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Sample records for iarc reevaluates silica

  1. The IARC monographs: critics and controversy.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2015-07-01

    The monograph program of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which relies on the efforts of volunteer Working Groups, uses a transparent approach to evaluate the carcinogenicity of agents for which scoping has determined that there is sufficient evidence to warrant a review. Because of the potentially powerful implications of the conclusions of the monographs and the sometimes challenging nature of the evidence reviewed, the monographs and the IARC process have been criticized from time to time. This commentary describes the IARC monograph process and addresses recent criticisms of the program, drawing on a recent defense of the program authored by 124 researchers. These authors concluded that the IARC processes are robust and transparent and not flawed and biased as suggested by some critics. PMID:25943987

  2. [IARC evaluations: how are they conducted and what suggestions are derived therefrom?].

    PubMed

    Piolatto, P G; Pira, E

    2007-01-01

    The IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans are considered by several Institutions a point of reference for the prevention of adverse effects (namely cancer) of occupational exposures. The conclusions which lead to the Classification of a substance or an industrial process are the results of a vote within a Working Group of experts and are expressed in terms of "evidence" based on both epidemiological and experimental data or "other relevant data". Several points are discussed which include the methods of identification of the experts, the criteria of evaluation of the available data, the meaning of some definitions and finally the impact of IARC conclusions and Classification on Public Health regulations and secondarily on compensation procedures or trial decisions. Three recent examples regarding the Classification of Free Crystalline Silica, Shift-Work and Vinyl Chloride Monomer, which cannot be accepted as such without some criticism, are reported. In conclusion the Authors appreciate the effort of the IARC to provide a source of information which "may assist national and international authorities in making risk assessments and in formulating decisions concerning any necessary preventive measures". However, they suggest that the IARC "overall evaluation" should not be taken as confidently as if no doubt at all would exist on the final statement and the consequent Classification. Some suggestions as to the solution of the question are also provided. PMID:18409257

  3. Man-made mineral (vitreous) fibres: evaluations of cancer hazards by the IARC Monographs Programme.

    PubMed

    Baan, Robert A; Grosse, Yann

    2004-09-01

    Man-made vitreous (glass-like) fibres are non-crystalline, fibrous inorganic substances (silicates) made primarily from rock, slag, glass or other processed minerals. These materials, also called man-made mineral fibres, include glass fibres (used in glass wool and continuous glass filament), rock or stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibres. They are widely used for thermal and acoustical insulation and to a lesser extent for other purposes. These products are potentially hazardous to human health because they release airborne respirable fibres during their production, use and removal. Man-made mineral fibres and man-made vitreous fibres have been the subject of reviews by IARC Monographs Working Groups in 1987 and 2001, respectively, which resulted in evaluations of the carcinogenic hazard to humans from exposure to these materials. These reviews and evaluations have been published as Volumes 43 and 81 of the IARC Monographs series [IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 43, Man-made Mineral Fibres and Radon (1988); IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 81, Man-made Vitreous Fibres (2002)]. The re-evaluation in 2001 was undertaken because there have been substantial improvements in the quality of the epidemiological information available on the carcinogenicity to humans of glass fibres, continuous glass filament and rock/slag wool. The new evaluations have addressed the limitations of earlier cohort studies, particularly concerning the lack of adjustment with respect to concomitant risk factors such as smoking and other sources of occupational exposure. In addition, the evaluation of the evidence for carcinogenicity of glass fibres to experimental animals has been refined, by making a distinction between insulation glass wool and special-purpose glass fibres. The results of the evaluations in 1987 and 2001 are thus different in several aspects. In this paper, the reviews and evaluations

  4. IARC Classification of Cell Phones as “Possible Carcinogen”

    Cancer.gov

    The World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) today classified mobile phone use and other radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as a possible carcinogen (group 2B). This is neither new research nor at odds with previous findings.

  5. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Beland, Frederick A.; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Brownson, Ross C.; Bucher, John R.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W.; Christiani, David C.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A.; Dement, John M.; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K.; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A.; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H.; Lynch, Charles F.; Lynge, Elsebeth; ‘t Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J.; McLaughlin, John R.; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A.; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E.; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F.; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P.; Perry, Melissa J.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B.; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M.; Sandler, Dale P.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H.; Smith, Martyn T.; Spinelli, John J.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T.; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E.; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G.; Ward, Elizabeth M.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives: The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. Discussion: We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. Conclusions: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public’s health. Citation: Pearce N, Blair A, Vineis P, Ahrens W, Andersen A, Anto JM, Armstrong BK, Baccarelli AA, Beland FA, Berrington A, Bertazzi PA, Birnbaum LS, Brownson RC, Bucher JR, Cantor KP

  6. An IARC evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as risk factors in human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, D B; Partensky, C; Wilbourn, J; Rice, J M

    1998-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs program reevaluated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and evaluated polychlorinated dibenzofurans as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans in February 1997, using the most recent epidemiologic data on exposed human populations, experimental carcinogenicity bioassays in laboratory animals, and supporting evidence on relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was evaluated as carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 1 classification) on the basis of limited evidence of carcinogenicity to humans derived from follow-up of workers who had been heavily exposed in industrial accidents and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. The evaluation also considered the following supporting evidence: TCDD is a multisite carcinogen in experimental animals and has been shown by several lines of evidence to act through a mechanism involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; this receptor is highly conserved in an evolutionary sense and functions the same way in humans as in experimental animals; tissue concentrations of TCDD are similar in heavily exposed human populations in which an increased overall cancer risk was observed and in exposed rats that developed tumors in carcinogenicity tests. Other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, the nonchlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans were evaluated as not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (group 3). PMID:9599727

  7. Research Recommendations for Selected IARC-Classified Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Elizabeth M.; Schulte, Paul A.; Straif, Kurt; Hopf, Nancy B.; Caldwell, Jane C.; Carreón, Tania; DeMarini, David M.; Fowler, Bruce A.; Goldstein, Bernard D.; Hemminki, Kari; Hines, Cynthia J.; Pursiainen, Kirsti Husgafvel; Kuempel, Eileen; Lewtas, Joellen; Lunn, Ruth M.; Lynge, Elsebeth; McElvenny, Damien M.; Muhle, Hartwig; Nakajima, Tamie; Robertson, Larry W.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M.; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra; Smith, Martyn T.; Sorahan, Tom; Steenland, Kyle; Stevens, Richard G.; Vineis, Paolo; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Zeise, Lauren; Cogliano, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives There are some common occupational agents and exposure circumstances for which evidence of carcinogenicity is substantial but not yet conclusive for humans. Our objectives were to identify research gaps and needs for 20 agents prioritized for review based on evidence of widespread human exposures and potential carcinogenicity in animals or humans. Data sources For each chemical agent (or category of agents), a systematic review was conducted of new data published since the most recent pertinent International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph meeting on that agent. Data extraction Reviewers were charged with identifying data gaps and general and specific approaches to address them, focusing on research that would be important in resolving classification uncertainties. An expert meeting brought reviewers together to discuss each agent and the identified data gaps and approaches. Data synthesis Several overarching issues were identified that pertained to multiple agents; these included the importance of recognizing that carcinogenic agents can act through multiple toxicity pathways and mechanisms, including epigenetic mechanisms, oxidative stress, and immuno- and hormonal modulation. Conclusions Studies in occupational populations provide important opportunities to understand the mechanisms through which exogenous agents cause cancer and intervene to prevent human exposure and/or prevent or detect cancer among those already exposed. Scientific developments are likely to increase the challenges and complexities of carcinogen testing and evaluation in the future, and epidemiologic studies will be particularly critical to inform carcinogen classification and risk assessment processes. PMID:20562050

  8. Carcinogenicity of the insulation wools: reassessment of the IARC evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C; Davis, J M; Douglas, D; Gruber, U F; Hoskins, J A; Ilgren, E B; Johnson, N F; Rossiter, C E; Wagner, J C

    1991-08-01

    In assessing the health evidence concerning man-made mineral fibers, the chemical composition, surface activity, durability, and size of fibers have to be taken into account. Special-purpose fine glass fibers need to be separated from the insulation wools (glass, rock, and slag wool). The epidemiological evidence is sufficient to conclude that there has been no mesothelioma risk to workers producing or using glass wool, rock wool, or slag wool. The epidemiological studies have been large and powerful, and they show no evidence of a cause-effect relationship between lung cancer and exposure to glass wool, rock wool, or slag wool fibers. There is some evidence of a small cancer hazard attached to the manufacturing process in slag wool plants 20 to 50 years ago, when asbestos was used in some products and other carcinogenic substances were present. However, this hazard is not associated with any index of exposure to slag wool itself. Animal inhalation studies of ordinary insulation wools also show that there is no evidence of hazard associated with exposure to these relatively coarse, soluble fibers. The evidence of carcinogenicity is limited to experiments with special-purpose fine durable glass fibers or experimental fibers, and only when these fibers are injected directly into the pleural or peritoneal cavity. Multiple chronic inhalation studies of these same special-purpose fine glass fibers have not produced evidence of carcinogenicity. It is suggested that the present IARC evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of insulation wools should be revised to Category 3: not classifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans. PMID:1947241

  9. Classification of man-made vitreous fibers: Comments on the revaluation by an IARC working group.

    PubMed

    Wardenbach, P; Rödelsperger, K; Roller, M; Muhle, H

    2005-11-01

    In 2001, an IARC working group revaluated the carcinogenic risks of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF). Compared with the IARC evaluation in 1987, the overall evaluations of insulation glass wool, rock (stone) wool, and slag wool were changed from Group 2B to Group 3. These changes ensued from an alteration in the evidence for cancer in humans and in experimental animals: Instead of "sufficient," the evidence for cancer in experimental animals is now looked upon as "limited" if there is a carcinogenic response after intraperitoneal injection but not after recently conducted inhalation experiments. For these studies, it is argued that they did properly address the technological limitations of earlier inhalation experiments. For Maxim and McConnell [Maxim L.D., McConnell E.E., 2001. Interspecies comparisons of the toxicity of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fibers: a weight-of-the-evidence approach. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 33, 319-342], well-conducted inhalation studies are very sensitive and rats may be more sensitive than humans in detecting the carcinogenic potential of MMVF. However, their arguments are highly questionable. The explanations of the IARC working group for preferring the newer inhalation studies are not sufficiently supported by the published data. Having in mind the higher sensitivity of humans compared to rats after inhalation of asbestos, more emphasis should have been given to the carcinogenic response after intraperitoneal injection. PMID:16099571

  10. Reevaluation. Quick Turn Around (QTA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Alexandria, VA.

    This report discusses the results of a survey of 32 states and the Department of Defense Dependent Schools (DODDS) regarding the reevaluation of students who are classified as having a disability under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It summarizes provisions governing reevaluation in IDEA, describes the methodology of the…

  11. TP53 Variations in Human Cancers: New Lessons from the IARC TP53 Database and Genomics Data.

    PubMed

    Bouaoun, Liacine; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Ardin, Maude; Hollstein, Monica; Byrnes, Graham; Zavadil, Jiri; Olivier, Magali

    2016-09-01

    TP53 gene mutations are one of the most frequent somatic events in cancer. The IARC TP53 Database (http://p53.iarc.fr) is a popular resource that compiles occurrence and phenotype data on TP53 germline and somatic variations linked to human cancer. The deluge of data coming from cancer genomic studies generates new data on TP53 variations and attracts a growing number of database users for the interpretation of TP53 variants. Here, we present the current contents and functionalities of the IARC TP53 Database and perform a systematic analysis of TP53 somatic mutation data extracted from this database and from genomic data repositories. This analysis showed that IARC has more TP53 somatic mutation data than genomic repositories (29,000 vs. 4,000). However, the more complete screening achieved by genomic studies highlighted some overlooked facts about TP53 mutations, such as the presence of a significant number of mutations occurring outside the DNA-binding domain in specific cancer types. We also provide an update on TP53 inherited variants including the ones that should be considered as neutral frequent variations. We thus provide an update of current knowledge on TP53 variations in human cancer as well as inform users on the efficient use of the IARC TP53 Database. PMID:27328919

  12. Carcinogenic hazards from inhaled carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc not containing asbestos or asbestiform fibers: recent evaluations by an IARC Monographs Working Group.

    PubMed

    Baan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    In February 2006, an IARC Monographs Working Group reevaluated the carcinogenic hazards to humans of carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc, which belong to the group of poorly soluble, low-toxicity particles. The review of the relevant literature and the evaluations by the Working Group will be published in Volume 93 of the IARC Monographs series. This article summarizes the Working Group's conclusions. Epidemiological studies among workers in carbon black production and in the rubber industry provided inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity. The overall data from cancer studies in rodents exposed to carbon black provided sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity. The Working Group evaluated carbon black as possibly carcinogenic to humans, Group 2B. Reviewing the epidemiological studies in the titanium dioxide production industry, the Working Group concluded that there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity. Overall, the results from rodent cancer studies with titanium dioxide were considered to provide sufficient evidence. Titanium dioxide was evaluated as possibly carcinogenic to humans, Group 2B. Epidemiological studies on talc miners and millers provided inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity of inhaled talc not containing asbestos or asbestiform fibers. The evidence from rodent cancer studies was considered limited. The Working Group evaluated inhaled talc not containing asbestos or asbestiform fibers as not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans, Group 3. The Working Group noted that prolonged exposure to inhaled particles at sufficiently high concentrations in experimental animals may lead to impairment of normal clearance mechanisms in the alveolar region of the lung, resulting in a continued buildup of particles that eventually leads to excessive lung burdens accompanied by chronic alveolar inflammation. The inflammatory response may give rise to increased generation of reactive oxygen species, cell injury, cell proliferation, fibrosis

  13. Use of mechanistic data in the IARC evaluations of the carcinogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Lauby-Secretan, Béatrice; Loomis, Dana; Baan, Robert; El Ghissassi, Fatiha; Bouvard, Véronique; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Guha, Neela; Grosse, Yann; Straif, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The IARC Monographs are a series of scientific reviews that identify environmental factors that can increase the risk of cancer in humans. In its first part, the principles and procedures of the IARC Monographs evaluations are summarized. In a second part, we present the most recent IARC evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), performed in February 2013: PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs were both classified into group 1 "carcinogens," while PBBs were evaluated as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (group 2A). Noteworthy is that the relative contributions of different PCB congeners to the carcinogenicity of PCB mixtures are not known. The use of mechanistic data for the classification into a higher category is discussed in the context of the history of the consecutive evaluations of several related polychlorinated compounds. PMID:26077316

  14. Meeting Report: Summary of IARC Monographs on Formaldehyde, 2-Butoxyethanol, and 1-tert-Butoxy-2-Propanol

    PubMed Central

    Cogliano, Vincent James; Grosse, Yann; Baan, Robert A.; Straif, Kurt; Secretan, Marie Béatrice; Ghissassi, Fatiha El

    2005-01-01

    An international, interdisciplinary working group of expert scientists met in June 2004 to develop IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans (IARC Monographs) on formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, and 1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol. Each IARC Monograph includes a critical review of the pertinent scientific literature and an evaluation of an agent’s potential to cause cancer in humans. After a thorough discussion of the epidemiologic, experimental, and other relevant data, the working group concluded that formaldehyde is carcinogenic to humans, based on sufficient evidence in humans and in experimental animals. In the epidemiologic studies, there was sufficient evidence that formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer, “strong but not sufficient” evidence of leukemia, and limited evidence of sinonasal cancer. The working group also concluded that 2-butoxyethanol and 1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans, each having limited evidence in experimental animals and inadequate evidence in humans. These three evaluations and the supporting data will be-published as Volume 88 of the IARC Monographs. PMID:16140628

  15. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments. PMID:20962033

  16. Comparison between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity based on chemicals evaluated in the IARC monographs.

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, H; Tomatis, L

    1983-01-01

    The qualitative relationship between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity (DNA-damaging activity), based on chemicals which are known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic to man and/or to experimental animals, is analyzed using 532 chemicals evaluated in Volumes 1-25 of the IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. About 40 compounds (industrial processes) were found to be either definitely or probably carcinogenic to man, and 130 chemicals have been adequately tested in rodents and most of them also in various short-term assays. For a comparison between the carcinogenicity of a chemical and its behavior in short-term tests, systems were selected that have a value for predicting carcinogenicity. These were divided into mutagenicity in (A) the S. typhimurium/microsome assay, (B) other submammalian systems and (C) cultured mammalian cells; (D) chromosomal abnormalities in mammalian cells; (E) DNA damage and repair; (F) cell transformation (or altered growth properties) in vitro. The following conclusions can be drawn. In the absence of studies in man, long-term animal tests are still today the only ones capable of providing evidence of the carcinogenic effect of a chemical. The development and application of an appropriate combination of short-term tests (despite current limitations) can significantly contribute to the prediction/confirmation of the carcinogenic effects of chemicals in animals/man. Confidence in positive tests results is increased when they are confirmed in multiple short-term tests using nonrepetitive end points and different activation systems. Assays to detect carcinogens which do not act via electrophiles (promoters) need to be developed. The results of a given short-term test should be interpreted in the context of other toxicological data. Increasing demand for quantitative carcinogenicity data requires further examination of whether or not there is a quantitative relationship between the potency of a

  17. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population. PMID:24694836

  18. 77 FR 59675 - Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... was needed in the areas of seismic and flooding design, and emergency preparedness. In addition to... licensees reevaluate flooding hazards at nuclear power plant sites using updated flooding hazard...

  19. 34 CFR 300.303 - Reevaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reevaluations. 300.303 Section 300.303 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Evaluations,...

  20. 14 CFR 161.409 - Required analysis by reevaluation petitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required analysis by reevaluation... Stage 3 Restrictions § 161.409 Required analysis by reevaluation petitioner. (a) An aircraft operator that has petitioned the FAA to reevaluate a restriction shall assume the burden of analysis for...

  1. Silica nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, N

    2010-07-01

    Occupational exposure to heavy metals, organic solvents and silica is associated with a variety of renal manifestations. Improved understanding of occupational renal disease provides insight into environmental renal disease, improving knowledge of disease pathogenesis. Silica (SiO2) is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. Workers exposed to silica include sandblasters, miners, quarry workers, masons, ceramic workers and glass manufacturers. New cases of silicosis per year have been estimated in the US to be 3600-7300. Exposure to silica has been associated with tubulointerstitial disease, immune-mediated multisystem disease, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. A rare syndrome of painful, nodular skin lesions has been described in dialysis patients with excessive levels of silicon. Balkan endemic nephropathy is postulated to be due to chronic intoxication with drinking water polluted by silicates released during soil erosion. The mechanism of silica nephrotoxicity is thought to be through direct nephrotoxicity, as well as silica-induced autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus. The renal histopathology varies from focal to crescentic and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with aneurysm formation suggestive of polyarteritis nodosa. The treatment for silica nephrotoxicity is non-specific and depends on the mechanism and stage of the disease. It is quite clear that further research is needed, particularly to elucidate the pathogenesis of silica nephropathy. Considering the importance of diagnosing exposure-related renal disease at early stages, it is imperative to obtain a thorough occupational history in all patients with renal disease, with particular emphasis on exposure to silica, heavy metals, and solvents. PMID:23022796

  2. Does the crystal habit modulate the genotoxic potential of silica particles? A cytogenetic evaluation in human and murine cell lines.

    PubMed

    Guidi, P; Nigro, M; Bernardeschi, M; Lucchesi, P; Scarcelli, V; Frenzilli, G

    2015-10-01

    Crystalline silica inhaled from occupational sources has been classified by IARC as carcinogenic to humans; in contrast, for amorphous silica, epidemiological and experimental evidence remains insufficient. The genotoxicity of crystalline silica is still debated because of the inconsistency of experimental results ("variability of silica hazard"), often related to the features of the particle surfaces. We have assessed the role of crystal habit in the genotoxicity of silica powders. Pure quartz (crystalline) and vitreous silica (amorphous), sharing the same surface features, were used in an in vitro study with human pulmonary epithelial (A549) and murine macrophage (RAW264.7) cell lines, representative of occupational and environmental exposures. Genotoxicity was evaluated by the comet and micronucleus assays, and cytotoxicity by the trypan blue method. Cells were treated with silica powders for 4 and 24h. Quartz but not vitreous silica caused cell death and DNA damage in RAW264.7 cells. A549 cells were relatively resistant to both powders. Our results support the view that crystal habit per se plays a pivotal role in modulating the biological responses to silica particles. PMID:26433261

  3. The Need to Reevaluate Nonresponding Ergonomic Patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, Philip J.; Field, Steven A.

    1999-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Environmental Health (EH) contractor performs ergonomic evaluations under its Ergonomic Program. Any KSC employee may request one or the reviewing physician may request one for a patient during a visit to an onsite medical facility. As part of the ergonomic evaluation, recommendations are given to the patient to help reduce any ergonomic problems they experience. The recommendations, if implemented, are successful in the majority of KSC patients; however, a group of patients do not seem to improve. Those who don't improve may be identified by reevaluations, which are performed to implement maximum resolution of ergonomic problems.

  4. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Saterlie, S.F.; Garza, J.C. de la

    1994-12-31

    Because performance standards are not established for the Yucca Mountain Site (the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been remanded), it is necessary to define surrogate or derived criteria to evaluate performance. The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) in 1988 attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish repository performance. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. This paper reports on a two month effort undertaken to reevaluate the SCP thermal goals using an expert Working Group. Fifteen thermal goals identified in various sections of the SCP were evaluated by the Working Group. It was recommended that two goals be deleted: (1) to keep borehole wall temperature < 275 degrees C and keep the mid-drift temperature < 100 degrees C. It was also recommended that one goal be added to establish a thermal loading that would not degrade the Upper Paintbrush Tuff Formation (Lowermost Tiva Canyon; Yucca Mountain; Pah Canyon; and Uppermost Topopah Spring Members) (Vitric nonwelded) (PTn) barrier. Two other thermal goals and a process statement were reworded to afford compatibility with any emplacement mode, not just the vertical borehole. A recommendation was made to increase the conservatism of a goal to limit potential impact on the surface environment by limiting temperature rise to < 2 degrees C rather than < 6 degrees C. This revised set of goals was used in the Thermal Loading Systems Study.

  5. 23 CFR 771.129 - Re-evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Re-evaluations. 771.129 Section 771.129 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.129 Re-evaluations. (a) A written evaluation of the draft EIS shall be...

  6. 23 CFR 771.129 - Re-evaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Re-evaluations. 771.129 Section 771.129 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.129 Re-evaluations. (a) A written evaluation of the draft EIS shall be...

  7. In vitro comet and micronucleus assays do not predict morphological transforming effects of silica particles in Syrian Hamster Embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Darne, Christian; Coulais, Catherine; Terzetti, Francine; Fontana, Caroline; Binet, Stéphane; Gaté, Laurent; Guichard, Yves

    2016-01-15

    Crystalline silica particles and asbestos have both been classified as carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). However, because of the limited data available, amorphous silica was not classifiable. In vitro, the carcinogenic potential of natural crystalline and amorphous silica particles has been revealed by the Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay. On the other hand, the genotoxic potential of those substances has not been investigated in SHE cells. And yet, genotoxicity assays are commonly used for hazard evaluation and they are often used as in vitro assays of reference to predict a possible carcinogenic potential. The main objective of this study was to compare the genotoxic potential and the carcinogenic potential of different crystalline and amorphous silica particles in SHE cells. Three silica samples of different crystallinity were used: natural amorphous silica, partially crystallized silica and quartz silica particles. Their genotoxicity were tested through the in vitro micronucleus assay and the comet assay in SHE, and their carcinogenic potential through the SHE transformation assay. In addition, silica samples were also tested with the same genotoxicity assays in V79 hamster-lung cells, a common in vitro model for particle exposure. Results obtained in the micronucleus and the comet assays show that none of the silica was capable of inducing genotoxic effects in SHE cells and only the amorphous silica induced genotoxic effects in V79 cells. However in the SHE cell transformation assays, the partially crystallized and quartz silica were able to induce morphological cell transformation. Together, these data suggest that, in vitro, the short-term genotoxic assays alone are not sufficient to predict the hazard and the carcinogenic potential of this type of particles; SHE transformation assay appears a more reliable tool for this purpose and should be included in the "in vitro battery assays" for hazard

  8. The personal myth: a re-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sirois, François

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a re-evaluation of Kris's personal myth. The notion has been used rather sparingly despite the Delphi Symposium in 1984 on the question of its clinical usefulness. After framing the notion of myth, some difficulties related to the question are identified. A clinical vignette exemplifies some of the ambiguities in its definition but stresses its clinical relevance. A discussion expands on these situations so as to propose three various aspects of personal myths to account for the two variants identified by Kris. The actualization of the underlying fantasy in the character organization is a third form and the technical aspect associated with it is reviewed from a new perspective. The family romance is revisited to reassess its role as the basis of the personal myth in the face of studies favouring an earlier development of the myth. PMID:24580376

  9. Site characterization plan thermal goals reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-08

    The Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988) attempted to define surrogate criteria that could be used to establish potential repository performance. These criteria or SCP thermal goals were developed from knowledge existing at the time and, as a reference case, emphasized performance for waste emplacement in a vertical borehole. Since that time, new knowledge has become available and some additional analyses of thermal loading have been performed. Additionally, other emplacement modes such as in-drift emplacement are being considered to accommodate larger waste packages. New concepts such as ``extended hot`` are also being considered as possible methods to achieve improved waste isolation. Thus it became clear that the thermal goals established in the SCP should be reevaluated. A Working Group was formed to reassess the SCP thermal goals to determine whether each goal was still valid, if there were goals that needed to be added, and what if any effort was needed to reduce the uncertainty associated with a particular goal. The objectives of the effort were to: (1) provide thermal goals that would support the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Systems Study; (2) help focus the planned testing and analysis efforts; and (3) acquire data that potentially could be used to initiate a change to the project technical baseline. Sixteen thermal goals were evaluated; fifteen were from various sections of the SCP; one goal was added, and another was split into two to include in-drift emplacement. The group`s findings and recommendations are presented.

  10. 14 CFR 161.407 - Notice of reevaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS Reevaluation of Stage 3 Restrictions..., operators of aircraft based at the airport, potential new entrants that are known to be interested...

  11. Reevaluation of compressible-flow Preston tube calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Revised zero-pressure-gradient, adiabatic wall skin-friction-balance data covering a Mach number range from 1.6 to 4.6 led to a reevaluation of existing compressible flow Preston tube calibration equations.

  12. Reevaluation of erythropoietin production by the nephron.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takanori; Yasuoka, Yukiko; Izumi, Yuichiro; Horikawa, Kahori; Kimura, Miho; Nakayama, Yushi; Uematsu, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Takashi; Yamazaki, Taiga; Kohda, Yukimasa; Hasuike, Yukiko; Nanami, Masayoshi; Kuragano, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Noritada; Obinata, Masuo; Tomita, Kimio; Tanoue, Akito; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Nonoguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-06-27

    Erythropoietin production has been reported to occur in the peritubular interstitial fibroblasts in the kidney. Since the erythropoietin production in the nephron is controversial, we reevaluated the erythropoietin production in the kidney. We examined mRNA expressions of erythropoietin and HIF PHD2 using high-sensitive in situ hybridization system (ISH) and protein expression of HIF PHD2 using immunohistochemistry in the kidney. We further investigated the mechanism of erythropoietin production by hypoxia in vitro using human liver hepatocell (HepG2) and rat intercalated cell line (IN-IC cells). ISH in mice showed mRNA expression of erythropoietin in proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs), distal convoluted tubules (DCTs) and cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) but not in the peritubular cells under normal conditions. Hypoxia induced mRNA expression of erythropoietin largely in peritubular cells and slightly in PCTs, DCTs, and CCDs. Double staining with AQP3 or AE1 indicated that erythropoietin mRNA expresses mainly in β-intercalated or non α/non β-intercalated cells of the collecting ducts. Immunohistochemistry in rat showed the expression of HIF PHD2 in the collecting ducts and peritubular cells and its increase by anemia in peritubular cells. In IN-IC cells, hypoxia increased mRNA expression of erythropoietin, erythropoietin concentration in the medium and protein expression of HIF PHD2. These data suggest that erythropoietin is produced by the cortical nephrons mainly in the intercalated cells, but not in the peritubular cells, in normal hematopoietic condition and by mainly peritubular cells in hypoxia, suggesting the different regulation mechanism between the nephrons and peritubular cells. PMID:24832733

  13. [Backgrounds for assessing occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust in Poland and worldwide].

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Crystalline silica is an agent harmful to human health, and quite frequently present in occupational environments. Occupational groups exposed to crystalline silica dust include mostly workers of the mineral and coal mining as well as metallurgical, chemical and construction industries. In the European Union (EU), the number of those exposed to this agent is estimated at over 2 million persons. In Poland, the number of people employed under conditions of excessive silica dust exposure exceeds 50 thousand. The assessment of occupational exposure to crystalline silica comprises several steps: primarily workplace determinations, quantitative sample analyses and comparisons of the obtained results with admissible values. This work describes a set of instruments that enables direct comparison of the study results with admissible values binding in almost 40 countries. It also highlights the consequences resulting from the classification of quartz and cristobalite, the most common forms of crystalline silica, as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). A survey of air sampling and dust determination methods used in various countries to measure airborne dust concentrations of crystalline silica in occupational environments are presented along with relevant tables. The GESTIS data base, specifying the methods considered by EU as suitable for measuring and assessing harmful agents, was used as the selection criterion. Particular attention was paid to the methods used to determine crystalline silica; the effect of analytical methods applied, sample preparation procedures, and reference materials on the results of determinations was also analyzed. Main parameters of method validation, such as detection and determination limits, and precision of the analysis were compared. PMID:18041202

  14. Multifunctional mesoporous silica catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Victor Shang-Yi; Tsai, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Hung-Ting; Pruski, Marek; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2015-03-31

    The present invention provides bifunctional silica mesoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles ("MSN"), having pores modified with diarylammonium triflate and perfluoroaryl moieties, that are useful for the acid-catalyzed esterification of organic acids with organic alcohols.

  15. What Is Crystalline Silica?

    MedlinePlus

    ... silica, and requires a repirator protection program until engineering controls are implemented. Additionally, OSHA has a National ... silica materials with safer substitutes, whenever possible. ■ Provide engineering or administrative controls, where feasible, such as local ...

  16. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) reactor shutdown system reliability reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.F.

    1986-07-01

    The reliability analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor shutdown system was reevaluated. Failure information based on five years of plant operating experience was used to verify original reliability numbers or to establish new ones. Also, system modifications made subsequent to performance of the original analysis were incorporated into the reevaluation. Reliability calculations and sensitivity analyses were performed using a commercially available spreadsheet on a personal computer. The spreadsheet was configured so that future failures could be tracked and compared with expected failures. A number of recommendations resulted from the reevaluation including both increased and decreased surveillance intervals. All recommendations were based on meeting or exceeding existing reliability goals. Considerable cost savings will be incurred upon implementation of the recommendations.

  17. Silica extraction from geothermal water

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, William L; Bruton, Carol J

    2014-09-23

    A method of producing silica from geothermal fluid containing low concentration of the silica of less than 275 ppm includes the steps of treating the geothermal fluid containing the silica by reverse osmosis treatment thereby producing a concentrated fluid containing the silica, seasoning the concentrated fluid thereby producing a slurry having precipitated colloids containing the silica, and separating the silica from the slurry.

  18. 14 CFR 161.403 - Criteria for reevaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS Reevaluation of Stage 3 Restrictions... shall be based on the divergence of actual noise impact of the restriction from the estimated noise... B of this part that affect Stage 3 aircraft operations. An aircraft operator may submit to the...

  19. 12 CFR 1026.59 - Reevaluation of rate increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reevaluation of rate increases. 1026.59 Section... credit plan. (2) Rate increases imposed between January 1, 2009 and February 21, 2010. For rate increases imposed between January 1, 2009 and February 21, 2010, an issuer must consider the factors described...

  20. 34 CFR 300.305 - Additional requirements for evaluations and reevaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Individualized Education Programs, and Educational Placements Evaluations and Reevaluations § 300.305 Additional requirements for evaluations and reevaluations. (a) Review of existing evaluation data. As part of an initial evaluation (if appropriate) and as part of any reevaluation under this part, the IEP Team and other...

  1. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Re-evaluation of environmental....47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A responsible entity must re-evaluate its environmental findings to determine if the original findings are still...

  2. Silica-Ceria Hybrid Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Baer, Donald R.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2012-04-25

    A new hybrid material system that consists of ceria attached silica nanoparticles has been developed. Because of the versatile properties of silica and versatile properties of silica and versatile properties of silica and versatile properties of silica and versatile properties of silica and versatile properties of silica and versatile properties of silica and versatile properties of silica and versatile properties of silica and versatile properties of silica and versatile properties of silica and versatile properties of silica and antioxidant properties of ceria nanoparticles, this material system is ideally suited for biomedical applications. The silica particles of size ~50nm were synthesized by the Stöber synthesis method and ceria nanoparticles of size ~2-3nm was attached to the silica surface using a hetrocoagulation method. The presence of silanol groups on the surface of silica particles mediated homogenous nucleation of ceria which were attached to silica surface by Si-O-Ce bonding. The formations of silica-ceria hybrid nanostructures were characterized by X-photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM image confirms the formation of individual crystallites of ceria nanoparticles attached to the silica surface. The XPS analysis indicates that ceria nanoparticles are chemically bonded to surface of silica and possess mixture of +3 and +4 chemical states.

  3. Silazane to silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1992-01-01

    Thin film silica and/or methyl silicone were detected on most external surfaces of the retrieved LDEF. Known sources of silicone in or on the LDEF appear inadequate to explain the ubiquitous presence of the silica and silicone films. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was used as the Challenger tile waterproofing compound for the Challenger/LDEF deployment mission. HMDS releases NH3 which depolymerizes silicone RTV's. Polyurethanes were also attacked. Much of the silica/silicone contamination of LDEF resulted from HMDS.

  4. Silazine to silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.

    1993-01-01

    Thin film silica and/or methyl silicone were detected on most external surfaces of the retrieved LDEF. Both solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen can convert silicones to silica. Known sources of silicone in or on the LDEF appear inadequate to explain the ubiquitous presence of the silica and silicone films. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) was used as the Challenger tile waterproofing compound for the Challenger/LDEF deployment mission. HMDS is both volatile and chemically reactive at STP. In addition, HMDS releases NH3 which depolymerizes silicone RTV's. Polyurethanes are also depolymerized. Experiments are reported that indicate much of the silicone and silica contamination of LDEF resulted directly or indirectly from HMDS.

  5. Downregulation of cyclin D1-CDK4 protein in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF) induced by silica is mediated through the ERK and JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fuhai; Fan, Xueyun; Liu, Bingci; Jia, Xiaowei; Gao, Ai; Du, Hongju; Ye, Meng; You, Baorong; Huang, Chuanshu; Shi, Xianglin

    2008-10-01

    Silica is a factor in the induction of acute injury and chronic pulmonary fibrosis. In 1996, silica was also listed as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). However, the molecular mechanisms involved in its pathologic effects are not well understood. We found that exposure of human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF) to crystalline silica for 2h decreased cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) expression levels. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERKs), c-Jun NH2-terminal amino kinase (JNKs), and p38 kinase, as well as their downstream transcription factor, AP-1, had different effects on the regulation of expression levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 alterations induced by silica. Silica activates multiple signal transduction pathways involved in coordinating cellular responses to stress. We established the requirements for ERK and JNK, members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in mediating G1 phase arrest of HELF induced by silica. Silica treatment activated ERK in a dose-dependent manner. AG126 (a chemical inhibitor of the ERK signaling pathway) and the dominant negative mutant of ERK2 (a molecular inhibitor of ERK2) prevented decreases in cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression levels. A chemical inhibitor of JNK, SP600125, prevented the decreased expression of both cyclin D1 and CDK4, whereas SB203580, a chemical inhibitor of p38, did not. Interestingly, curcumin prevented the decrease in DK4 expression, but not in cyclin D1. These results demonstrate that ERKs and JNKs are responsible for the decrease of cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression levels in HELF induced by silica. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) was responsible for the decrease of CDK4 expression level, but not that of cyclin D1. The findings help to explain the mechanisms of diseases induced by silica. PMID:18703151

  6. 78 FR 24439 - Compliance With Information Request, Flooding Hazard Reevaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing draft Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance (JLD- ISG), JLD-ISG-2013-01, ``Guidance for Estimating Flooding Hazards due to Dam Failure.'' This draft JLD-ISG provides guidance acceptable to the NRC staff for reevaluating flooding hazards due to dam failure for the purpose of responding to enclosure 2 of a March......

  7. [The probability of developing brain tumours among users of cellular telephones (scientific information to the decision of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) announced on May 31, 2011)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2011-01-01

    The WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has made May 31 2011 PRESS RELEASE No 208 which classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The decision is based on an increased risk of glioma, i.e., a malignant type of brain cancer associated with the wireless phone use. This paper reports the analysis of the long-term research on the issue in question that had been carried out in many countries around the world before the decision was made. PMID:22279776

  8. Silica, Silicosis, and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Kenneth Michael

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of dust containing crystalline silica is associated with a number of acute and chronic diseases including systemic autoimmune diseases. Evidence for the link with autoimmune disease comes from epidemiological studies linking occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust with the systemic autoimmune diseases systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Although little is known regarding the mechanism by which silica exposure leads to systemic autoimmune disease, there is a voluminous literature on silica exposure and silicosis that may help identify immune processes that precede development of autoimmunity. The pathophysiology of silicosis consists of deposition of silica particles in the alveoli of the lung. Ingestion of these particles by macrophages initiates an inflammatory response, which stimulates fibroblasts to proliferate and produce collagen. Silica particles are encased by collagen leading to fibrosis and the nodular lesions characteristic of the disease. The steps in the development of silicosis, including acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis, have different molecular and cellular requirements, suggesting that silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be mechanistically separate. Significantly, it is unclear whether silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis contribute similarly to the development of autoimmunity. Nonetheless, the findings from human and animal model studies are consistent with an autoimmune pathogenesis that begins with activation of the innate immune system leading to proinflammatory cytokine production, pulmonary inflammation leading to activation of adaptive immunity, breaking of tolerance, and autoantibodies and tissue damage. The variable frequency of these immunological features following silica exposure suggests substantial genetic involvement and gene/environment interaction in silica-induced autoimmunity. However, numerous questions remain unanswered. PMID:27014276

  9. Silica, Silicosis, and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Kenneth Michael

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of dust containing crystalline silica is associated with a number of acute and chronic diseases including systemic autoimmune diseases. Evidence for the link with autoimmune disease comes from epidemiological studies linking occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust with the systemic autoimmune diseases systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Although little is known regarding the mechanism by which silica exposure leads to systemic autoimmune disease, there is a voluminous literature on silica exposure and silicosis that may help identify immune processes that precede development of autoimmunity. The pathophysiology of silicosis consists of deposition of silica particles in the alveoli of the lung. Ingestion of these particles by macrophages initiates an inflammatory response, which stimulates fibroblasts to proliferate and produce collagen. Silica particles are encased by collagen leading to fibrosis and the nodular lesions characteristic of the disease. The steps in the development of silicosis, including acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis, have different molecular and cellular requirements, suggesting that silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be mechanistically separate. Significantly, it is unclear whether silica-induced inflammation and fibrosis contribute similarly to the development of autoimmunity. Nonetheless, the findings from human and animal model studies are consistent with an autoimmune pathogenesis that begins with activation of the innate immune system leading to proinflammatory cytokine production, pulmonary inflammation leading to activation of adaptive immunity, breaking of tolerance, and autoantibodies and tissue damage. The variable frequency of these immunological features following silica exposure suggests substantial genetic involvement and gene/environment interaction in silica-induced autoimmunity. However, numerous questions remain unanswered. PMID:27014276

  10. Application of silica nanoparticles for increased silica availability in maize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriyaprabha, R.; Karunakaran, G.; Yuvakkumar, R.; Prabu, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kannan, N.

    2013-02-01

    Silica nanoparticles were extracted from rice husk and characterised comprehensively. The synthesised silica powders were amorphous in size with 99.7% purity (20-40 nm). Nanosilica was amended with red soil at 15 kg ha-1 along with micron silica. The influence of nanoscale on silica uptake, accumulation and nutritional variations in maize roots were evaluated through the studies such as root sectioning, elemental analysis and physiological parameters (root length and silica content) and compared with micron silica and control. Nanosilica treated soil reveals enhanced silica uptake and elongated roots which make the plant to resist in stress conditions like drought.

  11. New antifouling silica hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Osuna, Ángela A; Cao, Bin; Cheng, Gang; Jana, Sadhan C; Espe, Matthew P; Lama, Bimala

    2012-06-26

    In this work, a new antifouling silica hydrogel was developed for potential biomedical applications. A zwitterionic polymer, poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA), was produced via atom-transfer radical polymerization and was appended to the hydrogel network in a two-step acid-base-catalyzed sol-gel process. The pCBMA silica aerogels were obtained by drying the hydrogels under supercritical conditions using CO(2). To understand the effect of pCBMA on the gel structure, pCBMA silica aerogels with different pCBMA contents were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and the surface area from Brauner-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurements. The antifouling property of pCBMA silica hydrogel to resist protein (fibrinogen) adsorption was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SEM images revealed that the particle size and porosity of the silica network decreased at low pCBMA content and increased at above 33 wt % of the polymer. The presence of pCBMA increased the surface area of the material by 91% at a polymer content of 25 wt %. NMR results confirmed that pCBMA was incorporated completely into the silica structure at a polymer content below 20 wt %. A protein adsorption test revealed a reduction in fibrinogen adsorption by 83% at 25 wt % pCBMA content in the hydrogel compared to the fibrinogen adsorption in the unmodified silica hydrogel. PMID:22607091

  12. Silica Embedded Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.

    1998-08-01

    A method to produce silica embedded metal hydride was developed. The product is a composite in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a matrix of silica. The silica matrix is highly porous. Hydrogen gas can easily reach the embedded metal hydride particles. The pores are small so that the metal hydride particles cannot leave the matrix. The porous matrix also protects the metal hydride particles from larger and reactive molecules such as oxygen, since the larger gas molecules cannot pass through the small pores easily. Tests show that granules of this composite can absorb hydrogen readily and withstand many cycles without making fines.

  13. Oxygen configurations in silica

    SciTech Connect

    Chelikowsky, James R.; Chadi, D. J.; Binggeli, N.

    2000-07-15

    We propose a transition state for oxygen in silica. This state is produced by the insertion of an oxygen molecule into the Si-O-Si bond, i.e., it consists of producing a Si-O-O-O-Si bond. This state allows molecular oxygen diffusion in silica without breaking the molecular O{sub 2} bond and it is energetically more stable than a peroxy configuration. This configuration may allow for exchange of molecular oxygen with the oxygen in the silica framework. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  14. Structural polarity in the Chara rhizoid: a reevaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Staehelin, L. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Chara rhizoid is a useful model system to study gravitropism since all phases of gravitropism occur in a single cell. Despite years of study, a complete description of the distinctive ultrastructure of Chara rhizoids is not available. Therefore, in this paper, we reevaluate the ultrastructural features of vertically grown rhizoids, which have a structural polarity consisting of seven distinct zones. We also characterize the apical vesicles and the cell wall in these rhizoids by using antibodies against pectic polysaccharides. These studies demonstrate that the cell wall consists of two pectinaceous domains and that a distinct population of apical vesicles contain methyl esterified pectin.

  15. Cellulose-silica aerogels.

    PubMed

    Demilecamps, Arnaud; Beauger, Christian; Hildenbrand, Claudia; Rigacci, Arnaud; Budtova, Tatiana

    2015-05-20

    Aerogels based on interpenetrated cellulose-silica networks were prepared and characterised. Wet coagulated cellulose was impregnated with silica phase, polyethoxydisiloxane, using two methods: (i) molecular diffusion and (ii) forced flow induced by pressure difference. The latter allowed an enormous decrease in the impregnation times, by almost three orders of magnitude, for a sample with the same geometry. In both cases, nanostructured silica gel was in situ formed inside cellulose matrix. Nitrogen adsorption analysis revealed an almost threefold increase in pores specific surface area, from cellulose aerogel alone to organic-inorganic composite. Morphology, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties under uniaxial compression were investigated. Thermal conductivity of composite aerogels was lower than that of cellulose aerogel due to the formation of superinsulating mesoporous silica inside cellulose pores. Furthermore, composite aerogels were stiffer than each of reference aerogels. PMID:25817671

  16. Crystalline Silica Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staff- Branch of Industrial Minerals

    1992-01-01

    substance and will present a nontechnical overview of the techniques used to measure crystalline silica. Because this primer is meant to be a starting point for anyone interested in learning more about crystalline silica, a list of selected readings and other resources is included. The detailed glossary, which defines many terms that are beyond the scope of this publication, is designed to help the reader move from this presentation to a more technical one, the inevitable next step.

  17. Silica, hybrid silica, hydride silica and non-silica stationary phases for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Borges, Endler M

    2015-04-01

    Free silanols on the surface of silica are the "villains", which are responsible for detrimental interactions of those compounds and the stationary phase (i.e., bad peak shape, low efficiency) as well as low thermal and chemical stability. For these reasons, we began this review describing new silica and hybrid silica stationary phases, which have reduced and/or shielded silanols. At present, in liquid chromatography for the majority of analyses, reversed-phase liquid chromatography is the separation mode of choice. However, the needs for increased selectivity and increased retention of hydrophilic bases have substantially increased the interest in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). Therefore, stationary phases and this mode of separation are discussed. Then, non-silica stationary phases (i.e., zirconium oxide, titanium oxide, alumina and porous graphitized carbon), which afford increased thermal and chemical stability and also selectivity different from those obtained with silica and hybrid silica, are discussed. In addition, the use of these materials in HILIC is also reviewed. PMID:25234386

  18. 12 CFR 160.172 - Re-evaluation of real estate owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Re-evaluation of real estate owned. 160.172... INVESTMENT § 160.172 Re-evaluation of real estate owned. A Federal savings association shall appraise each parcel of real estate owned at the earlier of in-substance foreclosure or at the time of the...

  19. 12 CFR 160.172 - Re-evaluation of real estate owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Re-evaluation of real estate owned. 160.172... INVESTMENT § 160.172 Re-evaluation of real estate owned. A Federal savings association shall appraise each parcel of real estate owned at the earlier of in-substance foreclosure or at the time of the...

  20. 12 CFR 560.172 - Re-evaluation of real estate owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Re-evaluation of real estate owned. 560.172 Section 560.172 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Provisions Applicable to all Savings Associations § 560.172 Re-evaluation of real estate owned. A...

  1. 12 CFR 390.272 - Re-evaluation of real estate owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Re-evaluation of real estate owned. 390.272....272 Re-evaluation of real estate owned. A State savings association shall appraise each parcel of real... apply to any parcel of real estate that is sold and reacquired less than 12 months subsequent to...

  2. 12 CFR 390.272 - Re-evaluation of real estate owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Re-evaluation of real estate owned. 390.272....272 Re-evaluation of real estate owned. A State savings association shall appraise each parcel of real... apply to any parcel of real estate that is sold and reacquired less than 12 months subsequent to...

  3. 12 CFR 390.272 - Re-evaluation of real estate owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Re-evaluation of real estate owned. 390.272 Section 390.272 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Lending and Investment § 390.272 Re-evaluation of real estate owned....

  4. 12 CFR 160.172 - Re-evaluation of real estate owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Re-evaluation of real estate owned. 160.172... INVESTMENT § 160.172 Re-evaluation of real estate owned. A Federal savings association shall appraise each parcel of real estate owned at the earlier of in-substance foreclosure or at the time of the...

  5. 24 CFR 965.407 - Reevaluations of master-meter systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reevaluations of master-meter systems. 965.407 Section 965.407 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Existing PHA-Owned Projects § 965.407 Reevaluations of master-meter systems. Because of changes in the...

  6. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... circumstances and environmental conditions which may affect the project or have a bearing on its impact, such as... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Re-evaluation of environmental....47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A...

  7. Kinetics of silica polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.; Yee, A.; Tsao, L.

    1980-05-01

    The polymerization of silicic acid in geothermal brine-like aqueous solutions to produce amorphous silica in colloidal form has been studied experimentally and theoretically. A large amount of high quality experimental data has been generated over the temperature rang 23 to 100{sup 0}C. Wide ranges of dissolved silica concentration, pH, and sodium chloride concentration were covered. The catalytic effects of fluoride and the reaction inhibiting effects of aluminum and boron were studied also. Two basic processes have been separately studied: the formation of new colloidal particles by the homogeneous nucleation process and the deposition of dissolved silica on pre-existing colloidal particles. A rigorous theory of the formation of colloidal particles of amorphous silica by homogeneous nucleation was developed. This theory employs the Lothe-Pound formalism, and is embodied in the computer code SILNUC which quantitatively models the homogeneous nucleation and growth of colloidal silica particles in more than enough detail for practical application. The theory and code were extensively used in planning the experimental work and analyzing the data produced. The code is now complete and running in its final form. It is capable of reproducing most of the experimental results to within experimental error. It is also capable of extrapolation to experimentally inaccessible conditions, i.e., high temperatures, rapidly varying temperature and pH, etc.

  8. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  9. [Study of post marketing safety reevaluation of shenqi fuzheng injection].

    PubMed

    Ai, Qing-Hua; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2014-09-01

    In order to promote the Shenqifuzheng injection (SQFZ) clinical medication safety, this study reevaluate on SQFZ post marketing safety study systematically. Including multi center large sample registration type safety monitoring research, the analysis based on national spontaneous reporting system data, the analysis based on the 20 national hospital information system data and literature research. Above the analysis, it suggests that SQFZ has good security. The more adverse drug reaction (ADR) as allergic reactions, mainly involved in the damage of skin, appendages and its systemic damage, serious person can appear allergic shock. ADR/E is more common in the elderly, may be related to medication (tumor) populations. Early warning analysis based on SRS data and literature research are of the view that "phlebitis" has a strong association with SQFZ used. PMID:25532410

  10. Re-evaluation of PRRT2 mutations in paroxysmal disorders.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xia Nan; Lu, Qiang; Zhou, Xiang Qin; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Xue; Cui, Li-Ying

    2014-05-01

    Mutations in PRRT2 have recently been identified as the major cause of autosomal dominant benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), infantile convulsions with choreoathetosis syndrome (ICCA), and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD). Other paroxysmal disorders like febrile seizures, migraine, paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia, and paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia have also been shown to be associated with this gene. We re-evaluated PRRT2 mutations and genetic-clinical correlations in additional cases with PKD/ICCA and other paroxysmal disorders. Two novel mutations in PRRT2 were revealed in PKD/ICCA cases, while no mutations were detected in other diseases, which suggests BFIE and PKD are still core phenotypes of PRRT2-related spectrum disorders. PMID:24609974

  11. Silica Precipitation and Lithium Sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Renew

    2015-09-20

    This file contains silica precipitation and lithium sorption data from the project. The silica removal data is corrected from the previous submission. The previous submission did not take into account the limit of detection of the ICP-MS procedure.

  12. Epoxy Grout With Silica Thickener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Grout cures quickly, even in presence of hydraulic oil. Grout is mixture of aggregate particles, finely-divided silica, epoxy resin, and triethylenetetramine curing agent, with mixture containing about 85 percent silica and aggregate particle sand 15 percent resin and curing agent. Silica is thickening agent and keeps grout from sagging.

  13. Overexpression of cyclin D1-CDK4 in silica-induced transformed cells is due to activation of ERKs, JNKs/AP-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fuhai; Fan, Xueyun; Liu, Bingci; Jia, Xiaowei; Du, Hongju; You, Baorong; Ye, Meng; Huang, Chuanshu; Shi, Xianglin

    2006-01-25

    Silica has been known to be a factor inducing acute injury and chronic pulmonary fibrosis. Silica has also been listed as a human carcinogen in 1996 by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). However, the molecular mechanisms involved its pathologic effects are not well understood. In these studies, we found that exposure of human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF) to crystalline silica could cause increases in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), p38K, and c-Jun NH2-terminal amino kinases (JNKs), and HELF transformation. Interestingly, silica-induced transformation of HELF (S-HELF) led to increases in activated levels of ERKs and p46 of JNKs, and decrease in p38K activation, and no effect on activation of p54 of JNKs, as compared with those in parental HELF. Further studies showed that there are differential effects of ERKs, JNKs and p38K, as well as their downstream transcription factor AP-1, in regulation of expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and cell cycle alternations induced by silica. Cyclin D1 and CDK4 were increased in S-HELF as compared with those in HELF. Inhibition of ERKs activation by AG126, JNK by SP600125, and AP-1 by curcumin could reduced the induction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. There is no significant difference for cell cycle distribution between groups. These results demonstrate that ERKs and JNKs, but not p38K is responsible for induction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 in S-HELF, suggesting that overexpression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 caused by silica is mediated by ERK, JNK/AP-1signaling pathway. PMID:16125882

  14. Re-evaluation of monitored retrievable storage concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.F.; Smith, R.I.

    1989-04-01

    In 1983, as a prelude to the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility conceptual design, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an evaluation for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that examined alternative concepts for storing spent LWR fuel and high- level wastes from fuel reprocessing. The evaluation was made considering nine concepts for dry away-from-reactor storage. The nine concepts evaluated were: concrete storage cask, tunnel drywell, concrete cask-in-trench, open-cycle vault, metal casks (transportable and stationary), closed-cycle vault, field drywell, and tunnel-rack vault. The purpose and scope of the re-evaluation did not require a repetition of the expert-based examinations used earlier. Instead, it was based on more detailed technical review by a small group, focusing on changes that had occurred since the initial evaluation was made. Two additional storage concepts--the water pool and the horizontal modular storage vault (NUHOMS system)--were ranked along with the original nine. The original nine concepts and the added two conceptual designs were modified as appropriate for a scenario with storage capacity for 15,000 MTU of spent fuel. Costs, area requirements, and technical and historical data pertaining to MRS storage were updated for each concept.

