors, sub-critical accelerator driven systems with heavy liquid metal and gas cooling, critical molten salt systems, and hybrid fusion/fission systems. Both fertile and fertile-free fuel options have been investigated. Apart from the benchmarking of steady state core configurations (including the investigation of transmutation potential, burn-up behavior and decay heat of minor actinide (MA) bearing fuels), the CRP participants determined the safety coefficients for the individual systems and, in a second stage, performed transient analyses which reflected the generic safety related behavior of the various reactors types. (authors)

Maschek, W.; Chen, X.; Rineiski, A.; Schikorr, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O.Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Stanculescu, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, Post Office Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Arien, B.; Malambu, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Bai, Y.; Li, J.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, S. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, ASIPP, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Chabert, C.; Peneliau, Y. [CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Chebeskov, A.; Dekoussar, V.; Vorotyntsev, M. [SSC-IPPE, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk 249033, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); da Cruz, D.F. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group - NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Devan, K.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Harish, R.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Pandikumar, G. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P. [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 2, 10129 Torino (Italy); Feynberg, O.; Ignatiev, V.; Subbotin, V.; Surenkov, A.; Zakirov, R. [RRC - Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq., 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kophazi, J.; Szieberth, M. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 9, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Morita, K. [Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Srivenkatesan, R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Taczanowski, S. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Tucek, K.; Wider, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Vertes, P. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O.Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Uhlir, J. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 13 (Czech Republic)

2007-07-01

146

Summary report on the IAEA small and medium power reactor study  

SciTech Connect

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has had a long-standing program to promote the availability of smaller nuclear power plants which could be used by developing countries earlier than the large plants which have been on the market. Recently the importance of the future export market in the developing world has been recognized by power plant manufacturers and in addition interest has been shown in some industrialized countries for smaller and highly standardized nuclear power plants. With this background IAEA launched a new SMPR study in 1983 to show which designs are available and which maturity they have, to identify the markets both in industrialized countries (in co-operation with NEA) and developing countries. The study takes into account not only the potential economic competitiveness of smaller nuclear power plants in developing country situations but also the available, defined infrastructures to support nuclear power introduction and financing considerations. Twenty-two power plant designs have been contributed to the study by suppliers and some twenty-five developing countries have been reviewed as potential buyers.

Konstantinov, L.V.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

1985-01-01

147

Stronger Efforts are Needed to Improve the Control of Radioactive Sources: An IAEA Perspective  

SciTech Connect

High activity radioactive sources provide great benefit to humanity through their utilization in agriculture, industry, medicine, research and education, and the vast majority is used in well-controlled environments. None-the-less, control has been lost over a small fraction of those sources resulting in accidents of which some had serious - even fatal - consequences. In order to improve the existing situation, concerted national and international efforts are needed and, to some degree, are being implemented to strengthen the safety and security of sources in use, as well as to improve the control of disused sources located at numerous facilities throughout the world. More efforts must also be made to identify, recover, and bring into control vulnerable and orphan sources. The IAEA has been involved in efforts to bring about better control of radioactive sources for many years but since the events of September 2001 the amount of effort put into this area has increased considerably. This paper highlights IAEA work in this regard. This paper also discusses in some detail the overall nature of the problem with regards to disused sources and points out how there is still much to do in both improving the existing situation and ensuring the sustainability of control over radioactive sources for the future. (authors)

Heard, R.; Friedrich, V.; Czarwinski, R.; Behan, C. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

2008-07-01

148

Leaching study of PNL 76-68 glass beads using the LLNL continuous-flow method and the PNL-modified IAEA method. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a long-term single-pass continuous-flow (SPCF) leaching test of the glass waste form PNL 76-68. Leaching rates of Np, Pu, and various stable elements were measured at 25/sup 0/ and 75/sup 0/C with three different solutions and three different flow rates. The purposes of the study were: (1) to compare SPCF leaching results with the results of a modified IAEA leach test performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL); (2) to establish elemental leach rates and their variation with temperature, flow rate and solution composition; and (3) to gain insight into the leaching mechanisms. The LLNL and PNL leach tests yielded results which appear to agree within experimental uncertainties. The magnitude of the leach rates determined for Np and the glass matrix elements is 10/sup -5/ grams of glass/cm/sup 2/ geometric solid surface area/day. The rates increase with temperature and with solution flow rate, and are similar in brine and distilled water but higher in a bicarbonate solution. Other cations exhibit somewhat different behavior, and Pu in particular yields a much lower apparent leach rate, probably because of sorption or precipitation effects after release from the glass matrix. After the initial few days, most elements are leached at a constant rate. Matrix dissolution appears to be the most probable rate controlling step for the leaching of most elements.

Buddemeier, R.W.; Coles, D.G.; Mensing, R.W.; Rego, J.; Weed, H.C.

1982-08-20

149

Analysis of IAEA Environmental Samples for Plutonium and Uranium by ICP/MS in Support Of International Safeguards  

SciTech Connect

A method for the separation and determination of total and isotopic uranium and plutonium by ICP-MS was developed for IAEA samples on cellulose-based media. Preparation of the IAEA samples involved a series of redox chemistries and separations using TRU® resin (Eichrom). The sample introduction system, an APEX nebulizer (Elemental Scientific, Inc), provided enhanced nebulization for a several-fold increase in sensitivity and reduction in background. Application of mass bias (ALPHA) correction factors greatly improved the precision of the data. By combining the enhancements of chemical separation, instrumentation and data processing, detection levels for uranium and plutonium approached high attogram levels.

Farmer, Orville T.; Olsen, Khris B.; Thomas, May-Lin P.; Garofoli, Stephanie J.

2008-05-01

150

Lunar laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

1986-01-01

151

Laboratory reverie.  

PubMed

As a general rule, HMN believes you should avoid making the laboratory business separate from the practice and should maintain the lab technician on the same footing as the rest of the staff with regard to working hours and salary. However, this does not apply to every practice. Sometimes there are distinct advantages to channeling money out of your practice. The discussion above will help you to evaluate your individual situation. PMID:8059764

1994-08-01

152

Pellet injection and toroidal confinement (Report on the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting held at Gut Ising, Federal Republic of Germany, 24-26 October 1988)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Pellet Injection and Toroidal Confinement, sponsored jointly by the IAEA and the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching, was held at Gut Ising, Upper Bavaria. The local organizing committee was headed by M. Kaufmann of IPP. The Meeting followed the traditions of previous international workshops on pellet fuelling, the last of which was organized

L. L. Lengyel

1989-01-01

153

Co-ordination of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators. Summary Report of an IAEA Technical Meeting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the 18th meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 23 to 27 March 2009. This meeting was attended by 22 scientists from 14 Member States, pl...

D. Abriola J. K. Tuli

2009-01-01

154

Using Process Load Cell Information for IAEA Safeguards at Enrichment Plants  

SciTech Connect

Uranium enrichment service providers are expanding existing enrichment plants and constructing new facilities to meet demands resulting from the shutdown of gaseous diffusion plants, the completion of the U.S.-Russia highly enriched uranium downblending program, and the projected global renaissance in nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts verification inspections at safeguarded facilities to provide assurance that signatory States comply with their treaty obligations to use nuclear materials only for peaceful purposes. Continuous, unattended monitoring of load cells in UF{sub 6} feed/withdrawal stations can provide safeguards-relevant process information to make existing safeguards approaches more efficient and effective and enable novel safeguards concepts such as information-driven inspections. The IAEA has indicated that process load cell monitoring will play a central role in future safeguards approaches for large-scale gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This presentation will discuss previous work and future plans related to continuous load cell monitoring, including: (1) algorithms for automated analysis of load cell data, including filtering methods to determine significant weights and eliminate irrelevant impulses; (2) development of metrics for declaration verification and off-normal operation detection ('cylinder counting,' near-real-time mass balancing, F/P/T ratios, etc.); (3) requirements to specify what potentially sensitive data is safeguards relevant, at what point the IAEA gains on-site custody of the data, and what portion of that data can be transmitted off-site; (4) authentication, secure on-site storage, and secure transmission of load cell data; (5) data processing and remote monitoring schemes to control access to sensitive and proprietary information; (6) integration of process load cell data in a layered safeguards approach with cross-check verification; (7) process mock-ups constructed to provide simulated load cell data; (8) hardware and software implementation for process load cell data collection; (9) costs associated with unattended monitoring of load cells (for both operator and inspector) weighed against the potential benefits of having access to such data; (10) results from field tests of load cell data collection systems in operating facilities; and (11) use of unattended load cell data to increase efficiency of on-site inspection schedules and activities.

Laughter, Mark D [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL; Howell, John [University of Glasgow

2010-01-01

155

IAEA coordinated research projects on core physics benchmarks for high temperature gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) designs present special computational challenges related to their core physics characteristics, in particular neutron streaming, double heterogeneities, impurities and the random distribution of coated fuel particles in the graphite matrix. In recent years, two consecutive IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRP 1 and CRP 5) have focused on code-to-code and code-to-experiment comparisons of representative benchmarks run by several participating international institutes. While the PROTEUS critical HTR experiments provided the test data reference for CRP-1, the more recent CRP-5 data has been made available by the HTTR, HTR-10 and ASTRA test facilities. Other benchmark cases are being considered for the GT-MHR and PBMR core designs. This paper overviews the scope and some sample results of both coordinated research projects. (authors)

Methnani, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

2006-07-01

156

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiatives: Records management for deep and near surface geologic repositories  

SciTech Connect

The international scientific community has long had an interest in determining methods by which information regarding nuclear waste repositories, and the inherent danger to humanity, could be passed from generation to generation and society to society. Because nuclear waste will remain radioactive for thousands of years future generations must be warned of the dangers thus eliminating intentional or inadvertent intrusion. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained so that this information remains accessible to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years; thus the retention of information continues beyond current societies, cultures and languages, and must be continually migrated to new retrieval technologies to assure access.

Warner, P.J.

1996-09-01

157

Databases and coordinated research projects at the IAEA on atomic processes in plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit at the IAEA works with a network of national data centres to encourage and coordinate production and dissemination of fundamental data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M/PMI) processes that are relevant to the realization of fusion energy. The Unit maintains numerical and bibliographical databases and has started a Wiki-style knowledge base. The Unit also contributes to A+M database interface standards and provides a search engine that offers a common interface to multiple numerical A+M/PMI databases. Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) bring together fusion energy researchers and atomic, molecular and surface physicists for joint work towards the development of new data and new methods. The databases and current CRPs on A+M/PMI processes are briefly described here.

Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung [Nuclear Data Section, NAPC Division, International Atomic Energy Agency P. O. Box 100, Vienna International Centre, AT-1400 Vienna (Austria)

2012-05-25

158

Databases and coordinated research projects at the IAEA on atomic processes in plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit at the IAEA works with a network of national data centres to encourage and coordinate production and dissemination of fundamental data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M/PMI) processes that are relevant to the realization of fusion energy. The Unit maintains numerical and bibliographical databases and has started a Wiki-style knowledge base. The Unit also contributes to A+M database interface standards and provides a search engine that offers a common interface to multiple numerical A+M/PMI databases. Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) bring together fusion energy researchers and atomic, molecular and surface physicists for joint work towards the development of new data and new methods. The databases and current CRPs on A+M/PMI processes are briefly described here.

Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

2012-05-01

159

IAEA CRP on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Benchmark Definition and Test Cases  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are essential elements of the reactor simulation code verification and validation process. Although several international uncertainty quantification activities have been launched in recent years in the LWR, BWR and VVER domains (e.g. the OECD/NEA BEMUSE program [1], from which the current OECD/NEA LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) benchmark [2] effort was derived), the systematic propagation of uncertainties in cross-section, manufacturing and model parameters for High Temperature Reactor (HTGR) designs has not been attempted yet. This paper summarises the scope, objectives and exercise definitions of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on HTGR UAM [3]. Note that no results will be included here, as the HTGR UAM benchmark was only launched formally in April 2012, and the specification is currently still under development.

Gerhard Strydom; Frederik Reitsma; Hans Gougar; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

2012-11-01

160

Use of PET and PET\\/CT for Radiation Therapy Planning: IAEA expert report 2006–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a significant advance in cancer imaging with great potential for optimizing radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning and thereby improving outcomes for patients. The use of PET and PET\\/CT in RT planning was reviewed by an international panel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized two synchronized and overlapping consultants’ meetings with experts from different regions

Michael MacManus; Ursula Nestle; Kenneth E. Rosenzweig; Ignasi Carrio; Cristina Messa; Otakar Belohlavek; Massimo Danna; Tomio Inoue; Elizabeth Deniaud-Alexandre; Stefano Schipani; Naoyuki Watanabe; Maurizio Dondi; Branislav Jeremic

2009-01-01

161

The role of IAEA in coordinating research and transferring technology in radiation chemistry and processing of polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IAEA has been playing a significant role in fostering developments in radiation technology in general and radiation processing of polymers in particular, among its Member States (MS) and facilitate know-how/technology transfer to developing MS. The former is usually achieved through coordinated research projects (CRP) and thematic technical meetings, while the latter is mainly accomplished through technical cooperation (TC) projects. Coordinated research projects encourage research on, and development and practical application of, radiation technology to foster exchange of scientific and technical information. The technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States to realize their development priorities through the application of appropriate radiation technology. The IAEA has implemented several coordinated research projects (CRP) recently, including one on-going project, in the field of radiation processing of polymeric materials. The CRPs facilitated the acquisition and dissemination of know-how and technology for controlling of degradation effects in radiation processing of polymers, radiation synthesis of stimuli-responsive membranes, hydrogels and absorbents for separation purposes and the use of radiation processing to prepare biomaterials for applications in medicine. The IAEA extends cooperation to well-known international conferences dealing with radiation technology to facilitate participation of talented scientists from developing MS and building collaborations. The IAEA published technical documents, covering the findings of thematic technical meetings (TM) and coordinated research projects have been an important source of valuable practical information.

Haji-Saeid, M.; Sampa, M. H.; Ramamoorthy, N.; Güven, O.; Chmielewski, A. G.

2007-12-01

162

A test of the IAEA code of practice for absorbed dose determination in photon and electron beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) code of practice TRS 277 gives recommendations for absorbed dose determination in high energy photon and electron beams based on the use of ionization chambers calibrated in terms of exposure of air kerma. The scope of the work was to test the code for cobalt 60 gamma radiation and for several radiation qualities at

Arnold Leitner; Wilhelm Tiefenboeck; Josef Witzani; Christian Strachotinsky

1990-01-01

163

Preliminary fact finding mission following the accident at the nuclear fuel processing facility in Tokaimura, Japan (Vienna: IAEA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the accident on 30 September 1999 at Tokaimura, Japan the IAEA were asked from numerous sources for information regarding the accident. Thus a preliminary report has now been issued which looks at the technical information available at that time. It does not provide conclusions on the cause or the overall consequences. The report is based on

Kath Bhanot

2000-01-01

164

Power move: The nuclear salesman target the third world. [IAEA advocates nuclear energy for electrical power in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the question of why the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a UN organization, is advocating the building of nuclear power plants for rapidly growing electric power needs in countries such as Thailand. Other options and opinions of how to Thailand can meet its energy needs are explored, and the debate in Thailand itself over nuclear energy is

Ryan

2009-01-01

165

Fusion Reactor Design-II (Report on the Second IAEA Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop, Madison, 1977)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary is given of the experimental, demonstration and commercial fusion reactor concepts presented at the Second IAEA Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop on Fusion Reactor Design. The potential role of fusion power as an inexhaustible energy source is discussed, the advances and trends in fusion reactor design assessed, and the major conclusions and recommendations of five workshop groups given.At

R. W. Conn; T. G. Frank; R. Hancox; G. L. Kulcinski; K. H. Schmitter; W. M. Stacey

1978-01-01

166

The role of IAEA in coordinating research and transferring technology in radiation chemistry and processing of polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IAEA has been playing a significant role in fostering developments in radiation technology in general and radiation processing of polymers in particular, among its Member States (MS) and facilitate know-how\\/technology transfer to developing MS. The former is usually achieved through coordinated research projects (CRP) and thematic technical meetings, while the latter is mainly accomplished through technical cooperation (TC) projects.

M. Haji-Saeid; M. H. Sampa; N. Ramamoorthy; O. Güven; A. G. Chmielewski

2007-01-01

167

IAEA/USDOE senior management workshop on promotion of safety culture for the NPPS with RBMK reactors. Working material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current workshop, co-sponsored by the IAEA and USDOE, was a continuation of the previous effort for further promotion of safety culture at RBMK NPPs. The objective of the workshop was to provide a forum for senior managers from governmental organizati...

1997-01-01

168

Numerical analyses of an ex-core fuel incident: Results of the OECD-IAEA Paks Fuel Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OECD-IAEA Paks Fuel Project was developed to support the understanding of fuel behaviour in accident conditions on the basis of analyses of the Paks-2 incident. Numerical simulation of the most relevant aspects of the event and comparison of the calculation results with the available data from the incident was carried out between 2006 and 2007. A database was compiled

Z. Hózer; A. Aszódi; M. Barnak; I. Boros; M. Fogel; V. Guillard; Cs. Gy?ri; G. Hegyi; G. L. Horváth; I. Nagy; P. Junninen; V. Kobzar; G. Légrádi; A. Molnár; K. Pietarinen; L. Perneczky; Y. Makihara; P. Matejovic; E. Perez-Feró; E. Slonszki; I. Tóth; K. Trambauer; N. Tricot; I. Trosztel; J. Verpoorten; C. Vitanza; A. Voltchek; K. C. Wagner; Y. Zvonarev

2010-01-01

169

Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Systems. UK Measurements at the Fourth I.A.E.A. Intercomparison at Harwell, April 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An international Intercomparison of Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Systems was held at Harwell in April 1975 under the auspices of the IAEA. The source of radiation was the pulsed reactor VIPER at AWRE Aldermaston. This paper presents the results of the measu...

P. D. Holt S. J. Boot

1978-01-01

170

MANAGING UNCERTAINTIES ASSOCIATED WITH RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL: TASK GROUP 4 OF THE IAEA PRISM PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

It is widely recognized that the results of safety assessment calculations provide an important contribution to the safety arguments for a disposal facility, but cannot in themselves adequately demonstrate the safety of the disposal system. The safety assessment and a broader range of arguments and activities need to be considered holistically to justify radioactive waste disposal at any particular site. Many programs are therefore moving towards the production of what has become known as a Safety Case, which includes all of the different activities that are conducted to demonstrate the safety of a disposal concept. Recognizing the growing interest in the concept of a Safety Case, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is undertaking an intercomparison and harmonization project called PRISM (Practical Illustration and use of the Safety Case Concept in the Management of Near-surface Disposal). The PRISM project is organized into four Task Groups that address key aspects of the Safety Case concept: Task Group 1 - Understanding the Safety Case; Task Group 2 - Disposal facility design; Task Group 3 - Managing waste acceptance; and Task Group 4 - Managing uncertainty. This paper addresses the work of Task Group 4, which is investigating approaches for managing the uncertainties associated with near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and their consideration in the context of the Safety Case. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide variety of approaches that can and have been used to manage different types of uncertainties, especially non-quantitative approaches that have not received as much attention in previous IAEA projects. This paper includes discussions of the current results of work on the task on managing uncertainty, including: the different circumstances being considered, the sources/types of uncertainties being addressed and some initial proposals for approaches that can be used to manage different types of uncertainties.

Seitz, R.

2011-03-02

171

ELECTRONICS UPGRADE TO THE SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY COULOMETER FOR PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ASSAY  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has the analytical measurement capability to perform high-precision plutonium concentration measurements by controlled-potential coulometry. State-of-the-art controlled-potential coulometers were designed and fabricated by the Savannah River National Laboratory and installed in the Analytical Laboratories process control laboratory. The Analytical Laboratories uses coulometry for routine accountability measurements of and for verification of standard preparations used to calibrate other plutonium measurement systems routinely applied to process control, nuclear safety, and other accountability applications. The SRNL Coulometer has a demonstrated measurement reliability of {approx}0.05% for 10 mg samples. The system has also been applied to the characterization of neptunium standard solutions with a comparable reliability. The SRNL coulometer features: a patented current integration system; continuous electrical calibration versus Faraday's Constants and Ohm's Law; the control-potential adjustment technique for enhanced application of the Nernst Equation; a wide operating room temperature range; and a fully automated instrument control and data acquisition capability. Systems have been supplied to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Russia, Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL). The most recent vintage of electronics was based on early 1990's integrated circuits. Many of the components are no longer available. At the request of the IAEA and the Department of State, SRNL has completed an electronics upgrade of their controlled-potential coulometer design. Three systems have built with the new design, one for the IAEA which was installed at SAL in May 2011, one system for Los Alamos National Laboratory, (LANL) and one for the SRS Analytical Laboratory. The LANL and SRS systems are undergoing startup testing with installation scheduled for this summer.

Cordaro, J.; Holland, M.; Reeves, G.; Nichols, S.; Kruzner, A.

2011-07-08

172

Virtual Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website for the Virtual Laboratory contains a bold and direct statement: "Conventional teaching all too often accepts memorization and pattern recognition as true learning" After reading this statement, it makes sense that the goal of this site is "to help students to recognize, confront, correct, and expand their understanding of subject or a technique." The site contains five different sets of course materials that use interactive materials, short quizzes, and embedded demonstrations to assist students and teachers alike. One set of materials that should not be missed is in the Teaching & Learning Biology area. Here visitors will find links, fact sheets, and pedagogical suggestions for teaching a college-level biology course. Moving on, the Chemistry, Life, the Universe and Everything section contains a new perspective on how to reform the garden-variety general chemistry course.

2012-04-27

173

Laboratory Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical properties of near-Earth objects (NEOs) can best be studied using radio tomography and seismology. Reflection and transmission radio tomography is best suited for measuring the complex electric permittivity of poorly conducting materials to reveal the internal structure of NEOs. Such NEOs are primarily comet nuclei and carbonaceous asteroids. Seismic experiments are most suitable for studying elastic properties of consolidated materials to reveal material strengths of stony and iron-nickel asteroids. Thus, the two methods are complementary for investigating comets and asteroids of all types. Analysis of reflection and transmission radio tomography of heterogeneous irregular shaped bodies is very difficult. Scattering by internal and outer boundaries, differences in the refractive indices of heterogeneous materials, and attenuation by electric conductivity complicate the analyses. For this reason laboratory simulations with scaled objects and scaled wavelengths is extremely useful to check the reliability of inversion techniques of radio signals to arrive at the interior structure of an NEO. Another approach to obtaining quantitative information on the composition and structure of an NEO is through induced seismology. There are two approaches to producing seismic waves: small explosive charges and impactors. Experimental work has been performed in the laboratory to examine the impulse delivered by explosives. Wave travel times can be used to back out basic material properties and first order structure of an NEO. For example, if distinct arrival pulses for P and S waves are recorded and the explosive initiation/impact time and location are known, then it is possible to determine the elastic properties of bulk and shear modulus. Reflections in the seismograms allow a determination of material boundaries in an NEO. Original arrival time is important since Q numbers for stony NEO material are presumed to be high, as they were on the Moon, and thus it is expected that there will be extensive ringing and noise. Other types of NEO materials will have differing seismic characteristics.

Huebner, W. F.; Walker, J.; Gustafson, B.

174

Strengthened IAEA Safeguards-Imagery Analysis: Geospatial Tools for Nonproliferation Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This slide presentation focuses on the growing role and importance of imagery analysis for IAEA safeguards applications and how commercial satellite imagery, together with the newly available geospatial tools, can be used to promote 'all-source synergy.' As additional sources of openly available information, satellite imagery in conjunction with the geospatial tools can be used to significantly augment and enhance existing information gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection and assessment of nonproliferation relevant activities, facilities, and programs. Foremost of the geospatial tools are the 'Digital Virtual Globes' (i.e., GoogleEarth, Virtual Earth, etc.) that are far better than previously used simple 2-D plan-view line drawings for visualization of known and suspected facilities of interest which can be critical to: (1) Site familiarization and true geospatial context awareness; (2) Pre-inspection planning; (3) Onsite orientation and navigation; (4) Post-inspection reporting; (5) Site monitoring over time for changes; (6) Verification of states site declarations and for input to State Evaluation reports; and (7) A common basis for discussions among all interested parties (Member States). Additionally, as an 'open-source', such virtual globes can also provide a new, essentially free, means to conduct broad area search for undeclared nuclear sites and activities - either alleged through open source leads; identified on internet BLOGS and WIKI Layers, with input from a 'free' cadre of global browsers and/or by knowledgeable local citizens (a.k.a.: 'crowdsourcing'), that can include ground photos and maps; or by other initiatives based on existing information and in-house country knowledge. They also provide a means to acquire ground photography taken by locals, hobbyists, and tourists of the surrounding locales that can be useful in identifying and discriminating between relevant and non-relevant facilities and their associated infrastructure. The digital globes also provide highly accurate terrain mapping for better geospatial context and allow detailed 3-D perspectives of all sites or areas of interest. 3-D modeling software (i.e., Google's SketchUp6 newly available in 2007) when used in conjunction with these digital globes can significantly enhance individual building characterization and visualization (including interiors), allowing for better assessments including walk-arounds or fly-arounds and perhaps better decision making on multiple levels (e.g., the best placement for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) video monitoring cameras).