  15. Reevaluation of a walleye (Sander vitreus) bioenergetics model.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Wang, Chunfang

    2013-08-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important sport fish throughout much of North America, and walleye populations support valuable commercial fisheries in certain lakes as well. Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks each day during a 126-day experiment. Feeding rates ranged from 1.4 to 1.7% of walleye body weight per day. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model estimated food consumption by walleye without any significant bias. Similarly, based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of weight at the end of the monthly test period with observed weight, we concluded that the bioenergetics model predicted walleye growth without any detectable bias. In addition, the bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment differed from observed cumulative consumption by less than 10%. Although additional laboratory and field testing will be needed to fully evaluate model performance, based on our laboratory results, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye appears to be providing unbiased predictions of food consumption. PMID:23124865

  16. An empirical reevaluation of absolute pitch: behavioral and electrophysiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Stefan; Sollberger, Silja; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2013-10-01

    Here, we reevaluated the "two-component" model of absolute pitch (AP) by combining behavioral and electrophysiological measurements. This specific model postulates that AP is driven by a perceptual encoding ability (i.e., pitch memory) plus an associative memory component (i.e., pitch labeling). To test these predictions, during EEG measurements AP and non-AP (NAP) musicians were passively exposed to piano tones (first component of the model) and additionally instructed to judge whether combinations of tones and labels were conceptually associated or not (second component of the model). Auditory-evoked N1/P2 potentials did not reveal differences between the two groups, thus indicating that AP is not necessarily driven by a differential pitch encoding ability at the processing level of the auditory cortex. Otherwise, AP musicians performed the conceptual association task with an order of magnitude better accuracy and shorter RTs than NAP musicians did, this result clearly pointing to distinctive conceptual associations in AP possessors. Most notably, this behavioral superiority was reflected by an increased N400 effect and accompanied by a subsequent late positive component, the latter not being distinguishable in NAP musicians. PMID:23647515

  17. Reevaluation of a Suspected Cronobacter sakazakii Outbreak in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Emily E; Flores, Julio Parra; Fernández-Escartín, Eduardo; Forsythe, Stephen J

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, two infants became ill at a hospital in Mexico. Subsequently, a range of clinical, environmental, and powdered and rehydrated infant formula isolates were identified by using a combination of phenotyping and PCR probes. The strains were clustered according to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The causative agent was reported as Cronobacter sakazakii, with powdered infant formula (PIF) identified as the likely source of the infections. This new study further characterized the isolates from this outbreak by using multilocus sequence typing and whole genome sequencing of selected strains. Though four PIF isolates and one hospital environmental isolate were identified as C. sakazakii sequence type 297 by multilocus sequence typing, they were isolated 6 months prior to the outbreak. Genotypic analyses of patient isolates identified them as Enterobacter hormaechei and Enterobacter spp. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile of the Enterobacter spp. isolates matched those of isolates from previously unopened tins of PIF. E. hormaechei was only isolated from the two infants and not PIF. The reevaluation of this outbreak highlights the need for accurate detection and identification assays, particularly during outbreak investigations in which incorrect identifications may mislead the investigation and attribution of the source. Though the species responsible for the symptoms could not be determined, this outbreak demonstrated the possible transmission of Enterobacter spp. from PIF to infants. These are possibly the first reported cases of Enterobacter spp. infection of infants from bacterial-contaminated PIF. PMID:26038912

  18. Reevaluation of a walleye (Sander vitreus) bioenergetics model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Wang, Chunfang

    2013-01-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) is an important sport fish throughout much of North America, and walleye populations support valuable commercial fisheries in certain lakes as well. Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the performance of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye in the laboratory. Walleyes were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks each day during a 126-day experiment. Feeding rates ranged from 1.4 to 1.7 % of walleye body weight per day. Based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of monthly consumption with observed monthly consumption, we concluded that the bioenergetics model estimated food consumption by walleye without any significant bias. Similarly, based on a statistical comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of weight at the end of the monthly test period with observed weight, we concluded that the bioenergetics model predicted walleye growth without any detectable bias. In addition, the bioenergetics model predictions of cumulative consumption over the 126-day experiment differed fromobserved cumulative consumption by less than 10 %. Although additional laboratory and field testing will be needed to fully evaluate model performance, based on our laboratory results, the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for walleye appears to be providing unbiased predictions of food consumption.

  19. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  20. Reevaluating the potency of the memory conformity effect.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Glen E; Musch, Elisabeth; Azad, Tanjeem

    2009-12-01

    Witnesses sometimes report event details that are acquired solely from another witness. We reevaluated the potency of this memory conformity effect. After viewing a crime video, some participants learned about nonwitnessed details via discussion (dyad group), reading another participant's report (read group), or watching another version of the video (both-video group). In Experiment 1, these participants often reported nonwitnessed details, but on a source-judgment test most details were attributed primarily to the actual source rather than to the video. In addition, the dyad group was not more likely than the read or both-video groups to report nonwitnessed details. Participants in Experiment 2 were explicitly discouraged from providing details that were remembered from the secondary source only. These postwarning instructions substantially reduced the memory conformity effect, and a dyad group was not more likely than a read group to report nonwitnessed details. Encouraging source monitoring at test can reduce the negative consequences of co-witness collaboration. PMID:19933452

  1. Arsenic hydrogeochemistry in an irrigated river valley - A reevaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations in ground water of the lower Madison River valley, Montana, are high (16 to 176 ??g/L). Previous studies hypothesized that arsenic-rich river water, applied as irrigation, was evapoconcentrated during recharge and contaminated the thin alluvial aquifer. Based on additional data collection and a reevaluation of the hydrology and geochemistry of the valley, the high arsenic concentrations in ground water are caused by a unique combination of natural hydrologic and geochemical factors, and irrigation appears to play a secondary role. The high arsenic concentrations in ground water have several causes: direct aquifer recharge by Madison River water having arsenic concentrations as high as 100 ??g/L, leaching of arsenic from Tertiary volcano-clastic sediment, and release of sorbed arsenic where redox conditions in ground water are reduced. The findings are consistent with related studies that demonstrate that arsenic is sorbed by irrigated soils in the valley. Although evaporation of applied irrigation water does not significantly increase arsenic concentrations in ground water, irrigation with arsenic-rich water raises other environmental concerns.

  2. Reevaluation of the significance of sequence information for speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarukkai, Ramesh R.; Ballard, Dana H.

    1994-12-01

    A central difficulty with automatic speech recognition is the temporally inaccurate nature of the speech signal. Despite this, speech has been traditionally modeled as a purely sequential (albeit probabilistic) process. The usefulness of accurate sequence information is reevaluated in this paper, both at the acoustic and lexical levels for the task of speech recognition. At the acoustic level, speech segments are quantized into discrete vectors, and converted into set representations as opposed to accurate sequences. Recognition of the quantized vector sets dramatically improved performance as contrasted with the corresponding vector sequence representations. At the lexical level, our study suggests that accurate sequence information is, again, not crucial. In fact locally discarding phoneme sequence information may be useful for coping with errors (such as insertion, substitution). Based on the idea of phone set indexing, a lexical access algorithm is developed. Thus, this work questions the traditional approach of modeling speech as a purely sequential process, and suggests that discarding local sequential information may be a good idea. As an alternative to a purely sequential representation, a set representation seems to be a viable option.

  3. Reevaluation of the quondam dust trend in the middle atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Horvath, Helmuth

    2005-12-01

    Quondam lunar eclipse photometry data offered valuable information on the optical properties of the middle atmosphere, including dust particles. However, in comparison with nonspherical grains, the simple model of spherical particles has a different effect on solar radiation penetrating horizontally through the atmosphere. It is shown that the systems, in which the smallest size fraction of dust particles dominates, reduce irradiation of the Earth's shadow more efficiently if the grains are of irregular shape. In contrast, the populations contaminated by a certain amount of large particles cause an opposite effect. Depending on the actual form of the size distribution function of the irregular grains, the irradiance within the center of the Earth's shadow may change by 2 orders of magnitude in the visible spectrum. It is therefore evident that dust properties retrieved in the past are eligible candidates for reevaluation to correct a view on the dust trend in the middle atmosphere. Sample calculations are presented for the lunar eclipse observed on 19 January 1954. PMID:16353810

  4. Modeling vitreous silica bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avishek; Wilson, Mark; Sherrington, David; Thorpe, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The recent synthesis and imaging of bilayers of vitreous silica has led to a wealth of new information. We have modeled the experimentally-observed bilayer using a computer assembly procedure to form a network of corner-sharing tetrahedra, which is then mirror-reflected to form a bilayer. We show that the vitreous silica bilayer has additional macroscopic degrees of freedom iff there is a symmetry plane through the center of the bilayer going through the central layer of oxygen ions that join the upper and lower monolayers. We have computer-refined the experimental coordinates to determine the density, and other structural characteristics such as the Si-Si pair distribution function, Si-O-Si bond angle distribution and the Aboav-Weaire law.

  5. Viscoelasticity of silica gels

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.W.

    1995-12-01

    The response of silica gels to mechanical loads depends on the properties of the solid phase and the permeability of the network. Understanding this behavior is essential for modeling of stresses developed during drying or heating of gels. The permeability and the mechanical properties are readily determined from a simple beam-bending experiment, by measuring the load relaxation that occurs at constant deflection. Load decay results from movement of the liquid within the network; in addition, there may be viscoelastic relaxation of the network itself. Silica gel is viscoelastic in chemically aggressive media, but in inert liquids (such as ethanol or acetone) it is elastic. Experiments show that the viscoelastic relaxation time decreases as the concentration and pH of the water in the pore liquid increase. During drying, the permeability decreases and the viscosity increases, both exhibiting a power-law dependence on density of the gel network.

  6. 42 CFR 405.213 - Re-evaluation of a device categorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Medical Services Coverage Decisions That Relate to Health Care Technology § 405.213 Re-evaluation of a device categorization....

  7. 42 CFR 405.213 - Re-evaluation of a device categorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Medical Services Coverage Decisions That Relate to Health Care Technology § 405.213 Re-evaluation of a device categorization....

  8. 42 CFR 405.213 - Re-evaluation of a device categorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Medical Services Coverage Decisions That Relate to Health Care Technology § 405.213 Re-evaluation of a device categorization....

  9. 42 CFR 405.213 - Re-evaluation of a device categorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Medical Services Coverage Decisions That Relate to Health Care Technology § 405.213 Re-evaluation of a device categorization....

  10. Five-Year NRHP Re-Evaluation of Historic Buildings Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, R A; Heidecker, K R

    2011-09-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) 'Draft Programmatic Agreement among the Department of Energy and the California State Historic Preservation Officer Regarding Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory' requires a review and re-evaluation of the eligibility of laboratory properties for the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) every five years. The original evaluation was published in 2005; this report serves as the first five-year re-evaluation. This re-evaluation includes consideration of changes within LLNL to management, to mission, and to the built environment. it also determines the status of those buildings, objects, and districts that were recommended as NRHP-eligible in the 2005 report. Buildings that were omitted from the earlier building list, those that have reached 50 years of age since the original assessment, and new buildings are also addressed in the re-evaluation.

  11. A reevaluation of the occurrence of ground water in the Nahiku area, East Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William

    2000-01-01

    A reevaluation of existing hydrologic data indicates the existence of a vertically extensive ground water body in the Nahiku area of Maui rather than a succession of perched water bodies as had been previously assumed.

  12. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam having a minimum silica content of...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam having a minimum silica content of 89.5 percent. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam having a minimum silica content of 89.5 percent. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  15. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam having a minimum silica content of 89.5 percent. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam having a minimum silica content of 89.5 percent. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam having a minimum silica content of 89.5 percent. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  18. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam having a minimum silica content of 89.5 percent. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  19. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam having a minimum silica content of 89.5 percent. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  20. Nanoscale plasticity in silica glass

    SciTech Connect

    Glosli, J.N.; Boercker, D.B.; Tesar, A.; Belak, J.

    1993-10-01

    Mechanisms of nano-scale plasticity and damage initiation in silica glass is examined using molecular dynamics simulation. Computer experiments are carried out by indenting a sharp diamond-like tool, containing 4496 atoms, into a silica slab consisting of 12288 atoms. Both elastic and plastic deformation of silica is observed during nanoindentation simulation; this transition occurs at an indentation of 1.25 nm, and the calculated hardness (15GPa for 1.5 nm indentation) agrees with experiment.

  1. Carbon in, Carbon out: Reevaluating Carbon Fluxes in Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. E.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction zones exert a fundamental control on the deep carbon cycle. We reevaluated carbon inputs and outputs in convergent margins considering new estimates of C concentration in subducting mantle peridotites, carbonate solubility in aqueous fluids along subduction geotherms, melting and diapirism of carbon-bearing metasediments, and diffuse degassing from arcs. Our updated estimate of carbon inputs to the global subduction system, which includes estimates for C in altered peridotite, is 40-66 megatons carbon/year (MtC/y). We find that estimates of C lost from slabs (14-66 MtC/y) must take into account the high CaCO3 solubility in aqueous fluids, which contributes significant C that must be added to that derived from mineral decarbonation reactions. When taken together with hydrous silicate and carbonatite melts and metasediment diapirs, nearly all C can be scavenged from subducting lithosphere. The return of C to the atmosphere via arc-volcano degassing is only 18-43 MtC/y, but consideration deep volatile saturation of arc magmas, magma ponding in the middle and deep arc crust, and CO2 venting in forearcs can account for the remaining C lost from the slab. Thus, whereas previous studies concluded that about half the subducting carbon is returned to the convecting mantle, we find that relatively little carbon may be recycled. If so, substantial quantities of carbon are stored in the mantle lithosphere and crust and the carbon content of the mantle lithosphere + crust + ocean + atmosphere must be increasing, at least over the last 5-10 My. This is consistent with inferences from noble gas data. Recycled carbon in diamonds is a small fraction of the global carbon inventory.

  2. Reevaluating the functional implications of Australopithecus afarensis navicular morphology.

    PubMed

    Prang, Thomas C

    2016-08-01

    The longitudinal arch is a unique characteristic of the human foot, yet the timing and pattern of its evolution remain controversial, in part due to the disagreement among researchers over which skeletal traits are the best indicators of its presence or absence. The small size of the human navicular tuberosity has previously been linked to the presence of a longitudinal arch, implying that the large tuberosity of early hominins such as Australopithecus afarensis reflects a flat foot. However, this hypothesis is at odds with other evidence of pedal form and function, such as metatarsal, tarsal, and footprint morphology, which show that a longitudinal arch was probably present in A. afarensis. This study reevaluates the morphometric affinities of the A. afarensis naviculars among other Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins and anthropoid primates (N = 170). Multivariate cluster analyses show that all fossil hominin naviculars, including those attributed to A. afarensis, are most similar to modern humans. A measure of navicular tuberosity size quantified as the ratio of the tuberosity volume to the surface area of the talar facet shows that Ateles has the largest navicular tuberosity among the anthropoid sample and that there is no difference between highly arboreal and terrestrial taxa in this metric (e.g., Hylobates and Gorilla beringei). Instead, a relatively large navicular tuberosity may reflect the development of leg musculature associated with ankle plantarflexion. The functional inferences derived from the morphology of the A. afarensis naviculars are consistent with the morphology of the Laetoli footprints. PMID:27457546

  3. Re-evaluating the treatment of acute optic neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jeffrey L; Nickerson, Molly; Costello, Fiona; Sergott, Robert C; Calkwood, Jonathan C; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J; Markowitz, Clyde E; Vartanian, Timothy; Morrow, Mark; Moster, Mark L; Taylor, Andrew W; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Frohman, Teresa; Frohman, Elliot M

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports and prospective trials have demonstrated a reproducible benefit of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation on the rate of recovery from acute inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. As a result, corticosteroid preparations and adrenocorticotrophic hormones are the current mainstays of therapy for the treatment of acute optic neuritis (AON) and acute demyelination in multiple sclerosis. Despite facilitating the pace of recovery, HPA axis modulation and corticosteroids have failed to demonstrate long-term benefit on functional recovery. After AON, patients frequently report visual problems, motion perception difficulties and abnormal depth perception despite ‘normal’ (20/20) vision. In light of this disparity, the efficacy of these and other therapies for acute demyelination require re-evaluation using modern, high-precision paraclinical tools capable of monitoring tissue injury. In no arena is this more amenable than AON, where a new array of tools in retinal imaging and electrophysiology has advanced our ability to measure the anatomic and functional consequences of optic nerve injury. As a result, AON provides a unique clinical model for evaluating the treatment response of the derivative elements of acute inflammatory CNS injury: demyelination, axonal injury and neuronal degeneration. In this article, we examine current thinking on the mechanisms of immune injury in AON, discuss novel technologies for the assessment of optic nerve structure and function, and assess current and future treatment modalities. The primary aim is to develop a framework for rigorously evaluating interventions in AON and to assess their ability to preserve tissue architecture, re-establish normal physiology and restore optimal neurological function. PMID:25355373

  4. Re-evaluating the treatment of acute optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jeffrey L; Nickerson, Molly; Costello, Fiona; Sergott, Robert C; Calkwood, Jonathan C; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J; Markowitz, Clyde E; Vartanian, Timothy; Morrow, Mark; Moster, Mark L; Taylor, Andrew W; Pace, Thaddeus W W; Frohman, Teresa; Frohman, Elliot M

    2015-07-01

    Clinical case reports and prospective trials have demonstrated a reproducible benefit of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation on the rate of recovery from acute inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. As a result, corticosteroid preparations and adrenocorticotrophic hormones are the current mainstays of therapy for the treatment of acute optic neuritis (AON) and acute demyelination in multiple sclerosis.Despite facilitating the pace of recovery, HPA axis modulation and corticosteroids have failed to demonstrate long-term benefit on functional recovery. After AON, patients frequently report visual problems, motion perception difficulties and abnormal depth perception despite 'normal' (20/20) vision. In light of this disparity, the efficacy of these and other therapies for acute demyelination require re-evaluation using modern, high-precision paraclinical tools capable of monitoring tissue injury.In no arena is this more amenable than AON, where a new array of tools in retinal imaging and electrophysiology has advanced our ability to measure the anatomic and functional consequences of optic nerve injury. As a result, AON provides a unique clinical model for evaluating the treatment response of the derivative elements of acute inflammatory CNS injury: demyelination, axonal injury and neuronal degeneration.In this article, we examine current thinking on the mechanisms of immune injury in AON, discuss novel technologies for the assessment of optic nerve structure and function, and assess current and future treatment modalities. The primary aim is to develop a framework for rigorously evaluating interventions in AON and to assess their ability to preserve tissue architecture, re-establish normal physiology and restore optimal neurological function. PMID:25355373

  5. Reevaluating Assembly Evaluations with Feature Response Curves: GAGE and Assemblathons

    PubMed Central

    Vezzi, Francesco; Narzisi, Giuseppe; Mishra, Bud

    2012-01-01

    In just the last decade, a multitude of bio-technologies and software pipelines have emerged to revolutionize genomics. To further their central goal, they aim to accelerate and improve the quality of de novo whole-genome assembly starting from short DNA sequences/reads. However, the performance of each of these tools is contingent on the length and quality of the sequencing data, the structure and complexity of the genome sequence, and the resolution and quality of long-range information. Furthermore, in the absence of any metric that captures the most fundamental “features” of a high-quality assembly, there is no obvious recipe for users to select the most desirable assembler/assembly. This situation has prompted the scientific community to rely on crowd-sourcing through international competitions, such as Assemblathons or GAGE, with the intention of identifying the best assembler(s) and their features. Somewhat circuitously, the only available approach to gauge de novo assemblies and assemblers relies solely on the availability of a high-quality fully assembled reference genome sequence. Still worse, reference-guided evaluations are often both difficult to analyze, leading to conclusions that are difficult to interpret. In this paper, we circumvent many of these issues by relying upon a tool, dubbed , which is capable of evaluating de novo assemblies from the read-layouts even when no reference exists. We extend the FRCurve approach to cases where lay-out information may have been obscured, as is true in many deBruijn-graph-based algorithms. As a by-product, FRCurve now expands its applicability to a much wider class of assemblers – thus, identifying higher-quality members of this group, their inter-relations as well as sensitivity to carefully selected features, with or without the support of a reference sequence or layout for the reads. The paper concludes by reevaluating several recently conducted assembly competitions and the datasets that have

  6. Biogeochemistry: Silica cycling over geologic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Daniel J.; Carey, Joanna C.

    2015-06-01

    The Earth's long-term silica cycle is intimately linked to weathering rates and biogenic uptake. Changes in weathering rates and the retention of silica on land have altered silica availability in the oceans for hundreds of millions of years.

  7. ZBLAN, Silica Fiber Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This graph depicts the increased signal quality possible with optical fibers made from ZBLAN, a family of heavy-metal fluoride glasses (fluorine combined zirconium, barium, lanthanum, aluminum, and sodium) as compared to silica fibers. NASA is conducting research on pulling ZBLAN fibers in the low-g environment of space to prevent crystallization that limits ZBLAN's usefulness in optical fiber-based communications. In the graph, a line closer to the black theoretical maximum line is better. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  8. Silica Fillers for elastomer Reinforement

    SciTech Connect

    Kohls, D.J.; Schaefer, D.W.

    2012-09-10

    This article summarizes recent work on the structure of precipitated silica used in the reinforcement of elastomers. Silica has a unique morphology, consisting of multiple structural levels that can be controlled through processing. The ability to control and characterize the multiple structures of precipitated silica is an example of morphological engineering for reinforcement applications. In this summary of some recent research efforts using precipitated silica, small-angle scattering techniques are described and their usefulness for determining the morphology of silica in terms of primary particles, aggregates, and agglomerates are discussed. The structure of several different precipitated silica powders is shown as well as the mechanical properties of elastomers reinforced with these silica particles. The study of the mechanical properties of filled elastomer systems is a challenging and exciting topic for both fundamental science and industrial application. It is known that the addition of hard particulates to a soft elastomer matrix results in properties that do not follow a straightforward rule of mixtures. Research efforts in this area have shown that the properties of filled elastomers are influenced by the nature of both the filler and the matrix, as well as the interactions between them. Several articles have reviewed the influence of fillers like silica and carbon black on the reinforcement of elastomers. In general, the structure-property relationships developed for filled elastomers have evolved into the following major areas: Filler structure, hydrodynamic reinforcement, and interactions between fillers and elastomers.

  9. Silica Fillers for elastomer Reinforement

    SciTech Connect

    Kohls, D.J.; Schaefer, D.W.

    2009-08-26

    This article summarizes recent work on the structure of precipitated silica used in the reinforcement of elastomers. Silica has a unique morphology, consisting of multiple structural levels that can be controlled through processing. The ability to control and characterize the multiple structures of precipitated silica is an example of morphological engineering for reinforcement applications. In this summary of some recent research efforts using precipitated silica, small-angle scattering techniques are described and their usefulness for determining the morphology of silica in terms of primary particles, aggregates, and agglomerates are discussed. The structure of several different precipitated silica powders is shown as well as the mechanical properties of elastomers reinforced with these silica particles. The study of the mechanical properties of filled elastomer systems is a challenging and exciting topic for both fundamental science and industrial application. It is known that the addition of hard particulates to a soft elastomer matrix results in properties that do not follow a straightforward rule of mixtures. Research efforts in this area have shown that the properties of filled elastomers are influenced by the nature of both the filler and the matrix, as well as the interactions between them. Several articles have reviewed the influence of fillers like silica and carbon black on the reinforcement of elastomers. In general, the structure-property relationships developed for filled elastomers have evolved into the following major areas: Filler structure, hydrodynamic reinforcement, and interactions between fillers and elastomers.

  10. Silaffins in Silica Biomineralization and Biomimetic Silica Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, Carolin C.; Becker, Christian F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Biomineralization processes leading to complex solid structures of inorganic material in biological systems are constantly gaining attention in biotechnology and biomedical research. An outstanding example for biomineral morphogenesis is the formation of highly elaborate, nano-patterned silica shells by diatoms. Among the organic macromolecules that have been closely linked to the tightly controlled precipitation of silica in diatoms, silaffins play an extraordinary role. These peptides typically occur as complex posttranslationally modified variants and are directly involved in the silica deposition process in diatoms. However, even in vitro silaffin-based peptides alone, with and without posttranslational modifications, can efficiently mediate biomimetic silica precipitation leading to silica material with different properties as well as with encapsulated cargo molecules of a large size range. In this review, the biomineralization process of silica in diatoms is summarized with a specific focus on silaffins and their in vitro silica precipitation properties. Applications in the area of bio- and nanotechnology as well as in diagnostics and therapy are discussed. PMID:26295401

  11. Silaffins in Silica Biomineralization and Biomimetic Silica Precipitation.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Carolin C; Becker, Christian F W

    2015-08-01

    Biomineralization processes leading to complex solid structures of inorganic material in biological systems are constantly gaining attention in biotechnology and biomedical research. An outstanding example for biomineral morphogenesis is the formation of highly elaborate, nano-patterned silica shells by diatoms. Among the organic macromolecules that have been closely linked to the tightly controlled precipitation of silica in diatoms, silaffins play an extraordinary role. These peptides typically occur as complex posttranslationally modified variants and are directly involved in the silica deposition process in diatoms. However, even in vitro silaffin-based peptides alone, with and without posttranslational modifications, can efficiently mediate biomimetic silica precipitation leading to silica material with different properties as well as with encapsulated cargo molecules of a large size range. In this review, the biomineralization process of silica in diatoms is summarized with a specific focus on silaffins and their in vitro silica precipitation properties. Applications in the area of bio- and nanotechnology as well as in diagnostics and therapy are discussed. PMID:26295401

  12. Reevaluation of upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Western Interior

    SciTech Connect

    Mantzios, C.

    1989-03-01

    Comparison of the Brushy Basin member of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the Colorado Plateau with the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Morrison-Cloverly sequence in the Bighorn basin, Wyoming, shows great similarities in their depositional environments and stratigraphy. The lower Brushy Basin member is a fluvial deposit composed of channel sandstones and overbank mudstones which display a great number of pedogenic features. Similar depositional setting has been observed in the Morrison Formation in the Bighorn basin, Wyoming, where pedogenic features suggest a distal floodplain setting with low-sinuosity channels cutting through. In both localities the dominant clay mineral is illite. The upper Brushy Basin member in the Colorado Plateau is composed mostly of gray and purpose mudstones rich in montmorillonite. Devitrified tuff beds and bentonite occur in certain levels throughout the unit. Pedogenic features are not conspicuously developed. The Lower Cretaceous Clovery Formation in the Bighorn basin, Wyoming, is strikingly similar in terms of lithological aspects. The depositional environment is interpreted in both localities as a playa deposit. A great variety of nodules is present such as silcretes, septaria, and silica-carbonate nodules. Radiometric dating of bentonites in central Utah revealed that the upper Brushy Basin member is Early Cretaceous in age. Field and geochemical data support these conclusions and aid the understanding of the exact nature of the depositional basin, environments, stratigraphy, and paleotectonics of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous interval in the Western Interior.

  13. Silica research in Glasgow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, B. W.; Cagnoli, G.; Casey, M. M.; Clubley, D.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Danzmann, K.; Elliffe, E. J.; Goßler, S.; Grant, A.; Grote, H.; Heptonstall, A.; Hough, J.; Jennrich, O.; Lück, H.; McIntosh, S. A.; Newton, G. P.; Palmer, D. A.; Plissi, M. V.; Robertson, D. I.; Robertson, N. A.; Rowan, S.; Skeldon, K. D.; Sneddon, P.; Strain, K. A.; Torrie, C. I.; Ward, H.; Willems, P. A.; Willke, B.; Winkler, W.

    2002-04-01

    The Glasgow group is involved in the construction of the GEO600 interferometer as well as in R&D activity on technology for advanced gravitational wave detectors. GEO600 will be the first GW detector using quasi-monolithic silica suspensions in order to decrease thermal noise significantly with respect to steel wire suspensions. The results concerning GEO600 suspension mounting and performance will be shown in the first section. Section 2 is devoted to the present results from the direct measurement of thermal noise in mirrors mounted in the 10 m interferometer in Glasgow which has a sensitivity limit of 4 × 10-19 m Hz-1/2 above 1 kHz. Section 3 presents results on the measurements of coating losses. R&D activity has been carried out to understand better how thermal noise in the suspensions affects the detector sensitivity, and in section 4 a discussion on the non-linear thermoelastic effect is presented.

  14. Silica aerogel core waveguide.

    PubMed

    Grogan, M D W; Leon-Saval, S G; England, R; Birks, T A

    2010-10-11

    We have selectively filled the core of hollow photonic crystal fibre with silica aerogel. Light is guided in the aerogel core, with a measured attenuation of 0.2 dB/cm at 1540 nm comparable to that of bulk aerogel. The structure guides light by different mechanisms depending on the wavelength. At long wavelengths the effective index of the microstructured cladding is below the aerogel index of 1.045 and guidance is by total internal reflection. At short wavelengths, where the effective cladding index exceeds 1.045, a photonic bandgap can guide the light instead. There is a small region of crossover, where both index- and bandgap-guided modes were simultaneously observed. PMID:20941148

  15. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No....

  16. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No....

  17. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No....

  18. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam...

  1. Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ou, Danny; Stepanian, Christopher J.; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    Aerogels that consist, variously, of neat silica/polymer alloys and silica/polymer alloy matrices reinforced with fibers have been developed as materials for flexible thermal-insulation blankets. In comparison with prior aerogel blankets, these aerogel blankets are more durable and less dusty. These blankets are also better able to resist and recover from compression . an important advantage in that maintenance of thickness is essential to maintenance of high thermal-insulation performance. These blankets are especially suitable as core materials for vacuum- insulated panels and vacuum-insulated boxes of advanced, nearly seamless design. (Inasmuch as heat leakage at seams is much greater than heat leakage elsewhere through such structures, advanced designs for high insulation performance should provide for minimization of the sizes and numbers of seams.) A silica/polymer aerogel of the present type could be characterized, somewhat more precisely, as consisting of multiply bonded, linear polymer reinforcements within a silica aerogel matrix. Thus far, several different polymethacrylates (PMAs) have been incorporated into aerogel networks to increase resistance to crushing and to improve other mechanical properties while minimally affecting thermal conductivity and density. The polymethacrylate phases are strongly linked into the silica aerogel networks in these materials. Unlike in other organic/inorganic blended aerogels, the inorganic and organic phases are chemically bonded to each other, by both covalent and hydrogen bonds. In the process for making a silica/polymer alloy aerogel, the covalent bonds are introduced by prepolymerization of the methacrylate monomer with trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate, which serves as a phase cross-linker in that it contains both organic and inorganic monomer functional groups and hence acts as a connector between the organic and inorganic phases. Hydrogen bonds are formed between the silanol groups of the inorganic phase and the

  2. Skin penetration of silica microparticles.

    PubMed

    Boonen, J; Baert, B; Lambert, J; De Spiegeleer, B

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge about skin penetration of nano- and microparticles is essential for the development of particle-core drug delivery systems and toxicology. A large number of studies have been devoted to metallic particle penetration. However, little work has been published about the importance of chemical material properties of the particles and the skin penetration effect of the applied formulation. Here, we investigated the penetration of 3 microm silica particles in water and in a 65% ethanolic plant extract on ex vivo human skin using scanning electron microscopy. Contrary to most other microsphere skin studies, we observed for the first time that 3 microm silica particles can penetrate the living epidermis. Moreover, when formulated in the ethanolic medium, particles even reach the dermis. The deviating chemical properties of silica compared to previously investigated microparticles (titanium dioxide, zinc oxide) and confounding effect of the formulation in which the silica microparticles are presented, is thus demonstrated. PMID:21699089

  3. 77 FR 73114 - Draft Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: T.F. Green Airport, Warwick, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Draft Written Re-Evaluation for Environmental Impact Statement: T.F. Green... to T.F. Green Draft Written Re-Evaluation'' in the subject line Mail: Richard Doucette, Environmental... England, 16 New England Executive Park, Burlington, MA, 781- 238-7613; Warwick Central Library, 600...

  4. 77 FR 43143 - Limitation on Claims for Judicial Review; Re-Evaluation With Respect to the Willits Bypass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ...-evaluations were prepared in order to determine whether a supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS... INFORMATION: Caltrans conducted two Re-evaluations of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) issued... properties, and land use. The purpose of the Re-evaluations was to examine potential environmental...

  5. Loveless Frump as Hip and Sexy Party Girl: A Reevaluation of the Old-Maid Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Katherine C.

    2000-01-01

    Argues for a reevaluation of the old-maid stereotype that will allow professionals in the library and information science (LIS) field to embrace digital technology while remaining mindful of their distinctiveness and recognizing the stereotype as an important part of their collective identity and professional history. (Contains 55 references.)…

  6. 42 CFR 405.213 - Re-evaluation of a device categorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Re-evaluation of a device categorization. 405.213 Section 405.213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Medical Services Coverage Decisions That Relate to Health...

  7. 12 CFR 560.172 - Re-evaluation of real estate owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Re-evaluation of real estate owned. 560.172... of real estate owned. A savings association shall appraise each parcel of real estate owned at the... under the particular circumstances. The foregoing requirement shall not apply to any parcel of...

  8. 12 CFR 560.172 - Re-evaluation of real estate owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Re-evaluation of real estate owned. 560.172... of real estate owned. A savings association shall appraise each parcel of real estate owned at the... under the particular circumstances. The foregoing requirement shall not apply to any parcel of...

  9. 12 CFR 560.172 - Re-evaluation of real estate owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Re-evaluation of real estate owned. 560.172... of real estate owned. A savings association shall appraise each parcel of real estate owned at the... under the particular circumstances. The foregoing requirement shall not apply to any parcel of...

  10. 12 CFR 560.172 - Re-evaluation of real estate owned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Re-evaluation of real estate owned. 560.172... of real estate owned. A savings association shall appraise each parcel of real estate owned at the... under the particular circumstances. The foregoing requirement shall not apply to any parcel of...

  11. Re-Evaluation Co-Counseling: A Method of Peer Self Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockman, Ilene F.

    The college and university counseling center traditionally employs standard techniques in helping students, faculty, and staff in overcoming problems of mental stress (Berman, 1972). A technique suitable to both individual and group sessions, but rarely utilized is Re-Evaluation Co-Counseling or R.C. For the past twenty years, R.C. has gained an…

  12. Psychometric Reevaluation of the Scientific Attitude Inventory-Revised (SAI-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Owen, Steven V.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Liu, Yan; Ramirez, Kacy A.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Toepperwein, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    The central purposes of this study were to review the development and evolution of the Scientific Attitude Inventory (SAI) and then reevaluate the psychometric properties of the revised form of the SAI, the Scientific Attitude Inventory II (SAI-II). The SAI-II was administered to a convenience sample of 543 middle and high school students from…

  13. Reevaluation of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hospers, J. Mirjam Boeschen; Smits, Niels; Smits, Cas; Stam, Mariska; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We reevaluated the psychometric properties of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1995) using item response theory. Item response theory describes item functioning along an ability continuum. Method: Cross-sectional data from 2,352 adults with and without hearing…

  14. Never Married Elderly as a Social Type: Re-evaluating Some Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Uses data from two studies to reevaluate some images about the never married elderly. Data suggest that never married elderly are not necessarily socially isolated, may experience some loneliness, do not have uniform attitude concerning possibility of marriage, and suffer from the effects of loss in late life. (Author/NB)

  15. 34 CFR 300.305 - Additional requirements for evaluations and reevaluations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements for evaluations and reevaluations. 300.305 Section 300.305 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  16. Educational Reevaluation, Political Transformation: Québec and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the history of Québec's higher education system and the reforms that have contributed to the role of education in the province. Québec's education system has repeatedly been a site for social and political transformation; most recently, reevaluation of education's role in the province has revealed a tension…

  17. 34 CFR 602.19 - Monitoring and reevaluation of accredited institutions and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring and reevaluation of accredited institutions and programs. 602.19 Section 602.19 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE SECRETARY'S RECOGNITION OF ACCREDITING AGENCIES The Criteria...

  18. 34 CFR 602.19 - Monitoring and reevaluation of accredited institutions and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... institution it has accredited that offers distance education or correspondence education. If any such... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Monitoring and reevaluation of accredited institutions and programs. 602.19 Section 602.19 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  19. 34 CFR 602.19 - Monitoring and reevaluation of accredited institutions and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... institution it has accredited that offers distance education or correspondence education. If any such... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Monitoring and reevaluation of accredited institutions and programs. 602.19 Section 602.19 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  20. 34 CFR 602.19 - Monitoring and reevaluation of accredited institutions and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring and reevaluation of accredited institutions and programs. 602.19 Section 602.19 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE SECRETARY'S RECOGNITION OF ACCREDITING AGENCIES The Criteria...

  1. 34 CFR 602.19 - Monitoring and reevaluation of accredited institutions and programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... institution it has accredited that offers distance education or correspondence education. If any such... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Monitoring and reevaluation of accredited institutions and programs. 602.19 Section 602.19 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  2. 75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental...) analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders will be given an opportunity to discuss potential elements of a method re-evaluation study, such as developing a reference coliform/non-coliform library...

  3. Reevaluating the Aims of Modern Dance Training in Korea: Toward a Whole Dancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Na-ye

    2013-01-01

    This study reevaluates modern dance training in Korea and attempts to identify possible improvements. This study is based on the rationale that Korean modern dance training must recover its nature of a holistic connection between body and mind. A qualitative methodology was used to interpret data from in-depth interviews and open-ended…

  4. Silica-volatile interaction and the geological cause of the Xuan Wei lung cancer epidemic

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Large; Shona Kelly; Baruch Spiro; Linwei Tian; Longyi Shao; Robert Finkelman; Mingquan Zhang; Chris Somerfield; Steve Plint; Yasmin Ali; Yiping Zhou

    2009-12-01

    Parts of Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China have the highest known lung cancer mortality in nonsmoking women. This high mortality displays a clear spatial relationship to the mines producing coal from the uppermost Permian. Geochemical, petrographic, and grain size analyses were undertaken on a set of coal samples from Xuan Wei. Results demonstrate that the single geochemical property that makes this coal unusual is its high concentration of quartz (13.5 wt %) of which 35-55% occurs as < 10 {mu}m grains. We propose the potential for silica-volatile interaction (PSVI) as a new method for assessing the combined influence of silica and volatile organic matter and use this as a basis for re-evaluating existing ecological data. Published lung cancer mortality values are more strongly correlated with PSVI values for Xuan Wei coal than with volatiles or silica alone and the PSVI values measured are distinct from those of other coals. Finally we propose that the localization of this epidemic to Xuan Wei results from enhanced weathering of the local Emeishan basalts as a consequence of geochemical perturbations at the Permo-Triassic Boundary.

  5. [The evaluation of biological effects of exposure to respirable crystalline silica in building industry].

    PubMed

    Pira, E; Piolatto, P G

    2012-01-01

    The building industry entails the exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica (RCS), though there is a large variability among different sectors. The environmental values reported for the current conditions seem to be relatively low. For example the mean exposure estimated by IOM for all industrial sectors in the EU is 0.07 mg/m3. There are few studies in the building sector which show similar values. This is obviously not representative of past exposure. Moreover, the problems of sampling and analysis techniques are still at issue. The well known effect of RCS exposure is silicosis. The carcinogenicity of RCS is still under debate, especially regarding the question of whether RCS is carcinogenic "per se" or whether the risk of developing lung cancer is mediated by silicosis. Although the IARC includes RCS in the Group I (human carcinogen), the reference should be the CLP regulation, of which carcinogen definition criteria allow to state that today there are not sufficient data to classify RCS as a carcinogen and that it seems more appropriate to include RCS in different STOT.RE categories. This is valid for building industry as well as for the other industrial sectors. In Italy the recommended exposure limit is the ACGIH value of 0.025 mg/m3. At EU level it is still debated which is the best choice, based on cost/benefits evaluation, among the following limit values: 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 respectively. The authors obviously believe that the most protective value should be adopted. PMID:23213807

  6. Simulation of Peptide Binding to Silica and Silica Mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, F. S.; Heinz, H.; Berry, R. J.; Varshney, V.; Farmer, B. L.; Naik, R. R.; Patwardhan, S. V.; Perry, C. C.

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the nature of the interaction of peptides with silica surfaces and their effect on mineralization. Classical force fields (CVFF, PCFF) have been extended for silica aiming at the computation of surface properties in quantitative agreement with experiment, taking explicitly into account water molecules, pH, and surface coverage with peptides. We focus on the interaction of five short peptides (pep1, pep4, 82-4, H4, R5) identified by biopanning with regular and amorphous silica surfaces (Q3 and Q2) to understand the relation between peptide sequence and affinity to the surface. Results of the atomistic molecular dynamics simulation indicate adsorption energies, binding constants and conformational changes upon adsorption. The comparison of NMR chemical shifts in solution and on the surface in computation and experiment further aids in understanding the mechanism of binding.

  7. Surface modification of silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Rajesh

    Surface modification of nanosized silica particles by polymer grafting is gaining attention. This can be attributed to the fact that it provides a unique opportunity to engineer the interfacial properties of these modified particles; at the same time the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymers can be improved. Controlled free radical polymerization is a versatile technique which affords control over molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, architecture and functionalities of the resulting polymer. Three commonly used controlled free radical polymerizations include nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization. ATRP and RAFT polymerization were explored in order to modify the silica surface with well-defined polymer brushes. A novel click-functionalized RAFT chain transfer agent (RAFT CTA) was synthesized which opened up the possibility of using RAFT polymerization and click chemistry together in surface modification. Using this RAFT CTA, the surface of silica nanoparticles was modified with polystyrene and polyacrylamide brushes via the "grafting to" approach. Both tethered polystyrene and polyacrylamide chains were found in the brush regime. The combination of ATRP and click chemistry was also explored for surface modification. A combination of RAFT polymerization and click chemistry was also studied to modify the surface via the "grafting from" approach. Our strategy included the (1) "grafting from" approach for brush formation (2) facile click reaction to immobilize the RAFT agent (3) synthesis of R-supported chain transfer agent and (4) use of the more active trithiocarbonate RAFT agent. Grafting density obtained by this method was significantly higher than reported values in the literature. Polystyrene (PS) grafted silica nanoparticles were also prepared by a tandem process that simultaneously employs reversible addition fragmentation

  8. Precipitated silica as flow regulator.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anne-Kathrin; Ruppel, Joanna; Drexel, Claus-Peter; Zimmermann, Ingfried

    2008-08-01

    Flow regulators are added to solid pharmaceutical formulations to improve the flow properties of the powder mixtures. The primary particles of the flow regulators exist in the form of huge agglomerates which are broken down into smaller aggregates during the blending process. These smaller aggregates adsorb at the surface of the solid's grains and thus diminish attractive Van-der-Waals-forces by increasing the roughness of the host's surface. In most cases amorphous silica is used as flow additive but material properties like particle size or bond strength influence the desagglomeration tendency of the agglomerates and thus the flow regulating potency of each silica. For some silica types we will show that the differences in their flow regulating potency are due to the rate and extent by which they are able to cover the surface of the host particles. Binary powder mixtures consisting of a pharmaceutical excipient and an added flow regulator were blended in a Turbula mixer for a defined period of time. As pharmaceutical excipient corn starch was used. The flow regulators were represented by a selection of amorphous silicon dioxide types like a commercial fumed silica and various types of SIPERNAT precipitated silica provided by Evonik-Degussa GmbH, Hanau, Germany. Flowability parameters of the mixtures were characterized by means of a tensile strength tester. The reduction of tensile strength with the blending time can be correlated with an increase in fragmentation of the flow regulator. PMID:18595668

  9. Exposure to crystalline silica in abrasive blasting operations where silica and non-silica abrasives are used.

    PubMed

    Radnoff, Diane L; Kutz, Michelle K

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to respirable crystalline silica is a hazard common to many industries in Alberta but particularly so in abrasive blasting. Alberta occupational health and safety legislation requires the consideration of silica substitutes when conducting abrasive blasting, where reasonably practicable. In this study, exposure to crystalline silica during abrasive blasting was evaluated when both silica and non-silica products were used. The crystalline silica content of non-silica abrasives was also measured. The facilities evaluated were preparing metal products for the application of coatings, so the substrate should not have had a significant contribution to worker exposure to crystalline silica. The occupational sampling results indicate that two-thirds of the workers assessed were potentially over-exposed to respirable crystalline silica. About one-third of the measurements over the exposure limit were at the work sites using silica substitutes at the time of the assessment. The use of the silica substitute, by itself, did not appear to have a large effect on the mean airborne exposure levels. There are a number of factors that may contribute to over-exposures, including the isolation of the blasting area, housekeeping, and inappropriate use of respiratory protective equipment. However, the non-silica abrasives themselves also contain silica. Bulk analysis results for non-silica abrasives commercially available in Alberta indicate that many contain crystalline silica above the legislated disclosure limit of 0.1% weight of silica per weight of product (w/w) and this information may not be accurately disclosed on the material safety data sheet for the product. The employer may still have to evaluate the potential for exposure to crystalline silica at their work site, even when silica substitutes are used. Limited tests on recycled non-silica abrasive indicated that the silica content had increased. Further study is required to evaluate the impact of product recycling

  10. Staged re-evaluation of non-culprit lesions in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Thim, Troels; Egholm, Gro; Olesen, Kevin Kris Warnakula; Kaltoft, Anne; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Krusell, Lars Romer; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Christiansen, Evald Høj; Maeng, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective It remains unknown whether complete revascularisation is optimally performed in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the index or at staged procedures. The aims of this study were to quantify the number of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures in which non-culprit lesions needed further evaluation, to determine the consequence of the re-evaluation and to quantify adverse cardiac events during the waiting time for re-evaluation and intervention. Methods The study was observational and retrospective and included all patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI during 1 year at our centre. Results Among the 507 patients with STEMI, 374 were considered sufficiently treated with culprit lesion PCI only. Complete primary multivessel revascularisation was performed in 11 patients. Non-culprit lesion re-evaluation was planned for 122 patients (24%). Of these 122 patients, 3 patients died during their index admission. Follow-up data were not available for 3 patients. Among the 116 patients, 187 non-culprit lesions were re-evaluated and 77 patients (66.4%) underwent revascularisation with treatment of 119 lesions (63.3%). Re-evaluation was performed after a median of 30 days (25th centile: 9 days, 75th centile: 35 days). During the waiting time for re-evaluation, two patients underwent a new primary PCI due to stent thrombosis of the index culprit lesion. Conclusions Staged re-evaluation of non-culprit lesions observed in patients with STEMI was required in 24% of a primary PCI cohort. Intervention was performed in 66.4% of patients scheduled for re-evaluation. We observed no adverse events related to the non-culprit lesions during the waiting time for a staged re-evaluation or intervention. PMID:27403331

  11. Admicellar polymerization of precipated silica

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.L.; Grady, B.P.; Harwell, J.H.

    1996-10-01

    The tendency of a surfactant molecule to adsorb at a solid-liquid interface is the basis for an in situ surface modification process, termed admicellar polymerization. The four-step admicellar polymerization process includes: (1) adsorption of surfactant at the solid-liquid interface, (2) adsolubilization of monomer into the surfactant bilayer, (3) polymerization using free-radical initiators and heat, (4) removal of excess surfactant to expose the polymer modified surface. The process is used to apply polymer to precipitated silica to enhance the compatibility of the silica when added to filled rubber. The adsorption isotherms were first determined for particular surfactant/silica combinations to find the surfactant concentration that would sufficiently adsolubilize the monomer, while remaining below the critical micelle concentration. A series of experiments were then devised for the polymerization reactions in which the surfactant and monomer amounts were varied over three levels to establish the optimal combination.

  12. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: (i) Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica: Not less than 99.0 percent silicon dioxide after ignition... dichlorodimethylsilane. (ii) Precipated hydrophobic silica: Not less than 94.0 percent silicon dioxide after...

  13. Physisorbed Water on Silica at Mars Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Sriwatanapongse, W.; Quinn, R.; Klug, C.; Zent, A.

    2002-01-01

    The usefulness of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in probing water interactions on silica at Mars temperatures is discussed. Results indicate that two types of water occur with silica at Mars temperatures. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Optothermal nonlinearity of silica aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Gentilini, Silvia; Fleming, Adam; Samuels, Michiel C.; Di Falco, Andrea; Conti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    We report on the characterization of silica aerogel thermal optical nonlinearity, obtained by z-scan technique. The results show that typical silica aerogels have nonlinear optical coefficient similar to that of glass (≃10-12 m2/W), with negligible optical nonlinear absorption. The nonlinear coefficient can be increased to values in the range of 10-10 m2/W by embedding an absorbing dye in the aerogel. This value is one order of magnitude higher than that observed in the pure dye and in typical highly nonlinear materials like liquid crystals.

  15. Silica Precursors Derived From TEOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H.

    1993-01-01

    Two high-char-yield polysiloxane polymers developed. Designated as TEOS-A and TEOS-B with silica char yields of 55% and 22%, respectively. These free-flowing polymers are Newtonium liquids instead of thick gels. Easily synthesized by controlled hydrolysis of inexpensive tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). Adhesive properties of TEOS-A suggest its use as binder for fabrication of ceramic articles from oxide powders. Less-viscous and more-fluid lower-molecular-weight TEOS-B used to infiltrate already-formed porous ceramic compacts to increase densities without effecting shrinkage. Also used as paint to coat substrate with silica, and to make highly pure silicate powders.

  16. Determination of 1,3-butadiene in workplace air: reevaluation of NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Method S91 and development of NIOSH Method 1024

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, R.A.; Gagnon, Y.T.

    1988-08-24

    NIOSH Method S91 for the determination of 1,3-butadiene in air was reevaluated, and a new method was developed. Limitations to Method S91 included the fact that the lower quantitation limit appeared to be about 3.4 parts per million (ppm) and the packed-column gas-chromatographic analysis was subject to interference. The new method developed, Method 1024, employed collection on tandem coconut-shell charcoal tubes, desorption with methylene chloride, and high-resolution gas-chromatographic analysis. Evaluation of Method 1024 indicated that it should be useful for determining full-shift time-weighted average exposures in humid air at concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 10 ppm. The sampler's capacity should permit quantitation of levels up to 100 ppm if desorbed samples are diluted so that they fall in the calibration range. In the chromatographic process, the combination of backflushable precolumn and aluminum oxide fused-silica capillary analytical columns offered the advantages of enhanced sensitivity enabling detection down to 0.005 ppm in 25 liters, and enhanced selectivity, limiting the need for confirmatory techniques.

  17. Removal of dissolved and colloidal silica

    DOEpatents

    Midkiff, William S.

    2002-01-01

    Small amorphous silica particles are used to provide a relatively large surface area upon which silica will preferentially adsorb, thereby preventing or substantially reducing scaling caused by deposition of silica on evaporative cooling tower components, especially heat exchange surfaces. The silica spheres are contacted by the cooling tower water in a sidestream reactor, then separated using gravity separation, microfiltration, vacuum filtration, or other suitable separation technology. Cooling tower modifications for implementing the invention process have been designed.

  18. The properties of silica-gelatin composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinskaya, O. N.; Laguta, I. V.

    2010-06-01

    Silica-gelatin composites with various silica-to-gelatin ratios were obtained. The influence of high-dispersity silica on the swelling of composites in water and desorption of pyridoxine and thiamine vitamins incorporated into the material was studied. The addition of silica to gelatin was shown to increase the time of the dissolution of the materials in aqueous medium and decelerate the desorption of vitamins.

  19. Comparison of silica-core optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Brian P.

    1991-07-01

    Silica-core optical fibers have become a standard vehicle to remotely deliver high-power laser energy from surgical lasers operating between 200 and 2400 nm. The three primary types of silica-core fibers: plastic-clad; hard-clad; and silica-clad; are discussed. The performance advantages of each are addressed and actual general-surgery medical applications are provided.

  20. Re-evaluating the northeastern Minnesota moose decline and the role of wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Fieberg, John

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluated findings from Lenarz et al. (2009) that adult moose (Alces alces) survival in northeastern Minnesota was related to high January temperatures and that predation by wolves (Canis lupus) played a minor role. We found significant inverse relationships between annual wolf numbers in part of the moose range and various moose demographics from 2003 to 2013 that suggested a stronger role of wolves than heretofore believed. To re-evaluate the temperature findings, we conducted a simulation study, mimicking the approach taken by Lenarz et al. (2009), to explore the potential for concluding a significant relationship exists between temperature and survival, when no association exists. We found that the high R2s and low probabilities associated with the regression models in Lenarz et al. (2009) should be viewed cautiously in light of the large number of fitted models (m = 45) and few observations (n = 6 for each of 5 response variables).

  1. Reevaluating nuclear safety and security in a post 9/11 era.

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, Paul M.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    This report has the following topics: (1) Changing perspectives on nuclear safety and security; (2) Evolving needs in a post-9/11 era; (3) Nuclear Weapons--An attractive terrorist target; (4) The case for increased safety; (5) Evolution of current nuclear weapons safety and security; (6) Integrated surety; (7) The role of safety and security in enabling responsiveness; (8) Advances in surety technologies; and (9) Reevaluating safety.

  2. Orphan caribou, Rangifer tarandus, calves: A re-evaluation of overwinter survival data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joly, Kyle

    2000-01-01

    Low sample size and high variation within populations reduce power of statistical tests. These aspects of statistical power appear to have affected an analysis comparing overwinter survival rates of non-orphan and orphan Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calves by an earlier study for the Porcupine Caribou Herd. A re-evaluation of the data revealed that conclusions about a lack of significant difference in the overwinter survival rates between orphan and non-orphan calves were premature.

  3. [Research about re-evaluation of screening of traditonal Chinese medicine symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang].

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of post-marketing Chinese medicine re-evaluation is to identify Chinese medicine clinical indications, while designing scientific and rational of Chinese medicine symptoms items are important to the result of symptoms re-evaluation. This study give screening of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang re-evaluation as example that reference to principle dyslipidemia clinical research, academic dissertations, Xuezhikang directions, clinical expert practice experience etc. while standardization those symptom names and screening 41 dyslipidemia common symptoms. Furthermore, this paper discuss about the accoerdance and announcements when screening symptoms item, so as to providing a research thread to manufacture PRO chart for post-marketing medicine re-evaluation. PMID:22292395

  4. Silica optical fibers: technology update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohn, David A.; McCann, Brian P.

    1995-05-01

    Silica-core optical fibers have long been the standard delivery medium for medical laser delivery systems. Their high strength, excellent flexibility, and low cost continue to make them the fiber of choice for systems operating from 300 to 2200 nm. An overview of the current fiber constructions available to the industry is reviewed. Silicone-clad fibers, hard- fluoropolymer clad fibers and silica-clad fibers are briefly compared in terms of mechanical and optical properties. The variety of fiber coatings available is also discussed. A significant product development of silica fiber delivery systems has been in side-firing laser delivery systems for Urology. These devices utilize silica-core fibers to project the laser energy at a substantial lateral angle to the conventional delivery system, typically 40 to 100 degrees off axis. Many unique distal tips have been designed to meet the needs of this potentially enormous application. There are three primary technologies employed in side-firing laser delivery systems: reflection off of an attached medium; reflection within an angle-polished fiber through total internal reflection; and reflection from both an angle-polished fiber and an outside medium. Each technology is presented and compared on the basis of operation modality, transmission efficiency, and power-handling performance.

  5. The Phagocytosis and Toxicity of Amorphous Silica

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Lindsey M.; Gilberti, Renée M.; Knecht, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Inhalation of crystalline silica is known to cause an inflammatory reaction and chronic exposure leads to lung fibrosis and can progress into the disease, silicosis. Cultured macrophages bind crystalline silica particles, phagocytose them, and rapidly undergo apoptotic and necrotic death. The mechanism by which particles are bound and internalized and the reason particles are toxic is unclear. Amorphous silica has been considered to be a less toxic form, but this view is controversial. We compared the uptake and toxicity of amorphous silica to crystalline silica. Methodology/Principal Findings Amorphous silica particles are phagocytosed by macrophage cells and a single internalized particle is capable of killing a cell. Fluorescent dextran is released from endo-lysosomes within two hours after silica treatment and Caspase-3 activation occurs within 4 hours. Interestingly, toxicity is specific to macrophage cell lines. Other cell types are resistant to silica particle toxicity even though they internalize the particles. The large and uniform size of the spherical, amorphous silica particles allowed us to monitor them during the uptake process. In mCherry-actin transfected macrophages, actin rings began to form 1-3 minutes after silica binding and the actin coat disassembled rapidly following particle internalization. Pre-loading cells with fluorescent dextran allowed us to visualize the fusion of phagosomes with endosomes during internalization. These markers provided two new ways to visualize and quantify particle internalization. At 37°C the rate of amorphous silica internalization was very rapid regardless of particle coating. However, at room temperature, opsonized silica is internalized much faster than non-opsonized silica. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that amorphous and crystalline silica are both phagocytosed and both toxic to mouse alveolar macrophage (MH-S) cells. The pathway leading to apoptosis appears to be similar in both

  6. Status report and FY95 plans -- Re-evaluation of NOAA Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this project was to re-evaluate NOAA/CMDL Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data during FY94 from the stations Haute Provence, France; Lauder, New Zealand; Perth, Australia; and Poker Flat, Alaska and the Umkehr data from Boulder, Colorado and Mauna Loa, Hawaii. During the second year the authors planned to re-evaluate total ozone data from Byrd, Hallett and South Pole, Antarctica; Fairbanks, Alaska; Puerto Montt, Chile; Huancayo, Peru and Umkehr data from Huancayo.

  7. Uranium incorporation into amorphous silica.

    PubMed

    Massey, Michael S; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Nelson, Joey M; Fendorf, Scott; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of uranium are commonly observed in naturally occurring amorphous silica (including opal) deposits, suggesting that incorporation of U into amorphous silica may represent a natural attenuation mechanism and promising strategy for U remediation. However, the stability of uranium in opaline silicates, determined in part by the binding mechanism for U, is an important factor in its long-term fate. U may bind directly to the opaline silicate matrix, or to materials such as iron (hydr)oxides that are subsequently occluded within the opal. Here, we examine the coordination environment of U within opaline silica to elucidate incorporation mechanisms. Precipitates (with and without ferrihydrite inclusions) were synthesized from U-bearing sodium metasilicate solutions, buffered at pH ∼ 5.6. Natural and synthetic solids were analyzed with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and a suite of other techniques. In synthetic amorphous silica, U was coordinated by silicate in a double corner-sharing coordination geometry (Si at ∼ 3.8-3.9 Å) and a small amount of uranyl and silicate in a bidentate, mononuclear (edge-sharing) coordination (Si at ∼ 3.1-3.2 Å, U at ∼ 3.8-3.9 Å). In iron-bearing synthetic solids, U was adsorbed to iron (hydr)oxide, but the coordination environment also contained silicate in both edge-sharing and corner-sharing coordination. Uranium local coordination in synthetic solids is similar to that of natural U-bearing opals that retain U for millions of years. The stability and extent of U incorporation into opaline and amorphous silica represents a long-term repository for U that may provide an alternative strategy for remediation of U contamination. PMID:24984107

  8. Adsorption of organic molecules on silica surface.

    PubMed

    Parida, Sudam K; Dash, Sukalyan; Patel, Sabita; Mishra, B K

    2006-09-13

    The adsorption behaviour of various organic adsorbates on silica surface is reviewed. Most of the structural information on silica is obtained from IR spectral data and from the characteristics of water present at the silica surface. Silica surface is generally embedded with hydroxy groups and ethereal linkages, and hence considered to have a negative charged surface prone to adsorption of electron deficient species. Adsorption isotherms of the adsorbates delineate the nature of binding of the adsorbate with silica. Aromatic compounds are found to involve the pi-cloud in hydrogen bonding with silanol OH group during adsorption. Cationic and nonionic surfactants adsorb on silica surface involving hydrogen bonding. Sometimes, a polar part of the surfactants also contributes to the adsorption process. Styryl pyridinium dyes are found to anchor on silica surface in flat-on position. On modification of the silica by treating with alkali, the adsorption behaviour of cationic surfactant or polyethylene glycol changes due to change in the characteristics of silica or modified silica surface. In case of PEG-modified silica, adsolubilization of the adsorbate is observed. By using a modified adsorption equation, hemimicellization is proposed for these dyes. Adsorptions of some natural macromolecules like proteins and nucleic acids are investigated to study the hydrophobic and hydrophilic binding sites of silica. Artificial macromolecules like synthetic polymers are found to be adsorbed on silica surface due to the interaction of the multifunctional groups of the polymers with silanols. Preferential adsorption of polar adsorbates is observed in case of adsorbate mixtures. When surfactant mixtures are considered to study competitive adsorption on silica surface, critical micelle concentration of individual surfactant also contributes to the adsorption isotherm. The structural study of adsorbed surface and the thermodynamics of adsorption are given some importance in this review

  9. Organically Modified Silicas on Metal Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Organically modified silica coatings were prepared on metal nanowires using a variety of silicon alkoxides with different functional groups (i.e., carboxyl groups, polyethylene oxide, cyano, dihydroimidazole, and hexyl linkers). Organically modified silicas were deposited onto the surface of 6-μm-long, ∼300-nm-wide, cylindrical metal nanowires in suspension by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon alkoxides. Syntheses were performed at several ratios of tetraethoxysilane to an organically modified silicon alkoxide to incorporate desired functional groups into thin organosilica shells on the nanowires. These coatings were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. All of the organically modified silicas prepared here were sufficiently porous to allow the removal of the metal nanowire cores by acid etching to form organically modified silica nanotubes. Additional functionality provided to the modified silicas as compared to unmodified silica prepared using only tetraethoxysilane precursors was demonstrated by chromate adsorption on imidazole-containing silicas and resistance to protein adsorption on polyethyleneoxide-containing silicas. Organically modified silica coatings on nanowires and other nano- and microparticles have potential application in fields such as biosensing or nanoscale therapeutics due to the enhanced properties of the silica coatings, for example, the prevention of biofouling. PMID:20715881

  10. Synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si-Han; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Lin, Hong-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Good control of the morphology, particle size, uniformity and dispersity of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is of increasing importance to their use in catalyst, adsorption, polymer filler, optical devices, bio-imaging, drug delivery, and biomedical applications. This review discusses different synthesis methodologies to prepare well-dispersed MSNs and hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNs) with tunable dimensions ranging from a few to hundreds of nanometers of different mesostructures. The methods include fast self-assembly, soft and hard templating, a modified Stöber method, dissolving-reconstruction and modified aerogel approaches. In practical applications, the MSNs prepared by these methods demonstrate good potential for use in high-performance catalysis, antireflection coating, transparent polymer-MSNs nanocomposites, drug-release and theranostic systems. PMID:23403864

  11. Gain functionalization of silica microresonators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lan; Vahala, K J

    2003-04-15

    Erbium-doped solgel films are applied to the surface of silica microspheres to create low-threshold microactivity lasers. This gain functionalization can be applied by use of a number of different dopants, thereby extending the wavelength range of this class of device. Also, by varying the doping concentration and thickness of the applied solgel layer, one can vary the laser dynamics so that both continuous-wave and pulsating modes of operation are possible. PMID:12703910

  12. Silica exposure and systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mulloy, Karen B

    2003-01-01

    Work in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities has exposed workers to multiple toxic agents leading to acute and chronic diseases. Many exposures were common to numerous work sites. Exposure to crystalline silica was primarily restricted to a few facilities. I present the case of a 63-year-old male who worked in DOE facilities for 30 years as a weapons testing technician. In addition to silica, other workplace exposures included beryllium, various solvents and heavy metals, depleted uranium, and ionizing radiation. In 1989 a painful macular skin lesion was biopsied and diagnosed as leukocytoclastic vasculitis. By 1992 he developed gross hematuria and dyspnea. Blood laboratory results revealed a serum creatinine concentration of 2.1 mg/dL, ethrythrocyte sedimentation rate of 61 mm/hr, negative cANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody cytoplasmic pattern), positive pANCA (ANCA perinuclear pattern), and antiglomerular basement membrane negative. Renal biopsy showed proliferative (crescentric) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis. The patient's diagnoses included microscopic polyangiitis, systemic necrotizing vasculitis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and glomerulonephritis. Environmental triggers are thought to play a role in the development of an idiopathic expression of systemic autoimmune disease. Crystalline silica exposure has been linked to rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and some of the small vessel vasculitides. DOE workers are currently able to apply for compensation under the federal Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program (EEOICP). However, the only diseases covered by EEOICP are cancers related to radiation exposure, chronic beryllium disease, and chronic silicosis. PMID:14644669

  13. Non-occupational exposure to silica dust

    PubMed Central

    Bhagia, L. J.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure to silica occurs at workplaces in factories like quartz crushing facilities (silica flour milling), agate, ceramic, slate pencil, glass, stone quarries and mines, etc., Non-occupational exposure to silica dust can be from industrial sources in the vicinity of the industry as well as non-industrial sources. Recently, public concern regarding non-occupational or ambient exposure to crystalline silica has emerged making it important to gather information available on non-occupational exposures to silica dust and non-occupational silicosis. This paper reviews various non-occupational exposures reported in literature including some studies by the author. Methodology used in assessment of non-occupational exposures, standards for non-occupational exposures to silica dust and indirect estimation of cumulative risk % are also discussed. PMID:23776316

  14. Silica Extraction at Mammoth Lakes, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

    2006-06-07

    The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other resource extraction (Li, Cs, Rb). Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

  15. Characterization of diatomaceous silica by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, P; He, H P; Wu, D Q; Wang, D Q; Chen, L J

    2004-10-01

    The network characteristic of a selection of diatomaceous silica derived from China has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Before any thermal treatment of the sample, two prominent bands of 607 and circa 493 cm(-1) are resolved in the Raman spectra of diatomaceous silica, corresponding to the (SiO)3-ring breathing mode of D2-line and the O3SiOH tetrahedral vibration mode of D1-line, respectively. This is more similar to the pyrogenic silica rather than the silica gel. For the latter, to obtain a (SiO)3-ring, the sample must be heated between 250 and 450 degrees C. Significant difference is also found between the diatomaceous silica and other natural silicas, e.g. in the Raman spectra of sedimentary and volcanic opals, neither D1 nor D2 band is detected in previous reports. PMID:15350933

  16. Characterization of diatomaceous silica by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, P.; He, H. P.; Wu, D. Q.; Wang, D. Q.; Chen, L. J.

    2004-10-01

    The network characteristic of a selection of diatomaceous silica derived from China has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Before any thermal treatment of the sample, two prominent bands of 607 and circa 493 cm -1 are resolved in the Raman spectra of diatomaceous silica, corresponding to the (SiO) 3-ring breathing mode of D 2-line and the O 3SiOH tetrahedral vibration mode of D 1-line, respectively. This is more similar to the pyrogenic silica rather than the silica gel. For the latter, to obtain a (SiO) 3-ring, the sample must be heated between 250 and 450 °C. Significant difference is also found between the diatomaceous silica and other natural silicas, e.g. in the Raman spectra of sedimentary and volcanic opals, neither D 1 nor D 2 band is detected in previous reports.

  17. Sealed silica pressure ampoules for crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of vitreous silica and the mechanics of thick walled pressure vessels are reviewed with regard to the construction of sealed silica crucibles such as are used in the growth of mercury-cadmium telluride crystals. Data from destructive rupture tests are reported, failure modes discussed, and recommendations for design given. Ordinary commercial clear vitreous silica from flame fused quartz can withstand a surface stress of 20 MPa or more in this application.

  18. Process for preparing polymer reinforced silica aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Capadona, Lynn A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Process for preparing polymer-reinforced silica aerogels which comprises a one-pot reaction of at least one alkoxy silane in the presence of effective amounts of a polymer precursor to obtain a silica reaction product, the reaction product is gelled and subsequently subjected to conditions that promotes polymerization of the precursor and then supercritically dried to obtain the polymer-reinforced monolithic silica aerogels.

  19. Mesoporous Silica: A Suitable Adsorbent for Amines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous silica with KIT-6 structure was investigated as a preconcentrating material in chromatographic systems for ammonia and trimethylamine. Its adsorption capacity was compared to that of existing commercial materials, showing its increased adsorption power. In addition, KIT-6 mesoporous silica efficiently adsorbs both gases, while none of the employed commercial adsorbents did. This means that KIT-6 Mesoporous silica may be a good choice for integrated chromatography/gas sensing micro-devices. PMID:20628459

  20. Re-evaluation of classical prognostic factors in resectable ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Åkerberg, Daniel; Ansari, Daniel; Andersson, Roland

    2016-07-28

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma carries a poor prognosis with annual deaths almost matching the reported incidence rates. Surgical resection offers the only potential cure. Yet, even among patients that undergo tumor resection, recurrence rates are high and long-term survival is scarce. Various tumor-related factors have been identified as predictors of survival after potentially curative resection. These factors include tumor size, lymph node disease, tumor grade, vascular invasion, perineural invasion and surgical resection margin. This article will re-evaluate the importance of these factors based on recent publications on the topic, with potential implications for treatment and outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:27605878

  1. A re-evaluation of Scinaia (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Cisneros, K.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, R.; Neto, A. I.

    2011-06-01

    The genus Scinaia in the Azores is re-evaluated based on historical and recent collections. A combination of morphological and anatomical diagnostic characters was used for species segregation, and a key for Azorean species determination is presented. Anatomical information associated to the hair development is described for the first time for the genus. The occurrence of S. furcellata and S. interrupta is confirmed for the archipelago. The presence of S. acuta is reported for the first time in the Azores, representing a spread from Australia to the N-Atlantic and specifically into the Macaronesian region. Its occurrence in the archipelago and the Canaries is discussed as a possible introduction.

  2. Source-term reevaluation for US commercial nuclear power reactors: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Ball, J.R.; Ramaswami, D.

    1984-12-01

    Only results that had been discussed publicly, had been published in the open literature, or were available in preliminary reports as of September 30, 1984, are included here. More than 20 organizations are participating in source-term programs, which have been undertaken to examine severe accident phenomena in light-water power reactors (including the chemical and physical behavior of fission products under accident conditions), update and reevaluate source terms, and resolve differences between predictions and observations of radiation releases and related phenomena. Results from these source-term activities have been documented in over 100 publications to date.

  3. Re-evaluation of classical prognostic factors in resectable ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Åkerberg, Daniel; Ansari, Daniel; Andersson, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma carries a poor prognosis with annual deaths almost matching the reported incidence rates. Surgical resection offers the only potential cure. Yet, even among patients that undergo tumor resection, recurrence rates are high and long-term survival is scarce. Various tumor-related factors have been identified as predictors of survival after potentially curative resection. These factors include tumor size, lymph node disease, tumor grade, vascular invasion, perineural invasion and surgical resection margin. This article will re-evaluate the importance of these factors based on recent publications on the topic, with potential implications for treatment and outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:27605878

  4. A Pd/silica composite with highly uniform Pd nanoparticles on silica lamella via layered silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jing; Cui, Zhi-Min; Cao, Chang-Yan; Song, Weiguo

    2016-08-01

    Pd nanoparticles was loaded on silica lamella via layered silicate through a simple ion-exchange and in situ reduction method. The obtained Pd/silica composite has Pd nanoparticles with highly uniform size dispersed well on the silica lamella. The Pd/silica composite is active and recoverable catalyst for the hydrogenation reaction and the reaction can be completed in a short time of 2 h at room temperature and 1 atm H2 pressure.

  5. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, I-Ju

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  6. Self-Reevaluation as a Critical Component in Sustained Viral Load Change for HIV+ Adults with Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Golub, Sarit A.

    2010-01-01

    Self-reevaluation is one of the ten processes of change in the transtheoretical model and involves cognitive reappraisal of how behavior change is part of one’s identity. Although self-reevaluation is a critical motivator for individuals in the contemplation stage of change, few studies have examined its impact on disease progression associated with sustained behavior change. This study investigated the contribution of self-reevaluation on sustained viral load improvement among 143 participants in a randomized controlled trial testing an eight-session intervention (Project Positive Living through Understanding and Support) designed to improve treatment adherence among HIV+ adults with alcohol problems. Participants’ self-reevaluation scores at 3 months emerged as significant and independent predictors of sustained improvement in viral load at 6 months, over and above self-reported HAART dose adherence (p<0.05). Results underscore the role of self-reevaluation as a critical factor in behavioral interventions and highlight its role in sustained change necessary to slow disease progression. PMID:20668976

  7. Moisture Transport in Silica Gel Particle Beds: I. Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A. A.; Mills, A. F.

    1986-08-01

    Diffusion mechanisms of moisture within silica gel particles are investigated. It is found that for microporous silica gel surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism of moisture transport, while for macroporous silica gel both Knudsen and surface diffusion are important.

  8. HEALTH EFFECTS OF INHALED CRYSTALLINE AND AMORPHOUS SILICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, public concern regarding nonoccupational or ambient silica exposure, mainly to crystalline silica, has emerged making it important to evaluate background and ambient concentrations. Ambient emissions of silica rarely are estimated or measured in air pollution studies of...

  9. Sulphur-doped silica fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimova, V I; Rybaltovskii, A O; Chernov, P V; Mashinsky, V M; Sazhin, O D; Medvedkov, O I; Rybaltovsky, A A; Khrapko, R R

    2003-01-31

    An optical fibre with low optical losses is manufactured from a sulphur-doped quartz glass. Optical absorption spectra are measured for various parts of the fibre core. Most of the bands of these spectra are assigned to oxygen-deficient centres and colour centres containing sulphur atoms. The photosensitivity of glasses exposed to laser radiation at wavelengths of 193 and 244 nm is investigated to estimate the possibility of their application for producing photorefracting devices. A Bragg grating of the refractive index with {Delta}n = 7.8 x 10{sup -4} is written in a sulphur-doped silica fibre. (fibre optics)

  10. Nanoscale control of silica particle formation via silk-silica fusion proteins for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mieszawska, Aneta J; Nadkarni, Lauren D; Perry, Carole C; Kaplan, David L

    2010-10-26

    The biomimetic design of silk/silica fusion proteins was carried out, combining the self assembling domains of spider dragline silk (Nephila clavipes) and silaffin derived R5 peptide of Cylindrotheca fusiformis that is responsible for silica mineralization. Genetic engineering was used to generate the protein-based biomaterials incorporating the physical properties of both components. With genetic control over the nanodomain sizes and chemistry, as well as modification of synthetic conditions for silica formation, controlled mineralized silk films with different silica morphologies and distributions were successfully generated; generating 3D porous networks, clustered silica nanoparticles (SNPs), or single SNPs. Silk serves as the organic scaffolding to control the material stability and multiprocessing makes silk/silica biomaterials suitable for different tissue regenerative applications. The influence of these new silk-silica composite systems on osteogenesis was evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) subjected to osteogenic differentiation. hMSCs adhered, proliferated, and differentiated towards osteogenic lineages on the silk/silica films. The presence of the silica in the silk films influenced osteogenic gene expression, with the upregulation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col 1) markers. Evidence for early bone formation as calcium deposits was observed on silk films with silica. These results indicate the potential utility of these new silk/silica systems towards bone regeneration. PMID:20976116

  11. DNA Binding to the Silica Surface.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bobo; Shin, Yun Kyung; Hassanali, Ali A; Singer, Sherwin J

    2015-08-27

    We investigate the DNA-silica binding mechanism using molecular dynamics simulations. This system is of technological importance, and also of interest to explore how negatively charged DNA can bind to a silica surface, which is also negatively charged at pH values above its isoelectric point near pH 3. We find that the two major binding mechanisms are attractive interactions between DNA phosphate and surface silanol groups and hydrophobic bonding between DNA base and silica hydrophobic region. Umbrella sampling and the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) are used to calculate the free energy surface for detachment of DNA from a binding configuration to a location far from the silica surface. Several factors explain why single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) has been observed to be more strongly attracted to silica than double-stranded (dsDNA): (1) ssDNA is more flexible and therefore able to maximize the number of binding interactions. (2) ssDNA has free unpaired bases to form hydrophobic attachment to silica while dsDNA has to break hydrogen bonds with base partners to get free bases. (3) The linear charge density of dsDNA is twice that of ssDNA. We devise a procedure to approximate the atomic forces between biomolecules and amorphous silica to enable large-scale biomolecule-silica simulations as reported here. PMID:25966319

  12. Biomimetic silica encapsultation of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroch, David Benjamin

    Living cells perform complex chemical processes on size and time scales that artificial systems cannot match. Cells respond dynamically to their environment, acting as biological sensors, factories, and drug delivery devices. To facilitate the use of living systems in engineered constructs, we have developed several new approaches to create stable protective microenvironments by forming bioinspired cell-membrane-specific silica-based encapsulants. These include vapor phase deposition of silica gels, use of endogenous membrane proteins and polysaccharides as a site for silica nucleation and polycondensation in a saturated environment, and protein templated ordered silica shell formation. We demonstrate silica layer formation at the surface of pluripotent stem-like cells, bacterial biofilms, and primary murine and human pancreatic islets. Materials are characterized by AFM, SEM and EDS. Viability assays confirm cell survival, and metabolite flux measurements demonstrate normal function and no major diffusion limitations. Real time PCR mRNA analysis indicates encapsulated islets express normal levels of genetic markers for β-cells and insulin production. The silica glass encapsulant produces a secondary bone like calcium phosphate mineral layer upon exposure to media. Such bioactive materials can improve device integration with surrounding tissue upon implantation. Given the favorable insulin response, bioactivity, and long-term viability observed in silica-coated islets, we are currently testing the encapsulant's ability to prevent immune system recognition of foreign transplants for the treatment of diabetes. Such hybrid silica-cellular constructs have a wide range of industrial, environmental, and medical applications.

  13. Reusable silica surface-insulation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.; Smith, M.; Leiser, D.

    1973-01-01

    Material was specifically developed for manufacture of insulating tiles, but it can be molded into other shapes as required. Basic raw materials are high-purity silica fiber, fumed-silica powder, and reagent-grade starch. Only purest materials are used, and care must be taken to avoid contamination during processing.

  14. Sample Desorption/Onization From Mesoporous Silica

    DOEpatents

    Iyer, Srinivas; Dattelbaum, Andrew M.

    2005-10-25

    Mesoporous silica is shown to be a sample holder for laser desorption/ionization of mass spectrometry. Supported mesoporous silica was prepared by coating an ethanolic silicate solution having a removable surfactant onto a substrate to produce a self-assembled, ordered, nanocomposite silica thin film. The surfactant was chosen to provide a desired pore size between about 1 nanometer diameter and 50 nanometers diameter. Removal of the surfactant resulted in a mesoporous silica thin film on the substrate. Samples having a molecular weight below 1000, such as C.sub.60 and tryptophan, were adsorbed onto and into the mesoporous silica thin film sample holder and analyzed using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

  15. High purity silica reflecting heat shield development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, W.

    1974-01-01

    A reflecting heat shield composed of fused silica in which the scattering results from the refractive index mismatch between silica particles and the voids introduced during the fabrication process is developed. Major considerations and conclusions of the development are: the best material to use is Type A, which is capable of ultra-high-purity and which does not show the 0.243 micrometer absorption band; the reflection efficiency of fused silica is decreased at higher temperatures due to the bathochromic shift of the ultraviolet cut-off; for a given silica material, over the wavelength region and particle sizes tested, the monodisperse particle size configurations produce higher reflectances than continuous particle size configurations; and the smaller monodisperse particle size configurations give higher reflectance than the larger ones. A reflecting silica configuration that is an efficient reflector of shock layer radiation at high ablation temperatures is achieved by tailoring the matrix for optimum scattering and using an ultra-high-purity material.

  16. Chemically-bound xenon in fibrous silica.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Räsänen, Markku; Gerber, R Benny

    2014-06-21

    High-level quantum chemical calculations reported here predict the existence and remarkable stability, of chemically-bound xenon atoms in fibrous silica. The results may support the suggestion of Sanloup and coworkers that chemically-bound xenon and silica account for the problem of "missing xenon" (by a factor of 20!) from the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. So far, the host silica was assumed to be quartz, which is in contradiction with theory. The xenon-fibrous silica molecule is computed to be stable well beyond room temperature. The calculated Raman spectra of the species agree well with the main features of the experiments by Sanloup et al. The results predict computationally the existence of a new family of noble-gas containing materials. The fibrous silica species are finite molecules, their laboratory preparation should be feasible, and potential applications are possible. PMID:24807740

  17. Fluid diffusion in porous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Lowell I.

    Fluid motion in porous media has received a great deal of theoretical and experimental attention due to its importance in systems as diverse as ground water aquifers, catalytic processes, and size separation schemes. Often, the motion of interest is the random thermal motion of molecules in a fluid undergoing no net flow. This diffusive motion is particularly important when the size of the pores is nearly the same as the size of the molecules. In this study, fluid diffusion is measured in several varieties of porous silica whose pore structure is determined by the process by which it is made. The samples in this study have porosities (φ, the ratio of the pore volume to the total sample volume) that vary from 0.3 to 0.75 and average pore radii that range from approximately 15 to 120 A. Determining the effect of the pore structure on the diffusion of a liquid in a porous material is complicated by the chemical interactions between the diffusing molecules and the pore surface. In this study, ions in a hydrophilic fluid are used to block the adsorption of the diffusing dye molecules to the hydroxyl groups covering the silica surface. This technique is unlike typical surface treatments of silica in that it does not permanently alter the pore geometry. In this work, fluid diffusion is measured with a transient holographic grating technique where interfering laser beams create a periodic refractive index modulation in the fluid. The diffraction of a third laser off this grating is monitored to determine how quickly the grating relaxes, thereby determining the diffusion coefficient of the molecules in the fluid. Varying the grating periodicity controls the length scale of the diffusion measurement from 1.2 to 100 μm which is much larger than the average pore sizes of the samples. Therefore, over these large scales, we measure 'normal' diffusion, where the mean squared displacement of a diffusing particle varies linearly with time. In one particular type of porous silica

  18. Fire effects on silica fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unzué-Belmonte, Dácil; Schaller, Jörg; Vandevenne, Floor; Barao, Lúcia; Struyf, Eric; Meire, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Fire events are expected to increase due to climate change, both in number and intensity Effects range from changes in soil biogeochemistry up to the whole ecosystem functioning and morphology. While N, P and C cycling have received quite some attention, little attention was paid to fire effects on the biogeochemical Si cycle and the consequences after a fire event. The Si cycle is a globally important biogeochemical cycle, with strong connections to other biogeochemical cycles, including C. Dissolved silica is taken up by plants to form protective structures called phytoliths, which become a part of the soil and contribute strongly to soil Si cycling upon litter burial. Different silica fractions are found in soils, with phytoliths among the most easily soluble, especially compared to silicate minerals. A whole set of secondary non-biogenic fractions exist, that also have a high reactivity (adsorbed Si, reactive secondary minerals…). Biogenic and other pedogenic secondary Si stocks form an important filter between weathering of mineral silicates and eventual transport of dissolved Si to rivers and the coastal zone. We used a new method to analyze the different reactive fractions of silica in the litter layer of 3 ecosystems after different fire treatments. Using a continuous extraction of Si and Al in 0.5M NaOH at 85°C, biogenic and non-biogenic alkaline reactive Si fractions can be separated based on their Si/Al ratios and their reactivity. We analyzed the silica fractionation after two burning treatments (no heating, 350°C and 550°C) from three types of litter (spruce forest, beech forest and Sphagnum peat). Reactive Si from litter of spruce and beech forest was purely biogenic, based on the observed Si/Al ratio. Beech litter (~2.2 % BSi) had two different biogenic silica pools, one reactive and one more refractory. Spruce litter (~1.5% BSi) showed only one fraction of biogenic Si. There was negligible biogenic Si present in the peat samples (<0.1%). While

  19. A reevaluation of the literature regarding the health assessment of diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bunn, William B; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Valberg, Peter A; Slavin, Thomas J; Hart, Georgia; Lapin, Charles A

    2004-12-15

    While the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified diesel exhaust (DE) as a"probable"carcinogen in 1989 based primarily on"sufficient"animal data, other investigators have since concluded that the lung tumors found in the rat studies were a result of particle overloading. Subsequent health risk assessments of DE have not used the rat cancer data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in developing its 2002 Health Assessment Document (HAD) for DE, primarily considered the epidemiology studies of railroad workers and truck drivers to develop health risk assessments of DE. However, both sets of epidemiology studies have serious weaknesses that make them unsuitable for cancer risk assessment. Major shortcomings were the lack of contemporaneous measurements of exposures to DE, difficulties with exposure history reconstruction, and adequately accounting for other exposures such as gasoline exhaust and cigarette smoke. To compound these problems, there was not, and there is still not, a specific exposure marker for DE. Interestingly, in the underground mining industry, where diesel exposures are much higher than observed in railroad workers and truck drivers, there was no increase in lung cancer. These problems and concerns led the U.S. EPA to conclude that while DE was a"likely"carcinogen, a unit risk value or range of risk cannot be calculated from existing data and that the risk could be zero. In addition, the DE emissions have changed and continue to change with the implementation of new emission control technologies. The HAD recognized this fact and noted that further studies are needed to assess new diesel engine emissions. Recent chemical characterization studies on low-emitting diesel engines with catalyzed particulate filters have shown emissions rates for several chemicals of concern that are even lower than comparable compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled engines. With lower emissions, better fire safety, and improved cost

  20. Modified Mesoporous Silica for Efficient Siloxane Capture.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Tahereh; Jiang, Ting; Zhong, Wei; Khakpash, Nasser; Deljoo, Bahareh; Aindow, Mark; Singh, Prabhakar; Suib, Steven L

    2016-03-15

    In this study, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) was removed by using a novel modified solid adsorbent of mesoporous silica. The adsorbent was synthesized using inverse micelles with some modifications in the synthesis process (temperature of gelation) and in the post treatment conditions (calcination temperature and heating rate) with a concomitant improvement of D4 uptake. This is the first report on regulating the textural properties of the mesoporous silica material UCT-14 to develop an active silica adsorbent. These adjustments resulted in an increase of the silica surface area from 391 to 798 m(2)·g(-1), which leads to a high capacity (686 mg·g(-1)) of D4-capture for the silica synthesized at 80 °C, calcined at 450 °C with the heating rate of 100 °C·min(-1) (Si-Syn80). This adsorbent showed comparable adsorption performance with the widely used commercial silica gel under dry and humid condition. Recyclability tests on the commercial silica gel and mesoporous silica synthesized at 120 °C and calcined at 450 °C with a heating rate of 100 °C·min(-1) (called Si-Syn120 or Si-450 or Si-100 °C·min(-1)) indicated that the Si-Syn120 (capacity drop 10%) is more efficient than silica gel (capacity drop 15%) after three cycles. Although, the presence of moisture (25%) in the nitrogen gas stream led to capacity reduction in both Si-Syn120 and commercial silica gel, the modified UCT-14 shows slightly better resistance to humid condition. PMID:26890152

  1. THE 2005 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION RE-EVALUATION OF HUMAN AND MAMMALIAN TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTORS FOR DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In June 2005 a WHO-IPCS expert meeting was held in Geneva during which the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for dioxin like compounds, including some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were re-evaluated. For this re-evaluation process the refined TEF database recently published by...

  2. Encapsulation of silica nanoparticles by redox-initiated graft polymerization from the surface of silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huijun; Peng, Mao; Zheng, Jun; Li, Peng

    2008-10-01

    This study describes a facile and versatile method for preparing polymer-encapsulated silica particles by 'grafting from' polymerization initiated by a redox system comprising ceric ion (Ce(4+)) as an oxidant and an organic reductant immobilized on the surface of silica nanoparticles. The silica nanoparticles were firstly modified by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, then reacted with poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate through the Michael addition reaction, so that hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were covalently attached onto the nanoparticle surface and worked as the reductant. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), a common hydrophobic polymer, and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), a thermosensitive polymer, were successfully grafted onto the surface of silica nanoparticles by 'grafting from' polymerization initiated by the redox reaction of Ce(4+) with PEG on the silica surface in acid aqueous solutions. The polymer-encapsulated silica nanoparticles (referred to as silica@PMMA and silica@PNIPAAm, respectively) were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. On the contrary, graft polymerization did not occur on bare silica nanoparticles. In addition, during polymerization, sediments were observed for PMMA and for PNIPAAm at a polymerization temperature above its low critical solution temperature (LCST). But the silica@PNIPAAm particles obtained at a polymerization temperature below the LCST can suspend stably in water throughout the polymerization process. PMID:18684468

  3. Reevaluating the tectonic uplift of western Mount Carmel, Israel, since the middle Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zviely, Dov; Galili, Ehud; Ronen, Avraham; Salamon, Amos; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    2009-03-01

    Reevaluation of geological and archaeological evidence from western Mount Carmel constrains its maximal tectonic uplift since the Middle Pleistocene. Tabun Cave, presently 45 m above sea level (asl), revealed human occupation from about 600 ka to 90 ka before present. The 25 m thick archaeological strata at Tabun are composed of laminated fine sand, silt and clays. Moreover, no marine deposits were found in Tabun or nearby caves. Since sea level in the last 600 ka reached a maximal of 5 to 10 m asl, Tabun Cave could not have been uplifted since then by more than 35 to 40 m, that is a maximal average rate of 58 to 67 mm/ka.

  4. Antenatal Supervision—A Review of Obstetrical Care with Suggestions for Reevaluation

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Leon Parrish

    1964-01-01

    Studies by California Maternal Mortality Study Committees over a period of six years have revealed many avoidable inadequacies in the care of pregnant patients. Other reviews have shown a high incidence of non-fatal complications arising early in pregnancy when care is often inadequate. Since antenatal care is justly credited with the vast improvement of the incidence of maternal mortality, maternal morbidity and perinatal salvage, it is time for a reevaluation and upgrading of present-day practices. Responsibility is shared by the medical and auxiliary professions and the community. The public as well as those who care for the expectant mother must have improved educational exposure to achieve better results. PMID:14199085

  5. Re-Evaluating Sexual Violence Prevention Through Bystander Education: A Latent Growth Curve Approach.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jessica; Janulis, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there has been a call for more advanced analytic techniques in violence against women research, particularly in community interventions that use longitudinal designs. The current study re-evaluates experimental evaluation data from a sexual violence bystander intervention program. Using an exploratory latent growth curve approach, we were able to model the longitudinal growth trajectories of individual participants over the course of the entire study. Although the results largely confirm the original evaluation findings, the latent growth curve approach better fits the demands of "messy" data (e.g., missing data, varying number of time points per participant, and unequal time spacing within and between participants) that are frequently obtained during a community-based intervention. The benefits of modern statistical techniques to practitioners and researchers in the field of sexual violence prevention, and violence against women more generally, are further discussed. PMID:25888503

  6. Reply to "Comment on `Reevaluation of the parton distribution of strange quarks in the nucleon'"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschenauer, E. C.; Jackson, H. E.; Joosten, S.; Rith, K.; Schnell, G.; van Hulse, C.; HERMES Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    A Comment on the recently published reevaluation of the polarization-averaged parton distribution of strange quarks in the nucleon using final data on the multiplicities of charged kaons in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) is reviewed. Important features of the comparison of one-dimensional projections of the multidimensional HERMES data are pointed out. A test of the leading-order extraction of xB S (xB) using the difference between charged-kaon multiplicities is repeated. The results are consistent with leading-order predictions within the uncertainties in the input data, and do not invalidate the earlier extraction of xB S (xB) .

  7. Re-evaluation of the 1962 Mark VI-B dynamic tests regarding reactivity coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, T.

    1991-06-01

    The 1962 Mark VI-B rod tests have been re-evaluated. A significantly lower (more negative) coolant coefficient is now ascribed to that test, {minus}1 pcm/Deg-C vs the previously reported +2 pcm/Deg-C. The change from the previous value is because of revisions to delayed neutron constants and accounting for spatial effects. The new value is in reasonable agreement with the currently calculated value of {minus}2 pcm/Deg-C, considering measurement and calculational uncertainties. Therefore, the authors conclude that the current analytic models for physics and transient analysis methodology (GLASS, GRIMHX & TRIMHX, AND MARY) are fully consistent with 1962 test observations, and that there is no basis for assigning a calculational bias or increasing uncertainty allowances.

  8. Reevaluation of an individual's radiation exposure at NTS in 1963-64. [FRAN reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.S.

    1983-02-25

    The FRAN prompt burst reactor began operation at NTS on November 1, 1962 and continued in use until April 1965. From January 2, 1963 to August 12, 1964, an individual periodically performed maintenance and troubleshooting functions on various components of the FRAN reactor system. In June, 1980, the individual requested a review of the radiation dose that he received from his involvement with the FRAN reactor. An evaluation of the individual's radiation dose associated with the FRAN reactor operation was performed. This report details the reevaluation of the individual's estimated radiation dose from the FRAN reactor assembly, as derived from computer calculations, GODIVA-IV measurements, personnel dosimetry results, and a reconstruction of work scenarios.

  9. Reevaluation of the macroseismic effects of the 23 January 1838 Vrancea earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozea, M.; Marmureanu, Gh.; Radulian, M.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the great event that occurred on 23 January 1838 (magnitude 7.5 in the Romanian catalogue). Valuable information has been collected from original or compiled historical sources, such as chronicles and manuscripts on that time, and related books and reports. The historical data are critically analyzed and, on the basis of our investigation, we showed the degree of significance of the earthquake parameters, as resulted from the effect distribution. The pattern of the intensity data points as reevaluated for this historical earthquake is compared with the pattern of instrumentally recorded major earthquake of 4 March 1977, the two events assumed to be similar as hypocenter location, source parameters and rupture propagation. We make also a comparative investigation for the attenuation relationship in case of Vrancea earthquakes, using historical data vs. instrumental data. Implications for the seismic hazard assessment are finally discussed.

  10. A reevaluation of Stogryn's apparent temperature theory over the sea surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A. K.; Eom, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The emission theory for the sea surface by Stogryn has been reevaluated. Results agree with Stogryn's paper except for small nadir angles where the apparent temperature versus wind speed behavior is in reverse of what was reported by Stogryn. By plotting the change in contributions by the sea surface emission and sky temperature scattered toward the radiometer as a function of nadir angle at two different wind speeds, it is found that the sky temperature effect is dominating at small nadir angles, while the change in surface emission becomes increasingly more important at larger nadir angles. It is also found that at nadir higher emission is associated with the polarization where E(arrow) field is aligned along the upwind direction than the one along the crosswind direction.

  11. Light-Induced Surface Patterning of Silica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hong Suk; Lee, Seungwoo; Choi, Jaeho; Lee, Hongkyung; Park, Jung-Ki; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2015-10-27

    Manipulating the size and shape of silica precursor patterns using simple far-field light irradiation and transforming such reconfigured structures into inorganic silica patterns by pyrolytic conversion are demonstrated. The key concept of our work is the use of an azobenzene incorporated silica precursor (herein, we refer to this material as azo-silane composite) as ink in a micromolding process. The moving direction of azo-silane composite is parallel to light polarization direction; in addition, the amount of azo-silane composite movement can be precisely determined by controlling light irradiation time. By exploiting this peculiar phenomenon, azo-silane composite patterns produced using the micromolding technique are arbitrarily manipulated to obtain various structural features including high-resolution size or sophisticated shape. The photoreconfigured patterns formed with azo-silane composites are then converted into pure silica patterns through pyrolytic conversion. The pyrolytic converted silica patterns are uniformly formed over a large area, ensuring crack-free formation and providing high structural fidelity. Therefore, this optical manipulation technique, in conjunction with the pyrolytic conversion process, opens a promising route to the design of silica patterns with finely tuned structural features in terms of size and shape. This platform for designing silica structures has significant value in various nanotechnology fields including micro/nanofluidic channel for lab-on-a-chip devices, transparent superhydrophobic surfaces, and optoelectronic devices. PMID:26389813

  12. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  13. [Post-marketing reevaluation for potential quality risk and quality control in clinical application of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-jiao; He, Li-yun; Liu, Bao-yan

    2015-06-01

    The effective quality control in clinical practices is an effective guarantee for the authenticity and scientificity of the findings. The post-marketing reevaluation for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) focuses on the efficacy, adverse reaction, combined medication and effective dose of drugs in the market by expanded clinical trials, and requires a larger sample size and a wider range of patients. Therefore, this increases the difficulty of quality control in clinical practices. With the experience in quality control in clinical practices for the post-marketing reevaluation for Kangbingdu oral for cold, researchers in this study reviewed the study purpose, project, scheme design and clinical practice process from an overall point of view, analyzed the study characteristics of the post-marketing reevaluation for TCMs and the quality control risks, designed the quality control contents with quality impacting factors, defined key review contents and summarized the precautions in clinical practices, with the aim to improve the efficiency of quality control of clinical practices. This study can provide reference to clinical units and quality control-related personnel in the post-marketing reevaluation for TCMs. PMID:26591543

  14. Re-evaluation of broiler carcass scalding protocols for impact on the recovery of Campylobacter from breast skin after defeathering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research re-evaluated the impact of scalding protocols on the recovery of Campylobacter from breast skin following defeathering after preliminary processing trials detected Campylobacter from breast skin for 4/8 carcasses that had vents plugged and sutured prior to scalding. Published research...

  15. 41 CFR 301-70.602 - How often must we reevaluate the payment of transportation and subsistence expenses to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How often must we reevaluate the payment of transportation and subsistence expenses to a threatened law enforcement/investigative employee? 301-70.602 Section 301-70.602 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY)...

  16. Crystalline silica: risks and policy.

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, T S; Weill, H

    1995-01-01

    Since the International Agency for Research on Cancer labeled crystalline silica a probable carcinogen in 1988, government regulations have required sand and other products to contain warning labels and researchers have attempted to quantitatively assess low-exposure risks. The uncertainties are unlikely to diminish any time soon, and little value exists in calculating such risks, as low exposures to this ubiquitous mineral are commonplace in both urban and rural areas due to many uncontrollable activities. What is certain is that regulatory resources targeted at continuing high-level occupational exposures would be much more likely to have beneficial public health consequences than continued attempts to assess low-exposure risks quantitatively. Images p152-a PMID:7737062

  17. Re-evaluation of Non-regulatory Asbestos Group Minerals for Regulatory Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, M.; Dogan, A.

    2013-05-01

    There are established rules and regulations for some asbestos group minerals - amphibole group minerals of actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, crocidolite, tremolite; and serpentine group minerals of chrysotile- called "regulatory". There are also "non-regulatory" naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) group minerals as constituent of rocks and soil, including richterite, winchite, fluoro-edenite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, gageite, arfvedsonite, and magnesio-arfvedsonite. Strong evidences for carcinogenicity of these NOA minerals in later cohorts of cancer patients demonstrated the risks associated with these minerals. In addition, although the chrysotile asbestos regulated by some organizations such as WHO, World Trade Organization, United Nations, US EPA, International Labour Organization, and EU Countries; however, controversies still continue surrounding the use of chrysotile. Determinations of polymineralic fibrous veins, mixed particles, amphibole cleavage fragments, and genetic predisposition are also important issues (i.e. Dogan et al., 2006).Therefore, accurate characterizations of chemical composition, morphology, structure, and defects are necessary in order to find out mechanism(s) of carcinogenicity of all asbestos group minerals. Calculation methods of chemical composition are still under debate because of assumption of no vacancies at any sites and intergrowth of minerals. Substitution(s) may cause deviations from the ideal chemical formula and wide variations in chemical compositions. Detail morphological and chemical quantification of individual asbestos group minerals in micro- and nano-scale may help to evaluate its true carcinogenetic mechanism(s), and consequently prevention and possibly treatment of related diseases. we propose that nonregulatory asbestos minerals and the chrysotile should be re-evaluated. The amount of fibers inhaled, in terms of weight percent and number, need also be re-evaluated by mineralogists. Finally, Regulatory

  18. Nonporous Silica Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine Application

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Li; Cheng, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Summary Nanomedicine, the use of nanotechnology for biomedical applications, has potential to change the landscape of the diagnosis and therapy of many diseases. In the past several decades, the advancement in nanotechnology and material science has resulted in a large number of organic and inorganic nanomedicine platforms. Silica nanoparticles (NPs), which exhibit many unique properties, offer a promising drug delivery platform to realize the potential of nanomedicine. Mesoporous silica NPs have been extensively reviewed previously. Here we review the current state of the development and application of nonporous silica NPs for drug delivery and molecular imaging. PMID:23997809

  19. Inverse melting in stressed fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchut, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    The emissive properties of proton implanted fused silica surfaces have been studied by laser beam annealing. When submitted to a high thermal step from a focused CO2 laser, an intense near infra-red thermoluminescence peak rises at a heating rate threshold. The in plane tensile stress relaxes and silica melts. We show that in the irreversible inverse melting of stressed fused silica, the protons exo-diffuse through internal modes coupling. The heat and mass transfer is one entropy flux whose dynamics are regulated by the mass transport. Inverse melting is the thermodynamic process that initiates the glass transition when heating.

  20. Silica burp in the Eocene ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowran, Brian

    1989-09-01

    The Eocene was a time of greatly increased silica accumulation in the ocean, and the peak was in the early middle Eocene at about 50 Ma. The responsible geohistorical configuration included the following elements: extensive volcanism about 4 m.y. earlier, as part of the Chron 24 plate reorganization; early Eocene warming, with deep weathering to high latitudes and accumulation of the released silica in a sluggish ocean; and sharp cooling in the earliest middle Eocene, stimulating oceanic upwelling and biosilicification. It is possible, on the evidence of carbon and oxygen isotopic patterns, that the trigger for the exhalation of silica was a reverse greenhouse effect.

  1. Fused Silica and Other Transparent Window Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Several transparent ceramics, such as spinel and AlONs are now being produced in sufficient large areas to be used in space craft window applications. The work horse transparent material for space missions from Apollo to the International Space Station has been fused silica due in part to its low coefficient of expansion and optical quality. Despite its successful use, fused silica exhibits anomalies in its crack growth behavior, depending on environmental preconditioning and surface damage. This presentation will compare recent optical ceramics to fused silica and discuss sources of variation in slow crack growth behavior.

  2. Fluorine-Based DRIE of Fused Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl; Shcheglov, Kirill; Li, Jian; Choi, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A process of deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) using a fluorine-based gas mixture enhanced by induction-coupled plasma (ICP) has been demonstrated to be effective in forming high-aspect-ratio three-dimensional patterns in fused silica. The patterns are defined in part by an etch mask in the form of a thick, high-quality aluminum film. The process was developed to satisfy a need to fabricate high-aspect-ratio fused-silica resonators for vibratory microgyroscopes, and could be used to satisfy similar requirements for fabricating other fused-silica components.

  3. Preparing mesoporous carbon and silica with rosin-silica composite gel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haidi; Du, Shangfeng; Chen, Yunfa

    2009-02-01

    Mesoporous carbon and mesoporous silica were prepared respectively with a same rosin-silica nanocomposite gel which was synthesized by cogelating tetra-ethyl-oxy-silane (silica source) and rosin (carbon source). Carbonizing the gel in nitrogen and then etching away silica with alkaline solution, mesoporous carbon with specific surface area larger than 800 m2/g was obtained. If calcining the gel at high temperature in air for given time, porous silica with surface area higher than 700 m2/g was done. BET measurement was employed to investigate the pore distribution and surface area of the samples. Most of the pores in both the porous carbon and porous silica were mesoscale, which makes the materials potential in enzyme supports for bio-catalyzed reaction or adsorbents for contaminants with large molecular size. PMID:19441395

  4. Self-Assembled Silica Nanostructures: Simultaneous Discrimination of Handedness, Pitch and Diameter of Helical Silica Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Oh, C Y; Kim, D Y; Jin, S M; Kim, T K; Kim, J P; Jeong, E D; Hyun, M H; Sim, E K; Lee, Y C; Jin, J S

    2016-02-01

    The left- and right-handed helical silica nanostructures were obtained with the aid of organic templates, the formation of the nanostructures might follow a co-operation self-assembly mechanism. The chirality of the organogel self-assemblies was successfully transcribed in to the silica. The helical pitch and pore size of the silica nanotubes sensitively depended on the optical purity of the neutral gelator in the reaction mixtures. PMID:27433714

  5. Fungus-mediated biotransformation of amorphous silica in rice husk to nanocrystalline silica.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Vipul; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

    2006-11-01

    Rice husk is a cheap agro-based waste material, which harbors a substantial amount of silica in the form of amorphous hydrated silica grains. However, there have been no attempts at harnessing the enormous amount of amorphous silica present in rice husk and its room-temperature biotransformation into crystalline silica nanoparticles. In this study, we address this issue and describe how naturally deposited amorphous biosilica in rice husk can be bioleached and simultaneously biotransformed into high value crystalline silica nanoparticles. We show here that the fungus Fusarium oxysporum rapidly biotransforms the naturally occurring amorphous plant biosilica into crystalline silica and leach out silica extracellularly at room temperature in the form of 2-6 nm quasi-spherical, highly crystalline silica nanoparticles capped by stabilizing proteins; that the nanoparticles are released into solution is an advantage of this process with significant application and commercial potential. Calcination of the silica nanoparticles leads to loss of occluded protein and to an apparently porous structure often of cubic morphology. The room-temperature synthesis of oxide nanomaterials using microorganisms starting from potential cheap agro-industrial waste materials is an exciting possibility and could lead to an energy-conserving and economically viable green approach toward the large-scale synthesis of oxide nanomaterials. PMID:17061888

  6. Nanoparticle-doped radioluminescent silica optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrazek, J.; Nikl, M.; Kasik, I.; Podrazky, O.; Aubrecht, J.; Beitlerova, A.

    2014-05-01

    This contribution deals with the preparation and characterization of the silica optical fibers doped by nanocrystalline zinc silicate. The sol-gel approach was employed to prepare colloidal solution of zinc silicate precursors. Prepared sol was thermally treated to form nanocrystalline zinc silicate disperzed inside amorphous silica matrix or soaked inside the porous silica frit deposed inside the silica substrate tube which was collapsed into preform and drawn into optical fiber. Single mode optical fiber with the core diameter 15 μm and outer diamer 125 μm was prepared. Optical and waveguiding properties of the fiber were analyzed. Concentration of the zinc silicate in the fiber was 0.93 at. %. Radioluminescence properties of nanocrystalline zinc silicate powder and of the prepared optical fiber were investigated. The nanoparticle doped samples appear a emission maximum at 390 nm.

  7. Procedure to prepare transparent silica gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Patrick G. (Inventor); Simpson, Norman R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of silica gels and in particular to a process for the preparation of silica gels which can be used as a crystal growth medium that simulates the convectionless environment of space to produce structurally perfect crystals. Modern utilizations of substances in electronics, such as radio transmitters and high frequency microphones, often require single crystals with controlled purity and structural perfection. The near convectionless environment of silica gel suppresses nucleation, thereby reducing the competitive nature of crystal growth. This competition limits the size and perfection of the crystal; and it is obviously desirable to suppress nucleation until, ideally, only one crystal grows in a predetermined location. A silica gel is not a completely convectionless environment like outer space, but is the closest known environment to that of outer space that can be created on Earth.