Pabian, Frank V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-14

175

Certified reference material for radionuclides in fish flesh sample IAEA-414 (mixed fish from the Irish Sea and North Sea).  

PubMed

A certified reference material (CRM) for radionuclides in fish sample IAEA-414 (mixed fish from the Irish Sea and North Seas) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Nine radionuclides (40K, 137Cs, 232Th, 234U, 235U, 238U, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am) were certified for this material. Information on massic activities with 95% confidence intervals is given for six other radionuclides (90Sr, 210Pb(210Po), 226Ra, 239Pu, 240Pu 241Pu). Less frequently reported radionuclides (99Tc, 129I, 228Th, 230Th and 237Np) and information on some activity and mass ratios are also included. The CRM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in fish sample, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available from IAEA, Vienna, in 100 g units. PMID:16549351

Pham, M K; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Povinec, P P; Arnold, D; Benmansour, M; Bojanowski, R; Carvalho, F P; Kim, C K; Esposito, M; Gastaud, J; Gascó, C L; Ham, G J; Hegde, A G; Holm, E; Jaskierowicz, D; Kanisch, G; Llaurado, M; La Rosa, J; Lee, S-H; Liong Wee Kwong, L; Le Petit, G; Maruo, Y; Nielsen, S P; Oh, J-S; Oregioni, B; Palomares, J; Pettersson, H B L; Rulik, P; Ryan, T P; Sato, K; Schikowski, J; Skwarzec, B; Smedley, P A; Tarján, S; Vajda, N; Wyse, E

2006-03-23

176

Radiation protection of patients in diagnostic radiology: status of practice in five Eastern-European countries, based on IAEA project.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to investigate status of imaging technology and practice in five countries in Eastern-European region and evaluate the impact of IAEA projects on radiation protection of patients. Information collected using standardized IAEA protocol included status of technology, practices and patient dose levels in interventional procedure, radiography, mammography and computed tomography (CT). In spite of increased number of digital units, single phase generators or units older than 30 year are still in use. Examples of obsolete practice such as using fluoroscopy for positioning, photofluorography, chest fluoroscopy and soft-beam technique for chest radiography are also in use. Modern multi-slice CT or digital mammography units are available; however, there is lack of adequate radiation protection and medical physics support in hospitals. Information on patient doses in interventional procedures, conventional radiography, mammography and CT was collected to have baseline data and corrective measures were proposed with appropriate follow up actions taken. PMID:21507590

Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Beganovic, Adnan; Faj, Dario; Gershan, Vesna; Ivanovic, Sonja; Videnovic, Ivan R; Rehani, Madan M

2011-04-19

177

Handbook for the implementation of IAEA inspection activities at Department of Energy nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Nonproliferation Support Program (NSP) in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) has responsibility for supporting and aiding implementation of international and multilateral programs, agreements, and treaties at domestic facilities. In late 1995, the {open_quotes}Readiness Planning Guide for Nonproliferation Visits{close_quotes} (DOE 470.1-1) was issued to assist DOE sites prepare for the host foreign delegations visiting DOE facilities. Since then, field and head-quarters programs have expressed a need for a document that addresses domestic safeguards and security activities, specifically planning for and hosting International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) technical visits and inspections. As a result, OSS/NSP conducted a workshop to prepare a handbook that would contain guidance on domestic safeguards and security preparation and follow-on activities to ensure that this handbook could be utilized by all facilities to improve operational efficiencies and reduce implementation problems. The handbook has been structured to provide detailed background and guidance concerning the obligation, negotiation, inspection, and reporting processes for IAEH safeguards activities in DOE nuclear facilities as well as the lessons-learned by currently inspected facilities and how-we-do-it implementation examples. This paper will present an overview of the preparation and content of this new Handbook.

Zack, N.R.; Thomas, K.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Coady, K.J.; Desmond, W.J. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-11-01

178

Lessons from UNSCOM and IAEA regarding remote monitoring and air sampling  

SciTech Connect

In 1991, at the direction of the United Nations Security Council, UNSCOM and IAEA developed plans for On-going Monitoring and Verification (OMV) in Iraq. The plans were accepted by the Security Council and remote monitoring and atmospheric sampling equipment has been installed at selected sites in Iraq. The remote monitoring equipment consists of video cameras and sensors positioned to observe equipment or activities at sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of weapons of mass destruction, or long-range missiles. The atmospheric sampling equipment provides unattended collection of chemical samples from sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of chemical weapon agents. To support OMV in Iraq, UNSCOM has established the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Centre. Imagery from the remote monitoring cameras can be accessed in near-real time from the Centre through RIF communication links with the monitored sites. The OMV program in Iraq has implications for international cooperative monitoring in both global and regional contexts. However, monitoring systems such as those used in Iraq are not sufficient, in and of themselves, to guarantee the absence of prohibited activities. Such systems cannot replace on-site inspections by competent, trained inspectors. However, monitoring similar to that used in Iraq can contribute to openness and confidence building, to the development of mutual trust, and to the improvement of regional stability.

Dupree, S.A.

1996-01-01

179

Use of operator-provided, installed C/S equipment in IAEA safeguards  

SciTech Connect

Developing solutions for complex safe guards problems in close cooperation with Operators is becoming more common, especially as the IAEA continues to operate under zero-growth limitations. This has in practice taken on various forms; from the extreme case of very specific equipment developed and constructed by the State/Operator for use in only one facility, to the more normal case where only the development is carried out by the State/Operator. This practice has advantages and disadvantages. For example, to ensure that Agency inspections will be carried out in a predictable manner, it will be in the Operator's interest to ensure that any equipment he provides is of the highest quality, meets all national safety requirements, and is installed and maintained in such a manner that it will provide years of service. Agency equipment performs its intended function in a reliable manner, but with very specific, limited applications in mind, improvements in reliability over that obtained with normal Agency equipment are to be expected. Also, the authors experience is that reaching acceptable arrangements for the use of State- of Operator-supplied equipment is often far more straightforward than when arranging to apply Agency equipment.

Shea, T.; Rundquist, D.; Gaertner, K.; Yellin, E.

1987-07-01

180

Proceedings of the IAEA specialists` meeting on cracking in LWR RPV head penetrations  

SciTech Connect

This report contains 17 papers that were presented in four sessions at the IAEA Specialists` meeting on Cracking in LWR RPV Head Penetrations held at ASTM Headquarters in Philadelphia on May 2-3, 1995. The papers are compiled here in the order that presentations were made in the sessions, and they relate to operational observations, inspection techniques, analytical modeling, and regulatory control. The goal of the meeting was to allow international experts to review experience in the field of ensuring adequate performance of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads and penetrations. The emphasis was to allow a better understanding of RPV material behavior, to provide guidance supporting reliability and adequate performance, and to assist in defining directions for further investigations. The international nature of the meeting is illustrated by the fact that papers were presented by researchers from 10 countries. There were technical experts present form other countries who participated in discussions of the results presented. This present document incorporates the final version of the papers as received from the authors. The final chapter includes conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Pugh, C.E.; Raney, S.J. [comps.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [comps.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-07-01

181

Certified reference material for radionuclides in fish flesh sample IAEA414 (mixed fish from the Irish Sea and North Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A certified reference material (CRM) for radionuclides in fish sample IAEA-414 (mixed fish from the Irish Sea and North Seas) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Nine radionuclides (40K, 137Cs, 232Th, 234U, 235U, 238U, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am) were certified for this material. Information on massic activities with 95% confidence intervals is given for six

M. K. Pham; J. A. Sanchez-Cabeza; P. P. Povinec; D. Arnold; M. Benmansour; R. Bojanowski; F. P. Carvalho; C. K. Kim; M. Esposito; J. Gastaud; C. L. Gascó; G. J. Ham; A. G. Hegde; E. Holm; D. Jaskierowicz; G. Kanisch; M. Llaurado; J. La Rosa; S.-H. Lee; L. Liong Wee Kwong; G. Le Petit; Y. Maruo; S. P. Nielsen; J.-S. Oh; B. Oregioni; J. Palomares; H. B. L. Pettersson; P. Rulik; T. P. Ryan; K. Sato; J. Schikowski; B. Skwarzec; P. A. Smedley; S. Tarján; N. Vajda; E. Wyse

2006-01-01

182

Helping to eliminate vitamin A deficiency disorders using nuclear and related techniques. Report of an IAEA consultants' meeting, 30 November - 2 December 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Consultants' Meeting was convened by the IAEA from 30 November to 2 December 1994, and made recommendations on the objectives and strategies of a new Coordinated Research Programme (CRP), ''Helping to Eliminate Vitamin A Deficiency Disorders Using Nucle...

1995-01-01

183

Nuclear Material Safeguards for Enrichment Plants: Part 3, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Description, Material Control and Accountability Procedures, and IAEA Safeguards: Safeguards Training Course.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 5-day training course on nuclear material safeguards for uranium enrichment plants has been developed to train IAEA professionals who are responsible for safeguarding uranium enrichment facilities on the safeguards relevant principles of enrichment t...

1987-01-01

184

United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

Warner, P.J.

1997-03-01

185

Hybrid imaging worldwide-challenges and opportunities for the developing world: a report of a Technical Meeting organized by IAEA.  

PubMed

The growth in nuclear medicine, in the past decade, is largely due to hybrid imaging, specifically single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Introduction and use of hybrid imaging has been growing at a fast pace. This has led to many challenges and opportunities to the personnel dealing with it. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) keeps a close watch on the trends in applications of nuclear techniques in health by many ways, including obtaining inputs from member states and professional societies. In 2012, a Technical Meeting on trends in hybrid imaging was organized by IAEA to understand the current status and trends of hybrid imaging using nuclear techniques, its role in clinical practice, and associated educational needs and challenges. Perspective of scientific societies and professionals from all the regions of the world was obtained. Heterogeneity in value, educational needs, and access was noted and the drivers of this heterogeneity were discussed. This article presents the key points shared during the technical meeting, focusing primarily on SPECT-CT and PET-CT, and shares the action plan for IAEA to deal with heterogeneity as suggested by the participants. PMID:23561459

Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Mariani, Guliano

2013-05-01

186

Sample Vial Secure Container (SVSC)  

SciTech Connect

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors must maintain continuity of knowledge on all safeguard samples, and in particular on those samples drawn from plutonium product and spent fuel input tanks at a nuclear reprocessing plant`s blister sampling station. Integrity of safeguard samples must be guaranteed from the sampling point to the moment of sample analysis at the IAEA`s Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL Seibersdorf) or at an accepted local laboratory. These safeguard samples are drawn at a blister sampling station with inspector participation, and then transferred via a pneumatic post system to the facility`s analytical laboratory. The transfer of the sample by the pneumatic post system, the arrival of the sample in the operator`s analytical laboratory, and the storage of the sample awaiting analysis is very time consuming for the inspector, particularly if continuous human surveillance is required for all these activities. This process might be observed by ordinary surveillance methods, such as a video monitoring system, but again this would be cumbersome and time consuming for both the inspector and operator. This paper will describe a secure container designed to assure sample vial integrity from the point the sample is drawn to the treatment of the sample at the facility`s analytical laboratory.

Baumann, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Franssen, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Safeguards

1992-09-01

187

Sample Vial Secure Container  

SciTech Connect

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors must maintain continuity of knowledge on all safeguard samples and, in particular, on those samples drawn from plutonium product and spent fuel input tanks at a nuclear reprocessing plant`s blister sampling station. Integrity of safeguard samples must be guaranteed from the sampling point to the moment of sample analysis at an accepted local laboratory or at the IAEA`s Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) in Seibersdorf, Austria. The safeguard samples are drawn at a blister sampling station with inspector participation and then transferred via a pneumatic post system to the facility`s analytical laboratory. Transfer of the sample by the pneumatic post system, arrival of the sample in the operator`s analytical laboratory, and storage of the sample awaiting analysis are very time consuming activities for an inspector, particularly if continuous human surveillance is required for all these activities. These activities could be observed by ordinary surveillance methods, such as a video monitoring system, but this would be cumbersome and time consuming for both the inspector and the operator. This paper describes a secure container designed to assure sample vial integrity from the point the sample is drawn to treatment of the sample at a facility`s analytical laboratory.

Baumann, M.J.

1993-07-01

188

Fuel Cycle Analysis Framework Base Cases for the IAEA/INPRO GAINS Collaborative Project  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen countries participated in the Collaborative Project GAINS “Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors Including a Closed Fuel Cycle”, which was the primary activity within the IAEA/INPRO Program Area B: “Global Vision on Sustainable Nuclear Energy” for the last three years. The overall objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems taking into account sustainable development, and to validate results through sample analyses. This paper details the eight scenarios that constitute the GAINS framework base cases for analysis of the transition to future innovative nuclear energy systems. The framework base cases provide a reference for users of the framework to start from in developing and assessing their own alternate systems. Each base case is described along with performance results against the GAINS sustainability evaluation metrics. The eight cases include four using a moderate growth projection and four using a high growth projection for global nuclear electricity generation through 2100. The cases are divided into two sets, addressing homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios developed by GAINS to model global fuel cycle strategies. The heterogeneous world scenario considers three separate nuclear groups based on their fuel cycle strategies, with non-synergistic and synergistic cases. The framework base case analyses results show the impact of these different fuel cycle strategies while providing references for future users of the GAINS framework. A large number of scenario alterations are possible and can be used to assess different strategies, different technologies, and different assumptions about possible futures of nuclear power. Results can be compared to the framework base cases to assess where these alternate cases perform differently versus the sustainability indicators.

Brent Dixon

2012-09-01

189

Microscale heterogeneities in the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the international standard calcite materials (NBS19, NBS18, IAEA-CO-1, and IAEA-CO- 8)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions (?13C and ?18O) of carbonate, especially biological calcite (e.g., foraminifera and coral), are useful as environmental tracers to reconstruct paleoclimate and paleo-oceanic circulations. In recent studies, the stable isotopic analyses for sub-100 ?g quantities of carbonate are needed to reconstruct high-resolution environmental fluctuations. In this study, we investigated the magnitude of grain-scale (from 6 to 88 ?g) heterogeneities in carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of international standard reference calcite materials (NBS 19, NBS 18, IAEA- CO-1, and IAEA-CO-8) in order to determine which standard reference calcite materials are suitable for a microscale, high-resolution, isotopic analysis. In order to serve this purpose, we have upgraded the analytical system reported in Ishimura et al. (2004) and improved both stability and precision during grain-scale isotopic analyses. This continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) system realizes a simultaneous determination of both the ?13C and the ?18O values with standard deviations (S.D.) of less than 0.05 ‰ for CO2 gas. Based on the S.D. of the ?13C and ?18O values determined for CO2 gases evolved from the different grains of the same calcite material, we found that NBS19, IAEA-CO-1, and IEAE- CO-8 were homogeneous for ?13C (less than 0.10 ‰ S.D.), and only NBS19 was homogeneous for ?18O (less than 0.14 ‰ S.D.). On the level of single grains, we found that both IAEA-CO-1 and IAEA-CO-8 were heterogeneous for ?18O (1.46 ‰ and 0.76 ‰ S.D., respectively), and NBS18 was heterogeneous for both ?13C and ?18O (0.34 ‰ and 0.54 ‰ S.D., respectively). Closer inspection of NBS18 grains revealed that the highly deviated isotopic compositions were limited to the colored grains. By excluding such colored grains, we could obtain the homogeneous ?13C and ?18O values (less than 0.18 ‰ and less than 0.16 ‰ S.D., respectively) for NBS18 as well. We conclude that either NBS19, IAEA-CO-1, or pure grains in NBS18 are suitable to be used as the standard reference material for ?13C, and either NBS19 or pure grains in NBS18 are suitable to be used as that for ?18O during the grain-scale isotopic analyses of calcite. By using the standard reference calcite suitable for the grain-scale isotopic studies, we can enhance the resolution of the isotope geochemistry, climatology, and paleoceanography.

Ishimura, T.; Tsunogai, U.; Nakagawa, F.

2008-12-01

190

[Laboratory-acquired brucellosis].  

PubMed

Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:18565306

Fabiansen, Christian; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Lebech, Anne-Mette K

2008-06-01

191

Chemistry Laboratory Safety Check  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An accident prevention/safety check list for chemistry laboratories is printed. Included are checks of equipment, facilities, storage and handling of chemicals, laboratory procedures, instruction procedures, and items to be excluded from chemical laboratories. (SL)|

Patnoe, Richard L.

1976-01-01

192

CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reports were presented covering a selection of topics on the safety of fusion power plants. These included a review on licensing studies developed for ITER site preparation surveying common and non-common issues (i.e. site dependent) as lessons to a broader approach for fusion power plant safety. Several fusion power plant models, spanning from accessible technology to more advanced-materials based concepts, were discussed. On the topic related to fusion-specific technology, safety studies were reported on different concepts of breeding blanket modules, tritium handling and auxiliary systems under normal and accident scenarios' operation. The testing of power plant relevant technology in ITER was also assessed in terms of normal operation and accident scenarios, and occupational doses and radioactive releases under these testings have been determined. Other specific safety issues for fusion have also been discussed such as availability and reliability of fusion power plants, dust and tritium inventories and component failure databases. This study reveals that the environmental impact of fusion power plants can be minimized through a proper selection of low activation materials and using recycling technology helping to reduce waste volume and potentially open the route for its reutilization for the nuclear sector or even its clearance into the commercial circuit. Computational codes for fusion safety have been presented in support of the many studies reported. The on-going work on establishing validation approaches aiming at improving the prediction capability of fusion codes has been supported by experimental results and new directions for development have been identified. Fusion standards are not available and fission experience is mostly used as the framework basis for licensing and target design for safe operation and occupational and environmental constraints. It has been argued that fusion can benefit if a specific fusion approach is implemented, in particular for materials selection which will have a large impact on waste disposal and recycling and in the real limits of radiation releases if indexed to the real impact on individuals and the environment given the differences in the types of radiation emitted by tritium when compared with the fission products. Round table sessions resulted in some common recommendations. The discussions also created the awareness of the need for a larger involvement of the IAEA in support of fusion safety standards development.

Girard, J. Ph.; Gulden, W.; Kolbasov, B.; Louzeiro-Malaquias, A.-J.; Petti, D.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.

2008-01-01

193

Sandia National Laboratories support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program.  

SciTech Connect

Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there are now enormous radioactive waste problems in Iraq. These waste problems include destroyed nuclear facilities, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, liquid radioactive waste in underground tanks, wastes related to the production of yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, activated metals and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq currently lacks the trained personnel, regulatory and physical infrastructure to safely and securely manage these facilities and wastes. In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreed to organize an international cooperative program to assist Iraq with these issues. Soon after, the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) was initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to support the IAEA and assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials. The Iraq NDs Program is providing support for the IAEA plus training, consultation and limited equipment to the GOI. The GOI owns the problems and will be responsible for implementation of the Iraq NDs Program. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is a part of the DOS's team implementing the Iraq NDs Program. This report documents Sandia's support of the Iraq NDs Program, which has developed into three principal work streams: (1) training and technical consultation; (2) introducing Iraqis to modern decommissioning and waste management practices; and (3) supporting the IAEA, as they assist the GOI. Examples of each of these work streams include: (1) presentation of a three-day training workshop on 'Practical Concepts for Safe Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste in Arid Settings;' (2) leading GOI representatives on a tour of two operating low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the U.S.; and (3) supporting the IAEA's Technical Meeting with the GOI from April 21-25, 2008. As noted in the report, there was significant teaming between the various participants to best help the GOI. On-the-ground progress is the focus of the Iraq NDs Program and much of the work is a transfer of technical and practical skills and knowledge that Sandia uses day-to-day. On-the-ground progress was achieved in July of 2008 when the GOI began the physical cleanup and dismantlement of the Active Metallurgical Testing Laboratory (LAMA) facility at Al Tuwaitha, near Baghdad.

Cochran, John Russell; Danneels, Jeffrey John

2009-03-01

194

Comparison of the air kerma standards for 137Cs and 60Co gamma-ray beams between the IAEA and the NIST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of the air kerma standards for 137Cs and 60Co gamma-ray beams was performed between the NIST and the IAEA. Two reference class ionization chambers owned by the IAEA were used as part of this comparison and were calibrated at each facility. The calibration coefficients, NK, were determined for both chambers and in both gamma-ray beams. The measurements were performed at the IAEA and NIST facilities starting in the fall of 2009 and were completed in 2010. The comparison ratio of the calibration coefficients for each chamber, NK,IAEA/NK,NIST, between the IAEA and NIST was 0.999 and 0.997 for the 137Cs and 60Co gamma-ray beams respectively. The relative standard uncertainty for each of these ratios is 0.5%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Minniti, Ronaldo; Czap, Ladislav

2011-01-01

195

Laboratory Animal Facilities. Laboratory Design Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Design of laboratory animal facilities must be functional. Accordingly, the designer should be aware of the complex nature of animal research and specifically the type of animal research which will be conducted in a new facility. The building of animal-care facilities in research institutions requires special knowledge in laboratory animal…

Jonas, Albert M.

1965-01-01

196

Testing the Floor Scale Designated for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's UF6 Cylinder Portal Monitor  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) obtained a Mettler Toledo floor scale for the purpose of testing it to determine whether it can replace the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) cumbersome, hanging load cell. The floor scale is intended for use as a subsystem within PNNL’s nascent UF6 Cylinder Portal Monitor. The particular model was selected for its accuracy, size, and capacity. The intent will be to use it only for 30B cylinders; consequently, testing did not proceed beyond 8,000 lb.

Curtis, Michael M.; Weier, Dennis R.

2009-03-12

197

PREFACE: 9th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion contains invited and contributed papers presented at the 9th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers. This meeting was held at the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego, California, on 24-26 September, 2003, and it was organized by General Atomics. As has been the tradition at the last four meetings of this series, the programme was sub-divided into six topics. For each topic there was an invited talk whose purpose was to give an overview of the topic, based on contributed papers presented at the meeting and on external results. These talks were followed by discussion periods, which were used for extended question and answer sessions for the invited speakers or for additional short presentations by contributing speakers. For each topic there was an associated poster session for contributed papers, of which there were about 70. The topics were: Structure and dynamics of internal transport barriers Structure and dynamics of the H-mode pedestal Understanding transport barriers through modelling Control of transport barriers Transport within transport barriers: theorist's view of the future Diagnostic and analysis issues for transport barriers The topics were focused on the physics of edge and core transport barriers. Similar to the previous meeting, held in Toki, Japan, the universality of this physics in axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric machines was featured. In addition, the physics of transport barriers in relation to burning plasma experiments was emphasized. In particular, one of the hopes and goals of the participants is that the physics of transport barriers can be used to enhance the prospects for burning plasmas. Because this meeting occurred approximately 21 years after the discovery of the H-mode in 1982, a special session was held to commemorate more than 20 years of research on transport barriers. In this session, Dr R Stambaugh and Professor K Itoh presented personal views on the implications of the discovery and memories of the early days of H-mode research. In addition, Dr F Wagner, the leader of the team that published the seminal paper announcing the discovery of the H-mode, prepared remarks that were presented by Dr Stambaugh. The discovery of the H-mode provided great hope that a fusion reactor could be developed and opened the door to the field of transport barriers, a field that was beyond the dreams of most researchers in 1982. The selection of topics and invited speakers and general organization of the scientific programme were carried out by the International Programme Committee, consisting of: S Lebedev (Ioffe, Russia) K Ida (NIFS, Japan) T Takizuka (JAERI, Japan) G Saibene (EFDA, Germany) W Suttrop (IPP, Germany) M Greenwald (MIT, USA) E Synakowski (PPPL, USA) R Groebner (GA, USA) I am very grateful to the committee members for their work and advice on the preparation of the meeting. In addition, I express deep thanks to Dr Punit Gohil, the Chair of the Local Organizing Committee, and to Lupe Cerda, the Conference Coordinator, who very ably took care of numerous details related to the organization of the meeting.