  8. Silica precipitation with synthetic silaffin peptides.

    PubMed

    Wieneke, Ralph; Bernecker, Anja; Riedel, Radostan; Sumper, Manfred; Steinem, Claudia; Geyer, Armin

    2011-08-01

    Silaffins are highly charged proteins which are one of the major contributing compounds that are thought to be responsible for the formation of the hierarchically structured silica-based cell walls of diatoms. Here we describe the synthesis of an oligo-propyleneamine substituted lysine derivative and its incorporation into the KXXK peptide motif occurring repeatedly in silaffins. N(ε)-alkylation of lysine was achieved by a Mitsunobu reaction to obtain a protected lysine derivative which is convenient for solid phase peptide synthesis. Quantitative silica precipitation experiments together with structural information about the precipitated silica structures gained by scanning electron microscopy revealed a dependence of the amount and form of the silica precipitates on the peptide structure. PMID:21674108

  9. Silica Transport and Cementation in Quartz Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pebble, C.; Farver, J.; Onasch, C.; Winslow, D.

    2008-12-01

    Silica transport and cementation in quartz aggregates have been experimentally investigated. Starting materials include a natural quartz arenite (Pocono sandstone), sized clasts of synthetic quartz, and sized grains of disaggregated natural sandstones. Experimental charges consisted of amorphous silica powder (~25 mg), AlCl3 powder (~3 mg), 25 wt% NaCl brine solution (~20 mg), and the starting material (~150 mg). The charges were weld-sealed in gold capsules and run in cold-seal pressure vessels at 300°C to 600°C at 150 MPa confining pressure for up to 4 weeks. Detailed calibrations of the furnaces indicate the maximum temperature variation across the length of the sample charges (3-7mm) was <5°C, and typically <3°C. After the experiments, samples were vacuum impregnated with epoxy containing a blue dye and sawn in half along the long axis of the sample charge. The nature and amount of silica transport and cementation in the samples was determined by a combination of Cathodoluminescence (CL), Light Microscopy (LM), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Photomosaics of the samples were collected and the amount of cement, porosity, and average grain sizes were determined by point-counting. The cement was easily recognized from the quartz grains by the difference in luminescence. The experiments indicate that the presence of amorphous silica results in rapid silica cementation in quartz aggregates (e.g., up to 12% cement by volume in 4 weeks at 450°C). The amount of cementation is a function of substrate type, time, temperature, and ionic strength of the brine. The rate of silica transport through the length of the experimental charge appears to be limited by the silica solubility and its rapid depletion by cementation. Although most of the cement was derived from the amorphous silica, evidence for local dissolution-precipitation was observed. The experiments demonstrate that the mobility of silica, and consequent precipitation of cement, does not require a

  10. Silica Aerogel Captures Cosmic Dust Intact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.

    1994-01-01

    The mesostructure of silica aerogel resembles stings of grapes, ranging in size from 10 to 100 angstrom. This fine mesostructure transmits nearly 90 percent of incident light in the visible, while providing sufficiently gentle dissipation of the kinetric energy of hypervelocity cosmic dust particles to permit their intact capture. We introduced silica aerogel in 1987 as capture medium to take advantage of its low density, fine mesostruicture and most importantly, its transparency, allowing optical location of captured micron sized particles.

  11. Optical shock waves in silica aerogel.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, S; Ghajeri, F; Ghofraniha, N; Di Falco, A; Conti, C

    2014-01-27

    Silica aerogels are materials well suited for high power nonlinear optical applications. In such regime, the non-trivial thermal properties may give rise to the generation of optical shock waves, which are also affected by the structural disorder due to the porous solid-state gel. Here we report on an experimental investigation in terms of beam waist and input power, and identify various regimes of the generation of wave-breaking phenomena in silica aerogels. PMID:24515173

  12. OCCUPATIONAL SILICA EXPOSURE AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Vupputuri, Suma; Parks, Christine G.; Nylander-French, Leena A.; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Occupational exposure to silica may be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Most studies have been conducted in occupational cohorts with high levels of exposure but small numbers of cases. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of occupational silica exposure and CKD. Methods Cases were hospital patients with newly diagnosed CKD and community controls were selected using random digit dialing and frequency matched by age, gender, race and proximity to the hospital. Silica exposure estimates were assigned by industrial hygiene review of lifetime job history data and weighted for certainty and intensity. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for CKD conditioned on demographic, lifestyle and clinical variables. Results The mean age of participants was 62 years (range, 30-83 years), 56% were male and 54% were white. Any silica exposure (compared to none) was associated with a 40% increased risk of CKD (OR=1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 1.89) in a multivariable adjusted model. The mean cumulative duration of silica exposure was significantly higher in exposed cases than in exposed controls (33.4 vs. 24.8 years, respectively). Overall, compared to non-exposed participants, the ORs (95% CI) for those below and above the median duration of silica exposure were 1.20 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.86) and 1.76 (95% CI: 1.14, 2.71), respectively. Conclusions We found a positive relationship between occupational silica exposure and CKD. A dose-response trend of increasing CKD risk with increasing duration of silica exposure was observed and was particularly strong among non-whites. PMID:22032652

  13. Grazers: biocatalysts of terrestrial silica cycling

    PubMed Central

    Vandevenne, Floor Ina; Barão, Ana Lúcia; Schoelynck, Jonas; Smis, Adriaan; Ryken, Nick; Van Damme, Stefan; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Silica is well known for its role as inducible defence mechanism countering herbivore attack, mainly through precipitation of opaline, biogenic silica (BSi) bodies (phytoliths) in plant epidermal tissues. Even though grazing strongly interacts with other element cycles, its impact on terrestrial silica cycling has never been thoroughly considered. Here, BSi content of ingested grass, hay and faeces of large herbivores was quantified by performing multiple chemical extraction procedures for BSi, allowing the assessment of chemical reactivity. Dissolution experiments with grass and faeces were carried out to measure direct availability of BSi for dissolution. Average BSi and readily soluble silica numbers were higher in faeces as compared with grass or hay, and differences between herbivores could be related to distinct digestive strategies. Reactivity and dissolvability of BSi increases after digestion, mainly due to degradation of organic matrices, resulting in higher silica turnover rates and mobilization potential from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems in non-grazed versus grazed pasture systems (2 versus 20 kg Si ha−1 y−1). Our results suggest a crucial yet currently unexplored role of herbivores in determining silica export from land to ocean, where its availability is linked to eutrophication events and carbon sequestration through C–Si diatom interactions. PMID:24107532

  14. Grazers: biocatalysts of terrestrial silica cycling.

    PubMed

    Vandevenne, Floor Ina; Barão, Ana Lúcia; Schoelynck, Jonas; Smis, Adriaan; Ryken, Nick; Van Damme, Stefan; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Silica is well known for its role as inducible defence mechanism countering herbivore attack, mainly through precipitation of opaline, biogenic silica (BSi) bodies (phytoliths) in plant epidermal tissues. Even though grazing strongly interacts with other element cycles, its impact on terrestrial silica cycling has never been thoroughly considered. Here, BSi content of ingested grass, hay and faeces of large herbivores was quantified by performing multiple chemical extraction procedures for BSi, allowing the assessment of chemical reactivity. Dissolution experiments with grass and faeces were carried out to measure direct availability of BSi for dissolution. Average BSi and readily soluble silica numbers were higher in faeces as compared with grass or hay, and differences between herbivores could be related to distinct digestive strategies. Reactivity and dissolvability of BSi increases after digestion, mainly due to degradation of organic matrices, resulting in higher silica turnover rates and mobilization potential from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems in non-grazed versus grazed pasture systems (2 versus 20 kg Si ha(-1) y(-1)). Our results suggest a crucial yet currently unexplored role of herbivores in determining silica export from land to ocean, where its availability is linked to eutrophication events and carbon sequestration through C-Si diatom interactions. PMID:24107532

  15. Transport of colloidal silica in unsaturated sand: Effect of charging properties of sand and silica particles.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Motoyoshi

    2016-07-01

    We have studied the transport of colloidal silica in various degrees of a water-saturated Toyoura sand column, because silica particles are widely used as catalyst carriers and abrasive agents, and their toxicity is reported recently. Since water-silica, water-sand, and air-water interfaces have pH-dependent negative charges, the magnitude of surface charge was controlled by changing the solution pH. The results show that, at high pH conditions (pH 7.4), the deposition of colloidal silica to the sand surface is interrupted and the silica concentration at the column outlet immediately reaches the input concentration in saturated conditions. In addition, the relative concentration of silica at the column outlet only slightly decreases to 0.9 with decreasing degrees of water saturation to 38%, because silica particles are trapped in straining regions in the soil pore and air-water interface. On the other hand, at pH 5 conditions (low pH), where sand and colloid have less charge, reduced repulsive forces result in colloidal silica attaching onto the sand in saturated conditions. The deposition amount of silica particles remarkably increases with decreasing degrees of water saturation to 37%, which is explained by more particles being retained in the sand column associated with the air-water interface. In conclusion, at higher pH, the mobility of silica particles is high, and the air-water interface is inactive for the deposition of silica. On the other hand, at low pH, the deposition amount increases with decreasing water saturation, and the particle transport is inhibited. PMID:27045635

  16. Silica ecosystem for synergistic biotransformation

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Baris R.; Sakkos, Jonathan K.; Yeom, Sujin; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2016-01-01

    Synergistical bacterial species can perform more varied and complex transformations of chemical substances than either species alone, but this is rarely used commercially because of technical difficulties in maintaining mixed cultures. Typical problems with mixed cultures on scale are unrestrained growth of one bacterium, which leads to suboptimal population ratios, and lack of control over bacterial spatial distribution, which leads to inefficient substrate transport. To address these issues, we designed and produced a synthetic ecosystem by co-encapsulation in a silica gel matrix, which enabled precise control of the microbial populations and their microenvironment. As a case study, two greatly different microorganisms: Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 were encapsulated. NCIB 9816 can aerobically biotransform over 100 aromatic hydrocarbons, a feat useful for synthesis of higher value commodity chemicals or environmental remediation. In our system, NCIB 9816 was used for biotransformation of naphthalene (a model substrate) into CO2 and the cyanobacterium PCC 7942 was used to provide the necessary oxygen for the biotransformation reactions via photosynthesis. A mathematical model was constructed to determine the critical cell density parameter to maximize oxygen production, and was then used to maximize the biotransformation rate of the system. PMID:27264916

  17. Silica ecosystem for synergistic biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Baris R; Sakkos, Jonathan K; Yeom, Sujin; Wackett, Lawrence P; Aksan, Alptekin

    2016-01-01

    Synergistical bacterial species can perform more varied and complex transformations of chemical substances than either species alone, but this is rarely used commercially because of technical difficulties in maintaining mixed cultures. Typical problems with mixed cultures on scale are unrestrained growth of one bacterium, which leads to suboptimal population ratios, and lack of control over bacterial spatial distribution, which leads to inefficient substrate transport. To address these issues, we designed and produced a synthetic ecosystem by co-encapsulation in a silica gel matrix, which enabled precise control of the microbial populations and their microenvironment. As a case study, two greatly different microorganisms: Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 were encapsulated. NCIB 9816 can aerobically biotransform over 100 aromatic hydrocarbons, a feat useful for synthesis of higher value commodity chemicals or environmental remediation. In our system, NCIB 9816 was used for biotransformation of naphthalene (a model substrate) into CO2 and the cyanobacterium PCC 7942 was used to provide the necessary oxygen for the biotransformation reactions via photosynthesis. A mathematical model was constructed to determine the critical cell density parameter to maximize oxygen production, and was then used to maximize the biotransformation rate of the system. PMID:27264916

  18. Silica ecosystem for synergistic biotransformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Baris R.; Sakkos, Jonathan K.; Yeom, Sujin; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2016-06-01

    Synergistical bacterial species can perform more varied and complex transformations of chemical substances than either species alone, but this is rarely used commercially because of technical difficulties in maintaining mixed cultures. Typical problems with mixed cultures on scale are unrestrained growth of one bacterium, which leads to suboptimal population ratios, and lack of control over bacterial spatial distribution, which leads to inefficient substrate transport. To address these issues, we designed and produced a synthetic ecosystem by co-encapsulation in a silica gel matrix, which enabled precise control of the microbial populations and their microenvironment. As a case study, two greatly different microorganisms: Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 were encapsulated. NCIB 9816 can aerobically biotransform over 100 aromatic hydrocarbons, a feat useful for synthesis of higher value commodity chemicals or environmental remediation. In our system, NCIB 9816 was used for biotransformation of naphthalene (a model substrate) into CO2 and the cyanobacterium PCC 7942 was used to provide the necessary oxygen for the biotransformation reactions via photosynthesis. A mathematical model was constructed to determine the critical cell density parameter to maximize oxygen production, and was then used to maximize the biotransformation rate of the system.

  19. Silica-metal core-shell nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jankiewicz, B J; Jamiola, D; Choma, J; Jaroniec, M

    2012-01-15

    Silica-metal nanostructures consisting of silica cores and metal nanoshells attract a lot of attention because of their unique properties and potential applications ranging from catalysis and biosensing to optical devices and medicine. The important feature of these nanostructures is the possibility of controlling their properties by the variation of their geometry, shell morphology and shell material. This review is devoted to silica-noble metal core-shell nanostructures; specifically, it outlines the main methods used for the preparation and surface modification of silica particles and presents the major strategies for the formation of metal nanoshells on the modified silica particles. A special emphasis is given to the Stöber method, which is relatively simple, effective and well verified for the synthesis of large and highly uniform silica particles (with diameters from 100 nm to a few microns). Next, the surface chemistry of these particles is discussed with a special focus on the attachment of specific organic groups such as aminopropyl or mercaptopropyl groups, which interact strongly with metal species. Finally, the synthesis, characterization and application of various silica-metal core-shell nanostructures are reviewed, especially in relation to the siliceous cores with gold or silver nanoshells. Nowadays, gold is most often used metal for the formation of nanoshells due to its beneficial properties for many applications. However, other metals such as silver, platinum, palladium, nickel and copper were also used for fabrication of core-shell nanostructures. Silica-metal nanostructures can be prepared using various methods, for instance, (i) growth of metal nanoshells on the siliceous cores with deposited metal nanoparticles, (ii) reduction of metal species accompanied by precipitation of metal nanoparticles on the modified silica cores, and (iii) formation of metal nanoshells under ultrasonic conditions. A special emphasis is given to the seed

  20. The Management of Silica in Los Alamos National Laboratory Tap Water - A Study of Silica Solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlberg, C.; Worland, V.P.; Kozubal, M.A.; Erickson, G.F.; Jacobson, H.M.; McCarthy, K.T.

    1999-07-01

    Well water at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has a silica (SiO{sub 2}) content of 60 to 100 mg/L, with 4 mg/L of magnesium, 13 mg/L calcium and lesser concentrations of other ions. On evaporation in cooling towers, when the silica concentration reaches 150 to 220 mg/L, silica deposits on heat transfer surfaces. When the high silica well water is used in the reprocessing of plutonium, silica remains in solution at the end of the process and creates a problem of removal from the effluent prior to discharge or evaporation. The work described in this Report is divided into two major parts. The first part describes the behavior of silica when the water is evaporated at various conditions of pH and in the presence of different classes of anions: inorganic and organic. In the second part of this work it was found that precipitation (floccing) of silica was a function of solution pH and mole ratio of metal to silica.

  1. Skeletal silica characterization in porous-silica low-dielectric-constant films by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Syozo; Hata, Nobuhiro; Seino, Yutaka; Fujii, Nobutoshi; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2005-06-01

    Porous-silica low-dielectric-constant (low-k) films were prepared using a sol-gel method based on the self-assembly of surfactant templates. No change in the refractive index at 633 nm nor in the infrared-absorption intensities of C-H and O-H stretching vibrations at around 2900 and 3400cm-1 of porous-silica low-k films were observed after annealing at each temperature from 523 to 723 K. On the other hand, the Young's elastic modulus and hardness increased with the increase of annealing temperature. The structure in the complex dielectric function of porous-silica low-k films observed in between 1000 and 1400cm-1 is assigned as the asymmetric stretching vibration mode of the Si-O-Si bond. By applying the effective-medium theory by Bruggeman to the experimental results from infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry, we analyzed the skeletal silica structures. The peak positions of transverse (ωTO) and longitudinal (ωLO) vibration modes for Si-O-Si network in the silica skeleton of porous-silica films changed from 1061 to 1068cm-1 and from 1219 to 1232cm-1, respectively, with the annealing temperature. It is shown that the ωLO2/ωTO2 of skeletal silica correlates with Young's elastic modulus of porous-silica low-k films.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Bionanoparticle-Silica Composites and Mesoporous Silica with Large Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Z.; Yang, L.; Kabisatpathy, S.; He, J.; Lee, A.; Ron, J.; Sikha, G.; Popov, B.N.; Emrick, T.; Russell, T. P.; Wang. Q.

    2009-03-24

    A sol-gel process has been developed to incorporate bionanoparticles, such as turnip yellow mosaic virus, cowpea mosaic virus, tobacco mosaic virus, and ferritin into silica, while maintaining the integrity and morphology of the particles. The structures of the resulting materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis. The results show that the shape and surface morphology of the bionanoparticles are largely preserved after being embedded into silica. After removal of the bionanoparticles by calcination, mesoporous silica with monodisperse pores, having the shape and surface morphology of the bionanoparticles replicated inside the silica, was produced,. This study is expected to lead to both functional composite materials and mesoporous silica with structurally well-defined large pores.

  3. Comparative Investigation on Thermal Insulation of Polyurethane Composites Filled with Silica Aerogel and Hollow Silica Microsphere.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyuan; Kim, Jin Seuk; Kwon, Younghwan

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on thermal conductivity of PU composites containing open-cell nano-porous silica aerogel and closed-cell hollow silica microsphere, respectively. The thermal conductivity of PU composites is measured at 30 degrees C with transient hot bridge method. The insertion of polymer in pores of silica aerogel creates mixed interfaces, increasing the thermal conductivity of resulting composites. The measured thermal conductivity of PU composites filled with hollow silica microspheres is estimated using theoretical models, and is in good agreement with Felske model. It appears that the thermal conductivity of composites decreases with increasing the volume fraction (phi) when hollow silica microsphere (eta = 0.916) is used. PMID:27433652

  4. Hard magnetism in structurally engineered silica nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyon-Min; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2016-09-21

    Creation of structural complexity by simple experimental control will be an attractive approach for the preparation of nanomaterials, as a classical bottom-up method is supplemented by a more efficient and more direct artificial engineering method. In this study, structural manipulation of MCM-41 type mesoporous silica is investigated by generating and imbedding hard magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles into mesoporous silica. Depending on the heating rate and target temperature, mesoporous silica undergoes a transformation in shape to form hollow silica, framed silica with interior voids, or melted silica with intact mesostructures. Magnetism is governed by the major CoFe2O4 phase, and it is affected by antiferromagnetic hematite (α-Fe2O3) and olivine-type cobalt silicate (Co2SiO4), as seen in its paramagnetic behavior at the annealing temperature of 430 °C. The early formation of Co2SiO4 than what is usually observed implies the effect of the partial substitution of Fe in the sites of Co. Under slow heating (2.5 °C min(-1)) mesostructures are preserved, but with significantly smaller mesopores (d100 = 1.5 nm). In addition, nonstoichiometric CoxFe1-xO with metal vacancies at 600 °C, and spinel Co3O4 at 700 °C accompany major CoFe2O4. The amorphous nature of silica matrix is thought to contribute significantly to these structurally diverse and rich phases, enabled by off-stoichiometry between Si and O, and accelerated by the diffusion of metal cations into SiO4 polyhedra at an elevated temperature. PMID:27537252

  5. Silica-based cationic bilayers as immunoadjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Lincopan, Nilton; Santana, Mariana RA; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana; da Costa, Maria Helena B; Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    Background Silica particles cationized by dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) bilayer were previously described. This work shows the efficiency of these particulates for antigen adsorption and presentation to the immune system and proves the concept that silica-based cationic bilayers exhibit better performance than alum regarding colloid stability and cellular immune responses for vaccine design. Results Firstly, the silica/DODAB assembly was characterized at 1 mM NaCl, pH 6.3 or 5 mM Tris.HCl, pH 7.4 and 0.1 mg/ml silica over a range of DODAB concentrations (0.001–1 mM) by means of dynamic light scattering for particle sizing and zeta-potential analysis. 0.05 mM DODAB is enough to produce cationic bilayer-covered particles with good colloid stability. Secondly, conditions for maximal adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or a recombinant, heat-shock protein from Mycobacterium leprae (18 kDa-hsp) onto DODAB-covered or onto bare silica were determined. At maximal antigen adsorption, cellular immune responses in vivo from delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions determined by foot-pad swelling tests (DTH) and cytokines analysis evidenced the superior performance of the silica/DODAB adjuvant as compared to alum or antigens alone whereas humoral response from IgG in serum was equal to the one elicited by alum as adjuvant. Conclusion Cationized silica is a biocompatible, inexpensive, easily prepared and possibly general immunoadjuvant for antigen presentation which displays higher colloid stability than alum, better performance regarding cellular immune responses and employs very low, micromolar doses of cationic and toxic synthetic lipid. PMID:19152701

  6. Re-evaluation of total and Umkehr ozone data from NOAA-CMDL Dobson spectrophotometer observatories. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Komhyr, W.D.; Quincy, D.M.; Grass, R.D.; Koenig, G.L. |

    1995-12-01

    This report describes work to improve the quality of total ozone and Umkehr data obtained in the past at the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory and the Dobson spectrophotometer ozone observatories. The authors present results of total ozone data re-evaluations for ten stations: Byrd, Antarctica; Fairbanks, Alaska; Hallett, Antarctica; Huancayo, Peru; Haute Provence, France; Lauder, New Zealand; Perth, Australia; Poker Flat, Alaska; Puerto Montt, Chile; and South Pole, Antarctica. The improved data will be submitted in early 1996 to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) World Ozone Data Center (WODC), and the Atmospheric Environment Service for archiving. Considerable work has been accomplished, also, in reevaluating Umkehr data from seven of the stations, viz., Huancayo, Haute Provence, Lauder, Perth, Poker Flat, Boulder, Colorado; and Mauna Loa, Hawaii.

  7. Subsurface defect characterization and laser-induced damage performance of fused silica optics polished with colloidal silica and ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, He; Gang, Wang; Heng, Zhao; Ping, Ma

    2016-04-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the influence of colloidal silica polishing on the damage performance of fused silica optics. In this paper, nanometer sized colloidal silica and micron sized ceria are used to polish fused silica optics. The colloidal silica polished samples and ceria polished samples exhibit that the root-mean-squared (RMS) average surface roughness values are 0.7 nm and 1.0 nm, respectively. The subsurface defects and damage performance of the polished optics are analyzed and discussed. It is revealed that colloidal silica polishing will introduce much fewer absorptive contaminant elements and subsurface damages especially no trailing indentation fracture. The 355-nm laser damage test reveals that each of the fused silica samples polished with colloidal silica has a much higher damage threshold and lower damage density than ceria polished samples. Colloidal silica polishing is potential in manufacturing high power laser optics.

  8. Improved zircon fission-track annealing model based on reevaluation of annealing data

    SciTech Connect

    Guedes, S.; Moreira, Pedro; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Weber, William J.; Hadler, J. C.

    2012-11-10

    The thermal recovery (annealing) of mineral structure modified by the passage of fission fragments has long been studied by the etching technique. In minerals like apatite and zircon, the annealing kinetics are fairly well constrained from the hour to the million-year timescale and have been described by empirical and semi-empirical equations. On the other hand, laboratory experiments, in which ion beams interact with minerals and synthetic ceramics, have shown that there is a threshold temperature beyond which thermal recovery impedes ion-induced amorphization. In this work, it is assumed that this behavior can be extended to the annealing of fission tracks in minerals. It is proposed that there is a threshold temperature, T 0, beyond which fission tracks are erased within a time t 0, which is independent of the current state of lattice deformation. This implies that iso-annealing curves should converge to a fanning point in the Arrhenius pseudo-space (ln t vs. 1/T). Based on the proposed hypothesis, and laboratory and geological data, annealing equations are reevaluated. The geological timescale estimations of a model arising from this study are discussed through the calculation of partial annealing zone and closure temperature, and comparison with geological sample constraints found in literature. It is shown that the predictions given by this model are closer to field data on closure temperature and partial annealing zone than predictions given by previous models.

  9. Improved zircon fission-track annealing model based on reevaluation of annealing data

    SciTech Connect

    Guedes, Sandro; Moreira, Pedro A.F.P.; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J; Hadler, Julio C

    2013-01-01

    The thermal recovery (annealing) of mineral structure modified by the passage of fission fragments has long been studied by the etching technique. In minerals like apatite and zircon, the annealing kinetics are fairly well constrained from the hour to the million-year timescale and have been described by empirical and semi-empirical equations. On the other hand, laboratory experiments, in which ion beams interact with minerals and synthetic ceramics, have shown that there is a threshold temperature beyond which thermal recovery impedes ion-induced amorphization. In this work, it is assumed that this behavior can be extended to the annealing of fission tracks in minerals. It is proposed that there is a threshold temperature, T0, beyond which fission tracks are erased within a time t0, which is independent of the current state of lattice deformation. This implies that iso-annealing curves should converge to a fanning point in the Arrhenius pseudo-space (ln t vs. 1/T). Based on the proposed hypothesis, and laboratory and geological data, annealing equations are reevaluated. The geological timescale estimations of a model arising from this study are discussed through the calculation of partial annealing zone and closure temperature, and comparison with geological sample constraints found in literature. It is shown that the predictions given by this model are closer to field data on closure temperature and partial annealing zone than predictions given by previous models.

  10. A reevaluation of spectral ratios for lunar mare TiO2 mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Larson, Stephen M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The empirical relation established by Charette et al. (1974) between the 400/560-nm spectral ratio of mature mare soils and weight percent TiO2 has been used extensively to map titanium content in the lunar maria. Relative reflectance spectra of mare regions show that a reference wavelength further into the near-IR, e.g., above 700 nm, could be used in place of the 560-nm band to provide greater contrast (a greater range of ratio values) and hence a more sensitive indicator of titanium content. An analysis of 400/730-nm ratio values derived from both laboratory and telescopic relative reflectance spectra suggests that this ratio provides greater sensitivity to TiO2 content than the 400/560-nm ratio. The increased range of ratio values is manifested in higher contrast 400/730-nm ratio images compared to 400/560-nm ratio images. This potential improvement in sensivity encourages a reevaluation of the original Charette et al. (1974) relation using the 400/730-nm ratio.

  11. Reevaluating the feasibility of ground-based Earth-mass microlensing planet detections

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Youn Kil; Park, Hyuk; Han, Cheongho; Hwang, Kyu-Ha; Shin, In-Gu; Choi, Joon-Young

    2014-05-10

    An important strength of the microlensing method to detect extrasolar planets is its high sensitivity to low-mass planets. However, many believe that microlensing detections of Earth-mass planets from ground-based observation would be difficult because of limits set by finite-source effects. This view comes from the previous estimation of planet detection probability based on the fractional deviation of planetary signals; however, a proper probability estimation is required when considering the source brightness, which is directly related to the photometric precision. In this paper, we reevaluate the feasibility of low-mass planet detections by considering photometric precision for different populations of source stars. From this, we find that the contribution of improved photometric precision to the planetary signal of a giant-source event is large enough to compensate for the decrease in magnification excess caused by finite-source effects. As a result, we conclude that giant-source events are suitable targets for Earth-mass planet detections with significantly higher detection probability than events involved with source stars of smaller radii, and we predict that Earth-mass planets could be detected by prospective high-cadence surveys.

  12. Re-Evaluation of the Lifetimes of Ozone-Depleting Substances and Related Trace Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, Stefan; Ko, Malcolm; Newman, Paul; Strahan, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Estimating the average lifetime of a chemical in the atmosphere is crucial to understanding their current and future atmospheric concentrations. Furthermore, for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases information on their lifetimes are of paramount importance for obtaining estimates for ozone depletion and climate forcing. Because the lifetimes of ODSs are also used to predict how the future concentrations change with emissions, they also have implications on policy decisions for limiting future release of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and other replacement compounds under the Montreal Protocol. During the last 25 years, various methods have been used to derive lifetimes of ODSs and values have changed accordingly. Within the last several years evidence is growing that the lifetimes of certain ODSs are possibly somewhat longer than published values. The "Lifetime of halogen source gases" activity under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)/Stratospheric Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) project has convened a working group to re-evaluate these ODS lifetimes. The goal was to estimate the numerical values for lifetimes and their uncertainties, and to quantify how the values may depend on factors such as the use of different lifetime definitions (e.g. steady-state/instantaneous lifetimes) and changing climate. First results of the report will be shown and implications will be discussed.

  13. Adaptively Reevaluated Bayesian Localization (ARBL): A novel technique for radiological source localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Erin A.; Robinson, Sean M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; McCall, Jonathon D.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Webster, Jennifer B.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel technique for the localization of radiological sources in urban or rural environments from an aerial platform. The technique is based on a Bayesian approach to localization, in which measured count rates in a time series are compared with predicted count rates from a series of pre-calculated test sources to define likelihood. This technique is expanded by using a localized treatment with a limited field of view (FOV), coupled with a likelihood ratio reevaluation, allowing for real-time computation on commodity hardware for arbitrarily complex detector models and terrain. In particular, detectors with inherent asymmetry of response (such as those employing internal collimation or self-shielding for enhanced directional awareness) are leveraged by this approach to provide improved localization. Results from the localization technique are shown for simulated flight data using monolithic as well as directionally-aware detector models, and the capability of the methodology to locate radioisotopes is estimated for several test cases. This localization technique is shown to facilitate urban search by allowing quick and adaptive estimates of source location, in many cases from a single flyover near a source. In particular, this method represents a significant advancement from earlier methods like full-field Bayesian likelihood, which is not generally fast enough to allow for broad-field search in real time, and highest-net-counts estimation, which has a localization error that depends strongly on flight path and cannot generally operate without exhaustive search.

  14. A re-evaluation of dust processing in supernova shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchio, Marco; Jones, Anthony P.; Slavin, Jonathan D.

    2014-10-01

    Context. There is a long-standing and large discrepancy between the timescale for dust formation around evolved stars and the rapid dust destruction timescale in interstellar shocks. Aims: We use our latest estimates for dust processing to re-evaluate the dust destruction efficiency in supernova triggered shock waves, estimate the dust lifetime, and calculate the emission and extinction from shocked dust. Methods: We modelled the sputtering and fragmentation of grains in interstellar shocks for shock velocities between 50 km s-1 and 200 km s-1. We constrained the dust destruction using our recent dust model. Finally, we coupled our code to the DustEM code in order to estimate the emission and extinction from the dust post-shock. Results: Carbonaceous grains are quickly destroyed, even in a 50 km s-1 shock, leading to a shorter lifetime than in previous studies. Silicate grains appear to be more resilient, but the new destruction lifetime that we find is similar to previous studies and short compared to the dust injection timescale. Conclusions: The calculated fraction of elements locked in grains is not compatible with the observed values and therefore implies the re-formation of dust in the dense regions of the interstellar medium. Better modelling of the silicate sputtering together with hydrodynamical simulations of interstellar shocks, appears to reduce the silicate destruction and may close the destruction-formation timescale gap. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Re-evaluation and updating of the seismic hazard of Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijer, Carla; Harajli, Mohamed; Sadek, Salah

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the implications of the newly mapped offshore Mount Lebanon Thrust (MLT) fault system on the seismic hazard of Lebanon and the current seismic zoning and design parameters used by the local engineering community. This re-evaluation is critical, given that the MLT is located at close proximity to the major cities and economic centers of the country. The updated seismic hazard was assessed using probabilistic methods of analysis. The potential sources of seismic activities that affect Lebanon were integrated along with any/all newly established characteristics within an updated database which includes the newly mapped fault system. The earthquake recurrence relationships of these sources were developed from instrumental seismology data, historical records, and earlier studies undertaken to evaluate the seismic hazard of neighboring countries. Maps of peak ground acceleration contours, based on 10 % probability of exceedance in 50 years (as per Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1997), as well as 0.2 and 1 s peak spectral acceleration contours, based on 2 % probability of exceedance in 50 years (as per International Building Code (IBC) 2012), were also developed. Finally, spectral charts for the main coastal cities of Beirut, Tripoli, Jounieh, Byblos, Saida, and Tyre are provided for use by designers.

  16. Re-evaluation of the culture condition of polymorphonuclear cells for the study of apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, M; Tajima, M; Shimojima, T; Kashimata, M; Miyata, T; Sakagami, H

    1998-01-01

    The culture conditions of human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the study of apoptosis induction were re-evaluated. The changes in the relative viable cell number of PMNs after tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment were colorimetrically investigated using a cell counting kit. The relative potency of PMNs to produce the superoxide anion (O2-) was measured as the reduction of color intensity by addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD). When the PMNs were cultured in conventional RPMI1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), the stimulation effect of TNF on O2- generation by PMNs was observed only for the first 6 hours. When FBS was replaced with human serum, the effect of TNF was maintained for longer incubation periods. Prolonged incubation of PMNs spontaneously produced large DNA fragments, and the extent of DNA fragmentation was relatively smaller in human serum-containing medium. TNF, LPS, hyperthermia or potassium thiocyanate slightly accelerated the production of large DNA fragments, as well as the induction of trace amounts of internucleosomal DNA cleavage in PMNs, which became detectable only after concentration by fractional isopropanol precipitation. The present study suggests the importance of the use of human serum rather than conventional FBS for the study of apoptosis induction in PMNs. PMID:9673409

  17. Close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking: reevaluating their influence on children's smoking.

    PubMed

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Robyn Andersen, M; Leroux, Brian G; Bharat Rajan, K; Sarason, Irwin G

    2006-04-01

    A number of longitudinal studies have explored the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking acquisition. A reasonable implication of this previous research is that intervention efforts could be beneficially directed toward countering the potential influence of friends' and possibly older siblings' smoking but not parents' smoking. However, methodological limitations of this previous research motivated our reevaluation of the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking. Close friends' smoking status was assessed when children were in 5th grade, whereas parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade. The outcome, children's daily smoking status, was assessed in 12th grade. The setting was 40 Washington state school districts that participated in the long-term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project. Participants were the 4,576 families for whom close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking status as well as children's smoking status were available. The probability that each close friend's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 9% (95% CI = 6%-12%), the probability that each parent's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 11% (95% CI = 9%-14%), and the probability that each older sibling's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 7% (95% CI = 1%-13%). These results suggest that close friends', parents', and siblings' smoking were similarly important influences on children's smoking. Family-focused interventions could be a valuable future direction of prevention research. PMID:16766414

  18. Reevaluation of the macroseismic effects of the 1887 Sonora, Mexico earthquake and its magnitude estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suárez, Gerardo; Hough, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    The Sonora, Mexico, earthquake of 3 May 1887 occurred a few years before the start of the instrumental era in seismology. We revisit all available accounts of the earthquake and assign Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI), interpreting and analyzing macroseismic information using the best available modern methods. We find that earlier intensity assignments for this important earthquake were unjustifiably high in many cases. High intensity values were assigned based on accounts of rock falls, soil failure or changes in the water table, which are now known to be very poor indicators of shaking severity and intensity. Nonetheless, reliable accounts reveal that light damage (intensity VI) occurred at distances of up to ~200 km in both Mexico and the United States. The resulting set of 98 reevaluated intensity values is used to draw an isoseismal map of this event. Using the attenuation relation proposed by Bakun (2006b), we estimate an optimal moment magnitude of Mw7.6. Assuming this magnitude is correct, a fact supported independently by documented rupture parameters assuming standard scaling relations, our results support the conclusion that northern Sonora as well as the Basin and Range province are characterized by lower attenuation of intensities than California. However, this appears to be at odds with recent results that Lg attenuation in the Basin and Range province is comparable to that in California.

  19. Pharmacological aspects and potential new clinical applications of ketamine: reevaluation of an old drug.

    PubMed

    Aroni, Filippia; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Dontas, Ismene; Pourzitaki, Chryssa; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2009-08-01

    Ketamine, the phencyclidine derivative described in 1965, is an intravenous anesthetic with a variety of applications. The enthusiasm following its initial release subsided due to side effects from the central nervous system. New anesthetics limited the role of ketamine in anesthetic practice. However, its hemodynamically stable profile, along with its beneficial respiratory properties and analgesic potency, rendered the drug invaluable in battlefield medicine, sedation of the uncooperative child, analgesia, and sedation in burn units. Reevaluation, though, of analgesic properties of ketamine resulted in new interest regarding its use in perioperative and chronic pain management. Moreover, recent studies in the effects of the substance on intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow led to revising the recommendation against its use in brain injury. Furthermore, the bronchodilating effects of the substance led to increasing interest for potential use in asthma treatment. In addition, separation of the 2 enantiomers and subsequent separate studies indicated beneficial results of the S(+) one. Thus, new controlled multicentered clinical trials are to be conducted to justify approval for new uses of ketamine and take advantage of its unique range of applications. PMID:19546251

  20. Adaptively Reevaluated Bayesian Localization (ARBL). A Novel Technique for Radiological Source Localization

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Erin A.; Robinson, Sean M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; McCall, Jonathon D.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Webster, Jennifer B.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2015-01-19

    Here we present a novel technique for the localization of radiological sources in urban or rural environments from an aerial platform. The technique is based on a Bayesian approach to localization, in which measured count rates in a time series are compared with predicted count rates from a series of pre-calculated test sources to define likelihood. Furthermore, this technique is expanded by using a localized treatment with a limited field of view (FOV), coupled with a likelihood ratio reevaluation, allowing for real-time computation on commodity hardware for arbitrarily complex detector models and terrain. In particular, detectors with inherent asymmetry of response (such as those employing internal collimation or self-shielding for enhanced directional awareness) are leveraged by this approach to provide improved localization. Our results from the localization technique are shown for simulated flight data using monolithic as well as directionally-aware detector models, and the capability of the methodology to locate radioisotopes is estimated for several test cases. This localization technique is shown to facilitate urban search by allowing quick and adaptive estimates of source location, in many cases from a single flyover near a source. In particular, this method represents a significant advancement from earlier methods like full-field Bayesian likelihood, which is not generally fast enough to allow for broad-field search in real time, and highest-net-counts estimation, which has a localization error that depends strongly on flight path and cannot generally operate without exhaustive search

  1. Time to Re-evaluate the Guideline Value for Manganese in Drinking Water?

    PubMed Central

    Ljung, Karin; Vahter, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Objective We reviewed the scientific background for the current health-based World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value for manganese in drinking water. Data sources and extraction The initial starting point was the background document for the development of the WHO’s guideline value for manganese in drinking water as well as other regulations and recommendations on manganese intake levels. Data referred to in these documents were traced back to the original research papers. In addition, we searched for scientific reports on manganese exposure and health effects. Data synthesis The current health-based guideline value for manganese in drinking water is based partly on debatable assumptions, where information from previous reports has been used without revisiting original scientific articles. Presently, preparation of common infant formulas with water containing manganese concentrations equivalent to the WHO guideline value will result in exceeding the maximum manganese concentration for infant formula. However, there are uncertainties about how this maximum value was derived. Concurrently, there is increasing evidence of negative neurologic effects in children from excessive manganese exposure. Conclusions The increasing number of studies reporting associations between neurologic symptoms and manganese exposure in infants and children, in combination with the questionable scientific background data used in setting the manganese guideline value for drinking water, certainly warrant a re-evaluation of the guideline value. Further research is needed to understand the causal relationship between manganese exposure and children’s health, and to enable an improved risk assessment. PMID:18007980

  2. Dust Destruction in the ISM: A Re-Evaluation of Dust Lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. P.; Nuth, J. A., III

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing conundrum in interstellar dust studies relating to the discrepancy between the time-scales for dust formation from evolved stars and the apparently more rapid destruction in supernova-generated shock waves. Aims. We re-examine some of the key issues relating to dust evolution and processing in the interstellar medium. Methods. We use recent and new constraints from observations, experiments, modelling and theory to re-evaluate dust formation in the interstellar medium (ISM). Results. We find that the discrepancy between the dust formation and destruction time-scales may not be as significant as has previously been assumed because of the very large uncertainties involved. Conclusions. The derived silicate dust lifetime could be compatible with its injection time-scale, given the inherent uncertainties in the dust lifetime calculation. The apparent need to re-form significant quantities of silicate dust in the tenuous interstellar medium may therefore not be a strong requirement. Carbonaceous matter, on the other hand, appears to be rapidly recycled in the ISM and, in contrast to silicates, there are viable mechanisms for its re-formation in the ISM.

  3. A re-evaluation of the Moyuta geothermal system, Southern Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D. ); Janik, C.; Fahlquist, L. ); Roldan, A.; Revolorio, M. . Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

    1991-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data from four fumarole sites combined with prefeasibility assessments obtained in the 1970s have resulted in a re-evaluation of the Moyuta geothermal system. Moyuta consists of an east-west trending complex of Quaternary andesite/dacite domes and flows cut by north-trending faults. Areas of fumaroles, acid springs, and bicarbonate-rich thermal springs flank the north and south sides of the volcanic complex. Chloride-rich thermal springs discharge along rivers at lower elevations around the Moyuta highland. The distribution of thermal features indicates that deep reservoir fluid rises convectively near the axis of volcanism. Geochemical data suggest that there are two subsystems having temperatures of about 210{degrees}C (north flank) and 170{degrees}C (south flank). Exploration wells sited near the most northerly fumarole (Azulco) achieved temperatures of {le}113{degrees}C at 1004 m depth. We suggest the fumaroles occur above hydrothermal outflow plumes confined to vertical, fault-controlled conduits. Better drilling sites occur closer to the intersections of the north trending faults and the Quaternary volcanic axis. 21 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Re-Evaluation of Sinocastor (Rodentia: Castoridae) with Implications on the Origin of Modern Beavers

    PubMed Central

    Rybczynski, Natalia; Ross, Elizabeth M.; Samuels, Joshua X.; Korth, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The extant beaver, Castor, has played an important role shaping landscapes and ecosystems in Eurasia and North America, yet the origins and early evolution of this lineage remain poorly understood. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach to help re-evaluate the phylogenetic affinities of a fossil skull from the Late Miocene of China. This specimen was originally considered Sinocastor, and later transferred to Castor. The aim of this study was to determine whether this form is an early member of Castor, or if it represents a lineage outside of Castor. The specimen was compared to 38 specimens of modern Castor (both C. canadensis and C. fiber) as well as fossil specimens of C. fiber (Pleistocene), C. californicus (Pliocene) and the early castorids Steneofiber eseri (early Miocene). The results show that the specimen falls outside the Castor morphospace and that compared to Castor, Sinocastor possesses a: 1) narrower post-orbital constriction, 2) anteroposteriorly shortened basioccipital depression, 3) shortened incisive foramen, 4) more posteriorly located palatine foramen, 5) longer rostrum, and 6) longer braincase. Also the specimen shows a much shallower basiocciptal depression than what is seen in living Castor, as well as prominently rooted molars. We conclude that Sinocastor is a valid genus. Given the prevalence of apparently primitive traits, Sinocastor might be a near relative of the lineage that gave rise to Castor, implying a possible Asiatic origin for Castor. PMID:21085579

  5. Silica-Rich Soil in Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has found a patch of bright-toned soil so rich in silica that scientists propose water must have been involved in concentrating it.

    The silica-rich patch, informally named 'Gertrude Weise' after a player in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, was exposed when Spirit drove over it during the 1,150th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's Mars surface mission (March 29, 2007). One of Spirit's six wheels no longer rotates, so it leaves a deep track as it drags through soil. Most patches of disturbed, bright soil that Spirit had investigated previously are rich in sulfur, but this one has very little sulfur and is about 90 percent silica.

    Spirit's panoramic camera imaged the bright patch through various filters on Sol 1,158 (April 6). This approximately true-color image combines images taken through three different filters. The track of disturbed soil is roughly 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide.

    Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, which can assess a target's mineral composition from a distance, examined the Gertrude Weise patch on Sol 1,172 (April 20). The indications it found for silica in the overturned soil prompted a decision to drive Spirit close enough to touch the soil with the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, a chemical analyzer at the end of Spirit's robotic arm. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer collected data about this target on sols 1,189 and 1,190 (May 8 and May 9) and produced the finding of approximately 90 percent silica.

    Silica is silicon dioxide. On Earth, it commonly occurs as the crystalline mineral quartz and is the main ingredient in window glass. The Martian silica at Gertrude Weise is non-crystalline, with no detectable quartz.

    In most cases, water is required to produce such a concentrated deposit of silica, according to members of the rover science team. One possible origin for the silica could have been interaction of soil with acidic steam

  6. Silica-Rich Soil Found by Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has found a patch of bright-toned soil so rich in silica that scientists propose water must have been involved in concentrating it.

    The silica-rich patch, informally named 'Gertrude Weise' after a player in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, was exposed when Spirit drove over it during the 1,150th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's Mars surface mission (March 29, 2007). One of Spirit's six wheels no longer rotates, so it leaves a deep track as it drags through soil. Most patches of disturbed, bright soil that Spirit had investigated previously are rich in sulfur, but this one has very little sulfur and is about 90 percent silica.

    This image is a approximately true-color composite of three images taken through different filters by Spirit's panoramic camera on Sol 1,187 (May 6). The track of disturbed soil is roughly 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide.

    Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer, which can assess a target's mineral composition from a distance, examined the Gertrude Weise patch on Sol 1,172 (April 20). The indications it found for silica in the overturned soil prompted a decision to drive Spirit close enough to touch the soil with the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, a chemical analyzer at the end of Spirit's robotic arm. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer collected data about this target on sols 1,189 and 1,190 (May 8 and May 9) and produced the finding of approximately 90 percent silica.

    Silica is silicon dioxide. On Earth, it commonly occurs as the crystalline mineral quartz and is the main ingredient in window glass. The Martian silica at Gertrude Weise is non-crystalline, with no detectable quartz.

    In most cases, water is required to produce such a concentrated deposit of silica, according to members of the rover science team. One possible origin for the silica could have been interaction of soil with acidic steam produced by volcanic activity. Another could

  7. Silica Synthesis by Sponges: Unanticipated Molecular Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, D. E.; Weaver, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    Oceanic diatoms, sponges and other organisms synthesize gigatons per year of silica from silicic acid, ultimately obtained from the weathering of rock. This biogenic silica exhibits a remarkable diversity of structures, many of which reveal a precision of nanoarchitectural control that exceeds the capabilities of human engineering. In contrast to the conditions of anthropogenic and industrial manufacture, the biological synthesis of silica occurs under mild physiological conditions of low temperatures and pressures and near-neutral pH. In addition to the differentiation between biological and abiotic processes governing silica formation, the biomolecular mechanisms controlling synthesis of these materials may offer insights for the development of new, environmentally benign routes for synthesis of nanostructurally controlled silicas and high-performance polysiloxane composites. We found that the needle-like silica spicules made by the marine sponge, Tethya aurantia, each contain an occluded axial filament of protein composed predominantly of repeating assemblies of three similar subunits we named "silicateins." To our surprise, analysis of the purified protein subunits and the cloned silicatein DNAs revealed that the silicateins are highly homologous to a family of hydrolytic enzymes. As predicted from this finding, we discovered that the silicatein filaments are more than simple, passive templates; they actively catalyze and spatially direct polycondensation to form silica, (as well as the phenyl- and methyl-silsesquioxane) from the corresponding silicon alkoxides at neutral pH and low temperature. Catalytic activity also is exhibited by the silicatein subunits obtained by disaggregation of the protein filaments and those produced from recombinant DNA templates cloned in bacteria. This catalytic activity accelerates the rate-limiting hydrolysis of the silicon alkoxide precursors. Genetic engineering, used to produce variants of the silicatein molecule with

  8. Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning.

    PubMed

    Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and

  9. Chitosan-silica hybrid porous membranes.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Christos; Madeira, Sara; Matos, Joana; Kyritsis, Apostolos; Mano, João F; Ribelles, José Luis Gómez

    2014-09-01

    Chitosan-silica porous hybrids were prepared by a novel strategy in order to improve the mechanical properties of chitosan (CHT) in the hydrogel state. The inorganic silica phase was introduced by sol-gel reactions in acidic medium inside the pores of already prepared porous scaffolds. In order to make the scaffolds insoluble in acidic media chitosan was cross-linked by genipin (GEN) with an optimum GEN concentration of 3.2 wt.%. Sol-gel reactions took place with Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) acting as silica precursors. GPTMS served also as a coupling agent between the free amino groups of chitosan and the silica network. The morphology study of the composite revealed that the silica phase appears as a layer covering the chitosan membrane pore walls. The mechanical properties of the hybrids were characterized by means of compressive stress-strain measurements. By immersion in water the hybrids exhibit an increase in elastic modulus up to two orders of magnitude. PMID:25063153

  10. 40 CFR 33.209 - Can EPA re-evaluate the MBE or WBE status of an entity after EPA certifies it to be an MBE or WBE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Can EPA re-evaluate the MBE or WBE status of an entity after EPA certifies it to be an MBE or WBE? 33.209 Section 33.209 Protection of... EPA re-evaluate the MBE or WBE status of an entity after EPA certifies it to be an MBE or WBE? (a)...

  11. Surface treatment of silica nanoparticles for stable and charge-controlled colloidal silica

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made to control the surface charge of colloidal silica nanoparticles with 20 nm and 100 nm diameters. Untreated silica nanoparticles were determined to be highly negatively charged and have stable hydrodynamic sizes in a wide pH range. To change the surface to a positively charged form, various coating agents, such as amine containing molecules, multivalent metal cation, or amino acids, were used to treat the colloidal silica nanoparticles. Molecules with chelating amine sites were determined to have high affinity with the silica surface to make agglomerations or gel-like networks. Amino acid coatings resulted in relatively stable silica colloids with a modified surface charge. Three amino acid moiety coatings (L-serine, L-histidine, and L-arginine) exhibited surface charge modifying efficacy of L-histidine > L-arginine > L-serine and hydrodynamic size preservation efficacy of L-serine > L-arginine > L-histidine. The time dependent change in L-arginine coated colloidal silica was investigated by measuring the pattern of the backscattered light in a Turbiscan™. The results indicated that both the 20 nm and 100 nm L-arginine coated silica samples were fairly stable in terms of colloidal homogeneity, showing only slight coalescence and sedimentation. PMID:25565824

  12. Surfactant removal and silica condensation during the photochemical calcination of thin film silica mesophases.

    PubMed

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Amweg, Meri L; Ruiz, Julia D; Ecke, Laurel E; Shreve, Andrew P; Parikh, Atul N

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of photochemical surfactant removal and silica condensation from organically templated thin film silica nanocomposites with mesoscopic ordering has been probed using a combined application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and single wavelength ellipsometry. Thin films of silica nanocomposites were prepared by a previously reported evaporation-induced self-assembly process. Specifically, oxidized silicon and gold substrates were withdrawn at 25 mm/min from a subcritical micelle concentration solution containing an ethylene oxide surfactant as a structure-directing agent and tetraethyl orthosilicate as a silica precursor. Real-time grazing incidence difference FT-IR spectra of the nanocomposite films on gold taken during exposure to short-wavelength ultraviolet light (184-257 nm) show that surfactant removal and silica condensation occur gradually and concomitantly. Surfactant removal and silica reconstructions were found to be nearly complete after 90 min of exposure. Further, a transient feature was observed in the FT-IR spectra around 1713 cm(-1) during the UV exposure process and was assigned to a carbonyl (C=O) stretching mode absorption, reflecting the transient formation of a partially oxidized surfactant intermediate. From these data we propose a stepwise model for surfactant removal from the nanocomposite films. Ellipsometrically determined index of refraction values collected as a function of UV exposure are also shown to support such a stepwise mechanism of surfactant removal from the ordered nanocomposite silica thin film mesophases studied here. PMID:16852834

  13. Silica-titania composite aerogel photocatalysts by chemical liquid deposition of titania onto nanoporous silica scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zu, Guoqing; Shen, Jun; Wang, Wenqin; Zou, Liping; Lian, Ya; Zhang, Zhihua

    2015-03-11

    Silica-titania composite aerogels were synthesized by chemical liquid deposition of titania onto nanoporous silica scaffolds. This novel deposition process was based on chemisorption of partially hydrolyzed titanium alkoxides from solution onto silica nanoparticle surfaces and subsequent hydrolysis and condensation to afford titania nanoparticles on the silica surface. The titania is homogeneously distributed in the silica-titania composite aerogels, and the titania content can be effectively controlled by regulating the deposition cycles. The resultant composite aerogel with 15 deposition cycles possessed a high specific surface area (SSA) of 425 m(2)/g, a small particle size of 5-14 nm, and a large pore volume and pore size of 2.41 cm(3)/g and 18.1 nm, respectively, after heat treatment at 600 °C and showed high photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of methylene blue under UV-light irradiation. Its photocatalytic activity highly depends on the deposition cycles and heat treatment. The combination of small particle size, high SSA, and enhanced crystallinity after heat treatment at 600 °C contributes to the excellent photocatalytic property of the silica-titania composite aerogel. The higher SSAs compared to those of the reported titania aerogels (<200 m(2)/g at 600 °C) at high temperatures combined with the simple method makes the silica-titania aerogels promising candidates as photocatalysts. PMID:25664480

  14. Interfacial interaction between the epoxidized natural rubber and silica in natural rubber/silica composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tiwen; Jia, Zhixin; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin; Peng, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    The epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as an interfacial modifier was used to improve the mechanical and dynamical mechanical properties of NR/silica composites. In order to reveal the interaction mechanism between ENR and silica, the ENR/Silica model compound was prepared by using an open mill and the interfacial interaction of ENR with silica was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and stress-strain testing. The results indicated that the ring-opening reaction occurs between the epoxy groups of ENR chains and Si-OH groups on the silica surfaces and the covalent bonds are formed between two phases, which can improve the dispersion of silica in the rubber matrix and enhance the interfacial combination between rubber and silica. The ring-opening reaction occurs not only in vulcanization process but also in mixing process, meanwhile, the latter seems to be more important due to the simultaneous effects of mechanical force and temperature.

  15. High purity silica reflective heat shield development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtscheim, P. R.; Blome, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A hyperpure vitreous silica material is being developed for use as a reflective and ablative heat shield for planetary entry. Various purity grades and forms of raw materials were evaluated along with various processing methods. Slip casting of high purity grain was selected as the best processing method, resulting in a highly reflective material in the wavelength bands of interest (the visible and ultraviolet regions). The selected material was characterized with respect to optical, mechanical and physical properties using a limited number of specimens. The process has been scaled up to produce a one-half scale heat shield (18 in. dia.) (45.72 cm) for a Jupiter entry vehicle. This work is now being extended to improve the structural safety factor of the heat shield by making hyperpure silica material tougher through the addition of silica fibers.

  16. High resolution patterning of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Bertino, M.F.; Hund, J.F.; Sosa, J.; Zhang, G.; Sotiriou-Leventis, C.; Leventis, N.; Tokuhiro, A.T.; Terry, J.

    2008-10-30

    Three-dimensional metallic structures are fabricated with high spatial resolution in silica aerogels. In our method, silica hydrogels are prepared with a standard base-catalyzed route, and exchanged with an aqueous solution typically containing Ag{sup +} ions (1 M) and 2-propanol (0.2 M). The metal ions are reduced photolytically with a table-top ultraviolet lamp, or radiolytically, with a focused X-ray beam. We fabricated dots and lines as small as 30 x 70 {micro}m, protruding for several mm into the bulk of the materials. The hydrogels are eventually supercritically dried to yield aerogels, without any measurable change in the shape and spatial resolution of the lithographed structures. Transmission electron microscopy shows that illuminated regions are composed by Ag clusters with a size of several {micro}m, separated by thin layers of silica.

  17. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  18. Fullerene-silica complexes for medical chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheka, E. F.

    2007-06-01

    A quantum-chemical study of the interaction of C60 fullerene with nanosized silica was performed. It was demonstrated that a fullerene molecule forms a weakly bound complex with a pyrogenic silica (Aerosil) particle only via the interaction with the silanediol groups of the hydroxyl covering on the particle. By contrast, a fullerene molecule is not bonded to an individual siloxane cycle, and, therefore, fullerosilica gel is formed due to the retention of fullerene molecules in pores of silica gel as a result cooperative action of the siloxane cycles comprising the pore. In both cases, the predicted medico-biological action of medicinal preparations is due to the radical-like and donor-acceptor characteristics of the C60 molecule.

  19. Electroactive Silica Nanoparticles for Biological Labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-08-29

    A novel electrochemical immuno-biosensor based on poly(guanine)-functionalized silica nanoparticle labels and mediator-generated catalytic reaction was described. The functionalized silica NPs conjugates were characterized by atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemistry. This immunobiosensor is very sensitive and the limit of detection was found to be down to 0.2 ng/ml (4 pM), which was attributed to signal amplification by poly[G] functionalized silica NPs and guanine catalytic oxidation. Attractive feature of this approach is feasible to develop a cheap, sensitive and portable device for multiplexed diagnoses of different proteins. This method is simple, selective and reproducible for trace protein analysis and can be extended to study protein/protein, peptide/protein, and DNA/ protein interactions.

  20. Cellular complexity captured in durable silica biocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Kaehr, Bryan; Townson, Jason L.; Kalinich, Robin M.; Awad, Yasmine H.; Swartzentruber, B. S.; Dunphy, Darren R.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Tissue-derived cultured cells exhibit a remarkable range of morphological features in vitro, depending on phenotypic expression and environmental interactions. Translation of these cellular architectures into inorganic materials would provide routes to generate hierarchical nanomaterials with stabilized structures and functions. Here, we describe the fabrication of cell/silica composites (CSCs) and their conversion to silica replicas using mammalian cells as scaffolds to direct complex structure formation. Under mildly acidic solution conditions, silica deposition is restricted to the molecularly crowded cellular template. Inter- and intracellular heterogeneity from the nano- to macroscale is captured and dimensionally preserved in CSCs following drying and subjection to extreme temperatures allowing, for instance, size and shape preserving pyrolysis of cellular architectures to form conductive carbon replicas. The structural and behavioral malleability of the starting material (cultured cells) provides opportunities to develop robust and economical biocomposites with programmed structures and functions. PMID:23045634

  1. Stimuli-responsive polyaniline coated silica microspheres and their electrorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dae Eun; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Vu, Cuong Manh

    2016-05-01

    Silica/polyaniline (PANI) core–shell structured microspheres were synthesized by coating the surface of silica micro-beads with PANI and applied as a candidate inorganic/polymer composite electrorheological (ER) material. The silica micro-beads were initially modified using N-[(3-trimethoxysilyl)-propyl] aniline to activate an aniline functional group on the silica surface for a better PANI coating. The morphology of the PANI coating on the silica surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and the silica/PANI core–shell structure was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The chemical structure of the particles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Rotational rheometry was performed to confirm the difference in the ER properties between pure silica and silica/PANI microsphere-based ER fluids when dispersed in silicone oil.

  2. Thermal pretreatment of silica composite filler materials

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Quan; Ramsey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Three different silica filler materials were thermally treated in order to effect dehydration, dehydroxylation, and rehydroxylation. Samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), pycnometry, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For all fillers, our results indicate incremental removal of silanol groups at higher heating temperatures and irreversible dehydroxylation at over 673 K. To remove the organic content and maintain adequate silanol density for subsequent silanization on Stöber-type silica, we suggest heating at 673 K followed by overnight boiling in water. PMID:20445821

  3. Silica nanoporous membranes and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabibullin, Amir

    This thesis describes the development of novel silica and hybrid nanoporous membranes. Nanoporous membranes are widely used in various applications. This thesis focuses on their potential applications in the energy area, such as fuel cells and lithium batteries, and in separations and ultrafiltration. We use silica colloidal spheres and polymer-modified silica spheres to prepare the membranes in a time-, cost- and material-efficient manner. First, we prepared novel silica nanoporous membranes by pressing silica colloidal spheres followed by sintering. The pore size, the thickness, and the area of the membrane are precisely controlled by experiment parameters. The resulting membranes are mechanically and thermally durable, crack-free, and capable of size-selective transport. Next, to demonstrate the utility of the pressed membranes, described above, the proton-conductive pore-filled silica colloidal membranes were prepared and the fuel cells were constructed using these membranes. We modified these membranes by filling the membrane pores with surface-attached proton-conductive polymer brushes and prepared membrane-electrode assemblies to test fuel cell performance. We studied the proton conductivity and fuel cell performance as a function of the amount of sulfonic groups in the membrane. We also prepared and characterized reversible hybrid nanoporous membranes, self-assembled from solution containing polymer-modified silica colloidal spheres. Here we applied the new concept of noncovalent membranes, where the material is held together via noncovalent interactions of polymer brushes. This enables so-called reversible assembly of the membranes, in which membrane can be assembled in one solvent and dissolved in other. This approach provides advantages in recycling and reusing of the material. This work is one of the first of its kind and it opens a whole new area of research on reversible membranes made of polymer-modified nanoparticles. Finally, we applied our

  4. Enhancing Nucleation rates using Porous Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akella, Sathish; Fraden, Seth

    2013-03-01

    The role of nucleants in promoting protein crystal nucleation is an on-going field of research. Porous silica acts as heterogeneous nucleation centers and enhances nucleation rates. For the protein lysozyme there are multiple polymorphs and we demonstrate that porous silica preferentially increases one of the polymorphs. Preliminary studies are presented in which accurate nucleation rates for the different polymorphs as a function of nucleant concentration are obtained through optical microscopy studies of thousands of crystallization trials in identical water-in-oil emulsion drops produced using microfluidics. NSF-IDBR

  5. Devitrification and shrinkage behavior of silica fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1972-01-01

    Devitrification and shrinkage of three batches of silica fibers were investigated in the temperature range of 1200 to 1350 C. Fibers with high water and impurity content devitrified rapidly to cristobalite and quartz and exhibited rapid, but the least amount of, shrinkage. A batch with low water and impurity content devitrified more slowly to cristobalite only and underwent severe shrinkage by the mechanism of viscous flow. A third batch of intermediate purity level and low water content devitrified at a moderate rate mainly to cristobalite but shrunk very rapidly. Completely devitrified silica fibers did not exhibit any further shrinkage.

  6. Contamination of furnace-drawn silica fibers.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, P

    1977-03-01

    Contamination originating in an electric resistance furnace was found to increase substantially the losses of unclad and plastic-clad silica fibers. In contrast, the losses of doped silica fibers with sufficient cladding thickness were unaffected by impure drawing conditions. Operating the furnace without muffle tube and protecting the preform with a pure, inert gas injected via a counter-flow resulted in practically contamination-free operation and unclad-fiber losses as low as 3 dB/km. The removal of the muffle tube significantly simplified the furnace operation and reduced the cycling time from many hours to a few minutes. PMID:20168565

  7. Silica, silicosis and cancer in Finland.

    PubMed

    Partanen, T; Jaakkola, J; Tossavainen, A

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 100 000 Finnish workers are currently employed in jobs and tasks that may involve exposure to airborne silica dust. The major industries involved are mining and quarrying; production of glass, ceramics, bricks and other building materials; metal industry, particularly iron and steel founding; and construction. Over 1500 cases of silicosis have occurred in Finland since 1935. Tuberculosis has been a frequent complication of silicosis. Results of studies from several countries strongly suggest that silica dust also causes lung cancer. The results of the relevant Finnish epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies addressing cancer risk and exposure to quartz dust are summarized. PMID:8929699

  8. Dynamic Compaction Modeling of Porous Silica Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, John P.; Schwalbe, Larry; Cogar, John; Chapman, D. J.; Tsembelis, K.; Ward, Aaron; Lloyd, Andrew

    2006-07-01

    A computational analysis of the dynamic compaction of porous silica is presented and compared with experimental measurements. The experiments were conducted at Cambridge University's one-dimensional flyer plate facility. The experiments shock loaded samples of silica dust of various initial porous densities up to a pressure of 2.25 GPa. The computational simulations utilized a linear Us-Up Hugoniot. The compaction events were modeled with CTH, a 3D Eulerian hydrocode developed at Sandia National Laboratory. Simulated pressures at two test locations are presented and compared with measurements.

  9. Facile phenylboronate modification of silica by a silaneboronate.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Robert; Cui, Yuguo; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Yang; Thompson, Kate L; Armes, Steven P; Brook, Michael A

    2013-01-15

    Macroscopic and colloidal silica surfaces were readily modified with alkoxysilaneboronate, IV, yielding silica surfaces with covalently bonded phenylboronic acid groups. XPS and neutron activation confirmed the presence of boron. The ability of these surfaces to specifically interact with polyols was demonstrated with polyol-coated latex and ARS, a dye that specifically couples to boronic acid groups immobilized on colloidal or macroscopic silica. This is a new, direct approach for introduction of phenylboronic acid groups onto silica surfaces. PMID:23268744

  10. Neoproterozoic extension in the greater dharwar craton: A reevaluation of the "betsimisaraka suture" in madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, R.D.; Roig, J.-Y.; Delor, C.; Amlin, Y.; Goncalves, P.; Rabarimanana, M.H.; Ralison, A.V.; Belcher, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Precambrian shield of Madagascar is reevaluated with recently compiled geological data and new U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) geochronology. Two Archean domains are recognized: the eastern Antongil-Masora domain and the central Antananarivo domain, the latter with distinctive belts of metamafic gneiss and schist (Tsaratanana Complex). In the eastern domain, the period of early crust formation is extended to the Paleo-Mesoarchean (3.32-3.15 Ga) and a supracrustal sequence (Fenerivo Group), deposited at 3.18 Ga and metamorphosed at 2.55 Ga, is identified. In the central domain, a Neoarchean period of high-grade metamorphism and anatexis that affected both felsic (Betsiboka Suite) and mafic gneisses (Tsaratanana Complex) is documented. We propose, therefore, that the Antananarivo domain was amalgamated within the Greater Dharwar Craton (India + Madagascar) by a Neoarchean accretion event (2.55-2.48 Ga), involving emplacement of juvenile igneous rocks, high-grade metamorphism, and the juxtaposition of disparate belts of mafic gneiss and schist (metagreenstones). The concept of the "Betsimisaraka suture" is dispelled and the zone is redefined as a domain of Neoproterozoic metasedimentary (Manampotsy Group) and metaigneous rocks (Itsindro-Imorona Suite) formed during a period of continental extension and intrusive igneous activity between 840 and 760 Ma. Younger orogenic convergence (560-520 Ma) resulted in east-directed overthrusting throughout south Madagascar and steepening with local inversion of the domain in central Madagascar. Along part of its length, the Manampotsy Group covers the boundary between the eastern and central Archean domains and is overprinted by the Angavo-Ifanadiana high-strain zone that served as a zone of crustal weakness throughout Cretaceous to Recent times.

  11. The diagnostic criteria for iron deficiency in infants should be reevaluated.

    PubMed

    Domellöf, Magnus; Dewey, Kathryn G; Lönnerdal, Bo; Cohen, Roberta J; Hernell, Olle

    2002-12-01

    Diagnostic criteria for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants are poorly defined. Our aim was to establish appropriate cut-off values for hemoglobin (Hb), plasma ferritin, erythrocyte mean cell volume (MCV), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and soluble transferrin receptors (TfR) in infancy. Exclusively breast-fed infants (n = 263) in Honduras and Sweden were randomly assigned to receive iron supplementation or placebo, and blood samples were obtained at 4, 6 and 9 mo of age. Reference ranges were determined using three different approaches for defining iron-replete infants. The usefulness of several variables for predicting the Hb response to iron was evaluated. We found the following 2 SD cut-off values in iron-replete infants: Hb <105 g/L at 4-6 mo and <100 g/L at 9 mo; ZPP >75 micro mol/mol heme at 4-6 mo and >90 micro mol/mol heme at 9 mo; ferritin <20 micro g/L at 4 mo, <9 micro g/L at 6 mo and <5 micro g/L at 9 mo; and TfR >11 mg/L at 4-9 mo. The Hb response to iron was not a useful definition of IDA at 4 mo of age. Hb, MCV and ZPP at 6 mo as well as growth variables predicted the Hb response at 6-9 mo, but ferritin and TfR at 6 mo did not. We conclude that there is need for a reevaluation of the definitions of ID and IDA in infants. PMID:12468607

  12. Reevaluation of the developmental toxicity of dieldrin by the use of fertilized Japanese quail eggs.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Ryo; Shiraishi, Fujio; Takahashi, Shinji; Shimizu, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

    2010-06-01

    To reevaluate the toxicity of the organochlorine insecticide and persistent organic pollutant dieldrin and confirm its impact on development, an exposure trial using bird eggs was performed. Dieldrin at concentrations of 10-100 microg/g of egg was injected into the yolks of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs. Hatchlings from the eggs were raised to sexual maturity and multiple tests to detect the harmful effects of dieldrin were conducted. Dieldrin at 100 microg/g decreased egg hatchability by 50.0% (vehicle control, 86.7%), although embryogenesis even in unhatched eggs treated with high doses of dieldrin was normal. In safely hatched chicks, dose-dependent early death with tonic seizure was observed and all birds exposed to 100 microg/g died within 3 days. Other significant alterations in hatchlings were enlargement of the whole brain, decreases in mRNA expressions of tryptophan hydroxylase in the brainstem and cholesterol side-chain cleavage in the male gonad, and increases in mRNA expressions of cytochrome P450 1A and 2C18 in the liver. For mature birds (males at 5 weeks and females at 10 weeks of age), impairment of eggshell formation such as reduced eggshell mass and eggshell thinning, increases in the body mass of males and the liver mass of females and increases in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were observed. The results indicated that not only does the neurotoxicity of dieldrin bring early death, but its effects on reproductive and hepatic functions (detected as gene transcriptional changes in hatchlings) persist harmfully after maturity. PMID:20211759

  13. The mouse uterotrophic assay: a reevaluation of its validity in assessing the estrogenicity of bisphenol A.

    PubMed Central

    Markey, C M; Michaelson, C L; Veson, E C; Sonnenschein, C; Soto, A M

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of synthetic chemicals in our environment that are capable of mimicking the female hormone estrogen is a growing concern. One such chemical, bisphenol A (BPA), has been shown to leach from a variety of resin-based and plastic products, including dental sealants and food and beverage containers, in concentrations that are sufficient to induce cell proliferation in vitro. The response to BPA in vivo has been varied; thus the aims of this study were to investigate a) whether BPA has an estrogenic effect in CD-1 mice, a strain that is useful for developmental studies; and b) whether the uterotrophic assay is a valid means of determining the estrogenicity of BPA by comparing it with other end points measured in the uterus. Immature female CD-1 mice were exposed to BPA in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 mg/kg body weight for 3 days. Results showed that BPA induced a significant increase in the height of luminal epithelial cells within the uterus at concentrations of 5, 75, and 100 mg/kg and that BPA induced lactoferrin at concentrations of 75 and 100 mg/kg. A uterotrophic response (increase in uterine wet weight) was induced by 100 mg/kg BPA only. Further, the proportion of mice showing vaginal opening was greater after exposure to 0.1 and 100 mg/kg BPA, relative to the control animals and those receiving intermediate doses of BPA. These results demonstrate that BPA induces changes in the mouse uterus that differ depending on the exposure dose and the end point measured, and reveal that certain tissue effects show a nonmonotonic relationship with dose. These data also demonstrate that BPA induces estrogenic changes in the uterus of the CD-1 mouse, and highlight the need to reevaluate the validity of the mouse uterotrophic assay as an end point for determining the estrogenicity of suspected environmental estrogens. PMID:11171525

  14. Re-Evaluation of the First Phenytoin Paste Healing Effects on Oral Biopsy Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Baharvand, M; Mortazavi, A; Mortazavi, H; Yaseri, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, several formulations of topical phenytoin have been used to promote wound healing. Aim: This study was aimed at re-evaluating the effects of a newly formulated phenytoin mucoadhesive paste on wound healing after oral biopsy. Subjects and Methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 35 consecutive patients with oral lichenoid or lichen planus lesions were randomized into two groups. After incisional biopsy, patients applied simple, or 1% phenytoin paste at least three times a day (after each meal), for 4 days. They were evaluated every other day for size of wound closure, severity of pain, and diameter of the inflammatory halo. This study was approved by Medical Ethics committee of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann–Whitney U test and Ordinal Logistic Regression. Results: Of 35 patients, 17 (10 [10/17, 59%]) men, 7 (7/17, 41%) women, mean age: 40 (4.11) were in phenytoin group, and 18 (9 [9/9, 50%]) men, 9 (9/9, 50%) women, mean age: 43.1 (5.15) were in placebo group. There were no significant differences between both study groups in terms of age and sex (male/female ratio) (P = 0.76, P = 0.88). As all biopsies were done by means of punch number 8, the incisions were of 10 mm length. After second and third appointments, it was observed that patients in the treatment group showed quicker wound closure and less pain compared to control group significantly (P < 0.05). Although not significant, patients treated with phenytoin paste had smaller inflammatory halo than controls. Conclusion: Applying 1% phenytoin mucoadhesive paste on oral biopsy incisions resulted in accelerated wound healing and decrease in pain. PMID:25506476

  15. A Reevaluation of the Morphology, Paleoecology, and Phylogenetic Relationships of the Enigmatic Walrus Pelagiarctos

    PubMed Central

    Boessenecker, Robert W.; Churchill, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of aberrant walruses (Odobenidae) have been described from the Neogene of the North Pacific, including specialized suction-feeding and generalist fish-eating taxa. At least one of these fossil walruses has been hypothesized to have been a specialized predator of other marine mammals, the middle Miocene walrus Pelagiarctos thomasi from the Sharktooth Hill Bonebed of California (16.1–14.5 Ma). Methodology/Principal Findings A new specimen of Pelagiarctos from the middle Miocene “Topanga” Formation of southern California (17.5–15 Ma) allows a reassessment of the morphology and feeding ecology of this extinct walrus. The mandibles of this new specimen are robust with large canines, bulbous premolars with prominent paraconid, metaconid, hypoconid cusps, crenulated lingual cingula with small talonid basins, M2 present, double-rooted P3–M1, single-rooted P1 and M2, and a P2 with a bilobate root. Because this specimen lacks a fused mandibular symphysis like Pelagiarctos thomasi, it is instead referred to Pelagiarctos sp. This specimen is more informative than the fragmentary holotype of Pelagiarctos thomasi, permitting Pelagiarctos to be included within a phylogenetic analysis for the first time. Analysis of a matrix composed of 90 cranial, dental, mandibular and postcranial characters indicates that Pelagiarctos is an early diverging walrus and sister to the late Miocene walrus Imagotaria downsi. We reevaluate the evidence for a macropredatory lifestyle for Pelagiarctos, and we find no evidence of specialization towards a macrophagous diet, suggesting that Pelagiarctos was a generalist feeder with the ability to feed on large prey. Conclusions/Significance This new specimen of Pelagiarctos adds to the knowledge of this problematic taxon. The phylogenetic analysis conclusively demonstrates that Pelagiarctos is an early diverging walrus. Pelagiarctos does not show morphological specializations associated with macrophagy, and was likely a

  16. Reevaluation of California coastal continental borderland evolution: recent evidence from stratigraphic, geophysical, and paleomagnetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ambos, E.L.; Lund, S.P.; Theyer, F.; Bottjer, D.; Henyey, T.L.

    1988-03-01

    Tectonostratigraphic terrane analyses applied during the past decade to California continental borderland evolution distinguished eight or nine terranes that may have docked in the borderland from Cretaceous to mid-Tertiary time. These terranes may in turn be grouped into two composite terranes - the Peninsular Ranges terrane (PRT) and the more northerly Santa Lucia-Orocopia Allochthon (SLOA) - that sutured together during the late Oligocene to mid-Miocene in the southwestern Transverse Ranges. In parallel, the last decade has seen continued refinements in stratigraphy, sea level history, and the accumulation of a large data base of paleomagnetic measurements in southern California. These newly refined data necessitate the reevaluation of the timing sequence of terrane amalgamation in the borderland, and a new scenario for the docking of the PRT against the SLOA can be constructed. Of equal importance in the tectonic reconstruction of the borderland is the consideration of paleoclimatological signals, which may mask or conflict with true terrane interactions. For example, a growing body of evidence indicates that prominent reflectors noted in borderland seismic records may correlate with global Neogene paleo-oceanographic events, rather than tectonic events. In addition, recent geophysical investigations of terrane suture zones and the crustal structure beneath terranes in other areas of the western US provide intriguing information on the nature of terrane boundaries. In this context, the PRT-SLOA suture appears as the most fundamental terrane boundary, marked by a zone of high-density, high-velocity material, whereas other terrane boundaries, particularly within the PRT, appear to be of secondary importance.

  17. A case study of the seismic source function: Salmon and sterling reevaluated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Marvin D.; Goodman, Dennis M.

    1990-11-01

    As part of a larger joint effort by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency and the Department of Energy to study the seismic source problem, a comprehensive reevaluation of the 1964 Salmon and 1966 Sterling nuclear explosions in dome salt was carried out. The Sterling source function originally estimated by Springer et al. (1968) conveys the impression that the cavity was badly overdriven; on reexamination this does not appear to be the case. The work of Glenn et al. (1987) on the Sterling free-field data is expanded upon, confirming that the cavity response was close to the theoretical expectation. Sterling's source function is estimated and is found to be comparable to Patterson's (1966) slightly weakened salt model. A source model for Salmon is derived from the Sterling source model and the five seismic stations that recorded both events. The new source model has a reduced displacement potential ψ∝ of about half that previously estimated. A temporary nonlinear two-wave system developed during the Salmon explosion as the compressional wave evolved from a shock wave; the separation of these two waves resulted in a high-frequency roll-off of the reduced velocity potential of ω-3. In addition, it is shown that the comer frequency is much higher and is created much closer to the cavity than the eigenfrequency. For both Salmon and Sterling the radial stresses are approximately a low-passed damped sinusoid superimposed on a small step function. The decoupling value of 72 obtained by Springer et al. (1968) is confirmed. A revision of Patterson's (1966) partial decoupling curve shows that the value for full decoupling in a shot-generated cavity would be only slightly higher. Contrary to previous studies, decoupling as a function of frequency for the surface waves is found to be the same as for the P waves. A new definition of decoupling appropriate to threshold test-ban treaty monitoring is also proposed.

  18. Re-evaluating the 1257 AD eruption using annually-resolved ice core chemical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M. F.; Kjær, H. A.; Vallelonga, P. T.; Neff, P. D.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Svensson, A.; Seierstad, I.; Albert, P. G.; Bourne, A. J.; Kurbatov, A.

    2014-12-01

    The source of the 1257 AD volcanic eruption has recently been proposed to be Samalas in Indonesia. The eruption was one of the largest of the Holocene and has been recorded in ice cores in both hemispheres from sulfate and acidity measurements. The estimate of its sulfate load varies from 2 to 8 times that of Tambora. This is also the only volcano for which tephras have been assigned in ice cores from both Antarctica and Greenland (GISP2). Due to this unique assignment of a bipolar tephra layer in ice cores, the origins of the sulfate and tephras have been disputed and it has been proposed that at least one of the tephras was due to an additional volcanic eruption local to either Greenland or Antarctica. We have re-evaluated the acid and tephra deposition from the 1257 AD volcano in two ice cores, one from Greenland (NGRIP. 75.1° N, 42.3° W) and one from Antarctica (RICE, Roosevelt Island. 79.36° S, -161.71° W). Annually-resolved continuous flow analysis (CFA) measurements determined relevant parameters such as melt water conductivity, sulphate and acidity. The acidity peak at RICE (~20 uM H+) is approximately double that found at NGRIP (10 uM H+). The only visible tephra layer found in the corresponding depth range was deposited at 1250 AD, 9 years before the acidity peak. The high resolution of the data offers a precise evaluation of the delay between the deposition of tephra and acid (sulfate) in each hemisphere. The comparison between poles allows some evaluation of the spread of deposition from the volcanic eruption.

  19. A Re-Evaluation of the Relativistic Redshift on Frequency Standards at NIST, Boulder, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, N. K.; Weiss, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Primary frequency standards that realize the definition of the second based on the Caesium (Cs) atom are used to steer International Atomic Time. According to the theory of relativity, their frequency should be adjusted to that at which these would operate, if located on the geoid. Current best standards for the current definition of the second are approaching uncertainties of one part in 1016. Optical frequency standards however are now reaching uncertainties of few parts in 1018 and are expected to lead to a new definition of the second. Their performance requires centimetre-level geoid accuracy, in order to calculate accurately the redshift frequency offset necessary for their inter-comparison. We re-evaluated the relativistic redshift of the frequency standards at NIST in Boulder, Colorado, USA, based on a recent precise GPS survey of several benchmarks on the roof of the building where these are housed, and on global and local geoid models supported by data from the GRACE and GOCE missions, including EGM2008, USGG2009, and USGG2012. We also evaluated the redshift offset based on the published NAVD88 geopotential number of the levelling benchmark Q407, after estimating the bias of the NAVD88 datum at our specific location. We present and discuss the results that we obtained using different methods, and provide our current estimate of the redshift offset and of its accuracy, considering the main error sources contributing to the total error budget. We compare our current estimates to those published by Pavlis and Weiss in 2003, using the data and models that were available at that time. We also discuss the prospects of using inter-connected ultra-precise frequency standards for the direct determination of geoid height differences, which may provide in the not-too-distant future an alternative approach for the establishment of vertical datums and the independent verification of the accuracy of global and local geoid models.

  20. A reevaluation of the timing and causes of high lake phases in the Lake Michigan basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, Ardith K.; Mickelson, David M.

    1988-03-01

    Radiocarbon age control on the type Glenwood, Calumet, and Toleston shoreline features and on the abandoned Chicago outlet at the south end of the Lake Michigan basin provides a basis for reevaluating the timing and causes of high lake phases in the basin. Radiocarbon dates suggest that Glenwood-level (195 m) shoreline features formed between 14,100 and 12,700 yr B.P. (Glenwood I and II phases), Calumet-level (189 m) between 12,700 and 11,000 yr B.P. (Calumet I and II phases), and Toleston-level (184.5 m) between 5000 and 4000 yr B.P. (Nipissing phase), and that the Chicago outlet was cut to its present level (180 m) on bedrock while the lake was at the Glenwood level. This new chronology is inconsistent with J H. Bretz' hypothesis ((1951) American Journal of Science249, 401-429) that the progressive lowering of lake level resulted from episodic down-cutting of the outlet. Instead, the changes in lake level appear to relate to changes in the amount of glacial meltwater and precipitation entering the basin. We hypothesize that the Glenwood phases correspond with times when discharge from the Huron and Erie basins also entered the Lake Michigan basin (Lake Border and early Port Huron glacial phases), the Calumet phases with times when drainage was from the Lake Michigan basin alone (late Port Huron and Two Rivers glacial phases), and the Nipissing phase with the postglacial middle Holocene transgression caused by differential uplift in the basin. Estimates of relative net inputs to the basin during the Glenwood, Calumet, and Nipissing lake phases are consistent with estimates of relative outputs (i.e., discharge through the Chicago outlet); the magnitude of relative differences in inputs and outputs between phases is sufficient to explain lake-level changes of 4.5 to 6 m.

  1. Re-Evaluation of Development of the TMDL Using Long-Term Monitoring Data and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, A.; Rittenburg, R.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Since 1996, 47,979 Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) have been approved throughout the United States for impaired water bodies. TMDLs are set through the determination of natural background loads for a given water body which then estimate contributions from point and nonpoint sources to create load allocations and determine acceptable pollutant levels to meet water quality standards. Monitoring data and hydrologic models may be used in this process. However, data sets used are often limited in duration and frequency, and model simulations are not always accurate. The objective of this study is to retrospectively look at the development and accuracy of the TMDL for a stream in an agricultural area using long-term monitoring data and a robust modeling process. The study area is the Paradise Creek Watershed in northern Idaho. A sediment TMDL was determined for the Idaho section of Paradise Creek in 1997. Sediment TMDL levels were determined using a short-term data set and the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Background loads used for the TMDL in 1997 were from pre-agricultural levels, based on WEPP model results. We modified the WEPP model for simulation of saturation excess overland flow, the dominant runoff generation mechanism, and analyzed more than 10 years of high resolution monitoring data from 2001 - 2012, including discharge and total suspended solids. Results will compare background loading and current loading based on present-day land use documented during the monitoring period and compare previous WEPP model results with the modified WEPP model results. This research presents a reevaluation of the TMDL process with recommendations for a more scientifically sound methodology to attain realistic water quality goals.

  2. A reevaluation of the threshold exposure level of inhaled JP-8 in mice.

    PubMed

    Herrin, Bradley R; Haley, Jessica E; Lantz, R Clark; Witten, Mark L

    2006-08-01

    C57BL/6 mice were nose-only exposed to JP-8 jet fuel at average concentrations of 45, 267, and 406 mg JP-8/m(3) for 1 hr/d for 7 days to further test the hypothesis that exposure to JP-8 concentrations below the current permissible exposure level (PEL) of 350 mg/m(3) will induce lung injury, and to validate a new "in-line, real-time" total hydrocarbon analysis system capable of measuring both JP-8 vapor and aerosol concentrations. Pulmonary function and respiratory permeability tests were performed 24 to 30 hr after the final exposures. No significant effects were observed at 45 or 267 mg/m(3). The only significant effect observed at 406 mg/m(3) was a decrease in inspiratory dynamic lung compliance. Morphological examination and morphometric analysis of distal lung tissue demonstrated that alveolar type II epithelial cells showed limited cellular damage with the notable exception of a significant increase in the volume density of lamellar bodies (vacuoles), which is indicative of increased surfactant production, at 45 and 406 mg/m(3). The terminal bronchial epithelium showed initial signs of cellular damage, but the morphometric analysis did not quantify these changes as significant. The morphometric analysis techniques appear to provide an increased sensitivity for detecting the deleterious effects of JP-8 as compared to the physiological evidence offered by pulmonary function or respiratory permeability tests. These observations suggest that the current 350 mg/m(3) PEL for both JP-8 jet fuel and for other more volatile petroleum distillates should be reevaluated and a lower, more accurate PEL should be established with regard human occupational exposure limits. PMID:16960432

  3. The pathogenesis of syringomyelia: a re-evaluation of the elastic-jump hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Elliott, N S J; Lockerby, D A; Brodbelt, A R

    2009-04-01

    Syringomyelia is a disease in which fluid-filled cavities, called syrinxes, form in the spinal cord causing progressive loss of sensory and motor functions. Invasive monitoring of pressure waves in the spinal subarachnoid space implicates a hydrodynamic origin. Poor treatment outcomes have led to myriad hypotheses for its pathogenesis, which unfortunately are often based on small numbers of patients due to the relative rarity of the disease. However, only recently have models begun to appear based on the principles of mechanics. One such model is the mathematically rigorous work of Carpenter and colleagues (2003, "Pressure Wave Propagation in Fluid-Filled Co-Axial Elastic Tubes Part 1: Basic Theory," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 125(6), pp. 852-856; 2003, "Pressure Wave Propagation in Fluid-Filled Co-Axial Elastic Tubes Part 2: Mechanisms for the Pathogenesis of Syringomyelia," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 125(6), pp. 857-863). They suggested that a pressure wave due to a cough or sneeze could form a shocklike elastic jump, which when incident at a stenosis, such as a hindbrain tonsil, would generate a transient region of high pressure within the spinal cord and lead to fluid accumulation. The salient physiological parameters of this model were reviewed from the literature and the assumptions and predictions re-evaluated from a mechanical standpoint. It was found that, while the spinal geometry does allow for elastic jumps to occur, their effects are likely to be weak and subsumed by the small amount of viscous damping present in the subarachnoid space. Furthermore, the polarity of the pressure differential set up by cough-type impulses opposes the tenets of the elastic-jump hypothesis. The analysis presented here does not support the elastic-jump hypothesis or any theory reliant on cough-based pressure impulses as a mechanism for the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. PMID:19275445

  4. A reevaluation of the timing and causes of high lake phases in the Lake Michigan basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansel, A.K.; Mickelson, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Radiocarbon age control on the type Glenwood, Calumet, and Toleston shoreline features and on the abandoned Chicago outlet at the south end of the Lake Michigan basin provides a basis for reevaluating the timing and causes of high lake phases in the basin. Radiocarbon dates suggest that Glenwood-level (195 m) shoreline features formed between 14,100 and 12,700 yr B.P. (Glenwood I and II phases), Calumet-level (189 m) between 12,700 and 11,000 yr B.P. (Calumet I and II phases), and Toleston-level (184.5 m) between 5000 and 4000 yr B.P. (Nipissing phase), and that the Chicago outlet was cut to its present level (180 m) on bedrock while the lake was at the Glenwood level. This new chronology is inconsistent with J H. Bretz' hypothesis ((1951) American Journal of Science249, 401-429) that the progressive lowering of lake level resulted from episodic down-cutting of the outlet. Instead, the changes in lake level appear to relate to changes in the amount of glacial meltwater and precipitation entering the basin. We hypothesize that the Glenwood phases correspond with times when discharge from the Huron and Erie basins also entered the Lake Michigan basin (Lake Border and early Port Huron glacial phases), the Calumet phases with times when drainage was from the Lake Michigan basin alone (late Port Huron and Two Rivers glacial phases), and the Nipissing phase with the postglacial middle Holocene transgression caused by differential uplift in the basin. Estimates of relative net inputs to the basin during the Glenwood, Calumet, and Nipissing lake phases are consistent with estimates of relative outputs (i.e., discharge through the Chicago outlet); the magnitude of relative differences in inputs and outputs between phases is sufficient to explain lake-level changes of 4.5 to 6 m. ?? 1988.

  5. A Reevaluation of Airborne HO(x) Observations from NASA Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Jennifer; Crawford, James H.; Chen, Gao; Brune, William H.; Faloona, Ian C.; Tan, David; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica

    2006-01-01

    In-situ observations of tropospheric HO(x) (OH and HO2) obtained during four NASA airborne campaigns (SUCCESS, SONEX, PEM-Tropics B and TRACE-P) are reevaluated using the NASA Langley time-dependent photochemical box model. Special attention is given to previously diagnosed discrepancies between observed and predicted HO2 which increase with higher NO(x) levels and at high solar zenith angles. This analysis shows that much of the model discrepancy at high NO(x) during SUCCESS can be attributed to modeling observations at time-scales too long to capture the nonlinearity of HO(x) chemistry under highly variable conditions for NO(x). Discrepancies at high NO(x) during SONEX can be moderated to a large extent by complete use of all available precursor observations. Differences in kinetic rate coefficients and photolysis frequencies available for previous studies versus current recommendations also explain some of the disparity. Each of these causes is shown to exert greater influence with increasing NO(x) due to both the chemical nonlinearity between HO(x) and NO(x) and the increased sensitivity of HO(x) to changes in sources at high NO(x). In contrast, discrepancies at high solar zenith angles will persist until an adequate nighttime source of HO(x) can be identified. It is important to note that this analysis falls short of fully eliminating the issue of discrepancies between observed and predicted HO(x) for high NO(x) environments. These discrepancies are not resolved with the above causes in other data sets from ground-based field studies. Nevertheless, these results highlight important considerations in the application of box models to observationally based predictions of HO(x) radicals.

  6. Reevaluation of the Pre-Salt petroleum system of Cabinda, Angola

    SciTech Connect

    Scheevel, J.R.; Jeronimo, P.; Orsolini, P.; Barleua, V.

    1996-08-01

    The Pre-Salt sedimentary section of Cabinda, Angola is located in the Lower Congo Basin. The Pre-Salt stratigraphic section consists of lacustrine siliciclastics, and carbonates that predate the extensive Mid-Aptian Loeme Salt. Over 500 MMBO of proven recoverable reserves exist in pre-salt objectives with some individual fields as large as 250 MMBO recoverable. A reevaluation of Cabinda pre-salt petroleum system based on the extensive available well dataset and recent high-quality 3D seismic surveys has been performed by a four-geoscientist team provided by the JV partners in Cabinda (1. Sonangol, 2. Chevron, 3. Elf Aquitaine, 4. Agip). The group worked for one year at Chevron`s facility in San Ramon, California, with technical assistance from specialists in each company provided when necessary. The petroleum system of Cabinda can be briefly described as follows: (1) Source rocks are Neocomian to Barremian lake-shales with up to 30 % TOC (Excellent reservoirs are Lower Neocomian to Barremian sandstones and/or diagenetically enhanced lacustrine carbonates. Cabinda has the only major production from Lacustrine Carbonates in West Africa. Seals are syn-rift lake-shales or a combination of these shales and salt. Traps primarily result from syn-rift deformation but post-rift basement-involved movements probably also occurred.); and (2) Geochemical analyses show that most of the oil produced from both Pre- and Post-Salt reservoirs have a Pre-Salt source, demonstrating the discontinuity of Loeme salt as a regional seal.

  7. The Ethics of Offering Dialysis for AKI to the Older Patient: Time to Re-Evaluate?

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Sana

    2014-01-01

    Older patients are more susceptible to AKI. In the elderly, AKI has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and it is a significant risk factor for CKD and dialysis-dependent ESRD. There are now accumulating data that the start of dialysis for some older patients is associated with poor outcomes, such as high treatment intensity, suffering, and limited life prolongation, which occur at the expense of dignity and quality of life. The biomedicalization of aging is a relatively recent field of ethical inquiry with two directly relevant features to decisions about starting dialysis for older patients with AKI: (1) the routinization of geriatric clinical interventions, such as dialysis, which results in the overshadowing of patient choice, and (2) the transformation of the technological imperative into the moral imperative. A major consequence of the biomedicalization of aging is that societal expectations about standard medical care have resulted in the relatively unquestioned provision of dialysis for AKI to older patients. This paper calls for nephrologists to re-examine the data and their attitudes to offering dialysis to older patients with AKI, especially those patients with underlying CKD and significant comorbidities. Shared decision-making and the reinforcement of the right of the patient to make a choice need to slow down the otherwise ineluctable routinization of starting old and very sick patients on dialysis. In the process of shared decision-making, nephrologists should not automatically recommend dialysis for older patients; in those patients who can be predicted to do poorly, recommending against dialysis upholds the Hippocratic maxim to be of benefit and do no harm. This paper challenges the automatic transformation of the technological imperative into the moral imperative for older patients with AKI and points to the need for a re-evaluation of dialysis ethics in this population. PMID:24812422

  8. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. Structural and energetic characteristics of silicas modified by organosilicon compounds.

    PubMed

    Gun'ko, V M; Sheeran, D J; Augustine, S M; Blitz, J P

    2002-05-01

    Silica gels Davisil 633 and 643, and fumed silica Cab-O-Sil HS-5 with grafted 3-aminopropyl dimethylsilyl (APDMS), butyl dimethylsilyl (BDMS), octadecyl dimethylsilyl (ODDMS), and trimethylsilyl (TMS) groups of different concentrations were studied using the nitrogen adsorption method. Changes in the textural and energetic characteristics of modified silicas depend on features of the oxide matrices and grafted OSC. PMID:16290577

  12. Shape-encoded silica microparticles for multiplexed bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lily Nari; Kim, Mira; Jung, Keumsim; Bae, Hyung Jong; Jang, Jisung; Jung, Yushin; Kim, Jiyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2015-08-01

    Shape-encoded silica microparticles for use in multiplexed bioassays were fabricated by using optofluidic maskless lithography (OFML) and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) polymerization. These encoded silica microparticles exhibit excellent bioconjugation properties and negligible non-specific analyte adsorption. Encoded silica microparticles could be useful in a wide variety of applications, including DNA- and protein-based diagnostics. PMID:26125980

  13. Insulation formed of precipitated silica and fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Barito, R.W.; Downs, K.L.

    1987-07-21

    This patent describes a slab of board-like material for use as a thermal insulation comprising: a. a precipitated silica and a fly ash material, between 30% and 70% based upon the total weight of the precipitated silica and fly ash material; and b. a gas and water light envelope containing the mixture of precipitated silica and fly ash material.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. Preparation of EPR/silica filler by a co-irradiation method forming PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jun; Dang, Shuaiying; Huang, Zhijuan; Xu, Yongshen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to prepare ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR)/silica filler by co-irradiation method forming polypropylene (PP)/EPR/silica nanocomposites. The grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) on EPR was first studied by co-irradiation in the micro-suspension without any chemical initiator, and the effects of MAH concentration and the total co-irradiation dose on the graft degree of MAH were investigated. Then PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites were successfully prepared by blending of PP matrix and EPR/silica filler, which was obtained by co-irradiation using a mixture of EPR/MAH microsuspension in xylene and tetraethoxysilane/KH560 sol in formic acid. FTIR and SEM results showed that the reactions between MAH on EPR chains and KH560 surrounding silica particles were adopted to form the EPR/silica filler with strong bonding and well silica dispersion. Mechanical properties of PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites with different silica contents and the comparisons with PP, PP/EPR and PP/silica films were studied. The rigid silica particles were trapped in EPR shell and well dispersed in PP/EPR/silica nanocomposites with good compatibility and strong interfacial adhesion, achieving overall improvements in stiffness, strength and toughness compared with pure PP.

  17. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, Narayan K.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film.

  18. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, Narayan K.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film.

  19. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, N.K.; Brinker, C.J.

    1999-08-10

    A process is described for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film. 11 figs.

  20. Kinetics of silica-phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, C.J.

    1993-07-01

    In addition to the stable silica polymorph quartz, several metastable silica phases are present in Yucca Mountain. The conversion of these phases to quartz is accompanied by volume reduction and a decrease in the aqueous silica activity, which may destabilize clinoptilolite and mordenite. The primary reaction sequence for the silica phases is from opal or glass to disordered opal-CT, followed by ordering of the opal-CT and finally by the crystallization of quartz. The ordering of opal-CT takes place in the solid state, whereas the conversion of opal-CT takes place through dissolution-reprecipitation involving the aqueous phase. It is proposed that the rate of conversion of opal-CT to quartz is controlled by diffusion of defects out of a disordered surface layer formed on the crystallizing quartz. The reaction rates are observed to be dependent on temperature, pressure, degree of supersaturation, and pH. Rate equations selected from the literature appear to be consistent with observations at Yucca Mountain.

  1. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for active corrosion protection.

    PubMed

    Borisova, Dimitriya; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry G

    2011-03-22

    This work presents the synthesis of monodisperse, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their application as nanocontainers loaded with corrosion inhibitor (1H-benzotriazole (BTA)) and embedded in hybrid SiOx/ZrOx sol-gel coating for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloy. The developed porous system of mechanically stable silica nanoparticles exhibits high surface area (∼1000 m2·g(-1)), narrow pore size distribution (d∼3 nm), and large pore volume (∼1 mL·g(-1)). As a result, a sufficiently high uptake and storage of the corrosion inhibitor in the mesoporous nanocontainers was achieved. The successful embedding and homogeneous distribution of the BTA-loaded monodisperse silica nanocontainers in the passive anticorrosive SiOx/ZrOx film improve the wet corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy AA2024 in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. The enhanced corrosion protection of this newly developed active system in comparison to the passive sol-gel coating was observed during a simulated corrosion process by the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). These results, as well as the controlled pH-dependent release of BTA from the mesoporous silica nanocontainers without additional polyelectrolyte shell, suggest an inhibitor release triggered by the corrosion process leading to a self-healing effect. PMID:21344888

  2. Tapered fibers embedded in silica aerogel.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Limin; Grogan, Michael D W; Leon-Saval, Sergio G; Williams, Rhys; England, Richard; Wadsworth, Willam J; Birks, Tim A

    2009-09-15

    We have embedded thin tapered fibers (with diameters down to 1 microm) in silica aerogel with low loss. The aerogel is rigid but behaves refractively like air, protecting the taper without disturbing light propagation along it. This enables a new class of fiber devices exploiting volume evanescent interactions with the aerogel itself or with dopants or gases in the pores. PMID:19756084

  3. Growth of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on silica gels.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Muñoz, E M; Huirache-Acuña, R; Velázquez, R; Alonso-Núñez, G; Eguía-Eguía, S

    2011-06-01

    Synthetic, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were grown on the surface of silica gels. The synthesis of those nanoparticles was obtained by immersing silica gels in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 degrees C. The SBF was replaced every week to keep constant the Ca and P ion concentration and subsequent growth of hydroxyapatite was evaluated after 1-6 weeks of total soaking time in SBF. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the surface of silica gel samples and confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and powder X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) analysis. These particles show a regular shape and uniform size every week, keeping within the nanoscale always. Both the size and morphology of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles obtained are the result of the use of different chemical additives in the synthesis of silica gels, since they affect the liquid-to-solid interface, and the growth could correspond to a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) process. A more detailed analysis, with higher magnifications, showed that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are not solid spheres, showing a branched texture and their size depends on the scale and resolution of the measure instrument. PMID:21770224

  4. Cell viability in a wet silica gel.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Alejandra; Areva, Sami; Wilson, Timothy; Viitala, Reeta; Vallet-Regi, Maria

    2009-11-01

    A modified two-step sol-gel route using silicon ethoxide (TEOS) has been used to synthesize amorphous sol-gel-derived silica, which has been successfully used as a cell encapsulation matrix for 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and CRL-2595 epithelial cells due to its non-toxicity. The sol-gel procedure comprised a first, low pH hydrolysis step, followed by a neutral condensation-gelation step. A high water-to-TEOS ratio and the addition of d-glucose as a porogen and source of nutrients were chosen to minimize silica dissolution and improve the biocompatibility of the process. Indeed, the cell integrity in the encapsulation process was preserved by alcohol removal from the starting solution. Cells were then added in a buffered medium, causing rapid gelation and entrapment of the cells within a randomly structured siloxane matrix in the shape of a monolith, which was maintained in the wet state. MTT and alamarBlue assays were used to check the cytotoxicity of the silica gels and the viability of entrapped cells at initial times in contact with silica. To improve cell attachment, cell clumping experiments - where groups of cells were formed - were designed, rendering improved viability. The obtained materials are therefore excellent candidates for designing tissue-culture scaffolds and implantable bioreactors for biomedical applications. PMID:19481618

  5. Growth and structure of pyrogenic silica

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, D.W.; Hurd, A.J.; Christen, D.K.; Spooner, S.; Lin, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Fractal analysis is used to interpret small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering data on commercial fumed silica powders. Rough primary particles are found in high surface area powders. A model based on ballistic polymerization, sintering, and diffusion-limited aggregation is proposed to explain the observed powder structure. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Growth and structure of pyrogenic silica

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, D.W.; Hurd, A.J.; Christen, D.K.; Spooner, S.; Lin, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    Fractal analysis is used to interpret small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data on commercial fund silica powders. Rough primary particles are found in high surface area powders. A model based on ballistic polymerization, sintering, and diffusion-limited aggregation is proposed to explain the observed powder structure. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Determining silica solubility in bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.

    1998-11-01

    The efficient precipitation of dissolved silica from Bayer process liquor is essential for the production of high-quality alumina and the reduction of excessive scaling in the heat exchangers in the evaporation building of Bayer processes. The accurate prediction of silica solubility in Bayer liquor is one of the key parameters in improving the design and operation of the desilication process. Previous findings, particularly with respect to the influence of temperature and concentrations of caustic soda and alumina on the solubility of silica, are inconclusive. In this article, experimental results are presented over a wide range of temperature and alumina and caustic soda concentrations. Attempts are made to utilize artificial neural networks for identifying the process variables and modeling. The radial basis function neural network architecture was used successfully to generate a nonlinear correlation for the prediction of the solubility of silica in Bayer process liquor. The resulting correlation can predict the present data and the control data of other investigators with good accuracy.

  8. Optical properties of polyimide/silica nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommalieh, M. J.; Zihlif, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    The optical properties of thin films of polyimide/silica nanocomposites prepared via sol-gel process were investigated as a function of nanosilica particles content. Absorption and reflectance spectra were collected by a spectrophotometer giving UV-radiation of wavelength range 200-800 nm. The optical data obtained were analyzed in terms of absorption formula for non-crystalline materials. The calculated values of the optical energy gap and the width of the energy tails of the localized states exhibited silica concentration dependence. The direct optical energy gap for neat polyimide is about 1.95 eV, and decreases to a value of 1.8 eV for nanocomposite of 25 wt% nanosilica content. It was found that the calculated refractive index and dielectric constants of nanocomposites increase with silica particles content. The overall dependence of the optical and dielectrical constants on silica content in polyimide matrix is argued on the basis of the observed morphology and overlap of the localized energy sates of different color centers. The EMT model was fitted to the observed dielectric data.

  9. Optical recording in copper-silica nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitruk, Igor; Blonskiy, Ivan; Korenyuk, Petro; Kadan, Viktor; Zubrilin, Mykola; Dmytruk, Andriy; Yeshchenko, Oleg; Alexeenko, Alexandr; Kotko, Andriy

    2014-05-01

    The application of field enhancement effect, which takes place when light, interacts with surface plasmon, for optical recording has been suggested. Copper-silica nanocomposite demonstrates possibility of optical writing and erasing under irradiation by second harmonic (400 nm) and fundamental wavelength (800 nm) of femtosecond titanium-sapphire laser, respectively.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Mesoporous Silica Templates

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Feng; Liang, Liang; Gao, Yufei; Sukamto, Johanes H.; Aardahl, Chris L.

    2002-07-01

    Well-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on mesoporous silica films by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Ethylene was used as the carbon source and CVD was performed at 1023 K and atmospheric pressure. The films were doped with Fe during gelation, and three different structure directing agents were used for mesoporous silica synthesis: polyoxyethylene (10) cetyl ether (C16EO10), Pluronic tri-block copolymer (P123), and cetyltriethylammonium chloride (CTAC). A high degree of CNT alignment on C16EO10-mesoporous silica films was produced at Fe:Si molar ratio of 1.80. Similar alignment of CNTs was achieved on the other two types of films but on CTAC-mesoporous silica films, CNTs only grew parallel to the substrate surface from the cracks in the films because of the in-plane arrangement of the mesopores in such films. Considerable progress has been made in producing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by catalytic CVD techniques. If CNTs are to be integrated into certain useful devices, it is critical to be able to grow highly aligned arrays of CNTs with narrow size distribution and at specific locations on a substrate. Long-range alignment normal to the substrate results from steric crowding if the initial catalyst sites are sufficiently dense. Alignment may be improved with better control of the density of catalytic sites by means of a template of appropriate pore structure. The confinement of CNTs by the pores during the initial growth may also help align CNTs.