Groebner, Richard

2004-05-01

198

An Electronics "Unit Laboratory"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a laboratory teaching technique in which a single topic (in this case, bipolar junction transistors) is studied over a period of weeks under the supervision of one staff member, who also designs the laboratory work. (MLH)|

Davies, E. R.; Penton, S. J.

1976-01-01

199

Interpreting Laboratory Test Results  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Interpreting Laboratory Test Results A laboratory test is a medical procedure in which a sample of blood , urine , or other tissues or substances in the ...

200

The Microscale Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The materials needed and the procedures used in three microscale chemical laboratory experiments are detailed. Included are a microscale organic synthesis, a two-step synthetic sequence for the microscale organic laboratory, and a small-scale equilibrium experiment. (CW)|

Zipp, Arden P.

1990-01-01

201

Intelligent Mobility Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents activities to develop and equip a laboratory for robot mobility research and development. The laboratory includes mobile robots, testing systems, instrumentation, analysis tools, as well as test and analysis procedures. Robot mobilit...

G. Witus

2006-01-01

202

The Paradigm Laboratory Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project aims to develop problem-based inquiry learning laboratories that have science majors in introductory chemistry laboratories transfer an understanding of the attitudes and methods of scientific inquiry to knowledge and experiences in their disciplines of study.

Heppert, Joseph A.

2011-04-06

203

Localized Corrosion Analysis Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The funds were used to construct the Localized Corrosion Analaysis Laboratory in the Fontana Corrosion Center to study corrosion across all relevant length scales. This laboratory comprises a scanning probe microscopy stations specifically designed for co...

R. G. Buchheit G. S. Frankel

2000-01-01

204

The Instructional Development Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Instructional Development Laboratory of Florida State University's Center for Educational Design (CED) is described. Among the major projects of the Laboratory has been the design and implementation of the PLATO computer-assisted instruction system. Included in the report are descriptions of (1) the facilities layout of the Laboratory, (2)…

Towle, Nelson J.

205

Laboratory Activities in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

2012-01-01

206

Good laboratory practices  

SciTech Connect

Make your laboratory inspection procedures comply with what EPA expect of you. To ensure products under regulatory jurisdiction are safe and effective, EPA requires laboratories conducting health effects testing comply TSCA and FIFRA. Procedures for conducting laboratory inspections of facilities, techniques, recordkeeping, safety and quality assurance programs are detailed in the new EPA book.

Not Available

1985-01-01

207

Laboratory-acquired brucellosis.  

PubMed

We report two laboratory-acquired Brucella melitensis infections that were shown to be epidemiologically related. Blood culture isolates were initially misidentified because of variable Gram stain results, which led to misdiagnoses and subsequent laboratory exposures. Notifying laboratory personnel who unknowingly processed cultures from brucellosis patients is an important preventive measure. PMID:15504276

Noviello, Stephanie; Gallo, Richard; Kelly, Molly; Limberger, Ronald J; DeAngelis, Karen; Cain, Louise; Wallace, Barbara; Dumas, Nellie

2004-10-01

208

Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be…

Steere, Norman V.

1965-01-01

209

Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…

Steere, Norman V.

1965-01-01

210

The Instructional Development Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Instructional Development Laboratory of Florida State University's Center for Educational Design (CED) is described. Among the major projects of the Laboratory has been the design and implementation of the PLATO computer-assisted instruction system. Included in the report are descriptions of (1) the facilities layout of the Laboratory, (2) the…

Towle, Nelson J.

211

Theme: Laboratory Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A series of theme articles discuss setting up laboratory hydroponics units, the school farm at the Zuni Pueblo in New Mexico, laboratory experiences in natural resources management and urban horticulture, the development of teaching labs at Derry (PA) High School, management of instructional laboratories, and industry involvement in agricultural…

Bruening, Thomas H.; And Others

1992-01-01

212

INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

2010-01-01

213

Sample Vial Secure Container (SVSC)  

SciTech Connect

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors must maintain continuity of knowledge on all safeguard samples, and in particular on those samples drawn from plutonium product and spent fuel input tanks at a nuclear reprocessing plant's blister sampling station. Integrity of safeguard samples must be guaranteed from the sampling point to the moment of sample analysis at the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL Seibersdorf) or at an accepted local laboratory. These safeguard samples are drawn at a blister sampling station with inspector participation, and then transferred via a pneumatic post system to the facility's analytical laboratory. The transfer of the sample by the pneumatic post system, the arrival of the sample in the operator's analytical laboratory, and the storage of the sample awaiting analysis is very time consuming for the inspector, particularly if continuous human surveillance is required for all these activities. This process might be observed by ordinary surveillance methods, such as a video monitoring system, but again this would be cumbersome and time consuming for both the inspector and operator. This paper will describe a secure container designed to assure sample vial integrity from the point the sample is drawn to the treatment of the sample at the facility's analytical laboratory.

Baumann, M.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Franssen, F. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Safeguards)

1992-01-01

214

Development and validation of a model for tritium accumulation by a freshwater bivalve using the IAEA EMRAS scenarios  

SciTech Connect

A six-compartment metabolic model for tritium accumulation by bivalves was developed and validated using two observed data sets supplied in an international IAEA program for validation of environmental models, EMRAS (Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety, 2003-2007). The data observed were presented in scenarios for model prediction of temporal change of HTO and OBT concentrations in Barnes mussels (Elliptio complanata). In the Uptake Scenario, mussels were transplanted from a site with background tritium concentrations into a lake, which has historically received tritium inputs over time from up-gradient waste management areas. Another data set was presented in the Depuration Scenario for model prediction of the temporal decrease in HTO and OBT concentrations in the mussels following transplantation from the lake into another lake with significantly lower tritium levels. The model simulation was able to reproduce the observation that the amount of hydrogen taken from sediment was very small compared with that taken from lake water. (authors)

Miyamoto, K.; Inoue, Y.; Takeda, H.; Yanagisawa, K.; Fuma, S.; Ishii, N.; Kuroda, N. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Yankovich, T.; Kim, S. B.; Davis, P. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2008-07-15

215

New Brunswick Laboratory. Progress report, October 1995--September 1996  

SciTech Connect

Fiscal year (FY) 1996 was a very good year for New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), whose major sponsor is the Office of Safeguards and Security (NN-51) in the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, Office of Security Affairs. Several projects pertinent to the NBL mission were completed, and NBL`s interactions with partners and customers were encouraging. Among the partners with which NBL interacted in this report period were the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), NN-51. Environmental Program Group of the DOE Chicago Operations Office, International Safeguards Project Office, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Ukraine Working Group, Fissile Materials Assurance Working Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in Belgium, Brazilian/Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, and other DOE facilities and laboratories. NBL staff publications, participation in safeguards assistance and other nuclear programs, development of new reference materials, involvement in the updating and refinement of DOE documents, service in enhancing the science education of others, and other related activities enhanced NBL`s status among DOE laboratories and facilities. Noteworthy are the facts that NBL`s small inventory of nuclear materials is accurately accounted for, and, as in past years, its materials and human resources were used in peaceful nuclear activities worldwide.

NONE

1997-04-01

216

Co-ordination of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators; Summary Report of an IAEA Technical Meeting  

SciTech Connect

The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the 18th meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 23 to 27 March 2009. This meeting was attended by 22 scientists from 14 Member States, plus IAEA staff, concerned with the compilation, evaluation and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. A summary of the meeting, recommendations/conclusions, data centre reports, and various proposals considered, modified and agreed by the participants are contained within this document. The International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Evaluators holds biennial meetings under the auspices of the IAEA, and consists of evaluation groups and data service centres in several countries. This network has the objective of providing up-to-date nuclear structure and decay data for all known nuclides by evaluating all existing experimental data. Data resulting from this international evaluation collaboration is included in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and published in the journals Nuclear Physics A and Nuclear Data Sheets (NDS).

Abriola, D.; Tuli, J.

2009-03-23

217

Results of a co-ordinated research programme to improve the certification of IAEA milk powder A-11 and animal muscle H-4 for eleven “difficult” trace elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the original intercomparisons two of the IAEA's reference materials, milk powder A-11 and animal muscle H-4, gave unsatisfactory results, with a wide spread of values for many trace elements of interest, and subsequently the recommended values for Cu and Mn in A-11 have been questioned.

A. R. Byrne; C. Camara-Rica; R. Cornells; J. J. M. de Goeij; G. V. Iyengar; G. Kirkbright; G. Knapp; R. M. Parr; M. Stoeppler

1987-01-01

218

MEETING REPORT: IAEA Meeting: International Conference of National Regulatory Authorities with Competence in the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buenos Aires, 11-15 December 2000 The meeting was the outcome of one of the actions arising from an IAEA sponsored meeting held in Dijon in 1998 on these issues. The action plan included inter alia the production of a `Code of Conduct' (published December 2000), the production of a scheme for the `Categorisation of Sources' (published December 2000) and a

Chris Englefield

2001-01-01

219

Fusion reactor design. II - Report on the Second IAEA Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 10-21 October 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary is given of the experimental, demonstration and commercial fusion reactor concepts presented at the Second IAEA Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop on Fusion Reactor Design. The potential role of fusion power as an inexhaustible energy source is discussed, the advances and trends in fusion reactor design assessed, and the major conclusions and recommendations of five workshop groups given.

R. W. Conn; G. L. Kulcinski; T. G. Frank; R. Hancox; K. H. Schmitter; W. M. Stacey Jr.

1978-01-01

220

In vitro mutation breeding of bananas and plantains. Final reports of an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme from 1988 to 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains 9 final reports of the participants at the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on 'In vitro mutation breeding of bananas and plantains'. A separate abstract was prepared for each report. Refs, figs and tabs. (Atomindex citation...

1995-01-01

221

The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Korea.  

PubMed

In 1971, first bone bank was established at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery in Catholic University of Korea. The first clinical case was reported at the Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Association in 1973. Subsequently, more than 60 surgical bone banks were established in the university and teaching hospitals throughout country. In 1990, the Korea Biomaterial Research Institute (KBRI) organised the IAEA/RCA training course on tissue banking. In this course students from 17 countries participated. In 1994 the first collaboration for cadaver tissue recovery was performed. It is important to single out that the various religious groups in Korea have favourable attitudes towards tissue donation, which contributes to the success of the tissue banking programs in the country. The demands of allograft were getting increased in the Korean medical and dental society. Currently, 62 hospital based bone banks, 5 processing tissue banks, 1 regional tissue bank and more than 30 tissue distributors are working in Korea. Based on the U.S.A. usage of more than 1,000,000 grafts per year, 100,000-200,000 grafts will be needed in Korea. Those findings indicate a greatly increased need for training of tissue bank operators. The Korean society will need at least 20-30 tissue bank operators for training in every year. The National Training Centre (NTC) for tissue bank operators and medical personal using the IAEA Curriculum in the Korean languages was established in 2003. From 2004 to 2006, NTC have been trained 40 tissue bank operators. They have produced at least 10,000 tissues per year. These figures indicate a cost saving of US$ 10 million. Within 5 years, NTC will train 100 tissue bank operators. These individuals and their respective banks will provide an increasing number of high quality grafts to the communities they serve at a cost far less than if they were acquired from abroad. PMID:18841494

Kang, Yong-Koo; Yim, Chang-Joon; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

2008-10-08

222

The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Brazil.  

PubMed

Until 2000, efforts into organising tissue banks in Brazil had not progressed far beyond small "in house" tissue storage repositories, usually annexed to Orthopaedic Surgery Services. Despite the professional entrepreneurship of those working as part time tissue bankers in such operations, best practices in tissue banking were not always followed due to the lack of regulatory standards, specialised training, adequate facilities and dedicated personnel. The Skin Bank of the Plastic Surgery Department of the Hospital das Clinicas of Sao Paulo, the single skin bank in Brazil, was not an exception. Since 1956, restricted and unpredictable amounts of skin allografts were stored under refrigeration for short periods under very limited quality controls. As in most "tissue banks" at that time in Brazil, medical and nursing staff worked on a volunteer and informal basis undergoing no specific training. IAEA supported the implementation of the tissue banking program in Brazil through the regional project RLA/7/009 "Quality system for the production of irradiated sterilised grafts" (1998-2000) and through two interregional projects INT/6/049 "Interregional Centre of Excellence in Tissue Banking", during the period 2002-2004 and INT/6/052 "Improving the Quality of Production and Uses of Radiation Sterilised Tissue Grafts", during the period 2002-2004. In 2001-2002, the first two years of operation of the HC-Tissue Bank, 53 skin transplants were carried out instead of the previous 4-5 a year. During this period, 75 individuals donated skin tissue, generating approximately 90,000 cm(2) of skin graft. The IAEA program were of great benefit to Brazilian tissue banking which has evolved from scattered make shift small operations to a well-established, high quality tissue banking scenario. PMID:18618294

Herson, Marisa Roma; Mathor, Monica Beatriz; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

2008-07-10

223

Radiation protection in pediatric interventional cardiology: An IAEA PILOT program in Latin America.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to present a methodology and some initial results for a pilot program on radiation protection (RP) in pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The starting point of the program was a workshop involving several pediatric cardiologists leading this specialty in 11 Latin American countries. The workshop included a pilot RP training course and additional sessions during which the objectives of the program and the methodology to collect and process data on patient and staff radiation doses were discussed. Special attention was dedicated to agree on a common quality control (QC) protocol for the x-ray and imaging systems used in the different catheterization laboratories. The preliminary data showed that only 64% of the cardiologists used their personal dosimeters regularly and that only 36% were aware of their personal dose values. The data on pediatric interventional activity were collected from 10 centers from nine different countries. A total of 2,429 procedures (50% diagnostic and 50% therapeutic) were carried out during 2009 in these centers. Patient dose data were available in only a few centers and were not analyzed on a regular basis in any of the catheterization laboratories involved. Plans were developed for a basic QC protocol of the x-ray systems and construction of a Latin American database on pediatric cardiology with patient and staff dose values with the idea in mind of obtaining distributions of these dose values before promoting several optimization strategies. PMID:21799339

Vano, Eliseo; Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Leyton, Fernando; Durán, Ariel; Nader, Alejandro

2011-09-01

224

Standards Laboratory environments  

SciTech Connect

Standards Laboratory environments need to be carefully selected to meet the specific mission of each laboratory. The mission of the laboratory depends on the specific work supported, the measurement disciplines required and the level of uncertainty required in the measurements. This document reproduces the contents of the Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory Memorandum Number 3B (PSLM-3B) which was issued on May 16, 1988, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, to guide the laboratories of the Nuclear Weapons Complex in selecting suitable environments. Because of both general interest and specific interest in Standards Laboratory environments this document is being issued in a more available form. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in selection of laboratory environments suitable for standards maintenance and calibration operations. It is not intended to mandate a specific environment for a specific calibration but to direct selection of the environment and to offer suggestions on how to extend precision in an existing and/or achievable (practical) environment. Although this documents pertains specifically to standards laboratories, it can be applied to any laboratory requiring environmental control.

Braudaway, D.W.

1990-09-01

225

The Confederate medical laboratories.  

PubMed

During the Civil War, the scarcity and expense of imported drugs forced the Confederate Army to establish several medical laboratories to manufacture drugs for military use. The laboratories produced medicines from indigenous plants and also made non-plant-based drugs. The Confederate Surgeon General and the Chief Purveyor in Richmond, VA, coordinated activities of most of the laboratories. The laboratories employed talented and resourceful personnel and manufactured a large volume and wide variety of drugs, the most useful of which included ether, chloroform, and opiates. The pharmaceutical quality of the laboratories' output was evidently uneven. Empirical testing in military hospitals helped determine the clinical value of indigenous remedies. The Confederate medical laboratories participated in a coordinated effort to supply the Army with substitutes for drugs whose availability was curtailed or uncertain. PMID:14696874

Hasegawa, Guy R; Hambrecht, F Terry

2003-12-01

226

Creep Laboratory manual  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A manual for the NPL Creep Laboratory, a collective name given to two testing laboratories, the Uniaxial Creep Laboratory and the Advanced High Temperature Mechanical Testing Laboratory, is presented. The first laboratory is devoted to uniaxial creep testing and houses approximately 50 high sensitivity creep machines including 10 constant stress cam lever machines. The second laboratory houses a low cycle fatigue testing machine of 100 kN capacity driven by a servo-electric actuator, five machines for uniaxial tensile creep testing of engineering ceramics at temperatures up to 1600C, and an electronic creep machine. Details of the operational procedures for carrying out uniaxial creep testing are given. Calibration procedures to be followed in order to comply with the specifications laid down by British standards, and to provide traceability back to the primary standards are described.

Osgerby, S.; Loveday, M. S.

1992-06-01

227

Remote Didactic Laboratory \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Remote Didactic Laboratory Laboratorio Didattico Remoto - LA.DI.RE. ldquoG. Savastanordquo is the e-learning measurement laboratory supported by the Italian Ministry of Education and University. It involves about 20 Italian universities and provides students of electric and electronic measurement courses with access to remote measurement laboratories delivering different didactic activities related to measurement experiments. In order to demonstrate the versatility

Gregorio Andria; Aldo Baccigalupi; Mladen Borsic; Paolo Carbone; Pasquale Daponte; Claudio De Capua; Alessandro Ferrero; Domenico Grimaldi; Annalisa Liccardo; Nicola Locci; Anna Maria Lucia Lanzolla; David Macii; Carlo Muscas; Lorenzo Peretto; Dario Petri; Sergio Rapuano; Maria Riccio; Simona Salicone; Fabrizio Stefani

2007-01-01

228

INCORPORATING LABORATORY SIMULATIONS INTO NON LABORATORY COURSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known among engineering educators that it is easier for a student to learn a concept when they can experience it. But, cost of laboratories, safety issues, time constraints, and other factors have reduced experiential components of most engineering curricula, rather than keep it constant or increase it. In the United States, for example, engineering students do not

Edward E. Anderson

229

Secondary science laboratory activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study conducted with 15 teachers and their classes in two Western Australian high schools indicated that laboratory activities are perceived by a majority of teachers and students as an effective means of learning science. However, laboratory activities were not presented on a regular basis in most classes and appeared to have low status compared to activities that emphasized science

Kenneth Tobin

1986-01-01

230

LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE LANGUAGE ARTS LABORATORY WAS ESTABLISHED TO IMPROVE READING ABILITY AND OTHER LANGUAGE ARTS SKILLS AS AN AID IN THE PREVENTION OF DROPOUTS. THE LABORATORY WAS OPERATED ON A SUMMER SCHEDULE WITH A FLEXIBLE PROGRAM OF FROM 45 MINUTES TO 2 1/2 HOURS DAILY. ALL PUPILS WERE 14 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, AND EXPRESSED A DESIRE TO IMPROVE THEIR READING…

ROBERTS, HERMESE E.

231

Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

Brame, Ray; And Others

232

Primary Standards Laboratory report  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

Not Available

1990-12-01

233

Laboratory-Acquired Mycoses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most widely quoted of studies that summarize cases of laboratory-acquired infections are by Sulkin and Pike, who included laboratory-acquired infections in the U.S. from 1930 to 1950 and worldwide infections from 1950 to 1963. Because these studies do...

E. Hanel R. H. Kruse

1967-01-01

234

The Virtual Robotics Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

1999-09-01

235

The Virtual Robotics Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory equipment to outside universities, industrial researchers, and elementary and secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics, but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

Kress, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

1997-03-01

236

Language Laboratory Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Laboratory practice requires preparation in class and adequate follow-up. Like the library, it does not replace the teacher but is an auxiliary to teaching. The laboratory is not a panacea, but a place for continued experimentation and innovation in teaching methods. Variety in instruction is required. (PJM)|

John, E. J.

1980-01-01

237

Medical Laboratory Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of medical laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units specific to the occupation of medical laboratory technician. The following…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

238

Laboratory?Acquired Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-acquired infections due to a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been described. Although the precise risk of infection after an exposure remains poorly defined, surveys of laboratory-acquired infections suggest that Brucella species, Shigella species, Salmonella species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common causes. Infections due to the bloodborne pathogens (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis

Kamaljit Singh

2009-01-01

239

Dental Laboratory Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

240

Medical Laboratory Technician.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of medical laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units specific to the occupation of medical laboratory technician. The following…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

241

Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

1989-01-01

242

Total skin electron therapy (TSET): A reimplementation using radiochromic films and IAEA TRS-398 code of practice  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this work is to present an updated implementation of total skin electron therapy (TSET) using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films. The optimization of quality control tests is also included. Methods: A Varian 2100 C/D linear accelerator equipped with the special procedure HDTSe{sup -} (high dose rate total skin electron mode, E=6 MeV) was employed to perform TSET irradiations using the modified Stanford technique. The commissioning was performed following the AAPM report 23 recommendations. In particular, for dual-field beams irradiation, the optimal tilt angle was investigated and the dose distribution in the treatment plane was measured. For a complete six dual-field beams irradiation, the treatment skin dose on the surface of a cylindrical phantom was evaluated by radiochromic films and the B factor which relates the single dual-field skin dose to the six dual-field skin dose was assessed. Since the TRS-398 reference conditions do not meet the requirements of TSET absolute dosimetry, GafChromic EBT films were also employed to check and validate the application of the protocol. Simplified procedures were studied to verify beam constancy in PMMA phantoms without the more difficult setup of total skin irradiation. Results: The optimized geometrical setup for dual-field beams was: Tilt angle={+-}19 deg., SSD=353 cm, and the beam degrader (200x100x1 cm{sup 3}) placed at 320 cm from the source. As regards to dose homogeneity in the treatment plane, for dual-field beams irradiation, the mean relative dose value was 97%{+-}5% (normalizing to 100% at the calibration point level). For six dual-field beams irradiation, the multiplication factor B was 2.63. In addition, beam quality, dose rate, and bremsstrahlung contribution were also suitable for TSET treatments. The TRS-398 code of practice was used for TSET dosimetry, as dose measurements performed by ionization chamber and radiochromic film agreed within 2.5%. Simplified quality control tests and baseline values were presented in order to check flatness, symmetry, and field size with radiochromic films and output and beam quality constancy with ionization chamber. Short-term reproducibility and MU linearity tests were also included. Conclusions: Commissioning parameters met the requirements of TSET treatments and the matching of AAPM guidelines with the IAEA code of practice was successful. Frequent beam performance controls can be easily performed through the presented quality assurance tests. Radiochromic dosimetry facilitated the TSET commissioning and played a major role to validate the application of TRS-398.

Schiapparelli, P.; Zefiro, D.; Massone, F.; Taccini, G. [S.C. Fisica Sanitaria, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, via A. Volta 8, 16128 Genova (Italy)

2010-07-15

243

NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol  

SciTech Connect

In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Sandoval, M Analisa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uribe, Eva C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Marisa N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Rebecca S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

244

Carbon Characterization Laboratory Report  

SciTech Connect

The newly completed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Lab-C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. This laboratory was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project to support graphite research and development activities. The CCL is designed to characterize and test carbon-based materials such as graphite, carbon-carbon composites, and silicon-carbide composite materials. The laboratory is fully prepared to measure material properties for nonirradiated carbon-based materials. Plans to establish the laboratory as a radiological facility within the next year are definitive. This laboratory will be modified to accommodate irradiated materials, after which it can be used to perform material property measurements on both irradiated and nonirradiated carbon-based material. Instruments, fixtures, and methods are in place for preirradiation measurements of bulk density, thermal diffusivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Young’s modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson ratio, and electrical resistivity. The measurement protocol consists of functional validation, calibration, and automated data acquisition.

David Swank; William Windes; D.C. Haggard; David Rohrbaugh; Karen Moore

2009-03-01

245

Laboratory-acquired infections.  