  11. Health hazards due to the inhalation of amorphous silica.

    PubMed

    Merget, R; Bauer, T; Küpper, H U; Philippou, S; Bauer, H D; Breitstadt, R; Bruening, T

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust is associated with an increased risk for pulmonary diseases such as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the health effects of amorphous (non-crystalline) forms of silica. The major problem in the assessment of health effects of amorphous silica is its contamination with crystalline silica. This applies particularly to well-documented pneumoconiosis among diatomaceous earth workers. Intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silicas are without contamination of crystalline silica. These synthetic forms may be classified as (1) wet process silica, (2) pyrogenic ("thermal" or "fumed") silica, and (3) chemically or physically modified silica. According to the different physicochemical properties, the major classes of synthetic amorphous silica are used in a variety of products, e.g. as fillers in the rubber industry, in tyre compounds, as free-flow and anti-caking agents in powder materials, and as liquid carriers, particularly in the manufacture of animal feed and agrochemicals; other uses are found in toothpaste additives, paints, silicon rubber, insulation material, liquid systems in coatings, adhesives, printing inks, plastisol car undercoats, and cosmetics. Animal inhalation studies with intentionally manufactured synthetic amorphous silica showed at least partially reversible inflammation, granuloma formation and emphysema, but no progressive fibrosis of the lungs. Epidemiological studies do not support the hypothesis that amorphous silicas have any relevant potential to induce fibrosis in workers with high occupational exposure to these substances, although one study disclosed four cases with silicosis among subjects exposed to apparently non-contaminated amorphous silica. Since the data have been limited, a risk of chronic bronchitis, COPD or emphysema cannot be excluded. There is no study

  12. Effect of silica nanoparticles on microbial biomass and silica availability in maize rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Rangaraj, Suriyaprabha; Gopalu, Karunakaran; Rathinam, Yuvakkumar; Periasamy, Prabu; Venkatachalam, Rajendran; Narayanasamy, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    The effect of silica nanoparticles and conventional silica sources on the changes in microbial biomass and silica availability to pure soil and maize rhizosphere was studied. Nanosilica (20-40 nm) was synthesized from rice husk and comprehensively characterized. The efficiency of nanosilica was evaluated in terms of its effects on beneficial microbial population such as phosphate solubilizers, nitrogen fixers, silicate solubilizers, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content, and silica content in comparison with other silica sources such as microsilica, sodium silicate, and silicic acid. Nanosilica significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced microbial populations, total biomass content (C = 1508 μg g(-1) and N = 178 μg g(-1) ), and silica content (14.75 mg mL(-1) ). Although microsilica sources enhanced factors associated with soil fertility, their use by maize roots and silicification in soil was found to be less. The results show that nanosilica plays a vital role in influencing soil nutrient content and microbial biota and, hence, may promote the growth of maize crop. PMID:24329970

  13. Kinetics of amorphous silica dissolution and the paradox of the silica polymorphs

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Patricia M.; Han, Nizhou; Wallace, Adam F.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which amorphous silica dissolves have proven elusive because noncrystalline materials lack the structural order that allows them to be studied by the classical terrace, ledge, kink-based models applied to crystals. This would seem to imply amorphous phases have surfaces that are disordered at an atomic scale so that the transfer of SiO4 tetrahedra to solution always leaves the surface free energy of the solid unchanged. As a consequence, dissolution rates of amorphous phases should simply scale linearly with increasing driving force (undersaturation) through the higher probability of detaching silica tetrahedra. By examining rate measurements for two amorphous SiO2 glasses we find, instead, a paradox. In electrolyte solutions, these silicas show the same exponential dependence on driving force as their crystalline counterpart, quartz. We analyze this enigma by considering that amorphous silicas present two predominant types of surface-coordinated silica tetrahedra to solution. Electrolytes overcome the energy barrier to nucleated detachment of higher coordinated species to create a periphery of reactive, lesser coordinated groups that increase surface energy. The result is a plausible mechanism-based model that is formally identical with the classical polynuclear theory developed for crystal growth. The model also accounts for reported demineralization rates of natural biogenic and synthetic colloidal silicas. In principle, these insights should be applicable to materials with a wide variety of compositions and structural order when the reacting units are defined by the energies of their constituent species. PMID:18632576

  14. Dissolution retardation of solid silica during glass batch-melting

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose

    2011-07-15

    During glass-batch melting, solid silica (quartz) usually dissolves last. A retardation function was defined as a measure of the progressive inhibition of silica dissolution that occurs during batch melting. This function is based on the comparison of the measured rate of dissolution of silica particles with the hypothetical diffusion-controlled volume flux from regularly distributed particles with uniform concentration layers around them. The severe inhibition of silica dissolution has been attributed to the irregular spatial distribution of silica particles that is associated with the formation of nearly saturated melt at a portion of their surfaces. Irregular shapes and unequal sizes of particles also contribute to their extended lifetime.

  15. Non-destructively shattered mesoporous silica for protein drug delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Chenghong; Chen, Baowei; Li, Xiaolin; Qi, Wen N.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-15

    Mesoporous silicas have been extensively used for entrapping small chemical molecules and biomacromolecules. We hypothesize that the loading density of biomacromlecules such as proteins in mesoporous silicas could be limited due to mesopore disorderness and depth because of some pore volume inaccessible. We innovatively shattered mesoporous silicas resulting in reduced particle sizes and improved intramesoporous structures in aqueous solution by a powerful sonication, where the mesoporous structures were still well maintained. The sonication-shattered mesoporous silicas can allow protein loading densities to be increased by more than 170%, demonstrating that significantly more mesoporous room of the silicas could become accessible for biomacromolecule loading after the sonication-shattering.

  16. Biomimetic silica nanostructures on the surface, controlled by polyvalent counteranions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sung Ho

    2013-09-01

    Biosilicification (silica biomineralization in diatoms) has been intensively investigated for the in vitro formation of inorganic nanostructures under the ambient condition. It is known that biosilicification occurs at the interface of catalytic templates, derived by interactions between cationic polyamines and anions. In this work, nanostructures of silica thin films were controlled by exchanging counteranions of quaternized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) with orthophosphate/pyrophosphate anions such as HPO4-, HPO42-, PO43- and PO74-. Thickness of silica films and diameters of silica nanoparticulates were tuned at the nanometer scale. In addition, it was found that resulted silica structure highly depended on the structure of catalytic polymeric templates.

  17. Process for Preparing Epoxy-Reinforced Silica Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    One-pot reaction process for preparing epoxy-reinforced monolithic silica aerogels comprising the reaction of at least one silicon compound selected from the group consisting of alkoxysilanes, orthosilicates and combination thereof in any ratio with effective amounts of an epoxy monomer and an aminoalkoxy silane to obtain an epoxy monomer-silica sol in solution, subsequently preparing an epoxy-monomer silica gel from said silica sol solution followed by initiating polymerization of the epoxy monomer to obtain the epoxy-reinforced monolithic silica aerogel.

  18. Incorporation of anti-inflammatory agent into mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Braz, Wilson Rodrigues; Rocha, Natállia Lamec; de Faria, Emerson H; Silva, Márcio L A E; Ciuffi, Katia J; Tavares, Denise C; Furtado, Ricardo Andrade; Rocha, Lucas A; Nassar, Eduardo J

    2016-09-23

    The unique properties of macroporous, mesoporous, and microporous systems, including their ability to accommodate molecules of different sizes inside their pores and to act as drug delivery systems, have been the object of extensive studies. In this work, mesoporous silica with hexagonal structure was obtained by template synthesis via the sol-gel process. The resulting material was used as support to accommodate the anti-inflammatory agent indomethacin. The alkaline route was used to prepare the mesoporous silica; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was employed as porogenic agent. The silica particles were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane alkoxide (APTES) by the sol-gel post-synthesis method. Indomethacin was incorporated into the silica functionalized with APTES and into non-functionalized silica. The resulting systems were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), specific area, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analyses (TGA). XRD attested to formation of mesoporous silica with hexagonal structure. This structure remained after silica functionalization with APTES and incorporation of indomethacin. Typical infrared spectroscopy vibrations and organic material decomposition during TGA confirmed silica functionalization and drug incorporation. The specific surface area and pore volume of the functionalized material incorporated with indomethacin decreased as compared with the specific surface area and pore volume of the non-functionalized silica containing no drug, suggesting both the functionalizing agent and the drug were present in the silica. Cytotoxicity tests conducted on normal fibroblasts (GM0479A) cells attested that the silica matrix containing indomethacin was less toxic than the free drug. PMID:27533108

  19. Conversion of geothermal waste to commercial products including silica

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    2003-01-01

    A process for the treatment of geothermal residue includes contacting the pigmented amorphous silica-containing component with a depigmenting reagent one or more times to depigment the silica and produce a mixture containing depigmented amorphous silica and depigmenting reagent containing pigment material; separating the depigmented amorphous silica and from the depigmenting reagent to yield depigmented amorphous silica. Before or after the depigmenting contacting, the geothermal residue or depigmented silica can be treated with a metal solubilizing agent to produce another mixture containing pigmented or unpigmented amorphous silica-containing component and a solubilized metal-containing component; separating these components from each other to produce an amorphous silica product substantially devoid of metals and at least partially devoid of pigment. The amorphous silica product can be neutralized and thereafter dried at a temperature from about 25.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. The morphology of the silica product can be varied through the process conditions including sequence contacting steps, pH of depigmenting reagent, neutralization and drying conditions to tailor the amorphous silica for commercial use in products including filler for paint, paper, rubber and polymers, and chromatographic material.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Silica-Enoxil Nanobiocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzema, Pavlo O.; Laguta, Iryna V.; Stavinskaya, Oksana N.; Kazakova, Olga A.; Borysenko, Mykola V.; Lupaşcu, Tudor

    2016-02-01

    Silica-Enoxil nanobiocomposites with 13 %w of Enoxil were prepared either by mechanical mixing of corresponding powders or by sorptive modification of fumed silica powder with aqueous Enoxil solution under fluidized bed conditions. The interaction of fumed silica with Enoxil and the properties of silica-Enoxil composites have been investigated using IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and quantum chemistry methods, as well as by means of water absorption, Enoxil desorption, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. It has been shown that the main biomolecules of Enoxil composition interact with silica involving their hydroxyl groups and surface silanol groups. The water absorption of silica-Enoxil nanocomposites was found to be less than that for the individual components. The Enoxil biomolecules are readily and completely desorbed from silica surface into water, and the antioxidant activity of desorbed Enoxil is practically the same as that for the just dissolved one.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Silica-Enoxil Nanobiocomposites.

    PubMed

    Kuzema, Pavlo O; Laguta, Iryna V; Stavinskaya, Oksana N; Kazakova, Olga A; Borysenko, Mykola V; Lupaşcu, Tudor

    2016-12-01

    Silica-Enoxil nanobiocomposites with 13 %w of Enoxil were prepared either by mechanical mixing of corresponding powders or by sorptive modification of fumed silica powder with aqueous Enoxil solution under fluidized bed conditions. The interaction of fumed silica with Enoxil and the properties of silica-Enoxil composites have been investigated using IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and quantum chemistry methods, as well as by means of water absorption, Enoxil desorption, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. It has been shown that the main biomolecules of Enoxil composition interact with silica involving their hydroxyl groups and surface silanol groups. The water absorption of silica-Enoxil nanocomposites was found to be less than that for the individual components. The Enoxil biomolecules are readily and completely desorbed from silica surface into water, and the antioxidant activity of desorbed Enoxil is practically the same as that for the just dissolved one. PMID:26847694

  2. Water Vapor Effects on Silica-Forming Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.; Greenbauer-Seng, L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Silica-forming ceramics such as SiC and Si3N4 are proposed for applications in combustion environments. These environments contain water vapor as a product of combustion. Oxidation of silica-formers is more rapid in water vapor than in oxygen. Parabolic oxidation rates increase with the water vapor partial pressure with a power law exponent value close to one. Molecular water vapor is therefore the mobile species in silica. Rapid oxidation rates and large amounts of gases generated during the oxidation reaction in high water vapor pressures may result in bubble formation in the silica and nonprotective scale formation. It is also shown that silica reacts with water vapor to form Si(OH)4(g). Silica volatility has been modeled using a laminar flow boundary layer controlled reaction equation. Silica volatility depends on the partial pressure of water vapor, the total pressure, and the gas velocity. Simultaneous oxidation and volatilization reactions have been modeled with paralinear kinetics.

  3. Silica substrate or portion formed from oxidation of monocrystalline silicon

    DOEpatents

    Matzke, Carolyn M.; Rieger, Dennis J.; Ellis, Robert V.

    2003-07-15

    A method is disclosed for forming an inclusion-free silica substrate using a monocrystalline silicon substrate as the starting material and oxidizing the silicon substrate to convert it entirely to silica. The oxidation process is performed from both major surfaces of the silicon substrate using a conventional high-pressure oxidation system. The resulting product is an amorphous silica substrate which is expected to have superior etching characteristics for microfabrication than conventional fused silica substrates. The present invention can also be used to convert only a portion of a monocrystalline silicon substrate to silica by masking the silicon substrate and locally thinning a portion the silicon substrate prior to converting the silicon portion entirely to silica. In this case, the silica formed by oxidizing the thinned portion of the silicon substrate can be used, for example, as a window to provide optical access through the silicon substrate.

  4. Aminated hollow silica spheres for electrochemical DNA biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariffin, Eda Yuhana; Heng, Lee Yook; Futra, Dedi; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-01

    An electrochemical DNA biosensor for e.coli determination based on aminated hollow silica was successfully developed. Aminated hollow silica spheres were prepared through the reaction of Tween 20 template and silica precursor. The template was removed by the thermal decomposition at 620°C. Hollow silica spheres were modified with (3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) to form aminated hollow silica spheres.Aminated DNA probe were covalently immobilized on to the amine functionalized hollow silica spheres through glutaradehyde linkers. The formation hollow silica was characterized using FTIR and FESEM. A range of 50-300nm particle size obtained from FESEM micrograph. Meanwhile for the electrochemical study, a quasi-reversible system has been obtain via cyclic voltammetry (CV).

  5. Fear but not fright: re-evaluating traumatic experience attenuates anxiety-like behaviors after fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Costanzi, Marco; Saraulli, Daniele; Cannas, Sara; D’Alessandro, Francesca; Florenzano, Fulvio; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Cestari, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Fear allows organisms to cope with dangerous situations and remembering these situations has an adaptive role preserving individuals from injury and death. However, recalling traumatic memories can induce re-experiencing the trauma, thus resulting in a maladaptive fear. A failure to properly regulate fear responses has been associated with anxiety disorders, like Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Thus, re-establishing the capability to regulate fear has an important role for its adaptive and clinical relevance. Strategies aimed at erasing fear memories have been proposed, although there are limits about their efficiency in treating anxiety disorders. To re-establish fear regulation, here we propose a new approach, based on the re-evaluation of the aversive value of traumatic experience. Mice were submitted to a contextual-fear-conditioning paradigm in which a neutral context was paired with an intense electric footshock. Three weeks after acquisition, conditioned mice were treated with a less intense footshock (pain threshold). The effectiveness of this procedure in reducing fear expression was assessed in terms of behavioral outcomes related to PTSD (e.g., hyper-reactivity to a neutral tone, anxiety levels in a plus maze task, social avoidance, and learning deficits in a spatial water maze) and of amygdala activity by evaluating c-fos expression. Furthermore, a possible role of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) in mediating the behavioral effects induced by the re-evaluation procedure was investigated. We observed that this treatment: (i) significantly mitigates the abnormal behavioral outcomes induced by trauma; (ii) persistently attenuates fear expression without erasing contextual memory; (iii) prevents fear reinstatement; (iv) reduces amygdala activity; and (v) requires an intact lOFC to be effective. These results suggest that an effective strategy to treat pathological anxiety should address cognitive re-evaluation of the traumatic experience mediated

  6. The portal lobule in rat liver fibrosis: a re-evaluation of the liver unit.

    PubMed

    Bhunchet, E; Wake, K

    1998-02-01

    We re-evaluated three schemes of liver organization: the classic lobule, the portal lobule, and Rappaport's liver acinus. The lobular angioarchitecture of normal rat liver and the three-dimensional structure of pseudolubules found in rat livers with fibrosis induced by swine serum were compared with the classic lobule of the pig. Normal and fibrotic rat livers and pig livers were perfused, injected with either India ink or 0.75% OsO4 through the portal and/or hepatic vein, and immersionfixed. Whole lobes and hand-cut thick sections were made transparent with a solution of benzyl benzoate and methyl salicylate. The angioarchitecture of normal rat liver differs from pig liver. In the former, terminal portal branches and central veins interdigitate, and in the latter, numerous terminal portal branches that arise from interlobular portal veins establish a vascular basket surrounding one central vein and forming classic lobule. The structure of liver acinus is never found in the pig liver. The terminal portal branch, together with the terminal hepatic artery and bile duct, are present inside each pseudolobule of fibrotic rat livers. Blood from the terminal portal branch flows through inlet venules into radiating sinusoids, and, at the periphery converges into newly formed septal and angular outlet venules; these venules terminate in fibrotic central veins located at each corner. Pseudolobules are not rugby ball-like as Rappaport's liver acini are but are polyhedron in shape. The rat pseudolobules are comparable with the portal lobule; its structure and microcirculation are the reverse of the pig classic lobule. Rat pseudolobules are different from liver acini, as shown by the following: 1) their three-dimensional shape is different; and 2) they have a reverse relationship to classic lobules while acini are defined to subdivide classic lobules. In normal and fibrotic rat livers, the liver unit is the portal lobule with a terminal portal branch as the axial branch and

  7. Reevaluation and comparison of energy source of chemosynthesis-based animals in each hydrothermal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagami, S.; Fujikura, K.; Koito, T.; Inoue, K.; Yamanaka, T.

    2012-12-01

    Large biomass of dense benthic animals containing characteristic endemic species is often observed around seafloor cold seep and hydrothermal fluid vents. Parts of such animals rely on symbiotic microbes as their energy source. Those microbes are chemotrophic primary producer such as thioautotrophic and/or methanotrophic microbes. Therefore, it is commonly believed that those animals are supported only by geofluid that contains extremely high concentrations of reduced chemical species such as hydrogen sulfide and methane. However, geographical distribution of those animals is not limited nearby geofluid emitting area and is widely spreading around hydrothermal fields. Some communities are observed at an area where lack of detectable amount of reduced chemical species for sustaining the symbiotic animals. The purpose of this study, therefore, is reevaluation and comparison of the energy source quantitatively for chemotrophic primary production utilizing stable isotope signatures. We try to understand the origin of energy source for chemosynthesis-based benthic animals obtained from three areas, Okinawa Trough, Izu-Bonin Arc and Sagami Bay, where have different geological background and dominant animal species among each other. Samples of eight animal species were collected at the five geofluid fields, Iheya, Izena, Myojin, Suiyo and Sagami Bay, using RV/Natsushima and ROV/HyperDolphin during NT10-17 and NT11-09 cruise. In Okinawa Trough, the isotopic signature from the soft body parts of the thiotrophic animals who harbor sulfur-oxidizing microbes suggest that most of these animals assimilate not only originally geofluid-derived sulfide but also seawater-sulfate-derived sulfide through microbial sulfate-reducing activity. Furthermore, it seems that the methanotrophic species who harbor methane-oxidizing microbes do not rely only on their symbionts. It means that the animal species who harbor symbionts whether sulfur-oxidizing bacteria or methane-oxidizing bacteria

  8. The specific growth rates of tissues: a review and a re-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cowin, Stephen C

    2011-04-01

    The first objective of this review and re-evaluation is to present a brief history of efforts to mathematically model the growth of tissues. The second objective is to place this historical material in a current perspective where it may be of help in future research. The overall objective is to look backward in order to see ways forward. It is noted that two distinct methods of imaging or modeling the growth of an organism were inspired over 70 years ago by Thompson's (1915, "XXVII Morphology and Mathematics," Trans. - R. Soc. Edinbrgh, 50, pp. 857-895; 1942, On Growth and Form, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK) method of coordinate transformations to study the growth and form of organisms. One is based on the solid mechanics concept of the deformation of an object, and the other is based on the fluid mechanics concept of the velocity field of a fluid. The solid mechanics model is called the distributed continuous growth (DCG) model by Skalak (1981, "Growth as a Finite Displacement Field," Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Finite Elasticity, D. E. Carlson and R. T. Shield, eds., Nijhoff, The Hague, pp. 348-355) and Skalak et al. (1982, "Analytical Description of Growth," J. Theor. Biol., 94, pp. 555-577), and the fluid mechanics model is called the graphical growth velocity field representation (GVFR) by Cowin (2010, "Continuum Kinematical Modeling of Mass Increasing Biological Growth," Int. J. Eng. Sci., 48, pp. 1137-1145). The GVFR is a minimum or simple model based only on the assumption that a velocity field may be used effectively to illustrate experimental results concerning the temporal evolution of the size and shape of the organism that reveals the centers of growth and growth gradients first described by Huxley (1924, "Constant Differential Growth-Ratios and Their Significance," Nature (London), 114, pp. 895-896; 1972, Problems of Relative Growth, 2nd ed., L. MacVeagh, ed., Dover, New York). It is the method with an independent future that

  9. Realism and Perspectivism: a Reevaluation of Rival Theories of Spatial Vision.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thro, E. Broydrick

    1990-01-01

    My study reevaluates two theories of human space perception, a trigonometric surveying theory I call perspectivism and a "scene recognition" theory I call realism. Realists believe that retinal image geometry can supply no unambiguous information about an object's size and distance--and that, as a result, viewers can locate objects in space only by making discretionary interpretations based on familiar experience of object types. Perspectivists, in contrast, think viewers can disambiguate object sizes/distances on the basis of retinal image information alone. More specifically, they believe the eye responds to perspective image geometry with an automatic trigonometric calculation that not only fixes the directions and shapes, but also roughly fixes the sizes and distances of scene elements in space. Today this surveyor theory has been largely superceded by the realist approach, because most vision scientists believe retinal image geometry is ambiguous about the scale of space. However, I show that there is a considerable body of neglected evidence, both past and present, tending to call this scale ambiguity claim into question. I maintain that this evidence against scale ambiguity could hardly be more important, if one considers its subversive implications for the scene recognition theory that is not only today's reigning approach to spatial vision, but also the foundation for computer scientists' efforts to create space-perceiving robots. If viewers were deemed to be capable of automatic surveying calculations, the discretionary scene recognition theory would lose its main justification. Clearly, it would be difficult for realists to maintain that we viewers rely on scene recognition for space perception in spite of our ability to survey. And in reality, as I show, the surveyor theory does a much better job of describing the everyday space we viewers actually see--a space featuring stable, unambiguous relationships among scene elements, and a single horizon and

  10. Recruitment processes in Baltic sprat - A re-evaluation of GLOBEC Germany hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Rüdiger; Peck, Myron A.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Clemmesen, Catriona; Baumann, Hannes; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bernreuther, Matthias; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Temming, Axel; Köster, Fritz W.

    2012-12-01

    The GLOBEC Germany program (2002-2007) had the ambitious goal to resolve the processes impacting the recruitment dynamics of Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by examining various factors affecting early life history stages. At the start of the research program, a number of general recruitment hypotheses were formulated, i.e. focusing on (1) predation, (2) food availability, (3) physical parameters, (4) the impact of current systems, and finally (5) the importance of top-down vs bottom-up effects. The present study synthesizes the results of field sampling (2002 and 2003), laboratory experiments, and modeling studies to re-evaluate these hypotheses for the Baltic sprat stock. Recruitment success was quite different in the 2 years investigated. Despite a lower spawning stock biomass in 2003, the total number of recruits was almost 2-fold higher that year compared to 2002. The higher recruitment success in 2003 could be attributed to enhanced survival success during the post-larval/juvenile stage, a life phase that appears to be critical for recruitment dynamics. In the state of the Baltic ecosystem during the period of investigation, we consider bottom-up control (e.g. temperature, prey abundance) to be more important than top-down control (predation mortality). This ranking in importance does not vary seasonally. Prevailing water circulation patterns and the transport dynamics of larval cohorts have a strong influence on sprat recruitment success. Pronounced transport to coastal areas is detrimental for year-class strength particularly at high sprat stock sizes. A suggested mechanism is density-dependant regulation of survival via intra- and inter-specific competition for prey in coastal areas. A documented change in larval vertical migration behavior between the early 1990s and early 2000s increased the transport potential to the coast, strengthening the coupling between inter-annual differences in the magnitude and direction of wind-driven surface currents and

  11. Experimental re-evaluation of flunarizine as add-on antiepileptic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Anamika; Sahai, A. K.; Thakur, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies have found several calcium channel blockers with anticonvulsant property. Flunarizine is one of the most potent calcium channel blockers, which has shown anticonvulsant effect against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures. However, further experimental and clinical trials have shown varied results. We conducted a PTZ model experimental study to re-evaluate the potential of flunarizine for add-on therapy in the management of refractory epilepsy. Materials and Methods: Experiments were conducted in PTZ model involving Swiss strain mice. Doses producing seizures in 50% and 99% mice, i.e. CD50 and CD99 values of PTZ were obtained from the dose-response study. Animals received graded, single dose of sodium valproate (100–300 mg/kg), lamotrigine (3–12 mg/kg) and flunarizine (5–20 mg/kg), and then each group of mice was injected with CD99 dose of PTZ (65mg/kg i.p.). Another group of mice received single ED50 dose (dose producing seizure protection in 50% mice) of sodium valproate and flunarizine separately in left and right side of abdomen. Results were analysed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA on Ranks test. Results: As compared to control, sodium valproate at 250 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg produced statistical significant seizure protection. At none of the pre-treatment dose levels of lamotrigine, the seizure score with PTZ differed significantly from that observed in the vehicle-treated group. Pre-treatment with flunarizine demonstrated dose-dependent decrease in the seizure score to PTZ administration. As compared to control group, flunarizine at 20 mg/kg produced statistical significant seizure protection. Conclusion: As combined use of sodium valproate and flunarizine has shown significant seizure protection in PTZ model, flunarizine has a potential for add-on therapy in refractory cases of partial seizures. It is therefore, we conclude that further experimental studies and multicenter clinical trials

  12. REEVALUATION OF MALARIA PARASITES IN EL-FAYOUM GOVERNORATE, EGYPT USING RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TESTS (RDTS).

    PubMed

    Dahesh, Salwa M A; Mostafa, Heba I

    2015-12-01

    Malaria as a disease has been identified in Egypt since ancient times. Malaria was endemic in almost all parts of the country but prevalence showed a steady decrease by 1990, and regressed in most of the Governorates. Then by the end of 1998 till now Egypt become free from local transmission of malaria. All reported cases were imported mainly from Sudan. However, the outbreak of falciparum (1 case) and vivax (23 cases) that occurred (May 2014) in Aswan Governorate strongly indicated that malaria is reemerging in the country. El-Fayoum should be take special attention, rather than being the last residual focus. The efficient malaria vector A. sergenti, the proven vector A. pharoensis and the suspected vector A. multicolor were encountered. This work reevaluated malaria status by using RDTs in survey and Giemsa stained thick films to confirm positive cases and estimation of parasite rate, formula, densities and species, also to study the ecological and entomological efficacy factors. The result showed that out of 2044 examined persons, 14 (0.68%) were passive cases, i.e., attending themselves to El-Fayoum Malaria Units after their return from Sudan. Microscopic examination of their stained thick films obtained from MOH&P shows that 9 (64.2%) out of passive cases were positive 3 of them are P. falciparum (33.3%) and the rest P. vivax 6 (66.7%) The species formulas of P. falciparum and P. vivax were 33.3% and 66.7% respectively. Concerning the density class, only one vivax case was of low density class while the other cases were of high density class. All positive cases were males, imported from Sudan and most of them were merchants having trade activities in Sudan. All examined persons during active case detection ACD (1551) and neighborhood of detected cases NOD (479) were malaria negative by rapid diagnostic tests. The areas recording the highest number of imported cases were Abu Shanap, Aboxa (Ballona) and Kafr Aboud (Abshaway Center) but no Anopheline spp larvae

  13. Re-evaluation of neutron-{sup 4}He elastic scattering data near 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Drosg, M.; Avalos Ortiz, R.; Hoop, B.

    2011-06-15

    Measured differential elastic-scattering cross sections of 17.72-, 20.97-, and 23.72-MeV neutrons from liquid helium-4 were re-evaluated and were corrected for sample-size and multiple-scattering effects by means of a Monte Carlo technique implemented in a more recent code (mcnpx). Results indicate that earlier corrections via the code maggie-2 overestimated the size of multiple-scattering effects by an order of magnitude. The corrected differential cross sections and Legendre coefficients obtained by least-squares fits are given.

  14. Silica fractionation and reactivity in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unzué Belmonte, Dácil; Barão, Lúcia; Vandevenne, Floor; Schoelynck, Jonas; Struyf, Eric; Meire, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The Si cycle is a globally important biogeochemical cycle, with strong connections to other biogeochemical cycles, including C. Silica is taken up by plants to form protective structures called phytoliths, which become a part of the soil and contribute strongly to soil Si cycling upon litter burial. Different silica fractions are found in soils, with phytoliths among the most easily soluble, especially compared to silicate minerals. A whole set of secondary non-biogenic fractions exist, that also have a high reactivity (adsorbed Si, reactive secondary minerals…). A good characterization of the different fractions of reactive silica is crucial to move forward knowledge on ecosystem Si cycling, which has been recognized in the last decade as crucial for terrestrial Si fluxes. A new method to analyze the different fractions of silica in soils has been described by Koning et al. (2002) and adapted by our research team (Barão et al. 2013). Using a continuous extraction of Si and aluminum in 0.5M NaOH, biogenic and non-biogenic reactive fractions are separated based on their Si/Al ratios and their reactivity in NaOH. Applying this new method I will investigate three emerging ideas on how humans can affect directly terrestrial Si fluxes. -Land use. I expect strong silica fractionation and reactivity differences in different land uses. These effects due to agricultural and forestry management have already been shown earlier in temperate soils (Vandevenne et al. 2012). Now we will test this hypothesis in recently deforested soils, in the south of Brazil. 'Pristine' forest, managed forest and tobacco field soils (with and without rotation crops) will be studied. This research belongs to an interdisciplinary project on soils and global change. -Fire. According to the IPCC report, extreme events such as fires (number and intensity) would increase due to climate change. We analyzed litter from spruce forest, beech forest and peat soils at two burning levels, after 350°C and

  15. Approaches to separations using silica colloidal membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia Anne Argana

    This thesis describes the synthesis and properties of free-standing nanoporous silica colloidal membranes where the molecular transport is controlled on the basis of size, charge, and chiral selectivity. To achieve this, free-standing membranes were prepared from colloidal solutions of silica nanospheres and the nanopore size and surface functionality were varied. First, Au-coated membranes were prepared and the transport of neutral and charged small molecules through Au-coated silica colloidal membranes modified with poly(methacrylic acid) was studied. Polymer length was controlled by polymerization time to produce pH- and ion-responsive brushes inside the nanopores. By monitoring the flux of a diffusing species, it was demonstrated that the polyelectrolyte brush undergoes swelling and collapse when the pH is increased and decreased, respectively. We also observed an expansion and contraction in the absence and presence of counterions, respectively. We also studied the transport of enantiomers of a chiral dye molecule through silica colloidal membranes with attached chiral moieties. We used small molecules and polymers of amino acid derivatives and chiral calixarenes capable of chiral recognition as a result of stereochemically dependent noncovalent interactions with the diffusing molecule. We found that the selectivity remains approximately the same for membranes modified with small molecules and with polymers. This suggests that enantiopermselectivity depends primarily on the strength of noncovalent interactions rather than the availability of recognition sites. Next, the transport of various generations of dendrimers through silica colloidal membranes was studied in a proof-of-concept experiment to demonstrate the size-selectivity of our materials. Smaller dendrimers were found to diffuse faster and selectivity is improved by using smaller nanopores. Finally, the transport of proteins through silica colloidal membranes was studied as a function of nanopore size

  16. Assembly of functional gold nanoparticle on silica microsphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsuan-Lan; Lee, Fu-Cheng; Tang, Tse-Yu; Zhou, Chenguang; Tsai, De-Hao

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a controlled synthesis of silica microsphere with the surface-decorated functional gold nanoparticles. Surface of silica microsphere was modified by 3-aminopropypltriethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyldimethylethoxysilane to generate a positive electric field, by which the gold nanoparticles with the negative charges (unconjugated, thiolated polyethylene glycol functionalized with the traceable packing density and conformation) were able to be attracted to the silica microsphere. Results show that both the molecular conjugation on gold nanoparticle and the uniformity in the amino-silanization of silica microsphere influenced the loading and the homogeneity of gold nanoparticles on silica microsphere. The 3-aminopropyldimethylethoxysilane-functionalized silica microsphere provided an uniform field to attract gold nanoparticles. Increasing the ethanol content in aminosilane solution significantly improved the homogeneity and the loading of gold nanoparticles on the surface of silica microsphere. For the gold nanoparticle, increasing the molecular mass of polyethylene glycol yielded a greater homogeneity but a lower loading on silica microsphere. Bovine serum albumin induced the desorption of gold nanoparticles from silica microsphere, where the extent of desorption was suppressed by the presence of high-molecular mass polyethylene glycol on gold nanoparticles. This work provides the fundamental understanding for the synthesis of gold nanoparticle-silica microsphere constructs useful to the applications in chemo-radioactive therapeutics. PMID:26874272

  17. Magnetic hydrophobic nanocomposites: Silica aerogel/maghemite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Zélis, P.; Fernández van Raap, M. B.; Socolovsky, L. M.; Leyva, A. G.; Sánchez, F. H.

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic hydrophobic aerogels (MHA) in the form of nanocomposites of silica and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) were prepared by one step sol-gel procedure followed by supercritical solvent extraction. Silica alcogels were obtained from TEOS, MTMS, methanol and H2O, and Fe(III) nitrate as magnetic precursor. The hydrophobic property was achieved using the methytrimethoxysilane (MTMS) as co-precursor for surface modification. The so produced nanocomposite aerogels are monolithic, hydrophobic and magnetic. The interconnected porous structure hosts ∼6 nm size γ-Fe2O3 particles, has a mean pore diameter of 5 nm, and a specific surface area (SSA) of 698 m²/g. Medium range structure of MHA is determined by SAXS, which displays the typical fractal power law behavior with primary particle radius of ∼1 nm. Magnetic properties of the nanoparticle ensembles hosted in them are studied by means of dc-magnetometry.

  18. Drug release from ordered mesoporous silicas.

    PubMed

    Doadrio, Antonio L; Salinas, Antonio J; Sánchez-Montero, José M; Vallet-Regí, M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the investigation of drugs release from Silica-based ordered Mesoporous Materials (SMMs) is reviewed. First, the SMM systems used like host matrixes are described. Then, the model drugs studied until now, including their pharmacological action, structure and the mesoporous matrix employed for each drug, are comprehensively listed. Next, the factors influencing the release of drugs from SMMs and the strategies used to control the drug delivery, specially the chemical functionalization of the silica surface, are discussed. In addition, how all these factors were gathered in a kinetic equation that describes the drug release from the mesoporous matrixes is explained. The new application of molecular modeling and docking in the investigation of the drug delivery mechanisms from SMMs is also presented. Finally, the new approaches under investigation in this field are mentioned including the design of smart stimuli-responsive materials and other recent proposals for a future investigation. PMID:26549760

  19. Adsorption of bacteriocins by ingestible silica compounds.

    PubMed

    Wan, J; Gordon, J; Hickey, M W; Mawson, R F; Coventry, M J

    1996-08-01

    Bacteriocins including nisin, pediocin PO2, brevicin 286 and piscicolin 126 were adsorbed from culture supernates by various food-grade porous silica anti-caking agents and the food colourant, titanium dioxide. All the porous silica (calcium silicate or silicon dioxide) materials showed substantial capacity in adsorbing bacteriocin activities from the culture supernate and biological activity was recovered in the adsorbents. In contrast, the food colourant titanium dioxide adsorbed most of the bacteriocin activity from the supernate, with minimal biological activity retained in the adsorbent. Experiments with piscicolin 126 showed that optimum adsorption could be achieved with Micro-Cel E within 30 min, independent of the supernate pH (2.0-10.0). Piscicolin activity of up to 5 x 10(7) AU g(-1) of Micro-Cel E was obtained after adsorption from culture supernates and the adsorbed piscicolin demonstrated substantial biological activity against Listeria monocytogenes in both broth and a milk growth medium. PMID:8926221

  20. Coupled reactions and silica diffusion during serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Yuichi; Okamoto, Atsushi; Hirano, Nobuo; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2013-10-01

    Silica activity is one of the key factors in controlling reaction paths of serpentinization. We conducted hydrothermal experiments in the olivine (Ol)-orthopyroxene (Opx)-H2O system at 250 °C and at a vapor-saturated pressure of 3.98 MPa to explore the role of silica diffusion in aqueous fluids during serpentinization. Olivine (Fo91), orthopyroxene (En91), or their composite powders (with Ol/Opx/Ol zones) were set in tube-in-tube vessels, and solution chemistry and the extent of serpentinization were analyzed in detail. In the Ol-H2O experiments, the product changed from serpentine + magnetite to serpentine + brucite + magnetite, accompanied by a Si-drop in the solutions. Serpentinization proceeded uniformly throughout the reaction tube, indicating that the supply of water was not the rate-determining process. In the Opx-H2O experiments, orthopyroxenes were dissolved along the cleavages, and the amount of newly formed serpentine was very small. The silica activity of the solutions in the Opx-H2O experiments was 1-3 orders higher than in the Ol-H2O experiments. In the Ol-Opx-H2O experiments, serpentinization proceeded in both the Ol and Opx zones. In the Opx zone, the extent of serpentinization was constant, whereas in the Ol zone, serpentinization was most extensive along the boundary between the Ol and Opx zones, and it decreased gradually away from the boundary. Serpentinization in the Ol-Opx-H2O experiments was modeled simply by coupled processes involving silica diffusion and two serpentinization reactions: a silica-consuming reaction after olivine and a silica-releasing reaction after orthopyroxene. The spatial pattern of the extent of serpentinization was controlled by the diffusion coefficient of silica in aqueous solution, DSiO2,aq, and the apparent reaction rate constants k'Ol in the olivine zone, and k'Opx in the orthopyroxene zone. Assuming DSiO2,aq = 2.0 × 10-4 cm2/s, the observed variation in the extent of serpentinization after a run of 1512 h is

  1. Bright photoluminescent hybrid mesostructured silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Miletto, Ivana; Bottinelli, Emanuela; Caputo, Giuseppe; Coluccia, Salvatore; Gianotti, Enrica

    2012-07-28

    Bright photoluminescent mesostructured silica nanoparticles were synthesized by the incorporation of fluorescent cyanine dyes into the channels of MCM-41 mesoporous silica. Cyanine molecules were introduced into MCM-41 nanoparticles by physical adsorption and covalent grafting. Several photoluminescent nanoparticles with different organic loadings have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen physisorption porosimetry. A detailed photoluminescence study with the analysis of fluorescence lifetimes was carried out to elucidate the cyanine molecules distribution within the pores of MCM-41 nanoparticles and the influence of the encapsulation on the photoemission properties of the guests. The results show that highly stable photoluminescent hybrid materials with interesting potential applications as photoluminescent probes for diagnostics and imaging can be prepared by both methods. PMID:22706523

  2. Carbon nanomaterials in silica aerogel matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Christopher E; Chavez, Manuel E; Duque, Juan G; Gupta, Gautam; Doorn, Stephen K; Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Obrey, Kimberly A D

    2010-01-01

    Silica aerogels are ultra low-density, high surface area materials that are extremely good thermal insulators and have numerous technical applications. However, their mechanical properties are not ideal, as they are brittle and prone to shattering. Conversely, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene-based materials, such as graphene oxide, have extremely high tensile strength and possess novel electronic properties. By introducing SWCNTs or graphene-based materials into aerogel matrices, it is possible to produce composites with the desirable properties of both constituents. We have successfully dispersed SWCNTs and graphene-based materials into silica gels. Subsequent supercritical drying results in monolithic low-density composites having improved mechanical properties. These nanocomposite aerogels have great potential for use in a wide range of applications.

  3. The silica hypothesis for homeopathy: physical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Anick, David J; Ives, John A

    2007-07-01

    The 'silica hypothesis' is one of several frameworks that have been put forward to explain how homeopathic remedies, which often are diluted beyond the point where any of the original substance remains, might still be clinically effective. We describe here what the silica hypothesis says. From a physical chemistry viewpoint, we explore three challenges that the hypothesis would have to meet in order to explain homeopathy: thermodynamic stability of a large number of distinct structures, pattern initiation at low potencies, and pattern maintenance or gradual evolution at higher potencies. We juxtapose current knowledge about silicates with some of the conventional wisdom about homeopathic remedies, to see how well the latter might be a consequence of the former. We explore variants of the hypothesis including some speculations about mechanisms. We outline laboratory experiments that could help to decide it. PMID:17678816

  4. Multipod-like silica/polystyrene clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Désert, Anthony; Morele, Jérémy; Taveau, Jean-Christophe; Lambert, Olivier; Lansalot, Muriel; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Thill, Antoine; Spalla, Olivier; Belloni, Luc; Ravaine, Serge; Duguet, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Multipod-like clusters composed of a silica core and PS satellites are prepared according to a seeded-growth emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of size-monodisperse silica particles previously surface-modified with methacryloxymethyltriethoxysilane. Tuning the diameter and concentration of the silica seeds affords homogeneous batches of tetrapods, hexapods, octopods, nonapods and dodecapods with morphology yields as high as 80%. Three-dimensional reconstructions by cryo-electron tomography are presented on large fields for the first time to show the high symmetry and regularity of the clusters demonstrating the good control of the synthesis process. These synthesis experiments are visited again digitally, in order to successfully refine an original simulation model and better understand the correlation between the history of the cluster growth and the final composition of the cluster mixture. Finally, using the model as a predictive tool and varying the extra experimental conditions, e.g. the composition of the surfactant mixture and the styrene concentration, result in trapping other cluster morphologies, such as tripods.Multipod-like clusters composed of a silica core and PS satellites are prepared according to a seeded-growth emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of size-monodisperse silica particles previously surface-modified with methacryloxymethyltriethoxysilane. Tuning the diameter and concentration of the silica seeds affords homogeneous batches of tetrapods, hexapods, octopods, nonapods and dodecapods with morphology yields as high as 80%. Three-dimensional reconstructions by cryo-electron tomography are presented on large fields for the first time to show the high symmetry and regularity of the clusters demonstrating the good control of the synthesis process. These synthesis experiments are visited again digitally, in order to successfully refine an original simulation model and better understand the correlation between the

  5. Synthesis of periodic mesoporous silica thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.G.; Newcomer, P.

    1996-06-01

    We have synthesized periodic mesoporous silica thin films from homogeneous solutions. To synthesize the films, a thin layer of a pH 7 micellar coating solution that contains TMOS (tetramethoxysilane) is dip or spin-coated onto Si wafers, borosilicate glass, or quartz substrates. NH3 gas is diffused into the solution and causes rapid hydrolysis and condensation of the TMOS and the formation of periodic mesoporous thin films within 10 seconds. Combination of homogenous solutions and rapid product formation maximizes the concentration of the desired product and provides a controlled, predictable microstructure. The films have been made continuous and crack-free by optimizing initial silica concentration and film thickness. The films are being evaluated as high surface area, size-selective coatings for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors.

  6. Stress relaxation of vitreous silica on irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Primak, W.

    1982-11-01

    The radiation-induced stress relaxation which is observed on ion bombardment of vitreous silica is described as a viscoelastic behavior in which the apparent viscosity is reduced to approx.10/sup 14/ Poise during irradiation and then increases rapidly by 4 or 5 orders of magnitude on cessation or interruption of irradiation. The bombarded layer appears to possess a viscosity approx.10/sup 19/ Poise, lower than would be expected for normal vitreous silica. On electron bombardment the viscosity is also reduced, but not as greatly as an ion bombardment, yet sufficiently to result in the whole radiation-induced volume contraction being realized perpendicularly to the surface, as has been found for ion bombardment. The maximum elastic stored energy which can be realized is but a fraction of a calorie per gram, hence the reported values of 200 cal/g would seem to be associated with the fragmentation of the network responsible for the reduced viscosity.

  7. Identification of an intragenic deletion in the SGCB gene through a re-evaluation of negative next generation sequencing results.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Teresa; Fanin, Marina; Savarese, Marco; Piluso, Giulio; Angelini, Corrado; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    A large mutation screening of 504 patients with muscular dystrophy or myopathy has been performed by next generation sequencing (NGS). Among this cohort of patients, we report a case with a severe form of muscular dystrophy with a proximal weakness in the limb-girdle muscles. Her biopsy revealed typical dystrophic features and immunohistochemistry for α- and γ-sarcoglycans showed an absent reaction, addressing the clinical diagnosis toward a sarcoglycanopathy. Considering that no causative point mutation was detected in any of the four sarcoglycan genes, we re-evaluated the NGS data by careful quantitative analysis of the specific reads mapping on the four sarcoglycan genes. A complete absence of reads from the sixth exon of the β-sarcoglycan gene was found. Subsequent array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis confirmed the result with the identification of a novel 3.3 kb intragenic deletion in the SGCB gene. This case illustrates the importance of a multidisciplinary approach involving clinicians and molecular geneticists and the need for a careful re-evaluation of NGS data. PMID:27108072

  8. Ozone balloon soundings at Payerne (Switzerland): Reevaluation of the time series 1967-2002 and trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeannet, P.; Stübi, R.; Levrat, G.; Viatte, P.; Staehelin, J.

    2007-06-01

    This study documents the history of the Payerne (Switzerland) ozone series obtained with the Brewer-Mast sonde from the end of 1966 until the change to the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) sonde in autumn 2002, as well as the reevaluation of the original data. Several corrections were made in order to improve the homogeneity and the quality of the time series. We furthermore derived long-term trends for the reevaluated time series using atmospheric variables in a stepwise regression model. In the stratosphere, trends over the 1970-2002 period remain nearly the same as over periods ending a few years earlier. For tropospheric ozone trends, a hockey stick model allowing for a change in trend in 1990 was used and a sensitivity analysis with different data sets was carried out. Besides the standard World Meteorological Organization (WMO) data evaluation procedure, we used alternative data sets (1) accounting for the preflight laboratory calibrations, or (2) ignoring the total ozone normalization, (3) as well as correcting for chemical interference with SO2. With all data sets, tropospheric trends were strongly positive in all seasons over the 1967-1989 period. In the 1990-2002 period, winter trends remained positive over the whole troposphere with all data sets, whereas in the other seasons, trends were generally negative near the ground and shifted to zero or positive values with increasing altitude in the troposphere. The alternative evaluation procedures strongly affect the derived tropospheric trends in the 1990-2002 period and their uncertainties.

  9. Adsorption of Polyether Block Copolymers at Silica-Water and Silica-Ethylammonium Nitrate Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengfei; Kobayashi, Yumi; Webber, Grant B; Ueno, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Warr, Gregory G; Atkin, Rob

    2015-06-30

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) force curves and images are used to characterize the adsorbed layer structure formed by a series of diblock copolymers with solvophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and solvophobic poly(ethyl glycidyl ether) (PEGE) blocks at silica-water and silica-ethylammoniun nitrate (EAN, a room temperature ionic liquid (IL)) interfaces. The diblock polyethers examined are EGE109EO54, EGE113EO115, and EGE104EO178. These experiments reveal how adsorbed layer structure varies as the length of the EO block varies while the EGE block length is kept approximately constant; water is a better solvent for PEO than EAN, so higher curvature structures are found at the interface of silica with water than with EAN. At silica-water interfaces, EGE109EO54 forms a bilayer and EGE113EO115 forms elongated aggregates, while a well-ordered array of spheres is present for EGE104EO178. EGE109EO54 does not adsorb at the silica-EAN interface because the EO chain is too short to compete with the ethylammonium cation for surface adsorption sites. However, EGE113EO115 and EGE104EO178 do adsorb and form a bilayer and elongated aggregates, respectively. PMID:26039658

  10. Fast Glazing of Alumina/Silica Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creedon, J. F.; Gzowski, E. R.; Wheeler, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for applying ceramic coating to fibrous silica/alumina insulation tiles prevents cracks and substantially reduces firing time. To reduce thermal stresses in tile being coated, high-temperature, shorttime firing schedule implemented. Such schedule allows coating to mature while substrate remains at relatively low temperature, reducing stress differential between coating and substrate. Technique used to repair tiles with damaged coatings and possibly used in heat-treating objects made of materials having different thermal-expansion coefficients.

  11. High purity silica reflective heat shield development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blome, J. C.; Drennan, D. N.; Schmitt, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements were made of reflectance in the vacuum ultraviolet down to 0.15 micron. Scattering coefficients (S) and absorption coefficients (K) were also measured. These coefficients express the optical properties and are used directly in a thermodynamic analysis for sizing a heat shield. The effect of the thin silica melt layer formed during entry was also studied from the standpoint of trapped radiant energy.

  12. Crystallization of hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Drisko, Glenna L; Carretero-Genevrier, Adrian; Perrot, Alexandre; Gich, Martí; Gàzquez, Jaume; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan; Favre, Luc; Grosso, David; Boissière, Cédric; Sanchez, Clément

    2015-03-11

    Complex 3D macrostructured nanoparticles are transformed from amorphous silica into pure polycrystalline α-quartz using catalytic quantities of alkaline earth metals as devitrifying agent. Walls as thin as 10 nm could be crystallized without losing the architecture of the particles. The roles of cation size and the mol% of the incorporated devitrifying agent in crystallization behavior are studied, with Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+) all producing pure α-quartz under certain conditions. PMID:25503642

  13. Cobalt silica magnetic nanoparticles with functional surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadala, Michael L.; Zalich, Michael A.; Fulks, David B.; St. Pierre, Tim G.; Dailey, James P.; Riffle, Judy S.

    2005-05-01

    Cobalt nanoparticles encased in polysiloxane block copolymers have been heated at 600-700 °C to form protective shells around the particles, which contain crosslinked Si-O structures, and to anneal the cobalt. Methods to functionalize and modify the surfaces of the pyrolyzed/annealed silica-cobalt complexes with amines, isocyanates, poly(ethylene oxide), poly( L-lactide) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are presented.

  14. Silica Foams for Fire Prevention and Firefighting.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander V; Kuprin, D S; Abduragimov, I M; Kuprin, G N; Serebriyakov, Evgeniy; Vinogradov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-13

    We report the new development of fire-extinguishing agents employing the latest technology of fighting and preventing fires. The in situ technology of fighting fires and explosions involves using large-scale ultrafast-gelated foams, which possess new properties and unique characteristics, in particular, exceptional thermal stability, mechanical durability, and full biocompatibility. We provide a detailed description of the physicochemical processes of silica foam formation at the molecular level and functional comparison with current fire-extinguishing and fire-fighting agents. The new method allows to produce controllable gelation silica hybrid foams in the range from 2 to 30 s up to 100 Pa·s viscosity. Chemical structure and hierarchical morphology obtained by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images develop thermal insulation capabilities of the foams, reaching a specific heat value of more than 2.5 kJ/(kg·°C). The produced foam consists of organized silica nanoparticles as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis with a narrow particle size distribution of ∼10-20 nm. As a result of fire-extinguishing tests, it is shown that the extinguishing efficiency exhibited by silica-based sol-gel foams is almost 50 times higher than that for ordinary water and 15 times better than that for state-of-the-art firefighting agent aqueous film forming foam. The biodegradation index determined by the time of the induction period was only 3 d, while even for conventional foaming agents this index is several times higher. PMID:26492207

  15. Silica urolithiasis without magnesium trisilicate intake.

    PubMed

    Ichiyanagi, O; Sasagawa, I; Adachi, Y; Suzuki, H; Kubota, Y; Nakada, T

    1998-10-01

    Two cases of silica stones, without previous oral intake of magnesium trisilicate, are reported. A 64-year-old Japanese woman had bilateral renal stones. Infrared spectrophotoscopy revealed that one of the fragments consisted of silicate and the others consisted of calcium oxalate. A 75-year-old woman had right renal stones. The composition of 1 stone was a mixture of silicate and unspecified matrices. Silicate urolithiasis may not necessarily be related to oral intake of silicate-containing antacids. PMID:9792982

  16. The Optical Properties of Ion Implanted Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Cydale C.; Ila, D.; Sarkisov, S.; Williams, E. K.; Poker, D. B.; Hensley, D. K.

    1997-01-01

    We will present our investigation on the change in the optical properties of silica, 'suprasil', after keV through MeV implantation of copper, tin, silver and gold and after annealing. Suprasil-1, name brand of silica glass produced by Hereaus Amerisil, which is chemically pure with well known optical properties. Both linear nonlinear optical properties of the implanted silica were investigated before and after thermal annealing. All implants, except for Sn, showed strong optical absorption bands in agreement with Mie's theory. We have also used Z-scan to measure the strength of the third order nonlinear optical properties of the produced thin films, which is composed of the host material and the metallic nanoclusters. For implants with a measurable optical absorption band we used Doyle's theory and the full width half maximum of the absorption band to calculate the predicted size of the formed nanoclusters at various heat treatment temperatures. These results are compared with those obtained from direct observation using transmission electron microscopic techniques.

  17. Multipod-like silica/polystyrene clusters.

    PubMed

    Désert, Anthony; Morele, Jérémy; Taveau, Jean-Christophe; Lambert, Olivier; Lansalot, Muriel; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Thill, Antoine; Spalla, Olivier; Belloni, Luc; Ravaine, Serge; Duguet, Etienne

    2016-03-14

    Multipod-like clusters composed of a silica core and PS satellites are prepared according to a seeded-growth emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of size-monodisperse silica particles previously surface-modified with methacryloxymethyltriethoxysilane. Tuning the diameter and concentration of the silica seeds affords homogeneous batches of tetrapods, hexapods, octopods, nonapods and dodecapods with morphology yields as high as 80%. Three-dimensional reconstructions by cryo-electron tomography are presented on large fields for the first time to show the high symmetry and regularity of the clusters demonstrating the good control of the synthesis process. These synthesis experiments are visited again digitally, in order to successfully refine an original simulation model and better understand the correlation between the history of the cluster growth and the final composition of the cluster mixture. Finally, using the model as a predictive tool and varying the extra experimental conditions, e.g. the composition of the surfactant mixture and the styrene concentration, result in trapping other cluster morphologies, such as tripods. PMID:26677796

  18. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  19. Seeded Growth of Colloidal Silica Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurm, David B.