PubMed

Laboratory-acquired infections due to a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been described. Although the precise risk of infection after an exposure remains poorly defined, surveys of laboratory-acquired infections suggest that Brucella species, Shigella species, Salmonella species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common causes. Infections due to the bloodborne pathogens (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus) remain the most common reported viral infections, whereas the dimorphic fungi are responsible for the greatest number of fungal infections. Because of the increasing attention on the role of the laboratory in bioterrorism preparation, I discuss the risk of laboratory-acquired infection with uncommon agents, such as Francisella tularensis and Bacillus anthracis. Physicians who care for a sick laboratory worker need to consider the likelihood of an occupationally acquired infection while advising exposed laboratory workers about postexposure prophylaxis. In addition, physicians should be aware of the importance of alerting the laboratory if infection with a high-risk agent is suspected. PMID:19480580

Singh, Kamaljit

2009-07-01

246

Sonication standard laboratory module  

DOEpatents

A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

Beugelsdijk, Tony (Los Alamos, NM); Hollen, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM); Erkkila, Tracy H. (Los Alamos, NM); Bronisz, Lawrence E. (Los Alamos, NM); Roybal, Jeffrey E. (Santa Fe, NM); Clark, Michael Leon (Menan, ID)

1999-01-01

247

Trace rare earth element analysis of IAEA hair (HH-1), animal bone (H-5) and other biological standards by radiochemical neutron activation  

SciTech Connect

A radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a rare earth group separation scheme has been used to measure ultratrace levels of rare earth elements (REE) in IAEA Human Hair (HH-1), IAEA Animal Bone (H-5), NBS Bovine Liver (SRM 1577), and NBS Orchard Leaf (SRM 1571) standards. The REE concentrations in Human Hair and Animal Bone range from 10/sup -8/g/g to 10/sup -11/g/g and their chondritic normalized REE patterns show a negative Eu anomaly and follow as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii. The REE patterns for NBS Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaf are identical except that their concentrations are higher. The similarity among the REE patterns suggest that the REE do not appear to be fractionated during the intake of biological materials by animals or humans. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

1986-03-01

248

Estimation of mean glandular dose for breast tomosynthesis: factors for use with the UK, European and IAEA breast dosimetry protocols.  

PubMed

A formalism is proposed for the estimation of mean glandular dose for breast tomosynthesis, which is a simple extension of the UK, European and IAEA protocols for dosimetry in conventional projection mammography. The formalism introduces t-factors for the calculation of breast dose from a single projection and T-factors for a complete exposure series. Monte Carlo calculations of t-factors have been made for an imaging geometry with full-field irradiation of the breast for a wide range of x-ray spectra, breast sizes and glandularities. The t-factors show little dependence on breast glandularity and tables are provided as a function of projection angle and breast thickness, which may be used for all x-ray spectra simulated. The T-factors for this geometry depend upon the choice of projection angles and weights per projection, but various example calculations gave values in the range 0.93-1.00. T-factors are also provided for the Sectra tomosynthesis system, which employs a scanned narrow-beam imaging geometry. In this quite different configuration, the factor (denoted T(S)) shows an important dependence on breast thickness, varying between 0.98 and 0.76 for 20 and 110 mm thick breasts, respectively. Additional data are given to extend the current tabulations of g-, c- and s-factors used for dosimetry of conventional 2D mammography. PMID:21191150

Dance, D R; Young, K C; van Engen, R E

2010-12-30

249

The IAEA\\/WHO TLD postal dose quality audits for radiotherapy: a perspective of dosimetry practices at hospitals in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: The IAEA\\/WHO TLD postal programme for external audits of the calibration of high-energy photon beams used in radiotherapy has been in operation since 1969. This work presents a survey of the 1317 TLD audits carried out during 1998–2001. The TLD results are discussed from the perspective of the dosimetry practices in hospitals in developing countries, based on

Joanna Izewska; Pedro Andreo; Stanislav Vatnitsky; Ken R. Shortt

2003-01-01

250

Comparison of the PARET\\/ANL and RELAP5\\/MOD3 codes for the analysis of IAEA benchmark transients and the SPERT experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RELAP5\\/MOD3 code is a coupled kinetics-hydrodynamics code for modelling all components of pressurized water reactor systems. To our knowledge, RELAP5 has not been tested against the SPERT reactivity insertion experiments or more conventional research reactor models such as the 10-MW low-enriched uranium (LEU) benchmark reactor in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Guidebook, where loss-of-flow (LOF) and reactivity insertion

W. L. Woodruff; N. A. Hanan; R. S. Smith; J. E. Matos

1997-01-01

251

CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices (Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 14 17 May 2007)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices, held in Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 14-17 May 2007. The main topics of the meeting were overview and superconducting devices, long pulse operation and advanced tokamak, steady state fusion technology, heating and current drive, particle control and power exhaust and ITER-related issues.

Lee, G. S.; Na, Yong-Su; Becoulet, A.; Ide, S.; Kessel, C. E.; Komori, A.; Kuteev, B. V.; Mank, G.; Olstad, R. A.; Sarkar, B.; Sips, A. C. C.; van Houtte, D.; Vdovin, V. L.

2008-08-01

252

CHEMLAB: Chemical Modeling Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CHEMLAB, the Chemical Modeling Laboratory, is the third generation of the CAMSEQ series of molecular processing programs. CHEMLAB performs a variety of structure calculations on user-defined molecules. Conformational Analysis, Quantum Mechanical calculati...

1983-01-01

253

Laboratory Equipment in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The specific objectives of the study were to analyze the potential markets and marketing factors in this country for precision, high-speed laboratory equipment with particular reference to marketing opportunities for American products. The report is the s...

1966-01-01

254

Microcontrollers in the Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the use of automated control using microcomputers. Covers the development of the microcontroller and describes advantages and characteristics of several brands of chips. Provides several recent applications of microcontrollers in laboratory automation. (MVL)

Williams, Ron

1989-01-01

255

Ecosystems in the Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire ecosystem. (GS)|

Madders, M.

1975-01-01

256

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY - CORVALLIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Research Laboratory - Corvallis is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's - national research center for terrestrial and watershed ecology, aquatic ecoregions, and for the ecological effects of climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, and atmospheric p...

257

NSLS source development laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has initiated an ambitious project to develop fourth generation radiation sources. To achieve this goal, the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) is building on the experience gained at the NSLS, and at the high...

I. Ben-Zvi E. Blum E. D. Johnson

1995-01-01

258

Laboratory Prototype Flash Evaporator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory prototype flash evaporator that is being developed as a candidate for the space shuttle environmental control system expendable heat sink is described. The single evaporator configuration uses water as an evaporant to accommodate reentry and ...

J. L. Gaddis

1972-01-01

259

The Microscale Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described are two microscale chemistry laboratory experiments including "Microscale Syntheses of Heterocyclic Compounds," and "Microscale Acid-Base Extraction--A Colorful Introduction." Materials, procedures and probable results are discussed. (CW)|

Zipp, Arden P., Ed.

1990-01-01

260

Organic Laboratory Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Detailed is a method in which short pieces of teflon tubing may be used for collection tubes for collecting preparative fractions from gas chromatographs. Material preparation, laboratory procedures, and results of this method are discussed. (CW)|

Smith, Sherrel

1990-01-01

261

Computer Integrated Laboratory Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective is the integration of computers into the Engineering Materials Science Laboratory course, where existing test equipment is not computerized. The first lab procedure is to demonstrate and produce a material phase change curve. The second proc...

C. C. Dahl

1992-01-01

262

Approach to training of personnel to manage radioactive wastes offered by education training Centre at Moscow Sia Radon under sponsorship of IAEA  

SciTech Connect

The availability of qualified personnel is crucial to the licensing and efficient and safe operation of waste management facilities and for the improvement of the existing waste management practices. The countries with some degree of waste management activities are of special concerns, since their narrow waste management experience and personal capabilities may be a limiting factor to manage radioactive waste in a safe and technically optimal manner. The International Education Training Centre (IETC) at Moscow State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association 'Radon' (SIA 'Radon'), in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has developed expertise and provided training to waste management personnel for the last 10 years. During this period, more than 300 specialists from 26 European and Asian countries, (mostly) sponsored by the IAEA, have increased their knowledge and skills in radioactive waste management. The current experience of the SIA 'Radon' in the organisation of the IAEA sponsored training is summarized and an outline of some strategic educational elements, which IETC will continue to pursue in the coming years, is provided. (authors)

Batyukhnova, O.G.; Dmitriev, S.A. [SUE SIA -Radon-, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ojovan, M.I. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street (United Kingdom); Jova-Sed, L.; Rozdyalouskaya, L.; Drace, Z. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

2007-07-01

263

Safer Science: Laboratory Relocation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The movement of hazardous chemicals found in high school science laboratories and chemical storerooms can be risky business due to the increased likelihood of an accidental spill, contamination, or other type of mishap. Prudent safety planning and practice need to be addressed in order to eliminate or minimize the potential for chemical incidents. Giving thought to the guidelines outlined in this article will help initiate the process of moving chemical inventories within and between school laboratories and storerooms.

Roy, Ken

2008-10-01

264

Boeing shock physics laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental capability of the Boeing Shock Physics Laboratory is described. Various laboratory facilities include a 64-mm bore light-gas gun, a 1.5-mm and a 3-mm bore two-stage hypervelocity projecctile gun, an exploding-foil facility, an FX-75 flash X-ray and electron beam accelerator, and a 600-G geotechnical centrifuge with a 100-kg payload capacity. A short bibliography is included which summarizes recent research activities.

Schmidt, R. M.

1982-04-01

265

ASHRAE's Living Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

ASHRAE recently remodeled its headquarters building in Atlanta with the intention of making the building a LEED Gold building. As part of that renovation the building was enhanced with additional sensors and monitoring equipment to allow it to serve as a Living Laboratory for use by members and the general public to study the detailed energy use and performance of buildings. This article provides an overview of the Living Laboratory and its capabilities.

Jarnagin, Ronald E.; Brambley, Michael R.

2008-10-01

266

POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - GEOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES  

EPA Science Inventory

These reports summarize pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted jointly by EPA and DOE at the Geochemistry Laboratory and the Manufacturing and Fabrication Repair Laboratory at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories facility in Albuquerque, New Mex...

267

Evaluating Astronomy Laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of non-traditional astronomy laboratories for non-science majors will be presented along with evaluations of lab technicians (these labs were originally developed at the College of Staten Island of the City University of New York). The goal of these labs is twofold: (a) to provide the students with hands-on experiences of scientific methodology and (b) to provoke critical thinking. Because non-science majors are often rather resistant to learning the relevant methodology - and especially to thinking critically - this manual is structured differently. It does not only provide traditional cook-book recipes but also contains several leading questions to make the students realize why they are doing what. The students are encouraged to write full sentences and explain how they reach which conclusions. This poster summarizes the experiences of the laboratory assistants that worked with the instructor and presents how they judge the effectiveness of the laboratories.

Zirbel, E. L.

2002-12-01

268

Gas measurement laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Lone Star Gas Company gas analysis laboratory has accommodated nearly a 5-fold increase in the sample processing load during the past five years. This has been accomplished through the construction of carefully planned facilities, the acquisition and judicious application of instrumentation, and the development of an automated data handling system. Well planned facilities have resulted in smooth work flow patterns and an increase in productivity. Judicious application of instrumentation has significantly increased processing capacity and resulted in more accurate analyses. Well designed computer programs have automated sample processing functions, reduced the potential for human error, and improved laboratory management by providing timely access to required information. Planning is essential for staying ahead of growing analysis needs. The gas analysis laboratory now has the processing capacity, equipment growth potential, and the information management systems to respond to the energy measurement demands of the future.

Huke, R.H.

1984-04-01

269

Further factors for the estimation of mean glandular dose using the United Kingdom, European and IAEA breast dosimetry protocols.  

PubMed

The United Kingdom, European and IAEA protocols for breast dosimetry in mammography make use of s-factors which allow for the use of different target/filter combinations. To supplement the existing protocols, a Monte Carlo computer program has been used to calculate s-factors for mammography using a tungsten target with silver filters of thicknesses 50-75 microm and for the same target filtered with 0.5 mm aluminium. The dosimetry protocols use slabs of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) of specified thicknesses to simulate the exposure of typical breasts. The equivalent thickness of PMMA has been calculated using a simplified approach for a wider range of x-ray spectra and for breast thicknesses of 2-11 cm. The results show that for the tungsten/silver target/filter combination, a single s-factor of 1.042 can be used with the protocols, but when the tungsten target is filtered with 0.5 mm of aluminium, it is necessary to select from a tabulation of s-factors against breast thickness. The equivalent thicknesses of PMMA for a given breast thickness show some dependence on beam quality and the values obtained differ from those presently used in the dosimetry protocols by an amount which depends upon breast thickness and half value layer (HVL). For the extreme case of an 11 cm breast and an HVL of 0.62 mm Al, the use of the protocol thickness would give rise to an error of 10%, but for breast thicknesses of 6 cm or less, the error is typically 2-3%. PMID:19550001

Dance, D R; Young, K C; van Engen, R E

2009-06-23

270

Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory (MEL) is a division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Its function is to work with companies and perform research to improve manufacturing performance. Because of its broad scope, MEL has five divisions -- Precision Engineering, Manufacturing Metrology, Intelligent Systems, Manufacturing Systems Integration, and Fabrication Technology. The laboratory's homepage offers descriptions, research project information, conference and workshop times, and photo and movie galleries from various projects. There is also a link to an Engineering Metrology Toolbox used to "solve real problems in dimensional measurement."

2001-01-01

271

Towards constructivist laboratory education: Case study for process control laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory education is an integrated part of engineering and science degrees. Many research papers refer to poor constructivist learning during the laboratory sessions, indicating the need for reforming the laboratory education in a way that facilitates constructivist learning as well as conceptual understanding. In this paper we present a model of conducting laboratories, based on the well known Kolbpsilas experiential

Mahmoud Abdulwahed; Zoltan K Nagy

2008-01-01

272

Training program to prepare the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the protocol additional to the agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in the United  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, a joint team from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) consisting of specialists in training IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the U.S. Additional Protocol. Since the U.S. Additional Protocol would allow for IAEA access to the DOE laboratories under the aegis of complementary access activities, the DOE laboratories would need to prepare for such visits. The goal of the training was to ensure that the DOE laboratories would successfully host an IAEA complementary access. In doing so, the labs must be able to provide the IAEA with the information that the IAEA would need to resolve its questions about the U.S. Declaration and declared activities at the lab, and also protect certain equities, as provided under the U.S. Additional Protocol Article 1.b and c. which set forth a 'National Security Exclusion.' This 'NSE' states that the AP provisions apply within the United States 'excluding only instances where its application would result in access by the Agency to activities with direct national security significance to the United States or to location or information associated with such activities.' These activities are referred to collectively as DNSS-direct national security significance. Furthermore, the U.S. has a specific right to employ managed access, without prejudice to the right under Article 1.b, in connection with activities of DNSS. The provisions in Articles 1.b and 1.c are unique to the U.S. AP, and are additional to the more general right, under Article 7, to use managed access to protect from disclosure proprietary and/or proliferation-sensitive information, and to meet safety and security requirements, that is incorporated directly from the Model Additional Protocol. The BNL-LANL team performed training at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to cover the situations that these labs, which respectively represent nuclear weapons labs, nuclear energy labs, and science labs and environmental management sites, would encounter during a complementary access. Each of the three labs hosted a mock complementary access activity, which included mock inspectors from the BNL-LANL team. In addition to reviewing the draft declarations from each of the host labs, the BNL-LANL team conducted open source research in a manner similar to what IAEA inspectors would do to research the activities at a location and prepare questions for the location to answer and that would be the focus of a complementary access. The host labs and other labs attending the training found the training to be extremely useful and helpful in making sure that each lab's Additional Protocol team had made correct declarations of nuclear activities, had properly trained staff ready to host and answer IAEA inquiries, and would implement managed access during a complementary access that would provide access by the IAEA team to resolve questions or inconsistencies about a particular declaration and still protect the information addressed by Articles 1 and 7 of the U.S. AP.

Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Rebecca C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uribe, Eva C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, M Analisa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valente, John N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valente, John U [BNL; Jo, Jae H [BNL; Sellen, Joana [U.S. DOE/NNSA; Wonder, Edward [QINETIQ-NORTH AMERICA

2009-01-01

273

Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

274

Simulating Laboratory Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of computer assisted instruction in a medical microbiology course. Presents examples of how computer assisted instruction can present case histories in which the laboratory procedures are simulated. Discusses an authoring system used to prepare computer simulations and provides one example of a case history dealing with fractured…

Baker, J. E.; And Others

1986-01-01

275

RUNNING A LANGUAGE LABORATORY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS ARTICLE DESCRIBES THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY AT THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF TRUJILLO AS IT IS USED IN THE FIVE-YEAR ENGLISH TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM. THE FIRST TWO YEARS OF THIS COURSE ARE INTENSIVE, BASED ON A STUDY OF ENGLISH USING LADO-FRIES MATERIALS (FOR LATIN AMERICAN LEARNERS) WHICH REQUIRE FIVE HOURS OF CLASSWORK A WEEK SUPPLEMENTED BY…

REES, ALUN L.W.

276

Standardizing calibration laboratory practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the calibration lab is becoming more and more important in view of the `global business' environment. Scheduled, regular calibration of test and measuring instruments with measurement traceability to the nationally accepted standards is a prerequisite. Certification to ISO 9000-Quality System Standards becoming a must for exports, the calibration activity being the backbone for quality, calibration laboratory practices

C. Muralikrishna Kumar

1993-01-01

277

Laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii is diagnosed by (i) detection of the parasite directly in patients' specimens using histological or immunological methods, (ii) isolation of T. gondii from blood, body fluids or tissue by inoculation in laboratory mice or on tissue culture cells, or (iii) serological methods for determination of a significant, T. gondii-specific, antibody titre rise or of T.

A. M. van Loon

1989-01-01

278

Idaho National Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In operation since 1949, INL is a science-based, applied engineering national laboratory dedicated to supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's missions in ensuring the nation's energy security with safe, competitive, and sustainable energy systems and unique national and homeland security capabilities.

279

Jet Propulsion Laboratory Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) homepage provides links to spacecraft and mission information, imagery, news articles, events, features, and public services. Users can access articles and imagery from the Mars Rover and Cassini missions, images from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and an El Nino/La Nina Watch.

280

Introducing Laboratory Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a simple, 10-item quiz designed to make students aware that they must learn laboratory safety. The items include questions on acid/base accidents, several types of fire extinguishers, and safety glassses. Answers and some explanations are included. (DH)

DeLorenzo, Ronald

1985-01-01

281

Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

Jenkins, David; And Others

282

Caltech Micromachining Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Entirely different and exotic machining techniques are required for creating microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and other extremely small devices. The Caltech Micromachining Laboratory maintains this archive of research highlights and papers on its homepage, including a paper on a MEMS-driven flapping wing for a palm-sized aerial vehicle.

1969-12-31

283

Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) is a collaborating partnership of the National Cancer Institute and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the National Institute of Standards and...

2005-01-01

284

Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

Jenkins, David; And Others

285

Laboratory Safety and Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains a scientific approach to accident prevention and outlines the safety aspects associated with the handling of chemicals in the secondary school. Provides a check list of unsafe acts and conditions, outlines features of good laboratory management, and gives hints for combating the effects of inflation on science budgets. (GS)|

Goodenough, T. J.

1976-01-01

286

PUBLICATIONS; GULF BREEZE LABORATORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The bibliography, inclusive from 1967 through 1978, lists all publications authored by researchers employed by the Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, and its field station on St. Johns Island, SC, or by researchers conducting studies under funding or direction of the...

287

An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavorings in foods and fragrances in personal care products is a topic often discussed in chemistry classes designed for the general education of non-science majors. A laboratory experiment has been designed to accompany the lecture topic. Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the

John M. Risley

1996-01-01

288

Microcomputers in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one-semester hour laboratory course introduced junior and senior physics majors to assembly language programming and to interfacing the KIM-1 microcomputer to experiments. A general purpose interface to a standard breadboard was developed. Details of the course, apparatus, and some interfacing projects are given. The simplified approach used produced gratifying results.

Rafert, Bruce; Nicklin, R. C.

1982-02-01

289

Laboratory Safety Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workshop covers major principles and regulations pertinent to working in laboratories with hazardous materials. It is divided into 45 minute segments dealing with: Radioactive Materials (Staiger); Toxic, Reactive, Carcinogenic, and Teratogenic Chemicals (Carlson); Infectious Agents (Laver); and Fire Safety Concepts and Physical Hazards (Arnston).

Jerry Staiger, Keith Carlson, Jim Laver, Ray Arntson (University of Minnesota;); Keith Carlson (University of Minnesota;); Jim Lauer (University of Minnesota;); Ray Amtson (University of Minnesota;)

2008-04-11

290

Laboratory analysis of stardust.  

PubMed

Tiny dust grains extracted from primitive meteorites are identified to have originated in the atmospheres of stars on the basis of their anomalous isotopic compositions. Although isotopic analysis with the ion microprobe plays a major role in the laboratory analysis of these stardust grains, many other microanalytical techniques are applied to extract the maximum amount of information. PMID:23231704

Zinner, Ernst

2013-01-07

291

Revitalizing chemistry laboratory instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation involves research in three major domains of chemical education as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. program in chemistry at Miami University with a major emphasis on chemical education, and concurrent study in organic chemistry. Unit I, Development and Assessment of a Column Chromatography Laboratory Activity, addresses the domain of Instructional Materials Development and Testing. This unit outlines the process of developing a publishable laboratory activity, testing and revising that activity, and subsequently sharing that activity with the chemical education community. A laboratory activity focusing on the separation of methylene blue and sodium fluorescein was developed to demonstrate the effects of both the stationary and mobile phase in conducting a separation. Unit II, Bringing Industry to the Laboratory, addresses the domain of Curriculum Development and Testing. This unit outlines the development of the Chemistry of Copper Mining module, which is intended for use in high school or undergraduate college chemistry. The module uses the learning cycle approach to present the chemistry of the industrial processes of mining copper to the students. The module includes thirteen investigations (three of which are web-based and ten which are laboratory experiments) and an accompanying interactive CD-ROM, which provides an explanation of the chemistry used in copper mining with a virtual tour of an operational copper mine. Unit III, An Alternative Method of Teaching Chemistry. Integrating Lecture and the Laboratory, is a project that addresses the domain of Research in Student Learning. Fundamental Chemistry was taught at Eastern Arizona College as an integrated lecture/laboratory course that met in two-hour blocks on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The students taking this integrated course were compared with students taking the traditional 1-hour lectures held on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, with accompanying 3-hour lab on Tuesday or Thursday. There were 119 students in the test group, 522 students in the Shelton control group and 556 students in the McBride control group. Both qualitative data and quantitative data were collected. A t-test was used to test significance.

McBride, Phil Blake

292

Savannah River National Laboratory Underground Counting Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SRNL UCF is capable of detecting extremely small amounts of radioactivity in samples, providing applications in forensics, environmental analyses, and nonproliferation. Past customers of the UCF have included NASA, (Long Duration Exposure Facility) the IAEA, (Iraq), and nonproliferation concerns. The SRNL UCF was designed to conduct ultra-low level gamma-ray analyses for radioisotopes at trace levels. Detection sensitivity is enhanced

Tim Brown

2006-01-01

293

Laboratory Waste Management. A Guidebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A primary goal of the American Chemical Society Task Force on Laboratory Waste Management is to provide laboratories with the information necessary to develop effective strategies and training programs for managing laboratory wastes. This book is intended to present a fresh look at waste management from the laboratory perspective, considering both…

American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

294

Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Preparations for Additional Protocol Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The United States Additional Protocol (AP) with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) entered into force (EIF) January 6, 2009. In anticipation of the EIF, the Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243) began the initial DOE AP data call on November 3, 2008. This paper describes the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) preparation, organization, and development efforts to successfully implement the AP and complete the AP data call. ORNL had 35 days to identify declarable activities and finalize the declaration line items (DLIs) for submission to NA-243. To be able to respond within the required time frame, many preparation activities at ORNL were necessary, such as determining the AP coordinator (APC) and team roles; conducting site awareness training; creating the ORNL Standards-Based Management System (SBMS) procedure Reporting of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities; training personnel; and defining site implementation software tools. Identifying, updating, compiling, reviewing, and submitting the DLIs to NA-243 were all critical activities for successfully implementing the AP and completing the AP data call at ORNL.