    1999-01-01

    The method of seeded growth was studied for producing mondisperse colloidal silica particles. It was shown that particle size as well as weight percent solids could be controlled by using this method. The particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quasielastic light scattering (QELS). The particles were found to have a bimodal size distribution when examined by TEM. The particle size as determined by QELS was found to be roughly 10-20% larger than the particle size as determined by TEM. Furthermore, the polydispersity (standard deviation/mean particle size) as determined by QELS was found to be significantly lower than the polydispersity as determined by TEM. This underscores the importance of using TEM as a characterization technique for determining particle monodispersity. It was also noted that there was an increase in particle roughness as the weight percent of the silica particles increased and a new nucleation of particles was observed as the weight percent approached 13%. A recipe for producing monodisperse silica particles in the 150 nm size range is presented.

  20. Luminescent Silica Nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Montalti, Marco; Petrizza, Luca; Rampazzo, Enrico; Zaccheroni, Nelsi; Marchiò, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging techniques are becoming essential in preclinical investigations, and the research of suitable tools for in vivo measurements is gaining more and more importance and attention. Nanotechnology entered the field to try to find solutions for many limitation at the state of the art, and luminescent nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most promising materials proposed for future diagnostic implementation. NPs constitute also a versatile platform that can allow facile multi-functionalization to perform multimodal imaging or theranostic (simultaneous diagnosis and therapy). In this contribution we have focussed our attention only on dye doped silica or silica-based NPs conjugated with targeting moieties to enable specific cancer cells imaging and differentiation, even if also a few non targeted systems have been cited and discussed for completeness. We have summarized common synthetic approaches to these materials and then surveyed the most recent imaging applications of silica-based nanoparticles in cancer. The field of theranostic is so important and stimulating that, even if it is not the central topic of this paper, we have included some significant examples. We have then concluded with short hints on systems already in clinical trials and examples of specific applications in children tumours. This review tries to describe and discuss, through focussed examples, the great potentialities of these materials in the medical field, with the aim to encourage further research to implement applications that are still rare. PMID:23458621

  1. Immobilization of immunoglobulins on silica surfaces. Stability.

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, U; Malmqvist, M; Rönnberg, I

    1985-01-01

    The development of new immunosensors based on surface-concentration-measuring devices requires a stable and reproducible immobilization of antibodies on well-characterized solid surfaces. We here report on the immobilization of immunoglobulin G (IgG) on chemically modified silica surfaces. Such surfaces may be used in various surface-oriented analytical methods. Reactive groups were introduced to the silica surfaces by chemical-vapour deposition of silane. The surfaces were characterized by ellipsometry, contact-angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy. IgG covalently bound by the use of thiol-disulphide exchange reactions, thereby controlling the maximum number of covalent bonds to the surface, was compared with IgG adsorbed on various silica surfaces. This comparison showed that the covalently bound IgG has a superior stability when the pH was lowered or incubation with detergents, urea or ethylene glycol was carried out. The result was evaluated by ellipsometry, an optical technique that renders possible the quantification of amounts of immobilized IgG. The results outline the possibilities of obtaining a controlled covalent binding of biomolecules to solid surfaces with an optimal stability and biological activity of the immobilized molecules. Images Fig. 3. PMID:2988497

  2. Sorption of radiocesium by active silica.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, C E; Crawford, R W; Angus, M J; Glasser, F P; Rahman, A A

    1984-05-01

    Cement and cement components have previously been shown to exhibit negligible sorption for cesium. Pyrogenic silica has been examined as an additive to cement materials for its ability to reduce the leachability of cesium and to provide a host material with permanent sorption sites. The incorporation of silica into cement composites can also improve the physical characteristics and strength of these materials as long ages. At neutral pH values, there is significant sorption of cesium by silica, but in high pH regimes, such as occur in cement environments, initial sorption is enhanced but this high level of sorption is followed by a gradual release of Cs. This apparent desorption is due to the consumption of SiO2 by Ca(OH)2 to form products which have little sorption potential for cesium. If, however, sufficient SiO2 is added to the system initially such that an excess remains after satisfying the demands of the Ca(OH)2 reaction, permanent sorption sites for cesium may be created. PMID:6327573

  3. Tuning the mechanical properties of silica microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; D'Acunzi, Maria; Kappl, Michael; Imhof, Arnout; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Graf, Robert; Vollmer, Doris

    2010-12-21

    Heat treatment is a standard method to increase the hardness of silica in various applications. Here, we tested the effect of high temperature annealing on the mechanical properties of silica microcapsules by force spectroscopy under point loads applied to the particle shell. The Young's modulus of the shells moderately increases after annealing at temperatures above 500 °C. Temperatures over 850 °C result in a much stronger increase and the Young's modulus is close to that of fused silica after annealing at 1100 °C. NMR analysis revealed that in untreated microcapsules synthesized by seeded growth using the Stöber method only 55% of the silicon atoms form siloxane bonds with four neighbors, whereas the remaining ones only form three or less siloxane bonds each and, thus, a large number of ethoxy and silanol groups still exist. During annealing at 500 °C, these are successively transformed into siloxane bonds through condensation reactions. This process correlates with only a moderate increase in Young's modulus. The strong increase at temperatures above 850 °C was associated with a densification which was associated by a decrease in capsule size and shell thickness while the shells remained homogenous and of spherical shape. The main strengthening of the shells is thus mainly due to compaction by sintering at length scales significantly larger than that of local siloxane bonds. PMID:20963236

  4. Re-Evaluation of the 1921 Peak Discharge at Skagit River near Concrete, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The peak discharge record at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging station at Skagit River near Concrete, Washington, is a key record that has come under intense scrutiny by the scientific and lay person communities in the last 4 years. A peak discharge of 240,000 cubic feet per second for the flood on December 13, 1921, was determined in 1923 by USGS hydrologist James Stewart by means of a slope-area measurement. USGS then determined the peak discharges of three other large floods on the Skagit River (1897, 1909, and 1917) by extending the stage-discharge rating through the 1921 flood measurement. The 1921 estimate of peak discharge was recalculated by Flynn and Benson of the USGS after a channel roughness verification was completed based on the 1949 flood on the Skagit River. The 1949 recalculation indicated that the peak discharge probably was 6.2 percent lower than Stewart's original estimate but the USGS did not officially change the peak discharge from Stewart's estimate because it was not more than a 10-percent change (which is the USGS guideline for revising peak flows) and the estimate already had error bands of 15 percent. All these flood peaks are now being used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to determine the 100-year flood discharge for the Skagit River Flood Study so any method to confirm or improve the 1921 peak discharge estimate is warranted. During the last 4 years, two floods have occurred on the Skagit River (2003, 2006) that has enabled the USGS to collect additional data, do further analysis, and yet again re-evaluate the 1921 peak discharge estimate. Since 1949, an island/bar in the study reach has reforested itself. This has complicated the flow hydraulics and made the most recent recalculation of the 1921 flood based on channel roughness verification that used 2003 and 2006 flood data less reliable. However, this recent recalculation did indicate that the original peak-discharge calculation by Stewart may be high, and it added to a

  5. Is the Gop rift oceanic? A reevaluation of the Seychelles-India conjugate margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Huixin; Werner, Philippe; Geoffroy, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies reevaluated the timing and evolution of the breakup process between the Seychelles continental ridge and India, and the relationship between this evolution and mantle melting associated with the Deccan Igneous Province1,2,3. Those studies, mainly based on gravity and seismic refraction surveys, point that the oceanic domain located between the Seychelles and the Laxmi Ridge (here designed as the Carlsberg Basin) is the youngest oceanic domain between India and the Seychelles. To the East of the Laxmi Ridge, the aborted Gop Rift is considered as an older highly magmatic extensional continental system with magmatism, breakup and oceanic spreading being coeval with or even predating the emplacement of the major pulse of the Deccan trapps. This interpretation on the oceanic nature of the Gop Rift conflicts with other extensive surveys based on magnetic and seismic reflection data4 which suggest that the Gop Rift is an extended syn-magmatic continental domain. In our work based (a) on the existing data, (b) on new deep-seismic reflection surveys (already published by Misra5) down to the Moho and underlying mantle and (c) on new concepts on the geometry of volcanic passive margins, we propose a distinct interpretation of the Seychelles-India system. As proposed by former authors6,7, the Indian margin suffered some continental stretching and thinning before the onset of the Deccan traps during the Mesozoic. Thus continental crust thickness cannot be used easily as a proxy of syn-magmatic stretching-thinning processes or even to infer the presence or not of oceanic-type crust based, solely, on crustal thickness. However, some remarkable features appear on some of the deep penetration seismic lines we studied. We illustrate that the whole Seychelles/India system, before the opening of the present-day "Carlsberg Basin" may simply be regarded as a pair of sub-symmetric conjugate volcanic passive margins (VPMs) with inner and outer SDR wedges dipping towards the

  6. Evaluation of Respirable Crystalline Silica in High School Ceramics Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Fechser, Matthew; Alaves, Victor; Larson, Rodney; Sleeth, Darrah

    2014-01-01

    Air concentrations of respirable crystalline silica were measured in eleven (11) high school ceramics classrooms located in Salt Lake County, UT, USA. Respirable dust was collected on PVC filters using precision flow pumps and cyclone samplers (n = 44). Filters were subsequently analyzed for respirable dust and percent crystalline silica content. The geometric mean of the silica concentrations was 0.009 mg/m3 near the teacher’s work station and 0.008 mg/m3 near the kilns. The number of students in the classroom was correlated to the silica concentration in the ceramics classroom, but no correlation was found between the silica concentrations and either the size of the classroom or the age of the building. Results from this study indicate that ceramics teachers may be at an increased risk of exposure to crystalline silica based on the ACGIH TLV of 0.025 mg/m3, with an exceedance of 21%. PMID:24464235

  7. Synthesis and surface functionalization of silica nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Alexander; Mendez, Natalie; Trogler, William C.; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    There are a wide variety of silica nanoformulations being investigated for biomedical applications. Silica nanoparticles can be produced using a wide variety of synthetic techniques with precise control over their physical and chemical characteristics. Inorganic nanoformulations are often criticized or neglected for their poor tolerance; however, extensive studies into silica nanoparticle biodistributions and toxicology have shown that silica nanoparticles may be well tolerated, and in some case are excreted or are biodegradable. Robust synthetic techniques have allowed silica nanoparticles to be developed for applications such as biomedical imaging contrast agents, ablative therapy sensitizers, and drug delivery vehicles. This review explores the synthetic techniques used to create and modify an assortment of silica nanoformulations, as well as several of the diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:25364083

  8. Silica-based nanoprobes for biomedical imaging and theranostic applications†

    PubMed Central

    Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Huxford-Phillips, Rachel C.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based contrast agents are attracting a great deal of attention for various biomedical imaging and theranostic applications. Compared to conventional contrast agents, nanoparticles possess several potential advantages to improve in vivo detection and to enhance targeting efficiency. Silica-based nanoprobes can be engineered to achieve longer blood circulation times, specific clearance pathways, and multivalent binding. In this tutorial review, we summarize the latest progress on designing silica-based nanoprobes for imaging and theranostic applications. The synthesis of both solid silica and mesoporous silica nanoparticles is described, along with different approaches used for surface functionalization. Special emphasis is placed on the application of silica-based nanoprobes in optical, magnetic resonance, and multimodal imaging. The latest breakthroughs in the applications of silica nanoparticles as theranostic agents are also highlighted. PMID:22234515

  9. Sonochemical synthesis of silica particles and their size control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Bonghwan

    2016-09-01

    Using an ultrasound-assisted sol-gel method, we successfully synthesized very uniformly shaped, monodisperse, and size-controlled spherical silica particles from a mixture of ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate in the presence of ammonia as catalyst, at room temperature. The diameters of the silica particles were distributed in the range from 40 to 400 nm; their morphology was well characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The silica particle size could be adjusted by choosing suitable concentrations of ammonium hydroxide and water, which in turn determined the nucleation and growth rates of the particles during the reaction. This sonochemical-based silica synthesis offers an alternative way to produce spherical silica particles in a relatively short reaction time. Thus, we suggest that this simple, low-cost, and efficient method of preparing uniform silica particles of various sizes will have practical and wide-ranging industrial applicability.

  10. Synthesis and surface functionalization of silica nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, Alexander; Mendez, Natalie; Trogler, William C.; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2014-09-01

    There are a wide variety of silica nanoformulations being investigated for biomedical applications. Silica nanoparticles can be produced using a wide variety of synthetic techniques with precise control over their physical and chemical characteristics. Inorganic nanoformulations are often criticized or neglected for their poor tolerance; however, extensive studies into silica nanoparticle biodistributions and toxicology have shown that silica nanoparticles may be well tolerated, and in some case are excreted or are biodegradable. Robust synthetic techniques have allowed silica nanoparticles to be developed for applications such as biomedical imaging contrast agents, ablative therapy sensitizers, and drug delivery vehicles. This review explores the synthetic techniques used to create and modify an assortment of silica nanoformulations, as well as several of the diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  11. Water-Silica Force Field for Simulating Nanodevices

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Schulten, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous silica is an inorganic material that is central for many nanotechnology appplications, such as nanoelectronics, microfluidics, and nanopore technology. In order to use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the behavior of biomolecules with silica, we developed a force field for amorphous silica surfaces based on their macroscopic wetting properties that is compatible with the CHARMM force field and TIP3P water model. The contact angle of a water droplet with silica served as a criterion to tune the intermolecular interactions. The resulting force field was used to study the permeation of water through silica nanopores, illustrating the influence of the surface topography and the intermolecular parameters on permeation kinetics. We find that minute modeling of the amorphous surface is critical for MD studies, since the particular arrangement of surface atoms controls sensitively electrostatic interactions between silica and water. PMID:17064100

  12. Protein adsorption enhanced radio-frequency heating of silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wosik, Jarek; Pande, Rohit; Xie, Leiming; Ketharnath, Dhivya; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Godin, Biana

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of specific-absorption-rate (SAR) of silica 30, 50, and 100 nm nanoparticles (NP) suspended in water were carried out at 30 MHz in 7 kV/m radio-frequency (rf) electric field. Size dependent, NP-suspension interface related heating of silica NP was observed. To investigate a possible mechanism of heating, bovine serum albumin was adsorbed on the surface of silica NPs in suspension. It resulted in significant enhancement of SAR when compared to bare silica NPs. A calorimetric and rf loss model was used to calculate effective conductivity of silica NP with/without adsorbed albumin as a function of silica size and albumin concentration. PMID:23964135

  13. Evaluation of respirable crystalline silica in high school ceramics classrooms.

    PubMed

    Fechser, Matthew; Alaves, Victor; Larson, Rodney; Sleeth, Darrah

    2014-02-01

    Air concentrations of respirable crystalline silica were measured in eleven (11) high school ceramics classrooms located in Salt Lake County, UT, USA. Respirable dust was collected on PVC filters using precision flow pumps and cyclone samplers (n = 44). Filters were subsequently analyzed for respirable dust and percent crystalline silica content. The geometric mean of the silica concentrations was 0.009 mg/m3 near the teacher's work station and 0.008 mg/m3 near the kilns. The number of students in the classroom was correlated to the silica concentration in the ceramics classroom, but no correlation was found between the silica concentrations and either the size of the classroom or the age of the building. Results from this study indicate that ceramics teachers may be at an increased risk of exposure to crystalline silica based on the ACGIH TLV of 0.025 mg/m3, with an excess of 21%. PMID:24464235

  14. [Amorphous silica. Types, health effects of exposure, NDS].

    PubMed

    Woźniak, H; Wiecek, E

    1995-01-01

    Maximum allowable concentration (MAC) values for amorphous silica dust have not been identified in the Polish legal regulations up-to-date. In this work the authors review values of allowable (recommended) amorphous silica dust concentrations in other countries. Data on other types of amorphous silica (natural and synthetic) used in industry as well as data on health effects of exposure to these types of dust are presented. The work encompasses 42 entries in the references and one Table which includes the following proposed MAC values: Non-calcinate diatomaceous earth (diatomite) and synthetic silica: Total dust--10 mg/m3 Respirable dust--2 mg/m3 Calcinate diatomaceous earth (diatomite) and fused silica (vitreous silica): Total dust--2 mg/m3 Respirable dust--1 mg/m3. PMID:7637638

  15. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1996-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  16. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

    1996-01-02

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

  17. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1995-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  18. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1994-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  19. Characterization of sulfonated silica nanocomposite electrolyte membranes for fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deuk-Ju; Nam, Sang-Yong

    2014-12-01

    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) and sulfonated silica (silica-SO3H) prepared via sol-gel reaction are used as an organic polymer matrix and inorganic nanoparticles. The contents of the silica-SO3H particles in the composite membranes are controlled at 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 wt.% in order to evaluate the appropriate content for high proton conductivity. Randomly dispersed silica particles are obtained from all composite membranes as a result of the hydrophilic domains in the polymer and silica-SO3H. In this study, the optimum silica-SO3H content for high proton conductivity is 3 wt.% in fully hydrated conditions and 0.5 wt.% in low humidity conditions. PMID:25970990

  20. Direct formation of S-nitroso silica nanoparticles from a single silica source.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hung-Chang; Chiu, Shih-Jiuan; Liu, Ying-Ling; Hu, Teh-Min

    2014-01-28

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous molecule in the body. Because of its multiple pathophysiologic roles, the potential for treating various diseases by the exogenous administration of NO has been under intensive investigation. However, the unstable, radical nature of NO poses a major challenge to the effective delivery of NO. Previously, silica nanoparticles synthesized by the traditional method have been developed into NO-carrying systems. In the present study, for the first time NO-carrying silica nanoparticles were prepared from a single silica precursor using a simple nanoprecipitation method. (3-Mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) was used as the sole silane source, which was subjected to acid-catalyzed S-nitrosation and condensation reactions in a one-pot organic phase. S-Nitroso silica nanoparticles (SNO-SiNPs) were then produced by injecting a smaller quantity of the organic phase into a larger amount of water without surfactants. Various preparation parameters were tested to obtain optimized conditions. Moreover, a phase diagram demonstrating the ouzo effect was constructed. The prepared SNO-SiNPs were spherical particles with a tunable size in the range of 100-400 nm. The nanoparticles in aqueous dispersions exhibited high colloid stability, possibly resulting from highly negatively charged surfaces. The result of solid-state (29)Si NMR shows the predominance of T(2) and T(3) silicon structures, suggesting that nanoparticles were formed from polycondensed silica species. In conclusion, NO-loaded silica nanoparticles have been directly prepared from a single silane precursor using a surfactant-free, low-energy, one-step nanoprecipitation approach. The method precludes the need for the initial formation of bare particles and subsequent functionalization steps. PMID:24410024

  1. Reaction of zirconia with silica at the stoichiometry of zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Trappen, K.M.; Eppler, R.A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1989-06-01

    This paper reports on the reaction of zirconia combined with silica and halide mineralizers and then fired in a nitrogen atmosphere. X-ray analysis showed zircon was formed, demonstrating that an oxygen atmosphere is not necessary for the formation of zircon. The reaction mechanism is the same as that forming zircon in air, involving transport of the silica as a volatile halide, followed by diffusion of silica and oxygen across the product layer to a reaction site on the zirconia.

  2. Nanopatterned protein microrings from a diatom that direct silica morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Scheffel, André; Poulsen, Nicole; Shian, Samuel; Kröger, Nils

    2011-02-22

    Diatoms are eukaryotic microalgae that produce species-specifically structured cell walls made of SiO(2) (silica). Formation of the intricate silica structures of diatoms is regarded as a paradigm for biomolecule-controlled self-assembly of three-dimensional, nano- to microscale-patterned inorganic materials. Silica formation involves long-chain polyamines and phosphoproteins (silaffins and silacidins), which are readily soluble in water, and spontaneously form dynamic supramolecular assemblies that accelerate silica deposition and influence silica morphogenesis in vitro. However, synthesis of diatom-like silica structure in vitro has not yet been accomplished, indicating that additional components are required. Here we describe the discovery and intracellular location of six novel proteins (cingulins) that are integral components of a silica-forming organic matrix (microrings) in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. The cingulin-containing microrings are specifically associated with girdle bands, which constitute a substantial part of diatom biosilica. Remarkably, the microrings exhibit protein-based nanopatterns that closely resemble characteristic features of the girdle band silica nanopatterns. Upon the addition of silicic acid the microrings become rapidly mineralized in vitro generating nanopatterned silica replicas of the microring structures. A silica-forming organic matrix with characteristic nanopatterns was also discovered in the diatom Coscinodiscus wailesii, which suggests that preassembled protein-based templates might be general components of the cellular machinery for silica morphogenesis in diatoms. These data provide fundamentally new insight into the molecular mechanisms of biological silica morphogenesis, and may lead to the development of self-assembled 3D mineral forming protein scaffolds with designed nanopatterns for a host of applications in nanotechnology. PMID:21300899

  3. Structural changes in precipitated silica induced by external forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Gerald Johannes; Göritz, Dietmar

    2010-04-01

    The morphology of pure precipitated silica, silica filled in polydimethylsiloxane rubber, and silica filled in styrene butadiene rubber was studied by means of small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The silica at a length scale of a few nanometers consists of primary particles, which form aggregates, and clusters with aggregates as basic units. It is evidenced that the aggregate branching, represented by the mass fractal dimension, and the aggregate diameter are different if pure silica and silica in rubber are compared. Contrary, the size of the primary particles and their surface are not influenced. It is demonstrated that the change in the aggregate morphology is due to the external mechanical forces appearing during the mixing process. This is achieved by model experiments using a pistil and a mortar and a composite with different silica fractions. By that means, a systematic change in the morphology with grinding time is observed. Then, the experiments on the composite demonstrate that the major contributions to the mass fractal dimensions are due to the external mechanical forces. In order to test reproducibility and universal validity in the case of precipitated silicas, independent experiments on one silica and further silicas are performed. Several important conclusions are obtained from the study. First, it is shown that a comparison of different pure silica samples without knowing their history may be difficult or questionable. Second, it becomes evident that it is not sufficient to provide only a description of the materials, rather than the details of the sample treatment have to be reported. Therefore, solely the characterization of the morphology of the pure silica is not sufficient to be compared to the mechanical properties of the composites.

  4. Improvements in geothermal electric power and silica production

    DOEpatents

    Hill, J.H.; Fulk, M.M.

    Electricity is generated from hot geothermal solution by extracting heat therefrom, mineral solids which form in a so cooled geothermal solution are separated to recover minerals and facilitate reinjection of the solution into the ground. The separated solids are treated to recover silica by addition of an acid (amorphous silica precipitates) or a base (other minerals precipitate and soulble silicates are formed which are subsequently precipitated by acid neutralization). If desired, after silica is separated, other minerals can be separated and recovered.

  5. Intermolecular interactions in the bilirubin-cholate-silica system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasova, N. N.; Golovkova, L. P.; Severinovskaya, O. V.

    2007-06-01

    Bilirubin-cholate interactions in aqueous solutions were studied. The constants of binding of bilirubin with taurocholate dimers and taurodeoxycholate trimers were calculated. The adsorption of bilirubin and cholates on the surface of highly dispersed silica was studied. It was shown that taurine-conjugated cholates are poorly adsorbed from micellar solutions on the silica surface, the specific amount of bilirubin adsorbed decreases with increasing concentration of cholates in the solution, the affinity of free bilirubin for the silica surface is independent of the nature of the cholic acid, and that the affinity of cholate-bilirubin complexes for the silica surface is lower than the affinity of free bilirubin.

  6. Electrical Relaxation in ULTEM® and ULTEM® Containing Mesoporous Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turo, Andrew; Edmondson, Charles E.; Lomax, Joseph F.; Bendler, John T.; Fontanella, John J.; Wintersgill, Mary C.

    2008-08-01

    Mesoporous silica has been added to Ultem® 1000 polyetherimide using solution casting. The mesoporous silica that was added was either uncoated or coated with polystyrene. Audio frequency dielectric relaxation studies were then carried out over the temperature range 5.5 to 550 K. Several interesting results were obtained. First, the uncoated mesoporous silica caused essentially no change in the relaxation spectrum of pure Ultem®. The polystyrene coated mesoporous silica caused rather large changes. The most striking example is the introduction of a new relaxation. This relaxation occurs at about 150 K and 1000 Hz as showing in fig. 1 via the open circles.

  7. Dissolution and analysis of amorphous silica in marine sediments.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggimann, D.W.; Manheim, F. T.; Betzer, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    The analytical estimation of amorphous silica in selected Atlantic and Antarctic Ocean sediments, the U.S.G.S. standard marine mud (MAG-1), A.A.P.G. clays, and samples from cultures of a marine diatom, Hemidiscus, has been examined. Our values for amorphous silica-rich circum-Antarctic sediments are equal to or greater than literature values, whereas our values for a set of amorphous silica-poor sediments from a transect of the N. Atlantic at 11oN, after appropriate correction for silica released from clays, are significantly lower than previous estimates from the same region. -from Authors

  8. Silica scintillating materials prepared by sol-gel methods

    SciTech Connect

    Werst, D.W.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Cromack, K.R.; Lin, Y.; Tartakovsky, E.A.; Trifunac, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    Silica was investigated as a rad-hard alternative to organic polymer hosts for organic scintillators. Silica sol-gels were prepared by hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in alcohol solutions. organic dyes were incorporated into the gels by dissolving in methanol at the sol stage of gel formation. The silica sol-gel matrix is very rad-hard. The radiation stability of silica scintillators prepared by this method is dye-limited. Transient radioluminescence was measured following excitation with 30 ps pulses of 20 MeV electrons.

  9. Four hundred million years of silica biomineralization in land plants

    PubMed Central

    Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Wilson, Jonathan Paul; McGlynn, Shawn E.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2015-01-01

    Biomineralization plays a fundamental role in the global silicon cycle. Grasses are known to mobilize significant quantities of Si in the form of silica biominerals and dominate the terrestrial realm today, but they have relatively recent origins and only rose to taxonomic and ecological prominence within the Cenozoic Era. This raises questions regarding when and how the biological silica cycle evolved. To address these questions, we examined silica abundances of extant members of early-diverging land plant clades, which show that silica biomineralization is widespread across terrestrial plant linages. Particularly high silica abundances are observed in lycophytes and early-diverging ferns. However, silica biomineralization is rare within later-evolving gymnosperms, implying a complex evolutionary history within the seed plants. Electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy show that the most common silica-mineralized tissues include the vascular system, epidermal cells, and stomata, which is consistent with the hypothesis that biomineralization in plants is frequently coupled to transpiration. Furthermore, sequence, phylogenetic, and structural analysis of nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins from diverse plant genomes points to a plastic and ancient capacity for silica accumulation within terrestrial plants. The integration of these two comparative biology approaches demonstrates that silica biomineralization has been an important process for land plants over the course of their >400 My evolutionary history. PMID:25825729

  10. Measurement and modelization of silica opal optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avoine, Amaury; Hong, Phan Ngoc; Frederich, Hugo; Aregahegn, Kifle; Bénalloul, Paul; Coolen, Laurent; Schwob, Catherine; Thu Nga, Pham; Gallas, Bruno; Maître, Agnès

    2014-03-01

    We present the synthesis process and optical characterization of artificial silica opals. The specular reflection spectra are analyzed and compared to band structure calculations and finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The silica optical index is a key parameter to correctly describe an opal and is usually not known and treated as a free parameter. Here we propose a method to infer the silica index, as well as the silica spheres diameter, from the reflection spectra and we validate it by comparison with two independent infrared methods for the index and, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements for the spheres diameter.

  11. Four hundred million years of silica biomineralization in land plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Wilson, Jonathan Paul; McGlynn, Shawn E.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2015-04-01

    Biomineralization plays a fundamental role in the global silicon cycle. Grasses are known to mobilize significant quantities of Si in the form of silica biominerals and dominate the terrestrial realm today, but they have relatively recent origins and only rose to taxonomic and ecological prominence within the Cenozoic Era. This raises questions regarding when and how the biological silica cycle evolved. To address these questions, we examined silica abundances of extant members of early-diverging land plant clades, which show that silica biomineralization is widespread across terrestrial plant linages. Particularly high silica abundances are observed in lycophytes and early-diverging ferns. However, silica biomineralization is rare within later-evolving gymnosperms, implying a complex evolutionary history within the seed plants. Electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy show that the most common silica-mineralized tissues include the vascular system, epidermal cells, and stomata, which is consistent with the hypothesis that biomineralization in plants is frequently coupled to transpiration. Furthermore, sequence, phylogenetic, and structural analysis of nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins from diverse plant genomes points to a plastic and ancient capacity for silica accumulation within terrestrial plants. The integration of these two comparative biology approaches demonstrates that silica biomineralization has been an important process for land plants over the course of their >400 My evolutionary history.

  12. Synthesis, structure, and mechanical properties of silica nanocomposite polyrotaxane gels

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Daisuke; Mayumi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Summary A significantly soft and tough nanocomposite gel was realized by a novel network formed using cyclodextrin-based polyrotaxanes. Covalent bond formation between the cyclic components of polyrotaxanes and the surface of silica nanoparticles (15 nm diameter) resulted in an infinite network structure without direct bonds between the main chain polymer and the silica. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed that the homogeneous distribution of silica nanoparticles in solution was maintained in the gel state. Such homogeneous nanocomposite gels were obtained with at least 30 wt % silica content, and the Young’s modulus increased with silica content. Gelation did not occur without silica. This suggests that the silica nanoparticles behave as cross-linkers. Viscoelastic measurements of the nanocomposite gels showed no stress relaxation regardless of the silica content for <20% compression strain, indicating an infinite stable network without physical cross-links that have finite lifetime. On the other hand, the infinite network exhibited an abnormally low Young’s modulus, ~1 kPa, which is not explainable by traditional rubber theory. In addition, the composite gels were tough enough to completely maintain the network structure under 80% compression strain. These toughness and softness properties are attributable to both the characteristic sliding of polymer chains through the immobilized cyclodextrins on the silica nanoparticle and the entropic contribution of the cyclic components to the elasticity of the gels. PMID:26664642

  13. Coated Fused Silica Fibers for Enhanced Sensitivity Torsion Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Horowitz, Jordan; Camp, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the fundamental thermal noise limit of a torsion pendulum using a fused silica fiber, we systematically measured and modeled the mechanical losses of thin fused silica fibers coated by electrically conductive thin metal films. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve a thermal noise limit for coated silica lower by a factor between 3 and 9, depending on the silica diameter, compared to the best tungsten fibers available. This will allow a corresponding increase in sensitivity of torsion pendula used for weak force measurements, including the gravitational constant measurement and ground-based force noise testing for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission.

  14. Developing a Process for Commercial Silica Production from Geothermal Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Martin, S; Viani, B; Bruton, C

    2001-04-11

    Useful mineral by-products can be produced from geothermal brines. Although silica has many commercial uses, problems remain in producing a marketable product. We are conducting laboratory and modeling studies aimed at optimizing for rubber additive use, the properties of silica precipitates from Salton Sea and Coso-like geothermal fluids, Our goal is to develop a robust technique for producing silicas that have desirable physical and chemical properties for commercial use, while developing a generic understanding of silica precipitation that will allow extraction to be extended to additional fluid types, and to be easily modified to produce new types of marketable silica. Our experiments start with an acidified geothermal fluid similar to those treated by pH modification technology. Silica precipitation is induced by adding base and/or adding Mg or Ca salts to affect the nature of the precipitate. For the analog Salton Sea fluids, adding base alone caused silica to precipitate fairly rapidly. To date, we have characterized precipitates from experiments in which the final pH varied from 4 to 8, where NaOH and Na{sub 2}C0{sub 3} were added as bases, and CaCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} were added as salts. SEM photos of the silica precipitates from the Salton Sea and Cos0 fluids show that the silica particles are clusters of smaller silica particles down to the resolution of the SEM (about 80-100 nm in diameter). The particle sizes and surface areas of silicas from the Salton Sea and Coso analog brines are similar to the properties of the Degussa silica commonly used as a rubber additive. An evaluation of the strength of the silica-organic bond as tested by dispersion in oil (polybutadiene) was inconclusive. Neither the Degussa materials nor our laboratory precipitates dispersed readily in nor dispersed down to the fundamental particle size. Preliminary NMR data indicates that the Degussa silica has a smaller degree of silica polymerization (a slightly smaller average

  15. Four hundred million years of silica biomineralization in land plants.

    PubMed

    Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Wilson, Jonathan Paul; McGlynn, Shawn E; Fischer, Woodward W

    2015-04-28

    Biomineralization plays a fundamental role in the global silicon cycle. Grasses are known to mobilize significant quantities of Si in the form of silica biominerals and dominate the terrestrial realm today, but they have relatively recent origins and only rose to taxonomic and ecological prominence within the Cenozoic Era. This raises questions regarding when and how the biological silica cycle evolved. To address these questions, we examined silica abundances of extant members of early-diverging land plant clades, which show that silica biomineralization is widespread across terrestrial plant linages. Particularly high silica abundances are observed in lycophytes and early-diverging ferns. However, silica biomineralization is rare within later-evolving gymnosperms, implying a complex evolutionary history within the seed plants. Electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy show that the most common silica-mineralized tissues include the vascular system, epidermal cells, and stomata, which is consistent with the hypothesis that biomineralization in plants is frequently coupled to transpiration. Furthermore, sequence, phylogenetic, and structural analysis of nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins from diverse plant genomes points to a plastic and ancient capacity for silica accumulation within terrestrial plants. The integration of these two comparative biology approaches demonstrates that silica biomineralization has been an important process for land plants over the course of their >400 My evolutionary history. PMID:25825729

  16. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Parks, C G; Conrad, K; Cooper, G S

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to silica dust has been examined as a possible risk factor with respect to several systemic autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and some of the small vessel vasculitidies with renal involvement (e.g., Wegener granulomatosis). Crystalline silica, or quartz, is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. High-level exposure to respirable silica dust can cause chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the lung and other organs. Studies of specific occupational groups with high-level silica exposure (e.g., miners) have shown increased rates of autoimmune diseases compared to the expected rates in the general population. However, some clinic- and population-based studies have not demonstrated an association between silica exposure and risk of autoimmune diseases. This lack of effect may be due to the limited statistical power of these studies to examine this association or because the lower- or moderate-level exposures that may be more common in the general population were not considered. Experimental studies demonstrate that silica can act as an adjuvant to nonspecifically enhance the immune response. This is one mechanism by which silica might be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. Given that several different autoimmune diseases may be associated with silica dust exposure, silica dust may act to promote or accelerate disease development, requiring some other factor to break immune tolerance or initiate autoimmunity. The specific manifestation of this effect may depend on underlying differences in genetic susceptibility or other environmental exposures. PMID:10970168

  17. Physicochemical determinants in the cellular responses to nanostructured amorphous silicas.

    PubMed

    Gazzano, Elena; Ghiazza, Mara; Polimeni, Manuela; Bolis, Vera; Fenoglio, Ivana; Attanasio, Angelo; Mazzucco, Gianna; Fubini, Bice; Ghigo, Dario

    2012-07-01

    Amorphous silicas, opposite to crystalline polymorphs, have been regarded so far as nonpathogenic, but few studies have addressed the toxicity of the wide array of amorphous silica forms. With the advent of nanotoxicology, there has been a rising concern about the safety of silica nanoparticles to be used in nanomedicine. Here, we report a study on the toxicity of amorphous nanostructured silicas obtained with two different preparation procedures (pyrolysis vs. precipitation), the pyrogenic in two very different particle sizes, in order to assess the role of size and origin on surface properties and on the cell damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response elicited in murine alveolar macrophages. A quartz dust was employed as positive control and monodispersed silica spheres as negative control. Pyrogenic silicas were remarkably more active than the precipitated one as to cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide synthesis, and production of tumor necrosis factor-α, when compared both per mass and per unit surface. Between the two pyrogenic silicas, the larger one was the more active. Silanols density is the major difference in surface composition among the three silicas, being much larger than the precipitated one as indicated by joint calorimetric and infrared spectroscopy analysis. We assume here that full hydroxylation of a silica surface, with consequent stable coverage by water molecules, reduces/inhibits toxic behavior. The preparation route appears thus determinant in yielding potentially toxic materials, although the smallest size does not always correspond to an increased toxicity. PMID:22491428

  18. Nanodiamond-Decorated Silica Spheres as a Chromatographic Material.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zuqin; Vinci, John C; Colón, Luis A

    2016-02-17

    Nanodiamond (ND) particles (∼5 nm), obtained from detonation soot, were oxidized and/or thermally hydrogenated. Both, the non-hydrogenated and hydrogenated ND particles were successfully coupled to the surface of micrometer-size organo-silica particles. A thin layer of nanodiamonds (NDs) decorating the surface of the organo-silica particles was visible on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) were used to characterize the NDs prior to coupling and to confirm attachment onto the organo-silica particles. Both, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and a chemical initiator were proved to be effective radical initiators for the ND-silica coupling reaction, although for scale-up purposes the chemical initiation was more advantageous to produce the ND-silica composite. Commercially available nanodiamond primary particles were also coupled to the surface of silica particles. The ND-containing silica particles were packed into chromatographic columns to study their initial feasibility as adsorbent material for liquid chromatography. The organo-silica particles decorated with hydrogenated NDs were shown to possess reversed phase type (i.e., hydrophobic) behavior toward the probe compounds, whereas silica particles decorated with the non-hydrogenated NDs showed polar (i.e., hydrophilic) interactions, both under liquid chromatographic conditions. PMID:26790050

  19. Reliable methods for silica coating of Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    The inherent properties of silica, such as optical transparency, high biocompatibility, chemical and colloidal stability, controllable porosity, and easy surface modification, provide silica materials with a tremendous potential in biomedicine. Therefore, the coating of Au nanoparticles with silica largely contributes to enhance the important applications of metal nanoparticles in biomedicine. We describe in this chapter a number of reliable strategies that have been reported for silica coating of different types of Au nanoparticles. All descriptions are based on tested protocols and are expected to provide a reference for scientists with an interest in this field. PMID:23918330

  20. Synthesis, structure, and mechanical properties of silica nanocomposite polyrotaxane gels.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuaki; Matsui, Daisuke; Mayumi, Koichi; Ito, Kohzo

    2015-01-01

    A significantly soft and tough nanocomposite gel was realized by a novel network formed using cyclodextrin-based polyrotaxanes. Covalent bond formation between the cyclic components of polyrotaxanes and the surface of silica nanoparticles (15 nm diameter) resulted in an infinite network structure without direct bonds between the main chain polymer and the silica. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed that the homogeneous distribution of silica nanoparticles in solution was maintained in the gel state. Such homogeneous nanocomposite gels were obtained with at least 30 wt % silica content, and the Young's modulus increased with silica content. Gelation did not occur without silica. This suggests that the silica nanoparticles behave as cross-linkers. Viscoelastic measurements of the nanocomposite gels showed no stress relaxation regardless of the silica content for <20% compression strain, indicating an infinite stable network without physical cross-links that have finite lifetime. On the other hand, the infinite network exhibited an abnormally low Young's modulus, ~1 kPa, which is not explainable by traditional rubber theory. In addition, the composite gels were tough enough to completely maintain the network structure under 80% compression strain. These toughness and softness properties are attributable to both the characteristic sliding of polymer chains through the immobilized cyclodextrins on the silica nanoparticle and the entropic contribution of the cyclic components to the elasticity of the gels. PMID:26664642

  1. Effect of Silica Ratio on the Corrosion Behavior of Nano-silica Potassium Silicate Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahri, H.; Danaee, I.; Rashed, G. R.; Zaarei, D.

    2015-02-01

    Nano-silica modified potassium silicate conversion coating was deposited in different nano-silica/potassium silicate ratios on the surface of 2024 aluminum alloy. The corrosion behavior of coatings was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, current transient, potentiodynamic polarization, and surface techniques. The ratio of nano-silica/potassium silicate was optimized in order to obtain higher corrosion protection. The experimental results indicated that with increasing nano-silica/potassium silicate ratio, the corrosion resistance of aluminum increases. Furthermore, the pitting corrosion probability of potassium silicate conversion coating decreased with increasing silica ratio. This can be related to the size of nano-silica particles and the ability to fill the pores in potassium silicate coating and reinforce the created siloxane bridges.

  2. Influence of amorphous silica on the hydration in ultra-high performance concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Oertel, Tina; Helbig, Uta; Hutter, Frank; Kletti, Holger; Sextl, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Amorphous silica particles (silica) are used in ultra-high performance concretes to densify the microstructure and accelerate the clinker hydration. It is still unclear whether silica predominantly increases the surface for the nucleation of C–S–H phases or dissolves and reacts pozzolanically. Furthermore, varying types of silica may have different and time dependent effects on the clinker hydration. The effects of different silica types were compared in this study by calorimetric analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ X-ray diffraction and compressive strength measurements. The silica component was silica fume, pyrogenic silica or silica synthesized by a wet-chemical route (Stoeber particles). Water-to-cement ratios were 0.23. Differences are observed between the silica for short reaction times (up to 3 days). Results indicate that silica fume and pyrogenic silica accelerate alite hydration by increasing the surface for nucleation of C–S–H phases whereas Stoeber particles show no accelerating effect.

  3. Carbothermal transformation of a graphitic carbon nanofiber/silica aerogel composite to a SiC/silica nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weijie; Steigerwalt, Eve S; Moore, Joshua T; Sullivan, Lisa M; Collins, W Eugene; Lukehart, C M

    2004-09-01

    Carbon nanofiber/silica aerogel composites are prepared by sol-gel processing of surface-enhanced herringbone graphitic carbon nanofibers (GCNF) and Si(OMe)4, followed by supercritical CO2 drying. Heating the resulting GCNF/silica aerogel composites to 1650 degrees C under a partial pressure of Ar gas initiates carbothermal reaction between the silica aerogel matrix and the carbon nanofiber component to form SiC/silica nanocomposites. The SiC phase is present as nearly spherical nanoparticles, having an average diameter of ca. 8 nm. Formation of SiC is confirmed by powder XRD and by Raman spectroscopy. PMID:15570963

  4. Synthesis of microforsterite using derived-amorphous-silica of silica sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurbaiti, Upik; Triwikantoro, Zainuri, Mochamad; Pratapa, Suminar

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of microforsterite (Mg2SiO4) has been successfully done by a simple method benefiting of the local silica sands from Tanah Laut, Indonesia. The starting material was amorphous silica powder which was processed using coprecipitation method from the sands. The silica powder was obtained from a series of stages of the purification process of the sands, namely magnetic separation, grinding and soaking with HCl. The microforsterite synthesis followed the reaction of stoichiometric mole ratio mixing of 1:2 of the amorphous silica and MgO powders with 3 wt% addion of PVA as a catalyst.The mixture was calcined at temperatures between 1150-1400°C with 4 hours holding time. XRD data showed that calcination at a temperature of 1150°C for 4 hours was optimum where the weight fraction of forsterite can reach as much as 93 wt% with MgO as the secondary phase and without MgSiO3. SEM photograph of the microforsterite showed tapered morphology with a relatively homogeneous distribution.

  5. Silica-replaced oolites, bedded shelf cherts and Paleozoic changes in the silica cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, David L.; Mumma, Stephanie A.

    2003-12-01

    Oolites that were replaced by early diagenetic silica and were not reworked from their original depositional setting can serve as a useful tool to evaluate a previously suggested retreat of biosiliceous facies from peritidal environments to deeper water settings in the Early Paleozoic. The silica-replaced oolites suggest that the retreat was largely over by the Middle Ordovician, which is consistent with emerging compilations of the spatial and temporal distribution Ordovician cherts. Whether the retreat was a function of declining concentration of dissolved silica in shallow marine waters or of radiation of faunas from nearshore into offshore settings or some combination of both is an issue that may be clarified with improved resolution of the timing of the retreat. A small Upper Carboniferous peak in silica-replaced oolite abundance coincides with a minor rebound in shelf chert accumulation and the common presence of coastal flint deposits in Upper Carboniferous cyclothems, suggesting that cherty facies returned to shallow water environments at this time.

  6. Quartz/fused silica chip carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research and development effort was to develop monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) packaging which will operate efficiently at millimeter-wave frequencies. The packages incorporated fused silica as the substrate material which was selected due to its favorable electrical properties and potential performance improvement over more conventional materials for Ka-band operation. The first step towards meeting this objective is to develop a package that meets standard mechanical and thermal requirements using fused silica and to be compatible with semiconductor devices operating up to at least 44 GHz. The second step is to modify the package design and add multilayer and multicavity capacity to allow for application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's) to control multiple phase shifters. The final step is to adapt the package design to a phased array module with integral radiating elements. The first task was a continuation of the SBIR Phase 1 work. Phase 1 identified fused silica as a viable substrate material by demonstrating various plating, machining, and adhesion properties. In Phase 2 Task 1, a package was designed and fabricated to validate these findings. Task 2 was to take the next step in packaging and fabricate a multilayer, multichip module (MCM). This package is the predecessor to the phased array module and demonstrates the ability to via fill, circuit print, laminate, and to form vertical interconnects. The final task was to build a phased array module. The radiating elements were to be incorporated into the package instead of connecting to it with wire or ribbon bonds.

  7. Biologically Inspired Flagella-Templated Silica Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Wonjin

    The desire and need for various types of nanostructures have been met with challenges of feasibility, reproducibility, and long fabrication time. To work towards improved bottom-up methods of nanofabrication, bacterial flagella are particularly attractive bio-templates for nanotubes due to their tubular structures and small inner and outer diameters. In this work, flagella isolated from Salmonella typhimurium are used as bio-templates to fabricate silica mineralized nanotubes. The process involves as well-controlled hydrolysis and condensation reaction with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), followed by the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). By controlling the concentration of TEOS and the reaction time, a simple and precise method is developed for creating silica-mineralized flagella nanotubes (SMFNs) with various thicknesses of the silica layer. In addition, the SMFNs are further modified to multifunctional nanotubes by coating metal nanoparticles (NPs) or metal oxide NPs such as gold, palladium, and iron oxide. The metallized SMFNs are achieved through reactions including reductive metallization or oxidative hydrolysis. The results from these studies provide evidence for the complete coating of SMFNs with uniform metal NP sizes and high surface area coverage. The metallized SMFNs are found to be electrically conductive along their network structures. The current-voltage characteristics show remarkably improved electrical conductivities depending on the types of metal NPs loading and SMFN networks concentration. The biologically inspired SMFNs with metal loading will allow have controlled electrical properties that can lead to the potential of creating unique and precise nanoelectronic materials. Lastly, the randomly entangled SMFNs are characterized to demonstrate their capabilities for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface applications.

  8. Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For Potential Cost Savings At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.

    2013-01-09

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form.

  9. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.W.; Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C.

    2013-07-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  10. Regulations and guidelines should be strengthened urgently for re-evaluation on post-marketing medicines in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng

    2013-07-01

    This paper reviewed the situation of regulations and guidelines on post-marketing medicines in the developed countries and in China. The developed countries have accumulated a lot of empirical principles and techniques on postmarketing surveillance (also named pharmacovigilance), therefore, their regulation systems are nearly perfect. In China, the regulations on post-marketing re-evaluation and relative technical guidelines do not cover the whole aspects, even lack in some important aspects, and long-term risk management mechanisms have not been established. So it is urgent to establish new regulations and improve the regulatory system in China based on the existing regulations and guidelines, by learning from the ideas of foreign advanced regulations, then fully integrating them with China's actual conditions, and cooperating with multidisciplinary researchers. PMID:23818198

  11. Uncertainty reevaluation in determining the volume of a silicon sphere by spherical harmonics in an Avogadro project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji-Tao; Wu, Xue-Jian; Li, Yan

    2011-09-01

    To determine the Avogadro constant with a target relative uncertainty of 2 × 10-8, the uncertainty component of the silicon sphere's volume introduced by the spherical harmonics method, which is usually used in determining the sphere's volume, is reevaluated. By means of representing the shape of the silicon sphere by an ellipsoid with Gaussian white noise in its diameters, the uncertainty of the current mapping methods based on the spherical harmonics theory can be estimated theoretically. It is evidenced that the uncertainty component attributed to the current mapping method is underestimated. To eliminate this effect as much as possible, the number of mapping points should be increased to more than before. Moreover, a new mapping method is proposed to accomplish the equal-area mapping with large number points on the silicon sphere.

  12. Functionalized mesoporous silica materials for molsidomine adsorption: Thermodynamic study

    SciTech Connect

    Alyoshina, Nonna A.; Parfenyuk, Elena V.

    2013-09-15

    A series of unmodified and organically modified mesoporous silica materials was prepared. The unmodified mesoporous silica was synthesized via sol–gel synthesis in the presence of D-glucose as pore-forming agent. The functionalized by phenyl, aminopropyl and mercaptopropyl groups silica materials were prepared via grafting. The fabricated adsorbent materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption and elemental analysis methods. Then their adsorption properties for mesoionic dug molsidomine were investigated at 290–313 K and physiological pH value. Thermodynamic parameters of molsidomine adsorption on the synthesized materials have been calculated. The obtained results showed that the adsorption process of molsidomine on the phenyl modified silica is the most quantitatively and energetically favorable. The unmodified and mercaptopropyl modified silica materials exhibit significantly higher adsorption capacities and energies for molsidomine than the aminopropyl modified sample. The effects are discussed from the viewpoint of nature of specific interactions responsible for the adsorption. - Graphical abstract: Comparative analysis of the thermodynamic characteristics of molsidomine adsorption showed that the adsorption process on mesoporous silica materials is controlled by chemical nature of surface functional groups. Molsidomine adsorption on the phenyl modified silica is the most quantitatively and energetically favorable. Taking into account ambiguous nature of mesoionic compounds, it was found that molsidomine is rather aromatic than dipolar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Unmodified and organically modified mesoporous silica materials were prepared. • Molsidomine adsorption on the silica materials was studied. • Phenyl modified silica shows the highest adsorption capacity and favorable energy. • Molsidomine exhibits the lowest affinity to aminopropyl modified silica.

  13. Relationship between amorphous silica and precious metal in quartz veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrichhausen, N.; Rowe, C. D.; Board, W. S.; Greig, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Super-saturation of silica is common in fault fluids, due to pressure changes associated with fracture, fault slip, or temperature gradients in hydrothermal systems. These mechanisms lead to precipitation of amorphous silica, which will recrystallize to quartz under typical geologic conditions. These conditions may also promote the saturation of precious metals, such as gold, and the precipitation of nanoparticles. Previous experiments show that charged nanoparticles of gold can attach to the surface of amorphous silica nanoparticles. Thus, gold and silica may be transported as a colloid influencing mineralization textures during amorphous silica recrystallization to quartz. This may enrich quartz vein hosted gold deposits, but the instability of hydrous silica during subsequent deformation means that the microstructural record of precipitation of gold is lost. We investigate a recent, shallow auriferous hydrothermal system at Dixie Valley, Nevada to reveal the nano- to micro-scale relationships between gold and silica in fresh veins. Fault slip surfaces at Dixie Valley exhibit layers of amorphous silica with partial recrystallization to quartz. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show amorphous silica can contain a few wt. % gold while areas recrystallized to quartz are barren. At the Jurassic Brucejack deposit in British Columbia, Canada we observe the cryptocrystalline quartz textures that may indicate recrystallization from amorphous silica within quartz-carbonate veins containing high grade gold. Comb quartz within syntaxial veins, vugs, and coating breccia clasts indicate structural dilation. Vein geometry is investigated to determine relative importance of fault slip in creating dilational sites. By comparing quartz-carbonate veins from the Dixie Valley to Brucejack, we can determine whether amorphous silica formed in different environments show similar potential to affect precious metal mineralization.