McCowan, Janie [ORNL; Cain, Ronald A [ORNL

2009-01-01

295

Laboratory experiments and modeling for industrial radiotracer applications.  

PubMed

This paper presents three laboratory experiments, which have been carried out using the Molybdenum-99 (Mo(99)) radiotracer to measure the residence time distribution (RTD), the mixing time and the flow rate in a water flow rig. The results of the RTD measurement experiment are preprocessed using the MATLAB software for background correction, radioactive decay correction, starting point correction, filtering, and data extrapolation. After preprocessing, six mathematical models are investigated on this data using the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) RTD software. The parameters of each model are optimized to calculate the value of the RTD, and to determine the model, which gives the best match with the practical data. The selected model with the best match is used to calculate the RTD in this experiment. The mixing time experiment is carried out for different rotation speeds and repeated three times in each case. The results show that the mixing time is inversely proportional to the rotation speed. The flow rate experiment is carried out to measure the flow rate in the flow rig. The experimental results show a high reliability of the radiotracer used in the RTD, mixing time and flow rate measurements. PMID:20171110

Kasban, H; Zahran, O; Arafa, H; El-Kordy, M; Elaraby, S M S; Abd El-Samie, F E

2010-02-06

296

Meeting the challenges of global nuclear medicine technologist training in the 21st century: the IAEA Distance Assisted Training (DAT) program.  

PubMed

Many countries have made significant investments in nuclear medicine (NM) technology with the acquisition of modern equipment and establishment of facilities, however, often appropriate training is not considered as part of these investments. Training for NM professionals is continually evolving, with a need to meet changing requirements in the workforce. Even places where established higher education courses are available, these do not necessarily cater to the practical component of training and the ever-changing technology that is central to medical imaging. The continuing advances in NM technology and growth of applications in quantitative clinical assessment place increases the pressure on technologists to learn and practice new techniques. Not only is training to understand new concepts limited but often there is inadequate training in the basics of NM and this can be a major constraint to the effective use of the evolving technology. Developing appropriate training programs for the broader international NM community is one of the goals of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A particularly successful and relevant development has been the program on 'distance assisted training (DAT) for NM professionals'. The development of DAT was initiated in the 1990s through Australian Government funding, administered under auspices of the IAEA through its Regional Cooperative Agreement, involving most countries in Asia that are Member States of the IAEA. The project has resulted in the development of a set of training modules which are designed for use under direct supervision in the workplace, delivered through means of distance-learning. The program has undergone several revisions and peer reviews with the current version providing a comprehensive training package that is now available online. DAT has been utilized widely in Asia or the Pacific region, Latin America, and parts of Africa and Europe. Currently there are approximately 1000 registered participants, including persons providing student support, in the program. PMID:23561457

Patterson, Heather E; Nunez, Margarita; Philotheou, Geraldine M; Hutton, Brian F

2013-05-01

297

The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Mexico.  

PubMed

Tissue banking started in Mexico in 1948-1949, when two bone banks were established, one at the Infantile Hospital of Mexico and other at the Central Military Hospital. Mexico has benefited for the implementation of the IAEA program since through it has been able to settle down and to consolidate the Tissue Bank at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares ININ (National Institute for Nuclear Research). This is the only bank in Latin America that has a Quality Management System in force, certified under ISO 9001:2000 since August 1, 2003. The first tissue processed was amnion. The main products of the BTR are amnion and pig skin. Both are biological tissues which their main use is as a wound dressing in patients with burns, scars, diabetic ulcers, epidermolysis bullosa, damaged ocular surface, etc. The General Health Law, published in 1984 and reformed in June 19, 2007, describes the procedure for the disposal of organs, tissues and human cadavers in its fourteenth title and in the Regulation for Sanitary Control. During the period 2001-2005, the ININ Tissue Bank produced 292 sterilised tissues (amnion, 86,668 cm(2), and frozen pig skin, 164,220 cm(2), at an estimated cost of 1,012,668 Mexican pesos. Until 2006, one hundred eighty five (185) patients have been treated with the use of sterilised tissues produced by the ININ Tissue Bank. The radiation source used for sterilisation of tissues is an industrial Cobalt-60 irradiator model JS-6500 AECL, which belongs to ININ. This equipment is located in other building, close to the BTR, in the Centro Nuclear de México "Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores" (Nuclear Center of Mexico). Until 2006, six hospitals use in a routine way the sterilised tissues produced by the ININ Tissue Bank, for the treatment of burns originated by diverse agents like flame, electricity, liquids in boil, chemical reagents, as well as for the reconstruction of the ocular surface. Two of these hospitals treat patients of very low economic incomes, mainly needy individuals, who cannot afford to pay this type of treatments in other hospitals due to their high cost. The results obtained up to now are highly promising. PMID:18612848

Martínez-Pardo, María Esther; Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Sánchez Ramírez, Omar

2008-07-09

298

Aerospace Robotics Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL), operated at Stanford University, focuses its research "on improving robotic performance through the application of feedback control, integrated sensing systems, and task-level autonomy." The systems designed at ARL allow the human operator to have varying levels of control over the robot. Specifically, the robot performs given tasks until it reaches a point that it can not perform on its own. The human can then intervene and direct the robot manually. A comprehensive list of all ARL publications is available on the Web site, ranging from the 1960's to 2002 (many of the publications after 1990 are available for download). There are even movies of laboratory experiments and demonstrations that can be downloaded and viewed. The Projects section explains the various research projects currently underway.

2000-01-01

299

Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia  

PubMed Central

The laboratory evaluation of anemia begins with a complete blood count and reticulocyte count. The anemia is then categorized as microcytic, macrocytic or normocytic, with or without reticulocytosis. Examination of the peripheral smear and a small number of specific tests confirm the diagnosis. The serum iron level, total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin level and hemoglobin electrophoresis generally separate the microcytic anemias. The erythrocyte size-distribution width may be particularly helpful in distinguishing iron deficiency from thalassemia minor. Significant changes have occurred in the laboratory evaluation of macrocytic anemia, and a new syndrome of nitrous oxide-induced megaloblastosis and neurologic dysfunction has been recognized. A suggested approach to the hemolytic anemias includes using the micro-Coombs' test and ektacytometry. Finally, a number of causes have been identified for normocytic anemia without reticulocytosis, including normocytic megaloblastic anemia and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Wallerstein, Ralph O.

1987-01-01

300

Coastal Research Laboratory USF  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the home page of the laboratory. Users may click to find descriptions of the Coastal Research Program which focuses on two key areas of coastal geology: the process-response systems of beaches, inlets, and tidal sand bodies; and the Holocene history and development of coastal barrier systems. Research projects are primarily concentrated on the west coast of Florida, with some projects encompassing areas of Florida's east coast, the Florida Keys, the southwest Florida shallow shelf, and Puerto Rico. Under Projects, users may see brief descriptions of thesis research. The Geolinks on this site are extensive- over six hundred at the time of review- to: Coastal and Oceanographic Sites, Data and Software, General Geology, Geological Surveys in the United States and International, Government Agencies, Institutes, Issues, Journals and Magazines, Professional Organizations, References, Indexes, and Catalogs, University Geology Departments and Laboratories in the United States and International, and Weather. Users are invited to add sites.

301

TARDEC's robotics laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) recently opened a 5000 square foot robotics laboratory known as the TARDEC Robotics Laboratory. The focus of the lab is on robotics research, both basic and applied, in the area of robot mobility. Mobility is the key problem for light weight robotic systems, and the TARDEC Robotics Lab will develop innovative ways to deal with the mobility issues. The lab will also test and evaluate robotic systems in all aspects of mobility and control. The lab has the highest concentration of senior researchers at TARDEC, and is committed to maintaining in- house research talent so that new combat concepts using robots can be evaluated effectively by the Army. This paper serves as an introduction to the lab, its missions, goals, capabilities and programs.

Gorsich, David J.; Gerhart, Grant R.; Muench, Paul L.

2001-09-01

302

Surgical Planning Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a laboratory within the Brigham and Women's Hospital, the Surgical Planning Laboratory (SPL) does research and development in image processing algorithms, software systems, and medical applications. While visitors with an interest in these matters will appreciate the sections of this site that provide details on this work, visitors from the health sciences will also appreciate the educational materials offered in the "Resources" area even more. In the "Training and Tutorials" area, visitors can learn more about medical imaging through a self-paced tutorial. Moving on, the "Image Gallery" area contains over forty medical images that can be useful for those who are looking to learn about identifying various neurological conditions. Finally, the site also has a database of publications created by members of the research team at the SPL.

303

Marine Biological Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1888, the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) was started in Woods Hole, and since then it has served as a place for world-class biologists and ecologists to gather and work together. Their ambitions are very broad and admirable, and visitors should start by reading through the introduction in the "About MBL" section before looking around further. Most visitors will then want to go to the "Education" area. Here they will find such resources as a marine organism database, a number of full-text classic works on marine organisms, and several image databases. Moving on, visitors might also want to look at the "Research" area, which contains materials on their laboratories, research opportunities at the MBL, and an overview of their current research projects.

304

42 CFR 493.1403 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory director...Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1403 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; laboratory...

2010-10-01

305

42 CFR 493.1441 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory director...Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1441 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; laboratory...

2010-10-01

306

Hot Zone Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

he information presented here is important to the HVAC&R industry due to the increasing number of biological containment facilities being developed or planned in the U.S. and abroad. The popular press has taken outbreaks of emerging diseases and the threat of bio-terrorism and has created misleading impressions of the hazards in- volved in these laboratories. A dialog that takes a

Jonathan T. Crane

307

Evaluating Astronomy Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of non-traditional astronomy laboratories for non-science majors will be presented along with evaluations of lab technicians (these labs were originally developed at the College of Staten Island of the City University of New York). The goal of these labs is twofold: (a) to provide the students with hands-on experiences of scientific methodology and (b) to provoke critical thinking.

E. L. Zirbel

2002-01-01

308

Constructing laboratory courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present an orderly, top-down scheme for constructing laboratory courses. Start by choosing and defining an explicit set of goals. Take special care with such higher level goals as organizational skills, work habits, communication, and ``maturity.'' Then evaluate the needed degree of coverage of the various goals, pick methods of instruction, and design the units of the course so each goal receives the appropriate relative emphasis. In all stages, be guided by recent results in the field of cognitive science.

Carlson, Edward H.

1986-11-01

309

Cleanroom laboratory challenge overcome.  

PubMed

Ronan Quinn, managing director of interior construction specialist Ardmac, describes the challenges of building and fitting out a new cleanroom laboratory for blood and bone marrow therapeutic treatment at Our Lady's Children's Hospital Crumlin in Dublin. The "state-of-the-art" facility, which fully complies with the recent EU Directive concerning human tissues and cells, has been well received by the client and end-users alike, but, as he explains, there were many obstacles to overcome during its completion. PMID:21058627

Quinn, Ronan

2010-10-01

310

Electronic commerce software laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

With NSF support we developed a hands-on laboratory to augment our CS453 Electronic Commerce Technologies course. We conducted weekly lab sessions that covered HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Perl, CGI, SQL, ASP, and Flash programming. Each topic was covered over a period of one to three weeks and each topic was supported by 10 to 26 individual programming exercises. Four teaching assistants

Alfred C. Weaver

2004-01-01

311

Image Communications Laboratory (ICL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UCLA Image Communications Laboratory focuses their research on the image coding and transmission of communications and archiving systems. While the emphasis is on applied research, they are also studying a number of issues of theoretical importance. Areas of research include wireless communications, medical imaging, FPGA implementations, channel/source coding, data compression, image enhancement, and networking. There is also a research paper library where papers can be downloaded.

1997-01-01

312

Mars Science Laboratory Mission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Jet Propulsion Laboratory website contains the science mission overview of the Mars Rover Curiosity. Links provide information about the scientific studies to be performed and the technologies to be employed, both established and innovative. From this overview page the visitor can navigate to numerous other well-illustrated pages that discuss the various vehicles involved, the mission timeline, communication with Earth, the mission team, and more.

2012-08-27

313

Assessing Undergraduate Laboratory Performance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lab notebook is one element for assessing student laboratory performance. However, it is also important to be able to communicate research results in a journal article format and a visual poster format. Another key aspect to scientific research is the ability to present a research plan. This article describes four assessment tools that can be used in conjunction with undergraduate lab courses that provide the opportunity for the students to practice each of these essential communication skills.

Elizabeth Adler (AAAS;); Nancy Gough (AAAS;)

2006-09-05

314

Inter-laboratory comparison of oxygen isotope compositions from biogenic silica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several techniques have been introduced in the last decades for the dehydration and release of O 2 from biogenic silica (opal-A) for oxygen-isotope analysis. However, only one silica standard is universally available: a quartz standard (NBS28) distributed by the IAEA, Vienna. Hence, there is a need for biogenic silica working standards. This paper compares the existing methods of oxygen-isotope analyses of opal-A and aims to characterize additional possible working standards to calibrate the ?18O values of biogenic silica. For this purpose, an inter-laboratory comparison was organized. Six potential working standard materials were analysed repeatedly against NBS28 by eight participating laboratories using their specific analytical methods. The materials cover a wide range of ?18O values (+23 to +43‰) and include diatoms (marine, lacustrine), phytoliths and synthetically-produced hydrous silica. To characterize the proposed standards, chemical analyses and imaging by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were also performed. Despite procedural differences at each laboratory, all methods are in reasonable agreement with a standard deviation (SD) for ?18O values between 0.3‰ and 0.9‰ (1?). Based on the results, we propose four additional biogenic silica working standards (PS1772-8: 42.8‰; BFC: 29.0‰; MSG60: 37.0‰; G95-25-CL leaves: 36.6‰) for ?18O analyses, available on request through the relevant laboratories.

Chapligin, Bernhard; Leng, Melanie J.; Webb, Elizabeth; Alexandre, Anne; Dodd, Justin P.; Ijiri, Akira; Lücke, Andreas; Shemesh, Aldo; Abelmann, Andrea; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Meyer, Hanno; Moschen, Robert; Okazaki, Yusuke; Rees, Nicholas H.; Sharp, Zachary D.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Sonzogni, Corinne; Swann, George E. A.; Sylvestre, Florence; Tyler, Jonathan J.; Yam, Ruth

2011-11-01

315

PHYSIOLAB: A cardiovascular laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PHYSIOLAB is a cardio-vascular laboratory designed by CNES in cooperation with IMBP, with double scientific and medical goals: • a better understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in blood pressure and heart rate regulation, in order to predict and control the phenomenon of cardio-vascular deconditionning. • a real-time monitoring of cosmonauts during functionnal tests. Launched to the MIR station in 1996, this laboratory was set up and used for the first time by Claudie André-Deshays during the French mission ? Cassiopeia ?. The scientific program is performed pre, post and in-flight to study phenomena related to the transition to microgravity as well as the return to the earth conditions. Particular emphasis was placed on the development of the real-time telemetry to monitor LBNP test. This function was successfull during the Cassiopeia mission, providing the medical team at TSOUP (MIR Control Center in Moscow) with efficient means to control the physiological state of the cosmonaut. Based on the results of this first mission, IMBP and CNES will go on using Physiolab with Russian crews. CNES will take advantage of the upcoming French missions on MIR to improve the system, and intends to develop a new laboratory for the International Space Station.

Cauquil, D.; Laffaye, C.; Camus, A. L.; Weerts, G.; Gratchev, V.; Alferova, I.; Kotovskaya, A.

316

Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram engineering laboratory that serves the nation through the Department of Energy (DOE), both in its programs and those of other agencies. Major research and development responsibilities cover nuclear weapons, arms control, energy, environment and other areas of strategic importance to national security. The principal mission is to support national defense policies by ensuring that the nuclear weapon stockpile meets the highest standards of safety, security, control and military performance. In May of 1968, the Albuquerque Office of DOE (then AEC) assigned the Quality Assurance function to Sandia Laboratories on all products for which Sandia has design responsibility. The Sandia Quality Improvement Plan presents a Quality Management System that integrates the Sandia quality policies and several independent improvement processes into a cohesive structure. This structure guides day-to-day operations toward strategic objectives. The Sandia Quality Policy provides the underlying principles for the management of our research and engineering efforts and establishes our customers as the central focus of our Sandia quality improvement efforts. Operationally, these efforts are centered around quality improvement processes based on good management practices developed by AT T, and progress is measured against the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award criteria. Developing a comprehensive plan based on these processes requires that we determine where we are, where we want to be, and how we measure our progress. 1 fig. (JF)

Not Available

1991-01-01

317

Laboratory microfusion capability study  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options; the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase II study are described in the present report.

Not Available

1993-05-01

318

Benchmarking and the laboratory  

PubMed Central

This article describes how benchmarking can be used to assess laboratory performance. Two benchmarking schemes are reviewed, the Clinical Benchmarking Company's Pathology Report and the College of American Pathologists' Q-Probes scheme. The Clinical Benchmarking Company's Pathology Report is undertaken by staff based in the clinical management unit, Keele University with appropriate input from the professional organisations within pathology. Five annual reports have now been completed. Each report is a detailed analysis of 10 areas of laboratory performance. In this review, particular attention is focused on the areas of quality, productivity, variation in clinical practice, skill mix, and working hours. The Q-Probes scheme is part of the College of American Pathologists programme in studies of quality assurance. The Q-Probes scheme and its applicability to pathology in the UK is illustrated by reviewing two recent Q-Probe studies: routine outpatient test turnaround time and outpatient test order accuracy. The Q-Probes scheme is somewhat limited by the small number of UK laboratories that have participated. In conclusion, as a result of the government's policy in the UK, benchmarking is here to stay. Benchmarking schemes described in this article are one way in which pathologists can demonstrate that they are providing a cost effective and high quality service. Key Words: benchmarking • pathology

Galloway, M; Nadin, L

2001-01-01

319

Laboratory Diagnosis of Amebiasis  

PubMed Central

The detection of Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amebiasis, is an important goal of the clinical microbiology laboratory. To assess the scope of E. histolytica infection, it is necessary to utilize accurate diagnostic tools. As more is discovered about the molecular and cell biology of E. histolytica, there is great potential for further understanding the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Molecular biology-based diagnosis may become the technique of choice in the future because establishment of these protozoa in culture is still not a routine clinical laboratory process. In all cases, combination of serologic tests with detection of the parasite (by antigen detection or PCR) offers the best approach to diagnosis, while PCR techniques remain impractical in many developing country settings. The detection of amebic markers in serum in patients with amebic colitis and liver abscess appears promising but is still only a research tool. On the other hand, stool antigen detection tests offer a practical, sensitive, and specific way for the clinical laboratory to detect intestinal E. histolytica. All the current tests suffer from the fact that the antigens detected are denatured by fixation of the stool specimen, limiting testing to fresh or frozen samples.

Tanyuksel, Mehmet; Petri, William A.

2003-01-01

320

Smart Grid Integration Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation â?? all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSUâ??s overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratoryâ??s focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of electrical power distribution system that integrates significant quantities of renewable and distributed energy resources; (4) System dynamic modeling that considers end-user behavior, economics, security and regulatory frameworks; (5) Best practices for energy management IT control solutions for effective distributed energy integration (including security with the underlying physical power systems); (6) Experimental verification of effects of various arrangements of renewable generation, distributed generation and user load types along with conventional generation and transmission. Understanding the core technologies for enabling them to be used in an integrated fashion within a distribution network remains is a benefit to the future energy paradigm and future and present energy engineers.

Wade Troxell

2011-09-30

321

EDITORIAL: Special issue containing papers presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems Special issue containing papers presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of fusion research resembles the way in which one builds skyscrapers: laying the first foundation stone, one thinks about the top of the skyscraper. At the early stages of fusion, when it became clear that the thermonuclear reactor would operate with DT plasma confined by the magnetic field, the study of the `top item'—the physics of 3.5 MeV alpha particles produced by the DT fusion reaction—was initiated. The first publications on this topic appeared as long ago as the 1960s. At that time, because the physics of alpha particles was far from the experimental demand, investigations were carried out by small groups of theoreticians who hoped to discover important and interesting phenomena in this new research area. Soon after the beginning of the work, theoreticians discovered that alpha particles could excite various instabilities in fusion plasmas. In particular, at the end of the 1960s an Alfvén instability driven by alpha particles was predicted. Later it turned out that a variety of Alfvén instabilities with very different features does exist. Instabilities with perturbations of the Alfvénic type play an important role in current experiments; it is likely that they will affect plasma performance in ITER and future reactors. The first experimental manifestation of instabilities excited by superthermal particles in fusion devices was observed in the PDX tokamak in 1983. In this device a large-scale instability—the so called `fishbone instability'—associated with ions produced by the neutral beam injection resulted in a loss of a large fraction of the injected energy. Since then, the study of energetic-ion-driven instabilities and the effects produced by energetic ions in fusion plasmas has attracted the growing attention of both experimentalists and theorists. Recognizing the importance of this topic, the first conference on fusion alpha particles was held in 1989 in Kyiv under the auspices of the IAEA. The meeting in Kyiv and several subsequent meetings (Aspenäs (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), and JET/Abingdon (1997)) were entitled `Alpha Particles in Fusion Research'. During the JET/Abingdon meeting in 1997 it was decided to extend the topic by including other suprathermal particles, in particular accelerated electrons, and rename the meetings accordingly. The subsequent meetings with the current name `Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems' were held in Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005) and Kloster Seeon (2007). The most recent meeting in this series was held in Kyiv, Ukraine, in September 2009. This was an anniversary meeting, 20 years after the first meeting. Like the first meeting, it was hosted by the Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. It was attended by about 80 researchers from 18 countries, ITER, and EC. The program of the meeting consisted of 78 presentations, including 12 invited talks, 16 oral contributed talks, and 50 posters, which were selected by the International Advisory Committee (IAC). The IAC consisted of 11 people representing EC (L.-G. Eriksson), Germany (S. Günter), Italy (F. Zonca), Japan (K. Shinohara and K. Toi), Switzerland (A. Fasoli), UK (S. Sharapov), Ukraine (Ya. Kolesnichenko—IAC Chair), USA (H. Berk, W. Heidbrink, and R. Nazikian). The meeting program covered a wide range of physics issues concerning energetic ions in toroidal fusion facilities—tokamaks, stellarators, and spherical tori. Many new interesting and practically important results of both experimental and theoretical studies were reported. The research presented covered topics such as instabilities driven by energetic ions, transport of energetic ions caused by plasma microturbulence and destabilized eigenmodes, non-linear phenomena induced by the instabilities, classical transport processes, effects of runaway electrons, diagnostics of energetic ions and plasmas, and aspects of ITER physics. In addition to these topics, which were also covered at previous conferences in this series and have become conven

Kolesnichenko, Ya.

2010-08-01

322

Laboratory study on \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  It has been reported that pumping a shunt in situ may precipitate a proximal occlusion, and\\/or lead to ventricular over-drainage, particularly in the context of small ventricles.\\u000a In the laboratory we measured the effect of pumping the pre-chamber of hydrocephalus shunts on intracranial hypotension.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A simple physical model of the CSF space in a hydrocephalic patient was constructed

Adam Bromby; Zofia Czosnyka; David Allin; Hugh K Richards; John D Pickard; Marek Czosnyka

2007-01-01

323

Pacific Fisheries Environmental Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Fisheries Environmental Laboratory (PFEL) examines the role of environmental variability on marine ecosystems and commercially important fish stocks. Research areas include comparative fisheries oceanography, physical oceanography, and climate and marine fisheries. This extensive site features both model-derived environmental index products as well as time series data, including sea surface temperature, salinity, isotherm depth, surface winds and pressure maps, and upwelling indices. A live access server also allows users to download and visualize data using a simple graphical user interface. PFEL is also the west coast regional site for the NOAA CoastWatch program, which provides dissemination of oceanographic satellite observation data.

Noaa

324

A Useful Laboratory Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, a high school Science Club generated a large number of questions involving temperature. Therefore, they decided to construct a thermal gradient apparatus in order to conduct a wide range of experiments beyond the standard "cookbook" labs. They felt that this apparatus could be especially useful in future ninth-grade biology classes, in which students must design and conduct individual, inquiry-based experiments as part of their training in scientific methodology. This article describes their experience building and testing a thermal gradient for laboratory use.

Johnson, Samuel A.; Tutt, Tye

2008-10-01

325

Integrated Circuits Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Integrated Circuits Laboratory is software that is devoted to helping understand the processing of semiconductor materials. Manufacturing an IC involves a complex interaction of several highly developed technologies. This software is used to fabricate high-performance integrated circuits. In such areas as oxidation, diffusion, Ion implantation, Chemical etching, Photolithography, CVD, Ellipsometer, Plasma etching and Aluminum deposition. IC Lab software offers virtual opportunities to simulate the process of manufacturing a integrated circuit without going into a clean room. All the simulations represent processing steps that are as accurate as possible. This was part of the Learning Invention Labs that MATEC held. Visit the MATEC.org homepage for more information.

Lindor, Felicia

2013-01-01

326

The Reston Chloroflurocarbon Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Reston Chlorofluorocarbon Laboratory of the US Geological Survey provides "provides analytical services for CFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, dissolved gases including nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and helium, and administers the USGS contract for tritium/helium-3 dating." Scientists can learn about the USGS's research activities related to these services in Chesapeake Bay, Mirror Lake, Shenandoah National Park, and many other locations around the United States. Students and educators can find tips for sampling CFCs, SF6, dissolved gas, and tritium / Helium-3. The website, which is viewed best using Microsoft Internet Explorer, also offers a model for calculating and presenting environmental tracer data.

327

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

Not Available

1990-01-01

328

Mathematica in the Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematica in the Laboratory is a hands-on guide that demonstrates how to acquire and analyze experimental data with Mathematica. It explains how Mathematica can be used to visualize and analyze newly-taken or historical data, compare theory with experiment, and control data acquisition equipment. It provides practical examples that can be taken directly or adapted to suit a particular application. The book lucidly explains how Mathematica can provide a truly unified data-handling environment and will be of value to anyone who collects and analyzes experimental data, including astronomers, biologists, chemists, mathematicians, geologists, physicists, and engineers.

Dick, Samuel; Riddle, Alfred; Stein, Douglas

1997-05-01

329

Wetland Biogeochemistry Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wetland Biogeochemistry Laboratory (WBL) at the University of Florida "promotes teaching, research and outreach activities on biogeochemical processes regulating the fate and transport of nutrients, metals, and toxic organics in wetland and aquatic ecosystems." Current research projects range from the use of biogeochemical markers to assess phosphorus loading in the Everglades to a spatial analysis of physico-chemical properties of Lake Okeechobee sediments; teaching materials, publications, and current events are also posted at the Website. For additional online resources in this field, see the collection of related links.

2001-01-01

330

The Virtual Chemistry Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This networked laboratory simulation provides an environment in which students can select from hundreds of standard chemical reagants and combine them in any way they see fit. Instructors may use this environment in a variety of settings including student homework, group projects, computer lab activities and pre- and post-lab exercises to support varied approaches to chemical education. Activities are stored in our online homework repository which currently includes: acids and bases, chemical equilibrium, molarity, redox chemistry, solubility, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and quantitative analysis.

Yaron, David

1999-01-01

331

Laboratory services in hospitals and regional laboratories in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laboratory service facility in health institutions in Ethiopia of is very weak and limited. This can be explained by lack of properly designed laboratory rooms, shortage of equipment and supplies, poor maintenance system and lack of close follow-up and supervision. Objective: To assess the laboratory service at a Hospital and Regional levels, and to come up with some recommendations

Belete Tegbaru; Hailu Meless; Afework Kassu; Desalegn Tesema; Negussie Gezahegn; Wegene Tamene; Hiwot Birhanu; Tsehaynesh Messele

332

Laboratory Characterization of Talley Brick.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Personnel of the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center conducted a laboratory investigation to characterize the strength and constitutive property behavior of Talley brick. A total of 24 mechanical prop...

E. M. Williams H. B. Beatty P. A. Reed S. S. Graham

2011-01-01

333

Laboratory Characterization of Adobe (Scottsdale).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Personnel of the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, Mississippi, conducted a laboratory investigation to characterize the strength and constitutive property behavior of an adobe from Scot...

H. B. Beatty P. A. Reed R. E. Moxley S. A. Akers S. S. Graham

2012-01-01

334

The Physics Laboratory in Honduras.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper, presented at the conference on the role of the laboratory in physics education, which was held in Oxford, England in July 1978, describes the role of the laboratory in school and university physics in Honduras. (HM)|

Zuniga, M. A.

1979-01-01

335

National Laboratory Gene Library Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two National Laboratories at Livermore and Los Alamos have played a prominent role in the development and application of flow cytometry and sorting to chromosome classification and purification. Both laboratories began to receive numerous requests for...

L. L. Deaven M. A. Van Dilla

1988-01-01

336

Phillips Laboratory Scholar Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USAF Phillips Laboratory Scholar Program provided research opportunities for qualified doctorate-level engineers and scientists to work in the laboratory either at Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., or at Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M. Twenty-seven scholars participated during the period of the contract, including four during the period 1 July 1997-28 May 1998. Dr. Sean Carey used UV extinction data to investigate the properties of interstellar dust grains and used data from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) to investigate the structure of infrared-dark clouds. Dr. Brian Kane used data from the Five Colleges Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) to investigate the structure and kinematics of Bok globules, which are small, isolated, star-forming clouds in our galaxy. Dr. Anthony Midey measured rate constants for ion-molecule reactions, using a high-temperature flowing afterglow (HTFA) apparatus. Dr. Susan Triantafillou adapted the lattice Boltzmann (LB) computational method to the prediction of atmospheric phenomena, including cloud development and turbulent eddies. Results of these research efforts are described in the individual contributions of the Scholars to this final report.

Peele, Janette D.

1998-05-01

337

Humidity requirements in WSCF Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on Relative Humidity (RH) requirements in the WSCF Laboratories. A current survey of equipment vendors for Organic, Inorganic and Radiochemical laboratories indicate that 25% - 80% relative humidity may meet the environmental requirements for safe operation and protection of all the laboratory equipment.

1994-01-01

338

Living laboratories for interactive art  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the idea of the exhibition as a living laboratory in the making and curating of interactive art. It suggests that museums can act as living laboratories where curators, artists and audiences collaborate in real-world settings. Such laboratories are shown to be essential for the study of the audience experience of interactive art, a key part of understanding

L. Muller; E. Edmonds; M. Connell

2006-01-01

339

Scalable Computing Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scalable Computing Laboratory was created by the Department of Energy, Ames Lab, and Iowa State University to "improve parallel computing through clustering techniques for use in scientific and engineering computation." One of their past projects included rebuilding the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), the first electronic digital computer. Here visitors can read about building a working replica of the historical computer as well as the background of the original machine and its inventors. Visitors interested in seeing the ABC in action should click on the link "Video" on the left hand side of the homepage. There are two videos here: the first is a seven-minute demonstration of the operation of the ABC and the second an eleven-minute tutorial about the ABC. The "Photos/Diagrams" link contains over two dozen photographs of the large amount of work that went into the making of the working replica of this machine, which was originally built between 1937 and 1942.

2003-01-22

340

PETC fuel rheology laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the results of investigations into the rheological properties of alternate fuel mixtures, such as coal-oil mixtures, coal-water mixtures, and coal-alcohol mixtures. Primary emphasis in this paper is placed on the procedures and techniques used to evaluate alternate slurry fuels in the rheology laboratory at PETC through the spring of 1983. Sophisticated, bench-scale equipment was used to examine viscometric properties and to make settling velocity measurements. Examples of the data developed during this program are given to support the choice of measurement procedures and test conditions. Furthermore, a brief discussion of the applicability of various mathematical models for settling characteristics and rheological properties are included. Areas in which additional development of techniques is required are discussed. 25 references, 21 figures, 7 tables.

Ekmann, A.C.; Ekmann, J.M.

1984-08-01

341

Digital Teaching Resources Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Alberta, the Digital Teaching Resources Laboratory (DiTRL) is a computer lab for students and faculty designed to help undergraduates learn about biology. DiTRL's site contains instructional multimedia resources that will be useful to a wide range of people, as well as a database of lesson plans and such. Visitors can click on the Instructional Multimedia area to look through multimedia clips on a range of topics, including botany, ecology, and entomology. The Cell Biology section is quite well-developed, and includes interactive activities like "Animal cell mix and match" and "Nerve Action Potential." The Database link leads to an online collection that includes animations, video clips, and text excerpts. Currently, the entire database contains over 8,900 items, and visitors can browse around at their leisure or perform a full-text search. Finally, the site is rounded out by the option for visitors to provide their own feedback.

2012-07-20

342

Construction Engineering Research Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) research facility is part of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (USAERDC) of the Army Corps of Engineers' research and development organization. CERL "conducts research and development in infrastructure and environmental sustainment." New technologies that the lab develops are used "to help military installations provide and maintain quality training lands and facilities for soldiers and their families." Some applications are also found in the private sector. The research is organized into numerous themes, including the study of enduring buildings, ecosystem management, land use planning, and seismic engineering. The website describes each of the themes and offers a link to its database of publications and products/capabilities. Visitors can also search the database by keyword. Another section of the website describes the portal software used to develop and maintain the website.

343

Laboratory Technique Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students of organic chemistry will find this website from the University of Alberta to be a most welcome find. Created by a team of educational experts at the University, the videos here demonstrate a variety of techniques that are commonly used in laboratory settings. There are a dozen videos here, and they include "Filtration", "Reflux", "Distillation", and "Using a Separatory Funnel". The films here are available in a number of different formats, including Quick Time and Windows Media. The site also includes an "Interactive Tutorials" section. Here visitors will find tutorials that will introduce them to spectroscopy, separation and isolation, and the rather amusing world of "Detective O-Chem", which asks the user to take on a fictional avian flu outbreak.

344

Materials in Nanotechnology Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory course is provided by Nano4Me.org, a product of the National Center for Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK Center) which is based at the Penn State College of Engineering and is funded through the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program. The six labs available here focus on materials in Nanotechnology. The labs are titled Block Copolymers, Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles, Solar Cells, Ni Nanowires, Silicon Nanowires, and Statistical Process Control. These labs can be used in conjunction in a course, or individually as needed by the teacher. Each lab should include an objective, background information, detailed procedure, charts and tables, and follow-up questions. This resource, along with all resources from the NACK Center, require a fast, easy, free log-in to access their materials

2011-03-09

345

Laboratory Astrophysics of Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectroscopy is the best astronomical tool for studying the composition of cosmic dust. Thanks to the Herschel satellite, dust properties from the FIR to mm wavelength range will be sampled in different astrophysical environments. In the laboratory, the study of the temperature and structural dependence of FIR absorption of cosmic dust analogs including agglomeration is essential to interpret observational spectra. For crystalline materials, FIR single phonon bands are temperature dependent due to the anharmonicity of the vibrational potentials. This strong temperature dependence of the FIR bands' positions can be used as a thermometer of the dust temperature. In amorphous material, the FIR absorption is dominated by disorder-induced single phonon processes and in the submillimeter and millimeter range by highly temperature-dependent low energy processes, e.g. tunneling transitions in two-level systems. The effect of these processes on the FIR absorptivity in amorphous silicates will be demonstrated.

Jäger, C.; Mutschke, H.; Henning, T.

2011-11-01

346

Laboratory Dipole Plasma Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern laboratory studies of plasma confined by a strong dipole magnet originated twenty years ago when it was learned that planetary magnetospheres have centrally-peaked plasma pressure profiles that form naturally when solar wind drives plasma circulation and heating. Unlike other internal rings devices, like spherators and octupoles, the magnetic flux tubes of the dipole field expand rapidly with radius. Unlike plasma confinement devices that obtain stability from magnetic shear and average good curvature, like tokamaks and levitrons, the dipole-confined plasma obtains stability from plasma compressibility. These two geometric characteristics of the dipole field have profound consequences: (i) plasma can be stable with local beta exceeding unity, (ii) fluctuations can drive either heat or particles inward to create stationary profiles that are strongly peaked, and (iii) the confinement of particles and energy can decouple. During the past decade, several laboratory dipole experiments and modeling efforts have lead to new understanding of interchange, centrifugal and entropy modes, nonlinear gyrokinetics, and plasma transport. Two devices, the LDX experiment at MIT and RT-1 at the University of Tokyo, operate with levitated superconducting dipole magnets. With a levitated dipole, not only is very high-beta plasma confined in steady state but, also, levitation produces high-temperature at low input power and demonstrates that toroidal magnetic confinement of plasma does not require a toroidal field. Modeling has explained many of the processes operative in these experiments, including the observation of a strong inward particle pinch. Turbulent low-frequency fluctuations in dipole confined plasma cause adiabatic transport and form a fundamental linkage between the radial variation of flux-tube volume and the centrally peaked density and pressure profiles.

Kesner, Jay

2011-11-01

347

The IAEA international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO): study on opportunities and challenges of large-scale nuclear energy development  

SciTech Connect

Existing scenarios for global energy use project that demand will at least double over the next 50 years. Electricity demand is projected to grow even faster. These scenarios suggest that the use of all available generating options, including nuclear energy, will inevitably be required to meet those demands. If nuclear energy is to play a meaningful role in the global energy supply in the foreseeable future, innovative approaches will be required to address concerns about economic competitiveness, environment, safety, waste management, potential proliferation risks and necessary infrastructure. In the event of a renaissance of nuclear energy, adequate infrastructure development will become crucial for Member States considering the future use of nuclear power. The IAEA should be ready to provide assistance in this area. A special resolution was adopted by the General Conference in September 2005 on 'Strengthening the Agency's Activities Related to Nuclear Science, Technology and Applications: Approaches to Supporting Nuclear Power Infrastructure Development'. Previously, in 2000, taking into account future energy scenarios and the needs of Member States, the IAEA General Conference had adopted a resolution initiating the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Based on scenarios for the next fifty years, INPRO identified requirements for different aspects of future nuclear energy systems, such as economics, environment, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance and infrastructure and developed a methodology to assess innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycles. Using this assessment tool, the need for innovations in nuclear technology can be defined, which can be achieved through research, development and demonstration (RD and D). INPRO developed these requirements during its first stage, Phase 1A, which lasted from 2001 to mid-2003. In the second stage, Phase 1B (first part), INPRO organized 14 case studies (8 by national teams and 6 by individuals) to test and validate the methodology. At the end of 2004, INPRO completed this stage by issuing an IAEA report (TECDOC1434) with an upgraded methodology based on the recommendations given in the case studies. This enables assessments of both global and national innovative nuclear systems (INS) to be carried out for potentially promising innovative nuclear energy systems. In line with the principles of INPRO's methodology, these must satisfy the conditions for sustainable development, for strengthening the non-proliferation regime, and for solving energy problems at global, regional and national levels in the 21. century. They must also consider and evaluate nationally accepted technological options, taking into account national requirements and specific needs. (authors)

Khoroshev, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (Iaea) Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O.Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Subbotin, S. [Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow, 123481 (Russian Federation)

2006-07-01

348

Laboratory Manual for Biotechnology and Laboratory Science: The Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laboratory Manual for Biotechnology provides students with the basic laboratory skills and knowledge to pursue a career in biotechnology. The manual, written by four biotechnology instructors with over 20 years of teaching experience, incorporates instruction, exercises, and laboratory activities that the authors have been using and perfecting for years. These exercises and activities serve to engage students and help them understand the fundamentals of working in a biotechnology laboratory. Building students' skills through an organized and systematic presentation of materials, procedures, and tasks, the manual will help students explore overarching themes that relate to all biotechnology workplaces. The fundamentals in this manual are critical to the success of research scientists, scientists who develop ideas into practical products, laboratory analysts who analyze samples in forensic, clinical, quality control, environmental, and other testing laboratories.

Kraus, Mary E.; Seidman, Lisa A.; Mowery, Jeanette; Brandner, Diana

2012-03-19

349

Quality assurance and quality control in light stable isotope laboratories: a case study of Rio Grande, Texas, water samples.  

PubMed

New isotope laboratories can achieve the goal of reporting the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty for the same material analysed decades apart by (1) writing their own acceptance testing procedures and putting them into their mass spectrometric or laser-based isotope-ratio equipment procurement contract, (2) requiring a manufacturer to demonstrate acceptable performance using all sample ports provided with the instrumentation, (3) for each medium to be analysed, prepare two local reference materials substantially different in isotopic composition to encompass the range in isotopic composition expected in the laboratory and calibrated them with isotopic reference materials available from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), (4) using the optimum storage containers (for water samples, sealing in glass ampoules that are sterilised after sealing is satisfactory), (5) interspersing among sample unknowns local laboratory isotopic reference materials daily (internationally distributed isotopic reference materials can be ordered at three-year intervals, and can be used for elemental analyser analyses and other analyses that consume less than 1 mg of material) - this process applies to H, C, N, O, and S isotope ratios, (6) calculating isotopic compositions of unknowns by normalising isotopic data to that of local reference materials, which have been calibrated to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials, (7) reporting results on scales normalised to internationally distributed isotopic reference materials (where they are available) and providing to sample submitters the isotopic compositions of internationally distributed isotopic reference materials of the same substance had they been analysed with unknowns, (8) providing an audit trail in the laboratory for analytical results - this trail commonly will be in electronic format and might include a laboratory information management system, (9) making at regular intervals a complete backup of laboratory analytical data (both of samples logged into the laboratory and of mass spectrometric analyses), being sure to store one copy of this backup offsite, and (10) participating in interlaboratory comparison exercises sponsored by the IAEA and other agencies at regular intervals. PMID:20183226

Coplen, Tyler B; Qi, Haiping

2009-06-01

350

BNL Sources Development Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The NSLS has a long-standing interest in providing the best possible synchrotron radiation sources for its user community, and hence, has recently established the Source Development Laboratory (SDL) to pursue research into fourth generation synchrotron radiation sources. A major element of the program includes development of a high peak power FEL meant to operate in the vacuum ultraviolet. The objective of the program is to develop the source, and experimental technology together to provide the greatest impact on UV science. The accelerator under construction for the SDL consists of a high brightness RF photocathode electron gun followed by a 230 MeV short pulse linac incorporating a magnetic chicane for pulse compression. The gun drive laser is a wide bandwidth Ti: Sapphire regenerative amplifier capable of pulse shaping which will be used to study non- linear emittance compensation. Using the compressor, 1 nC bunches with a length as small as 50 {mu}m sigma (2 kA peak current) are available for experiments. In this paper we briefly describe the facility and detail our plans for utilizing the 10 m long NISUS wiggler to carry out single pass FEL experiments. These include a 1 {mu}m SASE demonstration, a seeded beam demonstration at 300 nm, and a High Gain Harmonic Generation experiment at 200 mn. The application of chirped pulse amplification to this type of FEL will also be discussed.

Ben-Zvi, I.; Graves, W.; Heese, R.; Johnson, E.D.; Krinsky, S.; Yu, L.H.

1997-01-01

351

Laboratory diagnosis of SARS.  

PubMed Central

The emergence of new viral infections of man requires the development of robust diagnostic tests that can be applied in the differential diagnosis of acute illness, or to determine past exposure, so as to establish the true burden of disease. Since the recognition in April 2003 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) as the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), enormous efforts have been applied to develop molecular and serological tests for SARS which can assist rapid detection of cases, accurate diagnosis of illness and the application of control measures. International progress in the laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV infection during acute illness has led to internationally agreed World Health Organization criteria for the confirmation of SARS. Developments in the dissection of the human immune response to SARS indicate that serological tests on convalescent sera are essential to confirm SARS infection, given the sub-optimal predictive value of molecular detection tests performed during acute SARS illness.

Bermingham, A; Heinen, P; Iturriza-Gomara, M; Gray, J; Appleton, H; Zambon, M C

2004-01-01

352

Use of high energy gamma emission tomography for partial defect verification of spent fuel assemblies. Final report on the Task FIN A98 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safequards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility to use passive gamma emission tomography for revealing non-destructively the rod structure of spent BWR fuel assemblies has been studied in cooperation with the Finnish Support Programme to the IAEA Safeguards (task FIN A98) and the Techni...

F. Levai S. Desi M. Tarvainen R. Arlt

1993-01-01

353

IAEA Safeguards Related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons- T.N.P. and the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America-Tlatelolco.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of safeguards, focusing mainly the causes that gave origin to this type of control, is studied. The safeguard procedures used by the IAEA are also given, relative to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America - Tlat...

M. D. F. Rodrigues

1978-01-01

354

Current Trends in Remote Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote laboratories have been introduced during the last few decades into engineering education processes as well as integrated within e-learning frameworks offered to engineering and science students. Remote laboratories are also being used to support life-long learning and student's autonomous learning activities. In this paper, after a brief overview of state-of-the-art technologies in the development of remote laboratories and presentation

LuÍs Gomes; Seta Bogosyan

2009-01-01

355

Laboratory medicine: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Technologic innovations have substantially improved the productivity of clinical laboratories, but the services provided by clinical laboratories are increasingly becoming commoditized. We reflect on how current developments may affect the future of laboratory medicine and how to deal with these changes. We argue that to be prepared for the future, clinical laboratories should enhance efficiency and reduce costs by forming alliances and networks; consolidating, integrating, or outsourcing; and more importantly, create additional value by providing knowledge services related to in vitro diagnostics. PMID:17885139

Bossuyt, Xavier; Verweire, Kurt; Blanckaert, Norbert

2007-10-01

356

Bridging Laboratory and Astronomy - Introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this 3-day Meeting-in-a-Meeting (MiM) are to expand on the series of meetings that was successfully initiated by the Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA) at last year's summer meeting to promote and increase the interaction between the laboratory astrophysics and the astronomy/planetary communities. This Meeting-in-a-Meeting is devoted to the interplay between laboratory astrophysics and IR, FIR and Submm astronomy. The sessions will discuss current and future missions and facilities that operate in this domain and their laboratory astrophysics needs. Astronomy is an observational science detecting photons generated by atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics and chemistry. The astrophysically motivated studies, which consist of both laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations, are collectively known as laboratory astrophysics. This Meeting-in-a-Meeting will consist of six sessions that will discuss the nature and evolution of molecules, dust and ices from stellar and planetary formation regions to circumstellar, planetary nebulae and diffuse ISM environments to comets and planets. The sessions map the sub areas of laboratory astrophysics in the IR, FIR and Submm domains and cover the study of molecules, dust and ices. Each session will include talks focusing on major mission projects and key data needs, related experimental and theoretical work, all illustrating the important role of laboratory astrophysics in support of current and future missions and facilities. An associated poster session on astronomical observations and laboratory astrophysics of molecules, dust and ices runs for 3 days.

Salama, Farid

2009-05-01

357

Robotics in the clinical laboratory.  

PubMed

We are beginning to see the potential of robotics in the clinical laboratory through integration with automated analyzers and computer systems. However, there is a need for training programs that will prepare technologists to design and implement robotic systems for clinical laboratories. What will the robot laboratory of the future look like? We will see hospital laboratories begin to be located some distance away from the main facility because the labor component of staffing satellite laboratories will have been greatly reduced. Instrument manufacturers will see the need for analyzers that are robot-friendly and allow for simplified interfacing, both electronic and mechanical. Robots will become more versatile even to the point of performing complete instrument repair. Laboratories will be equipped with many task-oriented robotic stations, including, for example, accessioning and processing robots that prepare samples for transport by robotic carts. Analysis will be performed by a combination of robot and dedicated analyzer. Laboratory results will be reviewed by algorithms in the larger laboratory computer, which will alert the laboratory worker to unusual results. A large variety of analyses will be available to the patient with rapid turnaround. The end result will be more efficient health care delivery at reduced cost. PMID:3061728

Felder, R A; Boyd, J C; Savory, J; Margrey, K; Martinez, A; Vaughn, D

1988-12-01

358

21 CFR 606.140 - Laboratory controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Laboratory controls. 606.140 Section 606...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...BLOOD COMPONENTS Laboratory Controls § 606.140 Laboratory controls. Laboratory control...

2009-04-01

359

21 CFR 606.140 - Laboratory controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Laboratory controls. 606.140 Section 606...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...BLOOD COMPONENTS Laboratory Controls § 606.140 Laboratory controls. Laboratory control...

2013-04-01

360

21 CFR 606.140 - Laboratory controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Laboratory controls. 606.140 Section 606...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...BLOOD COMPONENTS Laboratory Controls § 606.140 Laboratory controls. Laboratory control...

2010-04-01

361

40 CFR 60.535 - Laboratory accreditation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...application providing the information related to laboratory equipment and management and technical experience of laboratory...Laboratory personnel have experience in test management or laboratory management. (2) Have no conflict of...