  14. Interaction of poly(ethylene oxide) with fumed silica.

    PubMed

    Voronin, E F; Gun'ko, V M; Guzenko, N V; Pakhlov, E M; Nosach, L V; Leboda, R; Skubiszewska-Zieba, J; Malysheva, M L; Borysenko, M V; Chuiko, A A

    2004-11-15

    Interaction of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO, 600 kDa) with fumed silica A-300 (SBET = 316 m2/g) was investigated under different conditions using adsorption, infrared (IR), thermal analysis (TG-DTA), AFM, and quantum chemical methods. The studied dried silica/PEO samples were also carbonized in a flow reactor at 773 K. The structural characteristics of fumed silica, PEO/silica, and pyrocarbon/fumed silica were investigated using nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77.4 K. PEO adsorption isotherm depicts a high affinity of PEO to the fumed silica surface in aqueous medium. PEO adsorbed in the amount of 50 mg per gram of silica (PEO monolayer corresponds to CPEO approximately 190 mg/g) can disturb approximately 70% of isolated surface silanols. However, at the monolayer coverage, only 20% of oxygen atoms of PEO molecules take part in the hydrogen bonding with the surface silanols. An increase in the PEO amount adsorbed on fumed silica leads to a diminution of the specific surface area and contributions of micro- (pore radius R < 1 nm) and mesopores (1 < R < 25 nm) to the pore volume but contribution of macropores (R > 25 nm) increases with CPEO. Quantum chemical calculations of a complex of a PEO fragment with a tripple bond SiOH group of a silica cluster in the gas phase and with consideration for the solvent (water) effect show a reduction of interaction energy in the aqueous medium. However, the complex remains strong enough to provide durability of the PEO adsorption complexes on fumed silica; i.e., PEO/fumed silica nanocomposites could be stable in both gaseous and liquid media. PMID:15464796

  15. The chemistry of silica and its potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Martin, K R

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the effects of silica on human health in contrast to prior research which focused solely on the toxic effects of inhaled crystalline silica. However, multiple forms of silica exist in nature and silicon, a component, is the second most prevalent element after oxygen. Silica has widespread industrial applications including use as a food additive, i.e., anti-caking agent, as a means to clarify beverages, control viscosity, as an anti-foaming agent, dough modifier, and as an excipient in drugs and vitamins. Chemically, silica is an oxide of silicon, viz., silicon dioxide, and is generally colorless to white and insoluble in water. When associated with metals or minerals the family of silicates is formed. There are several water soluble forms of silica referred collectively to as silicic acid (ortho, meta, di, and tri-silicates), which are present in surface and well water in the range of 1--100 mg/L. Orthosilicic acid is the form predominantly absorbed by humans and is found in numerous tissues including bone, tendons, aorta, liver and kidney. Compelling data suggest that silica is essential for health although no RDI has been established. However, deficiency induces deformities in skull and peripheral bones, poorly formed joints, reduced contents of cartilage, collagen, and disruption of mineral balance in the femur and vertebrae. Very little toxicity data exist regarding aqueous silica consumption due, in part, to the lack of anecdotal reports of toxicity and general presumption of safety. However, a few rodent studies have been conducted, which indicate a No Observed Adverse Effects Level (NOAEL) of 50,000 ppm (mg/L) for dietary silica. In conclusion, many forms of silica exist in nature and compelling data support myriad beneficial effects of silica in water. PMID:17435951

  16. Rapid changes in diatom silica surface charge density, silanol abundance, and oxygen isotope values elucidate silica maturation processes in biogenic silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenheft, W.; Dodd, J. P.; Sunderlin, L.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen isotope values of biogenic silica are increasingly used as proxies of paleoenvironmental conditions. Numerous studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the diatom silica and the temperature/oxygen isotope value of the formation water; however, some studies have indicated that early diagenesis of biogenic silica may alter the oxygen isotope values by several permil. Quantification of the maturation process has proven difficult since the mechanisms that drive post-mortem changes in the silica oxygen isotope values have not been well characterized. New silica maturation data from marine diatoms, Stephanopyxis turris, cultured in a controlled laboratory experiment demonstrate rapid post-mortem decline in silica reactivity. A decrease in relative abundance of surface silanol groups coincides with a decrease in the surface charge density (excess proton concentration) of freshly harvested frustules. Over a maturation period of 20 days at 85ºC, S. turris samples in a 0.7 M NaCl solution at a pH of 8.0 demonstrate a rapid decrease in the surface charge density from -380 μmoles/g to -16 μmoles/g (Figure 1). FTIR analyses reveal a decrease in the abundance of silanol groups (Si-OH) in the diatom frustules occurs over the same time period. It is important to note that the surface charge density and silanol relative abundance appear to have an asymptotic change through time, indicating that further alteration/reactivity is greatly reduced. Preliminary data indicate that post-mortem increases in the oxygen isotope values of diatom silica observed here and in other studies are coincident with a reduction in the surface charge density and silanol abundance. These experiments demonstrate that rapid post-mortem alteration of biogenic silica is occurring and provide a possible mechanism for alteration of oxygen isotope values in biogenic silica.

  17. Concurrent Validity and Diagnostic Efficiency of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test in Assessing Severe Discrepancy in Reevaluations of Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    This study examined the concurrent validity and diagnostic efficiency of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) with 75 elementary and middle school students with learning disabilities, who had been referred for triennial multidisciplinary re-evaluations. High and significant correlations were found between the K-BIT and the Wechsler…

  18. Letter to the Editor, Response to Commentary "Re-Evaluation of the Big Blue® Mouse Assay of Propiconazole Suggests Lack of Mutagenicity"

    EPA Science Inventory

    In their commentary titled "Re-Evaluation of the Big Blue® Mouse Assay of Propiconazole Suggests Lack of Mutagenicity", Shane et 01. present an overview of portions of our previously reported work examining the potential for some conazole fungicides to induce increases in mutant ...

  19. 40 CFR 33.209 - Can EPA re-evaluate the MBE or WBE status of an entity after EPA certifies it to be an MBE or WBE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can EPA re-evaluate the MBE or WBE... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Certification § 33.209...

  20. Prediction of rigid silica based insulation conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Stanley D.; Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the thermal conductivity of low density, silica based fibrous insulators. It is shown that the method can be used to extend data values to the upper material temperature limits from those obtained from the test data. It is demonstrated that once the conductivity is accurately determined by the analytical model the conductivity for other atmospheres can be predicted. The method is similar to that presented by previous investigators, but differs significantly in the contribution due to gas and internal radiation.

  1. Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Huisheng; Zhu, Yuntian Theodore; Peterson, Dean E.; Jia, Quanxi

    2011-10-11

    Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

  2. Absorption of isoflurane by silica gel.

    PubMed

    Lumb, A B; Landon, M J

    1991-07-01

    We have studied the capacity of the drying agent silica gel (SG) to absorb isoflurane from gas samples. When dry, SG was able to absorb 31 times its own volume of isoflurane vapour, which could be recovered almost completely from the SG by displacement with water vapour. However, we were unable to demonstrate any significant absorption of isoflurane by wet SG. Care must be taken, therefore, when using SG as a drying agent in the sampling line of an analyser during research involving volatile anaesthetic agents. PMID:1650238

  3. Composite Silica Aerogels Opacified with Titania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, Jon-Ah; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Jones, Steven; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; DiStefano, Salvador; Nesmith, Bill

    2009-01-01

    A further improvement has been made to reduce the high-temperature thermal conductivities of the aerogel-matrix composite materials described in Improved Silica Aerogel Composite Materials (NPO-44287), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 9 (September 2008), page 50. Because the contribution of infrared radiation to heat transfer increases sharply with temperature, the effective high-temperature thermal conductivity of a thermal-insulation material can be reduced by opacifying the material to reduce the radiative contribution. Therefore, the essence of the present improvement is to add an opacifying constituent material (specifically, TiO2 powder) to the aerogel-matrix composites.

  4. Inert strength of pristine silica glass fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.L.; Michalske, T.A.

    1993-11-01

    Silica glass fibers have been produced and tested under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions to investigate the inert strength of pristine fibers in absence of reactive agents. Analysis of the coefficient of variation in diameter ({upsilon}{sub d}) vs the coefficient of variation of breaking strength ({upsilon}{sub {sigma}}) does not adequately explain the variation of breaking stress. Distribution of fiber tensile strength data suggests that the inert strength of such fibers is not single valued and that the intrinsic strength is controlled by defects in the glass. Furthermore, comparison of room temperature UHV data with LN{sub 2} data indicates that these intrinsic strengths are not temperature dependent.

  5. Inhomogeneous Elastic Response of Silica Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léonforte, F.; Tanguy, A.; Wittmer, J. P.; Barrat, J.-L.

    2006-08-01

    Using large scale molecular dynamics simulations we investigate the properties of the nonaffine displacement field induced by macroscopic uniaxial deformation of amorphous silica, a strong glass according to Angell’s classification. We demonstrate the existence of a length scale ξ characterizing the correlations of this field (corresponding to a volume of about 1000 atoms), and compare its structure to the one observed in a standard fragile model glass. The “boson-peak” anomaly of the density of states can be traced back in both cases to elastic inhomogeneities on wavelengths smaller than ξ where classical continuum elasticity becomes simply unapplicable.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of amorphous silica nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Lei; Wang, Jianbo; Cao, Guangyi; Choy, Wallace C. H.

    2008-06-01

    Large-scale amorphous silica nanostructures, including nanowires, nanotubes and flowerlike nanowire bunches depending on the position, have been fabricated on silicon wafer through a cheap route under the assistance of gold and germanium. Accompanying the observation of blue-green light emission, comprehensive micro-structural characterization reveals that the growth of nanostructures is catalyzed only by gold whereas the final morphology of nanostructures depends on the location to germanium ball. Au 2Si, a compound of gold and silicon, is also disclosed as an intermediate state during the catalysis. Correspondingly, a growth scheme is proposed based on the experimental results and the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism.

  7. Crystallization of calcia-gallia-silica glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. S.; Day, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A thermal image furance is presently used to study the critical cooling rate for glass formation, and the kinetics of crystallization, of the compositions 18.4CaO-(81.6-X)Ga2O3-XSiO2, where X = 3, 6, 9, and 13.8. Crystallization was studied nonisothermally, and the data were analyzed in light of the Avrami (1939) equation. Critical cooling rate and crystallization activation energy are both found to decrease with increasing silica content, and the results obtained by the present technique are noted to agree with those obtained on the basis of differential thermal analysis measurements.

  8. Fluorescence properties of dye doped mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonaro, Carlo M.; Corpino, Riccardo; Ricci, Pier Carlo; Chiriu, Daniele; Cannas, Carla

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a review of the main results we obtained studying the emission properties of organic-inorganic hybrids obtained combining mesoporous silica and Xantene dyes, in particular the standard referenc Rhodamine 6G. The purpose of the review is to show the possibility to efficiently "dope" the transparent inorganic porous matrix to obtain promising systems for photonic and biomedical applications. The strategies to solve the concentration effect and the leaching phenomenon are discussed within the framework of the single exciton theory.

  9. Silica scaling in simulated geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlmann, E.G.; Shor, A.J.; Berlinski, P.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1981-04-01

    A 6.3 1/sec (100 GPM) titanium corrosion test loop was modified to provide a dynamic facility for studying the formation of silica deposits, their properties and fates, as a function of brine composition, temperature, and flow conditions. Scale formation was studied in a segmented heat exchanger operating under realistic conditions; the segmented design permitted examination of scale formations in five temperature regimes. The program was terminated after minimal exploratory operation because of reduced sponsor perceptions of the need for concern with scaling problems. The runs which were completed dealt cursorily with brine concentration and pH effects. Results are presented.

  10. Mesoporous silica-titania composed materials.

    PubMed

    Messina, Paula V; Morini, Marcela A; Sierra, María B; Schulz, Pablo C

    2006-08-01

    Titania mesosized particles were obtained by TiCl4 hydrolysis in Aerosol OT/water/n-hexane microemulsion. These particles were incorporated in surfactant templated silica mesoporous materials of MCM-41 and MCM-50 structures. Results depended on the surfactant: hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide templated materials retained the honeycomb structure with small modifications in their characteristics. The dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide templated material changed from honeycomb to lamellar structure when the titania particles were included, with dramatic changes in the structure characteristics. The didodecyldimethylammonium bromide templated lamellar structure was retained after TIO2 inclusion, with a slight increase in the specific area, pore diameter and pore walls thickness. PMID:16600274

  11. Nanoscale roughness micromilled silica evanescent refractometer.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Lewis G; Cooper, Peter A; Holmes, Christopher; Gawith, Corin B E; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate machining of precision slots in silica with nanoscale roughness for applications in photonics. Using our in-house developed milling system we have achieved machined slots with surface roughness of 3.0 nm (Sa) and 17 µm depth of cut. This result represents eight times improvement in surface roughness and forty times increase in depth of cut than previously reported. We also demonstrate integration of these milled slots with UV-written waveguides and Bragg gratings to create optical refractometers, based on monitoring Fabry-Pérot spectral fringe changes. PMID:25835860

  12. Fluorescence properties of dye doped mesoporous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonaro, Carlo M. Corpino, Riccardo Ricci, Pier Carlo Chiriu, Daniele; Cannas, Carla

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we present a review of the main results we obtained studying the emission properties of organic-inorganic hybrids obtained combining mesoporous silica and Xantene dyes, in particular the standard reference Rhodamine 6G. The purpose of the review is to show the possibility to efficiently 'dope' the transparent inorganic porous matrix to obtain promising systems for photonic and biomedical applications. The strategies to solve the concentration effect and the leaching phenomenon are discussed within the framework of the single exciton theory.

  13. Antibacterial Fluorinated Silica Colloid Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Privett, Benjamin J.; Youn, Jonghae; Hong, Sung A; Lee, Jiyeon; Han, Junhee

    2011-01-01

    A superhydrophobic xerogel coating synthesized from a mixture of nanostructured fluorinated silica colloids, fluoroalkoxysilane, and a backbone silane is reported. The resulting fluorinated surface was characterized using contact angle goniometry, SEM, and AFM. Quantitative bacterial adhesion studies performed using a parallel plate flow cell demonstrated that the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reduced by 2.08 ± 0.25 and 1.76 ± 0.12 log over controls, respectively. This simple superhydrophobic coating synthesis may be applied to any surface regardless of geometry and does not require harsh synthesis or processing conditions, making it an ideal candidate as a biopassivation strategy. PMID:21718023

  14. Adsorption in sparse networks. 2: Silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.W.; Calas, S.; Sempere, R.

    1998-06-15

    The model developed in Part 1 is applied to nitrogen adsorption isotherms obtained for a series of silica aerogels whose densities are varied by partial sintering. The isotherms are adequately described by a cubic network model, with all of the pores falling in the mesopore range; the adsorption and desorption branches are fit by the same pore size distribution. For the least dense gels, a substantial portion of the pore volume is not detected by condensation. The model attributes this effect to the shape of the adsorbate/adsorptive interface, which can adopt zero curvature even in mesopores, because of the shape of the network.

  15. Embedded of neodymium oxide nanoclusters in silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhan, S.; Aghamkar, P.; Singh, M.; Kishore, N.

    2007-06-01

    The solgel process successfully prepared Nd IIO 3 / SiO II nanocomposites. After drying in air at 85°C for three days, samples were heat treated, in air, at 750, 950, 1150 and 1250°C. Characterizations were made by, Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanisms of neodymium oxide nano clusters formation in the densified silica matrix with respect to thermal treatment are discussed. XRD profiles confirm the crystallinity of the nanoclusters. The size of the nanoclusters was found in the range 15-30nm.

  16. Reevaluation of waterborne releases of radioactive materials from the Mayak Production Association into the Techa River in 1949-1951.

    PubMed

    Degteva, M O; Shagina, N B; Vorobiova, M I; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2012-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association was the first site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium in Russia. Early operations led to the waterborne release of radioactive materials into the small Techa River. Residents living downstream used river water for drinking and other purposes. The releases and subsequent flooding resulted in deposition of sediments along the shoreline and on floodplain soil. Primary routes of exposure were external dose from the deposited sediments and ingestion of 90Sr and other radionuclides. Study of the Techa River Cohort has revealed an increased incidence of leukemia and solid cancers. Epidemiologic studies are supported by extensive dose-reconstruction activities that have led to various versions of a Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS). The correctness of the TRDS has been challenged by the allegation that releases of short-lived radionuclides were much larger than those used in the TRDS. Although the dosimetry system depends more upon measurements of 90Sr in humans and additional measurements of radionuclides and of exposure rates in the environment, a major activity has been undertaken to define more precisely the time-dependent rates of release and their radionuclide composition. The major releases occurred during 1950-1951 in the form of routine releases and major accidental releases. The reevaluated amount of total release is 114 PBq, about half of which was from accidents that occurred in late 1951. The time-dependent composition of the radionuclides released has also been reevaluated. The improved understanding presented in this paper is possible because of access to many documents not previously available. PMID:22134076

  17. REEVALUATION OF WATERBORNE RELEASES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS FROM THE MAYAK PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION INTO THE TECHA RIVER IN 1949-1951

    SciTech Connect

    Degteva, M. O.; Shagina, N. B.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association was the first site for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia. Early operations led to the waterborne release of large amounts of radioactive materials into the small Techa River. Residents living downstream used river water for drinking and other purposes. The releases and subsequent flooding resulted in the deposition of sediments along the shoreline and on floodplain soil. Primary routes of exposure were external dose from the deposited sediments and the ingestion of 90Sr and other radionuclides. Study of the Techa River Cohort has revealed an increased incidence of leukemia and solid cancers. These epidemiologic studies are supported by extensive dose-reconstruction activities that have led to the creation of various versions of a Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS). The correctness of the TRDS has been challenged by the allegation that releases of short-lived radionuclides were much larger than those used in the TRDS. Although the dosimetry system depends more upon the measurements of 90Sr in humans and additional measurements of radionuclides and of exposure rates in the environment, a major activity has been undertaken to define more precisely the time-dependent rates of release and radionuclide composition of the releases. The major releases occurred during 1950-1951. In addition to routine releases major accidental releases occurred. The re-evaluated amount of total release is 114 PBq, about half of which was from accidents that occurred in late 1951. The composition of the radionuclides released has also been re-evaluated; this composition changed with time.

  18. Governmental re-evaluation of the committed effective dose received by emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2015-01-01

    In April 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) noticed that significant discrepancies were present between the committed effective dose (CED) data for emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant provided by TEPCO and that reported by five primary contractors. The MHLW, based on re-evaluation of the data, provided administrative guidance which required TEPCO and the five primary contractors to readjust the CED data for 479 workers (2.5% of 19,346 emergency workers). Of these, data for 450 workers from the primary contractors were readjusted based on the change in assessment methods. Doses were readjusted to higher values for 431 workers and doses were readjusted to lower values for 19 workers, CED data were corrected due to calculation errors for 29 workers from seven contractors, 12 additional workers were found to have received more than 50 mSv but no more than 100 mSv, an increase of 1.7% over the previously established count of 723 workers who had received that dose. Six additional workers were found to have received more than 100 mSv, an increase of 3.6% compared with the previous count of 167 workers. Major issues addressed during re-evaluation included: a) selection of intake scenario for the calculation of the residual activity ratio; b) assumptions about the intake date; c) assessments of exposure to radiation from (132)I and (132)Te; and d) assumptions about (131)I exposure in cases where (131)I was undetectable. Regarding the divergent CED data of 138 workers, the MHLW also confirmed that the CEDs assessed by the primary contractors were valid. To prevent the recurrence of similar incidents, the MHLW issued administrative guidance documents to TEPCO and primary contractors to employ standardized CED assessment methods on July 5. 2013. PMID:25585203

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Colloidal Silica Particles under Mild Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Frances; Zin, Azrinawati Mohd.; Jameson, Graeme J.; Wanless, Erica J.

    2012-01-01

    A microscale laboratory experiment for the preparation and characterization of silica particles at neutral pH and ambient temperature conditions is described. Students first employ experimental fabrication methods to make spherical submicrometer silica particles via the condensation of an alkoxysilane and polyethyleneimine, which act to catalyze…

  20. Maintenance of Bacterial Cultures on Anhydrous Silica Gel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John E.

    1977-01-01

    Suspensions of 20 different cultures were grown on appropriate media, then pipetted into sterile anhydrous silica gel. Silica gel cultures after incubation and refrigerated storage were tested for viability. Results showed little mutation, low replication, low contamination, minimal expenses, and survival up to two years. (CS)

  1. 78 FR 3449 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... 23, 2012 (77 FR 70185). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on December 6, 2012, and all... COMMISSION Silica Bricks and Shapes From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... China of silica bricks and shapes, provided for in subheading 6902.20.10 of the Harmonized...

  2. 78 FR 56273 - Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) proposes to amend its existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica. The basis for issuance of this proposal is a preliminary determination by the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health that employees exposed to respirable crystalline silica face a significant risk to their health......

  3. A bioinspired strategy for surface modification of silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jianwen; Zhang, Haoxuan; Liu, Meiying; Deng, Fengjie; Huang, Hongye; Wan, Qing; Li, Zhen; Wang, Ke; He, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2015-12-01

    Silica nanoparticles have become one of the most promising nanomaterials for a vast of applications. In this work, a novel strategy for surface modification of silica nanoparticles has been developed for the first time via combination of mussel inspired chemistry and Michael addition reaction. In this procedure, thin polydopamine (PDA) films were first coated on the bare silica nanoparticles via self-polymerization of dopamine in alkaline condition. And then amino-containing polymers were introduced onto the PDA coated silica nanoparticles through Michael addition reaction, that are synthesized from free radical polymerization using poly(ethylene glycol) methyl methacrylate (PEGMA) and N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide (NAPAM) as monomers and ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The successful modification of silica nanoparticles was evidenced by a series of characterization techniques. As compared with the bare silica nanoparticles, the polymers modified silica nanoparticles showed remarkable enhanced dispersibility in both aqueous and organic solution. This strategy is rather simple, effective and versatile. Therefore, it should be of specific importance for further applications of silica nanoparticles and will spark great research attention of scientists from different fields.

  4. Methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS)-based silica-iron oxide superhydrophobic nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Nadargi, Digambar; Gurav, Jyoti; Marioni, Miguel A; Romer, Sara; Matam, Santhosh; Koebel, Matthias M

    2015-12-01

    We report a facile synthesis of superhydrophobic silica-iron oxide nanocomposites via a co-precursor sol-gel process. The choice of the silica precursor (Methyltrimethoxysilane, MTMS) in combination with iron nitrate altered the pore structure dramatically. The influence of iron oxide doping on the structural properties of pristine MTMS aerogel is discussed. PMID:26277744

  5. Formation of hollow silica nanospheres by reverse microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Han; Chang, Jen-Hsuan; Yeh, Yi-Qi; Wu, Si-Han; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2015-06-01

    Uniform hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs) synthesized with reverse microemulsion have great application potential as nanoreactors because enzymes or nanocatalysts can be easily encapsulated de novo in synthesis. Water-in-oil (w/o) reverse microemulsions comprising the polymeric surfactant polyoxyethylene (5) isooctylphenyl ether (Igepal CA-520), ammonia and water in a continuous oil phase (alkanes) coalesce into size-tunable silica nanoparticles via diffusion aggregation after the introduction of silica precursors. Here, we elucidate in detail the growth mechanism for silica nanoparticles via nucleation of ammonium-catalyzed silica oligomers from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and nanoporous aminopropyltrimethoxy silane (APTS) in the reverse microemulsion system. The formation pathway was studied in situ with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We find a four-stage process showing a sigmoidal growth behavior in time with a crossover from the induction period, early nucleation stage, coalescence growth and a final slowing down of growth. Various characterizations (TEM, N2 isotherm, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, NMR, elemental analysis) reveal the diameters, scattering length density (SLD), mesoporosity, surface potentials and chemical compositions of the HSNs. Oil phases of alkanes with different alkyl chains are systematically employed to tune the sizes of HSNs by varying oil molar volumes, co-solvent amounts or surfactant mixture ratios. Silica condensation is incomplete in the core region, with the silica source of TEOS and APTS leading to the hollow silica nanosphere after etching with warm water. PMID:25952307

  6. Material Properties for Fiber-Reinforced Silica Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Rouanet, Stephane; Moses, John; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Ceramic fiber-reinforced silica aerogels are novel materials for high performance insulation, including thermal protection materials. Experimental data are presented for the thermal and mechanical properties, showing the trends exhibited over a range of fiber loadings and silica aerogel densities. Test results are compared to that of unreinforced bulk aerogels.

  7. Developing improved silica materials and devices for integrated optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maker, Ashley Julia

    Due to their favorable optical and material properties, silica-based materials and devices have found many important applications throughout science and engineering, especially in sensing, communications, lasers, and integrated optics. Often, silica's properties ultimately limit the performance of these applications. To address this limitation, this thesis investigates the development of improved silica materials and optical devices, including silica films, coatings, waveguides, resonators, lasers, and sensors. Using sol-gel chemistry and microfabrication procedures, custom silica materials and devices are developed to benefit many applications. In this thesis, it is first demonstrated how the low optical loss of silica enables fabrication of low loss integrated waveguides and toroidal resonators with ultra-high quality factors. Then, by adding various rare earth and metal dopants to sol-gel silica, hybrid silica materials and devices are made with custom properties such as high refractive index and lasing capabilities. Finally, several applications are demonstrated, including the use of high refractive index coatings to control the behavior of light, development of Raman and ultra-low threshold rare earth microlasers, and a heterodyned microlaser sensor with significantly improved sensing performance. Future applications and directions of this research are also discussed.

  8. A solubility model for amorphous silica in concentrated electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, A.R.; Schroeder, C.C.; Mason, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    Silica is one of the major constituents of the earth`s crust and is ubiquitously present in most natural materials. The solubility of silica and other silica-containing compounds is, therefore, of primary concern in geochemistry and in chemical processing applications where silica scale formation, resulting from changes in temperature and electrolyte composition, can cause problems in process design and operation. This paper describes the development of an aqueous thermodynamic model for accurately predicting the solubility of amorphous silica and other silica-containing compounds in the system Na{sup +}-H{sup +}-Mg{sup 2+}-NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}-Cl{sup {minus}}-H{sub 2}O to high concentration and across the temperature range 25--100 C. This model, which utilizes the aqueous thermodynamic model of Pitzer, includes only one dissolved silica species, H{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}(aq), and is valid in neutral to very acidic solutions. The model is parameterized from the extensive set of solubility data in the literature as well as from new experimental data on amorphous silica solubility in HNO{sub 3} and HCl developed as part of this study. The accuracy of the model is tested on solutions more complex than those used in model parameterization.

  9. Transport properties of fast proton conducting mesoporous silica xerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomer, M. T.; Rubio, F.; Jurado, J. R.

    Mesoporous acid-free silica xerogels exhibiting a proton conductivity of 2.0 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 80 °C and 81% RH is reported for the first time. The proton conductivity values, lower cost and higher hydrophilicity of mesoporous silica xerogels make them potential substitutes for Nafion membranes in proton exchange membranes fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  10. Laser based on dye-activated silica gel

    SciTech Connect

    Altshuler, G.B.; Bakhanov, V.A.; Dulneva, E.G.; Erofeev, A.V.; Mazurin, O.V.; Roskova, G.P.; Tsekhomskaya, T.S.

    1987-06-01

    Silica gel activated by a dye is used as a new laser medium. The lasin characteristics of rhodamine 6G in silica gel are reported. An important characteristic of the dye laser is its long service life, which is determined by the photostability of the dye in silic gel.(AIP)

  11. Bifunctional mesoporous silicas with clearly distinguished localization of grafted groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roik, N. V.; Belyakova, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Bifunctional mesoporous silicas with clearly distinguished localization of grafted groups on the surface of particles and inside their pores were obtained by means of sol-gel synthesis with postsynthetic vapor-phase treatment in vacuum. It was found that the synthesized materials have the hexagonally ordered porous structure typical of MCM-41 type silica.

  12. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Silica bronze project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchini, H.

    1989-10-01

    Objective was to incorporate waste silica from the HGP-A geothermal well in Pohoiki with other refractory materials for investment casting of bronze sculpture. The best composition for casting is about 50% silica, 25% red cinders, and 25% brick dust; remaining ingredient is a binder, such as plaster and water.

  13. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-silica-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Grandfield, K.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2008-01-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of nanocomposite silica-chitosan coatings. Cathodic deposits were obtained on various conductive substrates using suspensions of silica nanoparticles in a mixed ethanol-water solvent, containing dissolved chitosan. Co-deposition of silica and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles resulted in the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings. The deposition yield has been studied at a constant voltage mode at various deposition durations. The method enabled the formation of coatings of different thickness in the range of up to 100 {mu}m. Deposit composition, microstructure and porosity can be varied by variation of HA and silica concentration in the suspensions. It was demonstrated that EPD can be used for the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings of graded composition and laminates. The method enabled the deposition of coatings containing layers of silica-chitosan and HA-chitosan nanocomposites using suspensions with different HA and silica content. Obtained coatings were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of deposition is discussed.

  14. Antimicrobial Properties of a Novel Silver-Silica Nanocomposite Material▿

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Salome; Lehmann, Rainer P.; Height, Murray J.; Loessner, Martin J.; Schuppler, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology enables development and production of novel silver-based composite materials. We used in vitro tests to demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of a silver-silica nanocomposite compared to the activities of conventional materials, such as silver nitrate and silver zeolite. A silver-silica-containing polystyrene material was manufactured and shown to possess strong antimicrobial properties. PMID:19270121

  15. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Falk, K.; McCoy, C. A.; Fryer, C. L.; Greeff, C. W.; Hungerford, A. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Sheppard, D. G.; Williams, J. R.; Boehly, T. R.; et al

    2014-09-12

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO2) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1–15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s correspondingmore » to shock pressures of 0.3–2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. As a result, simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.« less

  16. Gated Silica Mesoporous Materials in Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Sancenón, Félix; Pascual, Lluís; Oroval, Mar; Aznar, Elena; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-08-01

    Silica mesoporous supports (SMSs) have a large specific surface area and volume and are particularly exciting vehicles for delivery applications. Such container-like structures can be loaded with numerous different chemical substances, such as drugs and reporters. Gated systems also contain addressable functions at openings of voids, and cargo delivery can be controlled on-command using chemical, biochemical or physical stimuli. Many of these gated SMSs have been applied for drug delivery. However, fewer examples of their use in sensing protocols have been reported. The approach of applying SMSs in sensing uses another concept-that of loading pores with a reporter and designing a capping mechanism that is selectively opened in the presence of a target analyte, which results in the delivery of the reporter. According to this concept, we provide herein a complete compilation of published examples of probes based on the use of capped SMSs for sensing. Examples for the detection of anions, cations, small molecules and biomolecules are provided. The diverse range of gated silica mesoporous materials presented here highlights their usefulness in recognition protocols. PMID:26491626

  17. Dissociation of silica at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Damien; Boehly, Tom

    2005-07-01

    Measurements of the temperature and optical reflectivity of quartz and fused silica under shock loading from 100 to 1000 GPa have revealed evidence for dissociation of silica between ˜150 and 400 GPa. Using attenuating laser-driven shock waves a continuous record of the temperature and reflectivity dependence on pressure has been obtained in both materials allowing the specific heat capacity and electronic conductivity to be deduced. Results show that between 150 and 400 GPa the specific heat rises significantly above that expected from the Dulong-Petit law, indicating the presence of a latent energy. Coincident with this anomalous specific heat is a rapid rise in electronic conductivity. Both these observables suggest that dissociation is occurring in the dense fluid. In addition temperature measurements near 5000 K detect a discontinuity at the melt transition, as measured earlier on gas gun experiments. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 and by the University of Rochester under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  18. CO2 laser welding fused silica.

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Scott T.; MacCallum, Danny O'Neill; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert

    2005-08-01

    The feasibility of laser welding of fused silica (aka quartz) has been demonstrated recently by others. An application requiring hermetic sealing of a thin, pressure-bearing quartz diaphragm to a thicker frame led us to explore this technique. We found that laser welding techniques normally used for metallic parts caused scorching and uneven melting. Contrary to standard practices (near focus, high travel speed, high power density), successful welds in fused silica required a broad heat source applied over a large area under a slow rotation to gradually heat the glass through the annealing, softening and finally working temperatures. Furthermore, good mechanical contact between the parts to be joined played an even more important role in this process than in typical metallic joints. A 50 W CO2 laser with 4 f.l. ZnSe2 lens and rotary head was used to weld 0.425 OD, 0.006-0.010 thick, disks to 0.500 OD tubing with 0.125 walls. Several joint geometries and beam orientations were investigated. Temperature profiles were measured and compared to an FEM thermal model. We will discuss the effects of laser power, travel speed, number of passes, joint geometry and part thicknesses on achieving hermeticity and cosmetically-acceptable joints.

  19. Bimodal mesoporous silica with bottleneck pores.

    PubMed

    Reber, M J; Brühwiler, D

    2015-11-01

    Bimodal mesoporous silica consisting of two sets of well-defined mesopores is synthesized by a partial pseudomorphic transformation of an ordered mesoporous starting material (SBA-15 type). The introduction of a second set of smaller mesopores (MCM-41 type) establishes a pore system with bottlenecks that restricts the access to the core of the bimodal mesoporous silica particles. The particle size and shape of the starting material are retained, but micropores present in the starting material disappear during the transformation, leading to a true bimodal mesoporous product. A varying degree of transformation allows the adjustment of the pore volume contribution of the two mesopore domains. Information on the accessibility of the mesopores is obtained by the adsorption of fluorescence-labeled poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy. This information is correlated with nitrogen sorption data to provide insights regarding the spatial distribution of the two mesopore domains. The bimodal mesoporous materials are excellent model systems for the investigation of cavitation effects in nitrogen desorption isotherms. PMID:26399172

  20. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam.

    PubMed

    Falk, K; McCoy, C A; Fryer, C L; Greeff, C W; Hungerford, A L; Montgomery, D S; Schmidt, D W; Sheppard, D G; Williams, J R; Boehly, T R; Benage, J F

    2014-09-01

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO_{2}) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1-15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3-2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. Simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements. PMID:25314547

  1. Gated Silica Mesoporous Materials in Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sancenón, Félix; Pascual, Lluís; Oroval, Mar; Aznar, Elena; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Silica mesoporous supports (SMSs) have a large specific surface area and volume and are particularly exciting vehicles for delivery applications. Such container-like structures can be loaded with numerous different chemical substances, such as drugs and reporters. Gated systems also contain addressable functions at openings of voids, and cargo delivery can be controlled on-command using chemical, biochemical or physical stimuli. Many of these gated SMSs have been applied for drug delivery. However, fewer examples of their use in sensing protocols have been reported. The approach of applying SMSs in sensing uses another concept—that of loading pores with a reporter and designing a capping mechanism that is selectively opened in the presence of a target analyte, which results in the delivery of the reporter. According to this concept, we provide herein a complete compilation of published examples of probes based on the use of capped SMSs for sensing. Examples for the detection of anions, cations, small molecules and biomolecules are provided. The diverse range of gated silica mesoporous materials presented here highlights their usefulness in recognition protocols. PMID:26491626

  2. Zirconia-silica based mesoporous desulfurization adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomino, Jessica M.; Tran, Dat T.; Kareh, Ana R.; Miller, Christopher A.; Gardner, Joshua M. V.; Dong, Hong; Oliver, Scott R. J.

    2015-03-01

    We report a series of mesoporous silicate sorbent materials templated by long-chain primary alkylamines that display record level of desulfurization of the jet fuel JP-8. Pure silica frameworks and those with a Si:Zr synthesis molar ratio ranging from 44:1 to 11:1 were investigated. The optimum sorbent was identified as dodecylamine-templated silica-zirconia synthesized from a gel with Si:Zr molar ratio of 15:1. With an optimized silver loading of 11 wt.%, a saturation adsorption capacity of 39.4 mgS g-1 and a silver efficiency of 1.21 molS mol Ag-1 were observed for JP-8. This sorbent displayed exceptional regenerability, maintaining 86% of its initial capacity in model fuel after solvent regeneration with diethyl ether. Low-cost, portable and reusable sorbents for the desulfurization of JP-8 jet fuel are needed to make solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) a reality for military power needs. SOFCs require ultra-low sulfur content fuel, which traditional desulfurization methods cannot achieve.

  3. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.; McCoy, C. A.; Fryer, C. L.; Greeff, C. W.; Hungerford, A. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Sheppard, D. G.; Williams, J. R.; Boehly, T. R.; Benage, J. F.

    2014-09-12

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO2) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1–15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3–2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. As a result, simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.

  4. Solid dispersions of carvedilol with porous silica.

    PubMed

    Kovačič, Borut; Vrečer, Franc; Planinšek, Odon

    2011-01-01

    Solid dispersion particles of carvedilol (CAR) were prepared with porous silica (Sylysia 350) by the solvent evaporation method in a vacuum evaporator to ensure an effective pore-filling procedure. Two sets were prepared, each with various amounts of CAR in solid dispersions, and with the pore-filling process differing each time. Set A was prepared by a one-step filling method and set B by a multiple-step pore-filling method of CAR into porous silica. The solid dispersions were then characterized using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption experiments. The results showed that the drug release can be significantly improved compared with the dissolution of the drug in its pure crystalline or amorphous state. Drug release from solid dispersion was faster when the drug content in the solid dispersion was low, which enabled the drug to be finely dispersed along the hydrophilic carrier's surface. The results also showed that a multiple-step pore-filling procedure is more effective for drug loading as indicated by the absence of a crystalline drug state, greatly reduced porosity, and improved wettability and physical stability of the amorphous CAR. PMID:21467668

  5. Epoxy Crosslinked Silica Aerogels (X-Aerogels)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    fabrizio, Eve; Ilhan, Faysal; Meador, Mary Ann; Johnston, Chris; Leventis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    NASA is interested in the development of strong lightweight materials for the dual role of thermal insulator and structural component for space vehicles; freeing more weight for useful payloads. Aerogels are very-low density materials (0.010 to 0.5 g/cc) that, due to high porosity (meso- and microporosity), can be, depending on the chemical nature of the network, ideal thermal insulators (thermal conductivity approx. 15 mW/mK). However, aerogels are extremely fragile. For practical application of aerogels, one must increase strength without compromising the physical properties attributed to low density. This has been achieved by templated growth of an epoxy polymer layer that crosslinks the "pearl necklace" network of nanoparticles: the framework of a typical silica aerogel. The requirement for conformal accumulation of the epoxy crosslinker is reaction both with the surface of silica and with itself. After cross-linking, the strength of a typical aerogel monolith increases by a factor of 200, in the expense of only a 2-fold increase in density. Strength is increased further by coupling residual unreacted epoxides with diamine.

  6. Subsurface damage on ground fused silica surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiafeng; Xu, Xueke; Gao, Wenlan; Wei, Chaoyang; Yang, Minghong; Shao, Jianda

    2014-08-01

    The low surface laser damage threshold of fused silica components in high power laser systems such as NIF restricts the improvement of the output fluence of those systems. Once damage is initiated and grows under subsequent laser shots, the components will go unusable. Subsurface damage (SSD) introduced during manufacturing has been identified as a main damage initiator. A good knowledge of SSD and how manufacturing influences it is essential to optimize manufacturing processes for damage free optics. Using the magneto-rheological finishing (MRF) wedge technique of better accuracy attributed to a tip, we have characterized the subsurface damage on fused silica optical surfaces ground with loose Al2O3 abrasives of different sizes. Larger abrasives generates longer cracks and the number density of cracks decreases sharply with the depth for each size. Rogue particles account for the occurrence of trailing indent scratches. Addition of rogue abrasives into relatively small base abrasive extends SSD more deeply than that induced by rogue abrasives alone. The linear model, with the proportional coefficient 3.511, fits the relationship between SSD depth and surface roughness (SR) better than the quadratic polynomial one. We believe SSD depth relates to SR more statistically than following some specified physical law. The linear relationship between SSD depth and the abrasive size was also established. The abrasive size turned out not to be as a good indictor of SSD depth as SR.

  7. Progress in reliability of silica optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, Irina; Poulain, M.; El Abdi, R.

    2008-04-01

    Silica optical fibres that were developed for telecommunication networks extend their use for sensors and smart structures. Their reliability and expected lifetime has appeared as a major concern. Series of experiments were implemented in order to assess fibre behaviour in different environmental conditions, including chemical corrosion and mechanical stress. Optical fibres were aged in water under controlled stress overlapping microwave energy for different durations. Fibre samples were wound on different diameter mandrels applying consequently a non-uniform tensile, respectively compression stress in function of the fibre's section. Different experimental combinations were implemented in order to separate aging factor effects. Then, these aged / stretched fibres were dynamic tensile tested at different strain rates and results were statistically treated using Weibull theory. In certain cases and testing conditions, comparison with as received fibres has revealed strength increase with a generally mono-modal defect distribution on the fibre surface. Base on previous and current results, the structural relaxation phenomenon at the silica cladding - polymer coating interface might be evidenced.

  8. Photodecomposition of chloromethanes adsorbed on silica surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausloos, P.; Rebbert, R. E.; Glasgow, L.

    1977-01-01

    Irradiation of CCl4, CFCl3, and CF2Cl2 in the presence of C2H6 in vessels containing silica sand or fused quartz tubing results in the formation of chlorine-containing products. The formation of these compounds occurs at wavelengths extending up to approximately 400 nm, that is, at wavelengths well beyond the absorption threshold of the chloromethanes in the gas phase. It is suggested that CCl4 adsorbed on silica surfaces photodissociates to yield CCl3 and CCl2 species. The poor material balance obtained in these experiments indicates that several of the chlorine-containing fragments are strongly adsorbed on the surface. At a CCl4 pressure of 13 Pa (0.1 torr), photolysis with 366 nm light in the presence of sand results in the decomposition of one molecule for every 10,000 photons striking the surface. Under otherwise identical conditions, the photon-induced breadkdown of CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 is respectively only 10% or 3% as efficient.

  9. Studying the interaction between silica nanoparticles and metals by spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revina, A. A.; Potapov, V. V.; Baranova, E. K.; Smirnov, Yu. V.

    2013-02-01

    The optical absorption spectra of water silica sols containing nanoparticles (NPs) of metals (Ag, Pd, Fe, and Pt) are investigated. Silica sols are obtained from natural hydrothermal solutions via membrane concentration (ultrafiltration). Water sols of silica with specific sizes, pH values, ζ potentials of SiO2 NP surfaces, and low concentrations of SiO2 NPs are used. Plasmon resonance in optical absorption spectra is used to study the interaction between silica and metal NPs. Parameters of plasmon resonance (position, height, and half-width of optical absorption bands), from which the degree of interaction is assessed, are determined. Relationships between the optical properties of the surfaces of nanoparticle-size silica particles, the method of their production, and the effect of adsorbed metal particles on these properties are established.

  10. Adsorption Characteristics of Silica Gels Treated with Fluorinated Silylation Agents

    PubMed

    Monde; Nakayama; Yano; Yoko; Konakahara

    1997-01-01

    Branched-chain polyfluorosilane (monochlorodimethyl[4,4-bis(trifluoromethyl)-5,5,6,6,7,7,7-heptafluoroheptyl)-bonded silica gels were prepared. The surface properties of the silica gels modified with various organic silanes were evaluated by the adsorption density of polar and nonpolar gases calculated from adsorption isotherms of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and normal butane gases. The polyfluorocarbon-bonded silica gel surface was found to be both hydrophobic and oleophobic in nature, whereas the hydrocarbon-bonded silica gel surface was characterized only as hydrophobic. The trifunctional fluorinated silane provides the silica gel surface with a more hydrophilic nature than the monofunctional silane because of the formation of a denser polymeric coating layer with a larger number of silanols. PMID:9056313

  11. Silica Waste Utilisation Phase II - Preliminary Laboratory Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Boyd, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    A second phase of laboratory testing is being performed on waste silica from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Mexico. The main objective is to produce mixes of various combinations of hydrated lime, portland cement, and plastic fibers with the waste silica from disposal ponds to determine their suitability for use as insulating bricks in low cost housing. Silica-cement mixtures appear to have the highest flexural strength and resistance to weathering. Silica-lime mixtures appear to have the best insulating properties (lowest thermal conductivity). The addition of plastic fibers to the silica-lime mixture appears to improve both strength and weather resistance. Work is still in progress and will be completed in 1996 with the construction of various test walls in the Mexicali, Mexico area.

  12. Biodegradation-tunable mesoporous silica nanorods for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Bum; Joo, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyunryung; Ryu, WonHyoung; Park, Yong-il

    2015-05-01

    Mesoporous silica in the forms of micro- or nanoparticles showed great potentials in the field of controlled drug delivery. However, for precision control of drug release from mesoporous silica-based delivery systems, it is critical to control the rate of biodegradation. Thus, in this study, we demonstrate a simple and robust method to fabricate "biodegradation-tunable" mesoporous silica nanorods based on capillary wetting of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with an aqueous alkoxide precursor solution. The porosity and nanostructure of silica nanorods were conveniently controlled by adjusting the water/alkoxide molar ratio of precursor solutions, heat-treatment temperature, and Na addition. The porosity and biodegradation kinetics of the fabricated mesoporous nanorods were analyzed using N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, TGA, DTA, and XRD. Finally, the performance of the mesoporous silica nanorods as drug delivery carrier was demonstrated with initial burst and subsequent "zero-order" release of anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin. PMID:25746247

  13. Water dissociation on silica in the presence of atomic platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klett, Joachim; Elger, Benjamin; Krähling, Stephan; Kaiser, Bernhard; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Schäfer, Rolf

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of water on well-defined silica and silica/Pt interfaces by synchrotron X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SXPS). For that purpose silica surfaces grown on Si have been covered with atomic platinum in order to facilitate water dissociation. Water was adsorbed from the gas phase at cryogenic temperatures and its dissociation was observed on clean and platinum coated surfaces. After desorption the adsorbed hydroxides decompose on the blank surface, whereas the hydroxides remain stable if the surface was modified with platinum. The principal reversibility of the hydroxylation process implies the necessity of point defects in order to stabilize hydroxides on well-ordered silica surfaces. Deposited platinum atoms are able to stabilize hydroxides in their proximity and act as an acceptor state on the silica surface.

  14. Extensive hydrated silica materials in western Hellas Basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Amador, Elena S.; Thomas, Nancy H.

    2013-11-01

    Near-infrared spectral data indicate the presence of hydrated, poorly crystalline silica where high bulk silica contents have been previously identified in Hellas Basin. No other aqueous phases are identified in these regions and the deposits may be nearly pure. The silica-bearing surfaces are sporadically exposed along a 650 km stretch of the western basin rim within a limited elevation range and display a variety of surface textures suggesting that the materials have been reworked, but not transported large distances. The high abundances and lack of associated aqueous phases indicate that high water to rock ratios were present in the region during the Noachian period but without elevated temperatures or for durations necessary for quartz diagenesis. The silica-bearing materials may have formed via direct precipitation from silica saturated groundwater sources, although other formation mechanisms are also plausible.

  15. Enhanced stab resistance of armor composites with functionalized silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfuz, Hassan; Clements, Floria; Rangari, Vijaya; Dhanak, Vinod; Beamson, Graham

    2009-03-01

    Traditionally shear thickening fluid (STF) reinforced with Kevlar has been used to develop flexible armor. At the core of the STF-Kevlar composites is a mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silica particles. This mixture is often known as STF and is consisted of approximately 45 wt % PEG and 55 wt % silica. During rheological tests, STF shows instantaneous spike in viscosity above a critical shear rate. Fabrication of STF-Kevlar composites requires preparation of STF, dilution with ethanol, and then impregnation with Kevlar. In the current approach, nanoscale silica particles were dispersed directly into a mixture of PEG and ethanol through a sonic cavitation process. Two types of silica nanoparticles were used in the investigation: 30 nm crystalline silica and 7 nm amorphous silica. The admixture was then reinforced with Kevlar fabric to produce flexible armor composites. In the next step, silica particles are functionalized with a silane coupling agent to enhance bonding between silica and PEG. The performance of the resulting armor composites improved significantly. As evidenced by National Institute of Justice spike tests, the energy required for zero-layer penetration (i.e., no penetration) jumped twofold: from 12 to 25 J cm2/g. The source of this improvement has been traced to the formation of siloxane (Si-O-Si) bonds between silica and PEG and superior coating of Kevlar filaments with particles. Fourier transform infrared, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy studies were performed to examine chemical bonds, elemental composition, and particle dispersion responsible for such improvement. In summary, our experiments have demonstrated that functionalization of silica particles followed by direct dispersion into PEG resulted in superior Kevlar composites having much higher spike resistance.

  16. Arachidonic acid metabolism in silica-stimulated bovine alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Englen, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro production of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in adherent bovine alveolar macrophages (BAM) incubated with silica was investigated. BAM were pre-labelled with {sup 3}H-AA, and lipid metabolites released into the culture medium were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was simultaneously assayed to provide an indication of cell injury. Increasing doses of silica selectively stimulated the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of AA metabolism, while cyclooxygenase metabolite output was suppressed. LDH release increased in a linear, dose-dependent fashion over the range of silica doses used. Moreover, within 15 min following addition of a high silica dose, a shift to the production of 5-lipoxygenase metabolites occurred, accompanied by a reduction in cyclooxygenase products. This rapid alteration in AA metabolism preceded cell injury. To examine the relationship between cytotoxicity and AA metabolite release by BAM exposed to silicas with different cytotoxic and fibrogenic activities, BAM were exposed to different doses of DQ-12, Minusil-5, and Sigma silicas, and carbonyl iron beads. The median effective dose (ED{sub 50}) of each particulate to stimulate the release of AA metabolites and LDH was calculated. The ED{sub 50} values for DQ-12, Minusil-5, and Sigma silica showed that the relative cytotoxicities of the different silicas for BAM corresponded to the relative potencies of the silicas to elicit 5-lipoxygenase metabolites from BAM. These results indicate that the cytotoxic, and presumed fibrogenic potential, of a silica is correlated with the potency to stimulate the release of leukotrienes from AM.

  17. Facile Fabrication of Ultrafine Hollow Silica and Magnetic Hollow Silica Nanoparticles by a Dual-Templating Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Xiao, Xiangheng; Zhang, Shaofeng; Fan, Lixia; Peng, Tangchao; Ren, Feng; Jiang, Changzhong

    2010-01-01

    The development of synthetic process for hollow silica materials is an issue of considerable topical interest. While a number of chemical routes are available and are extensively used, the diameter of hollow silica often large than 50 nm. Here, we report on a facial route to synthesis ultrafine hollow silica nanoparticles (the diameter of ca. 24 nm) with high surface area by using cetyltrimethylammmonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) as co-templates and subsequent annealing treatment. When the hollow magnetite nanoparticles were introduced into the reaction, the ultrafine magnetic hollow silica nanoparticles with the diameter of ca. 32 nm were obtained correspondingly. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm that the nanoparticles are composed of amorphous silica and that the majority of them are hollow.

  18. The investigation of the viscoelastic properties of silica/PMMA nanocomposites as a function of silica surface chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Heather; Rende, Deniz; Ozisik, Rahmi

    2013-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, has been used as an economic alternative to glass and polycarbonate in differing situations because of its lightweight, shatter resistance, and ease of processability. The uses of PMMA can be expanded if its weakness to impact force and its scratch resistance are improved. In the current study, viscoelastic properties of silica nanoparticle filled PMMA were investigated via nanoindentation experiments. Silica nanoparticles are known to increase the toughness of PMMA. In the current study, silica nanoparticles were chemically modified with fluorinated alkanes to alter nanofiller-polymer interactions. Results show that viscoelastic properties are strongly affected by silica surface chemistry and silica concentration. This work was partially supported by NSF CMMI-1200270 and DUE-1003574

  19. The annual silica cycle of the North Pacific subtropical gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Church, Matthew J.; Karl, David M.; Li, Binglin; Jones, Janice L.; Updyke, Brett

    2011-10-01

    Silica cycling in the upper 175 m of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre was examined over a two year period (January 2008-December 2009) at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) station ALOHA. Silicic acid concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 μM, exhibiting no clear seasonal trends. Biogenic silica concentrations and silica production rates increased by an order of magnitude each summer following stratification of the upper 50 m reaching values of 157 nmol Si L -1 and 81 nmol Si L -1 d -1, in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Sea surface height anomalies together with analyses of variability in isothermal surfaces at 150-175 m indicated that the summer periods of elevated biogenic silica were associated with anticyclonic mesoscale features during both years. Lithogenic silica concentrations increased in the spring during the known period of maximum atmospheric dust concentrations with maximum values of 36 nmol Si L -1 in the upper 10 m. Dust deposition would enhance levels of dissolved iron in surface waters, but there was no response of diatom biomass or silica production to increases in near-surface ocean lithogenic silica concentrations suggesting iron sufficiency of diatom silica production rates. Low ambient silicic acid concentrations restricted silica production rates to an average of 43% of maximum potential rates. Si sufficiency only occurred during the summer period when diatom biomass was elevated suggesting that bloom diatoms are adapted to exploit low silicic acid concentrations. Annual silica production at HOT is estimated to be 63 mmol Si m -2 a -1 with summer blooms contributing 29% of the annual total. Diatoms are estimated to account for 3-7% of total phytoplankton primary productivity, but 9-20% of organic carbon export confirming past suggestions that diatoms are relatively minor contributors to primary productivity and autotrophic biomass, but important contributors to new and export production in oligotrophic open-ocean ecosystems

  20. Constraining silica diagenesis in methane-seep deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrzka, Daniel; Kraemer, Stephan; Zwicker, Jennifer; Birgel, Daniel; Fischer, David; Kasten, Sabine; Goedert, James; Peckmann, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Silicified fossils and silicified early diagenetic carbonate minerals as well as authigenic silica phases are common in ancient seep limestones. Silicification of calcareous fossils facilitates the preservation of even fine details and is therefore of great interest to paleontologists, permitting a reliable taxonomic identification of the chemosynthesis-based taxa that lived at ancient hydrocarbon seeps. Four methane-seep limestones of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic age with abundant silica phases are compared in this study; one, an Eocene seep deposit on the north shore of the Columbia River at Knappton, western Washington State, USA, is described for the first time. Its lithology and fabrics, negative δ13Ccarbonate values as low as -27.6‰, and 13C-depleted biomarkers of archaea involved in the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) reveal that the carbonate rock formed at a methane seep. The background sediments of the studied Phanerozoic seep limestones contain abundant siliceous microfossils, radiolarian tests in case of the Late Carboniferous Dwyka Group deposits from Namibia and the Late Triassic Graylock Butte deposits from eastern Oregon (USA), diatom frustules in case of the Eocene Knappton limestone and an Oligocene seep deposit from the Lincoln Creek Formation (western Washington State, USA). These microfossils are regarded as the source of dissolved silica, causing silicification and silica precipitation. All seep limestones used in this study are characterized by very similar paragenetic sequences. Silicified fossils include brachiopods and worm tubes, silica cements include microquartz, fibrous microcrystalline silica, and megaquartz. The silica cements formed after the AOM-derived cements ceased to precipitate but before equant calcite spar formed. Numerical experiments using the computer code PHREEQC were conducted to test the hypothesis that (1) AOM increases the pH of pore waters and that (2) this pH increase subsequently mobilizes biogenic