2013-07-01

362

Laboratory Manual, Electrical Engineering 25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed as part of a series of materials in the electrical engineering sequence developed under contract with the United States Office of Education, this laboratory manual provides nine laboratory projects suitable for a second course in electrical engineering. Dealing with resonant circuits, electrostatic fields, magnetic devices, and…

Syracuse Univ., NY. Dept. of Electrical Engineering.

363

Bae Wharton Hot Gas Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hot gas laboratory was built for experiments requiring large quantities of high pressure air (hot or cold), and was sited to allow test work of a very noisy nature. A ground erosion rig was constructed and commissioned in the laboratory to evaluate the ...

A. P. Winstanley

1985-01-01

364

Biodegradable Polymer Characterization Laboratory Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current research area of significant environmental, economic, and scientific importance is biodegradable polymers. 1-4 Biodegradable polymers is also an area that has great promise for being used to integrate life science into the chemical engineering curriculum. To this point, however, high quality laboratory manuals on biodegradable polymers have not been developed. Therefore, a laboratory unit titled \\

Keith A. Schimmel; Jianzhong Lou; Arvind Vyas Harinath; Leonard Uitenham

365

Trial of Integrated Laboratory Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In most laboratory practices for students in medical schools, a laboratory guidebook is given to the students, in which the procedures are precisely described. The students merely follow the guidebook without thinking deeply, which spoils the students and does not entice them to think creatively. Problem-based learning (PBL) could be one means…

Matsuo, Osamu; Takahashi, Yuzo; Abe, Chikara; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nakashima, Akira; Morita, Hironobu

2011-01-01

366

LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

367

Laboratory Activities for Introductory Astronomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents sample laboratory activities designed for use in astronomy teaching, including naked eye observations, instrument construction, student projects, and cloudy weather activities. Appended are bibliographies of journal articles and reference books and lists of films, laboratory manuals, and distributors of apparatus and teaching aids. (CC)

Kruglak, Haym

1973-01-01

368

Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory

Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

1984-01-01

369

The Jackson Laboratory Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

The Jackson Laboratory was started in 1929 and in 1983 it was designated as an NCI cancer center. The Jackson Laboratory Cancer Center (JLCC) conducts basic research using the mouse as a research tool since mice and humans share 95 percent of the same genes and basic physiology.

370

Laboratory solvent reuse -- Liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to develop a method for reduction of waste solvent in the Process Engineering Chemistry Laboratory. The liquid chromatographs are the largest generators of explosive-contaminated waste in the laboratory. We developed a successful process for the reuse of solvents from the liquid chromatographs and demonstrated the utility of the process in the assay of hexanitrostilbene.

Quinlin, W.T.; Schaffer, C.L.

1992-11-01

371

Testing containment of laboratory hoods  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory fume hoods often do not adequately provide protection to a chemist or technician at the hood. The reason for failure of the hoods to perform adequately are varied and, in many instances, difficult to determine. In some cases, the laboratory hood manufacturer has provided equipment that does not reflect the state of art in controlling laboratory exposures. In other cases, the architect or engineer has disregarded the function of the hood thus the design of the installation is faulty and the hood will not work. The contractor may have installed the system so poorly that it will not adequately function. Finally, the chemist or technician may misuse the hood, causing poor performance. This paper considers a method of evaluating the performance of laboratory fume hoods. Using the method, the paper examines several instances where the laboratory fume hood performed inadequately, quantifies the performance and identifies the cause of poor performance.

Knutson, G.W.

1987-06-01

372

DOE Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DOE Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships at Oak Ridge National Laboratory-- Description: Opportunities to participate in research in a broad range of science and engineering activities related to basic sciences, energy, and the environment. Discipline(s): Computer Science; Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences; Engineering; Life Sciences; Mathematics; Physical Sciences Eligibility: U.S. Citizens and Legal Permanent Residents. Undergraduate Students Location(s): Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) Duration: Summer Term 10 Weeks; Fall/Spring Term 16 weeks Frequency: Spring, Summer, and Fall How to apply: http://www.scied.science.doe.gov Deadline(s): http://www.scied.science.doe.gov/scied/erulf/dates.html

373

OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)

Roy, Kenneth R.

2000-01-01

374

OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)|

Roy, Kenneth R.

2000-01-01

375

Accidental fires in clinical laboratories.  

PubMed

The National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Mass, estimates that 169 fires have occurred annually in health care, medical, and chemical laboratories. On the average, there are 13 civilian injuries and $1.5 million per year in direct property damage. Most fires in which the cause or ignition source can be identified originate in malfunctioning electrical equipment (41.6%) or in the facility's electrical distribution system (14.7%). The prevalence of fire safety deficiencies was measured in the College of American Pathologists Laboratory Accreditation Program. Of the 1732 inspected laboratories, 5.5% lacked records of electrical receptacle polarity and ground checks in the preceding year. Of these inspected laboratories, 4.7% had no or incomplete documentation of electrical safety checks on laboratory instruments. There was no evidence of quarterly fire exit drills in 9% of the laboratories. Deficiencies were also found in precautionary labeling (6.8%), in periodic review of safe work practices (4.2%), in the use of safety cans (3.7%), and in venting of flammable liquid storage areas (2.8%). Fire preparedness would be improved if all clinical laboratories had smoke detectors and automatic fire-extinguishing systems. In-service training courses in fire safety should be targeted to the needs of specific service areas. PMID:8250687

Hoeltge, G A; Miller, A; Klein, B R; Hamlin, W B

1993-12-01

376

Clinical laboratory accreditation in India.  

PubMed

Test results from clinical laboratories must ensure accuracy, as these are crucial in several areas of health care. It is necessary that the laboratory implements quality assurance to achieve this goal. The implementation of quality should be audited by independent bodies,referred to as accreditation bodies. Accreditation is a third-party attestation by an authoritative body, which certifies that the applicant laboratory meets quality requirements of accreditation body and has demonstrated its competence to carry out specific tasks. Although in most of the countries,accreditation is mandatory, in India it is voluntary. The quality requirements are described in standards developed by many accreditation organizations. The internationally acceptable standard for clinical laboratories is ISO15189, which is based on ISO/IEC standard 17025. The accreditation body in India is the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories, which has signed Mutual Recognition Agreement with the regional cooperation the Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and with the apex cooperation the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation. PMID:22727005

Handoo, Anil; Sood, Swaroop Krishan

2012-06-01

377

Preservice laboratory education strengthening enhances sustainable laboratory workforce in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background There is a severe healthcare workforce shortage in sub Saharan Africa, which threatens achieving the Millennium Development Goals and attaining an AIDS-free generation. The strength of a healthcare system depends on the skills, competencies, values and availability of its workforce. A well-trained and competent laboratory technologist ensures accurate and reliable results for use in prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment of diseases. Methods An assessment of existing preservice education of five medical laboratory schools, followed by remedial intervention and monitoring was conducted. The remedial interventions included 1) standardizing curriculum and implementation; 2) training faculty staff on pedagogical methods and quality management systems; 3) providing teaching materials; and 4) procuring equipment for teaching laboratories to provide practical skills to complement didactic education. Results A total of 2,230 undergraduate students from the five universities benefitted from the standardized curriculum. University of Gondar accounted for 252 of 2,230 (11.3%) of the students, Addis Ababa University for 663 (29.7%), Jimma University for 649 (29.1%), Haramaya University for 429 (19.2%) and Hawassa University for 237 (10.6%) of the students. Together the universities graduated 388 and 312 laboratory technologists in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 academic year, respectively. Practical hands-on training and experience with well-equipped laboratories enhanced and ensured skilled, confident and competent laboratory technologists upon graduation. Conclusions Strengthening preservice laboratory education is feasible in resource-limited settings, and emphasizing its merits (ample local capacity, country ownership and sustainability) provides a valuable source of competent laboratory technologists to relieve an overstretched healthcare system.

2013-01-01

378

Electromedical devices test laboratories accreditation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, the technology and equipment at hospitals have been increase in a great way as the risks of their implementation. Safety in medical equipment must be considered an important issue to protect patients and their users. For this reason, test and calibrations laboratories must verify the correct performance of this kind of devices under national and international standards. Is an essential mission for laboratories to develop their measurement activities taking into account a quality management system. In this article, we intend to transmit our experience working to achieve an accredited Test Laboratories for medical devices in National technological University.

Murad, C.; Rubio, D.; Ponce, S.; Álvarez Abri, A.; Terrón, A.; Vicencio, D.; Fascioli, E.

2007-11-01

379

University of Idaho: Pedology Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website discusses the University of Idaho's pedology laboratory's work primarily focused on the environmental factors and processes that form soils and influence their use and management. Researchers and students can learn about the volcanic ash-influenced soils in the Pacific Northwest, the hydrology of Northern Idaho, and the ability of soils in the Palouse Basin to accommodate ground water recharge. The website provides information on laboratory analysis procedures and data on andisols and andic properties. Users will also find descriptions of graduate theses and dissertations, information on the Maynard A. Fosberg Monolith Collection, and many of the laboratory's abstracts.

380

Association for Biology Laboratory Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1979, the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) promotes "information exchange among university and college educators actively concerned with teaching biology in a laboratory setting." The ABLE website contains information about grants, past and future annual conferences, and membership. ABLE also posts employment opportunities, and an extensive array of links organized into categories for General Biology, Online Journals, Biological Animations, Suppliers of Biological Materials, Comprehensive Links Pages, and more. In addition, ABLE makes available current and past newsletters and a collection of abstracts and full-text articles from _Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching_, a publication based on the proceedings of the ABLE annual conference.

381

Commissioning a materials research laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers the process of commissioning a new 150,000 sq. ft. research facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The laboratory being constructed is a showcase of modern design methods being built at a construction cost of less than $180 per sq. ft. This is possible in part because of the total commissioning activities that are being utilized for this project. The laboratory's unique approach to commissioning will be presented in this paper. The process will be followed through from the conceptual stage on into the actual construction portion of the laboratory. Lessons learned and cost effectiveness will be presented in a manner that will be usable for others making commissioning related decisions. Commissioning activities at every stage of the design will be presented along with the attributed benefits. Attendees will hear answers to the what, when, who, and why questions associated with commissioning of this exciting project.

SAVAGE,GERALD A.

2000-03-28

382

Laboratory Submillimeter-Wave Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a High-resolution submillimeter-wave (HRSMW) laboratory spectroscopy, as well as MW and IR spectroscopy, provides important\\u000a information for both interstellar space and earth atmospheric research.

S. P. Belov; M. Yu. Tretyakov

383

Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From D.B. McWhorterand D. K. Sunda's 1977 Ground-Water Hydrology and Hydraulics, this two page excerpt outlines and details Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity. Here, visitors will find illustrations and formula to understand the concept.

2008-02-07

384

Applied Physics Laboratory Internship Project  

NASA Website

[Students Higher Education] [Available: Nationally] The NASA APL Internship project is a 10-week summer internship at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory for students interested in civil and/or defense space projects.

385

Safety and Health Topics: Laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A website created by the Occupational Safety and Health Adminstration (OSHA) highlighting standards, standard interpretations (official letters of interpretation of the standards), and national consensus standards related to occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

2011-01-01

386

Nonionizing Radiation Laboratory Manual (583).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory manual for the study of nonionizing radiation, designed for industrial hygienists, health physicists and other health personnel, is presented. Topics include nonionizing radiation sources, radiation hazards, and basic principles of radiation ...

1977-01-01

387

DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory  

NASA Website

NASA operates a highly modified Douglas DC-8 jetliner as a flying science laboratory. The aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility in Palmdale, Calif., is used to collect data for experiments in support of projects serving ...

388

Swimming in Small Laboratory Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forced swimming in small laboratory animals has been widely used for studying the physiology and capacity of the organism in response to stress. The following studies have been accomplished: Swimming as a test of performance; Factors affecting swimming; U...

C. A. Dawson S. M. Horvath

1969-01-01

389

Laboratory for Computational Cultural Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory for Computational Cultural Dynamics (LCCD) from May 2005 through May 2008. LCCD is located within the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS). The purpose of the ...

D. Nau V. S. Subrahmanian

2008-01-01

390

Argonne National Laboratory 1986 Publications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a bibliography of scientific and technical 1986 publications of Argonne National Laboratory. Some are ANL contributions to outside organizations' reports published in 1986. This compilation, prepared by the Technical Information Services Te...

J. A. Kopta C. J. Springer

1987-01-01

391

Laboratory directed research and development  

SciTech Connect

The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.

Not Available

1991-11-15

392

IMPROVED LABORATORY DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a program to evaluate an Improved Laboratory Dispersant Effectiveness Test (ILDET) which was developed to replace EPA's Revised Standard Dispersant Effectiveness Test (RSDET). The report summarizes the development of the IL...

393

Laboratory Techniques for the Blind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)|

Tombaugh, Dorothy

1972-01-01

394

Gallium Safety in the Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

Cadwallader, L.C.

2003-05-07

395

Gallium Safety in the Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

Lee C. Cadwallader

2003-06-01

396

[Coding for clinical laboratory information].  

PubMed

The field of clinical laboratory tests is facing an increase in the number of test items as well as a corresponding diversification due to the demands of medical institutions as well as improvements in analytical techniques. To respond to this situation, medical institutions have been promoting systematization of their testing procedures; information exchange among the institutions has likewise expanded with the use of media such as on-line systems and internet. Standardization of interfaces has been proposed to secure a common framework compatible with different types of information. Some embodiments in this country includes; (1) Interface Standards on Clinical Laboratory Information For information exchange, the format and reporting comments used in the media systems were standardized under the sponsorship of The Medical Information System Development Center, with a publication issued on 1993. (2) Standardization of Laboratory Test Code Standardization of codes for information exchange has been established under the sponsorship of The Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (Laboratory Test Coding Committee), through the systematization of laboratory test code used in media systems. A publication entitled "Classification & Coding for Clinical Laboratory Tests (8th edition in 1992, 9th edition in 1994 and supplement in 1996)" has been issued. The system for "Classification & Coding for Clinical Laboratory Tests" is divided into 5 components; (1) analyte code, (2) identification code, (3) specimen code, (4) methodology code, and (5) data classification code. The Laboratory test codes are precisely classified by "(1) analyte code", and then are identified by combination of additional codes such as specimen and methodology codes. In this year, we are making a new easily-used-codes composed of 5 Arabic figures. PMID:9306714

Sakurabayashi, I

1997-06-01

397

Assay of impure plutonium oxide with the large neutron multiplicity counter for IAEA verification of excess weapons material at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect

The large neutron multiplicity counter (LNMC), also known as the 30-gal.-drum neutron multiplicity counter, has now been used successfully by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Initial Physical Inventory Verification (IPIV) and the first annual Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) of excess weapons plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These excess plutonium oxide materials contain a variety of impurities. They are stored two cans to a 10-gal.-drum. The drums contain from 1.3 to 4.0 kg of plutonium. The isotopic declarations vary from can to can but the material averages 6% {sup 240}Pu. During the IPIV, 94 samples were measured in the LNMC; 19 were measured during the PIV. The assays for all but a single drum agreed to within three standard deviations of the declared value. This problematic drum could not be measured by the LNMC because of its unusually high neutron emission rate. In this paper we will report on the overall performance of the LNMC in these inspections.

Langner, D.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Franco, J.B. [Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, Golden, CO (United States); Larsen, R.K. [Safeguards Measurements, Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1997-11-01

398

Impact of spread in minor actinide data from ENDF\\/B-VII.0, ENDF\\/B-VI.8, JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.0 on an IAEA-CRP FBR benchmark for MA incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP), an FBR Model has been designed to study feasibility of incineration of long-lived minor actinides (MA). The predictions depend on the accuracy of the nuclear data used. There are several evaluations for actinide nuclear data, produced based on state-of-the-art procedures, but substantial deviations persist among them. The effect of spread in the MA

G. Pandikumar; V. Gopalakrishnan; P. Mohanakrishnan

2008-01-01

399

A Microcomputer Laboratory Management System for an Office Laboratory  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a description of a laboratory management system which is designed to be used in a university-based Family Practice office laboratory. The system was developed using a commercially available database management system, Knowledgeman. The general design of the system is outlined and the advantages of flexibility and power which accompany the development of an application using a relational database management system are emphasized along with the need to carefully consider the overall system when selecting an approach for developing a particular element of the information system.

Skinner, Bron D.; Addison, Lois

1988-01-01

400

EPA-HONDA Emission Laboratory Correlation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory correlation program between the EPA Motor Vehicle Emission Laboratory (MVEL) and the new Ann Arbor Honda emission test laboratory has been completed. Statistical analysis of data are reported from a 1976 Honda Civic CVCC tested for exhaust em...

1975-01-01

401

10 CFR 431.18 - Testing laboratories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program...National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program...February 2007, and Lab Bulletin LB-42-2009...National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program...criteria, and policies. Information regarding...

2013-01-01

402

7 CFR 802.1 - Qualified laboratories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...WEIGHING EQUIPMENT AND RELATED GRAIN HANDLING SYSTEMS § 802.1 Qualified laboratories. (a) Metrology laboratories. (1) Any State metrology laboratory currently approved by the NBS ongoing certification program having auditing...

2013-01-01

403

7 CFR 802.1 - Qualified laboratories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...WEIGHING EQUIPMENT AND RELATED GRAIN HANDLING SYSTEMS § 802.1 Qualified laboratories. (a) Metrology laboratories. (1) Any State metrology laboratory currently approved by the NBS ongoing certification program having auditing...

2009-01-01

404

7 CFR 802.1 - Qualified laboratories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...WEIGHING EQUIPMENT AND RELATED GRAIN HANDLING SYSTEMS § 802.1 Qualified laboratories. (a) Metrology laboratories. (1) Any State metrology laboratory currently approved by the NBS ongoing certification program having auditing...

2010-01-01

405

Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Argonne National Laboratory's Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) tests advanced batteries under simulated electric and hybrid vehicle operating conditions. The ADL facilities also include a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected at...

W. H. DeLuca K. R. Gillie J. E. Kulaga J. A. Smaga A. F. Tummillo

1993-01-01

406

Proceedings of the NEACRP\\/IAEA Specialists meeting on the international comparison calculation of a large sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor at Argonne National Laboratory on February 7-9, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an international comparison calculation of a large (1250 MWe) LMFBR benchmark model are presented and discussed. Eight reactor configurations were calculated. Parameters included with the comparison were: eigenvalue, k\\/sub infinity\\/, neutron balance data, breeding reaction rate ratios, reactivity worths, central control rod worth, regional sodium void reactivity, core Doppler and effective delayed neutron fraction. Ten countries participated

L. G. LeSage; R. D. McKnight; D. C. Wade; K. E. Freese; P. J. Collins

2010-01-01

407

Virtual Laboratories and Virtual Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since we cannot put stars in a laboratory, astrophysicists had to wait till the invention of computers before becoming laboratory scientists. For half a century now, we have been conducting experiments in our virtual laboratories. However, we ourselves have remained behind the keyboard, with the screen of the monitor separating us from the world we are simulating. Recently, 3D on-line technology, developed first for games but now deployed in virtual worlds like Second Life, is beginning to make it possible for astrophysicists to enter their virtual labs themselves, in virtual form as avatars. This has several advantages, from new possibilities to explore the results of the simulations to a shared presence in a virtual lab with remote collaborators on different continents. I will report my experiences with the use of Qwaq Forums, a virtual world developed by a new company (see http://www.qwaq.com).

Hut, Piet

2008-05-01

408

Multicellular microorganisms: laboratory versus nature  

PubMed Central

Our present in-depth knowledge of the physiology and regulatory mechanisms of microorganisms has arisen from our ability to remove them from their natural, complex ecosystems into pure liquid cultures. These cultures are grown under optimized laboratory conditions and allow us to study microorganisms as individuals. However, microorganisms naturally grow in conditions that are far from optimal, which causes them to become organized into multicellular communities that are better protected against the harmful environment. Moreover, this multicellular existence allows individual cells to differentiate and acquire specific properties, such as forming resistant spores, which benefit the whole population. The relocation of natural microorganisms to the laboratory can result in their adaptation to these favourable conditions, which is accompanied by complex changes that include the repression of some protective mechanisms that are essential in nature. Laboratory microorganisms that have been cultured for long periods under optimized conditions might therefore differ markedly from those that exist in natural ecosystems.

Palkova, Zdena

2004-01-01

409

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Internships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Internships -- The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosts 300 to 400 undergraduate and graduate students and some faculty every summer in support of its world-class scientific facilities and staff and in an effort to help train the nation's next generation of scientists and engineers. Involvement in world-class research provides participants with a set of experiences that support their education and career goals. Typically, participants gain hands-on experience and the opportunity to apply learned theory to real life problems. An experience of this type, and with these resources at a premier state-of-the-art research laboratory is not available in an academic research lab.

410

Fixing the national laboratory system  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 20 years, there have been numerous studies of the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories. Having reviewed numerous recommendations of outsiders, the Department of Energy responds with a plan of action. Having reviewed these, we find that there is much merit in the criticisms and much good intention in the proposals to change the governance and focus of the laboratories. But we believe that the proposals either attack the wrong problems or are simply unlikely to succeed. We have developed instead what we believe is a comprehensive and practical strategy to manage the national laboratory system to achieve national goals and to make it once again an essential, cost-effective, and well-managed element of the nation`s R&D enterprise. We believe that this approach, unlike others tried over the past two decades, is demonstrably working and should be continued. This paper outlines these proposals.

Curtis, C.B.; McTague. J.P.; Cheney, D.W.

1997-11-01

411

Novel anticoagulants and laboratory testing.  

PubMed

The introduction of several oral direct anticoagulants within the past 2-3 years has dramatically changed clinical practice and has also impacted on utilization and interpretation of coagulation laboratory testing. This article reviews the effects of the oral thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran, and the oral factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban, on screening and diagnostic coagulation tests, and describes methods for measuring the their anticoagulant activity in plasma. Currently, there are evidence gaps regarding the role of laboratory testing for surveillance and management of adverse events associated with these new anticoagulants which do not require routine therapeutic drug monitoring. This is a rapidly changing field, and coagulation laboratory experts have a major role in ensuring patients receive appropriate testing and accurate interpretations of results. PMID:23590653

Eby, C

2013-06-01

412

Los Alamos National Laboratory A National Science Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Our mission as a DOE national security science laboratory is to develop and apply science, technology, and engineering solutions that: (1) Ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the US nuclear deterrent; (2) Protect against the nuclear threat; and (3) Solve Energy Security and other emerging national security challenges.

Chadwick, Mark B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-20

413

LABORATORY 12 Laboratory of Bioinformatics of Cell Processes and Motocontrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general theme of the scientific work in the laboratory is: analysis of the infor- mation processes in cellular systems and in motor control. The main directions of theoretical researches in this realm: developmental biology (analysis of principles for the realization of genetic information in the developmental systems), neurobiology (neural communication and biochemical modulation in neural centers), motor control (study

Alexey Chernavsky; L. Chailakhian; M. Berkinblit; S. Minina; V. Bozhkova; N. Samosudova; Z. Khashaev; J. Burmistrov; E. Liberman; L. Kudina; I. Lukashevich; D. Voronov

2002-01-01

414

Laboratory Experiments on Magnetic Reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection, a topological rearrangement of magnetic field lines, is one of the key self-organization processes in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. This talk presents the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection reviewing the recent significant progress in laboratory experiments. Sawtooth relaxation in a tokamak plasma, which represents a repetitive change of the electron temperature profile, provides a good example of magnetic reconnection. During the relaxation phase of the sawtooth, a rapid flattening of the electron temperature profile occurs and the pitch of field lines changes suddenly as the field lines break and rearrange themselves to form a new topological profile. In the reversed field pinch (RFP) and spheromak plasmas, a sudden re-arrangement of field lines in an inner flux surface can trigger another rearrangement in the outer flux surfaces, leading to a global magnetic relaxation event. Magnetic reconnection physics has been investigated in a variety of laboratory experiments dedicated for reconnection research. These laboratory experiments have made important contributions to recent advances in our understanding of magnetic reconnection. Significant findings are as follows: 1) The reconnection dynamics are determined both by local and global conditions, 2) The profiles of the reconnection layer and reconnection rate change drastically as the plasma's collisionality is reduced, 3) Two-fluid dynamics have been verified through experimental identification of both the ion and electron diffusion layers, 4) Electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations and their spatial profiles were measured in the reconnection layer of both laboratory and space plasmas with notable similarities, and 5) The reconnection rate increases significantly when the ratio of the electron mean free path to the scale length approaches unity. A new scaling of reconnection resistivity with respect to this ratio has been obtained from the laboratory results. The impact of this recently advanced understanding on research on space-terrestrial plasmas will be discussed.

Yamada, Masaaki

2010-05-01

415

Materials Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Materials Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Materials Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) research focus is the physical and photoelectrochemical characterization of novel materials. In this laboratory unknown samples are characterized by identifying and quantifying molecular species present through the implementation of a suite of analytical instrumentation and techniques. This leads to the ability to deconvolute decomposition routes and elucidate reaction mechanisms of materials through thermal and evolved gas analysis. This aids in the synthesis of next generation materials that are tailored to optimize stability and performance. These techniques and next generation materials will have many applications. One particular focus is the stable and conductive tetherable cations for use as membrane materials in anion exchange membrane fuel cells. Another is to understand the leachant contaminants derived from balance of plant materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cell vehicles. Once identified and quantified, these organic and ionic species are dosed as contaminants into ex/in-situ fuel cell tests, to determine the effect on durability and performance. This laboratory also acts in support of fuel cell catalysis, manufacturing, and other related projects. The Materials Characterization Laboratory will cover multiple analytical operations, with the overall goal of troubleshooting synthetic materials or process streams to improve performance. Having novel evolved gas analysis and other analytical capabilities; this laboratory provides a viable location to analyze small batch samples, whereas setting up these types of capabilities and expertise would be cost and time prohibitive for most institutions. Experiments that can be performed include: (1) Evolved gas analysis; (2) Heterogeneous catalysis; (3) Trace level contaminants analysis; (4) Catalyst characterization; (5) Kinetics and stability; (6) Hyphenated techniques; and (7) Isotopic analysis for elucidating reaction mechanisms and decoupling chemical reactions.

Not Available

2011-10-01

416

Arrhythmias in cardiac catheterization laboratories.  

PubMed

Several kinds of arrhythmias, such as ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, bradycardias and conduction disturbances can occur in cardiac catheterization laboratories. The patients' characteristics, the type of procedure, the features of the target vessel and the type of lesion play important roles in the occurrence of arrhythmia. A majority of the arrhythmias tend to revert spontaneously, but special treatment must be given promptly when necessary. In this paper, we will review the pathophysiology, clinical importance and treatment strategies for arrhythmias that occurred during diagnostic cardiac catheterization and PCI in cardiac catheterization laboratories. PMID:18468208

Gorenek, Bulent

2008-04-01

417

Laboratory communication for esthetic success.  

PubMed

There is no single or simple answer for effective communication between laboratory technician and clinical dentist. Doing the lab work oneself or having an in-house technician may be a distinct advantage to some albeit labor- and perhaps cost-intensive. If the goal of the practicing dentist is to aspire to excellence, it is incumbent upon him or her to produce restorations that fit the teeth well, are shaded correctly and, when indicated, are the same color as the surrounding teeth. Effective communication with the laboratory is critical if any degree of success is desired. PMID:10218022

Small, B W

418

Laboratory Course on Drift Chambers  

SciTech Connect

Drift chambers play an important role in particle physics experiments as tracking detectors. We started this laboratory course with a brief review of the theoretical background and then moved on to the the experimental setup which consisted of a single-sided, single-cell drift chamber. We also used a plastic scintillator paddle, standard P-10 gas mixture (90% Ar, 10% CH4) and a collimated 90Sr source. During the laboratory session the students performend measurements of the following quantities: a) drift velocities and their variations as function of the drift field; b) gas gains and c) diffusion of electrons as they drifted in the gas.

Garcia-Ferreira, Ix-B.; Garcia-Herrera, J.; Villasenor, L. [Institute of Physics and Mathematics, University of Michoacan, Bdg. C3-Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacan, 58040 (Mexico)

2006-09-25

419

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Nanoscience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryÂs nanotechnology programs focus on issues relevant to national security. Lab researchers Âdrive the future of homeland security through innovations in biosensing and radiation detector materials, chemical absorbants, and biofunctional materials and other materials research. The website divides their work into three main areas: Bionanoscience, Nanofabrication, and Theory, Simulation, and Modeling. The website includes a brief description of each research area and links to related articles. The section on Bionanoscience includes links to journal publications, most of which require a paid subscription. Links to various laboratories housed within LLNL highlight additional contributions and research programs from those labs as well as information on their educational programs.

420

Laboratory of Applied Informatics Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Laboratory of Applied Informatics Research (LAIR ) at Indiana University, Bloomington (IUB) conducts research on information retrieval, machine learning, and human-computer interaction. The website provides links to information on various projects that address topics such as "agent-based information management, agent-user interaction, concept discovery and analysis, and information customization for effective online information delivery." Project descriptions, technical reports, and related resources are posted for each of the 10 projects currently supported through this laboratory. Some course syllabi and course materials are also posted in the Courses section of the website.

2006-01-04

421

Argonne National Laboratory 1985 publications  

SciTech Connect

This report is a bibliography of scientific and technical 1985 publications of Argonne National Laboratory. Some are ANL contributions to outside organizations' reports published in 1985. This compilation, prepared by the Technical Information Services Technical Publications Section (TPB), lists all nonrestricted 1985 publications submitted to TPS by Laboratory's Divisions. The report is divided into seven parts: Journal Articles - Listed by first author, ANL Reports - Listed by report number, ANL and non-ANL Unnumbered Reports - Listed by report number, Non-ANL Numbered Reports - Listed by report number, Books and Book Chapters - Listed by first author, Conference Papers - Listed by first author, Complete Author Index.

Kopta, J.A. (ED.); Hale, M.R. (comp.)

1987-08-01

422

A Laboratory Safety Trivia Game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the start of each semester, our department begins our chemistry seminar series with a presentation on laboratory safety. All chemistry faculty, staff, graduate students, undergraduate research students, and student laboratory assistants are required to attend. Many of these individuals have sat through these seminars for several years; they feel the seminars are boring and repetitive. In order to enliven these safety presentations, I have created a cooperative online trivia game. It has been my experience that the lab safety trivia game is an effective and entertaining way to teach lab safety.

Gublo, Kristin I.

2003-04-01

423

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) promotes its research to "secure an energy future for the nation that is environmentally and economically sustainable." The website summaries the Laboratory's variety of research and technology including photovoltaics, wind, biomass, geothermal energy, and hydrogen and fuel cells. Visitors can find out the latest NREL news and events. Visitors can locate materials about renewable energy and energy efficiency. The Publications Database offers references to a wide range of documents about sustainable energy technologies written or edited by NREL.

424

Brookhaven National Laboratory: Chemistry Department  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, the Brookhaven National Laboratory presents its chemistry research dealing primarily with imaging and neuroscience, charge transfer for energy conversion, chemistry with ionizing radiation, catalysis and surface science, nanoscience, combustion, and nuclear chemistry. Within each category, users can find instructive text and supportive images about the specific projects and the leading researchers. Visitors can learn about the Beamline U7A at the National Synchrotron Light Source, the Laser-Electron Accelerator Facility (LEAF), the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Facility, and other exceptional research facilities. The website features histories of the chemistry department and of the Brookhaven National Laboratory.

425

Federal laboratories for the 21st century  

SciTech Connect

Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1998-04-01

426

Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

Finstein, Melvin S.

427

Cultural Goods and Laboratory Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a two-stage public goods experiment, we study the framing effect due to the adoption of a cultural context. Our results show a slight increase in the allocations of subjects’ endowments to the cultural good when the cultural context is implemented in the laboratory. In particular, in one treatment, the framing effect has a strong impact in the last two

Massimo Finocchiaro Castro

2005-01-01

428

Microcomputers in the Introductory Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A microcomputer was used successfully to replicate Sternberg's 1966 study of retrieval from short-term memory and Sperling's 1960 study on sensory or iconic memory. Computers with a capacity for measuring reaction time are useful in the laboratory for introductory psychology courses. (SR)

Bare, John K.

1982-01-01

429

Laboratory testing for platelet antibodies.  

PubMed

Laboratory testing for immune-mediated thrombocytopenias involves identification and classification of antibodies present in patient sera or attached to patient platelets. This article summarizes the available types of platelet antibody testing and applications in disorders such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura, multiple platelet transfusion refractoriness, immune thrombocytopenia, and drug-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:23757218

Heikal, Nahla M; Smock, Kristi J

2013-07-23

430

Enteric parasitology. Interpreting laboratory reports.  

PubMed Central

Intestinal parasites are common in the stools of human beings. With care and due attention to the techniques of testing, they are relatively easy to find. Unfortunately, deciding on the clinical importance of stool findings is often difficult. This article is an introduction and guide to interpreting enteric parasitology laboratory reports.

MacPherson, D. W.

1995-01-01

431

Renewable Energy Research Laboratory (RERL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources, Northeast Utilities and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, RERL promotes education and research in solar and wind energy conversion technologies. The research program provides graduate students opportunities to develop a program of study and a thesis topic, at the M.S or Ph. D. level, in one of the currently active renewable energy research programs.

2007-10-17

432

Research and Development. Laboratory Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research and Development is a laboratory-oriented course that includes the appropriate common essential elements for industrial technology education plus concepts and skills related to research and development. This guide provides teachers of the course with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an…

Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

433

Expert Testimony on Laboratory Witnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the past three decades of diverse and extensive research on eyewitness memory issues, the courts are increasingly being asked to accept psychologists as experts on eyewitness performance. This article examines a sample of this body of research and questions its helpfulness to triers of fact. The majority of eyewitness research has been conducted in the laboratory rather than

John C. Yuille; Marguerite Ternes; Barry S. Cooper

2010-01-01

434

Laboratory Connections. Gas Monitoring Transducers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses three types of sensors; pressure, gas detection, and relative humidity. Explains their use for laboratory measurements of gas pressure and detection of specific gaseous species. Shows diagrams of devices and circuits along with examples and applications including microcomputer interfacing. (RT)|

Powers, Michael H.

1988-01-01

435

Laboratory Work: The Teachers' Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We describe a case study of an in-service professional development project with four experienced biology teachers in two upper secondary schools. The objective was to better understand the role of laboratory work (labwork) in science education with a special emphasis on assessment. Research questions include the following: 1. What does the…

Ottander, Christina; Grelsson, Gunnel

2006-01-01

436

School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

2006-01-01

437

Hadron Spectroscopy at Jefferson Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Recent results on hadron spectroscopy from Jefferson Laboratory's CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) are presented. In particular we present results from the baryon resonance program for both electro- and photo- production. Also, we present very preliminary results on meson spectroscopy in p interactions, and new results on the observation of the exotic baryon, the Theta +.

Dennis P. Weygand

2004-08-01

438

MICROFABRICATED PROBES FOR LABORATORY PLASMAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first of a series of microfabricated sensors for directly measuring fundamental plasma parameters with unprecedented resolution in typical laboratory plasmas. Microfabricated probes hold the promise of significantly advancing basic plasmas physics by enabling the measurement of some fundamental plasma processes under controlled conditions at the relatively high plasma densities typically of interest. Our first probes are arrays

Janet A. Stillman; Franklin C. Chiang; Patrick A. Pribyl; Mio Nakamoto; Walter Gekelman; Jack W. Judy

439

Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

440

Surgical Planning Laboratory Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Surgical Planning Laboratory of the Department of Radiology at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School has a virtual treasure chest of visual anatomical information available at its web site. The SPL offers of series of over 60 MPEG movies on topics such as neurosurgery, multiple sclerosis, the brain, abdominal surgery, flow analysis, and thoracic surgery, among others.

1996-01-01

441

Laboratory Research in Organizational Psychology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper in slightly modified form will be a chapter on laboratory experimentation in the forthcoming Handbook of Organizational and Industrial Psychology (M. Dunnette, Editor, to be published in 1972 by Rand McNally, Chicago). The chapter reviews the cu...

H. L. Fromkin S. Streufert

1971-01-01

442

Guide for Science Laboratory Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…

McDermott, John J.

443

ORAD Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, the Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry specializes in the analysis of satellite altimeter data related to problems in physical oceanography and marine geophysics. The Web site provides links to currently active projects with information such as near-real time sea level altimeter data, historical data, European Space Agency data, geophysics data, and more.

1969-12-31

444

Stationary Engineering Laboratory Manual--2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Stationary Engineering Laboratory Manual 2 was designed for vocational/technical high school students who have received instruction in the basics of stationary engineering. It was developed for students who will be operating a live plant and who will be responsible for supplying steam for heating, cooking, and baking. Each lesson in the…

Steingress, Frederick M.; Frost, Harold J.

445

Biological Laboratory, Ann Arbor, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This laboratory located about 40 miles west of Detroit, near the intersection of highways I-94 and US-23, can be reached by bus, railroad, or via commercial airlines to Detroit Willow Run or Metropolitan airports. Field biological stations are located in Wisconsin at Ashland; in Ohio at Sandusky; and in Michigan at Ludington, Marquette, Millersburg, and Northville.

Moffett, James W.

1963-01-01

446

Laboratory Connections. Gas Monitoring Transducers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three types of sensors; pressure, gas detection, and relative humidity. Explains their use for laboratory measurements of gas pressure and detection of specific gaseous species. Shows diagrams of devices and circuits along with examples and applications including microcomputer interfacing. (RT)

Powers, Michael H.

1988-01-01

447

Preparing Chimpanzees for Laboratory Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chimpanzee is the only representative of the Great Apes that is extensively involved in biomedical research in primate laboratories. These apes are used as animal models in a variety of studies, including research on infectious disease, parasitic disease, pharmacokinetic studies, neuro- science, cognition, and behavior. Chimpanzees used in biomedical research in the United States reside largely in six specialized

Mollie A. Bloomsmith; Steven J. Schapiro; Elizabeth A. Strobert

448

The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

2010-01-01

449

Laboratory Animal Allergy: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allergic reactions are among the most common conditions affecting the health of workers involved in the care and use of research animals. Between 11 and 44% of the individuals working with laboratory animals report work-related aller- gic symptoms. Of those who become symptomatic, 4 to 22% may eventually develop occupational asthma that can persist even after exposure ceases. Allergic symptoms

Robert K. Bush; Gregg M. Stave

450

Laboratory voice data entry system.  

PubMed

We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a "tether" that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals. Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation. PMID:10631499

Praissman, J L; Sutherland, J C

1999-12-01

451

Computer vision and robotics laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Using computer vision to support real-time, intelligent robotic manipulation of objects, an australian laboratory is experimenting with a variety of equipment and algorithm combinations. The preliminary results shown in this article are indicative of the type of work supported in the laboratory. As in any laboratory situation, researchers are finding signs of encouragement as well as discovering some of the system's shortcomings as the exploration proceeds. On the positive side, it is becoming increasingly clear that combining range and color image data provides a rich data base for scene segmentation and that this is likely to support experiments in hand/eye manipulation with a fair degree of reliability. Further, it is fairly obvious that actually positioning the manipulator in the scene can permit a degree of feedback to enhance scene analysis and test interpretation hypotheses-something that cannot be provided by remote imaging and range scanning alone. On the negative side, however, it appears that special computing apparatus, including video stream and array image processing facilities, are going to be needed if relatively sophisticated, real-time hand/eye coordination is to become a reality. Knowing this, the laboratory is now aware of the direction it needs to move in. 34 references.

Jarvis, R.A.

1982-06-01

452

Laboratory Procedures for Medical Assistants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the manual is to provide the medical assisting student a text which presents the common laboratory procedures in use today in physician's offices. The procedures for performing a complete urinalysis are outlined, along with those for carrying out various hematological tests. Information is also presented to help the student learn…

Johnson, Pauline

453

Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and

Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez

1998-01-01

454

LABORATORY VOICE DATA ENTRY SYSTEM.  

SciTech Connect

We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.

PRAISSMAN,J.L.SUTHERLAND,J.C.

2003-04-01

455

The German infrared laboratory GIRL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design features, performance specifications, and intended missions of the German IR laboratory (GIRL) to be flown on the Spacelab payload carried by the Shuttle are outlined. The entire telescope and all focal plane instruments will be cooled to at or below 10 K. The 50 cm telescope will carry four focal plane instruments: a camera for mapping extended regions, a

D. Lemke

1982-01-01

456

Laboratory and Space Plasma Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on this contract, 'Laboratory and Space Plasma Studies,' Contract Number N00014-93-C-2178, SAIC Project Number 01-0157-03-6984, encompasses a wide range of topics in experimental,...

E. Hyman Y. Aglitsky O. Barr A. Bar-Shalom C. L. Chang

1996-01-01

457

Laboratory Procedures for Medical Assistants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the manual is to provide the medical assisting student a text which presents the common laboratory procedures in use today in physician's offices. The procedures for performing a complete urinalysis are outlined, along with those for carrying out various hematological tests. Information is also presented to help the student learn to…

Johnson, Pauline

458

Laboratory Exercise on Active Transport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…

Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.

1985-01-01

459

Engineering Water Analysis Laboratory Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of water treatment in a marine steam power plant are to prevent damage to boilers, steam-operated equipment, and steam and condensate lives, and to keep all equipment operating at the highest level of efficiency. This laboratory exercise is designed to provide students with experiences in making accurate boiler water tests and to…

Schlenker, Richard M.

460

Nanotechnology in clinical laboratory diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotechnology–the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer–has been applied to molecular diagnostics. This article reviews nanobiotechnologies that are clinically relevant and have the potential to be incorporated in clinical laboratory diagnosis. Nanotechnologies enable the diagnosis at single cell and molecule level and some of these can be incorporated in the

Kewal K. Jain

2005-01-01

461

CBRN mobile laboratories in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the experiences in Italy with the CBRN (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear) defense mobile laboratories. These laboratories were constructed by the Italian Army and the Italian Fire Brigades. The purpose of these mobile laboratories is to allow quick transport of the labs to the area of crisis in order to support emergency response in case of CBRN events. The differences between two alternative solutions will be developed in the paper. The first solution is when the lab is to be located in the "dangerous area" (this solution was chosen by the Italian Army) and the alternative approach is to place the mobile lab just outside the dangerous area (this approach was selected by the Italian Fire Brigades). One of the most important devices inside the lab is the isolator (also called "glove box") which allows safe ingress and handling of the "suspicious" samples from the external environment. The isolator has a special chamber for transfer of the sample from the outside. The pressure of the isolator is permanently kept below the air pressure inside the lab by means of one (or more) fan. The operators perform the sample preparations or part of the analysis by handling the sample with the gloves. The material flow inside the lab will be described depending on the kind of identification analysis to be done on the samples. Other devices installed on the mobile CBRN laboratories are: biohazard hood (UE regulation, containment level 2); autoclave; freezer; cleaning skid (tanks, pumps, etc.).

Mari, Giorgio; Giraudi, Giampaolo; Bellino, Mariarosa; Pazienza, Michele; Garibaldi, Claudio; Lancia, Corrado

2009-05-01

462

Engineering Water Analysis Laboratory Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purposes of water treatment in a marine steam power plant are to prevent damage to boilers, steam-operated equipment, and steam and condensate lives, and to keep all equipment operating at the highest level of efficiency. This laboratory exercise is designed to provide students with experiences in making accurate boiler water tests and to…

Schlenker, Richard M.

463

Electrical Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Electrical Characterization Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. Electrical Characterization Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) focuses on the detailed electrical characterization of components and systems. This laboratory allows researchers to test the ability of equipment to withstand high voltage surges and high current faults, including equipment using standard and advanced fuels such as hydrogen. Equipment that interconnected to the electric power grid is required to meet specific surge withstand capabilities. This type of application tests the ability of electrical equipment to survive a lightning strike on the main grid. These are often specified in IEEE standards such as IEEE Std. 1547. In addition, this lab provides a space for testing new, unproven, or potentially hazardous equipment for robust safety assessment prior to use in other labs at ESIF. The Electric Characterization Laboratory is in a location where new, possibly sensitive or secret equipment can be evaluated behind closed doors.

Not Available

2011-10-01

464

Laboratory Exercise on Active Transport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces…

Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.

1985-01-01

465

Planning for Shops and Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|General guidelines for educators and architects in planning for industrial education, shops, and laboratory facilities necessary to the instructional program, are provided. Characteristics of the environment discussed are as follows--(1) spatial, (2) thermal, (3) visual, (4) sonic, and (5) aesthetic. Utility services covered are electrical power,…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of School Planning.

466

The European Microwave Signature Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper describes in short a new research facility which has been installed at the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities in Ispra, Italy. This unique measurement laboratory for signature research has been inaugurated and presented to the public in April 1992. At this occasion the JRC also distributed an announcement of research and experiment

A. J. Sieber

1992-01-01

467

Neuroscience Laboratory and Classroom Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is part of a larger project involving partnerships between high school biology teachers and neuroscientists. It contains neuroscience laboratories and classroom activities, most of which provide opportunities for students to design and conduct their own experiments. Each lab contains directions for both teachers and students and…

Bellamy, Mary Louise Ed.; Frame, Kathy Ed.

468

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the offering of a course in chemical and industrial hazards for junior and senior chemistry majors at City College of New York in 1972. Suggests inclusion of laboratory and industrial safety education as a formal part of chemistry or science curricula. (CC)

Steere, Norman V., Ed.

1974-01-01

469

A Unified Introductory Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Laboratory procedures are explained for taking benzoic acid and using it or one of its derivatives throughout an introductory lab course. Synthesis, purification, weight determination, identification of an acid, equilibrium constant, salt preparation, salt analysis, and salt solubility measurements are involved in the semester's experience. (DS)|

Splittgerber, A. G.; And Others

1971-01-01

470

Advanced Safeguards Technology Demonstration at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted over a specified time frame. Currently, methods to verify that the facilities are operating under adequate safeguard-declared conditions require time consuming sampling and expensive, destructive analysis. The time delay

Leah M. Arrigo; Samuel A. Bryan; Richard Christensen; Matthew Douglas; Douglas C. Duckworth; Carlos G. Fraga; Tatiana G. Levitskaia; Martin Liezers; Christopher R. Orton; Shane M. Peper; Jon M. Schwantes

2010-01-01

471

CURRENT STATUS OF INTERNAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE LABORATORIES IN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several Technical Documents related to internal dos imetry have been released by the IAEA and ICRP after nuclear and radiological accidents, such as the Che rnobyl and Goiânia. However, standard bioassay procedures and methodologies for bioassay data interpretation are still under discussion and, in some cases, not well understood by the professionals involved in this sp ecific field of radiation

BM Dantas; JCS Cardoso; MHT Tadei; LQC Julião; MF Lima

472

Modeling the TrueBeam linac using a CAD to Geant4 geometry implementation: Dose and IAEA-compliant phase space calculations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To create an accurate 6 MV Monte Carlo simulation phase space for the Varian TrueBeam treatment head geometry imported from cad (computer aided design) without adjusting the input electron phase space parameters. Methods: geant4 v4.9.2.p01 was employed to simulate the 6 MV beam treatment head geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac. The electron tracks in the linear accelerator were simulated with Parmela, and the obtained electron phase space was used as an input to the Monte Carlo beam transport and dose calculations. The geometry components are tessellated solids included in geant4 as gdml (generalized dynamic markup language) files obtained via STEP (standard for the exchange of product) export from Pro/Engineering, followed by STEP import in Fastrad, a STEP-gdml converter. The linac has a compact treatment head and the small space between the shielding collimator and the divergent arc of the upper jaws forbids the implementation of a plane for storing the phase space. Instead, an IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) compliant phase space writer was implemented on a cylindrical surface. The simulation was run in parallel on a 1200 node Linux cluster. The 6 MV dose calculations were performed for field sizes varying from 4 x 4 to 40 x 40 cm{sup 2}. The voxel size for the 60x60x40 cm{sup 3} water phantom was 4x4x4 mm{sup 3}. For the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field, surface buildup calculations were performed using 4x4x2 mm{sup 3} voxels within 20 mm of the surface. Results: For the depth dose curves, 98% of the calculated data points agree within 2% with the experimental measurements for depths between 2 and 40 cm. For depths between 5 and 30 cm, agreement within 1% is obtained for 99% (4x4), 95% (10x10), 94% (20x20 and 30x30), and 89% (40x40) of the data points, respectively. In the buildup region, the agreement is within 2%, except at 1 mm depth where the deviation is 5% for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} open field. For the lateral dose profiles, within the field size for fields up to 30x